Science.gov

Sample records for low-speed wind-tunnel tests

  1. Low Speed PSP Testing in Production Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James; Mehta, Rabi; Schairer, Ed; Hand, Larry; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The brightness signal from a pressure-sensitive paint varies inversely with absolute pressure. Consequently high signal-to-noise ratios are required to resolve aerodynamic pressure fields at low speeds, where the pressure variation around an object might only be a few percent of the mean pressure. This requirement is unavoidable, and implies that care must be taken to minimize noise sources present in the measurement. This paper discusses and compares the main noise sources in low speed PSP testing using the "classical" intensity-based single-luminophore technique. These are: temperature variation, model deformation, and lamp drift/paint degradation. Minimization of these error sources from the point of view of operation in production wind tunnels is discussed, with some examples from recent tests in NASA Ames facilities.

  2. Wind-Tunnel Testing In The 12-Foot Low - Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Low-speed wind tunnel test were conducted in the 12 - foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research center to investigate application of various wing devices on the effect of stall departure resistance at high angles of attack.

  3. Self streamlining wind tunnel: Further low speed testing and final design studies for the transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Work was continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes (perhaps through changes in Reynold's number and freestream turbulence levels) on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self-streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility, which will eventually allow on-line computer operation of the wind tunnel, was outlined.

  4. Self streamlining wind tunnel: Further low speed testing and final design studies for the transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Work has continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility is outlined.

  5. Wind-tunnel Tests at Low Speed of Swept and Yawed Wings Having Various Plan Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E; Spearman, M Leroy

    1951-01-01

    Results are presented of wind-tunnel tests made at low speed of various small-scale models of sweptback, sweptforward, and yawed wings. The tests covered changes in aspect ratio, taper ratio, and tip shape. Some data were obtained with high-lift devices on sweptback wings and with ailerons on sweptforward wings. The data have been briefly analyzed and some comparisons have been made with the available theory.

  6. F-15 SMTD low speed jet effects wind tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Key results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMDT) with thrust reversers are presented. Longitudinally, the largest induced increments in the stability and control occur at landing gear height. These generally reflect an induced lift loss and a nose-up pitching moment, and vary with sideslip. Directional stability is reduced at landing gear height with full reverse thrust. Nonlinearities in the horizontal tail effectiveness are found in free air and at landing gear height.

  7. Low-speed wind tunnel test results of the Canard Rotor/Wing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Steven M.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Rutherford, John W.; Swanson, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The Canard Rotor/Wing (CRW), a high-speed rotorcraft concept, was tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in Mountain View, California. The 1/5-scale model was tested to identify certain low-speed, fixed-wing, aerodynamic characteristics of the configuration and investigate the effectiveness of two empennages, an H-Tail and a T-Tail. The paper addresses the principal test objectives and the results achieved in the wind tunnel test. These are summarized as: i) drag build-up and differences between the H-Tail and T-Tail configuration, ii) longitudinal stability of the H-Tail and T-Tail configurations in the conversion and cruise modes, iii) control derivatives for the canard and elevator in the conversion and cruise modes, iv) aerodynamic characteristics of varying the rotor/wing azimuth position, and v) canard and tail lift/trim capability for conversion conditions.

  8. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of an advanced eight-bladed propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Dunham, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a research program on advanced turboprop aircraft aerodynamics, a low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to document the basic performance and force and moment characteristics of an advanced eight-bladed propeller. The results show that in addition to the normal force and pitching moment produced by the propeller/nacelle combination at angle of attack, a significant side force and yawing moment are also produced. Furthermore, it is shown that for test conditions wherein compressibility effects can be ignored, accurate simulation of propeller performance and flow fields can be achieved by matching the nondimensional power loading of the model propeller to that of the full-scale propeller.

  9. Low-speed wind-tunnel test of a STOL supersonic-cruise fighter concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Riley, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to examine the low-speed static stability and control characteristics of a 0.10 scale model of a STOL supersonic cruise fighter concept. The concept, referred to as a twin boom fighter, was designed as a STOL aircraft capable of efficient long range supersonic cruise. The configuration name is derived from the long twin booms extending aft of the engine to the twin vertical tails which support a high center horizontal tail. The propulsion system features a two dimensional thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle which is located so that the nozzle hinge line is near the aircraft center of gravity. This arrangement is intended to allow large thrust vector angles to be used to obtain significant values of powered lift, while minimizing pitching moment trim changes. Low speed stability and control information was obtained over an angle of attack range including the stall. A study of jet induced power effects was included.

  10. Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Tests of Two Waverider Configuration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, Robert J.; Hahne, David E.; Cockrell,Charles E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A definitive measurement of the low-speed flight characteristics of waverider-based aircraft is required to augment the overall design database for this important class of vehicles which have great potential for efficient high-speed flight. Two separate waverider-derived vehicles were tested; one in the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel and the other in the 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel at Langley Research Center. These tests provided measurements of moments and forces about all three axes, control effectiveness, flow field characteristics and the effects of configuration changes. The results of these tunnel tests are summarized and the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the two configurations are shown.

  11. Pratt & Whitney Two Dimensional HSR Nozzle Test in the NASA Lewis 9- By 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel: Aerodynamic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.; Jones, Christopher W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a test that was conducted jointly by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines and NASA Lewis Research Center. The test was conducted in NASA's 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT). The test setup, methods, and aerodynamic results of this test are discussed. Acoustical results are discussed in a separate paper by J. Bridges and J. Marino.

  12. 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David; Stephens, David

    2016-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was built in 1969 in the return leg of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). The 8x6 SWT was completed in 1949 and acoustically treated to mitigate community noise issues in 1950. This treatment included the addition of a large muffler downstream of the 8x6 SWT test section and diffuser. The 9x15 LSWT was designed for performance testing of VSTOL aircraft models, but with the addition of the current acoustic treatment in 1986 the tunnel has been used principally for acoustic and performance testing of aircraft propulsions systems. The present document describes an anticipated acoustic upgrade to be completed in 2017.

  13. Test data report, low speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale lift/cruise-fan inlet, with engine, at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shain, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test of a fixed lip inlet with engine, was performed. The inlet was close coupled to a Hamilton Standard 1.4 meter, variable pitch fan driven by a lycoming T55-L-11A engine. Tests were conducted with various combinations of inlet angle of attack freestream velocities, and fan airflows. Data were recorded to define the inlet airflow separation boundaries, performance characteristics, and fan blade stresses. The test model, installation, instrumentation, test, data reduction and final data are described.

  14. Low speed wind tunnel test of a propulsive wing/canard concept in the STOL configuration. Volume 2: Test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    A propulsive wind/canard model was tested at STOL operating conditions in the NASA Langley Research Center 4 x 7 meter wind tunnel. Longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics were measured for various flap deflections, angles of attack and sideslip, and blowing coefficients. Testing was conducted for several model heights to determine ground proximity effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Flow field surveys of local flow angles and velocities were performed behind both the canard and the wing. This is volume 2 of a 2 volume report. All of the test data in three appendices are presented. Appendix A presented tabulated six component force and moment data, Appendix B presents tabulated wing pressure coefficients, and Appendix C presents the flow field data.

  15. Test Data Report, Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Drag Test of a 2/5 Scale Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne Door-Hinge Hub

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    References Barlow, Jewel B., William H. Rae , and Allan Pope (1999). Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Harris, Franklin...approximate blockage correction factor suggested in Barlow, Rae , and Pope (1999) was used. This correction factor is defined as t = 1 4 Sf C (A.1) where Sf...tunnel width (Barlow, Rae , and Pope 1999). Figure A.5: Vortex span given as a function of taper and aspect ratio, assumed to be AR = 7.5 and λT = 1 for

  16. Low-Speed Dynamic Wind Tunnel Test Analysis of a Generic 53 Degree Swept UCAV Configuration With Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Huber, Kerstin C.; Rohlf, Detlef; Loser, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several static and dynamic forced-motion wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a generic unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) configuration with a 53deg swept leading edge. These tests are part of an international research effort to assess and advance the state-of-art of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to predict the static and dynamic stability and control characteristics for this type of configuration. This paper describes the dynamic forced motion data collected from two different models of this UCAV configuration as well as analysis of the control surface deflections on the dynamic forces and moments.

  17. Simulation of the flow past a model in the closed test section of a low-speed wind tunnel and in the free stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, V. T.; Lapygin, V. I.

    2015-05-01

    The flow around a model in the closed test section of a low-speed wind tunnel has been analyzed in 2D approximation. As the contour of the nozzle, test section, and diffuser, the contour of the T-324 wind tunnel, of the Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM SB RAS, Novosibirsk), in its symmetry plane was adopted. A comparison of experimental with calculated data on the distribution of velocities and dynamic pressures in the test section is given. The effect due to the sizes of a model installed in the test section on the values of the aerodynamic coefficients of the model is analyzed. As the aerodynamic model, the NASA0012 airfoil and the circular cylinder were considered. For the airfoil chord length b = 20 % of nozzle height, the values of the aerodynamic coefficients of the airfoil in the free stream and in the test section proved to be close to each other up to the angle of attack a = 7°, which configuration corresponds to blockage-factor value ξ ≈ 7 %. The obtained data are indicative of the expedience of taking into account, in choosing the model scale, not only the degree of flow passage area blockage by the model but, also, the length of the well-streamlined model. In the case of a strongly blunted body with a high drag-coefficient value, the admissible blockage factor ξ may reach a value of 10 %.

  18. An experimental study of several wind tunnel wall configurations using two V/STOL model configurations. [low speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binion, T. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the low speed wind tunnel using two V/STOL models, a jet-flap and a jet-in-fuselage configuration, to search for a wind tunnel wall configuration to minimize wall interference on V/STOL models. Data were also obtained on the jet-flap model with a uniform slotted wall configuration to provide comparisons between theoretical and experimental wall interference. A test section configuration was found which provided some data in reasonable agreement with interference-free results over a wide range of momentum coefficients.

  19. Aerodynamic performance of a low-speed wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Frechen, F-B; Frey, M; Wett, M; Löser, C

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the odour mass flow emitted from a source is a very important step and forms the basis for all subsequent considerations and calculations. Wastewater treatment plants, as well as waste treatment facilities, consist of different kinds of odour sources. Unfortunately, most of the sources are passive sources, where no outward air flow-rate can be measured, but where odorants are obviously emitted. Thus, a type of sampling is required that allows to measure the emitted odour flow-rate (OFR). To achieve this, different methods are in use worldwide. Besides indirect methods, such as micrometeorological atmospheric dispersion models, which have not been used in Germany (in other countries due to different problems, direct methods are also used). Direct measurements include hood methods, commonly divided into static flux chambers, dynamic flux chambers and wind tunnels. The wind tunnel that we have been operating in principle since 1983 is different from all subsequent presented wind tunnels, in that we operate it at a considerably lower wind speed than the others. To describe the behaviour of this wind tunnel, measurement of the flow pattern in this low-speed tunnel are under way, and some initial results are presented here.

  20. Contraction design for small low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1988-01-01

    An iterative design procedure was developed for 2- or 3-dimensional contractions installed on small, low speed wind tunnels. The procedure consists of first computing the potential flow field and hence the pressure distributions along the walls of a contraction of given size and shape using a 3-dimensional numerical panel method. The pressure or velocity distributions are then fed into 2-dimensional boundary layer codes to predict the behavior of the boundary layers along the walls. For small, low speed contractions, it is shown that the assumption of a laminar boundary layer originating from stagnation conditions at the contraction entry and remaining laminar throughout passage through the successful designs is justified. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the predicted boundary layer data at the contraction exit with measured data in existing wind tunnels. The measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of four existing contractions, two of which were 3-D, were found to lie within 10 percent of the predicted values, with the predicted values generally lower. From the contraction wall shapes investigated, the one based on a 5th order polynomial was selected for newly designed mixing wind tunnel installation.

  1. Contraction design for small low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1988-01-01

    An iterative design procedure was developed for two- or three-dimensional contractions installed on small, low-speed wind tunnels. The procedure consists of first computing the potential flow field and hence the pressure distributions along the walls of a contraction of given size and shape using a three-dimensional numerical panel method. The pressure or velocity distributions are then fed into two-dimensional boundary layer codes to predict the behavior of the boundary layers along the walls. For small, low-speed contractions it is shown that the assumption of a laminar boundary layer originating from stagnation conditions at the contraction entry and remaining laminar throughout passage through the successful designs if justified. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the predicted boundary layer data at the contraction exit with measured data in existing wind tunnels. The measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of four existing contractions, two of which were 3-D, were found to lie within 10 percent of the predicted values, with the predicted values generally lower. From the contraction wall shapes investigated, the one based on a fifth-order polynomial was selected for installation on a newly designed mixing layer wind tunnel.

  2. Pretest Report for the Full Span Propulsive Wing/Canard Model Test in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel Second Series Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1986-01-01

    A full span propulsive wing/canard model is to be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 4 x 7 meter low speed wind tunnel. These tests are a continuation of the tests conducted in Feb. 1984, NASA test No.290, and are being conducted under NASA Contract NAS1-17171. The purpose of these tests is to obtain extensive lateral-directional data with a revised fuselage concept. The wings, canards, and vertical tail of this second test series model are the same as tested in the previous test period. The fuselage and internal flow path have been modified to better reflect an external configuration suitable for a fighter airplane. Internal ducting and structure were changed as required to provide test efficiency and blowing control. The model fuselage tested during the 1984 tests was fabricated with flat sides to provide multiple wing and canard placement variations. The locations of the wing and canard are important variables in configuration development. With the establishment of the desired relative placement of the lifting surfaces, a typically shaped fuselage has been fabricated for these tests. This report provides the information necessary for the second series tests of the propulsive wing/canard model. The discussion in this report is limited to that affected by the model changes and to the second series test program. The pretest report information for test 290 which is valid for the second series test was published in Rockwell report NR 83H-79. This report is presented as Appendix 1 and the modified fuselage stress report is presented as Appendix 2 to this pretest report.

  3. Comparison of Space Shuttle Orbiter low-speed static stability and control derivatives obtained from wind-tunnel and approach and landing flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel to obtain wind tunnel data for comparison with static stability and control parameters measured on the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing flight tests. The longitudinal stability, elevon effectiveness, lateral directional stability, and aileron effectiveness derivatives were determined from the wind tunnel data and compared with the flight test results. The comparison covers a range of angles of attack from approximately 2 deg to 10 deg at subsonic Mach numbers of 0.41 to 0.56. In general the wind tunnel results agreed well with the flight test results, indicating the wind tunnel data is applicable to the design of entry vehicles for subsonic speeds over the angle of attack range studied.

  4. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Pilotless Aircraft Having Horizontal and Vertical Wings and Cruciform Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrocola, N; Assadourian, A

    1947-01-01

    Low-speed tests of a pilotless aircraft were conducted in the Langley propeller-research tunnel to provide information for the estimation of the longitudinal stability and. control, to measure the aileron effectiveness, and to calibrate the radome and the Machmeter pitot-static orifices. It was found that the model possessed a stEb.le variation of elevator angle required for trim throughout the speed range at the design angle of attack. A comparison of the airplane with and without JATO units and with an alternate rocket booster showed that a large loss in longitudinal stability and control resulting from the addition of the rocket booster to the aircraft was sufficient to make the rocket-booster assembly unsatisfactory as an alternate for the JATO units. Reversal of the aileron effectiveness was evident at positive deflections of the vertical wing flap indicating that the roll-stabilization system would produce roiling moments in a tight right turn contrary to its design purpose. Vertical-wing-flap deflections caused large errors in the static-pressure reading obtained by the original static-tube installation. A practical installation point on the fuselage was located which should yield reliable measurement of the free-stream static pressure.

  5. Evaluation of spray drift using low speed wind tunnel measurements and dispersion modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the EPA’s proposed Test Plan for the validation testing of pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRTs) for row and field crops, focusing on the evaluation of ground application systems using the low-speed wind tunnel protocols and processing the dat...

  6. Evaluation of the EPA Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) low-speed wind tunnel protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EPA’s proposed Drift Reduction Technology low-speed wind tunnel evaluation protocol was tested across a series of modified ASAE reference nozzles. Both droplet size and deposition and flux volume measurements were made downwind from the nozzles operating in the tunnel at airspeeds of 1 and 2.5 ...

  7. Stability and control characteristics for the inner mold line configuration of the space shuttle orbiter (OA110). [tested in the low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T.; Rogge, R.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted 0.0405-scale representation of the -140A/B inner mold line (IML) space shuttle orbiter in 7.75 x 11 foot low speed wind tunnel, during the time period from 18 March 1974 to 20 March 1974. The primary test objectives were to establish basic longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics for the IML orbiter. Additional configurations investigated were sealed elevon hingeline gaps, sealed rudder split line and hingeline gaps, larger radius leading edge on the vertical tail, and sealed speedbrake base. Aerodynamic force and moment data for the orbiter were measured in the body-axis system by an internally mounted, six-component strain gage balance. The model was sting mounted with the center of rotation located at approximately the wing trailing edge. The nominal angle of attack range was from -4 to +30 degrees. Yaw polars were recorded over a nominal yaw angle range from -14 to +14 degrees at constant angles of attack of 0, + or - 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees.

  8. Test data report: Low speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale, fixed geometry inlet, with engine, at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shain, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    A full scale inlet test was to be done in the NASA-ARC 40' X 80' WT to demonstrate satisfactory inlet performance at high angles of attack. The inlet was designed to match a Hamilton-Standard 55 inch, variable pitch fan, driven by a Lycoming T55-L-11A gas generator. The test was installed in the wind tunnel on two separate occasions, but mechanical failures in the fan drive gear box early in each period terminated testing. A detailed description is included of the Model, installation, instrumentation and data reduction procedures.

  9. Low-speed wind tunnel results for a modified 13-percent-thick airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the effects on performance of modifying a 13-percent-thick low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was altered to reduce the aft upper surface pressure gradient and hence delay boundary layer separation at typical lift coefficients for light general aviation airplanes. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 0.15 or less over a Reynolds number range from about 1,000,000 to 9,000,000.

  10. Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    8ft x 6ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test-Section showing changes made in Stainless Steel walls with 17 inch inlet model installation. The model is the ACN Nozzle model used for aircraft engines. The Supersonic Wind Tunnel is located in the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, now John H. Glenn Research Center

  11. Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- x 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the Lewis Research Center 9 x 15 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issure for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom - pitch, roll, yaw, and vertical height variation. The model support system also provided heated high-pressure air for nozzle flow and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Test and data analysis results from Phase 2 and flow visualization from both Phase 1 and 2 are documented. A description of the model and facility modifications is also provided. Headwind velocity was varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R. These results will contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours

  12. 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Improvements Expanded Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2016-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was built in 1969 in the return leg of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). The 8x6 SWT was completed in 1949 and acoustically treated to mitigate community noise issues in 1950. This treatment included the addition of a large muffler downstream of the 8x6 SWT test section and diffuser. The 9x15 LSWT was designed for performance testing of V/STOL aircraft models, but with the addition of the current acoustic treatment in 1986 the tunnel been used principally for acoustic and performance testing of aircraft propulsion systems. The present document describes an anticipated acoustic upgrade to be completed in 2017.

  13. Additional Testing of the DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Iced Airfoil Section in the Ohio State University 7x10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, Gerald; Dresse, John J.; LaNoe, Karine; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for fundamental research in Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS) was established through three international conferences sponsored by the FAA. A joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994 with the Ohio State University playing a critical role for wind tunnel and analytical research. Two entries of a full-scale 2-dimensional tailplane airfoil model of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were made in The Ohio State University 7x10 ft wind tunnel. This report describes the second test entry that examined additional ice shapes and roughness, as well as airfoil section differences. The addition data obtained in this test fortified the original database of aerodynamic coefficients that permit a detailed analysis of flight test results with an OSU-developed analytical program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections at flight Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic coefficients, C(L), C(M), and C(He), were obtained by integrating static pressure coefficient, C(P), values obtained from surface taps. Comparisons of clean and iced airfoil results show a significant decrease in the tailplane aeroperformance (decreased C(Lmax), decreased stall angle, increased C(He)) for all ice shapes with the grit having the lease affect and the LEWICE shape having the greatest affect. All results were consistent with observed tailplane stall phenomena and constitute an effective set of data for comprehensive analysis of ICTS.

  14. Aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators in a low-speed wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Slaton, William V; Nishikawa, Asami

    2015-01-01

    The aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators with different neck geometries in a low-speed wind tunnel has been investigated. Experimental test results of this system reveal a strong aeroacoustic response over a Strouhal number range of 0.25 to 0.1 for both increasing and decreasing the flow rate in the wind tunnel. Aeroacoustic response in the low-amplitude range O(10(-3)) < Vac/Vflow < O(10(-1)) has been successfully modeled by describing-function analysis. This analysis, coupled with a turbulent flow velocity distribution model, gives reasonable values for the location in the flow of the undulating stream velocity that drives vortex shedding at the resonator mouth. Having an estimate for the stream velocity that drives the flow-excited resonance is crucial when employing the describing-function analysis to predict aeroacoustic response of resonators.

  15. The Acoustic Environment of the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel is an acoustic testing facility with a long history of aircraft propulsion noise research. Due to interest in renovating the facility to support future testing of advanced quiet engine designs, a study was conducted to document the background noise level in the facility and investigate the sources of contaminating noise. The anechoic quality of the facility was also investigated using an interrupted noise method. The present report discusses these aspects of the noise environment in this facility.

  16. A Projected Large Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to Meet Australian Requierments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Sh~ps 4 2.L.2 Ground vebkkls 4 2.3 Addina Fields for Low-speed Aerodyamkc Investigatio 4 2.3.1 Mrshlps 4 2.3.2 Wind energy conversion system 4 2.3M... energy conversion "estn The use of wind energy in Australia in the future on a much larger scale than at present is a possibility already under...coastal surveillance platforms. As in the case of ship hulls, wind tunnel testing calls for the largest possible models to minimise scale effect. 2.3.2 Wind

  17. NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1993-01-01

    This manual describes the 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this atmospheric facility. Tunnel variables such as pressures, temperatures, available tests section area, and Mach number ranges (0.05 to 0.20) are discussed. In addition, general support systems such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, laser system, flow visualization system, and model support systems are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also discussed.

  18. Binocular videogrammetric system for three-dimensional measurement in low-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ye; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao

    2014-11-01

    In order to avoid the defects of contact measurement, such as limited range, complex constructing and disability of 3-D parameter acquisition, we built a binocular videogrammetric system for measuring 3-D geometry parameters of wind tunnel test models, for instance, displacement, rotation angle and vibration, in low-speed wind tunnel. The system is based on the principles of close-range digital photogrammetry. As a non-contact system, it acquires parameters without interference in the experiments, and it has adjustable range and simple structure. It is worth mentioning that this is a Realtime measurement system, so that it can greatly compress the experiment period, furthermore, it is also able to provide some specific experiments with parameters for online adjustment. In this system, images are acquired through two industrial digital cameras and a PCI-E image acquisition card, and they are processed in a PC. The two cameras are triggered by signals come from a function signal generator, so that images of different cameras will have good temporal synchronization to ensure the accuracy of 3-D reconstruction. A two-step stereo calibration technique using planar pattern developed by Zhengyou Zhang is used to calibrate these cameras. Results of wind tunnel test indicate that the system can provide displacement accuracy better than 0.1% and rotation angle accuracy better than 0.1 degree, besides, the vibration frequency accuracy is superior to 0.1Hz in the low-frequency range.

  19. Large-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests and Evaluation of the Low-Speed Performance of a 35 deg Sweptback Wing Jet Transport Model Equipped with a Blowing Boundary-Layer-Control Flap and Leading-Edge Slat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    1960-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effect of trailing-edge flaps with blowing-type boundary-layer control and leading-edge slats on the low-speed performance of a large-scale jet transport model with four engines and a 35 deg. sweptback wing of aspect ratio 7. Two spanwise extents and several deflections of the trailing-edge flap were tested. Results were obtained with a normal leading-edge and with full-span leading-edge slats. Three-component longitudinal force and moment data and boundary-layer-control flow requirements are presented. The test results are analyzed in terms of possible improvements in low-speed performance. The effect on performance of the source of boundary-layer-control air flow is considered in the analysis.

  20. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  1. Landing pressure loads of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter (model 43-0) determined in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA69), volume 1. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soard, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 0.0405 scale model of the -1404A/B configuration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Orbiter are presented. Pressure loads data were obtained from the orbiter in the landing configuration in the presence of the ground for structural strength analysis. This was accomplished by locating as many as 30 static pressure bugs at various locations on external model surfaces as each configuration was tested. A complete pressure loads survey was generated for each configuration by combining data from all bug locations, and these loads are described for the fuselage, wing, vertical tail, and landing gear doors. Aerodynamic force data was measured by a six component internal strain gage balance. This data was recorded to correct model angles of attack and sideslip for sting and balance deflections and to determine the aerodynamic effects of landing gear extension. All testing was conducted at a Mach number of 0.165 and a Reynolds number of 1.2 million per foot. Photographs of test configurations are shown.

  2. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics from wind-tunnel tests of a large-scale advanced arrow-wing supersonic-cruise transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Tests have been conducted to extend the existing low speed aerodynamic data base of advanced supersonic-cruise arrow wing configurations. Principle configuration variables included wing leading-edge flap deflection, wing trailing-edge flap deflection, horizontal tail effectiveness, and fuselage forebody strakes. A limited investigation was also conducted to determine the low speed aerodynamic effects due to slotted training-edge flaps. Results of this investigation demonstrate that deflecting the wing leading-edge flaps downward to suppress the wing apex vortices provides improved static longitudinal stability; however, it also results in significantly reduced static directional stability. The use of a selected fuselage forebody strakes is found to be effective in increasing the level of positive static directional stability. Drooping the fuselage nose, which is required for low-speed pilot vision, significantly improves the later-directional trim characteristics.

  3. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Norman W. Schaeffler, a NASA aerospace research engineer, describes how wind tunnels work and how aircraft designers use them to understand aerodynamic forces at low speeds. Learn the advantage...

  4. A low speed wind tunnel test of a 0.050 scale model of shuttle orbiter (model 089B) to investigate the longitudinal and lateral directional effects of canard and tail configurational modifications in the LTV LSWT (MA14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the effects of 6 canard configurations on the 0.050 scale model of shuttle orbiter 089B. In addition, two horizontal tail configurations were tested at two positions on the model as were two wing configurations. Since this test was restricted to 103 runs, only a limited number of permutations of the configurational changes could be tested. The testing was done in the 15 by 20 foot section of the LSWT and consisted of pitch polars, one yawed polar and several yaw runs. The pitch polars encompassed an alpha range from 0 to 28 deg; the yawed polar was run at beta = +2 degrees and the yaw runs covered a beta range from -6 to +6 deg at angles-of-attack of 0, 4, 10, 16, and 20 deg.

  5. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a 1/10-scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration designed for cruise at Mach 2.2. [Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    The low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were investigated in tests conducted at a Reynolds number of 4.19 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord, with an angle of attack range from - 6 deg to 23 deg and sideslip angle range from -15 deg to 20 deg. The effects of segmented leading-edge flaps, slotted trailing-edge flaps, horizontal and vertical tails, and ailerons and spoilers were determined. Extensive pressure data and flow visualization pictures with non-intrusive fluorescent mini-tufts were obtained.

  6. Low-speed wind tunnel tests of a 50.8-centimeter (20-in.) 1.15-pressure-ratio fan engine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesoky, H. L.; Abbott, J. M.; Albers, J. A.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    At a typical STOL aircraft takeoff and landing velocity, wind tunnel aerodynamic and acoustic measurements demonstrated that an inlet lip-area contraction ratio of 1.35 was superior to a ratio of 1.26 at high incidence angles. A 17 percent reduction in net thrust and an increase of 9 decibels in sound pressure level at the blade passing frequency resulted from inlet flow separation at an incidence angle of 50 deg with the 1.26-contraction-ratio inlet. Reverse-thrust forces obtained with blade rotation through the feathered angle were 1.8 times larger than with blade rotation through the flat angle. Reverse-thrust force was reduced from 30 to 50 percent and sound pressure level increased from 3 to 7 decibels at the blade passing frequency between the wind-tunnel-off condition and a typical STOL aircraft landing velocity.

  7. Low-speed wind-tunnel results for symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James C.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Barnwell, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test has been conducted in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to evaluate the performance of a symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil which is a 13-percent-thick, low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was obtained from the thickness distribution of a 13-percent-thick, high-performance airfoil developed for general aviation airplanes. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.10 tp 0.37 over a Reynolds number range from about 0.6 to 12.0 X 10 to the 6th power. The angle of attack varied from about -8 to 20 degrees. The results indicate that the aerodynamic characteristics of the present airfoil are similar to, but slightly better than, those of the NACA 0012 airfoil.

  8. RITD – Wind tunnel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Schmidt, Walter; Heilimo, Jyri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Arruego, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    An atmospheric re-entry and descent and landing system (EDLS) concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques is highly promising for the Earth re-entry missions. We developed such EDLS for the Earth re-entry utilizing a concept that was originally developed for Mars. This EU-funded project is called RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development - and it was to assess the bene¬fits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develope a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. The RITD entry and descent system utilizes an inflatable hypersonic decelerator. Development of such system requires a combination of wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations. This included wind tunnel tests both in transsonic and subsonic regimes. The principal aim of the wind tunnel tests was the determination of the RITD damping factors in the Earth atmosphere and recalculation of the results for the case of the vehicle descent in the Mars atmosphere. The RITD mock-up model used in the tests was in scale of 1:15 of the real-size vehicle as the dimensions were (midsection) diameter of 74.2 mm and length of 42 mm. For wind tunnel testing purposes the frontal part of the mock-up model body was manufactured by using a PolyJet 3D printing technology based on the light curing of liquid resin. The tail part of the mock-up model body was manufactured of M1 grade copper. The structure of the mock-up model placed th center of gravity in the same position as that of the real-size RITD. The wind tunnel test program included the defining of the damping factor at seven values of Mach numbers 0.85; 0.95; 1.10; 1.20; 1.25; 1.30 and 1.55 with the angle of attack ranging from 0 degree to 40 degrees with the step of 5 degrees. The damping characteristics of

  9. Acoustical evaluation of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The test section of the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel was acoustically treated to allow the measurement of acoustic sources located within the tunnel test section under simulated free field conditions. The treatment was designed for high sound absorption at frequencies above 250 Hz and to withstand tunnel airflow velocities up to 0.2 Mach. Evaluation tests with no tunnel airflow were conducted in the test section to assess the performance of the installed treatment. This performance would not be significantly affected by low speed airflow. Time delay spectrometry tests showed that interference ripples in the incident signal resulting from reflections occurring within the test section average from 1.7 dB to 3.2 dB wide over a 500 to 5150 Hz frequency range. Late reflections, from upstream and downstream of the test section, were found to be insignificant at the microphone measuring points. For acoustic sources with low directivity characteristics, decay with distance measurements in the test section showed that incident free field behavior can be measured on average with an accuracy of +/- 1.5 dB or better at source frequencies from 400 Hz to 10 kHz. The free field variations are typically much smaller with an omnidirectional source.

  10. The results of low-speed wind tunnel tests to investigate the effects of the NASA refan JT8D engine nacelles on the stability and control characteristics of the Boeing 727-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirkey, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    The results from two low-speed wind tunnel tests of the Boeing 727-200 airplane as configured with the NASA refan JT8D-109 turbofan engines are presented. The objective of these tests was to determine the effects of the refan installation on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of the 727 airplane. Four side nacelle locations were tested to insure that aerodynamic interactions of the nacelles and empennage would be optimized. The optimum location was judged to be the same as that of the production JT8D-9 engines; the current production engine mounts can be used for this location. Some small changes in the basic airplane characteristics are attributable to the refan nacelles. The flaps up longitudinal and lateral-directional stability are both slightly increased for low angles of attack and sideslip respectively. The longitudinal stability at stall is improved for both the flaps up and landing flap configurations. The high attitude characteristics of the basic airplane are not significantly altered by the refan nacelle installation. Directional control capability is not affected by the refan nacelles.

  11. Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Flow Quality Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    39 a. Pressure Rake installation ......................................................39 b. Instrument Setup and Tunnel Warmup ...43 b. Instrument Setup and Tunnel Warmup .................................44 2. Conduct of Testing...55 b. Instrument Setup and Tunnel Warmup .................................57 3. CTA Calibration Coefficient Determination

  12. The results of a low speed wind tunnel test to investigate the effects of installing refan JT8D engines on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisenberry, H. E.; Doss, P. G.; Kressly, A. E.; Prichard, R. D.; Thorndike, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted to assess the effects of the larger JT8D refan nacelles on the stability and control characteristics of the DC-9-30, with emphasis on the deep stall regime. Deep stall pitching moment and elevator hinge moment data, and low angle of attack tail-on and tail-off pitching moment data are presented. The refan nacelle was tested in conjunction with various pylons of reduced span relative to the production DC-9-30 pylon. Also, a horizontal tail that was larger than the production tail was tested. The data show that the refan installation has a small detrimental effect on the DC-9-30 deep stall recovery capability, that recovery characteristics are essentially independent of pylon span, and that the larger horizontal tail significantly increases recovery margins. The deep stall characteristics with the refan installation, within the range of pylon spans tested, are acceptable with no additional design changes anticipated.

  13. Analysis of a Split-Plot Experimental Design Applied to a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to analyze a split-plot experimental design featuring two input factors, two levels of randomization, and two error structures in a low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a small-scale model of a fighter airplane configuration is described in this report. Standard commercially-available statistical software was used to analyze the test results obtained in a randomization-restricted environment often encountered in wind tunnel testing. The input factors were differential horizontal stabilizer incidence and the angle of attack. The response variables were the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment. Using split-plot terminology, the whole plot, or difficult-to-change, factor was the differential horizontal stabilizer incidence, and the subplot, or easy-to-change, factor was the angle of attack. The whole plot and subplot factors were both tested at three levels. Degrees of freedom for the whole plot error were provided by replication in the form of three blocks, or replicates, which were intended to simulate three consecutive days of wind tunnel facility operation. The analysis was conducted in three stages, which yielded the estimated mean squares, multiple regression function coefficients, and corresponding tests of significance for all individual terms at the whole plot and subplot levels for the three aerodynamic response variables. The estimated regression functions included main effects and two-factor interaction for the lift coefficient, main effects, two-factor interaction, and quadratic effects for the drag coefficient, and only main effects for the pitching moment coefficient.

  14. Low speed wind tunnel test of ground proximity and deck edge effects on a lift cruise fan V/STOL configuration, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics were determined of a lift cruise fan V/STOL multi-mission configuration in the near proximity to the edge of a small flat surface representation of a ship deck. Tests were conducted at both static and forward speed test conditions. The model (0.12 scale) tested was a four fan configuration with modifications to represent a three fan configuration. Analysis of data showed that the deck edge effects were in general less critical in terms of differences from free air than a full deck (in ground effect) configuration. The one exception to this was when the aft edge of the deck was located under the center of gravity. This condition, representative of an approach from the rear, showed a significant lift loss. Induced moments were generally small compared to the single axis control power requirements, but will likely add to the pilot work load.

  15. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Test of an Unpowered High-Speed Stoppable Rotor Concept in Fixed-Wing Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Michael B.; Sung, Daniel Y.; Stroub, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the M85, a High Speed Rotor Concept, was conducted at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Tunnel, assisted by NASA-Ames. An unpowered 1/5 scale model of the XH-59A helicopter fuselage with a large circular hub fairing, two rotor blades, and a shaft fairing was used as a baseline configuration. The M85 is a rotor wing hybrid aircraft design, and the model was tested with the rotor blade in the fixed wing mode. Assessments were made of the aerodynamic characteristics of various model rotor configurations. Variation in configurations were produced by changing the rotor blade sweep angle and the blade chord length. The most favorable M85 configuration tested included wide chord blades at 0 deg sweep, and it attained a system lift to drag ratio of 8.4.

  16. V/STOL wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Factors influencing effective program planning for V/STOL wind-tunnel testing are discussed. The planning sequence itself, which includes a short checklist of considerations that could enhance the value of the tests, is also described. Each of the considerations, choice of wind tunnel, type of model installation, model development and test operations, is discussed, and examples of appropriate past and current V/STOL test programs are provided. A short survey of the moderate to large subsonic wind tunnels is followed by a review of several model installations, from two-dimensional to large-scale models of complete aircraft configurations. Model sizing, power simulation, and planning are treated, including three areas is test operations: data-acquisition systems, acoustic measurements in wind tunnels, and flow surveying.

  17. AMELIA Tests in NASA Wind Tunnel

    NASA Video Gallery

    This report from "This Week @ NASA" describes recent aerodynamic tests of a subscale model of the Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics, or "AMELIA," in a NASA wind tunnel. The...

  18. The design of a low-speed wind tunnel for studying the flow field of insects' flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-yan; Zhang, Peng-fei; Ma, Yun; Ning, Jian-guo

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, low-speed smoke wind tunnel has been designed and fabricated for the insects' flow field visualization. The test section and the contraction section of the tunnel are optimized and determined as to size by the method of computational fluid dynamics. And fairing devices are equipped in different sections to reduce the turbulence intensity and increase the flow uniformity in the experimental sections. For the smoke visualization of small insects, the smokeemitting equipment has been specially designed and carefully debugged. Composed of wind tunnel, light source and high-speed camera, experimental platform for visualization and filming of insect flight flow field has been established. Besides, the feasible and stable method for insect fixing has been designed. With the smoke wind tunnel, flow filed visualization experiment for the honeybee's flapping was conducted and smoke flow filed in the experiment was recorded and analyzed. Near-filed and far-filed vortex structure when the honeybee fly can be recorded clearly. The experimental results indicate that the experimental platform is appropriate for flow filed study on insects flapping.

  19. Fan Rig Noise Spectral Correction for NASA 9'x 15' Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nick; Brown, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. Fan noise testing, however, requires a significant support system including a drive mechanism to turn the fan, a device to smooth the flow into the fan, and a stand to raise the fan off the ground each of which has the potential to create its own noise. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise was then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9x15 LSWT setup in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery that characterizes fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and speed. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise. A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  20. Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Hillje, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A major phase of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) Development Program was the acquisition of data through the space shuttle wind tunnel testing program. It became obvious that the large number of configuration/environment combinations would necessitate an extremely large wind tunnel testing program. To make the most efficient use of available test facilities and to assist the prime contractor for orbiter design and space shuttle vehicle integration, a unique management plan was devised for the design and development phase. The space shuttle program is reviewed together with the evolutional development of the shuttle configuration. The wind tunnel testing rationale and the associated test program management plan and its overall results is reviewed. Information is given for the various facilities and models used within this program. A unique posttest documentation procedure and a summary of the types of test per disciplines, per facility, and per model are presented with detailed listing of the posttest documentation.

  1. Full-scale S-76 rotor performance and loads at low speeds in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. Rotor performance and loads data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and thrust conditions at tunnel speeds ranging from 0 to 100 kt. The primary objectives of this test were (1) to acquire forward flight rotor performance and loads data for comparison with analytical results; (2) to acquire S-76 forward flight rotor performance data in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel to compare with existing full-scale 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test data that were acquired in 1977; (3) to evaluate the acoustic capability of the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel for acquiring blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise in the low speed range and compare BVI noise with in-flight test data; and (4) to evaluate the capability of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test section as a hover facility. The secondary objectives were (1) to evaluate rotor inflow and wake effects (variations in tunnel speed, shaft angle, and thrust condition) on wind tunnel test section wall and floor pressures; (2) to establish the criteria for the definition of flow breakdown (condition where wall corrections are no longer valid) for this size rotor and wind tunnel cross-sectional area; and (3) to evaluate the wide-field shadowgraph technique for visualizing full-scale rotor wakes. This data base of rotor performance and loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies for full-scale, four-bladed, fully articulated rotor systems. Rotor performance and structural loads data are presented in this report.

  2. Drive Motor Improved for 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel/9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An operational change made recently in the drive motor system for the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT)/9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) complex resulted in dramatic power savings and expanded operating range. The 8x6 SWT/9x15 LSWT complex offers a unique combination of wind tunnel conditions for both high- and low-speed testing. Prior to the work discussed in this article, the 8- by 6-ft test section offered airflows ranging from Mach 0.36 to 2.0. Subsonic testing was done in the 9-ft high, 15-ft wide test area in the return leg of the facility. The air speed in this test section can range from 0 to 175 mph (Mach 0.23). In the past, we varied the air speed by using a combination of the compressor speed and the position of the tunnel flow-control doors. When very slow speeds were required in the 9x15 LSWT, these large tunnel flow control doors might be very nearly full open, bleeding off large quantities of air, even with the drive system operating at its previous minimum speed of about 510 rpm. Power drawn during this mode of operation varied between 15 and 18 MW/hr, but clearly much of this power was not being used to provide air that would be used for testing in the test section. The air exiting these large doors represented wasted power. Early this year, the facility's tunnel drive system was run on one motor instead of three to see if lower drive speeds could be achieved that would, in turn, result in large power savings because unnecessary air would not be blown out of the flow-control doors unnecessarily. In addition, if the drive could be run slower, then slower speeds would also be possible in the 8x6 SWT test section as an added benefit. Results of the first tests performed early last year showed that in fact the drive, when operating on only one motor, actually reached a steady-state speed of only 337 rpm and drew an amazingly small 6 MW/hr of electrical power. During daytime operation of the drive, this meant that it would be

  3. Enabling Advanced Wind-Tunnel Research Methods Using the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busan, Ronald C.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Croom, Mark A.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Grafton, Sue B.; O-Neal, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Design of Experiment (DOE) testing methods were used to gather wind tunnel data characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a complex vehicle configuration with 10 motor-driven propellers, 9 control surfaces, a tilt wing, and a tilt tail. This paper describes the potential benefits and practical implications of using DOE methods for wind tunnel testing - with an emphasis on describing how it can affect model hardware, facility hardware, and software for control and data acquisition. With up to 23 independent variables (19 model and 2 tunnel) for some vehicle configurations, this recent test also provides an excellent example of using DOE methods to assess critical coupling effects in a reasonable timeframe for complex vehicle configurations. Results for an exploratory test using conventional angle of attack sweeps to assess aerodynamic hysteresis is summarized, and DOE results are presented for an exploratory test used to set the data sampling time for the overall test. DOE results are also shown for one production test characterizing normal force in the Cruise mode for the vehicle.

  4. A low speed wind tunnel test of the 0.050 scale NASA-JSC shuttle orbiter 089B to determine the longitudinal and lateral directional effects of control surface modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldenbuttel, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional effects of control surface modifications on the space shuttle orbiter aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. A total of 103 data runs were made which consisted of pitch runs through a range of zero to 28 degrees at a zero yaw angle and yaw runs from minus 6 to plus 6 degrees at various fixed pitch angles. At each data point, data from an internal strain gage balance was sampled with the digital data system. Also recorded were the model angles of pitch and yaw and the test section static pressure. Results are presented in the form of tabulated aerodynamic coefficient data about the model reference center.

  5. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayagalingam, T.

    1980-06-01

    High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

  6. Atmospheric Probe Model: Construction and Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Jerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The material contained in this document represents a summary of the results of a low speed wind tunnel test program to determine the performance of an atmospheric probe at low speed. The probe configuration tested consists of a 2/3 scale model constructed from a combination of hard maple wood and aluminum stock. The model design includes approximately 130 surface static pressure taps. Additional hardware incorporated in the baseline model provides a mechanism for simulating external and internal trailing edge split flaps for probe flow control. Test matrix parameters include probe side slip angle, external/internal split flap deflection angle, and trip strip applications. Test output database includes surface pressure distributions on both inner and outer annular wings and probe center line velocity distributions from forward probe to aft probe locations.

  7. Low-speed wind tunnel performance of high-speed counterrotation propellers at angle-of-attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The low-speed aerodynamic performance characteristics of two advanced counterrotation pusher-propeller configurations with cruise design Mach numbers of 0.72 were investigated in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The tests were conducted at Mach number 0.20, which is representative of the aircraft take-off/landing flight regime. The investigation determined the effect of nonuniform inflow on the propeller performance characteristics for several blade angle settings and a range of rotational speeds. The inflow was varied by yawing the propeller model to angle-of-attack by as much as plus or minus 16 degrees and by installing on the counterrotation propeller test rig near the propeller rotors a model simulator of an aircraft engine support pylon and fuselage. The results of the investigation indicated that the low-speed performance of the counterrotation propeller configurations near the take-off target operating points were reasonable and were fairly insensitive to changes in model angle-of-attack without the aircraft pylon/fuselage simulators installed on the propeller test rig. When the aircraft pylon/fuselage simulators were installed, small changes in propeller performance were seen at zero angle-of-attack, but fairly large changes in total power coefficient and very large changes of aft-to-forward-rotor torque ratio were produced when the propeller model was taken to angle-of-attack. The propeller net efficiency, though, was fairly insensitive to any changes in the propeller flowfield conditions near the take-off target operating points.

  8. A Wind Tunnel Captive Aircraft Testing Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Flight/Wind Tunnel Correlation of Aircraft Longitudinal Motion ....................................... 14 10. Fright/Wind Tunnel Correlation of...I 2 3 4 5 6 T IME, s e c Figure 9. Flight/wind tunnel correla- tion of aircraft longitudinal motion. ’ D A n ~ v i i i | ~ 0 0 - 4 0

  9. Nano-ADEPT Aeroloads Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Yount, Bryan; Kruger, Carl; Brivkalns, Chad; Makino, Alberto; Cassell, Alan; Zarchi, Kerry; McDaniel, Ryan; Ross, James; Wercinski, Paul; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Swanson, Gregory; Gold, Nili

    2016-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of the Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) was conducted in April 2015 at the US Army's 7 by10 Foot Wind Tunnel located at NASA Ames Research Center. Key geometric features of the fabric test article were a 0.7 meter deployed base diameter, a 70 degree half-angle forebody cone angle, eight ribs, and a nose-to-base radius ratio of 0.7. The primary objective of this wind tunnel test was to obtain static deflected shape and pressure distributions while varying pretension at dynamic pressures and angles of attack relevant to entry conditions at Earth, Mars, and Venus. Other objectives included obtaining aerodynamic force and moment data and determining the presence and magnitude of any dynamic aeroelastic behavior (buzz/flutter) in the fabric trailing edge. All instrumentation systems worked as planned and a rich data set was obtained. This paper describes the test articles, instrumentation systems, data products, and test results. Four notable conclusions are drawn. First, test data support adopting a pre-tension lower bound of 10 foot pounds per inch for Nano-ADEPT mission applications in order to minimize the impact of static deflection. Second, test results indicate that the fabric conditioning process needs to be reevaluated. Third, no flutter/buzz of the fabric was observed for any test condition and should also not occur at hypersonic speeds. Fourth, translating one of the gores caused ADEPT to generate lift without the need for a center of gravity offset. At hypersonic speeds, the lift generated by actuating ADEPT gores could be used for vehicle control.

  10. Background noise levels measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.; Kee-Bowling, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    The acoustic capability of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel has been significantly improved by reducing the background noise levels measured by in-flow microphones. This was accomplished by incorporating streamlined microphone holders having a profile developed by researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center. These new holders were fabricated for fixed mounting on the tunnel wall and for an axially traversing microphone probe which was mounted to the tunnel floor. Measured in-flow noise levels in the tunnel test section were reduced by about 10 dB with the new microphone holders compared with those measured with the older, less refined microphone holders. Wake interference patterns between fixed wall microphones were measured and resulted in preferred placement patterns for these microphones to minimize these effects. Acoustic data from a model turbofan operating in the tunnel test section showed that results for the fixed and translating microphones were equivalent for common azimuthal angles, suggesting that the translating microphone probe, with its significantly greater angular resolution, is preferred for sideline noise measurements. Fixed microphones can provide a local check on the traversing microphone data quality, and record acoustic performance at other azimuthal angles.

  11. Comparison between design and installed acoustic characteristics of NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel acoustic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    The test section of the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel was acoustically treated to allow the measurement of sound under simulated free-field conditions. The treatment was designed for high sound absorption at frequencies above 250 Hz and for withstanding the environmental conditions in the test section. In order to achieve the design requirements, a fibrous, bulk-absorber material was packed into removable panel sections. Each section was divided into two equal-depth layers packed with material to different bulk densities. The lower density was next to the facing of the treatment. The facing consisted of a perforated plate and screening material layered together. Sample tests for normal-incidence acoustic absorption were also conducted in an impedance tube to provide data to aid in the treatment design. Tests with no airflow, involving the measurement of the absorptive properties of the treatment installed in the 9- by 15-foot wind tunnel test section, combined the use of time-delay spectrometry with a previously established free-field measurement method. This new application of time-delay spectrometry enabled these free-field measurements to be made in nonanechoic conditions. The results showed that the installed acoustic treatment had absorption coefficients greater than 0.95 over the frequency range 250 Hz to 4 kHz. The measurements in the wind tunnel were in good agreement with both the analytical prediction and the impedance tube test data.

  12. Advanced recovery systems wind tunnel test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, R. H.; Wailes, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    Pioneer Aerospace Corporation (PAC) conducted parafoil wind tunnel testing in the NASA-Ames 80 by 120 test sections of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex, Moffett Field, CA. The investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two scale ram air wings in support of air drop testing and full scale development of Advanced Recovery Systems for the Next Generation Space Transportation System. Two models were tested during this investigation. Both the primary test article, a 1/9 geometric scale model with wing area of 1200 square feet and secondary test article, a 1/36 geometric scale model with wing area of 300 square feet, had an aspect ratio of 3. The test results show that both models were statically stable about a model reference point at angles of attack from 2 to 10 degrees. The maximum lift-drag ratio varied between 2.9 and 2.4 for increasing wing loading.

  13. Rocket Plume Scaling for Orion Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Greathouse, James S.; White, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was undertaken to assess the jet interaction effects caused by the various solid rocket motors used on the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). These interactions of the external flowfield and the various rocket plumes can cause localized aerodynamic disturbances yielding significant and highly non-linear control amplifications and attenuations. This paper discusses the scaling methodologies used to model the flight plumes in the wind tunnel using cold air as the simulant gas. Comparisons of predicted flight, predicted wind tunnel, and measured wind tunnel forces-and-moments and plume flowfields are made to assess the effectiveness of the selected scaling methodologies.

  14. Investigation of space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics and determination of control surface hinge moments in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a string-mounted 0.030 scale representation of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter in the 7.75- by 11-foot low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to establish basic longitudinal and lateral directional stability and control characteristics for the basic configuration plus control surface hinge moments. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis system by an internally mounted, six-component strain gage balance. Additional configurations investigated were sealed rudder hingeline gaps, sealed elevon gaps and compartmentized speedbrakes.

  15. Wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.; Tangler, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to leading-edge roughness effects. The 24 percent thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur at a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. Data were obtained with transition free and transition fixed for Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds number of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 6}, the maximum lift coefficient with transition free is 1.32, which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted maximum lift coefficient of almost 1.6. With transition fixed at the leading edge, the maximum lift coefficient is 1.22. The small difference in maximum lift coefficient between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low maximum-lift-coefficient tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

  16. An Auto-Tuning PI Control System for an Open-Circuit Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Designed for Greenhouse Technology.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Karlos; Valera, Diego L; Torres, José A; López, Alejandro; Molina-Aiz, Francisco D

    2015-08-12

    Wind tunnels are a key experimental tool for the analysis of airflow parameters in many fields of application. Despite their great potential impact on agricultural research, few contributions have dealt with the development of automatic control systems for wind tunnels in the field of greenhouse technology. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic control system that provides precision and speed of measurement, as well as efficient data processing in low-speed wind tunnel experiments for greenhouse engineering applications. The system is based on an algorithm that identifies the system model and calculates the optimum PI controller. The validation of the system was performed on a cellulose evaporative cooling pad and on insect-proof screens to assess its response to perturbations. The control system provided an accuracy of <0.06 m·s(-1) for airflow speed and <0.50 Pa for pressure drop, thus permitting the reproducibility and standardization of the tests. The proposed control system also incorporates a fully-integrated software unit that manages the tests in terms of airflow speed and pressure drop set points.

  17. An Auto-Tuning PI Control System for an Open-Circuit Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Designed for Greenhouse Technology

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Karlos; Valera, Diego L.; Torres, José A.; López, Alejandro; Molina-Aiz, Francisco D.

    2015-01-01

    Wind tunnels are a key experimental tool for the analysis of airflow parameters in many fields of application. Despite their great potential impact on agricultural research, few contributions have dealt with the development of automatic control systems for wind tunnels in the field of greenhouse technology. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic control system that provides precision and speed of measurement, as well as efficient data processing in low-speed wind tunnel experiments for greenhouse engineering applications. The system is based on an algorithm that identifies the system model and calculates the optimum PI controller. The validation of the system was performed on a cellulose evaporative cooling pad and on insect-proof screens to assess its response to perturbations. The control system provided an accuracy of <0.06 m·s−1 for airflow speed and <0.50 Pa for pressure drop, thus permitting the reproducibility and standardization of the tests. The proposed control system also incorporates a fully-integrated software unit that manages the tests in terms of airflow speed and pressure drop set points. PMID:26274962

  18. Build an Inexpensive Wind Tunnel to Test CO2 Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the technology education curriculum, the author's eighth-grade students design, build, test, and race CO2 vehicles. To help them in refining their designs, they use a wind tunnel to test for aerodynamic drag. In this article, the author describes how to build a wind tunnel using inexpensive, readily available materials. (Contains 1…

  19. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a one-tenth-scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. [conducted in Langley full-scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemore, H. C.; Parett, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/10 scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. Tests were made for the clean configuration and a high-lift configuration with several combinations of leading- and trailing-edge flaps deflected for providing improved lift and longitudinal stability in the landing and takeoff modes. The tests were conducted for a range of angles of attack from about -6 deg to 30 deg, sideslip angles from -5 deg to 10 deg, and for Reynolds numbers from 6.78 x 1,000,000 to 13.85 x 1,000,000 corresponding to test velocities of 41 knots to 85 knots, respectively.

  20. 5. VIEW NORTH OF TEST SECTION IN FULLSCALE WIND TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTH OF TEST SECTION IN FULL-SCALE WIND TUNNEL WITH FREE-FLIGHT MODEL OF A BOEING 737 SUSPENDED FROM A SAFETY CABLE. - NASA Langley Research Center, Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, 224 Hunting Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  1. The cryogenic wind tunnel concept for high Reynolds number testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Goodyer, M. J.; Adcock, J. B.; Davenport, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Theoretical considerations indicate that cooling the wind-tunnel test gas to cryogenic temperatures will provide a large increase in Reynolds number with no increase in dynamic pressure while reducing the tunnel drive-power requirements. Studies were made to determine the expected variations of Reynolds number and other parameters over wide ranges of Mach number, pressure, and temperature, with due regard to avoiding liquefaction. Practical operational procedures were developed in a low-speed cryogenic tunnel. Aerodynamic experiments in the facility demonstrated the theoretically predicted variations in Reynolds number and drive power. The continuous-flow-fan-driven tunnel is shown to be particularly well suited to take full advantage of operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Overview of 6- X 6-foot wind tunnel aero-optics tests. [transonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The splitter-plate arrangement used in tests in the 6 x 6 foot wind tunnel and how it was configured to study boundary layers, both heated and unheated, shear layers over a cavity, separated flows behind spoilers, accelerated flows around a turret, and a turret wake are described. The flows are characterized by examples of the steady-state pressure and of velocity profiles through the various types of flow layers.

  3. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a series of flying wings with sweep angles of 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, Thomas M.; Fears, Scott P.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.

    1995-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to study the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a series of four flying wings over an extended range of angle of attack (-8 deg to 48 deg). Because of the current emphasis on reducing the radar cross section of new military aircraft, the planform of each wing was composed of lines swept at a relatively high angle of 60 deg, and all the trailing-edge lines were aligned with one of the two leading edges. Three arrow planforms with different aspect ratios and one diamond planform were tested. The models incorporated leading-edge flaps for improved pitching-moment characteristics and lateral stability and had three sets of trailing-edge flaps that were deflected differentially for roll control, symmetrically for pitch control, and in a split fashion for yaw control. Top bodies of three widths and twin vertical tails of various sizes and locations were also tested on each model. A large aerodynamic database was compiled that could be used to evaluate some of the trade-offs involved in the design of a configuration with a reduced radar cross section and good flight dynamic characteristics.

  4. Integral method of wall interference correction in low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Changhai

    1987-01-01

    The analytical solution of Poisson's equation, derived form the definition of vortex, was applied to the calculation of interference velocities due to the presence of wind tunnel walls. This approach, called the Integral Method, allows an accurate evaluation of wall interference for separated or more complicated flows without the need for considering any features of the model. All the information necessary for obtaining the wall correction is contained in wall pressure measurements. The correction is not sensitive to normal data-scatter, and the computations are fast enough for on-line data processing.

  5. Estimation of spaceplane longitudinal stability and control derivatives from dynamic wind tunnel test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, Masaaki; Sasa, Shuichi; Shimomura, Takashi; Takizawa, Minoru; Suzuki, Seizo; Nagayasu, Masahiko

    Dynamic wind tunnel tests using a 5-percent cable-mounted model of the NAL spaceplane have been conducted in the NAL low-speed large scale wind tunnel. A parameter identification study of the recorded data was undertaken to extract longitudinal stability and control derivatives. The following three estimation methods were adopted: (1) estimate all the derivatives simultaneously; (2) estimate the stability and control derivatives separately; and (3) estimate the dynamic derivatives only while the static derivatives are fixed in results from static wind tunnel tests. The estimated derivatives were evaluated by comparing mathematically simulated time histories based on them with tunnel test data. As a result, all major derivatives were estimated well and the effectiveness of the dynamic test was shown.

  6. Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing Capability Upgraded in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center supports short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) tests in its 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9 x 15 LSWT). As part of a facility capability upgrade, a dynamic actuation system (DAS) was fabricated to enhance the STOVL testing capabilities. The DAS serves as the mechanical interface between the 9 x 15 LSWT test section structure and the STOVL model to be tested. It provides vertical and horizontal translation of the model in the test section and maintains the model attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll) during translation. It also integrates a piping system to supply the model with exhaust and hot air to simulate the inlet suction and nozzle exhausts, respectively. Hot gas ingestion studies have been performed with the facility ground plane installed. The DAS provides vertical (ascent and descent) translation speeds of up to 48 in./s and horizontal translation speeds of up to 12 in./s. Model pitch variations of +/- 7, roll variations of +/- 5, and yaw variations of 0 to 180 deg can be accommodated and are maintained within 0.25 deg throughout the translation profile. The hot air supply, generated by the facility heaters and regulated by control valves, provides three separate temperature zones to the model for STOVL and hot gas ingestion testing. Channels along the supertube provide instrumentation paths from the model to the facility data system for data collection purposes. The DAS is supported by the 9 x 15 LSWT test section ceiling structure. A carriage that rides on two linear rails provides for horizontal translation of the system along the test section longitudinal axis. A vertical translation assembly, consisting of a cage and supertube, is secured to the carriage. The supertube traverses vertically through the cage on a set of linear rails. Both translation axes are hydraulically actuated and provide position and velocity profile control. The lower flange on the supertube serves as the model interface to the DAS. The

  7. Application of the adaptive-wall concept to three-dimensional low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods for evaluating the functional relationships required to obtain interference-free flows about a model in a wind tunnel have been developed. The first, the original multipole expansion (MPE) procedure, is based on a series of point singularities which satisfy the governing Prandtl-Glauert equation. The second, the modified MPE, provides an improved representation of finite-span wings and thereby extends the range of validity of the original MPE to larger ratios of span-to-control-surface-width. The third method is more general and is based on source distributions over the control surface. Several numerical examples are presented to help establish the range of validity of these methods. An accuracy-assessment procedure, which combines the original MPE procedure with classical wall-correction theory, has been developed to estimate the degree of interference at the model if the functional relationships are not satisfied exactly. Several numerical examples are presented for representative wings and bodies.

  8. A low-speed wind tunnel study of vortex interaction control techniques on a chine-forebody/delta-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Bhat, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel evaluation was conducted of passive and active techniques proposed as a means to impede the interaction of forebody chine and delta wing vortices, when such interaction leads to undesirable aerodynamic characteristics particularly in the post stall regime. The passive method was based on physically disconnecting the chine/wing junction; the active technique employed deflection of inboard leading edge flaps. In either case, the intent was to forcibly shed the chine vortices before they encountered the downwash of wing vortices. Flow visualizations, wing pressures, and six component force/moment measurements confirmed the benefits of forced vortex de-coupling at post stall angles of attack and in sideslip, viz., alleviation of post stall zero beta asymmetry, lateral instability and twin tail buffet, with insignificant loss of maximum lift.

  9. Aeroservoelastic Wind-Tunnel Test of the SUGAR Truss Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Allen, Timothy J.; Funk, Christie J.; Castelluccio, Mark A.; Sexton, Bradley W.; Claggett, Scott; Dykman, John; Coulson, David A.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) aeroservoelastic (ASE) wind-tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and was completed in April, 2014. The primary goals of the test were to identify the open-loop flutter boundary and then demonstrate flutter suppression. A secondary goal was to demonstrate gust load alleviation (GLA). Open-loop flutter and limit cycle oscillation onset boundaries were identified for a range of Mach numbers and various angles of attack. Two sets of control laws were designed for the model and both sets of control laws were successful in suppressing flutter. Control laws optimized for GLA were not designed; however, the flutter suppression control laws were assessed using the TDT Airstream Oscillation System. This paper describes the experimental apparatus, procedures, and results of the TBW wind-tunnel test. Acquired system ID data used to generate ASE models is also discussed.2 study.

  10. Planar Doppler Velocimetry for Large-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, Planar Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has been shown by several laboratories to offer an attractive means for measuring three-dimensional velocity vectors everywhere in a light sheet placed in a flow. Unlike other optical means of measuring flow velocities, PDV is particularly attractive for use in large wind tunnels where distances to the sample region may be several meters, because it does not require the spatial resolution and tracking of individual scattering particles or the alignment of crossed beams at large distances. To date, demonstrations of PDV have been made either in low speed flows without quantitative comparison to other measurements, or in supersonic flows where the Doppler shift is large and its measurement is relatively insensitive to instrumental errors. Moreover, most reported applications have relied on the use of continuous-wave lasers, which limit the measurement to time-averaged velocity fields. This work summarizes the results of two previous studies of PDV in which the use of pulsed lasers to obtain instantaneous velocity vector fields is evaluated. The objective has been to quantitatively define and demonstrate PDV capabilities for applications in large-scale wind tunnels that are intended primarily for the production testing of subsonic aircraft. For such applications, the adequate resolution of low-speed flow fields requires accurate measurements of small Doppler shifts that are obtained at distances of several meters from the sample region. The use of pulsed lasers provides the unique capability to obtain not only time-averaged fields, but also their statistical fluctuation amplitudes and the spatial excursions of unsteady flow regions such as wakes and separations. To accomplish the objectives indicated, the PDV measurement process is first modeled and its performance evaluated computationally. The noise sources considered include those related to the optical and electronic properties of Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays and to

  11. Initial Investigation of the Acoustics of a Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model with Historical Baseline Blades in a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A counter-rotating open rotor scale model was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). This model used a historical baseline blade set with which modern blade designs will be compared against on an acoustic and aerodynamic performance basis. Different blade pitch angles simulating approach and takeoff conditions were tested, along with angle-of-attack configurations. A configuration was also tested in order to determine the acoustic effects of a pylon. The shaft speed was varied for each configuration in order to get data over a range of operability. The freestream Mach number was also varied for some configurations. Sideline acoustic data were taken for each of these test configurations.

  12. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel test database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data were acquired by competing contractors and NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. This wind tunnel test data has been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retro-glide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings.

  13. A 2025+ View of the Art of Wind Tunnel Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Department of Defense [DoD] or National Aeronautics and Space Administration [ NASA ]). The GTTC considered wind tunnel testing a foundational activity...requirement for wind tunnel hours, this workload is highly variable because of the cycles of major national programs. NASA recently reported in the Newport...Tunnel 16S (inactive); the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure (closed and probably to be demolished), Low Turbulence Pressure (closed), 30 3 60

  14. Low-speed Wind-Tunnel Study of Reaction Control-jet Effectiveness for Hover and Transition of a STOVL Fighter Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Shah, Gautam H.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    A brief wind-tunnel study was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to determine reaction control-jet effectiveness and some associated aerodynamic characteristics of a 15 percent scale model of the General Dynamics E-7A STOVL fighter/attack aircraft concept applicable to hover and transition flight. Tests were made with the model at various attitude angles in the tunnel test section and at various tunnel airspeeds for a range of control-jet nozzle pressure ratios. Eight reaction control-jets were tested individually. Four jets were at the design baseline locations providing roll, pitch, and yaw control. Comparisons of measured data with values calculated using empirical methods were made where possible.

  15. NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Background Noise and Flow Survey Results Prior to FY05 Construction of Facilities Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel is a premier facility for model-scale testing of jet noise reduction concepts at realistic flow conditions. However, flow inside the open jet test section is less than optimum. A Construction of Facilities project, scheduled for FY 05, will replace the flow collector with a new design intended to reduce recirculation in the open jet test section. The reduction of recirculation will reduce background noise levels measured by a microphone array impinged by the recirculation flow and will improve flow characteristics in the open jet tunnel flow. In order to assess the degree to which this modification is successful, background noise levels and tunnel flow are documented, in order to establish a baseline, in this report.

  16. A low speed wind tunnel investigation of Reynolds number effects on a 60-deg swept wing configuration with leading and trailing edge flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A low-speed wind tunnel test was performed to investigate Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise wing concept model with a 60-deg swept wing incorporating leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflections. The Reynolds number ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th, and corresponding Mach numbers from .05 to 0.3. The objective was to define a threshold Reynolds number above which the flap aerodynamics basically remained unchanged, and also to generate a data base useful for validating theoretical predictions for the Reynolds number effects on flap performance. This report documents the test procedures used and the basic data acquired in the investigation.

  17. Results of investigations on a 0.0405 scale model PRR version of the NR-SSV orbiter in the North American Aeronautical Laboratory low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.; Vaughn, J. E.; Singellton, R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel on a scale model space shuttle vehicle (SSV) orbiter. The purpose of the test was to investigate the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of the space shuttle orbiter. Emphasis was placed on model component, wing-glove, and wing-body fairing effects, as well as elevon, aileron, and rudder control effectiveness. Angles of attack from - 5 deg to + 30 deg and angles of sideslip of - 5 deg, 0 deg, and + 5 deg were tested. Static pressures were recorded on base, fuselage, and wing surfaces. Tufts and talc-kerosene flow visualization techniques were also utilized. The aerodynamic force balance results are presented in plotted and tabular form.

  18. Photogrammetry Applied to Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Cattafesta, L. N., III; Radeztsky, R. H.; Burner, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    In image-based measurements, quantitative image data must be mapped to three-dimensional object space. Analytical photogrammetric methods, which may be used to accomplish this task, are discussed from the viewpoint of experimental fluid dynamicists. The Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) for camera calibration, used in pressure sensitive paint, is summarized. An optimization method for camera calibration is developed that can be used to determine the camera calibration parameters, including those describing lens distortion, from a single image. Combined with the DLT method, this method allows a rapid and comprehensive in-situ camera calibration and therefore is particularly useful for quantitative flow visualization and other measurements such as model attitude and deformation in production wind tunnels. The paper also includes a brief description of typical photogrammetric applications to temperature- and pressure-sensitive paint measurements and model deformation measurements in wind tunnels.

  19. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a semispan STOL jet transport wing body with an upper surface blown jet flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Letko, W.; Henderson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan STOL jet transport wing-body with an upper-surface blown jet flap for lift augmentation was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel having a 12-ft octagonal test section. The semispan swept wing had an aspect ratio of 3.92 (7.84 for the full span) and had two simulated turbofan engines mounted ahead of and above the wing in a siamese pod equipped with an exhaust deflector. The purpose of the deflector was to spread the engine exhaust into a jet sheet attached to the upper surface of the wing so that it would turn downward over the flap and provide lift augmentation. The wing also had optional boundary-layer control provided by air blowing through a thin slot over a full-span plain trailing-edge flap.

  20. Wind-tunnel investigation of the powered low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of the Vectored-Engine-Over (VEO) wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W.; Whitten, P. D.; Stumpfl, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation incorporating both static and wind-on testing was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to determine the effects of vectored thrust along with spanwise blowing on the low-speed aerodynamics of an advanced fighter configuration. Data were obtained over a large range of thrust coefficients corresponding to takeoff and landing thrust settings for many nozzle configurations. The complete set of static thrust data and the complete set of longitudinal aerodynamic data obtained in the investigation are presented. These data are intended for reference purposes and, therefore, are presented without analysis or comment. The analysis of the thrust-induced effects found in the investigation are not discussed.

  1. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  2. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  3. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  4. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  5. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  6. Forced Oscillation Wind Tunnel Testing for FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoe, Garrison; Owens, Donald B.; Denham, Casey

    2012-01-01

    As unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) continue to expand their flight envelopes into areas of high angular rate and high angle of attack, modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation in these regimes has become more difficult using traditional methods. The goal of this experiment was to improve the current six degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model of a small UAV by replacing the analytically derived damping derivatives with experimentally derived values. The UAV is named the Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, FASER, and was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 12- Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. The forced oscillation wind tunnel test technique was used to measure damping in the roll and yaw axes. By imparting a variety of sinusoidal motions, the effects of non-dimensional angular rate and reduced frequency were examined over a large range of angle of attack and side-slip combinations. Tests were performed at angles of attack from -5 to 40 degrees, sideslip angles of -30 to 30 degrees, oscillation amplitudes from 5 to 30 degrees, and reduced frequencies from 0.010 to 0.133. Additionally, the effect of aileron or elevator deflection on the damping coefficients was examined. Comparisons are made of two different data reduction methods used to obtain the damping derivatives. The results show that the damping derivatives are mainly a function of angle of attack and have dependence on the non-dimensional rate and reduced frequency only in the stall/post-stall regime

  7. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  8. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  9. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  10. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  11. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  12. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  13. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  14. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  15. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  16. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a translating grid choked flow inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, J. M.; Miller, B. A.; Golladay, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a translating grid choked-flow inlet was determined in a low-speed wind tunnel at free-stream velocities of 24, 32, and 45 m/sec and incidence angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 deg. The inlet was sized to fit a 13.97- centimeter-diameter fan with a design weight flow of 2.49 kg/sec. Measurements were made to determine inlet total pressure recovery, flow distortion, and sound pressure level for both choked and unchoked geometries over a range of inlet weight flows. For the unchoked geometry, inlet total pressure recovery ranged from 0.983 to 0.989 at incidence angles less than 40 deg. At 40 deg incidence angle, inlet cowl separation was encountered which resulted in lower values of pressure recovery and higher levels of fan broadband noise. For the choked geometry, increasing total pressure losses occurred with increasing inlet weight flow that prevented the inlet from reaching full choked conditions with the particular fan used. These losses were attributed to the high Mach number drag rise characteristics of airfoil grid. At maximum attainable inlet weight flow, the total pressure recovery at static conditions was 0.935. The fan blade passing frequency and other fan generated pure tones were eliminated from the noise spectrum, but the broadband level was increased.

  17. SMART Rotor Development and Wind-Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Straub, Friedrich; Anand, V. R.; Birchette, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California at Los Angeles, and University of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center, figure 1. The SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing-edge flap on each blade. The development effort included design, fabrication, and component testing of the rotor blades, the trailing-edge flaps, the piezoelectric actuators, the switching power amplifiers, the actuator control system, and the data/power system. Development of the smart rotor culminated in a whirl-tower hover test which demonstrated the functionality, robustness, and required authority of the active flap system. The eleven-week wind tunnel test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor noise analysis, and quantified the effects of open- and closed-loop active-flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness and the reliability of the flap actuation system were successfully demonstrated in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing. The data acquired and lessons learned will be instrumental in maturing this technology and transitioning it into production. The development effort, test hardware, wind-tunnel test program, and test results will be presented in the full paper.

  18. Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  19. Design techniques for developing a computerized instrumentation test plan. [for wind tunnel test data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, S. Kay; Forsyth, Theodore J.; Maynard, Everett E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computerized instrumentation test plan (ITP) for the NASA/Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is discussed. The objective of the ITP program was to aid the instrumentation engineer in documenting the configuration and calibration of data acquisition systems for a given test at any of four low speed wind tunnel facilities (Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility, 7 x 10, 40 x 80, and 80 x 120) at the NFAC. It is noted that automation of the ITP has decreased errors, engineering hours, and setup time while adding a higher level of consistency and traceability.

  20. Development of an intelligent hypertext system for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Steinle, Frank W.; Wu, Y. C. L. Susan; Hoyt, W. Andes

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a system utilizing artificial intelligence technology to improve the productivity of project engineers who conduct wind tunnel tests. The objective was to create an intelligent hypertext system which integrates a hypertext manual and expert system that stores experts' knowledge and experience. The preliminary (Phase I) effort implemented a prototype IHS module encompassing a portion of the manuals and knowledge used for wind tunnel testing. The effort successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the intelligent hypertext system concept. A module for the internal strain gage balance, implemented on both IBM-PC and Macintosh computers, is presented. A description of the Phase II effort is included.

  1. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a series of flying wings with sweep angles of 50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, Scott P.; Ross, Holly M.; Moul, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to study the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a series of four flying wings over an extended range of angle of attack (-8 deg to 48 deg). Because of the current emphasis on reducing the radar cross section (RCS) of new military aircraft, the planform of each wing was composed of lines swept at a relatively high angle of 50 deg, and all the trailing-edge lines were aligned with one of the two leading edges. Three arrow planforms with different aspect ratios and one diamond planform were tested. The models incorporated leading-edge flaps for improved longitudinal characteristics and lateral stability and had trailing-edge flaps in three segments that were deflected differentially for roll control, symmetrically for pitch control, and in a split fashion for yaw control. Three top body widths and two sizes of twin vertical tails were also tested on each model. A large aerodynamic database was compiled that could be used to evaluate some of the trade-offs involved in the design of a configuration with a reduced RCS and good flight dynamic characteristics.

  2. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a series of flying wings with sweep angles of 70 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Holly M.; Fears, Scott P.; Moul, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to study the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a series of four flying wings over an extended range of angle of attack (-8 deg to 48 deg). Because of the current emphasis on reducing the radar cross section (RCS) of new military aircraft, the planform of each wing was composed of lines swept at a relatively high angle of 70 deg, and all the trailing edges and control surface hinge lines were aligned with one of the two leading edges. Three arrow planforms with different aspect ratios and one diamond planform were tested. The models incorporated leading-edge flaps for improved longitudinal characteristics and lateral stability and had three sets of trailing-edge flaps that were deflected differentially for roll control, symmetrically for pitch control, and in a split fashion for yaw control. Three top body widths and two sizes of twin vertical tails were also tested on each model. A large aerodynamic database was compiled that could be used to evaluate some of the trade-offs involved in the design of a configuration with a reduced RCS and good flight dynamic characteristics.

  3. Experience with scale effects in non-airplane wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. C.; Olson, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamics results of two tests performed in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center are discussed with particular emphasis on the effects of model scale. The tests are unusual for this facility in that they were performed on non-airplane configurations: a full-scale tractor/trailer and large ramair inflated wings. For the truck drag measurements, comparisons with 1/8th-scale drag data taken at the Low Speed Wind Tunnel at Texas A&M indicate that small scale measurements can provide adequate accuracy if care is taken to test at high enough Reynolds numbers and if large regions of separated flow and reattachment are avoided. Some of the important aerodynamic and structural aspects of parafoil testing are also discussed. These include the effects of Reynolds number and aeroelastic effects such as fabric and support line stretch.

  4. Preliminary Tests in the NACA Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, C H

    1937-01-01

    Typical models and the testing technique used in the NACA free-spinning wind tunnel are described in detail. The results of tests on two models afford a comparison between the spinning characteristics of scale models in the tunnel and of the airplanes that they represent.

  5. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F..., and Static Chamber Test Primary Partical Mean Size a (µm) Full Wind Tunnel Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Inlet Aspiration Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Static Fractionator Test Volatility Test 1.5±0.25 S S S 2.0±0.25 S S S...

  6. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F..., and Static Chamber Test Primary Partical Mean Size a (µm) Full Wind Tunnel Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Inlet Aspiration Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Static Fractionator Test Volatility Test 1.5±0.25 S S S 2.0±0.25 S S S...

  7. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F..., and Static Chamber Test Primary Partical Mean Size a (µm) Full Wind Tunnel Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Inlet Aspiration Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Static Fractionator Test Volatility Test 1.5±0.25 S S S 2.0±0.25 S S S...

  8. Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.

  9. Procedures and requirements for testing in the Langley Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassum, Donald L.; Hyman, Curtis E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information is presented to assist those interested in conducting wind-tunnel testing within the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Procedures, requirements, forms and examples necessary for tunnel entry are included.

  10. Acoustic Performance of the GEAE UPS Research Fan in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    A model advanced turbofan was acoustically tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel in 1994. The Universal Propulsion Simulator fan was designed and manufactured by General Electric Aircraft Engines, and included an active core, as well as bypass, flow paths. The fan was tested with several rotors featuring unswept, forward-swept and aft-swept designs of both metal and composite construction. Sideline acoustic data were taken with both hard and acoustically treated walls in the flow passages. The fan was tested within an airflow at a Mach number of 0.20, which is representative of aircraft takeoff/approach conditions. All rotors showed similar aerodynamic performance. However, the composite rotors typically showed higher noise levels than did corresponding metal rotors. Aft and forward rotor sweep showed at most modest reductions of transonic multiple pure tone levels. However, rotor sweep often introduced increased rotor-stator interaction tone levels. Broadband noise was typically higher for the composite rotors and also for the aft-swept metal rotor. Transonic MPT generation was reduced with increasing fan axis angle of attack (AOA); however, higher downstream noise levels did increase with AOA resulting in higher overall Effective Perceived Noise Level.

  11. Investigation of space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics in the NAAL low speed wind tunnel (0A62b), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R.; Hughes, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting-mounted 0.0405 scale representation of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter in a 7.75 ft by 11 ft low speed wind tunnel during the time period from November 14, 1973, to December 6, 1973, with the primary test objectives being to establish basic longitudinal stability characteristics in and out of ground effect, as well as lateral-directional stability characteristics in free air. Two dual podded nacelle configurations were also tested, one with three dual podded nacelles on the lower wing surface, and the other with a single dual nacelle on the lower centerline with dual nacelle pylons mounted above each wing. Stability and control characteristics were investigated at nominal elevon, rudder, aileron, and body flap deflections. Pressure bugs were used to determine pressures on the vertical tail at spanwise stations, and aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the stability axis system by an internally mounted, six component strain gage balance.

  12. Investigation of space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics in the NAAL low speed wind tunnel (OA62B), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R.; Hughes, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting-mounted 0.0405 scale representation of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter in a 7.75 ft by 11 ft low speed wind tunnel during the period from November 14, 1973 to December 6, 1973. Establishment of basic longitudinal stability characteristics in and out of ground effect, and the establishment of lateral-directional stability characteristics in free air were the primary test objectives. The following effects and configurations were tested: (1) two dual podded nacelle configurations; (2) stability and control characteristics at nominal elevon deflections, rudder deflections, airleron deflections, rudder flare angles, and body flap deflections; (3) effects of various elevon and elevon/fuselage gaps on longitudinal stability and control; (4) pressures on the vertical tail at spanwise stations using pressure bugs; (5) aerodynamic force and moment data measured in the stability axis system by an internally mounted, six-component strain gage balance. For Vol. 1, see N74-32324.

  13. Pre-Test Assessment of the Use Envelope of the Normal Force of a Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the aerodynamic lift force generated by a wind tunnel model, the model weight, and the measured normal force of a strain-gage balance is investigated to better understand the expected use envelope of the normal force during a wind tunnel test. First, the fundamental relationship between normal force, model weight, lift curve slope, model reference area, dynamic pressure, and angle of attack is derived. Then, based on this fundamental relationship, the use envelope of a balance is examined for four typical wind tunnel test cases. The first case looks at the use envelope of the normal force during the test of a light wind tunnel model at high subsonic Mach numbers. The second case examines the use envelope of the normal force during the test of a heavy wind tunnel model in an atmospheric low-speed facility. The third case reviews the use envelope of the normal force during the test of a floor-mounted semi-span model. The fourth case discusses the normal force characteristics during the test of a rotated full-span model. The wind tunnel model's lift-to-weight ratio is introduced as a new parameter that may be used for a quick pre-test assessment of the use envelope of the normal force of a balance. The parameter is derived as a function of the lift coefficient, the dimensionless dynamic pressure, and the dimensionless model weight. Lower and upper bounds of the use envelope of a balance are defined using the model's lift-to-weight ratio. Finally, data from a pressurized wind tunnel is used to illustrate both application and interpretation of the model's lift-to-weight ratio.

  14. Kasprzyk airfoil. The first wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wusatowski, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Kasprzyk slotted flap glider airfoil (the Kasper wing) enabling glider flight at 32 km/h and 0.5 m/sec descent speed was wind tunnel tested in the U.S. The test layout is described and reasons offered for discrepancies between wind tunnel results and Polish in flight data: high induced drag caused by relative size of model wing span and tunnel, by vortex attenuators on the model and their proximity to the tunnel wall, nonsimilarity between flow over a smooth wing and flow over the Kasprzyk wing with bound vortices, obstruction of the tunnel test chamber cross section by the model wing, discrepant Reynolds numbers, and model airfoil aspect ratio much smaller than the prototype. The overall results offer partial confirmation of the Kasprzyk theory, but further in tunnel and in flight studies are recommended.

  15. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Low-Speed Static Longitudinal Characteristics of the Republic RF-84F Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, Lynn W.; Griffin, Roy N., Jr.; James, Harry A.

    1952-01-01

    Tests in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel of the static longitudinal characteristics of the Republic RF-84F were made to determine both the origin and a suitable remedy for a pitch up tendency of the airplane encountered at moderate lift coefficients. The results indicated that the pitch-up at moderate lift coefficients was caused by an abrupt change in downwash at the tail which in turn was traceable presumably to flow conditions associated with the inlet-to-wing leading-edge discontinuity.. Attempts to eliminate this pitch-up characteristic with various fairings and stall-control devices. were not wholly successful. The investigation revealed, however, that significant gains in the performance of the airplane could be achieved in the upper lift range.. Three different configurations consisting of a partial-span modified leading edge combined with one or with two-fenees or a leading-edge extension each delayed the onset of separation to higher lift coefficients and provided large improvements in the stability of the airplane in the upper lift range.

  16. Computational design of low aspect ratio wing-winglet configurations for transonic wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Brown, Christopher K.

    1989-01-01

    Computational designs were performed for three different low aspect ratio wing planforms fitted with nonplanar winglets; one of the three configurations was selected to be constructed as a wind tunnel model for testing in the NASA LaRC 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. A design point of M = 0.8, C(sub L) is approximate or = to 0.3 was selected, for wings of aspect ratio equal to 2.2, and leading edge sweep angles of 45 deg and 50 deg. Winglet length is 15 percent of the wing semispan, with a cant angle of 15 deg, and a leading edge sweep of 50 deg. Winglet total area equals 2.25 percent of the wing reference area. The design process and the predicted transonic performance are summarized for each configuration. In addition, a companion low-speed design study was conducted, using one of the transonic design wing-winglet planforms but with different camber and thickness distributions. A low-speed wind tunnel model was constructed to match this low-speed design geometry, and force coefficient data were obtained for the model at speeds of 100 to 150 ft/sec. Measured drag coefficient reductions were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted by numerical subsonic performance predictions.

  17. Results of buffet tests in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, R. P.; Johnson, W. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Buffet tests on two semispan wing models with different leading edge sweep show that it is feasibile to use the standard dynamic wing root bending moment technique in a cryogenic wind tunnel. One model was a slender 65 deg swept delta wing with sharp leading edges. The other model was an unswept wing of aspect ratio 1.5 with a British NPL 9510 airfoil section. The results for the 65 deg swept delta wing indicate the importance of matching the reduced frequency parameter in model tests for planforms which are sensitive to reduced frequency parameter if quantitative buffet measurements are required. The unique ability of a pressurized cryogenic wind tunnel to separate the effects of Reynolds number and of static aeroelastic distortion by variations in the tunnel stagnation temperature and pressure were demonstrated.

  18. Wind tunnel test evaluation of a Shuttle derived launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewell, J. R.; Buell, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) is a proposed unmanned launch system configured using Shuttle elements. The SDV incorporates two solid rocket boosters, an external tank and three Space Shuttle main engines identical to those used in the present Space Transportation System. Two new elements, a recoverable propulsion/avionics module housing the main engines and an expendable payload module, complete the SDV configuration. This paper describes the activities and results of wind tunnel tests conducted to validate the aerodynamic and controllability characteristics of SDV configurations. The configuration variables consisted of the payload module diameter, length and nose shape. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel. Aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 4.96. The attack and sideslip angles were varied + or - 8.0 deg. Forces and moments were measured by a sting-supported six component strain gage balance.

  19. Wind Tunnel Tests Conducted to Develop an Icing Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program goals to reduce aviation accidents due to icing, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading a flight simulator development activity to improve pilot training for the adverse flying characteristics due to icing. Developing flight simulators that incorporate the aerodynamic effects of icing will provide a critical element in pilot training programs by giving pilots a pre-exposure of icing-related hazards, such as ice-contaminated roll upset or tailplane stall. Integrating these effects into training flight simulators will provide an accurate representation of scenarios to develop pilot skills in unusual attitudes and loss-of-control events that may result from airframe icing. In order to achieve a high level of fidelity in the flight simulation, a series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a 6.5-percent-scale Twin Otter aircraft model. These wind tunnel tests were conducted at the Wichita State University 7- by 10-ft wind tunnel and Bihrle Applied Research's Large Amplitude Multiple Purpose Facility in Neuburg, Germany. The Twin Otter model was tested without ice (baseline), and with two ice configurations: 1) Ice on the horizontal tail only; 2) Ice on the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. These wind tunnel tests resulted in data bases of aerodynamic forces and moments as functions of angle of attack; sideslip; control surface deflections; forced oscillations in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes; and various rotational speeds. A limited amount of wing and tail surface pressure data were also measured for comparison with data taken at Wichita State and with flight data. The data bases from these tests will be the foundation for a PC-based Icing Flight Simulator to be delivered to Glenn in fiscal year 2001.

  20. Incremental wind tunnel testing of high lift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Pricop Mihai; Mircea, Boscoianu; Daniel-Eugeniu, Crunteanu

    2016-06-01

    Efficiency of trailing edge high lift systems is essential for long range future transport aircrafts evolving in the direction of laminar wings, because they have to compensate for the low performance of the leading edge devices. Modern high lift systems are subject of high performance requirements and constrained to simple actuation, combined with a reduced number of aerodynamic elements. Passive or active flow control is thus required for the performance enhancement. An experimental investigation of reduced kinematics flap combined with passive flow control took place in a low speed wind tunnel. The most important features of the experimental setup are the relatively large size, corresponding to a Reynolds number of about 2 Million, the sweep angle of 30 degrees corresponding to long range airliners with high sweep angle wings and the large number of flap settings and mechanical vortex generators. The model description, flap settings, methodology and results are presented.

  1. Wind Tunnel Test of the SMART Active Flap Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Anand, Vaidyanthan R.; Birchette, Terrence S.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, DARPA, MIT, UCLA, and U. of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. The Boeing SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing edge flap on each blade. The eleven-week test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor at speeds up to 155 knots, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor aero-acoustic analysis, and quantified the effects of open and closed loop active flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness of the active flap control on noise and vibration was conclusively demonstrated. Results showed significant reductions up to 6dB in blade-vortex-interaction and in-plane noise, as well as reductions in vibratory hub loads up to 80%. Trailing-edge flap deflections were controlled within 0.1 degrees of the commanded value. The impact of the active flap on control power, rotor smoothing, and performance was also demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing.

  2. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F... Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-2 Table F-2 to Subpart F...

  3. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F... Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-2 Table F-2 to Subpart F...

  4. Blended-Wing-Body Low-Speed Flight Dynamics: Summary of Ground Tests and Sample Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of low-speed wind tunnel tests of a Blended-Wing-Body tri-jet configuration to evaluate the low-speed static and dynamic stability and control characteristics over the full envelope of angle of attack and sideslip are summarized. These data were collected for use in simulation studies of the edge-of-the-envelope and potential out-of-control flight characteristics. Some selected results with lessons learned are presented.

  5. Nacelle Chine Installation Based on Wind-Tunnel Test Using Efficient Global Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazaki, Masahiro; Yokokawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takeshi; Jeong, Shinkyu; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

    Design exploration of a nacelle chine installation was carried out. The nacelle chine improves stall performance when deploying multi-element high-lift devices. This study proposes an efficient design process using a Kriging surrogate model to determine the nacelle chine installation point in wind-tunnel tests. The design exploration was conducted in a wind-tunnel using the JAXA high-lift aircraft model at the JAXA Large-scale Low-speed Wind Tunnel. The objective was to maximize the maximum lift. The chine installation points were designed on the engine nacelle in the axial and chord-wise direction, while the geometry of the chine was fixed. In the design process, efficient global optimization (EGO) which includes Kriging model and genetic algorithm (GA) was employed. This method makes it possible both to improve the accuracy of the response surface and to explore the global optimum efficiently. Detailed observations of flowfields using the Particle Image Velocimetry method confirmed the chine effect and design results.

  6. Cryogenic wind tunnels for high Reynolds number testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Kilgore, R. A.; Mcguire, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of lectures presented at various Universities over a span of several years is discussed. A central theme of these lectures has been to present the research facility in terms of the service it provides to, and its potential effect on, the entire community, rather than just the research community. This theme is preserved in this paper which deals with the cryogenic transonic wind tunnels at Langley Research Center. Transonic aerodynamics is a focus both because of its crucial role in determining the success of aeronautical systems and because cryogenic wind tunnels are especially applicable to the transonics problem. The paper also provides historical perspective and technical background for cryogenic tunnels, culminating in a brief review of cryogenic wind tunnel projects around the world. An appendix is included to provide up to date information on testing techniques that have been developed for the cryogenic tunnels at Langley Research Center. In order to be as inclusive and as current as possible, the appendix is less formal than the main body of the paper. It is anticipated that this paper will be of particular value to the technical layman who is inquisitive as to the value of, and need for, cryogneic tunnels.

  7. Tactical Defenses Against Systematic Variation in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of unexplained systematic variation on the reproducibility of wind tunnel test results. Sample means and variances estimated in the presence of systematic variations are shown to be susceptible to bias errors that are generally non-reproducible functions of those variations. Unless certain precautions are taken to defend against the effects of systematic variation, it is shown that experimental results can be difficult to duplicate and of dubious value for predicting system response with the highest precision or accuracy that could otherwise be achieved. Results are reported from an experiment designed to estimate how frequently systematic variations are in play in a representative wind tunnel experiment. These results suggest that significant systematic variation occurs frequently enough to cast doubts on the common assumption that sample observations can be reliably assumed to be independent. The consequences of ignoring correlation among observations induced by systematic variation are considered in some detail. Experimental tactics are described that defend against systematic variation. The effectiveness of these tactics is illustrated through computational experiments and real wind tunnel experimental results. Some tutorial information describes how to analyze experimental results that have been obtained using such quality assurance tactics.

  8. Variable Stiffness Spar Wind-Tunnel Model Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florance, James R.; Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Ivanco, Thomas G.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Lively, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of exploiting wing flexibility to improve aerodynamic performance was investigated in the wind tunnel by employing multiple control surfaces and by varying wing structural stiffness via a Variable Stiffness Spar (VSS) mechanism. High design loads compromised the VSS effectiveness because the aerodynamic wind-tunnel model was much stiffer than desired in order to meet the strength requirements. Results from tests of the model include stiffness and modal data, model deformation data, aerodynamic loads, static control surface derivatives, and fuselage standoff pressure data. Effects of the VSS on the stiffness and modal characteristics, lift curve slope, and control surface effectiveness are discussed. The VSS had the most effect on the rolling moment generated by the leading-edge outboard flap at subsonic speeds. The effects of the VSS for the other control surfaces and speed regimes were less. The difficulties encountered and the ability of the VSS to alter the aeroelastic characteristics of the wing emphasize the need for the development of improved design and construction methods for static aeroelastic models. The data collected and presented is valuable in terms of understanding static aeroelastic wind-tunnel model development.

  9. Flow quality studies of the NASA Lewis Research Center 8- by 6-foot supersonic/9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen; Pickett, Mark T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the existing flow quality in the NASA Lewis 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic/9 by 15 Foot Low speed Wind Tunnel. The information gathered from these studies was used to determine the types and designs of flow manipulators which can be installed to improve overall tunnel flow quality and efficiency. Such manipulators include honeycomb flow straighteners, turbulence reduction screens, corner turning vanes, and acoustic treatments. The types of measurements, instrumentation, and results obtained from experiments conducted at several locations throughout the tunnel loop are described.

  10. Nano-ADEPT Aeroloads Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Cassell, A.; Yount, B.; Kruger, C.; Brivkalns, C.; Makino, A.; Zarchi, K.; McDaniel, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Swanson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis completed since the test suggests that all test objectives were met– This claim will be verified in the coming weeks as the data is examined further– Final disposition of test objective success will be documented in a final reportsubmitted to NASA stakeholders (early August 2015)– Expect conference paper in early 2016• Data products and observations made during testing will be used to refinecomputational models of Nano-ADEPT• Carbon fabric relaxed from its pre-test state during the test– System-level tolerance for relaxation will be driven by destination-specific andmission-specific aerothermal and aerodynamic requirements• Bonus experiment of asymmetric shape demonstrates that an asymmetricdeployable blunt body can be used to generate measureable lift– With a strut actuation system and a robust GN&C algorithm, this effect could beused to steer a blunt body at hypersonic speeds to aid precision landing

  11. Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of an advanced high lift system for an Energy Efficient Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an advanced technology high lift system for an energy efficient transport incorporating a high aspect ratio supercritical wing is described. This development is based on the results of trade studies to select the high lift system, analysis techniques utilized to design the high lift system, and results of a wind tunnel test program. The program included the first experimental low speed, high Reynolds number wind tunnel test for this class of aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, aileron, spoilers, and Mach and Reynolds numbers. Results are discussed and compared with the experimental data and the various aerodynamic characteristics are estimated.

  12. Static Wind-Tunnel and Radio-Controlled Flight Test Investigation of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle Having a Delta Wing Planform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, Long P.; Fratello, David J.; Robelen, David B.; Makowiec, George M.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of the United States Marine Corps, an exploratory wind-tunnel and flight test investigation was conducted by the Flight Dynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center to improve the stability, controllability, and general flight characteristics of the Marine Corps Exdrone RPV (Remotely Piloted Vehicle) configuration. Static wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 12 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to identify and improve the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle. The wind tunnel test resulted in several configuration modifications which included increased elevator size, increased vertical tail size and tail moment arm, increased rudder size and aileron size, the addition of vertical wing tip fins, and the addition of leading-edge droops on the outboard wing panel to improve stall departure resistance. Flight tests of the modified configuration were conducted at the NASA Plum Tree Test Site to provide a qualitative evaluation of the flight characteristics of the modified configuration.

  13. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or better (e.g., hot-wire anemometry). The mean wind speed in the test section of the wind tunnel... section shall be determined during the tests using an appropriate technique (e.g., hot-wire anemometry... volumetric units. (g) Schematic drawings of the particle delivery system (wind tunnel and blower system)...

  14. Airship Model Tests in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Ira H

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airship models. Eight Goodyear-Zeppelin airship models were tested in the original closed-throat tunnel. After the tunnel was rebuilt with an open throat a new model was tested, and one of the Goodyear-Zeppelin models was retested. The results indicate that much may be done to determine the drag of airships from evaluations of the pressure and skin-frictional drags on models tested at large Reynolds number.

  15. Low and high speed propellers for general aviation - Performance potential and recent wind tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, R. J.; Mitchell, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of current research efforts in general aviation, low-speed propeller design and high-speed propfan design, with attention on such features as (1) advanced blade shapes, with novel airfoils and sweep, (2) tip devices, (3) integrated propeller/nacelle designs, (4) area-ruled spinners, (5) lightweight, all-composite blade construction, and (6) contra-rotating propfan systems. The potential overall improvements associated with these design modifications are calculated to lie at 10-15% for low-speed rotors and 15-30% for high-speed ones. Emphasis is placed on noise reduction, blade drag, performance prediction methods and wind tunnel testing of alternative rotor configurations. Extensive use of graphs is made in performance comparisons between alternative blade and rotor designs.

  16. Combined Experiment Phase 1. [Horizontal axis wind turbines: wind tunnel testing versus field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  17. Wind-tunnel Tests of a Cyclogiro Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B; Windler, Ray

    1935-01-01

    During an extensive study of all types of rotating wings, the NACA examined the cyclogiro rotor and made an aerodynamic analysis of that system (reference 1). The examination disclosed that such a machine had sufficient promise to justify an experimental investigation; a model with a diameter and span of 8 feet was therefore constructed and tested in the 20-foot wind tunnel during 1934. The experimental work included tests of the effect of the motion upon the rotor forces during the static-lift and forward-flight conditions at several rotor speeds and the determination of the relations between the forces generated by the rotor and the power required by it.

  18. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  19. Wind Tunnel Analysis And Flight Test of A Wing Fence On A T-38

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    WIND TUNNEL ANALYSIS AND FLIGHT TEST OF A WING FENCE ON A T-38 THESIS Michael D...GAE/ENY/09-M20 WIND TUNNEL ANALYSIS AND FLIGHT TEST OF A WING FENCE ON A T-38 THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...study and flight tests were performed to examine the effects of a wing fence on the T-38A. Wind tunnel results were based upon force and moment

  20. Wind tunnel testing of low-drag airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. Donald; Mcghee, R. J.; Harris, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented for the measured performance recently obtained on several airfoil concepts designed to achieve low drag by maintaining extensive regions of laminar flow without compromising high-lift performance. The wind tunnel results extend from subsonic to transonic speeds and include boundary-layer control through shaping and suction. The research was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel (TPT) and Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) which have been developed for testing such low-drag airfoils. Emphasis is placed on identifying some of the major factors influencing the anticipated performance of low-drag airfoils.

  1. Wind tunnel test IA300 analysis and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, P. B.; Beaufait, W. B.; Kitchens, L. L.; Pace, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of wind tunnel pressure data from the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test IA300 are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) plumes on the integrated vehicle forebody pressure distributions, the elevon hinge moments, and wing loads. The results of this test will be combined with flight test results to form a new data base to be employed in the IVBC-3 airloads analysis. A secondary objective was to obtain solid plume data for correlation with the results of gaseous plume tests. Data from the power level portion was used in conjunction with flight base pressures to evaluate nominal power levels to be used during the investigation of changes in model attitude, eleveon deflection, and nozzle gimbal angle. The plume induced aerodynamic loads were developed for the Space Shuttle bases and forebody areas. A computer code was developed to integrate the pressure data. Using simplified geometrical models of the Space Shuttle elements and components, the pressure data were integrated to develop plume induced force and moments coefficients that can be combined with a power-off data base to develop a power-on data base.

  2. Practical application of RINO, a smartphone-based dynamic displacement sensing application for wind tunnel tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Knez, Kyle P.; Min, Jae-Hong; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic displacement is one of the most important measurands in wind tunnel tests of structures. Laser sensors or optical sensors are usually used in wind tunnel tests to measure displacements. However, these commercial sensors have limitations in its use, cost and installation despite of their good performance in accuracy. RINO (Real-time Image- processing for Non-contact monitoring), an iOS software application for dynamic displacement monitoring, has been developed in the previous study. In this study, feasibility of RINO in practical use for wind tunnel tests is explored. Series of wind tunnel tests show that performances of RINO are comparable with those of conventional displacement sensors.

  3. The active flexible wing aeroservoelastic wind-tunnel test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Thomas; Perry, Boyd

    1989-01-01

    For a specific application of aeroservoelastic technology, Rockwell International Corporation developed a concept known as the Active Flexible Wing (AFW). The concept incorporates multiple active leading-and trailing-edge control surfaces with a very flexible wing such that wing shape is varied in an optimum manner resulting in improved performance and reduced weight. As a result of a cooperative program between the AFWAL's Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Rockwell, and NASA LaRC, a scaled aeroelastic wind-tunnel model of an advanced fighter was designed, fabricated, and tested in the NASA LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) to validate the AFW concept. Besides conducting the wind-tunnel tests NASA provided a design of an Active Roll Control (ARC) System that was implemented and evaluated during the tests. The ARC system used a concept referred to as Control Law Parameterization which involves maintaining constant performance, robustness, and stability while using different combinations of multiple control surface displacements. Since the ARC system used measured control surface stability derivatives during the design, the predicted performance and stability results correlated very well with test measurements.

  4. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines; Period of Performance: October 31, 2002--January 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. S.; McGranahan, B. D.

    2004-10-01

    Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbinesrepresents the fourth installment in a series of volumes documenting the ongoing work of th University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Low-Speed Airfoil Tests Program. This particular volume deals with airfoils that are candidates for use on small wind turbines, which operate at low Reynolds numbers.

  5. Testing a Parachute for Mars in World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The team developing the landing system for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory tested the deployment of an early parachute design in mid-October 2007 inside the world's largest wind tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

    In this image, two engineers are dwarfed by the parachute, which holds more air than a 280-square-meter (3,000-square-foot) house and is designed to survive loads in excess of 36,000 kilograms (80,000 pounds).

    The parachute, built by Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Connecticut, has 80 suspension lines, measures more than 50 meters (165 feet) in length, and opens to a diameter of nearly 17 meters (55 feet). It is the largest disk-gap-band parachute ever built and is shown here inflated in the test section with only about 3.8 meters (12.5 feet) of clearance to both the floor and ceiling.

    The wind tunnel, which is 24 meters (80 feet) tall and 37 meters (120 feet) wide and big enough to house a Boeing 737, is part of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, operated by the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is building and testing the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft for launch in 2009. The mission will land a roving analytical laboratory on the surface of Mars in 2010. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Further buffeting tests in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabey, D. G.; Boyden, R. P.; Johnson, W. G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Further measurements of buffeting, using wing-root strain gauges, were made in the NASA Langley 0.3 m Cryogenic Wind Tunnel to refine techniques which will be used in larger cryogenic facilities such as the United States National Transonic Facility (NTF) and European Transonic Wind Tunnel (ETW). The questions addressed included the relative importance of variations in frequency parameter and Reynolds number, the choice of model material (considering both stiffness and damping) and the effects of static aeroelastic distortion. The main series of tests was made on half models of slender 65 deg delta wings with a sharp leading edge. The three delta wings had the same planform but widely different bending stiffness and frequencies (obtained by varying both the material and the thickness of the wings). It was known that the flow on this configuration would be insensitive to variations in Reynold number. Additional tests were made on one unswept half-wing of aspect ratio 1.5 with an NPL 9510 aerofoil section, known to be sensitive to variations in Reynolds number at transonic speeds. For brevity the test Mach numbers were restricted to M = 0.21 and 0.35 for the delta wings and to M = 0.30 for the unswept wing.

  7. Wind Tunnel Testing for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenberger, Deborah; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is pursuing the development of SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy. SOFIA will consist of a 2.5 meter telescope mounted aft of the wing of a Boeing 747 aircraft. Since a large portion of the infrared spectrum is not visible at ground level due to absorption by water vapor in the atmosphere below 40,000 feet, it is highly desirable to make observations above this altitude. SOFIA will provide the opportunity for astronomers to conduct high-altitude research for extended periods of time. Current study is focused on wind tunnel testing for the open cavity. If not controlled, air would create resonance and damage the telescope. For this reason, SOFIA will design a boundary layer control device to achieve laminar flow over the cavity. This also provides a clearer flow for seeing, thus improving resolution on infrared sources. Other effects being tested in the wind tunnel are aerodynamic torque loads on the telescope, and flutter loads on the tail.

  8. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale VTOL lift-fan transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, K.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale, VTOL, lift fan, jet transport model. The model had two lift fans at the forward portion of the fuselage, a lift fan at each wing tip, and two lift/cruise fans at the aft portion of the fuselage. All fans were driven by tip turbines using T-58 gas generators. Results were obtained for several lift fan, exit vane deflections and lift/cruise fan thrust deflections are zero sideslip. Three component longitudinal data are presented at several fan tip speed ratios. A limited amount of six component data were obtained with asymmetric vane settings. All of the data were obtained without a horizontal tail. Downwash angles at a typical tail location are also presented.

  9. Transonic wind tunnel test of a supersonic nozzle installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, J. A.; Evelyn, G. B.; Mercer, C.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the propulsion system installation affects strongly the total drag and overall performance of an aircraft, and the concept, placement, and integration details of the exhaust nozzle are major considerations in the configuration definition. As part of the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program, a wind tunnel test program has been conducted to investigate exhaust nozzle-airframe interactions at transonic speeds. First phase testing is to establish guidelines for follow-on testing. A summary is provided of the results of first phase testing, taking into account the test approach, the effect of nozzle closure on aircraft aerodynamic characteristics, nozzle installation effects and nacelle interference drag, and an analytical study of the effects of nozzle closure on the aircraft.

  10. Standardization Tests of NACA No. 1 Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1925-01-01

    The tests described in this report were made in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, at Langley Field. The primary objective of collecting data on the characteristics of this tunnel for comparison with those of others throughout the world, in order that, in the future, the results of tests made in all the principle laboratories may be interpreted, compared, and coordinated on a basis of scientifically established relationships, a process hitherto impossible due to the lack of comparable data. The work includes tests of a disk, spheres, cylinders, and airfoils, explorations of the test section for static pressure and velocity distribution, and determination of the variations of air flow direction throughout the operating range of the tunnel. (author)

  11. Wind Tunnel Test of an RPV with Shape-Change Control Effector and Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Sloan, Adam R.; Barnwell, William G.; Lion, S. Todd; Hautamaki, Bret A.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of novel control effector concepts have recently emerged that may enable new approaches to flight control. In particular, the potential exists to shift the composition of the typical aircraft control effector suite from a small number of high authority, specialized devices (rudder, aileron, elevator, flaps), toward larger numbers of smaller, less specialized, distributed device arrays. The concept envisions effector and sensor networks composed of relatively small high-bandwidth devices able to simultaneously perform a variety of control functions using feedback from disparate data sources. To investigate this concept, a remotely piloted flight vehicle has been equipped with an array of 24 trailing edge shape-change effectors and associated pressure measurements. The vehicle, called the Multifunctional Effector and Sensor Array (MESA) testbed, was recently tested in NASA Langley's 12-ft Low Speed wind tunnel to characterize its stability properties, control authorities, and distributed pressure sensitivities for use in a dynamic simulation prior to flight testing. Another objective was to implement and evaluate a scheme for actively controlling the spanwise pressure distribution using the shape-change array. This report describes the MESA testbed, design of the pressure distribution controller, and results of the wind tunnel test.

  12. Lessons learned from wind tunnel testing of a droop-nose morphing wingtip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasista, Srinivas; Riemenschneider, Johannes; van de Kamp, Bram; Monner, Hans Peter; Cheung, Ronald C. M.; Wales, Christopher; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the lessons learned from wind tunnel tests of a droop-nose morphing wingtip as part of the EU project NOVEMOR. The design followed a sequential chain and was largely driven through optimization tools, including a glass-fiber composite skin optimization tool and a topology optimization tool for the design of internal super-elastic and aluminium compliant mechanisms. The device was tested in the low speed tunnel at the University of Bristol to determine the structural response under aerodynamic loading. Measurements of strain from strain gauges show that the structure is capable of handing the aerodynamic loads though also show an imbalance of strain between the components. Measurements of surface pressures show a small variation of cp with the 2° droop morphing variation as per the target. The wind tunnel testing showed that further developments to the design chain are necessary, in particular the need for a concurrent as opposed to sequential chain for the design of the various components. Considerations of other problem formulations, the inclusion of nonlinear finite element analysis, and ways to interpret the structural boundary of the topology optimization results with more confidence are required. The utilization of super-elastic materials in morphing structures may also prove to be highly beneficial for their performance.

  13. A wind-tunnel investigation of parameters affecting helicopter directional control at low speeds in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Young, W. H., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to measure the performance of several helicopter tail-rotor/fin configurations with regard to directional control problems encountered at low speeds in ground effect. Tests were conducted at wind azimuths of 0 deg to 360 deg in increments of 30 deg and 60 deg and at wind speeds from 0 to 35 knots. The results indicate that at certain combinations of wind speed and wind azimuth, large increases in adverse fin force require correspondingly large increases in the tail-rotor thrust, collective pitch, and power required to maintain yaw trim. Changing the tail-rotor direction of rotation to top blade aft for either a pusher tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing away from fin) or a tractor tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing against fin) will alleviate this problem. For a pusher tail rotor at 180 deg wind azimuth, increases in the fin/tail-rotor gap were not found to have any significant influence on the overall vehicle directional control capability. Changing the tail rotor to a higher position was found to improve tail-rotor performance for a fin-off configuration at a wind azimuth of 180 deg. A V-tail configuration with a pusher tail rotor with top blade aft direction of rotation was found to be the best configuration with regard to overall directional control capability.

  14. Transonic wind-tunnel tests of a lifting parachute model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Reed, J. F.; Wynne, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been made in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel on a 0.25-scale model of Sandia Laboratories' 3.96-meter (13-foot), slanted ribbon design, lifting parachute. The lifting parachute is the first stage of a proposed two-stage payload delivery system. The lifting parachute model was attached to a forebody representing the payload. The forebody was designed and installed in the test section in a manner which allowed rotational freedom about the pitch and yaw axes. Values of parachute axial force coefficient, rolling moment coefficient, and payload trim angles in pitch and yaw are presented through the transonic speed range. Data are presented for the parachute in both the reefed and full open conditions. Time history records of lifting parachute deployment and disreefing tests are included.

  15. Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

  16. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verelst, D. R. S.; Larsen, T. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.

  17. Wind Tunnel Test of Mach 5 Class Hypersonic Airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Hiroki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Shindo, Shigemi; Honami, Shinji

    JAXA is currently performing studies on a Hypersonic Turbojet Experimental Vehicle, which involve a hypersonic flight test of a Small Pre-cooled Turbojet Engine. The aerodynamic performance of this airplane was examined at the JAXA hypersonic, supersonic, and transonic wind tunnel facilities. The 6-degrees-of-freedom forces and pressure distribution around the model were measured and evaluated. This airplane satisfies the lift-to-drag ratio requirement for a flight test at Mach 5. In addition, the results indicate that this airplane has longitudinal and directional static stability if the moment reference point is x/l smaller than 0.35. A separation occurs at the external expanding nozzle. Therefore, a redesign is necessary to solve these problems.

  18. Hyper-X Storage Separation Wind Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, William C.; Holland, Scott D.; Difulvio, Michael

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Hyper-X research program was developed primarily to flight demonstrate a supersonic combustion ramjet engine, fully integrated with a forebody designed to tailor inlet flow, conditions and a free expansion nozzle/afterbody to produce positive thrust at design flight conditions. With a point-designed propulsion system, the vehicle must depend upon some other means for boost to its design flight condition. Clean separation from this initial propulsion system stage within less than a second is critical to the success of the flight. This paper discusses the early planning activity, background, and chronology that developed the series of wind tunnel tests to support multi degree of freedom simulation of the separation process. Representative results from each series of tests are presented and issues and concerns during the process and current status will be highlighted.

  19. Hyper-X Stage Separation Wind-Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, William C.; Holland, Scott D.; DiFulvio, Michael

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Hyper-X research program was developed primarily to flight demonstrate a supersonic combustion ramjet engine, fully integrated with a forebody designed to tailor inlet flow conditions and a free expansion nozzle/afterbody to produce positive thrust at design flight conditions. With a point-designed propulsion system the vehicle must depend on some other means for boost to its design flight condition. Clean separation from this initial propulsion system stage within less than a second is critical to the success of the flight. This paper discusses the early planning activity, background, and chronology that developed the series of wind-tunnel tests to support multi-degree-of-freedom simulation of the separation process. Representative results from each series of tests are presented, and issues and concerns during the process and current status are highlighted.

  20. Hyper-X Stage Separation Wind Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, W. C.; Holland, S. D.; DiFulvio, M.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Hyper-X research program was developed primarily to flight demonstrate a supersonic combustion ramjet engine, fully integrated with a forebody designed to tailor inlet flow conditions and a free expansion nozzle/afterbody to produce positive thrust at design flight conditions. With a point-designed propulsion system, the vehicle must depend upon some other means for boost to its design flight condition. Clean separation from this initial propulsion system stage within less than a second is critical to the success of the flight. This paper discusses the early planning activity, background, and chronology that developed the series of wind tunnel tests to support multi degree of freedom simulation of the separation process. Representative results from each series of tests are presented and issues and concerns during the process and current status will be highlighted.

  1. The cryogenic wind tunnel for high Reynolds number testing. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments performed at the NASA Langley Research Center in a cryogenic low-speed continuous-flow tunnel and in a cryogenic transonic continuous-flow pressure tunnel have demonstrated the predicted changes in Reynolds number, drive power, and fan speed with temperature, while operating with nitrogen as the test gas. The experiments have also demonstrated that cooling to cryogenic temperatures by spraying liquid nitrogen directly into the tunnel circuit is practical and that tunnel temperature can be controlled within very close limits. Whereas most types of wind tunnel could operate with advantage at cryogenic temperatures, the continuous-flow fan-driven tunnel is particularly well suited to take full advantage of operating at these temperatures. A continuous-flow fan-driven cryogenic tunnel to satisfy current requirements for test Reynolds number can be constructed and operated using existing techniques. Both capital and operating costs appear acceptable.

  2. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  3. Overview of Low-Speed Aerodynamic Tests on a 5.75% Scale Blended-Wing-Body Twin Jet Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Dickey, Eric; Princen, Norman; Beyar, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project sponsored a series of computational and experimental investigations of the propulsion and airframe integration issues associated with Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) or Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) configurations. NASA collaborated with Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) to conduct this research on a new twin-engine Boeing BWB transport configuration. The experimental investigations involved a series of wind tunnel tests with a 5.75-percent scale model conducted in two low-speed wind tunnels. This testing focused on the basic aerodynamics of the configuration and selection of the leading edge Krueger slat position for takeoff and landing. This paper reviews the results and analysis of these low-speed wind tunnel tests.

  4. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of a 45 deg Sweptback Untapered Semispan Wing of Aspect Ratio 1.59 Equipped With Various 25-Percent-Chord Plain Flaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-08-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was made at low speed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a 45 deg sweptback untapered semispan wing of NACA ... 64A010 airfoil section normal to the leading edge and aspect ratio of 1.59 equipped with 25-percent-chord plain unsealed flaps having various spans

  5. Aerodynamic evaluation of wing shape and wing orientation in four butterfly species using numerical simulations and a low-speed wind tunnel, and its implications for the design of flying micro-robots.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Eastwood, Rodney; Vogt, Daniel; Ithier, Carter; Smith, Michael; Wood, Rob; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Many insects are well adapted to long-distance migration despite the larger energetic costs of flight for small body sizes. To optimize wing design for next-generation flying micro-robots, we analyse butterfly wing shapes and wing orientations at full scale using numerical simulations and in a low-speed wind tunnel at 2, 3.5 and 5 m s(-1). The results indicate that wing orientations which maximize wing span lead to the highest glide performance, with lift to drag ratios up to 6.28, while spreading the fore-wings forward can increase the maximum lift produced and thus improve versatility. We discuss the implications for flying micro-robots and how the results assist in understanding the behaviour of the butterfly species tested.

  6. Investigation of rotor blade element airloads for a teetering rotor in the blade stall regime (second wind tunnel test)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L. U.; Fukushima, T.

    1975-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA-Ames 7 x 10 ft low speed wind tunnel on a seven-foot diameter model of a teetering rotor. The objectives of the test were: (1) acquire pressure data for correlation with laser and flow visualization measurements; (2) explore rotor propulsive force limits by varying the advance ratio at constant lift and propulsive force coefficients; (3) obtain additional data to define the differences between teetering and articulated rotors; and (4) verify the acceleration sensitivity of experimental transducers. Results are presented.

  7. Wind-tunnel test results of airfoil modifications for the EA-6B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sewall, W. G.; Mcghee, R. J.; Ferris, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted (to determine the effects on airfoil performance for several airfoil modifications) for the EA-6B Wing Improvement Program. The modifications consist of contour changes to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap to provide a higher low-speed maximum lift with no high-speed cruise-drag penalty. Airfoil sections from the 28- and 76-percent span stations were selected as baseline shapes with the major testing devoted to the inboard airfoil section (28-percent span station). The airfoil modifications increased the low-speed maximum lift coefficient between 20 and 35 percent over test conditions of 3 to 14 million chord Reynolds number and 0.14 to 0.34 Mach number. At the high-speed test conditions of 0.4 to 0.80 Mach number and 10 million chord Reynolds number, the modified airfoils had either matched or had lower drag coefficients for all normal-force coefficients above 0.2 as compared to the baseline airfoil. At normal-force coefficients less than 0.2, the baseline (original) airfoil had lower drag coefficients than any of the modified airfoils.

  8. Ares I Upper Stage Pressure Tests in Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

  9. Comparison of Angle of Attack Measurements for Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas, W.; Hoppe, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Two optical systems capable of measuring model attitude and deformation were compared to inertial devices employed to acquire wind tunnel model angle of attack measurements during the sting mounted full span 30% geometric scale flexible configuration of the Northrop Grumman Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) installed in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The overall purpose of the test at TDT was to evaluate smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. The optical techniques that were compared to inertial devices employed to measure angle of attack for this test were: (1) an Optotrak (registered) system, an optical system consisting of two sensors, each containing a pair of orthogonally oriented linear arrays to compute spatial positions of a set of active markers; and (2) Video Model Deformation (VMD) system, providing a single view of passive targets using a constrained photogrammetric solution whose primary function was to measure wing and control surface deformations. The Optotrak system was installed for this test for the first time at TDT in order to assess the usefulness of the system for future static and dynamic deformation measurements.

  10. Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing of the Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion aerodynamic testing team has completed more than 40 tests as part of developing the aerodynamic and loads databases for the vehicle. These databases are key to achieving good mechanical design for the vehicle and to ensure controllable flight during all potential atmospheric phases of a mission, including launch aborts. A wide variety of wind tunnels have been used by the team to document not only the aerodynamics but the aeroacoustic environment that the Orion might experience both during nominal ascents and launch aborts. During potential abort scenarios the effects of the various rocket motor plumes on the vehicle must be accurately understood. The Abort Motor (AM) is a high-thrust, short duration motor that rapidly separates Orion from its launch vehicle. The Attitude Control Motor (ACM), located in the nose of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle, is used for control during a potential abort. The 8 plumes from the ACM interact in a nonlinear manner with the four AM plumes which required a carefully controlled test to define the interactions and their effect on the control authority provided by the ACM. Techniques for measuring dynamic stability and for simulating rocket plume aerodynamics and acoustics were improved or developed in the course of building the aerodynamic and loads databases for Orion.

  11. Exploratory flutter test in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model consisting of a rigid wing with an integral, flexible beam support that was cantilever mounted from the wall in the NASA LaRC 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel was used in a flutter analysis study. The wing had a rectangular planform of aspect ratio 1.5 and a 64A010 airfoil. Various considerations and procedures for conducting flutter tests in a cryogenic wind tunnel were evaluated. Flutter onset conditions were established from extrapolated subcritical response measurements. A flutter boundary was determined at cryogenic temperatures over a Mach number M range from 0.5 to 0.9. Flutter was obtained at two different Reynolds numbers R at M = 0.5 (R = 4.4 and 18.4 x 10 to the 6th power) and at M = 0.8 (R = 5.0 and 10.4 x 10 to the 6th power). Flutter analyses using subsonic lifting surface (kernel function) aerodynamics were made over the range of test conditions. To evaluate the Reynolds number effects at M = 0.5 and 0.8, the experimental results were adjusted using analytical trends to account for differences in the model test temperatures and mass ratios. The adjusted experimental results indicate that increasing Reynolds number from 5.0 to 20.0 x 10 to the 6th power decreased the dynamic pressure by 4.0 to 6.5 percent at M = 0.5 and 0.8.

  12. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

    The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

  13. Documentation and archiving of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test data base. Volume 1: Background and description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, Paul O.; Brown, Steve Wesley

    1995-01-01

    Development of the space shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of space shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the space shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers evolution of space shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.

  14. Check-Standard Testing Across Multiple Transonic Wind Tunnels with the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an analysis of wind tunnel data acquired in support of the Facility Analysis Verification & Operational Reliability (FAVOR) project. The analysis uses methods referred to collectively at Langley Research Center as the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE). These methods quantify the total variance in a sample of wind tunnel data and partition it into explained and unexplained components. The unexplained component is further partitioned in random and systematic components. This analysis was performed on data acquired in similar wind tunnel tests executed in four different U.S. transonic facilities. The measurement environment of each facility was quantified and compared.

  15. Preliminary Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Some Aspects of the Aerodynamic Problems Associated with Missiles Carried Externally in Positions Near Airplane Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, William J., Jr.; Silvers, H. Norman; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation has been made of some aspects of the aerodynamic problems associated with the use of air-to-air missiles when carried externally on aircraft. Measurements of the forces and moments on a missile model for a range of positions under the mid-semispan location of a 45deg sweptback wing indicated longitudinal and lateral forces with regard to both carriage and release of the missiles. Surveys of the characteristics of the flow field in the region likely to be traversed by the missiles showed abrupt gradients in both flow angularity and in local dynamic pressure. Through the use of aerodynamic data on the isolated missile and the measured flow-field characteristics, the longitudinal forces and moments acting on the missile while in the presence of the wing-fuselage combination could be estimated with fair accuracy. Although the lateral forces and moments predicted were qualitatively correct, there existed some large discrepancies in absolute magnitude.

  16. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  17. Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads from Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads From Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests Hyeonsoo Yeo Mark Potsdam US Army Aviation Development Directorate... Aviation & Missile Research, Development & Engineering Center Research, Development, and Engineering Command Ames Research Center, Moffett Field

  18. Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities: An Assessment of NASA's Capabilities to Serve National Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Gritton, Eugene C.; Mesic, Richard; Steinberg, Paul; Johnson, Dana J.

    2004-01-01

    This monograph reveals and discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) wind tunnel and propulsion test facility management issues that are creating real risks to the United States' competitive aeronautics advantage.

  19. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  20. Minimum energy test direction design in the control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1980-06-01

    The advent of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept is attributable to the need for high Reynolds number flow in wind tunnels. The cryogenic wind tunnel concept consists of operating the test medium of a conventional tunnel at cryogenic temperatures down to 80 K. Nitrogen gas, cooled by injected liquid nitrogen, proves to be ideal for the cryogenic tunnel test medium because of its near perfect behavior in insentropic flow. Cryogenic operation of a wind tunnel results in reduced fan power consumption and no penalty in flow dynamic pressure. In a cryogenic tunnel, the flow parameters (Reynolds number, Mach number and flow dynamic pressure) can be independently controlled by separately controlling the tunnel flow variables: total temperature, test section mass flow, and the tunnel total pressure. The problem of closed-loop control of the tunnel total temperature, flow Mach number, and total pressure is addressed and reported.

  1. Calibration of the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (1996 and 1997 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen

    2012-01-01

    There were several physical and operational changes made to the NASA Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel during the period of 1992 through 1996. Following each of these changes, a facility calibration was conducted to provide the required information to support the research test programs. Due to several factors (facility research test schedule, facility downtime and continued facility upgrades), a full test section calibration was not conducted until 1996. This calibration test incorporated all test section configurations and covered the existing operating range of the facility. However, near the end of that test entry, two of the vortex generators mounted on the compressor exit tailcone failed causing minor damage to the honeycomb flow straightener. The vortex generators were removed from the facility and calibration testing was terminated. A follow-up test entry was conducted in 1997 in order to fully calibrate the facility without the effects of the vortex generators and to provide a complete calibration of the newly expanded low speed operating range. During the 1997 tunnel entry, all planned test points required for a complete test section calibration were obtained. This data set included detailed in-plane and axial flow field distributions for use in quantifying the test section flow quality.

  2. CFD in Support of Wind Tunnel Testing for Aircraft/Weapons Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    freestream loads, or the store carriage (and near store separation analysis has decreased by an order of carriage) loads. The use of both CFD and wind tunnel...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP023837 TITLE: CFD in Support of Wind Tunnel Testing for Aircraft/Weapons...alone technical report. The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP023820 thru ADP023869 UNCLASSIFIED CFD in Support of

  3. Data Fusion in Wind Tunnel Testing; Combined Pressure Paint and Model Deformation Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2004-01-01

    As the benefit-to-cost ratio of advanced optical techniques for wind tunnel measurements such as Video Model Deformation (VMD), Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP), and others increases, these techniques are being used more and more often in large-scale production type facilities. Further benefits might be achieved if multiple optical techniques could be deployed in a wind tunnel test simultaneously. The present study discusses the problems and benefits of combining VMD and PSP systems. The desirable attributes of useful optical techniques for wind tunnels, including the ability to accommodate the myriad optical techniques available today, are discussed. The VMD and PSP techniques are briefly reviewed. Commonalties and differences between the two techniques are discussed. Recent wind tunnel experiences and problems when combining PSP and VMD are presented, as are suggestions for future developments in combined PSP and deformation measurements.

  4. Wind Tunnel Testing of Various Disk-Gap-Band Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Keller, Donald F.; Bobskill, Maria V.

    2003-01-01

    Two Disk-Gap-Band model parachute designs were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The purposes of these tests were to determine the drag and static stability coefficients of these two model parachutes at various subsonic Mach numbers in support of the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The two model parachute designs were designated 1.6 Viking and MPF. These model parachute designs were chosen to investigate the tradeoff between drag and static stability. Each of the parachute designs was tested with models fabricated from MIL-C-7020 Type III or F-111 fabric. The reason for testing model parachutes fabricated with different fabrics was to evaluate the effect of fabric permeability on the drag and static stability coefficients. Several improvements over the Viking-era wind tunnel tests were implemented in the testing procedures and data analyses. Among these improvements were corrections for test fixture drag interference and blockage effects, and use of an improved test fixture for measuring static stability coefficients. The 1.6 Viking model parachutes had drag coefficients from 0.440 to 0.539, while the MPF model parachutes had drag coefficients from 0.363 to 0.428. The 1.6 Viking model parachutes had drag coefficients 18 to 22 percent higher than the MPF model parachute for equivalent fabric materials and test conditions. Model parachutes of the same design tested at the same conditions had drag coefficients approximately 11 to 15 percent higher when manufactured from F-111 fabric as compared to those fabricated from MIL-C-7020 Type III fabric. The lower fabric permeability of the F-111 fabric was the source of this difference. The MPF model parachutes had smaller absolute statically stable trim angles of attack as compared to the 1.6 Viking model parachutes for equivalent fabric materials and test conditions. This was attributed to the MPF model parachutes larger band height to nominal diameter ratio. For both designs, model parachutes

  5. Transonic wind tunnel test of a 14 percent thick oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Strong, James M.; Carmichael, Ralph L.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the ARC 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel as part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft Program to study the aerodynamic performance and stability characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing designed by Rockwell International. The 10.3 aspect ratio, straight-tapered wing of 0.14 thickness/chord ratio was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Additional tests were conducted to assess low-speed behavior with and without flaps, aileron effectiveness at representative flight conditions, and transonic drag divergence with 0 degree wing sweep. Longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0, 30, 45, 60, and 65 degrees, at Mach numbers ranging from 0.25 to 1.40. Test Reynolds numbers varied from 3.2 to 6.6 x 10 exp 6/ft. and angle of attack ranged from -5 to +18 degrees. Most data were taken at zero sideslip, but a few runs were at sideslip angles of +/- 5 degrees. The raised wing position proved detrimental overall, although side force and yawing moment were reduced at some conditions. Maximum lift coefficient with the flaps deflected was found to fall short of the value predicted in the preliminary design document. The performance and trim characteristics of the present wing are generally inferior to those obtained for a previously tested wing designed at ARC.

  6. Videometric applications in wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Radeztsky, Ron H.; Liu, Tianshu

    1997-07-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach numbers from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blow-down facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  7. Videometric Applications in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Radeztsky, R. H.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    1997-01-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach number from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blowdown facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  8. Optimization of transonic wind tunnel data acquisition and control systems for providing continuous mode tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronevich, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper observes the issues related to the increase of efficiency and information content of experimental research in transonic wind tunnels (WT). In particular, questions of optimizing the WT Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) to provide the continuous mode test method are discussed. The problem of Mach number (M number) stabilization in the test section of the large transonic compressor-type wind tunnels at subsonic flow conditions with continuous change of the aircraft model angle of attack is observed on the example of T-128 wind tunnel. To minimize the signals distortion in T-128 DACS measurement channels the optimal MGCplus filter settings of the data acquisition system used in T-128 wind tunnel to measure loads were experimentally determined. As a result of the tests performed a good agreement of the results of balance measurements for pitch/pause and continuous test modes was obtained. Carrying out balance tests for pitch/pause and continuous test methods was provided by the regular data acquisition and control system of T-128 wind tunnel with unified software package POTOK. The architecture and functional abilities of POTOK software package are observed.

  9. Application of intelligent systems to wind tunnel test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to the application of intelligent-systems technology to the wind tunnel facilities at NASA Ames Research Center is outlined. To help fulfill the long-range goals of improving data quality and increasing personnel efficiency and management effectiveness, three major areas of intelligent systems application are recommended. The available state-of-the-art technology for developing the proposed systems is reviewed including the application of commercial software packages. The initial tasks and effort to develop these systems are recommended. A prototype expert system for selection of internal strain-gage balances has been built and is presented herein as an example model for the future systems.

  10. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  11. Plans and Status of Wind-Tunnel Testing Employing an Aeroservoelastic Semispan Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Boyd, III; Silva, Walter A.; Florance, James R.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Scott, Robert C.; Keller, Donald F.; Cole, Stanley R.; Coulson, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the research objectives, summarizes the pre-wind-tunnel-test experimental results to date, summarizes the analytical predictions to date, and outlines the wind-tunnel-test plans for an aeroservoelastic semispan wind-tunnel model. The model is referred to as the Supersonic Semispan Transport (S4T) Active Controls Testbed (ACT) and is based on a supersonic cruise configuration. The model has three hydraulically-actuated surfaces (all-movable horizontal tail, all-movable ride control vane, and aileron) for active controls. The model is instrumented with accelerometers, unsteady pressure transducers, and strain gages and will be mounted on a 5-component sidewall balance. The model will be tested twice in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The first entry will be an "open-loop" model-characterization test; the second entry will be a "closed-loop" test during which active flutter suppression, gust load alleviation and ride quality control experiments will be conducted.

  12. V/STOL tilt rotor study. Volume 6: Hover, low speed and conversion tests of a tilt rotor aeroelastic model (Model 300)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, R. L.; Sambell, K. W.; Neal, G. T.

    1973-01-01

    Stability and control tests of a scale model of a tilt rotor research aircraft were conducted. The characteristics of the model for hover, low speed, and conversion flight were analyzed. Hover tests were conducted in a rotor whirl cage. Helicopter and conversion tests were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel. Data obtained from the tests are presented as tables and graphs. Diagrams and illustrations of the test equipment are provided.

  13. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  14. Validation of US3D for Capsule Aerodynamics using 05-CA Wind Tunnel Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Several comparisons of computational fluid dynamics to wind tunnel test data are shown for the purpose of code validation. The wind tunnel test, 05-CA, uses a 7.66% model of NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle in the 11-foot test section of the Ames Unitary Plan Wind tunnel. A variety of freestream conditions over four Mach numbers and three angles of attack are considered. Test data comparisons include time-averaged integrated forces and moments, time-averaged static pressure ports on the surface, and Strouhal Number. The applicability of the US3D code to subsonic and transonic flow over a bluff body is assessed on a comprehensive data set. With close comparison, this work validates US3D for highly separated flows similar to those examined here.

  15. Wind Tunnel and Hover Performance Test Results for Multicopter UAS Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.; Jung, Jaewoo; Willink, Gina; Glasner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of published data for the performance of multicopter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) vehicles, such as quadcopters and octocopters, often referred to collectively as drones. With the rapidly increasing popularity of multicopter UAS, there is interest in better characterizing the performance of this type of aircraft. By studying the performance of currently available vehicles, it will be possible to develop models for vehicles at this scale that can accurately predict performance and model trajectories. This paper describes a wind tunnel test that was recently performed in the U.S. Army's 7- by 10-ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. During this wind tunnel entry, five multicopter UAS vehicles were tested to determine forces and moments as well as electrical power as a function of wind speed, rotor speed, and vehicle attitude. The test is described here in detail, and a selection of the key results from the test is presented.

  16. Solid rocket booster sting interference wind tunnel test analysis, appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conine, B.; Boyle, W.

    1982-01-01

    Additional analyses of wind tunnel test results from SRB sting interference test TWT 660 and HRWT 042 were conducted to evaluate the sting interference that may be present in the Space Shuttle SRB reentry aerodynamic math model. Additional wind tunnel data was obtained at higher angles of attack from test program TWT 660 and test program HRWT 042. The additional data were analyzed to evaluate the procedures used to fair the data in the development of the SRB reentry aerodynamic data Tape no. 5.

  17. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the flight dynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Turner, Steven G.; Owens, D. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the low-speed flight dynamic behavior of a representative advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft concept. Free-flight tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. In support of the free-flight tests, conventional static, dynamic, and free-to-roll oscillation tests were performed. Tests were intended to explore normal operating and post stall flight conditions, and conditions simulating the loss of power in one engine.

  18. CFD wind tunnel test: Field velocity patterns of wind on a building with a refuge floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. K.; Yuen, K. K.; Lam, K. M.; Lo, S. M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a CFD wind tunnel study of wind patterns on a square-plan building with a refuge floor at its mid-height level. In this study, a technique of using calibrated power law equations of velocity and turbulent intensity applied as the boundary conditions in CFD wind tunnel test is being evaluated by the physical wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author with wind blowing perpendicularly on the building without a refuge floor. From the evaluated results, an optimised domain of flow required to produce qualitative agreement between the wind tunnel data and simulated results is proposed in this paper. Simulated results with the evaluated technique are validated by the wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author. The results contribute to an understanding of the fundamental behaviour of wind flow in a refuge floor when wind is blowing perpendicularly on the building. Moreover, the results reveal that the designed natural ventilation of a refuge floor may not perform desirably when the wind speed on the level is low. Under this situation, the refuge floor may become unsafe if smoke was dispersed in the leeward side of the building at a level immediately below the refuge floor.

  19. Orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation: Wind tunnel, simulation, and flight test overview and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, D. J.; Denison, D. E.; Elchert, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the approach and landing test phase of the space shuttle program is given from the orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation point of view. The data and analyses used during the wind tunnel testing, simulation, and flight test phases in preparation for the orbiter approach and landing tests are reported.

  20. Flow field study in the T-313 wind-tunnel test section for M = 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapryagaev, V. I.; Mazhul, I. I.; Maksimov, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    Results of a numerical and experimental study of flow-field characteristics in the test section of the T-313 supersonic blow-down wind tunnel of ITAM SB RAS at Mach number M = 7 are reported. The distributions of local Mach numbers, stagnation temperatures, static pressures, angles of flow deflection from the test-section axis were analyzed. For comparison, distributions of Mach numbers across the flow at several stations at M = 5 and 6 are reported as well. We show that, in the T-313 wind tunnel, two-dimensional nozzle inserts can be used to perform experiments at M = 7.

  1. The steady-state flow quality in a model of a non-return wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mort, K. W.; Eckert, W. T.; Kelly, M. W.

    1972-01-01

    The structural cost of non-return wind tunnels is significantly less than that of the more conventional closed-circuit wind tunnels. However, because of the effects of external winds, the flow quality of non-return wind tunnels is an area of concern at the low test speeds required for V/STOL testing. The flow quality required at these low speeds is discussed and alternatives to the traditional manner of specifying the flow quality requirements in terms of dynamic pressure and angularity are suggested. The development of a non-return wind tunnel configuration which has good flow quality at low as well as at high test speeds is described.

  2. Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings for an energy efficient transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steckel, D. K.; Dahlin, J. A.; Henne, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    These basic characteristics of critical wings included wing area, aspect ratio, average thickness, and sweep as well as practical constraints on the planform and thickness near the wing root to allow for the landing gear. Within these constraints, a large matrix of wing designs was studied with spanwise variations in the types of airfoils and distribution of lift as well as some small planform changes. The criteria by which the five candidate wings were chosen for testing were the cruise and buffet characteristics in the transonic regime and the compatibility of the design with low speed (high-lift) requirements. Five wing-wide-body configurations were tested in the NASA Ames 11-foot transonic wind tunnel. Nacelles and pylons, flap support fairings, tail surfaces, and an outboard aileron were also tested on selected configurations.

  3. Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1992-01-01

    Design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a string mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and the use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.

  4. Wind tunnel testing of a closed-loop wake deflection controller for wind farm power maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnolo, Filippo; Petrović, Vlaho; Schreiber, Johannes; Nanos, Emmanouil M.; Croce, Alessandro; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results from wind tunnel tests aimed at evaluating a closed- loop wind farm controller for wind farm power maximization by wake deflection. Experiments are conducted in a large boundary layer wind tunnel, using three servo-actuated and sensorized wind turbine scaled models. First, we characterize the impact on steady-state power output of wake deflection, achieved by yawing the upstream wind turbines. Next, we illustrate the capability of the proposed wind farm controller to dynamically driving the upstream wind turbines to the optimal yaw misalignment setting.

  5. Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1994-01-01

    The design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a sting mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind-tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory, and it also involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind-tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.

  6. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  7. March 1971 wind tunnel tests of the Dorand DH 2011 jet flap motor, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kretz, M.; Aubrun, J.; Larche, M.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted of the Dorand DH 2011D jet flap rotor. The data recorded during the tests consist of: (1) multicyclic cam coefficients, (2) stress analysis, (3) vibratory loads, (4) Fourier analysis of flap deflection, and (5) blade bending stress. Data are presented in the form of tables and graphs.

  8. Analysis of the high Reynolds number 2D tests on a wind turbine airfoil performed at two different wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Madsen, J.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    2D wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers have been done within the EU FP7 AVATAR project (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of lArge Rotors) on the DU00-W-212 airfoil and at two different test facilities: the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG) and the LM Wind Power in-house wind tunnel. Two conditions of Reynolds numbers have been performed in both tests: 3 and 6 million. The Mach number and turbulence intensity values are similar in both wind tunnels at the 3 million Reynolds number test, while they are significantly different at 6 million Reynolds number. The paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two wind tunnels, showing good repeatability at 3 million Reynolds number and differences at 6 million Reynolds number that are consistent with the different Mach number and turbulence intensity values.

  9. The status of analytical preparation for 2-dimensional testing at high transonic speeds in the University of Southampton transonic self-streamlining wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Validation data from the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel has proved the feasibility of streamlining two dimensional flexible walls at low speeds and up to transonic speeds, the upper limit being the speed where the flexible walls are just supercritical. At this condition, breakdown of the wall setting strategy is evident in that convergence is neither as rapid nor as stable as for lower speeds, and wall streamlining criteria are not always completely satisfied. The only major step necessary to permit the extension of two dimensional testing into higher transonic speeds is the provision of a rapid algorithm to solve for mixed flow in the imagery flow fields. The status of two dimensional high transonic testing in the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel is outlined and, in particular, the progress of adapting an algorithm, which solves the Transonic Small Perturbation Equation, for predicting the imagery flow fields is detailed.

  10. Turbulence Factors of NACA Wind Tunnels as Determined by Sphere Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of drag and pressure tests of spheres having diameters of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches in eight NACA wind tunnels, in the air ahead of the carriage in the NACA tank, and beneath an autogiro in flight .

  11. Portable wind tunnels for field testing of soils and natural surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large stationary wind tunnels have been used to test the erodibility of soils and to study in detail the processes controlling erosion rates. These tunnels require the use of disturbed soil samples which may result in parameter estimations that are not consistent with the natural surface. Several ...

  12. Analysis of flight and wind-tunnel tests on Udet airplanes with reference to spinning characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, H

    1929-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of results of wind-tunnel tests conducted at the D.V.L. Values were determined for the effectiveness of all the controls at various angles of attack. The autorotation was studied by subjecting the rotating model to an air blast.

  13. Advanced Background Subtraction Applied to Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Horne, William C.

    2015-01-01

    An advanced form of background subtraction is presented and applied to aeroacoustic wind tunnel data. A variant of this method has seen use in other fields such as climatology and medical imaging. The technique, based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the background noise cross-spectral matrix, is robust against situations where isolated background auto-spectral levels are measured to be higher than levels of combined source and background signals. It also provides an alternate estimate of the cross-spectrum, which previously might have poor definition for low signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Simulated results indicate similar performance to conventional background subtraction when the subtracted spectra are weaker than the true contaminating background levels. Superior performance is observed when the subtracted spectra are stronger than the true contaminating background levels. Experimental results show limited success in recovering signal behavior for data where conventional background subtraction fails. They also demonstrate the new subtraction technique's ability to maintain a proper coherence relationship in the modified cross-spectral matrix. Beam-forming and de-convolution results indicate the method can successfully separate sources. Results also show a reduced need for the use of diagonal removal in phased array processing, at least for the limited data sets considered.

  14. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  15. Validation of the Lockheed Martin Morphing Concept with Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.; Scott, Robert C.; Love, Michael H.; Zink Scott; Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    2007-01-01

    The Morphing Aircraft Structures (MAS) program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) led effort to develop morphing flight vehicles capable of radical shape change in flight. Two performance parameters of interest are loiter time and dash speed as these define the persistence and responsiveness of an aircraft. The geometrical characteristics that optimize loiter time and dash speed require different geometrical planforms. Therefore, radical shape change, usually involving wing area and sweep, allows vehicle optimization across many flight regimes. The second phase of the MAS program consisted of wind tunnel tests conducted at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate two morphing concepts and their enabling technologies with large-scale semi-span models. This paper will focus upon one of those wind tunnel tests that utilized a model developed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM). Wind tunnel success criteria were developed by NASA to support the DARPA program objectives. The primary focus of this paper will be the demonstration of the DARPA objectives by systematic evaluation of the wind tunnel model performance relative to the defined success criteria. This paper will also provide a description of the LM model and instrumentation, and document pertinent lessons learned. Finally, as part of the success criteria, aeroelastic characteristics of the LM derived MAS vehicle are also addressed. Evaluation of aeroelastic characteristics is the most detailed criterion investigated in this paper. While no aeroelastic instabilities were encountered as a direct result of the morphing design or components, several interesting and unexpected aeroelastic phenomenon arose during testing.

  16. Experimental Results from the Active Aeroelastic Wing Wind Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Florance, James R.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Ivanco, Thomas G.; DeMoss, Joshua; Silva, Walter A.; Panetta, Andrew; Lively, Peter; Tumwa, Vic

    2005-01-01

    The Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) program is a cooperative effort among NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Boeing Company, encompassing flight testing, wind tunnel testing and analyses. The objective of the AAW program is to investigate the improvements that can be realized by exploiting aeroelastic characteristics, rather than viewing them as a detriment to vehicle performance and stability. To meet this objective, a wind tunnel model was crafted to duplicate the static aeroelastic behavior of the AAW flight vehicle. The model was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel in July and August 2004. The wind tunnel investigation served the program goal in three ways. First, the wind tunnel provided a benchmark for comparison with the flight vehicle and various levels of theoretical analyses. Second, it provided detailed insight highlighting the effects of individual parameters upon the aeroelastic response of the AAW vehicle. This parameter identification can then be used for future aeroelastic vehicle design guidance. Third, it provided data to validate scaling laws and their applicability with respect to statically scaled aeroelastic models.

  17. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 1: Booster configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA Centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. This is Volume 1 (Part 1) of the report -- Booster Configuration.

  18. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 2: Orbiter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquiredin the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for applying to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide, and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configration types include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandom combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files of data containing basic tunnel recorded data.

  19. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 1: Booster configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA Centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. This is Volume 1 (Part 2) of the report -- Booster Configuration.

  20. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. Part 1: Evolution, theory, and advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    An improved way to increase the Reynolds number capability of wind tunnels has been developed in the United States at the NASA Langley Research Center through the application of cryogenic technology. Cooling the test gas in the wind tunnel to cryogenic temperatures by spraying liquid nitrogen into the tunnel circuit increases the test Reynolds number by as much as a factor of 7 with no increase in dynamic pressure and with a reduction in drive power. Part 1 of this two-part review covers the evolution, theory, and major advantages of cryogenic wind tunnels. Part 2 will describe the development and early application of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept in the United States and some of the major cryogenic wind tunnel activities around the world, the most significant of which is a large fan-driven transonic cryogenic tunnel recently completed at the Langley Research Center.

  1. Wind tunnel tests of space shuttle solid rocket booster insulation material in the aerothermal tunnel c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, A. S.; Nutt, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of the space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Insulation were conducted in the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility Tunnel C. For these tests, Tunnel C was run at Mach 4 with a total temperature of 1100-1440 and a total pressure of 100 psia. Cold wall heating rates were changed by varying the test article support wedge angle. Selected results are presented to illustrate the test techniques and typical data obtained.

  2. Comparison of options for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel, including reduction of nozzle area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustically significant features of the NASA 4X7m wind tunnel and the Dutch-German DNW low speed tunnel are compared to illustrate the reasons for large differences in background noise in the open jet test sections of the two tunnels. Also introduced is the concept of reducing test section noise levels through fan and turning vane source reductions which can be brought about by reducing the nozzle cross sectional area, and thus the circuit mass flow for a particular exit velocity. The costs and benefits of treating sources, paths, and changing nozzle geometry are reviewed.

  3. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  4. Wind Tunnel Interference Effects on Tilt Rotor Testing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koning, Witold J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental techniques to measure rotorcraft aerodynamic performance are widely used. However, most of them are either unable to capture interference effects from bodies, or require an extremely large computational budget. The objective of the present research is to develop an XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft rotor model for investigation of wind tunnel wall interference using a novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for rotorcraft, RotCFD. In RotCFD, a mid-fidelity URANS solver is used with an incompressible flow model and a realizable k-e turbulence model. The rotor is, however, not modeled using a computationally expensive, unsteady viscous body-fitted grid, but is instead modeled using a blade element model with a momentum source approach. Various flight modes of the XV-15 isolated rotor, including hover, tilt and airplane mode, have been simulated and correlated to existing experimental and theoretical data. The rotor model is subsequently used for wind tunnel wall interference simulations in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at NASA Ames Research Center in California. The results from the validation of the isolated rotor performance showed good correlation with experimental and theoretical data. The results were on par with known theoretical analyses. In RotCFD the setup, grid generation and running of cases is faster than many CFD codes, which makes it a useful engineering tool. Performance predictions need not be as accurate as high-fidelity CFD codes, as long as wall effects can be properly simulated. For both test sections of the NFAC wall interference was examined by simulating the XV-15 rotor in the test section of the wind tunnel and with an identical grid but extended boundaries in free field. Both cases were also examined with an isolated rotor or with the rotor mounted on the modeled geometry of the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR). A 'quasi linear trim' was used to trim the thrust for the rotor to compare the power as a unique

  5. Wind-tunnel development of an SR-71 aerospike rocket flight test configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.; Shirakata, Norm; Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Conners, Timothy H.

    1996-01-01

    A flight experiment has been proposed to investigate the performance of an aerospike rocket motor installed in a lifting body configuration. An SR-71 airplane would be used to carry the aerospike configuration to the desired flight test conditions. Wind-tunnel tests were completed on a 4-percent scale SR-71 airplane with the aerospike pod mounted in various locations on the upper fuselage. Testing was accomplished using sting and blade mounts from Mach 0.6 to Mach 3.2. Initial test objectives included assessing transonic drag and supersonic lateral-directional stability and control. During these tests, flight simulations were run with wind-tunnel data to assess the acceptability of the configurations. Early testing demonstrated that the initial configuration with the aerospike pod near the SR-71 center of gravity was unsuitable because of large nosedown pitching moments at transonic speeds. The excessive trim drag resulting from accommodating this pitching moment far exceeded the excess thrust capability of the airplane. Wind-tunnel testing continued in an attempt to find a configuration suitable for flight test. Multiple configurations were tested. Results indicate that an aft-mounted model configuration possessed acceptable performance, stability, and control characteristics.

  6. Full-scale wind-tunnel test of the aeroelastic stability of a bearingless main rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrodt, W.; Mccloud, J., III; Sheffler, M.; Staley, J.

    1981-01-01

    The rotor studied in the wind tunnel had previously been flight tested on a BO-105 helicopter. The investigation was conducted to determine the rotor's aeroelastic stability characteristics in hover and at airspeeds up to 143 knots. These characteristics are compared with those obtained from whirl-tower and flight tests and predictions from a digital computer simulation. It was found that the rotor was stable for all conditions tested. At constant tip speed, shaft angle, and airspeed, stability increases with blade collective pitch setting. No significant change in system damping occurred that was attributable to frequency coalescence between the rotor inplane regressing mode and the support modes. Stability levels determined in the wind tunnel were of the same magnitude and yielded the same trends as data obtained from whirl-tower and flight tests.

  7. Methodology for the Assessment of 3D Conduction Effects in an Aerothermal Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Anthony Brandon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for the assessment of three-dimensional conduction effects during test in a Aerothermal Wind Tunnel. The test objectives were to duplicate and extend tests that were performed during the 1960's on thermal conduction on proturberance on a flat plate. Slides review the 1D versus 3D conduction data reduction error, the analysis process, CFD-based analysis, loose coupling method that simulates a wind tunnel test run, verification of the CFD solution, Grid convergence, Mach number trend, size trends, and a Sumary of the CFD conduction analysis. Other slides show comparisons to pretest CFD at Mach 1.5 and 2.16 and the geometries of the models and grids.

  8. Wind Tunnel Interference Effects on Tilt Rotor Testing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koning, Witold J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental techniques to measure rotorcraft aerodynamic performance are widely used. However, most of them are either unable to capture interference effects from bodies, or require an extremely large computational budget. The objective of the present research is to develop an XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft rotor model for investigation of wind tunnel wall interference using a novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for rotorcraft, RotCFD. In RotCFD, a mid-fidelity Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver is used with an incompressible flow model and a realizable k-e turbulence model. The rotor is, however, not modeled using a computationally expensive, unsteady viscous body-fitted grid, but is instead modeled using a blade-element model (BEM) with a momentum source approach. Various flight modes of the XV-15 isolated rotor, including hover, tilt, and airplane mode, have been simulated and correlated to existing experimental and theoretical data. The rotor model is subsequently used for wind tunnel wall interference simulations in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at Ames Research Center in California. The results from the validation of the isolated rotor performance showed good correlation with experimental and theoretical data. The results were on par with known theoretical analyses. In RotCFD the setup, grid generation, and running of cases is faster than many CFD codes, which makes it a useful engineering tool. Performance predictions need not be as accurate as high-fidelity CFD codes, as long as wall effects can be properly simulated. For both test sections of the NFAC wall, interference was examined by simulating the XV-15 rotor in the test section of the wind tunnel and with an identical grid but extended boundaries in free field. Both cases were also examined with an isolated rotor or with the rotor mounted on the modeled geometry of the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR). A "quasi linear trim" was used to trim the thrust

  9. Shake test results of the MDHC test stand in the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Peterson, Randall

    1994-01-01

    A shake test was conducted to determine the modal properties of the MDHC (McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company) test stand installed in the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The shake test was conducted for three wind-tunnel balance configurations with and without balance dampers, and with the snubber engagement to lock the balance frame. A hydraulic shaker was used to apply random excitation at the rotor hub in the longitudinal and lateral directions. A GenRad 2515 computer-aided test system computed the frequency response functions at the rotor hub and support struts. From these response functions, the modal properties, including the natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape were calculated. The critical modes with low damping ratios are identified as the test-stand second longitudinal mode for the dampers-off configuration, the test-stand yaw mode for the dampers-on configuration, and the test stand first longitudinal mode for the balance-frame locked configuration.

  10. Wind tunnel measurements of forward speed effects on jet noise from suppressor nozzles and comparison with flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a test program conducted in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the effect of forward speed on the noise levels emanating from a conical ejector nozzle, a 32-spoke suppressor nozzle, and a 104-elliptical-tube suppressor nozzle are reported. It is shown that noise levels are reduced as forward speed is increased and that, for one suppressor configuration, forward speed enhances suppression. Comparisons of noise measurements made in the wind tunnel with those obtained in flight tests show good agreement. It is concluded that wind tunnels provide an effective means of measuring the effect of forward speed on aircraft noise.

  11. Evaluation of a wind-tunnel gust response technique including correlations with analytical and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L. T.; Hanson, P. W.; Wynne, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    A wind tunnel technique for obtaining gust frequency response functions for use in predicting the response of flexible aircraft to atmospheric turbulence is evaluated. The tunnel test results for a dynamically scaled cable supported aeroelastic model are compared with analytical and flight data. The wind tunnel technique, which employs oscillating vanes in the tunnel throat section to generate a sinusoidally varying flow field around the model, was evaluated by use of a 1/30 scale model of the B-52E airplane. Correlation between the wind tunnel results, flight test results, and analytical predictions for response in the short period and wing first elastic modes of motion are presented.

  12. Space shuttle solid rocket booster sting interference wind tunnel test analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conine, B.; Boyle, W.

    1981-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results from shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) sting interference tests were evaluated, yielding the general influence of the sting on the normal force and pitching moment coefficients and the side force and yawing moment coefficients. The procedures developed to determine the sting interference, the development of the corrected aerodynamic data, and the development of a new SRB aerodynamic mathematical model are documented.

  13. A Free-flight Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic Testing at Hypersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, Alvin

    1954-01-01

    The supersonic free-flight wind tunnel is a facility at the Ames Laboratory of the NACA in which aerodynamic test models are gun-launched at high speed and directed upstream through the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel. In this way, test Mach numbers up to 10 have been attained and indications are that still higher speeds will be realized. An advantage of this technique is that the air and model temperatures simulate those of flight through the atmosphere. Also the Reynolds numbers are high. Aerodynamic measurements are made from photographic observation of the model flight. Instruments and techniques have been developed for measuring the following aerodynamic properties: drag, initial lift-curve slope, initial pitching-moment-curve slope, center of pressure, skin friction, boundary-layer transition, damping in roll, and aileron effectiveness. (author)

  14. Wind tunnel test of a variable-diameter tiltrotor (VDTR) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matuska, David; Dale, Allen; Lorber, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the results from a wind tunnel test of a 1/6th scale Variable Diameter Tiltrotor (VDTR). This test was a joint effort of NASA Ames and Sikorsky Aircraft. The objective was to evaluate the aeroelastic and performance characteristics of the VDTR in conversion, hover, and cruise. The rotor diameter and nacelle angle of the model were remotely changed to represent tiltrotor operating conditions. Data is presented showing the propulsive force required in conversion, blade loads, angle of attack stability and simulated gust response, and hover and cruise performance. This test represents the first wind tunnel test of a variable diameter rotor applied to a tiltrotor concept. The results confirm some of the potential advantages of the VDTR and establish the variable diameter rotor a viable candidate for an advanced tiltrotor. This wind tunnel test successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Variable Diameter rotor for tilt rotor aircraft. A wide range of test points were taken in hover, conversion, and cruise modes. The concept was shown to have a number of advantages over conventional tiltrotors such as reduced hover downwash with lower disk loading and significantly reduced longitudinal gust response in cruise. In the conversion regime, a high propulsive force was demonstrated for sustained flight with acceptable blade loads. The VDTR demonstrated excellent gust response capabilities. The horizontal gust response correlated well with predictions revealing only half the response to turbulence of the conventional civil tiltrotor.

  15. A new position measurement system using a motion-capture camera for wind tunnel tests.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Gi; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-13

    Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS) could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape) of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD). By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape) with the 3D measurements.

  16. A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Gi; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS) could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape) of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD). By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape) with the 3D measurements. PMID:24064600

  17. Aeroservoelastic Testing of a Sidewall Mounted Free Flying Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three j wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, exible vehicles. In the rst of these three tests, a semispan, aeroelastically scaled, wind-tunnel model of a ying wing SensorCraft vehi- cle was mounted to a force balance to demonstrate gust load alleviation. In the second and third tests, the same wing was mated to a new, multi-degree-of-freedom, sidewall mount. This mount allowed the half-span model to translate vertically and pitch at the wing root, allowing better simulation of the full span vehicle's rigid-body modes. Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) and Body Freedom Flutter (BFF) suppression were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees-of-freedom required that the model be own in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free-flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort.

  18. Documentation and archiving of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test data base. Volume 2: User's Guide to the Archived Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, Paul O.; Brown, Steve Wesley

    1995-01-01

    Development of the Space Shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers the evolution of Space Shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.

  19. Fractional Factorial Experiment Designs to Minimize Configuration Changes in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Cler, Daniel L.; Graham, Albert B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper serves as a tutorial to introduce the wind tunnel research community to configuration experiment designs that can satisfy resource constraints in a configuration study involving several variables, without arbitrarily eliminating any of them from the experiment initially. The special case of a configuration study featuring variables at two levels is examined in detail. This is the type of study in which each configuration variable has two natural states - 'on or off', 'deployed or not deployed', 'low or high', and so forth. The basic principles are illustrated by results obtained in configuration studies conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility and in the ViGYAN Low Speed Tunnel in Hampton, Virginia. The crucial role of interactions among configuration variables is highlighted with an illustration of difficulties that can be encountered when they are not properly taken into account.

  20. ARES I Aerodynamic Testing at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Wilcox, Floyd J.

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale force and moment and pressure models based on the outer mold lines of the Ares I design analysis cycle crew launch vehicle were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel from May 2006 to September 2009. The test objectives were to establish supersonic ascent aerodynamic databases and to obtain force and moment, surface pressure, and longitudinal line-load distributions for comparison to computational predictions. Test data were obtained at low through high supersonic Mach numbers for ranges of the Reynolds number, angle of attack, and roll angle. This paper focuses on (1) the sensitivity of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics to selected protuberances, outer mold line changes, and wind tunnel boundary layer transition techniques, (2) comparisons of experimental data to computational predictions, and (3) data reproducibility. The experimental data obtained in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel captured the effects of evolutionary changes to the Ares I crew launch vehicle, exhibited good agreement with predictions, and displayed satisfactory within-test and tunnel-to-tunnel data reproducibility.

  1. Evaluation tests of platinum resistance thermometers for a cryogenic wind tunnel application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germain, E. F.; Compton, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-one commercially designed platinum resistance thermometers were evaluated for applicability to stagnation temperature measurements between -190 C and +65 C in the Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility. Evaluation tests included X-ray shadowgraphs, calibrations before and after aging, and time constant measurements. Two wire-wound low thermal mass probes of a conventional design were chosen as most suitable for this cryogenic wind tunnel application.

  2. The characteristics of 78 related airfoil sections from tests in the variable-density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Ward, Kenneth E; Pinkerton, Robert M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of a large group of related airfoils was made in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a large value of the Reynolds number. The tests were made to provide data that may be directly employed for a rational choice of the most suitable airfoil section for a given application. The variation of the aerodynamic characteristics with variations in thickness and mean-line form were systematically studied. (author)

  3. World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex, which houses two of the world's largest wind tunnels and has been used for testing experimental aircraft since 1944, is presented. This video highlights the structure and instrumentation of the 40 x 80 foot and 80 x 120 foot wind tunnels and documents their use in testing full scale aircraft, NASA's Space Shuttle and the XV-15 Tiltrotor aircraft.

  4. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with External-airfoil Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Warren D; Clay, William C

    1937-01-01

    Wind-tunnel and flight tests have been made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a wing having external-airfoil flaps that also perform the function of ailerons. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of the airplane with several flap settings, and the rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients with the flaps deflected as ailerons were measured in the full-scale tunnel with the horizontal tail surfaces and propeller removed. The effect of the flaps on the low speed and on the take-off and landing characteristics, the effectiveness of flaps when used as ailerons, and the forces required to operate them as ailerons were determined in flight. The wind-tunnel tests showed that the flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airplane from 1.51 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap deflected 30 degrees. In the flight tests the minimum speed decreased from 46.8 miles per hour with the flaps up to 41.3 miles per hour with the flaps deflected. The required take-off run to attain a height of 50 feet was reduced from 820 to 750 feet and the landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced from 930 to 480 feet. The flaps for this installation gave lateral control that was not entirely satisfactory. Their rolling action was good but the adverse yaw resulting from their use was greater than is considerable, and the stick forces required to operate them increased too rapidly with speed.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of forebody and nose strakes based on F-16 wind tunnel test experience. Volume 1: Summary and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Ralston, J. N.; Mann, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The YF-16 and F-16 developmental wind tunnel test program was reviewed. Geometrical descriptions, general comments, representative data, and the initial efforts toward the development of design guides for the application of strakes to future aircraft are presented.

  6. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  7. Design and wind tunnel tests of winglets on a DC-10 wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilkey, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind tunnel test utilizing a 4.7 percent scale semi-span model in the Langley Research Center 8-foot transonic pressure wind tunnel to establish the cruise drag improvement potential of winglets as applied to the DC-10 wide body transport aircraft. Winglets were investigated on both the DC-10 Series 10 (domestic) and 30/40 (intercontinental) configurations and compared with the Series 30/40 configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that for the DC-10 winglets provide approximately twice the cruise drag reduction of wing-tip extensions for about the same increase in bending moment at the wing fuselage juncture. Furthermore, the winglet configurations achieved drag improvements which were in close agreement to analytical estimates. It was observed that relatively small changes in wing-winglet tailoring effected large improvements in drag and visual flow characteristics. All final winglet configurations exhibited visual flow characteristics on the wing and winglets

  8. Computational design of low aspect ratio wing-winglets for transonic wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Brown, Christopher K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational design has been performed for three different low aspect ratio wing planforms fitted with nonplanar winglets; one of the three planforms has been selected to be constructed as a wind tunnel model for testing in the NASA LaRC 7 x 10 High Speed Wind Tunnel. A design point of M = 0.8, CL approx = 0.3 was selected, for wings of aspect ratio equal to 2.2, and leading edge sweep angles of 45 and 50 deg. Winglet length is 15 percent of the wing semispan, with a cant angle of 15 deg, and a leading edge sweep of 50 deg. Winglet total area equals 2.25 percent of the wing reference area. This report summarizes the design process and the predicted transonic performance for each configuration.

  9. Application of two design methods for active flutter suppression and wind-tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Abel, I.; Dunn, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis, implementation, and wind tunnel test of two flutter suppression control laws for an aeroelastic model equipped with a trailing edge control surface are presented. One control law is based on the aerodynamic energy method, and the other is based on results of optimal control theory. Analytical methods used to design the control laws and evaluate their performance are described. At Mach 0.6, 0.8, and 0.9, increases in flutter dynamic pressure were obtained but the full 44 percent increase was not achieved. However at Mach 0.95, the 44 percent increase was achieved with both control laws. Experimental results indicate that the performance of the systems is not so effective as that predicted by analysis, and that wind tunnel turbulence plays an important role in both control law synthesis and demonstration of system performance.

  10. Supersonic Retropropulsion CFD Validation with Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauerhamer, Daniel G.; Zarchi, Kerry A.; Kleb, William L.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP) was conducted using three Navier-Stokes flow solvers (DPLR, FUN3D, and OVERFLOW). The study compared results from the CFD codes to each other and also to wind tunnel test data obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center 90 70 Unitary PlanWind Tunnel. Comparisons include surface pressure coefficient as well as unsteady plume effects, and cover a range of Mach numbers, levels of thrust, and angles of orientation. The comparisons show promising capability of CFD to simulate SRP, and best agreement with the tunnel data exists for the steadier cases of the 1-nozzle and high thrust 3-nozzle configurations.

  11. Computational design of low aspect ratio wing-winglet configurations for transonic wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Brown, Christopher K.

    1988-01-01

    A computational design has been performed for three different low aspect ratio wing planforms fitted with nonplanar winglets; one of the three planforms has been selected to be constructed as a wind tunnel model for testing in the NASA LaRC 7 x 10 High Speed Wind Tunnel. A design point of M = 0.8, CL approx = 0.3 was selected, for wings of aspect ratio equal to 2.2, and leading edge sweep angles of 45 and 50 deg. Winglet length is 15 percent of the wing semispan, with a cant angle of 15 deg, and a leading edge sweep of 50 deg. Winglet total area equals 2.25 percent of the wing reference area. This report summarizes the design process and the predicted transonic performance for each configuration.

  12. Classification of spray nozzles based on droplet size distributions and wind tunnel tests.

    PubMed

    De Schamphelerie, M; Spanoghe, P; Nuyttens, D; Baetens, K; Cornelis, W; Gabriels, D; Van der Meeren, P

    2006-01-01

    Droplet size distribution of a pesticide spray is recognised as a main factor affecting spray drift. As a first approximation, nozzles can be classified based on their droplet size spectrum. However, the risk of drift for a given droplet size distribution is also a function of spray structure, droplet velocities and entrained air conditions. Wind tunnel tests to determine actual drift potentials of the different nozzles have been proposed as a method of adding an indication of the risk of spray drift to the existing classification based on droplet size distributions (Miller et al, 1995). In this research wind tunnel tests were performed in the wind tunnel of the International Centre for Eremology (I.C.E.), Ghent University, to determine the drift potential of different types and sizes of nozzles at various spray pressures. Flat Fan (F) nozzles Hardi ISO 110 02, 110 03, 110 04, 110 06; Low-Drift (LD) nozzles Hardi ISO 110 02, 110 03, 110 04 and Injet Air Inclusion (AI) nozzles Hardi ISO 110 02, 110 03, 110 04 were tested at a spray pressures of 2, 3 and 4 bar. The droplet size spectra of the F and the LD nozzles were measured with a Malvern Mastersizer at spray pressures 2 bar, 3 bar and 4 bar. The Malvern spectra were used to calculate the Volume Median Diameters (VMD) of the sprays.

  13. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  14. Static and wind tunnel model tests for the development of externally blown flap noise reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennock, A. P.; Swift, G.; Marbert, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Externally blown flap models were tested for noise and performance at one-fifth scale in a static facility and at one-tenth scale in a large acoustically-treated wind tunnel. The static tests covered two flap designs, conical and ejector nozzles, third-flap noise-reduction treatments, internal blowing, and flap/nozzle geometry variations. The wind tunnel variables were triple-slotted or single-slotted flaps, sweep angle, and solid or perforated third flap. The static test program showed the following noise reductions at takeoff: 1.5 PNdB due to treating the third flap; 0.5 PNdB due to blowing from the third flap; 6 PNdB at flyover and 4.5 PNdB in the critical sideline plane (30 deg elevation) due to installation of the ejector nozzle. The wind tunnel program showed a reduction of 2 PNdB in the sideline plane due to a forward speed of 43.8 m/s (85 kn). The best combination of noise reduction concepts reduced the sideline noise of the reference aircraft at constant field length by 4 PNdB.

  15. Dynamic response tests of inertial and optical wind-tunnel model attitude measurement devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, R. D.; Young, C. P., Jr.; Burner, A. W.; Tripp, J. S.; Tcheng, P.; Finley, T. D.; Popernack, T. G., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study of the response of inertial and optical wind-tunnel model attitude measurement systems in a wind-off simulated dynamic environment. This study is part of an ongoing activity at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop high accuracy, advanced model attitude measurement systems that can be used in a dynamic wind-tunnel environment. This activity was prompted by the inertial model attitude sensor response observed during high levels of model vibration which results in a model attitude measurement bias error. Significant bias errors in model attitude measurement were found for the measurement using the inertial device during wind-off dynamic testing of a model system. The amount of bias present during wind-tunnel tests will depend on the amplitudes of the model dynamic response and the modal characteristics of the model system. Correction models are presented that predict the vibration-induced bias errors to a high degree of accuracy for the vibration modes characterized in the simulated dynamic environment. The optical system results were uncorrupted by model vibration in the laboratory setup.

  16. Data correlation and analysis of arc tunnel and wind tunnel tests of RSI joints and gaps. Volume 2: Data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic heating created by gaps in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) for the space shuttle. The effects of various parameters of the RSI on convective heating characteristics are described. The wind tunnel tests provided a data base for accurate assessment of gap heating. Analysis and correlation of the data provide methods for predicting heating in the RSI gaps on the space shuttle.

  17. On the Accuracy of Flechettes by Dynamic Wind Tunnel Tests, by Theory and Analysis, and by Actual Firings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. The findings in this report are not to be...The accuracy and dispersion of flechettes are investigated 1) by an exploratory firing program, 2) by a supersonic dynamic testing wind tunnel program...Firing Program are summarized in Appendix A. A dynamic wind tunnel testing program was also carried out by the university on various flechette designs

  18. Aerodynamic study of different cyclist positions: CFD analysis and full-scale wind-tunnel tests.

    PubMed

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2010-05-07

    Three different cyclist positions were evaluated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind-tunnel experiments were used to provide reliable data to evaluate the accuracy of the CFD simulations. Specific features of this study are: (1) both steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and unsteady flow modelling, with more advanced turbulence modelling techniques (Large-Eddy Simulation - LES), were evaluated; (2) the boundary layer on the cyclist's surface was resolved entirely with low-Reynolds number modelling, instead of modelling it with wall functions; (3) apart from drag measurements, also surface pressure measurements on the cyclist's body were performed in the wind-tunnel experiment, which provided the basis for a more detailed evaluation of the predicted flow field by CFD. The results show that the simulated and measured drag areas differed about 11% (RANS) and 7% (LES), which is considered to be a close agreement in CFD studies. A fair agreement with wind-tunnel data was obtained for the predicted surface pressures, especially with LES. Despite the higher accuracy of LES, its much higher computational cost could make RANS more attractive for practical use in some situations. CFD is found to be a valuable tool to evaluate the drag of different cyclist positions and to investigate the influence of small adjustments in the cyclist's position. A strong advantage of CFD is that detailed flow field information is obtained, which cannot easily be obtained from wind-tunnel tests. This detailed information allows more insight in the causes of the drag force and provides better guidance for position improvements.

  19. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of the static stability and control characteristics of an advanced turboprop configuration with the propellers placed over the tail. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Graham Scott

    1990-01-01

    An exploratory wind tunnel investigation was performed in the 30 x 60 foot wind tunnel to determine the low speed static stability and control characteristics into the deep stall regime of an advanced turboprop aircraft with the propellers located over the horizontal tail. By this arrangement, the horizontal tail could potentially provide acoustic shielding to reduce the high community noise caused by the propeller blades. The current configuration was a generic turboprop model equipped with 1 foot diameter single rotating eight bladed propellers that were designed for efficient cruise operation at a Mach number of 0.8. The data presented is static force data. The effects of power on the configuration characteristics were generally favorable. An arrangement with the propellers rotating with the outboard blades moving down was found to have significantly higher installed thrust than an arrangement with the propellers rotating with the inboard blades moving down. The primary unfavorable effect was a large pitch trim change which occurred with power, but the trim change could be minimized with a proper configuration design.

  20. Assessing Videogrammetry for Static Aeroelastic Testing of a Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, Charles V.; Heeg, Jennifer; Ivanco, Thomas G.; Barrows, Danny A.; Florance, James R.; Burner, Alpheus W.; DeMoss, Joshua; Lively, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The Videogrammetric Model Deformation (VMD) technique, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, was recently used to measure displacements and local surface angle changes on a static aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. The results were assessed for consistency, accuracy and usefulness. Vertical displacement measurements and surface angular deflections (derived from vertical displacements) taken at no-wind/no-load conditions were analyzed. For accuracy assessment, angular measurements were compared to those from a highly accurate accelerometer. Shewhart's Variables Control Charts were used in the assessment of consistency and uncertainty. Some bad data points were discovered, and it is shown that the measurement results at certain targets were more consistent than at other targets. Physical explanations for this lack of consistency have not been determined. However, overall the measurements were sufficiently accurate to be very useful in monitoring wind-tunnel model aeroelastic deformation and determining flexible stability and control derivatives. After a structural model component failed during a highly loaded condition, analysis of VMD data clearly indicated progressive structural deterioration as the wind-tunnel condition where failure occurred was approached. As a result, subsequent testing successfully incorporated near- real-time monitoring of VMD data in order to ensure structural integrity. The potential for higher levels of consistency and accuracy through the use of statistical quality control practices are discussed and recommended for future applications.

  1. Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 2: A Centerline Supported Fullspan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This is part 2 of a two part document. Part 1 is titled: "Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 1: A Sidewall Supported Semispan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation and Flutter Suppression." A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Boeing, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, flexible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a full-span, aeroelastically scaled, wind tunnel model of a joined wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to acquire a basic aerodynamic data set. In the second and third tests, the same wind tunnel model was mated to a new, two degree of freedom, beam mount. This mount allowed the full-span model to translate vertically and pitch. Trimmed flight at10 percent static margin and gust load alleviation were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees of freedom required that the model be flown in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free-flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort. The balance and free flying wind tunnel tests will be summarized. The design of the trim and gust load alleviation control laws along with the associated results will also be discussed.

  2. Phase I Experimental Testing of a Generic Submarine Model in the DSTO Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    a possible wake effect from the model support and fairing. In contrast, the Z force coefficient in the body-axis (CZ) is relatively symmetric about...of the flow around the aerodynamic fairing, and the turbulent wake structures downstream of the vertical support pylon-model body junction. Figure 8...of the results gathered using this flow visualisation technique. Unsteady Wake Region Figure 9 - A typical tufting flow visualisation

  3. Experimental Testing of a Generic Submarine Model in the DSTO Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    axis, z-axis (Nm) l Model reference length (1.35 m) L Lift force (N) MRP Moment Reference Point q Dynamic pressure       2 2 1 Uρ (Pa...moment reference point ( MRP ). The moment reference point was defined as the mid-length position on the centre-line of the model. Figure 5 presents the

  4. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. I - Evolution, theory, and advantages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the time which has passed since the construction of the first wind tunnel in 1870, wind tunnels have been developed to a high degree of sophistication. However, their development has consistently failed to keep pace with the demands placed on them. One of the more serious problems to be found with existing transonic wind tunnels is their inability to test subscale aircraft models at Reynolds numbers sufficiently near full-scale values to ensure the validity of using the wind tunnel data to predict flight characteristics. The Reynolds number capability of a wind tunnel may be increased by a number of different approaches. However, the best solution in terms of model, balance, and model support loads, as well as in terms of capital and operating cost appears to be related to the reduction of the temperature of the test gas to cryogenic temperatures. The present paper has the objective to review the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept and to describe its more important advantages.

  5. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 2: Wind-tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An advanced-design 25-foot-diameter flightworthy proprotor was tested in the NASA-Ames Large-Scale Wind Tunnel. These tests, have verified and confirmed the theory and design solutions developed as part of the Army Composite Aircraft Program. This report presents the test results and compares them with theoretical predictions. During performance tests, the results met or exceeded predictions. Hover thrust 15 percent greater than the predicted maximum was measured. In airplane mode, propulsive efficiencies (some of which exceeded 90 percent) agreed with theory.

  6. Supersonic dynamic stability characteristics of a space shuttle orbiter. [wind tunnel tests of scale models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Boyden, R. P.; Davenport, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    Supersonic forced-oscillation tests of a 0.0165-scale model of a modified 089B Rockwell International shuttle orbiter were conducted in a wind tunnel for several configurations over a Mach range from 1.6 to 4.63. The tests covered angles of attack up to 30 deg. The period and damping of the basic unaugmented vehicle were calculated along the entry trajectory using the measured damping results. Some parameter analysis was made with the measured dynamic derivatives. Photographs of the test configurations and test equipment are shown.

  7. Wind tunnel tests of a zero length, slotted-lip engine air inlet for a fixed nacelle V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollett, R. R.; Beck, W. E., Jr.; Glasgow, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Zero length, slotted lip inlet performance and associated fan blade stresses were determined during model tests using a 20 inch diameter fan simulator in the NASA-LeRC 9 by 15 foot low speed wind tunnel. The model configuration variables consisted of inlet contraction ratio, slot width, circumferential extent of slot fillers, and length of a constant area section between the inlet throat and fan face. The inlet performance was dependent on slot gap width and relatively independent of inlet throat/fan face spacer length and slot flow blockage created by 90 degree slot fillers. Optimum performance was obtained at a slot gap width of 0.36 inch. The zero length, slotted lip inlet satisfied all critical low speed inlet operating requirements for fixed horizontal nacelles subsonic V/STOL aircraft.

  8. Fluid Dynamical Panel Symposium on Wind Tunnels and Testing Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    TWB and TKG). The lack of agreement is rather disappointing but, although the analysis is still going on, there are no indications of typical cryogenic...engines, the ejector effect of the TPS-engine itself is used to obtain sub-atmospheric conditions. Afterbody tests and TPS-measurements are both...improvements of this system. Basic short-comings of this set-up, like ejector release, dynamic effects on incidence and Mach number, thrust

  9. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  10. Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel: Testing Capabilities and Recent Modernization Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Description, capabilities, initiatives, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel are presented. A brief overview of the facility's operational capabilities and testing techniques is provided. A recent Construction of Facilities (Car) project to improve facility productivity and efficiency through facility automation has been completed and is discussed. Several new and maturing thrusts are underway that include systematic efforts to provide credible assessment for data quality, modifications to the new automation control system for increased compatibility with the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) testing methodology, and process improvements for better test coordination, planning, and execution.

  11. Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel: Testing Capabilities and Recent Modernization Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Description, capabilities, initiatives, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel are presented. A brief overview of the facility's operational capabilities and testing techniques is provided. A recent Construction of Facilities (CoF) project to improve facility productivity and efficiency through facility automation has been completed and is discussed. Several new and maturing thrusts are underway that include systematic efforts to provide credible assessment for data quality, modifications to the new automation control system for increased compatibility with the Modern Design Of Experiments (MDOE) testing methodology, and process improvements for better test coordination, planning, and execution.

  12. The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N

    1932-01-01

    Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics.

  13. V/STOL Tandem Fan transition section model test. [in the Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkin, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    An approximately 0.25 scale model of the transition section of a tandem fan variable cycle engine nacelle was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. Two 12-inch, tip-turbine driven fans were used to simulate a tandem fan engine. Three testing modes simulated a V/STOL tandem fan airplane. Parallel mode has two separate propulsion streams for maximum low speed performance. A front inlet, fan, and downward vectorable nozzle forms one stream. An auxilliary top inlet provides air to the aft fan - supplying the core engine and aft vectorable nozzle. Front nozzle and top inlet closure, and removal of a blocker door separating the two streams configures the tandem fan for series mode operations as a typical aircraft propulsion system. Transition mode operation is formed by intermediate settings of the front nozzle, blocker door, and top inlet. Emphasis was on the total pressure recovery and flow distortion at the aft fan face. A range of fan flow rates were tested at tunnel airspeeds from 0 to 240 knots, and angles-of-attack from -10 to 40 deg for all three modes. In addition to the model variables for the three modes, model variants of the top inlet were tested in the parallel mode only. These lip variables were: aft lip boundary layer bleed holes, and Three position turning vane. Also a bellmouth extension of the top inlet side lips was tested in parallel mode.

  14. Structural dynamic testing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgin, Stephen D.; Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1993-02-01

    The Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California is currently evaluating a counter rotating propfan system as a means of propulsion for the next generation of cruise missiles. The details and results of a structural dynamic test program are presented for scale model graphite-epoxy composite propfan blades. These blades are intended for use on a cruise missile wind tunnel model. Both dynamic characteristics and strain operating limits of the blades are presented. Complications associated with high strain level fatigue testing methods are also discussed.

  15. Error propagation equations for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.L.

    1994-07-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, and calibration Mach number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-steam Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for five fundamental aerodynamic ratios which relate free-steam test conditions to a reference condition.

  16. Empty test section streamlining of the transonic self-streamlining wind tunnel fitted with new walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The original flexible top and bottom walls of the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel (TSWT), at the University of Southampton, have been replaced with new walls featuring a larger number of static pressure tappings and detailed mechanical improvements. This report describes the streamling method, results, and conclusions of a series of tests aimed at defining sets of aerodynamically straight wall contours for the new flexible walls. This procedure is a necessary prelude to model testing. The quality of data obtained compares favorably with the aerodynamically straight data obtained with the old walls. No operational difficulties were experienced with the new walls.

  17. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 10-foot-diameter Gyroplane Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B; Bioletti, Carlton

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests on a model gyroplane rotor 10 feet in diameter. The rotor blades had zero sweepback and zero offset; the hub contained a feathering mechanism that provided control of the rotor rolling moment, but not of the pitching moment. The rotor was tested with 4 blades and with 2 blades. The entire useful range of pitch settings and tip-speed ratios was investigated including the phase of operation in which the rotor turned very slowly, or idled.

  18. Wind-Tunnel Tests of 10-foot-diameter Autogiro Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B; Bioletti, Carlton

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of a series of 10-foot-diameter autogiro rotor models tested in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. Four of the models differed only in the airfoil sections of the blades, the sections used being the NACA 0012, 0018, 4412, and 4418. Three additional models employing the NACA 0012 section were tested, in which a varying portion of the blade near the hub was replaced by a streamline tube with a chord of about one-fourth the blade chord.

  19. Analysis of a Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon Observed During Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2010-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition from separated to attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction with increasing Mach number. For locally transonic conditions at this junction, the flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between a subsonic separated flow and a supersonic attached flow. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories which, upon integration result in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a wind-tunnel-test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load

  20. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  1. An assessment of wind tunnel test data on flexible thermal protection materials and results of new fatigue tests of threads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) was developed as a replacement for the low-temperature (white) tiles on the Space Shuttle. The first use of the AFRSI for an Orbiter flight was on the OMS POD of Orbiter (OV-099) for STS-6. Post flight examination after STS-6 showed that damage had occurred to the AFRSI during flight. The failure anomaly between previous wind-tunnel tests and STS-6 prompted a series of additional wind tunnel tests to gain an insight as to the cause of the failure. An assessment of all the past STS-6 wind tunnel tests pointed out the sensitivity of the test results to scaling of dynamic loads due to the difference of boundary layer thickness, and the material properties as a result of exposure to heating. The thread component of the AFRSI was exposed to fatigue testing using an apparatus that applied pulsating aerodynamic loads on the threads similar to the loads caused by an oscillating shock. Comparison of the mean values of the number-of-cycles to failure showed that the history of the thread was the major factor in its performance. The thread and the wind tunnel data suggests a mechanism of failure for the AFRSI.

  2. Experimental Study of Slat Noise from 30P30N Three-Element High-Lift Airfoil in JAXA Hard-Wall Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Nakakita, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuomi; Ura, Hiroki; Ito, Yasushi; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements associated with noise radiation from the leading edge slat of the canonical, unswept 30P30N three-element high-lift airfoil configuration have been obtained in a 2 m x 2 m hard-wall wind tunnel at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Performed as part of a collaborative effort on airframe noise between JAXA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the model geometry and majority of instrumentation details are identical to a NASA model with the exception of a larger span. For an angle of attack up to 10 degrees, the mean surface Cp distributions agree well with free-air computational fluid dynamics predictions corresponding to a corrected angle of attack. After employing suitable acoustic treatment for the brackets and end-wall effects, an approximately 2D noise source map is obtained from microphone array measurements, thus supporting the feasibility of generating a measurement database that can be used for comparison with free-air numerical simulations. Both surface pressure spectra obtained via KuliteTM transducers and the acoustic spectra derived from microphone array measurements display a mixture of a broad band component and narrow-band peaks (NBPs), both of which are most intense at the lower angles of attack and become progressively weaker as the angle of attack is increased. The NBPs exhibit a substantially higher spanwise coherence in comparison to the broadband portion of the spectrum and, hence, confirm the trends observed in previous numerical simulations. Somewhat surprisingly, measurements show that the presence of trip dots between the stagnation point and slat cusp enhances the NBP levels rather than mitigating them as found in a previous experiment.

  3. Large-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests of Inverting Flaps on a STOL Utility Aircraft Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    the same basic wing contour for cruise and have been tested in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel using this sarme STOL utility aircraft model with...inverting flap are seen to be quite evenly matched at a descent angle of approximately 130 to 140 , corresponding to a theoretical "no-flare" landing distance...to a T of 2.4, with a maneuvering reserve capability of about 0.6 rad /sec 2 . A slightly larger horizontal tail would be required to provide adequate

  4. Development, simulation validation, and wind tunnel testing of a digital controller system for flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, Sherwood Tiffany; Buttrill, Carey S.; Mcgraw, Sandra M.; Houck, Jacob A.

    1991-01-01

    Flutter suppression (FS) is one of the active control concepts being investigated by the AFW program. The design goal for FS control laws was to increase the passive flutter dynamic pressure by 30 percent. In order to meet this goal, the FS control laws had to be capable of suppressing both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter instabilities simultaneously. In addition, the FS control laws had to be practical and low-order, robust and capable of real time execution within the 200 hz. sampling time. The purpose here is to present an overview of the development, simulation validation, and wind tunnel testing of a digital controller system for flutter suppression.

  5. Background Acoustics Levels in the 9x15 Wind Tunnel and Linear Array Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2011-01-01

    The background noise level in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn has been documented, and the results compare favorably with historical measurements. A study of recessed microphone mounting techniques was also conducted, and a recessed cavity with a micronic wire mesh screen reduces hydrodynamic noise by around 10 dB. A three-microphone signal processing technique can provide additional benefit, rejecting up to 15 dB of noise contamination at some frequencies. The screen and cavity system offers considerable benefit to test efficiency, although there are additional calibration requirements.

  6. Large-scale Advanced Prop-fan (LAP) high speed wind tunnel test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William A.; Wainauski, Harold S.; Arseneaux, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    High Speed Wind Tunnel testing of the SR-7L Large Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) is reported. The LAP is a 2.74 meter (9.0 ft) diameter, 8-bladed tractor type rated for 4475 KW (6000 SHP) at 1698 rpm. It was designated and built by Hamilton Standard under contract to the NASA Lewis Research Center. The LAP employs thin swept blades to provide efficient propulsion at flight speeds up to Mach .85. Testing was conducted in the ONERA S1-MA Atmospheric Wind Tunnel in Modane, France. The test objectives were to confirm that the LAP is free from high speed classical flutter, determine the structural and aerodynamic response to angular inflow, measure blade surface pressures (static and dynamic) and evaluate the aerodynamic performance at various blade angles, rotational speeds and Mach numbers. The measured structural and aerodynamic performance of the LAP correlated well with analytical predictions thereby providing confidence in the computer prediction codes used for the design. There were no signs of classical flutter throughout all phases of the test up to and including the 0.84 maximum Mach number achieved. Steady and unsteady blade surface pressures were successfully measured for a wide range of Mach numbers, inflow angles, rotational speeds and blade angles. No barriers were discovered that would prevent proceeding with the PTA (Prop-Fan Test Assessment) Flight Test Program scheduled for early 1987.

  7. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study: Wind tunnel tests of a full scale hingeless prop/rotor designed for the Boeing Model 222 tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    The rotor system designed for the Boeing Model 222 tilt rotor aircraft is a soft-in-plane hingeless rotor design, 26 feet in diameter. This rotor has completed two test programs in the NASA Ames 40' X 80' wind tunnel. The first test was a windmilling rotor test on two dynamic wing test stands. The rotor was tested up to an advance ratio equivalence of 400 knots. The second test used the NASA powered propeller test rig and data were obtained in hover, transition and low speed cruise flight. Test data were obtained in the areas of wing-rotor dynamics, rotor loads, stability and control, feedback controls, and performance to meet the test objectives. These data are presented.

  8. Phase 2 and 3 wind tunnel tests of the J-97 powered, external augmentor V/STOL model. [at Ames 40 by 80 wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, D. B.; Harris, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Static and forward speed tests were made in a 40 multiplied by 80 foot wind tunnel of a large-scale, ejector-powered V/STOL aircraft model. Modifications were made to the model following earlier tests primarily to improve longitudinal acceleration capability during transition from hovering to wingborne flight. A rearward deflection of the fuselage augmentor thrust vector was shown to be beneficial in this regard. Other augmentor modifications were tested, notably the removal of both endplates, which improved acceleration performance at the higher transition speeds. The model tests again demonstrated minimal interference of the fuselage augmentor on aerodynamic lift. A flapped canard surface also showed negligible influence on the performance of the wing and of the fuselage augmentor.

  9. The self streamlining wind tunnel. [wind tunnel walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional test section in a low speed wind tunnel capable of producing flow conditions free from wall interference is presented. Flexible top and bottom walls, and rigid sidewalls from which models were mounted spanning the tunnel are shown. All walls were unperforated, and the flexible walls were positioned by screw jacks. To eliminate wall interference, the wind tunnel itself supplied the information required in the streamlining process, when run with the model present. Measurements taken at the flexible walls were used by the tunnels computer check wall contours. Suitable adjustments based on streamlining criteria were then suggested by the computer. The streamlining criterion adopted when generating infinite flowfield conditions was a matching of static pressures in the test section at a wall with pressures computed for an imaginary inviscid flowfield passing over the outside of the same wall. Aerodynamic data taken on a cylindrical model operating under high blockage conditions are presented to illustrate the operation of the tunnel in its various modes.

  10. DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Airfoil Section Testing in the Ohio State University 7x10 Wind Tunnel. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltner, Dale; McKee, Michael; LaNoe, Karine; Gregorek, Gerald; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ice contaminated tailplane stall (ICTS) has been found to be responsible for 16 accidents with 139 fatalities over the last three decades, and is suspected to have played a role in other accidents and incidents. The need for fundamental research in this area has been recognized at three international conferences sponsored by the FAA since 1991. In order to conduct such research, a joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994: the Ohio State University has played an important role in this effort. The program employs icing tunnel testing, dry wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and analysis using a six-degrees-of-freedom computer code tailored to this problem. A central goal is to quantify the effect of tailplane icing on aircraft stability and control to aid in the analysis of flight test procedures to identify aircraft susceptibility to ICTS. This report contains the results ot testing of a full scale 2D model of a tailplane section of NASA's Icing Research Aircraft, with and without ice shapes, in an Ohio State University 7 x 10 Low Speed wind tunnel in 1994. The results have been integrated into a comprehensive database of aerodynamic coefficients and stability and control derivatives that will permit detailed analysis of flight test results with the analytical computer program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections, as well as two velocities to evaluate Reynolds number effects. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and hinge moment coefficients were obtained. In addition. instrumentation for use during flight testing was verified to be effective, all components showing acceptable fidelity. Comparison of clean and iced airfoil results show the ice shapes causing a significant decrease in the magnitude of CLmax (from -1.3 to -0.64) and associated stall angle (from -18.6 deg to -8.2 deg). Furthermore, the ice shapes caused an increase in hinge moment coefficient of approximately 0.02, the change being markedly abrupt

  11. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  12. Wind tunnel validation of AeroDyn within LIFES50+ project: imposed Surge and Pitch tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayati, I.; Belloli, M.; Bernini, L.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first set of results of the steady and unsteady wind tunnel tests, performed at Politecnico di Milano wind tunnel, on a 1/75 rigid scale model of the DTU 10 MW wind turbine, within the LIFES50+ project. The aim of these tests is the validation of the open source code AeroDyn developed at NREL. Numerical and experimental steady results are compared in terms of thrust and torque coefficients, showing good agreement, as well as for unsteady measurements gathered with a 2 degree-of-freedom test rig, capable of imposing the displacements at the base of the model, and providing the surge and pitch motion of the floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) scale model. The measurements of the unsteady test configuration are compared with AeroDyn/Dynin module results, implementing the generalized dynamic wake (GDW) model. Numerical and experimental comparison showed similar behaviours in terms of non linear hysteresis, however some discrepancies are herein reported and need further data analysis and interpretations about the aerodynamic integral quantities, with a special attention to the physics of the unsteady phenomenon.

  13. Wind tunnel wall interference in V/STOL and high lift testing: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Mineck, R. E.; Cole, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 260 citations of interest to persons involved in correcting aerodynamic data, from high lift or V/STOL type configurations, for the interference arising from the wind tunnel test section walls. It provides references which may be useful in correcting high lift data from wind tunnel to free air conditions. References are included which deal with the simulation of ground effect, since it could be viewed as having interference from three tunnel walls. The references could be used to design tests from the standpoint of model size and ground effect simulation, or to determine the available testing envelope with consideration of the problem of flow breakdown. The arrangement of the citations is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports or books, and by date of presentation in the case of papers. Included are some documents of historical interest in the development of high lift testing techniques and wall interference correction methods. Subject, corporate source, and author indices, by citation numbers, have been provided to assist the users. The appendix includes citations of some books and documents which may not deal directly with high lift or V/STOL wall interference, but include additional information which may be helpful.

  14. Wind Tunnel Testing of Powered Lift, All-Wing STOL Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Scott W.; Westra, Bryan W.; Lin, John C.; Jones, Gregory S.; Zeune, Cal H.

    2008-01-01

    Short take-off and landing (STOL) systems can offer significant capabilities to warfighters and, for civil operators thriving on maximizing efficiencies they can improve airspace use while containing noise within airport environments. In order to provide data for next generation systems, a wind tunnel test of an all-wing cruise efficient, short take-off and landing (CE STOL) configuration was conducted in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The test s purpose was to mature the aerodynamic aspects of an integrated powered lift system within an advanced mobility configuration capable of CE STOL. The full-span model made use of steady flap blowing and a lifting centerbody to achieve high lift coefficients. The test occurred during April through June of 2007 and included objectives for advancing the state-of-the-art of powered lift testing through gathering force and moment data, on-body pressure data, and off-body flow field measurements during automatically controlled blowing conditions. Data were obtained for variations in model configuration, angles of attack and sideslip, blowing coefficient, and height above ground. The database produced by this effort is being used to advance design techniques and computational tools for developing systems with integrated powered lift technologies.

  15. Testing of the Crew Exploration Vehicle in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Borg, Stephen E.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Cole, Daniel R.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a strategic, multi-facility test program, subscale testing of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle was conducted in both legs of NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate aerodynamic and surface pressure data over a range of supersonic Mach numbers and reentry angles of attack for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. To provide initial information on boundary layer transition at supersonic test conditions, transition studies were conducted using temperature sensitive paint and infrared thermography optical techniques. To support implementation of these optical diagnostics in the Unitary Wind Tunnel, the experiment was first modeled using the Virtual Diagnostics Interface software. For reentry orientations of 140 to 170 degrees (heat shield forward), windward surface flow was entirely laminar for freestream unit Reynolds numbers equal to or less than 3 million per foot. Optical techniques showed qualitative evidence of forced transition on the windward heat shield with application of both distributed grit and discreet trip dots. Longitudinal static force and moment data showed the largest differences with Mach number and angle of attack variations. Differences associated with Reynolds number variation and/or laminar versus turbulent flow on the heat shield were very small. Static surface pressure data supported the aforementioned trends with Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack.

  16. Jet noise results from static, wind tunnel, and flight tests of conical and mechanical suppressor nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, R. A.; Johnson, E. S.; Atencio, A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Results of jet noise suppression tests conducted on a Rolls-Royce Viper 601 turbojet engine are reported. Seven exhaust nozzle configurations are tested, including two conical nozzles, two suppressor mixers, and three treated ejector configurations with different ejector inlets. Tests are conducted at the NASA Ames outdoor static test facility and the 40- by 80-ft wind tunnel facility at minimum tunnel flow velocity and normal flow velocities of 230 and 290 ft/sec. Near-field multiple sideline noise levels are projected to the far fields to compare far-field fixed microphone outdoor static noise levels, and wind tunnel near-field noise data are projected to the far field and flight distances to compare with noise levels recorded from an Hs-125 aircraft. Near-field outdoor noise data duplicate the far-field data recorded from fixed microphones within 2 PNdB, and the Douglas mechanical jet noise suppressor/treated ejector exhaust system achieves a noise reduction of 12 EPNdB relative to a conic reference nozzle at equal thrust in flight.

  17. Evaluation of pressure and thermal data from a wind tunnel test of a large-scale, powered, STOL fighter model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, G. A.; Crosthwait, E. L.; Witte, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A STOL fighter model employing the vectored-engine-over wing concept was tested at low speeds in the NASA/Ames 40 by 80-foot wind tunnel. The model, approximately 0.75 scale of an operational fighter, was powered by two General Electric J-97 turbojet engines. Limited pressure and thermal instrumentation were provided to measure power effects (chordwise and spanwise blowing) and control-surface-deflection effects. An indepth study of the pressure and temperature data revealed many flow field features - the foremost being wing and canard leading-edge vortices. These vortices delineated regions of attached and separated flow, and their movements were often keys to an understanding of flow field changes caused by power and control-surface variations. Chordwise blowing increased wing lift and caused a modest aft shift in the center of pressure. The induced effects of chordwise blowing extended forward to the canard and significantly increased the canard lift when the surface was stalled. Spanwise blowing effectively enhanced the wing leading-edge vortex, thereby increasing lift and causing a forward shift in the center of pressure.

  18. March 1971 wind tunnel tests of the Dorand DH 2011 jet flap rotor, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kretz, M.; Aubrun, J.; Larche, M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of wind tunnel tests, second series of tests performed in the NASA Ames 40 x 80 foot wind tunnel, of the DH 2011 jet-flap rotor are presented and analyzed. The tests have been focused on multicyclic effects and the capability of this rotor to reduce the vibratory loads and stresses in the blades. The reductions of the vibrations and stresses at tip speed ratio of 0.4 have attained 50%. The theory shows further reductions possible, reaching 80%. The results show that the performance characteristics after the modifications introduced since 1965 remained unchanged. The domain of investigation has been enlarged to include the tip speed ratios of 0.6 and 0.7. To analyze the complex aeroelastic phenomena a new analytical technique has been utilized to represent the mathematical model of the rotor. This technique, based on transfer matrices and transfer functions, appears very simple and it is believed that this analysis is applicable to many kinds of investigations involving large numbers of variables.

  19. Wind tunnel test of a smart rotor with individual blade twist control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a smart rotor with active control of blade twist using embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to minimize rotor vibrations. A 1/8-th Froude-scale (dynamically-scaled) bearingless helicopter rotor model was built with banks of torsional actuators capable of manipulating blade twist at frequencies from 5 to 100 Hz. To assess the effectiveness of the torsional actuators and vibration suppression capabilities, systematic wind tunnel testing was conducted in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel. Using accelerometers embedded in the blade tip, the oscillatory blade twist response was measured. The changes in rotor vibratory loads due to piezo- induced twist were determined using a rotating hub balance located at the rotor hub. Experimental test results show that tip twist amplitudes on the order of 0.5 deg are attainable by the current actuator configurations in forward flight. Although these amplitudes were less than the target value (1 - 2 deg for complete vibration suppression control), test results show that partial vibration reduction is possible. Using open-loop phase shift control of blade twist at the first four rotor harmonics, changes in rotor thrust of up to 9% of the steady-state values were measured, resulting in up to 3 and 8% reductions in rotor pitching and rolling moments, respectively. It is expected that the hub load control authority of the smart rotor can be improved in future models with refined actuator configurations and implementation of closed-loop feedback controls.

  20. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through Vortex manipulation. Volume 2: Static wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) was explored in this research program for potential application to a NASP-type configuration. Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate a number of jet blowing schemes. The configuration tested has a slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. Blowing jets were implemented on the leeward side of the forebody with small circular tubes tangential to the surface that could be directed aft, forward, or at angles in between. The effects of blowing are observed primarily in the yawing and rolling moments and are highly dependent on the jet configuration and the angle of attack. Results show that the baseline flow field, without blowing activated, is quite sensitive to the geometry differences of the various protruding jets, as well as being sensitive to the blowing, particularly in the angle of attack range where the forebody vortices are naturally asymmetric. The time lag of the flow field response to the initiation of blowing was also measured. The time response was very short, on the order of the time required for the flow disturbance to travel the distance from the nozzle to the specific airframe location of interest at the free stream velocity. Overall, results indicate that sizable yawing and rolling moments can be induced with modest blowing levels. However, direct application of this technique on a very slender forebody would require thorough wind tunnel testing to optimize the jet location and configuration.

  1. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 3: Launch configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configuration as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle, including contractor data for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. The test data have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration. Basic components include booster, orbiter, and launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configurations include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files containing basic tunnel data. Database structure is documented in a series of reports which include configuration sketches for the various planforms tested. This is Volume 3 -- launch configurations.

  2. High pressure hypervelocity electrothermal wind tunnel performance study and subscale tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizkalla, Oussama F.; Chinitz, Wallace; Witherspoon, F. D.; Burton, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of a Mach 10 to 20, high pressure electrothermal wind tunnel was assessed. A heater based on a continuous high power electric arc discharge capable of heating air to temperatures above 10,000 K and pressures of 15,000 atm is the key element of this wind tunnel. Results of analytical study indicate that the facility is capable of simulation conditions suitable for hypervelocity airbreathing propulsion testing up to Mach 16. In this case simulation was limited by pressure containment, high nozzle throat heat flux rates, and chemical freezing in the nozzle. The high total pressure capability improved the recombination chemistry in the facility nozzle as chemical equilibrium prevailed to the freezing point. Steady arc discharges were observed with liquid nitrogen flowing into the arc chamber during tests based on the two millisecond test facility. The measured steady pressure in the arc chamber was 4559 psi, which is two times greater than maximum total pressure obtainable in conventional arc heaters.

  3. Low speed airfoil study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Airfoil geometries were developed for low speed high lift applications, such as general aviation aircraft, propellers and helicopter rotors. The primary effort was to determine the extent to which the application of turbulent boundary layer separation criteria, plus manipulation of other input parameters, specifically trailing edging velocity ratio, could be utilized to achieve high C sub Lmax airfoils with relatively low drag at C sub Lmax. Both single-element and double-element airfoils were considered. Wind tunnel testing of some airfoils was included.

  4. Fan Blade Shake Test Results for the 40- by 80-/80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrodt, W.; Graham, T.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the shake tests performed on the first set of hydulignum fan blades for the 40- by 80-/80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The purpose of the shake test program is described. The test equipment and test procedures are reviewed. Results from each shake test are presented and the overall findings of the shake test program are discussed.

  5. Design and Development of a Deep Acoustic Lining for the 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Schmitz, Fredric H.; Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Sacco, Joe N.; Mosher, Marianne; Hayes, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this report has made effective use of design teams to build a state-of-the-art anechoic wind-tunnel facility. Many potential design solutions were evaluated using engineering analysis, and computational tools. Design alternatives were then evaluated using specially developed testing techniques, Large-scale coupon testing was then performed to develop confidence that the preferred design would meet the acoustic, aerodynamic, and structural objectives of the project. Finally, designs were frozen and the final product was installed in the wind tunnel. The result of this technically ambitious project has been the creation of a unique acoustic wind tunnel. Its large test section (39 ft x 79 ft x SO ft), potentially near-anechoic environment, and medium subsonic speed capability (M = 0.45) will support a full range of aeroacoustic testing-from rotorcraft and other vertical takeoff and landing aircraft to the take-off/landing configurations of both subsonic and supersonic transports.

  6. Advanced Capabilities for Wind Tunnel Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing methods and test technologies for the 21st century using advanced capabilities are presented. These capabilities are necessary to capture more accurate and high quality test results by eliminating the uncertainties in testing and to facilitate verification of computational tools for design. This paper discusses near term developments underway in ground testing capabilities, which will enhance the quality of information of both the test article and airstream flow details. Also discussed is a selection of new capability investments that have been made to accommodate such developments. Examples include advanced experimental methods for measuring the test gas itself; using efficient experiment methodologies, including quality assurance strategies within the test; and increasing test result information density by using extensive optical visualization together with computed flow field results. These points could be made for both major investments in existing tunnel capabilities or for entirely new capabilities.

  7. Ground simulation with moving belt and tangential blowing for full-scale automotive testing in a wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Mercker, E.; Knape, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes full-scale vehicle tests made on a standard-type passenger car in a wind tunnel and on the road in order to evaluate different moving-ground simulation techniques for wind tunnels. The test was first executed over a moving belt, supporting the car with a rear sting and measuring the aerodynamic forces with an internal balance. The test was then repeated with the same support arrangement over a fixed test-section floor, and moving-ground simulation was attained with boundary layer control by tangential blowing. Besides force measurements, the surface pressure distribution underneath the vehicle and at the base were also measured.

  8. DARPA/AFRL Smart Wing Phase 2 wind tunnel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Lewis B.; Martin, C. A.; Sanders, Brian P.; West, Mark N.; Pinkerton-Florance, Jennifer L.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2002-07-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation built and twice tested a 30 percent scale wind tunnel model of a proposed uninhabited combat air vehicle under the DARPA/AFRL Smart Materials and Structures Development - Smart Wing Phase 2 program to demonstrate the applicability of smart control surfaces on advanced aircraft configurations. The model constructed was a full span, sting mounted model with smart leading and trailing edge control surfaces on the right wing and conventional, hinged trailing edge control surfaces on the left wing. Among the performance benefits that were quantified were increased pitching moment, increased rolling moment and improved pressure distribution of the smart wing over the conventional wing. This paper present an overview of the result from the wind tunnel test performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamic Tunnel in March 2000 and May 2001. Successful results included: (1) improved aileron effectiveness at high dynamic pressures, (2) demonstrated improvements in lateral and longitudinal effectiveness with smooth contoured smart trailing edge over conventional hinged control surfaces, (3) chordwise and spanwise shape control of the smart trailing edge control surface, and (4) smart trailing edge control surface deflection rates over 80 deg/sec.

  9. DARPA/ARFL/NASA Smart Wing second wind tunnel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Lewis B.; Martin, Christopher A.; West, Mark N.; Florance, Jennifer P.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Fleming, Gary A.

    1999-07-01

    To quantify the benefits of smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. Northrop Grumman Corp. built and tested two 16 percent scale wind tunnel models of a fighter/attach aircraft under the DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Materials and Structures Development - Smart Wing Phase 1. Performance gains quantified included increased pitching moment, increased rolling moment and improved pressure distribution. The benefits were obtained for hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy wires and spanwise wing twist effected by SMA torque tube mechanism, compared to convention hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the second wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley Research Center's 16 ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel in June 1998. Successful results obtained were: 1) 5 degrees of spanwise twist and 8-12 percent increase in rolling moment utilizing a single SMA torque tube, 2) 12 degrees of deflection, and 10 percent increase in rolling moment due to hingeless, contoured aileron, and 3) demonstration of optical techniques for measuring spanwise twist and deflected shape.

  10. Design and fabrication of forward-swept counterrotation blade configuration for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    Work performed by GE Aircraft on advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop system is described. Primary emphasis was placed on theoretically and experimentally evaluating the aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance of GE-defined counterrotating blade concepts. Several blade design concepts were considered. Feasibility studies were conducted to evaluate a forward-swept versus an aft-swept blade application and how the given blade design would affect interaction between rotors. Two blade designs were initially selected. Both designs involved in-depth aerodynamic, aeromechanical, mechanical, and acoustic analyses followed by the fabrication of forward-swept, forward rotor blade sets to be wind tunnel tested with an aft-swept, aft rotor blade set. A third blade set was later produced from a NASA design that was based on wind tunnel test results from the first two blade sets. This blade set had a stiffer outer ply material added to the original blade design, in order to reach the design point operating line. Detailed analyses, feasibility studies, and fabrication procedures for all blade sets are presented.

  11. The Impact of Truth Surrogate Variance on Quality Assessment/Assurance in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Minimum data volume requirements for wind tunnel testing are reviewed and shown to depend on error tolerance, response model complexity, random error variance in the measurement environment, and maximum acceptable levels of inference error risk. Distinctions are made between such related concepts as quality assurance and quality assessment in response surface modeling, as well as between precision and accuracy. Earlier research on the scaling of wind tunnel tests is extended to account for variance in the truth surrogates used at confirmation sites in the design space to validate proposed response models. A model adequacy metric is presented that represents the fraction of the design space within which model predictions can be expected to satisfy prescribed quality specifications. The impact of inference error on the assessment of response model residuals is reviewed. The number of sites where reasonably well-fitted response models actually predict inadequately is shown to be considerably less than the number of sites where residuals are out of tolerance. The significance of such inference error effects on common response model assessment strategies is examined.

  12. Space Launch System Booster Separation Aerodynamic Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Chan, David T.; Crosby, William A.

    2016-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a 0.009 scale model of the Space Launch System (SLS) was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to characterize the aerodynamics of the core and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) during booster separation. High-pressure air was used to simulate plumes from the booster separation motors (BSMs) located on the nose and aft skirt of the SRBs. Force and moment data were acquired on the core and SRBs. These data were used to corroborate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations that were used in developing a booster separation database. The SRBs could be remotely positioned in the x-, y-, and z-direction relative to the core. Data were acquired continuously while the SRBs were moved in the axial direction. The primary parameters varied during the test were: core pitch angle; SRB pitch and yaw angles; SRB nose x-, y-, and z-position relative to the core; and BSM plenum pressure. The test was conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 4.25 and a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million per foot.

  13. DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Wing Second Wind Tunnel Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. B.; Martin, C. A.; West, M.; Florance, J. P.; Wieseman, C. D.; Burner, A. W.; Fleming, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    To quantify the benefits of smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology, Northrop Grumman Corp. (NGC) built and tested two 16% scale wind tunnel models (a conventional and a "smart" model) of a fighter/attack aircraft under the DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Materials and Structures Development - Smart Wing Phase 1. Performance gains quantified included increased pitching moment (C(sub M)), increased rolling moment (C(subl)) and improved pressure distribution. The benefits were obtained for hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and spanwise wing twist effected by SMA torque tube mechanisms, compared to conventional hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the second wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) 16ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) in June 1998. Successful results obtained were: 1) 5 degrees of spanwise twist and 8-12% increase in rolling moment utilizing a single SMA torque tube, 2) 12 degrees of deflection, and 10% increase in rolling moment due to hingeless, contoured aileron, and 3) demonstration of optical techniques for measuring spanwise twist and deflected shape.

  14. Supersonic Retropropulsion Test 1853 in NASA LaRC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.

    2014-01-01

    A supersonic retropropulsion experiment was conducted in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2 at Mach numbers of 2.4, 3.5, and 4.6. Intended as a code validation effort, this study used pretest computations to size and refine the model such that tunnel blockage and internal flow separations were minimized. A 5-in diameter 70 degree sphere-cone forebody, which can accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, followed by a 9.55 inches long cylindrical aft body was selected for this test after computational maturation. The primary measurements for this experiment were high spatial-density surface pressures. In addition, high speed schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures were acquired. The test included parametric variations in the number of nozzles utilized, thrust coefficients (roughly 0 to 4), and angles of attack (-8 to 20 degrees). The run matrix was developed to also allow quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and systematic errors due to flowfield or model misalignments. To accommodate the uncertainty assessment, many runs and replicates were conducted with the model at various locations within the tunnel and with model roll angles of 0, 60, 120, and 180 degrees. This test report provides operational details of the experiment, contains a review of trends, and provides all schlieren and pressure results within appendices.

  15. The Langley Wind Tunnel Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kumar, Ajay; Kegelman, Jerome T.

    1998-01-01

    After 4 years of existence, the Langley WTE is alive and growing. Significant improvements in the operation of wind tunnels have been demonstrated and substantial further improvements are expected when we are able to truly address and integrate all the processes affecting the wind tunnel testing cycle.

  16. Analysis of high Reynolds numbers effects on a wind turbine airfoil using 2D wind tunnel test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The aerodynamic behaviour of a wind turbine airfoil has been measured in a dedicated 2D wind tunnel test at the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG), Germany. The tests have been performed on the DU00W212 airfoil at different Reynolds numbers: 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 million, and at low Mach numbers (below 0.1). Both clean and tripped conditions of the airfoil have been measured. An analysis of the impact of a wide Reynolds number variation over the aerodynamic characteristics of this airfoil has been performed.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of the Scout 133R vehicle determined from wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramson, F. B.; Muir, T. G., Jr.; Simmons, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Bending moments and other associated parameters were measured on a Scout vehicle during a launch through high velocity horizontal winds. Comparison of the measured data with predictions revealed some unexplained discrepancies. Possible sources of error in the experimental data and predictions were considered; one of which is the predicted aerodynamic characteristics. A wind tunnel investigation was initiated, including supersonic force and pressure tests, to better define the aerodynamics. In addition to basic aerodynamic coefficients from the force test, detailed pressure and load distributions along the body were established from the pressure test. Pressure coefficients were integrated to determine normal load distributions, total normal force, and total pitching moment of the body. Comparison of the normal forces from pressure and force tests resulted in agreement within 15%. Comparison of pitching moment data from the two tests resulted in larger differences.

  18. New Model Exhaust System Supports Testing in NASA Lewis' 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, James W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996, the ability to run NASA Lewis Research Center's Abe Silverstein 10- by 10- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10) at subsonic test section speeds was reestablished. Taking advantage of this new speed range, a subsonic research test program was scheduled for the 10x10 in the fall of 1996. However, many subsonic aircraft test models require an exhaust source to simulate main engine flow, engine bleed flows, and other phenomena. This was also true of the proposed test model, but at the time the 10x10 did not have a model exhaust capability. So, through an in-house effort over a period of only 5 months, a new model exhaust system was designed, installed, checked out, and made ready in time to support the scheduled test program.

  19. Heat-flux gage measurements on a flat plate at a Mach number of 4.6 in the VSD high speed wind tunnel, a feasibility test (LA28). [wind tunnel tests of measuring instruments for boundary layer flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of employing thin-film heat-flux gages was studied as a method of defining boundary layer characteristics at supersonic speeds in a high speed blowdown wind tunnel. Flow visualization techniques (using oil) were employed. Tabulated data (computer printouts), a test facility description, and photographs of test equipment are given.

  20. A study of the noise radiation from four helicopter rotor blades. [tests in Ames 40 by 20 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A.; Mosher, M.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were taken of a modern helicopter rotor with four blade tip shapes in the NASA Ames 40-by-80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The four tip shapes are: rectangular, swept, trapezoidal, and swept tapered in platform. Acoustic effects due to tip shape changes were studied based on the dBA level, peak noise pressure, and subjective rating. The swept tapered blade was found to be the quietest above an advancing tip Mach number of about 0.9, and the swept blade was the quietest at low speed. The measured high speed impulsive noise was compared with theoretical predictions based on thickness effects; good agreement was found.

  1. A numerical study of the effects of wind tunnel wall proximity on an airfoil model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potsdam, Mark; Roberts, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    A procedure was developed for modeling wind tunnel flows using computational fluid dynamics. Using this method, a numerical study was undertaken to explore the effects of solid wind tunnel wall proximity and Reynolds number on a two-dimensional airfoil model at low speed. Wind tunnel walls are located at varying wind tunnel height to airfoil chord ratios and the results are compared with freestream flow in the absence of wind tunnel walls. Discrepancies between the constrained and unconstrained flows can be attributed to the presence of the walls. Results are for a Mach Number of 0.25 at angles of attack through stall. A typical wind tunnel Reynolds number of 1,200,000 and full-scale flight Reynolds number of 6,000,000 were investigated. At this low Mach number, wind tunnel wall corrections to Mach number and angle of attack are supported. Reynolds number effects are seen to be a consideration in wind tunnel testing and wall interference correction methods. An unstructured grid Navier-Stokes code is used with a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The numerical method is described since unstructured flow solvers present several difficulties and fundamental differences from structured grid codes, especially in the area of turbulence modeling and grid generation.

  2. Transonic wind tunnel tests of a .015 scale space shuttle orbiter model, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struzynski, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    Transonic wind tunnel tests were run on a 0.015 scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle in an eight-foot tunnel during August 1975. The purpose of the program was to obtain basic shuttle aerodynamic data through a full range of elevon and aileron deflections, verification of data obtained at other facilities, and effects of Reynolds numbers. The second part of a discussion of test procedures and results in both tabular and graphical form were presented. Tests were performed at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 1.20, and at Reynolds numbers from 3.5 million to 8.2 million per foot. The angle of attack was varied from -2 to +20 degrees at sideslip angles of -2, 0, +2 degrees. Sideslip was varied from -6 to +8 degrees at constant angles of attack from 0 to +20 degrees. Various aileron and ailevon settings were tested for various angles of attack.

  3. Wind Tunnel Aeroacoustic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.; Oerlemans, S.

    2003-12-01

    Aeroacoustic tests of seven airfoils were performed in an open jet anechoic wind tunnel. Six of the airfoils are candidates for use on small wind turbines operating at low Reynolds number. One airfoil was tested for comparison to benchmark data. Tests were conducted with and without boundary layer tripping. In some cases a turbulence grid was placed upstream in the test section to investigate inflow turbulence noise. An array of 48 microphones was used to locate noise sources and separate airfoil noise from extraneous tunnel noise. Trailing edge noise was dominant for all airfoils in clean tunnel flow. With the boundary layer untripped, several airfoils exhibited pure tones that disappeared after proper tripping was applied. In the presence of inflow turbulence, leading edge noise was dominant for all airfoils.

  4. Transonic wind tunnel tests of A.015 scale space shuttle orbiter model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struzynski, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    Transonic wind tunnel tests were run on a 0.015 scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle in an eight-foot tunnel during August 1975. The purpose of the program was to obtain basic shuttle aerodynamic data through a full range of elevon and aileron deflections, verification of data obtained at other facilities, and effects of Reynolds numbers. The first part of a discussion of test procedures and results in both tabular and graphical form were presented. Tests were performed at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 1.20, and at Reynolds numbers for 3.5 million to 8.2 million per foot. The angle of attack was varied from -1 to +20 degrees at sideslip angles of -2, 0, +2 degrees. Sideslip was varied from -6 to +8 degrees at constant angles of attack from 0 to +20 degrees. Various aileron and ailevon settings were tested for various angles of attack.

  5. Analysis of the wind tunnel test of a tilt rotor power force model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, R. L.; Ford, D. G.; Ferguson, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two series of wind tunnel tests were made to determine performance, stability and control, and rotor wake interaction on the airframe, using a one-tenth scale powered force model of a tilt rotor aircraft. Testing covered hover (IGE/OCE), helicopter, conversion, and airplane flight configurations. Forces and moments were recorded for the model from predetermined trim attitudes. Control positions were adjusted to trim flight (one-g lift, pitching moment and drag zero) within the uncorrected test data balance accuracy. Pitch and yaw sweeps were made about the trim attitudes with the control held at the trimmed settings to determine the static stability characteristics. Tail on, tail off, rotors on, and rotors off configurations were testes to determine the rotor wake effects on the empennage. Results are presented and discussed.

  6. Wind Tunnel Testing of Microtabs and Microjets for Active Load Control of Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, Aubryn Murray

    Increases in wind turbine size have made controlling loads on the blades an important consideration for future turbine designs. One approach that could reduce extreme loads and minimize load variation is to incorporate active control devices into the blades that are able to change the aerodynamic forces acting on the turbine. A wind tunnel model has been constructed to allow testing of different active aerodynamic load control devices. Two such devices have been tested in the UC Davis Aeronautical Wind Tunnel: microtabs and microjets. Microtabs are small surfaces oriented perpendicular to an airfoil surface that can be deployed and retracted to alter the lift coefficient of the airfoil. Microjets produce similar effects using air blown perpendicular to the airfoil surface. Results are presented here for both static and dynamic performance of the two devices. Microtabs, located at 95% chord on the lower surface and 90% chord on the upper surface, with a height of 1% chord, produce a change in the lift coefficient of 0.18, increasing lift when deployed on the lower surface and decreasing lift when deployed on the upper surface. Microjets with a momentum coefficient of 0.006 at the same locations produce a change in the lift coefficient of 0.19. The activation time for both devices is less than 0.3 s, which is rapid compared to typical gust rise times. The potential of active device to mitigate changes in loads was tested using simulated gusts. The gusts were produced in the wind tunnel by accelerating the test section air speed at rates of up to 7 ft/s 2. Open-loop control of microtabs was tested in two modes: simultaneous and sequential tab deployment. Activating all tabs along the model span simultaneously was found to produce a change in the loads that occurred more rapidly than a gust. Sequential tab deployment more closely matched the rates of change due to gusts and tab deployment. A closed-loop control system was developed for the microtabs using a simple

  7. Correaltion of full-scale drag predictions with flight measurements on the C-141A aircraft. Phase 2: Wind tunnel test, analysis, and prediction techniques. Volume 1: Drag predictions, wind tunnel data analysis and correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macwilkinson, D. G.; Blackerby, W. T.; Paterson, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The degree of cruise drag correlation on the C-141A aircraft is determined between predictions based on wind tunnel test data, and flight test results. An analysis of wind tunnel tests on a 0.0275 scale model at Reynolds number up to 3.05 x 1 million/MAC is reported. Model support interference corrections are evaluated through a series of tests, and fully corrected model data are analyzed to provide details on model component interference factors. It is shown that predicted minimum profile drag for the complete configuration agrees within 0.75% of flight test data, using a wind tunnel extrapolation method based on flat plate skin friction and component shape factors. An alternative method of extrapolation, based on computed profile drag from a subsonic viscous theory, results in a prediction four percent lower than flight test data.

  8. Free-to-Roll Testing of Airplane Models in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Owens, D. Bruce; Hall, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    A free-to-roll (FTR) test technique and test rig make it possible to evaluate both the transonic performance and the wingdrop/ rock behavior of a high-strength airplane model in a single wind-tunnel entry. The free-to-roll test technique is a single degree-of-motion method in which the model is free to roll about the longitudinal axis. The rolling motion is observed, recorded, and analyzed to gain insight into wing-drop/rock behavior. Wing-drop/rock is one of several phenomena symptomatic of abrupt wing stall. FTR testing was developed as part of the NASA/Navy Abrupt Wing Stall Program, which was established for the purposes of understanding and preventing significant unexpected and uncommanded (thus, highly undesirable) lateral-directional motions associated with wing-drop/rock, which have been observed mostly in fighter airplanes under high-subsonic and transonic maneuvering conditions. Before FTR testing became available, wingrock/ drop behavior of high-performance airplanes undergoing development was not recognized until flight testing. FTR testing is a reliable means of detecting, and evaluating design modifications for reducing or preventing, very complex abrupt wing stall phenomena in a ground facility prior to flight testing. The FTR test rig was designed to replace an older sting attachment butt, such that a model with its force balance and support sting could freely rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rig (see figure) includes a rotary head supported in a stationary head with a forward spherical roller bearing and an aft needle bearing. Rotation is amplified by a set of gears and measured by a shaft-angle resolver; the roll angle can be resolved to within 0.067 degrees at a rotational speed up to 1,000 degrees/s. An assembly of electrically actuated brakes between the rotary and stationary heads can be used to hold the model against a rolling torque at a commanded roll angle. When static testing is required, a locking bar is used to fix the rotating

  9. Wind tunnel and ground static tests of a .094 scale powered model of a modified T-39 lift/cruise fan V/STOL research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, D.; Clinglan, J.; Salemann, V.; Omar, E.

    1977-01-01

    Ground static and wind tunnel test of a scale model modified T-39 airplane are reported. The configuration in the nose and replacement of the existing nacelles with tilting lift/cruise fans. The model was powered with three 14 cm diameter tip driven turbopowered simulators. Forces and moments were measured by an internal strain guage balance. Engine simulator thrust and mass flow were measured by calibrated pressure and temperature instrumentation mounted downstream of the fans. The low speed handling qualities and general aerodynamic characteristics of the modified T-39 were defined. Test variables include thrust level and thrust balance, forward speed, model pitch and sideslip angle at forward speeds, model pitch, roll, and ground height during static tests, lift/cruise fan tilt angle, flap and aileron deflection angle, and horizonal stabilizer angle. The effects of removing the landing gear, the lift/cruise fans, and the tail surfaces were also investigated.

  10. Nozzle diffuser for use with an open test section of a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. Stephen (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The nozzle diffuser has an inlet in fluid communication with the narrowed inlet of an open test chamber in a conventional wind tunnel. The nozzle diffuser has a passageway extending from its inlet to an outlet in communication with the open test section. The passageway has an internal cross sectional area which increases from its inlet to its outlet and which may be defined by top and bottom isosceles trapezoid walls of a particular flare angle and by isosceles trapezoid side walls of a different flare angle. In addition, a collector having a decreasing internal cross sectional area from inlet to outlet may be provided at the opposite end of the test chamber such that its outlet is in communication with a diffuser located at this outlet.

  11. ViDI: Virtual Diagnostics Interface. Volume 1; The Future of Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Technical Monitor); Schwartz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of data acquired in a given test facility ultimately resides within the fidelity and implementation of the instrumentation systems. Over the last decade, the emergence of robust optical techniques has vastly expanded the envelope of measurement possibilities. At the same time the capabilities for data processing, data archiving and data visualization required to extract the highest level of knowledge from these global, on and off body measurement techniques have equally expanded. Yet today, while the instrumentation has matured to the production stage, an optimized solution for gaining knowledge from the gigabytes of data acquired per test (or even per test point) is lacking. A technological void has to be filled in order to possess a mechanism for near-real time knowledge extraction during wind tunnel experiments. Under these auspices, the Virtual Diagnostics Interface, or ViDI, was developed.

  12. Development of an Active Twist Rotor for Wind: Tunnel Testing (NLPN97-310

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, SangJoon; Hagood, Nesbitt W., IV

    1998-01-01

    The development of the Active Twist Rotor prototype blade for hub vibration and noise reduction studies is presented in this report. Details of the modeling, design, and manufacturing are explored. The rotor blade is integrally twisted by direct strain actuation. This is accomplished by distributing embedded piezoelectric fiber composites along the span of the blade. The development of the analysis framework for this type of active blade is presented. The requirements for the prototype blade, along with the final design results are also presented. A detail discussion on the manufacturing aspects of the prototype blade is described. Experimental structural characteristics of the prototype blade compare well with design goals, and preliminary bench actuation tests show lower performance than originally predicted. Electrical difficulties with the actuators are also discussed. The presented prototype blade is leading to a complete fully articulated four-blade active twist rotor system for future wind tunnel tests.

  13. Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test of a Flare-type Membrane Aeroshell for Atmospheric Entry Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Koyama, Masashi; Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kojiro; Abe, Takashi; Koichi Hayashi, A.

    A flexible aeroshell for atmospheric entry vehicles has attracted attention as an innovative space transportation system. In this study, hypersonic wind tunnel tests were carried out to investigate the behavior, aerodynamic characteristics and aerodynamic heating environment in hypersonic flow for a previously developed capsule-type vehicle with a flare-type membrane aeroshell made of ZYLON textile sustained by a rigid torus frame. Two different models with different flare angles (45º and 60º) were tested to experimentally clarify the effect of flare angle. Results indicate that flare angle of aeroshell has significant and complicate effect on flow field and aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flow at Mach 9.45 and the flare angle is very important parameter for vehicle design with the flare-type membrane aeroshell.

  14. Evaluation and Analysis of F-16XL Wind Tunnel Data From Static and Dynamic Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sungwan; Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav

    2004-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center as part of an ongoing effort to develop and test mathematical models for aircraft rigid-body aerodynamics in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes. Analysis of measurement accuracy, especially for nonlinear dynamic systems that may exhibit complicated behaviors, is an essential component of this ongoing effort. In this report, tools for harmonic analysis of dynamic data and assessing measurement accuracy are presented. A linear aerodynamic model is assumed that is appropriate for conventional forced-oscillation experiments, although more general models can be used with these tools. Application of the tools to experimental data is demonstrated and results indicate the levels of uncertainty in output measurements that can arise from experimental setup, calibration procedures, mechanical limitations, and input errors.

  15. RSRA sixth scale wind tunnel test. Tabulated balance data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddell, A.; Flemming, R.

    1974-01-01

    Summaries are presented of all the force and moment data acquired during the RSRA Sixth Scale Wind Tunnel Test. These data include and supplement the data presented in curve form in previous reports. Each summary includes the model configuration, wing and empennage incidences and deflections, and recorded balance data. The first group of data in each summary presents the force and moment data in full scale parametric form, the dynamic pressure and velocity in the test section, and the powered nacelle fan speed. The second and third groups of data are the balance data in nondimensional coefficient form. The wind axis coefficient data corresponds to the parametric data divided by the wing area for forces and divided by the product of the wing area and wing span or mean aerodynamic chord for moments. The stability axis data resolves the wind axis data with respect to the angle of yaw.

  16. Scale Effect on Clark Y Airfoil Characteristics from NACA Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe

    1935-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the Clark Y airfoil over a large range of Reynolds numbers. Three airfoils of aspect ratio 6 and with 4, 6, and 8 foot chords were tested at velocities between 25 and 118 miles per hour, and the characteristics were obtained for Reynolds numbers (based on the airfoil chord) in the range between 1,000,000 and 9,000,000 at the low angles of attack, and between 1,000,000 and 6,000,000 at maximum lift. With increasing Reynolds number the airfoil characteristics are affected in the following manner: the drag at zero lift decreases, the maximum lift increases, the slope of the lift curve increases, the angle of zero lift occurs at smaller negative angles, and the pitching moment at zero lift does not change appreciably.

  17. DDS-Suite - A Dynamic Data Acquisition, Processing, and Analysis System for Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Jathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Wind Tunnels have optimized their steady-state data systems for acquisition and analysis and even implemented large dynamic-data acquisition systems, however development of near real-time processing and analysis tools for dynamic-data have lagged. DDS-Suite is a set of tools used to acquire, process, and analyze large amounts of dynamic data. Each phase of the testing process: acquisition, processing, and analysis are handled by separate components so that bottlenecks in one phase of the process do not affect the other, leading to a robust system. DDS-Suite is capable of acquiring 672 channels of dynamic data at rate of 275 MB / s. More than 300 channels of the system use 24-bit analog-to-digital cards and are capable of producing data with less than 0.01 of phase difference at 1 kHz. System architecture, design philosophy, and examples of use during NASA Constellation and Fundamental Aerodynamic tests are discussed.

  18. Experimental Data from the Benchmark SuperCritical Wing Wind Tunnel Test on an Oscillating Turntable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Piatak, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The Benchmark SuperCritical Wing (BSCW) wind tunnel model served as a semi-blind testcase for the 2012 AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop (AePW). The BSCW was chosen as a testcase due to its geometric simplicity and flow physics complexity. The data sets examined include unforced system information and forced pitching oscillations. The aerodynamic challenges presented by this AePW testcase include a strong shock that was observed to be unsteady for even the unforced system cases, shock-induced separation and trailing edge separation. The current paper quantifies these characteristics at the AePW test condition and at a suggested benchmarking test condition. General characteristics of the model's behavior are examined for the entire available data set.

  19. Dry wind tunnel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.

  20. An engineering study of hybrid adaptation of wind tunnel walls for three-dimensional testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clinton; Kalumuck, Kenneth; Waxman, David

    1987-01-01

    Solid wall tunnels having only upper and lower walls flexing are described. An algorithm for selecting the wall contours for both 2 and 3 dimensional wall flexure is presented and numerical experiments are used to validate its applicability to the general test case of 3 dimensional lifting aircraft models in rectangular cross section wind tunnels. The method requires an initial approximate representation of the model flow field at a given lift with wallls absent. The numerical methods utilized are derived by use of Green's source solutions obtained using the method of images; first order linearized flow theory is employed with Prandtl-Glauert compressibility transformations. Equations are derived for the flexed shape of a simple constant thickness plate wall under the influence of a finite number of jacks in an axial row along the plate centerline. The Green's source methods are developed to provide estimations of residual flow distortion (interferences) with measured wall pressures and wall flow inclinations as inputs.

  1. Computer simulation of a wind tunnel test section with discrete finite-length wall slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, W. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer simulation of a slotted wind tunnel test section which includes a discrete, finite-length wall slot representation with plenum chamber constraints and accounts for the nonlinear effects of the dynamic pressure of the slot outflow jet and of the low energy of slot inflow air was developed. The simulation features were selected to be those appropriate for the intended subsequent use of the simulation in a wall interference assessment procedure using sparsely located wall pressure measurements. It is demonstrated that accounting for slot discreteness is important in interpreting wall pressure measured between slots, and that accounting for nonlinear slot flow effects produces significant changes in tunnel-induced velocity distributions and, in particular, produces a longitudinal component of tunnel-induced velocity due to model lift. A characteristic mode of tunnel flow interaction with constraints imposed by the plenum chamber and diffuser entrance is apparent in simulation results and is derived analytically through a simplified analysis.

  2. Dynamic Wind-Tunnel Testing of a Sub-Scale Iced S-3B Viking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Barnhart, Billy; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ice accretion on a 1/12-scale complete aircraft model of S-3B Viking was studied in a rotary-balance wind tunnel. Two types of ice accretions were considered: ice protection system failure shape and runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal ice protection system. The results showed that the ice shapes altered the stall characteristics of the aircraft. The ice shapes also reduced the control surface effectiveness, but mostly near the stall angle of attack. There were some discrepancies with the data with the flaps deflected that were attributed to the low Reynolds number of the test. Rotational and forced-oscillation studies showed that the effects of ice were mostly in the longitudinal forces, and the effects on the lateral forces were relatively minor.

  3. An integrated knowledge system for wind tunnel testing - Project Engineers' Intelligent Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Hoyt, W. A.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Project Engineers' Intelligent Assistant (PEIA) is an integrated knowledge system developed using artificial intelligence technology, including hypertext, expert systems, and dynamic user interfaces. This system integrates documents, engineering codes, databases, and knowledge from domain experts into an enriched hypermedia environment and was designed to assist project engineers in planning and conducting wind tunnel tests. PEIA is a modular system which consists of an intelligent user-interface, seven modules and an integrated tool facility. Hypermedia technology is discussed and the seven PEIA modules are described. System maintenance and updating is very easy due to the modular structure and the integrated tool facility provides user access to commercial software shells for documentation, reporting, or database updating. PEIA is expected to provide project engineers with technical information, increase efficiency and productivity, and provide a realistic tool for personnel training.

  4. Comparison of Force and Moment Coefficients for the Same Test Article in Multiple Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the results of force and moment measurements made on the same test article and with the same balance in three transonic wind tunnels. Comparisons are made for the same combination of Reynolds number, Mach number, sideslip angle, control surface configuration, and angle of attack range. Between-tunnel force and moment differences are quantified. An analysis of variance was performed at four unique sites in the design space to assess the statistical significance of between-tunnel variation and any interaction with angle of attack. Tunnel to tunnel differences too large to attribute to random error were detected were observed for all forces and moments. In some cases these differences were independent of angle of attack and in other cases they changed with angle of attack.

  5. Natural laminar flow wing for supersonic conditions: Wind tunnel experiments, flight test and stability computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Olivier; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueda, Yoshine; Arnal, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of next supersonic transport airplane generation, the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a new natural laminar flow highly swept wing. The design has been experimentally validated firstly in a supersonic wind tunnel and secondly accomplishing flight test. These experimental data were then analyzed and completed by numerical stability analyses in a joint research program between Onera and JAXA. At the design condition, for a Mach number M=2 at an altitude of h=18 km, results have confirmed the laminar design of the wing due to a strong attenuation of cross-flow instabilities ensuring an extended laminar zone. As the amplification of disturbances inside the boundary layer and transition process is very sensitive to external parameters, the impact of wall roughness of the models and the influence of Reynolds number on transition process have been carefully analyzed.

  6. Large-scale aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as tested in the variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Anderson, Raymond F

    1931-01-01

    In order to give the large-scale characteristics of a variety of airfoils in a form which will be of maximum value, both for airplane design and for the study of airfoil characteristics, a collection has been made of the results of airfoil tests made at full-scale values of the reynolds number in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They have been corrected for tunnel wall interference and are presented not only in the conventional form but also in a form which facilitates the comparison of airfoils and from which corrections may be easily made to any aspect ratio. An example showing the method of correcting the results to a desired aspect ratio has been given for the convenience of designers. In addition, the data have been analyzed with a view to finding the variation of the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with their thickness and camber.

  7. Heat Transfer Testing in the NSWC Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel Utilizing Co-Axial Surface Thermocouples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-19

    8217 DT L FILE COPY I NSWC MP 80-151 AD- A225 273 HEAT TRANSFER TESTING IN THE NSWC HYPERVELOCITY WIND TUNNEL UTILIZING I CO-AXIAL SURFACE...ui - z Ur) 2 MIT- UA U*) C> In> (NJ 01 0017 20 U NSWC MP 80-151 Iz It c 06I- U) zII 00a Lii Vl 0 1 2 - cr > zI 0 z U-- 01 OT ’O _ _ _~i 01 01 NSWC MP...CS.LN’X -- - - - -jJ -f- - - - Z r- - - ~ ~ - -- 4 I ------ ----- ----- ----------------------------------- V n A j) r A r% Cr r, -r n rO A r. A A C

  8. Wind-tunnel Tests of the Fowler Variable-area Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Platt, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    The lift, drag, and center of pressure characteristics of a model of the Fowler variable-area wing were measured in the NACA 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. The Fowler wing consists of a combination of a main wing and an extension surface, also of airfoil section. The extension surface can be entirely retracted within the lower rear portion of the main wing or it can be moved to the rear and downward. The tests were made with the nose of the extension airfoil in various positions near the trailing edge of the main wing and with the surface at various angular deflections. The highest lift coefficient obtained was C(sub L) = 3.17 as compared with 1.27 for the main wing alone.

  9. A swept wing panel in a low speed flexible walled test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The testing of two-dimensional airfoil sections in adaptive wall tunnels is relatively widespread and has become routine at all speeds up to transonic. In contrast, the experience with the three-dimensional testing of swept panels in adaptive wall test sections is very limited, except for some activity in the 1940's at NPL, London. The current interest in testing swept wing panels led to the work covered by this report, which describes the design of an adaptive-wall swept-wing test section for a low speed wind tunnel and gives test results for a wing panel swept at 40 deg. The test section has rigid flat sidewalls supporting the panel, and features flexible top and bottom wall with ribs swept at the same angle as the wing. When streamlined, the walls form waves swept at the same angle as the wing. The C sub L (-) curve for the swept wing, determined from its pressure distributions taken with the walls streamlined, compare well with reference data which was taken on the same model, unswept, in a test section deep enough to avoid wall interference.

  10. Results of two tests in the MSFC 14 by 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel, FA 27 (TWT-655) and FA 28 (TWT-656)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braddock, W. F.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted in a 14- inch wind tunnel with a 0.004 scale model of the space shuttle launch vehicle in order to (1) determine the cause and possible aerodynamic alterations required to eliminate the Orbiter rolling moment couple; (2) determine configuration alterations to alleviate the forward Orbiter external tank loads; and (3) provide data to verify previous data.

  11. Results of a landing gear loads test using a 0.0405-scale model (16-0) of the space shuttle orbiter in the Rockwell International NAAL wind tunnel (OA163), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter configuration in the low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to define the orbiter landing gear system pressure loading and to record landing gear door and strut hingemoment levels. Secondary objectives included recording the aerodynamic influence of various landing gear configurations on orbiter force data as well as investigating 40 x 80 ft. Ames Wind Tunnel strut simulation effects on both orbiter landing gear loads and aerodynamic characteristics. Testing was conducted at a Mach number of 0.17, free stream dynamic pressure of 42.5 PSF, and Reynolds number per unit length of 1.2 million per foot. Angle of attack variation was 0 to 20 while yaw angles ranged from -10 to 10 deg.

  12. Supersonic Aftbody Closure Wind-Tunnel Testing, Data Analysis, and Computational Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jerry; Martin, Grant; Kubiatko, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the model, test, and results from the Langley Supersonic Aftbody Closure wind tunnel test. This project is an experimental evaluation of the 1.5% Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) aftbody closure model (Model 23) in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The baseline TCA design is the result of a multidisciplinary, multipoint optimization process and was developed using linear design and analysis methods, supplemented with Euler and Navier-Stokes numerical methods. After a thorough design review, it was decided to use an upswept blade attached to the forebody as the mounting system. Structural concerns dictated that a wingtip support system would not be feasible. Only the aftbody part of the model is metric. The metric break was chosen to be at the fuselage station where prior aft-sting supported models had been truncated. Model 23 is thus a modified version of Model 20. The wing strongback, flap parts, and nacelles from Model 20 were used, whereas new aftbodies, a common forebody, and some new tails were fabricated. In summary, significant differences in longitudinal and direction stability and control characteristics between the ABF and ABB aftbody geometries were measured. Correcting the experimental data obtained for the TCA configuration with the flared aftbody to the representative of the baseline TCA closed aftbody will result in a significant reduction in longitudinal stability, a moderate reduction in stabilizer effectiveness and directional stability, and a moderate to significant reduction in rudder effectiveness. These reductions in the stability and control effectiveness levels of the baseline TCA closed aftbody are attributed to the reduction in carry-over area.

  13. Modification of the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel for component acoustic testing for the second generation supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Allmen, J. R.; Soderman, P. T.

    1994-01-01

    The development of a large-scale anechoic test facility where large models of engine/airframe/high-lift systems can be tested for both improved noise reduction and minimum performance degradation is described. The facility development is part of the effort to investigate economically viable methods of reducing second generation high speed civil transport noise during takeoff and climb-out that is now under way in the United States. This new capability will be achieved through acoustic modifications of NASA's second largest subsonic wind tunnel: the 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. Three major items are addressed in the design of this large anechoic and quiet wind tunnel: a new deep (42 inch (107 cm)) test section liner, expansion of the wind tunnel drive operating envelope at low rpm to reduce background noise, and other promising methods of improving signal-to-noise levels of inflow microphones. Current testing plans supporting the U.S. high speed civil transport program are also outlined.

  14. Design and preliminary test results at Mach 5 of an axisymmetric slotted sound shield. [for supersonic wind tunnels (noise reduction in wind tunnel nozzles)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Spokowski, A. J.; Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic theory and sound attenuation mechanisms, the design procedures, and preliminary experimental results are presented for a small axisymmetric sound shield for supersonic wind tunnels. The shield consists of an array of small diameter rods aligned nearly parallel to the entrance flow with small gaps between the rods for boundary layer suction. Results show that at the lowest test Reynolds number (based on rod diameter) of 52,000 the noise shield reduced the test section noise by about 60 percent ( or 8 db attenuation) but no attenuation was measured for the higher range of test reynolds numbers from 73,000 to 190,000. These results are below expectations based on data reported elsewhere on a flat sound shield model. The smaller attenuation from the present tests is attributed to insufficient suction at the gaps to prevent feedback of vacuum manifold noise into the shielded test flow and to insufficient suction to prevent transition of the rod boundary layers to turbulent flow at the higher Reynolds numbers. Schlieren photographs of the flow are shown.

  15. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  16. Study of the integration of wind tunnel and computational methods for aerodynamic configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Lindsey E.; Ashby, Dale L.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of using a low-order panel code to estimate wind tunnel wall corrections. The corrections were found by two computations. The first computation included the test model and the surrounding wind tunnel walls, while in the second computation the wind tunnel walls were removed. The difference between the force and moment coefficients obtained by comparing these two cases allowed the determination of the wall corrections. The technique was verified by matching the test-section, wall-pressure signature from a wind tunnel test with the signature predicted by the panel code. To prove the viability of the technique, two cases were considered. The first was a two-dimensional high-lift wing with a flap that was tested in the 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The second was a 1/32-scale model of the F/A-18 aircraft which was tested in the low-speed wind tunnel at San Diego State University. The panel code used was PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center). Results of this study indicate that the proposed wind tunnel wall correction method is comparable to other methods and that it also inherently includes the corrections due to model blockage and wing lift.

  17. Results of investigations on a 0.0405 scale model ATP version of the NR-SSV orbiter in the North American Aeronautical Laboratory low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R.; Vaughn, J. E.; Singellton, R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a scale model space shuttle vehicle (SSV) orbiter. The purpose of the test was to investigate the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics. Emphasis was placed on model component, wing-glove, and wing-body fairing effects, as well as elevon, aileron, and rudder control effectiveness. Angles of attack from - 5 deg to + 30 deg and angles of sideslip from - 5 deg to + 10 deg were tested. Static pressures were recorded on base, fuselage, and wing surfaces. Tufts and talc-kerosene flow visualization techniques were also utilized. The aerodynamic force balance results are presented in plotted and tabular form.

  18. Blockage Testing in the NASA Glenn 225 Square Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevier, Abigail; Davis, David; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A feasibility study is in progress at NASA Glenn Research Center to implement a magnetic suspension and balance system in the 225 sq cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel for the purpose of testing the dynamic stability of blunt bodies. An important area of investigation in this study was determining the optimum size of the model and the iron spherical core inside of it. In order to minimize the required magnetic field and thus the size of the magnetic suspension system, it was determined that the test model should be as large as possible. Blockage tests were conducted to determine the largest possible model that would allow for tunnel start at Mach 2, 2.5, and 3. Three different forebody model geometries were tested at different Mach numbers, axial locations in the tunnel, and in both a square and axisymmetric test section. Experimental results showed that different model geometries produced more varied results at higher Mach Numbers. It was also shown that testing closer to the nozzle allowed larger models to start compared with testing near the end of the test section. Finally, allowable model blockage was larger in the axisymmetric test section compared with the square test section at the same Mach number. This testing answered key questions posed by the feasibility study and will be used in the future to dictate model size and performance required from the magnetic suspension system.

  19. Noise testing of an advanced design propeller in the Boeing transonic wind tunnel with and without test section acoustic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, B. M., Jr.; Plunkett, E. I.; Simcox, C. D.

    1984-10-01

    Noise tests using the NASA SR-6 advanced design propeller in the Boeing Transonic Wind Tunnel have recently been completed. Measurements were taken both with and without an acoustically treated test section. A wide range of helical tip speeds and power loadings were explored. Noise test techniques, previously not applied to advanced design propeller testing, have shown results indicating an increased level of confidence in the measured signatures. Typical results are presented along with recommendations for future noise tests and elementary empirical prediction methods for the SR-6.

  20. Device for quick changeover between wind tunnel force and pressure testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This device allows for expeditious and repeated changeovers between pressure and force testing and which uses a minimum internal volume of a wind tunnel test structure. A matrix configuration of holes is located on the outer surface of the structure. Pressure tubes lead through the internal cavity of the structure from test sites to this outer surface matrix configuration. A pressure tube connector with a corresponding matrix of holes is connected to the surface of the structure. Pressure tubes leading from remotely located transducers are joined to the connector, thus forming pressure passageways from the test sites to the transducers to allow for pressure testing. When force testing is required, the pressure tube connector is disconnected and a cover plate is connected. The cover plate seals the exposed internal pressure tubes. Also, the outer surface of the cover plate conforms to the exterior of the structure, providing the necessary smooth surface for force testing. If further pressure testing is required, the cover plate can be disconnected and the pressure tube connector reconnected.

  1. Large-scale V/STOL testing. [conducted in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. G.; Aiken, T. N.; Aoyagi, K.; Falarshi, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several facets of large-scale testing of V/STOL aircraft configurations are discussed with particular emphasis on test experience in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Examples of powered-lift test programs are presented in order to illustrate tradeoffs confronting the planner of V/STOL test programs. Large-scale V/STOL wind-tunnel testing can sometimes compete with small-scale testing in the effort required (overall test time) and program costs because of the possibility of conducting a number of different tests with a single large-scale model where several small-scale models would be required. The benefits of both high- or full-scale Reynolds numbers, more detailed configuration simulation, and number and type of onboard measurements are studied.

  2. Wind Tunnel Test of Subscale Ringsail and Disk-Gap-Band Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Cruz, Juan R.; Keller, Donald F.; O'Farrell, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A subsonic wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the drag and static aerodynamic coefficients, as well as to capture the dynamic motions of a new Supersonic Ringsail parachute developed by the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project. To provide a comparison against current Mars parachute technology, the Mars Science Laboratory's Disk-Gap-Band parachute was also included in the test. To account for the effect of fabric permeability, two fabrics ("low" and "standard" permeability) were used to fabricate each parachute canopy type, creating four combinations of canopy type and fabric material. A wide range of test conditions were covered during the test, spanning Mach numbers from 0.09 to 0.5, and static pressures from 103 to 2116 pounds per square inch (psf) (nominal values). The fabric permeability is shown to have a first-order effect on the aerodynamic coefficients and dynamic motions of the parachutes. For example, for a given parachute type and test condition, models fabricated from "low" permeability fabric always have a larger drag coefficient than models fabricated from "standard" permeability material. This paper describes the test setup and conditions, how the results were analyzed, and presents and discusses a sample of the results. The data collected during this test is being used to create and improve parachute aerodynamic databases for use in flight dynamics simulations for missions to Mars.

  3. Wind tunnel performance results of an aeroelastically scaled 2/9 model of the PTA flight test prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Rose, Gayle E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    High speed wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests of the SR-7A advanced prop-fan have been completed in support of the Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. The test showed that the SR-7A model performed aerodynamically very well. At the cruise design condition, the SR-7A prop fan had a high measured net efficiency of 79.3 percent.

  4. Propfan test assessment testbed aircraft stability and control/performance 1/9-scale wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H., Jr.; Tomlin, K. H.; Aljabri, A. S.; Mason, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    One-ninth scale wind tunnel model tests of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft were performed in three different NASA facilities. Wing and propfan nacelle static pressures, model forces and moments, and flow field at the propfan plane were measured in these tests. Tests started in June 1985 and were completed in January 1987. These data were needed to assure PTA safety of flight, predict PTA performance, and validate analytical codes that will be used to predict flow fields in which the propfan will operate.

  5. Check Calibration of the NASA Glenn 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (2014 Test Entry)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Aaron; Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Arrington, E. Allen

    2016-01-01

    A check calibration of the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) was conducted in May/June 2014 using an array of five supersonic wedge probes to verify the 1999 Calibration. This check calibration was necessary following a control systems upgrade and an integrated systems test (IST). This check calibration was required to verify the tunnel flow quality was unchanged by the control systems upgrade prior to the next test customer beginning their test entry. The previous check calibration of the tunnel occurred in 2007, prior to the Mars Science Laboratory test program. Secondary objectives of this test entry included the validation of the new Cobra data acquisition system (DAS) against the current Escort DAS and the creation of statistical process control (SPC) charts through the collection of series of repeated test points at certain predetermined tunnel parameters. The SPC charts secondary objective was not completed due to schedule constraints. It is hoped that this effort will be readdressed and completed in the near future.

  6. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 1: Wind tunnel test pressure data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilz, D. E.; Devereaux, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 1 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Pressure Data Report.

  7. Inlet Unstart Propulsion Integration Wind Tunnel Test Program Completed for High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert

    2000-01-01

    One of the propulsion system concepts to be considered for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) is an underwing, dual-propulsion, pod-per-wing installation. Adverse transient phenomena such as engine compressor stall and inlet unstart could severely degrade the performance of one of these propulsion pods. The subsequent loss of thrust and increased drag could cause aircraft stability and control problems that could lead to a catastrophic accident if countermeasures are not in place to anticipate and control these detrimental transient events. Aircraft system engineers must understand what happens during an engine compressor stall and inlet unstart so that they can design effective control systems to avoid and/or alleviate the effects of a propulsion pod engine compressor stall and inlet unstart. The objective of the Inlet Unstart Propulsion Airframe Integration test program was to assess the underwing flow field of a High-Speed Civil Transport propulsion system during an engine compressor stall and subsequent inlet unstart. Experimental research testing was conducted in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The representative propulsion pod consisted of a two-dimensional, bifurcated inlet mated to a live turbojet engine. The propulsion pod was mounted below a large flat plate that acted as a wing simulator. Because of the plate s long length (nominally 10-ft wide by 18-ft long), realistic boundary layers could form at the inlet cowl plane. Transient instrumentation was used to document the aerodynamic flow-field conditions during an unstart sequence. Acquiring these data was a significant technical challenge because a typical unstart sequence disrupts the local flow field for about only 50 msec. Flow surface information was acquired via static pressure taps installed in the wing simulator, and intrusive pressure probes were used to acquire flow-field information. These data were extensively analyzed to

  8. Instrumentation applications to Space Shuttle models and thermal protection system tiles tested in NASA-AMES wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F.; Brownson, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of the many wind-tunnel tests conducted in the course of the Space Shuttle development program are presented with emphasis on instrumentation applications. The examples of tests discussed include airframe aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic noise, tile dynamic response, and tile loads. Many of the tests were conducted with standard wind-tunnel instrumentation. Most of the more unusual instrumentation requirements were related to the thermal protection system, where some pressure-sensor concepts were adapted to measure airloads on tiles. These measurements provided the only quantitative data that could be used to confirm the airload analysis procedure. Limited applications of computers to experimental control, in conjunction with data taken during Shuttle tests, have resulted in substantial benefits in overall test efficiency.

  9. Aerodynamic measurements and thermal tests of a strain-gage balance in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, Richmond P.; Ferris, Alice T.; Johnson, William G., Jr.; Dress, David A.; Hill, Acquilla S.

    1987-01-01

    An internal strain-gage balance designed and constructed in Europe for use in cryogenic wind tunnels has been tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Part of the evaluation was made at equilibrium balance temperatures and it consisted of comparing the data taken at a tunnel stagnation temperature of 300 K with the data taken at 200 K and 110 K while maintaining either the Reynolds number or the stagnation pressure. A sharp-leading-edge delta-wing model was used to provide the aerodynamic loading for these tests. Results obtained with the balance during the force tests were found to be accurate and repeatable both with and without the use of a convection shield on the balance. An additional part of this investigation involved obtaining data on the transient temperature response of the balance during both normal and rapid changes in the tunnel stagnation temperature. The variation of the temperature with time was measured at three locations on the balance near the physical locations of the strain gages. The use of a convection shield significantly increased the time required for the balance to stabilize at a new temperature during the temperature response tests.

  10. Testing of the Trim Tab Parametric Model in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    In support of NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing technology development efforts, testing of Langley's Trim Tab Parametric Models was conducted in Test Section 2 of NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate quantitative aerodynamic data and qualitative surface pressure data for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. Six component force-and-moment data were measured on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations at Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5, angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg, and angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg. Configuration parameters investigated in this study were forebody shape, tab area, tab cant angle, and tab aspect ratio. Pressure Sensitive Paint was used to provide qualitative surface pressure mapping for a subset of these flow and configuration variables. Over the range of parameters tested, the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than varying tab aspect ratio relative to key aerodynamic performance requirements. Qualitative surface pressure data supported the integrated aerodynamic data and provided information to aid in future analyses of localized phenomena for trim tab configurations.

  11. A smart model of a long-span suspended bridge for wind tunnel tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Diana, G.; Fossati, L.; Ripamonti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Traditional aeroelastic models rely only on good mechanical design and accurate crafting in order to match the required structural properties. This paper proposes an active regulation of their structural parameters in order to improve accuracy and reliability of wind tunnel tests. Following the design process steps typical of a smart structure, a damping tuning technique allowing to control a specific set of vibration modes is developed and applied on the aeroelastic model of a long-span suspended bridge. Depending on the testing conditions, the structural damping value can be adjusted in a fast, precise and repeatable way in order to highlight the effects of the aerodynamic phenomena of interest. In particular, vortex-induced vibration are taken into consideration, and the response of a bridge section to vortex shedding is assessed. The active parameter regulation allows to widen the pattern of operating conditions in which the model can be tested. The paper discusses the choice of both sensors and actuators to be embedded in the structure and their positioning, as the control algorithm to obtain the desired damping. Experimental results are shown and results are discussed to evaluate the performance of the smart structure in wind dunnel tests.

  12. Low-speed stability and control wind-tunnel investigations of effects of spanwise blowing on fighter flight characteristics at high angles of attack. [Langely 12-ft low-speed tunnel and 30- by 60-ft tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satran, D. R.; Gilbert, W. P.; Anglin, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of spanwise blowing on two configurations representative of current fighter airplanes were investigated. The two configurations differed only in wing planform, with one incorporating a trapezoidal wing and the other a 60 delta wing. Emphasis was on determining the lateral-directional characteristics, particularly in the stall/departure angle-of-attack range; however, the effects of spanwise blowing on the longitudinal aerodynamics were also determined. The-tunnel tests included measurement of static force and forced-oscillation aerodynamic data, visualization of the airflow changes created by the spanwise blowing, and free-flight model tests. The effects of blowing rate, chordwise location of the blowing ports, asymmetric blowing, and blowing on the conventional aerodynamic control characteristics were investigated. In the angle-of-attack regions in which the spanwise blowing substantially improved the wing upper-surface flow field (i.e., provided reattachment of the flow aft of the leading-edge vortex), improvements in both static and dynamic lateral-directional stability were observed. Blowing effects on stability could be proverse or adverse depending on blowing rate, blowing port loaction, and wing planform. Free-flight model tests of the trapezoidal wing confirmed the beneficial effects of spanwise blowing measured in the static and dynamic force tests.

  13. Analysis of the free-tip rotor wind-tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    The results from a wind tunnel test of a small scale free-tip rotor are analyzed. The free-tip rotor has blade tips that are free to weathervane into the tip's relative wind, thus producing a more uniform lift around the azimuth. The free-tip assembly, which includes the controller, functioned flawlessly throughout the test. In a test of the free-tip's response after passing through a vertical air jet, the tip pitched freely and in a controlled manner. Analysis of the tip's response characteristics showed the free-tip system's damped natural frequency to be 5.2 per rev. Tip pitch angle responses to the local airstream are presented for an advance-ratio range of 0.1 to 0.397 and for a solidity weighted rotor lift coefficient range of 0.038 to 0.092. Harmonic analysis of the responses showed a dominance by the first harmonic. As a result of the tip being free, forward flight power requirements were reduced by 8% or more. More power reduction was recorded for high thrust conditions. In addition to the power reduction, flatwise blade bending moments were reduced by as much as 30% at the inboard blade stations.

  14. Testing of Flexible Ballutes in Hypersonic Wind Tunnels for Planetary Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were conducted for the In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Ultralightweight Ballute Technology Development Program to increase the technical readiness level of inflatable decelerator systems for planetary aerocapture. The present experimental study was conducted to develop the capability for testing lightweight, flexible materials in hypersonic facilities. The primary objectives were to evaluate advanced polymer film materials in a high-temperature, high-speed flow environment and provide experimental data for comparisons with fluid-structure interaction modeling tools. Experimental testing was conducted in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory 20-Inch Hypersonic CF4 and 31-Inch Mach 10 Air blowdown wind tunnels. Quantitative flexure measurements were made for 60 degree half angle afterbody-attached ballutes, in which polyimide films (1-mil and 3- mil thick) were clamped between a 1/2-inch diameter disk and a base ring (4-inch and 6-inch diameters). Deflection measurements were made using a parallel light silhouette of the film surface through an existing schlieren optical system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss these results as well as free-flying testing techniques being developed for both an afterbody-attached and trailing toroidal ballute configuration to determine dynamic fluid-structural stability. Methods for measuring polymer film temperature were also explored using both temperature sensitive paints (for up to 370 C) and laser-etched thin-film gages.

  15. Testing of Flexible Ballutes in Hypersonic Wind Tunnels for Planetary Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    Studies were conducted for the In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Ultralightweight Ballute Technology Development Program to increase the technical readiness level of inflatable decelerator systems for planetary aerocapture. The present experimental study was conducted to develop the capability for testing lightweight, flexible materials in hypersonic facilities. The primary objectives were to evaluate advanced polymer film materials in a high-temperature, high-speed flow environment and provide experimental data for comparisons with fluid-structure interaction modeling tools. Experimental testing was conducted in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory 20-Inch Hypersonic CF4 and 31-Inch Mach 10 Air blowdown wind tunnels. Quantitative flexure measurements were made for 60 degree half angle afterbody-attached ballutes, in which polyimide films (1-mil and 3-mil thick) were clamped between a 1/2-inch diameter disk and a base ring (4-inch and 6-inch diameters). Deflection measurements were made using a parallel light silhouette of the film surface through an existing schlieren optical system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss these results as well as free-flying testing techniques being developed for both an afterbody-attached and trailing toroidal ballute configuration to determine dynamic fluid-structural stability. Methods for measuring polymer film temperature were also explored using both temperature sensitive paints (for up to 370 C) and laser-etched thin-film gages.

  16. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  17. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 6%-Scale Large Civil Tilt Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography ... build -up and model reconfiguration time, and ultimately reduced the cost of the test entry. In particular, the HETR wing and nacelle geometries were...shared between the two models, which reduced fabrication, build -up and model reconfiguration time, and ultimately reduced the cost of the test entry

  18. Fluid dynamic research at NASA-Ames Research Center related to transonic wind tunnel design and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhlstein, L., Jr.; Steinle, F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid dynamic research with the objective of developing new and improved technology in both test facility concepts and test techniques is being reported. A summary of efforts and results thus far obtained in four areas is presented. The four area are: (1) the use of heavy gases to obtain high Reynolds numbers at transonic speeds: (2) high Reynolds number tests of the C-141A wing configuration; (3) performance and flow quality of the pilot injector driven wind tunnel; and (4) integration time required to extract accurate static and dynamic data from tests in transonic wind tunnels. Some of the principal conclusions relative to each of the four areas are: (1) Initial attempts to apply analytical corrections to test results using gases with gamma other than 1.4 to simulate conditions in air show promise but need significant improvement; (2) for the C-141A configuration, no Reynolds number less than the full scale flight value provides an accurate simulation of the full scale flow; (3) high ratios of tunnel mass flow rate to injection mass flow rate and high flow quality can be obtained in an injector driven transonic wind tunnel; and (4) integration times of 0.5 to 1.0 sec may be required for static force and pressure tests, respectively, at some transonic test conditions in order to obtain the required data accuracy.

  19. High Lift Common Research Model for Wind Tunnel Testing: An Active Flow Control Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John C.; Melton, Latunia P.; Viken, Sally A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Koklu, Mehti; Hannon, Judith A.; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project to achieve the required high-lift performance using active flow control (AFC) on simple hinged flaps while reducing the cruise drag associated with the external mechanisms on slotted flaps of a generic modern transport aircraft. The removal of the external fairings for the Fowler flap mechanism could help to reduce drag by 3.3 counts. The main challenge is to develop an AFC system that can provide the necessary lift recovery on a simple hinged flap high-lift system while using the limited pneumatic power available on the aircraft. Innovative low-power AFC concepts will be investigated in the flap shoulder region. The AFC concepts being explored include steady blowing and unsteady blowing operating in the spatial and/or temporal domain. Both conventional and AFC-enabled high-lift configurations were designed for the current effort. The high-lift configurations share the cruise geometry that is based on the NASA Common Research Model, and therefore, are also open geometries. A 10%-scale High Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) is being designed for testing at the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel during fiscal year 2018. The overall project plan, status, HL-CRM configurations, and AFC objectives for the wind tunnel test are described.

  20. Boeing Smart Rotor Full-scale Wind Tunnel Test Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Hagerty, Brandon; Salazar, Denise

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor test was conducted in the USAF National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames. The SMART rotor system is a five-bladed MD 902 bearingless rotor with active trailing-edge flaps. The flaps are actuated using piezoelectric actuators. Rotor performance, structural loads, and acoustic data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles of attack, thrust, and airspeeds. The primary test objective was to acquire unique validation data for the high-performance computing analyses developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP). Other research objectives included quantifying the ability of the on-blade flaps to achieve vibration reduction, rotor smoothing, and performance improvements. This data set of rotor performance and structural loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies with other full-scale rotor systems and for analytical validation of computer simulation models. The purpose of this final data report is to document a comprehensive, highquality data set that includes only data points where the flap was actively controlled and each of the five flaps behaved in a similar manner.

  1. Wind tunnel tests of a symmetrical airfoil with scoop fed slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The design and wind tunnel test of a model vertical tail fin is described in this report. The model is designed to provide the aerodynamic forces necessary for lateral stabilization without moving parts or a separate source of power. It employs scoop-fed slots on both surfaces of the symmetrical airfoil. They are to be controlled differentially by means of a fluidic amplifier to implement an automatic fulltime lateral stabilization system. The results of tests show that the control of forces is stable and quite linear in various modes of operation. Significant forces were produced that can be increased as necessary by increasing slot size and scoop size. Slots can be located ahead of the conventional rudder and the scoop can be at the base of the vertical tail fin to avoid the need for major changes in conventional aircraft design. The first phase of the work demonstrated the feasibility of no-moving-parts aircraft control. The second phase established that a practical fluidic amplifier can be built to control slot flows from fluidic signals. Recommendations are made to optimize the design of the fluidic amplifier and to characterize its dynamic response in support of further analytical studies.

  2. Flight and Wind-tunnel Tests of an XBM-1 Dive Bomber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donely, Philip; Pearson, Henry A

    1938-01-01

    Results are given of pressure-distribution measurements made in flight over the right wing cellule and the right half of the horizontal tail surfaces of a dive-bombing biplane. Simultaneous measurements were also taken of the air speed, control-surface positions, control forces, and normal accelerations during various abrupt maneuvers in vertical plane. These maneuvers consisted of push-downs and pull-ups from level flight, dives and dive pull-ups from inverted flight. Besides the pressure measurements, flight tests were made to obtain (1) wing-fabric deflections during dives and (2) variation of the minimum drag coefficient with Reynolds Number. Supplementary tests were also done in the full-scale wind tunnel to obtain the characteristics of the airplane under various propeller conditions and with various tail settings. The results indicate that: (1) by increasing the fabric deflection between pressure ribs, the span load distribution was considerably modified near the center and the wing moment relations were changed; and (2) the minimum drag was less for the idling propeller than for the propeller locked in a vertical position. The value of C(sub D sub min) was equal to K(Reynolds Number)(exp -0.03) for a range from 2,800,000 to 13,100,000.

  3. A Hydrogen Peroxide Hot-Jet Simulator for Wind-Tunnel Tests of Turbojet-Exit Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Swihart, John M.

    1959-01-01

    A turbojet-engine-exhaust simulator which utilizes a hydrogen peroxide gas generator has been developed for powered-model testing in wind tunnels with air exchange. Catalytic decomposition of concentrated hydrogen peroxide provides a convenient and easily controlled method of providing a hot jet with characteristics that correspond closely to the jet of a gas turbine engine. The problems associated with simulation of jet exhausts in a transonic wind tunnel which led to the selection of a liquid monopropellant are discussed. The operation of the jet simulator consisting of a thrust balance, gas generator, exit nozzle, and auxiliary control system is described. Static-test data obtained with convergent nozzles are presented and shown to be in good agreement with ideal calculated values.

  4. Research instrumentation requirements for flight/wind-tunnel tests of the YF-12 propulsion system and related flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, W. G.; Montoya, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the requirements for a comprehensive flight and wind-tunnel propulsion research program to examine the predictability of inlet performance, evaluate the effects of high-frequency pressure phenomena on inlets, and investigate improved control concepts in order to cope with airframe interactions. This program is unique in that it requires precise similarity of the geometry of the flight vehicle and tunnel modes; the test conditions, including local flow at the inlet; and instrumentation. Although few wind-tunnel instrumentation problems exist, many problems emerge during flight tests because of the thermal environment. Mach 3 flight temperatures create unique problems with transducers, connectors, and wires. All must be capable of withstanding continuous 1000 F temperatures, as well as the mechanical stresses imposed by vibration and thermal cycling.

  5. Spin Tests of a Low-lying Monoplane in Flight and in the Free-spinning Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidman, Oscar; Mcavoy, William H

    1940-01-01

    Comparative full-scale and model spin tests were made with a low-lying monoplane in order to extend the available information as to the utility of the free-spinning wind tunnel as an aid in predicting full-scale spin characteristics. For a given control disposition the model indicated steeper spins than were actually obtained with the airplane, the difference being most pronounced for spins with elevators up. Recovery characteristics for the model, on the whole, agreed with those for the airplane, but a disagreement was noted for the case of recovery with elevators held full up. Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests are a useful aid in estimating spin characteristics of airplanes, but it must be appreciated that model results can give only general indications of full-scale behavior.

  6. Construction, wind tunnel testing and data analysis for a 1/5 scale ultra-light wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Michael D.; Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the construction, wind tunnel testing, and data analysis of a 1/5 scale ultra-light wing section. Wind tunnel testing provided accurate and meaningful lift, drag, and pitching moment data. This data was processed and graphically presented as follows: C(sub L) vs. gamma; C(sub D) vs. gamma; C(sub M) vs. gamma; and C(sub L) vs. C(sub D). The wing fabric flexure was found to be significant and its possible effects on aerodynamic data was discussed. The fabric flexure is directly related to wing angle of attack and airspeed. Different wing section shapes created by fabric flexure are presented with explanations of the types of pressures that act upon the wing surface. This report provides conclusive aerodynamic data for ultra-light wings.

  7. Wall interference and boundary simulation in a transonic wind tunnel with a discretely slotted test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Saadi, Jassim A.

    1993-01-01

    A computational simulation of a transonic wind tunnel test section with longitudinally slotted walls is developed and described herein. The nonlinear slot model includes dynamic pressure effects and a plenum pressure constraint, and each slot is treated individually. The solution is performed using a finite-difference method that solves an extended transonic small disturbance equation. The walls serve as the outer boundary conditions in the relaxation technique, and an interaction procedure is used at the slotted walls. Measured boundary pressures are not required to establish the wall conditions but are currently used to assess the accuracy of the simulation. This method can also calculate a free-air solution as well as solutions that employ the classical homogeneous wall conditions. The simulation is used to examine two commercial transport aircraft models at a supercritical Mach number for zero-lift and cruise conditions. Good agreement between measured and calculated wall pressures is obtained for the model geometries and flow conditions examined herein. Some localized disagreement is noted, which is attributed to improper simulation of viscous effects in the slots.

  8. Wind tunnel tests for wind pressure distribution on gable roof buildings.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiao-kun; Li, Yuan-qi

    2013-01-01

    Gable roof buildings are widely used in industrial buildings. Based on wind tunnel tests with rigid models, wind pressure distributions on gable roof buildings with different aspect ratios were measured simultaneously. Some characteristics of the measured wind pressure field on the surfaces of the models were analyzed, including mean wind pressure, fluctuating wind pressure, peak negative wind pressure, and characteristics of proper orthogonal decomposition results of the measured wind pressure field. The results show that extremely high local suctions often occur in the leading edges of longitudinal wall and windward roof, roof corner, and roof ridge which are the severe damaged locations under strong wind. The aspect ratio of building has a certain effect on the mean wind pressure coefficients, and the effect relates to wind attack angle. Compared with experimental results, the region division of roof corner and roof ridge from AIJ2004 is more reasonable than those from CECS102:2002 and MBMA2006.The contributions of the first several eigenvectors to the overall wind pressure distributions become much bigger. The investigation can offer some basic understanding for estimating wind load distribution on gable roof buildings and facilitate wind-resistant design of cladding components and their connections considering wind load path.

  9. Space shuttle plume simulation application. Results and math model. [Ames unitary plan wind tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, W.; Conine, B.

    1978-01-01

    Pressure and gauge wind tunnel data from a transonic test of a 0.02 scale model of the space shuttle launch vehicle was analyzed to define the aerodynamic influence of the main propulsion system and solid rocket booster plumes during the transonic portion of ascent flight. Air was used as a simulant gas to develop the model exhaust plumes. A math model of the plume induced aerodynamic characteristics was developed for a range of Mach numbers to match the forebody aerodynamic math model. The base aerodynamic characteristics are presented in terms of forces and moments versus attitude. Total vehicle base and forebody aerodynamic characteristics are presented in terms of aerodynamic coefficients for Mach number from 0.6 to 1.4 Element and component base and forebody aerodynamic characteristics are presented for Mach numbers of 0.6, 1.05, 1.1, 1.25 and 1.4. The forebody data is available at Mach 1.55. Tolerances for all plume induced aerodynamic characteristics are developed in terms of a math model.

  10. Wind Tunnel Tests on a Different Phase Three-Stage Savonius Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tsutomu; Li, Yan; Hara, Yutaka

    In order to decrease the torque variation of a Savonius rotor and improve the starting characteristics, a new type of Savonius rotor, which has three stages with 120-degree bucket phase shift between the adjacent stages, has been designed and made. Wind tunnel tests make it clear that both the static and dynamic torque variations in one revolution of this three-stage rotor have been greatly smoothed in comparison with an ordinary one-stage rotor, which means the improvement of the starting characteristics. The torque characteristics of the rotors with guide vanes were also measured. The guide vanes increased the torque coefficient on the average in the low tip speed ratio but decreased the torque coefficient in high tip speed ratio. Although the present three-stage rotor needs improvement of the aspect ratio of each stage, the three-stage rotor with no guide vane had better torque characteristics than the one-stage rotor with guide vanes for tip speed ratio larger than 0.8.

  11. An Application of CFD to Guide Forced Boundary-Layer Transition for Low-Speed Tests of a Hybrid Wing-Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.; Deere, Karen A.; Childs, Robert E.; Stremel, Paul M.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid transition trip-dot sizing and placement test technique was developed in support of recent experimental research on a hybrid wing-body configuration under study for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. The approach combines traditional methods with Computational Fluid Dynamics. The application had three-dimensional boundary layers that were simulated with either fully turbulent or transitional flow models using established Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes methods. Trip strip effectiveness was verified experimentally using infrared thermography during a low-speed wind tunnel test. Although the work was performed on one specific configuration, the process was based on fundamental flow physics and could be applicable to other configurations.

  12. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L., III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 by 22-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the Settling Chamber, Contraction, Test Section, and First Diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different exit boundary conditions and two different methods of determining the surface geometry.

  13. Development of a Test to Evaluate Aerothermal Response of Materials to Hypersonic Flow Using a Scramjet Wind Tunnel (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    materials under hypersonic flow conditions was developed and evaluated. A direct-connect scramjet combustor rig, de- signed based on the needs for...hypersonic flight and de- scribed elsewhere,10 was explored for use as a wind tunnel. A methodology to introduce samples into the flow path of the combustor ...Scramjet Direct-Connect Rig Gruber et al.10 have designed and fabricated a di- rect-connect full-scale scramjet combustor test facility for studies on

  14. Construction and test of flexible walls for the throat of the ILR high-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igeta, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic tests in wind tunnels are jeopardized by the lateral limitations of the throat. This influence expands with increasing size of the model in proportion to the cross-section of the throat. Wall interference of this type can be avoided by giving the wall the form of a stream surface that would be identical to the one observed during free flight. To solve this problem, flexible walls that can adapt to every contour of surface flow are needed.

  15. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Test of an Individual Blade Control System for a UH-60 Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Center, Moffett Field , CA sjacklin@mail.arc.nasa.gov Axel Haber, Deputy Director of Research and Development ZF Luftfahrttechnik GmbH, Kassel-Calden...Norman and Cahit Kitaplioglu NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field , CA tnorman and ckitaplioglu@mail.arc.nasa.gov Patrick Shinoda US Army...AeroflightDynamics Directorate (AMCOM), Moffett Field , CA pshinoda@mail.arc.nasa.gov Abstract A full-scale wind tunnel test program was begun to explore the

  16. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.

  17. Wind tunnel test and calibration techniques for the measurement of damping and dynamic cross derivatives due to pitching and yawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanff, E. S.; Orlik-Rueckemann, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper shows how the oscillatory apparatus described previously by Orlik-Rueckemann et al. (1974) for determining cross and cross-coupling moment derivatives due to pitching and yawing oscillation is strengthened, extensively modified, and adapted to permit operation in a large continuous-flow wind tunnel. Particular attention is given to an electromagnetic three-degrees-of-freedom calibrating system developed to verify the validity of the experimental method and the various aspects of data reduction procedure. Typical results from calibration tests and from a series of wind tunnel experiments are presented. The only significant limitation is that the apparatus can only be used for models that are relatively small and have a conically-shaped longitudinal cavity.

  18. Some anomalies observed in wind-tunnel tests of a blunt body at transonic and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of anomalies observed in wind tunnel force tests of a blunt body configuration was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.35 in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and at Mach numbers of 1.50, 1,80, and 2.16 in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel. At a Mach number of 1.35, large variations occurred in axial force coefficient at a given angle of attack. At transonic and low supersonic speeds, the total drag measured in the wind tunnel was much lower than that measured during earlier ballistic range tests. Accurate measurements of total drag for blunt bodies will require the use of models smaller than those tested thus far; however, it appears that accurate forebody drag results can be obtained by using relatively large models. Shock standoff distance is presented from experimental data over the Mach number range from 1.05 to 4.34. Theory accurately predicts the shock standoff distance at Mach numbers up to 1.75.

  19. Comparison of nozzle and afterbody surface pressures from wind tunnel and flight test of the YF-17 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, E. J.; Fanning, A. E.; Steers, L. I.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported from the initial phase of an effort to provide an adequate technical capability to accurately predict the full scale, flight vehicle, nozzle-afterbody performance of future aircraft based on partial scale, wind tunnel testing. The primary emphasis of this initial effort is to assess the current capability and identify the cause of limitations on this capability. A direct comparison of surface pressure data is made between the results from an 0.1-scale model wind tunnel investigation and a full-scale flight test program to evaluate the current subscale testing techniques. These data were acquired at Mach numbers 0.6, 0.8, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 on four nozzle configurations at various vehicle pitch attitudes. Support system interference increments were also documented during the wind tunnel investigation. In general, the results presented indicate a good agreement in trend and level of the surface pressures when corrective increments are applied for known effects and surface differences between the two articles under investigation.

  20. Entry, Descent, and Landing with Propulsive Deceleration: Supersonic Retropropulsion Wind Tunnel Testing and Shock Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet's moon atmospheres for entry, and descent can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions. Future EDL systems may include an inflatable decelerator for the initial atmospheric entry and an additional supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) rocket system for the final soft landing. A three engine retropropulsion configuration with a 2.5 in. diameter sphere-cone aeroshell model was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1- by 1-ft (1×1) Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The testing was conducted to identify potential blockage issues in the tunnel, and visualize the rocket flow and shock interactions during supersonic and hypersonic entry conditions. Earlier experimental testing of a 70deg Viking-like (sphere-cone) aeroshell was conducted as a baseline for testing of a SRP system. This baseline testing defined the flow field around the aeroshell and from this comparative baseline data, retropropulsion options will be assessed. Images and analyses from the SWT testing with 300- and 500-psia rocket engine chamber pressures are presented here. In addition, special topics of electromagnetic interference with retropropulsion induced shock waves and retropropulsion for Earth launched booster recovery are also addressed.

  1. Entry, Descent, and Landing with Propulsive Deceleration: Supersonic Retropropulsion Wind Tunnel Testing and Shock Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet's moon atmospheres for entry, and descent can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions. Future EDL systems may include an inflatable decelerator for the initial atmospheric entry and an additional supersonic retro-propulsion (SRP) rocket system for the final soft landing. A three engine retro-propulsion configuration with a 2.5 inch diameter sphere-cone aeroshell model was tested in the NASA Glenn 1x1 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The testing was conducted to identify potential blockage issues in the tunnel, and visualize the rocket flow and shock interactions during supersonic and hypersonic entry conditions. Earlier experimental testing of a 70 degree Viking-like (sphere-cone) aeroshell was conducted as a baseline for testing of a supersonic retro-propulsion system. This baseline testing defined the flow field around the aeroshell and from this comparative baseline data, retro-propulsion options will be assessed. Images and analyses from the SWT testing with 300- and 500-psia rocket engine chamber pressures are presented here. In addition, special topics of electromagnetic interference with retro-propulsion induced shock waves and retro-propulsion for Earth launched booster recovery are also addressed.

  2. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration: Supersonic Retropropulsion Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmosphere for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions. Future EDL systems may include an inflatable decelerator for the initial atmospheric entry and an additional supersonic retro-propulsion (SRP) rocket system for the final soft landing. As part of those efforts, NASA began to conduct experiments to gather the experimental data to make informed decisions on the "best" EDL options. A model of a three engine retro-propulsion configuration with a 2.5 in. diameter sphere-cone aeroshell model was tested in the NASA Glenn 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The testing was conducted to identify potential blockage issues in the tunnel, and visualize the rocket flow and shock interactions during supersonic and hypersonic entry conditions. Earlier experimental testing of a 70 Viking-like (sphere-cone) aeroshell was conducted as a baseline for testing of a supersonic retro-propulsion system. This baseline testing defined the flow field around the aeroshell and from this comparative baseline data, retro-propulsion options will be assessed. Images and analyses from the SWT testing with 300- and 500-psia rocket engine chamber pressures are presented here. The rocket engine flow was simulated with a non-combusting flow of air.

  3. Wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems test of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet unstart model at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines the wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems effectiveness in starting and forcibly unstarting a two-dimensional scramjet inlet in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; however, prior to the design and fabrication of an expensive, instrumented wind-tunnel model, it was deemed necessary first to examine potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and to examine the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure; schlieren video was used to identify inlet start and unstart. A chronology of each actuation sequence is provided in tabular form along with still frames from the schlieren video. A pitot probe monitored the freestream conditions throughout the start/unstart process to determine if there was a blockage effect due to the model start or unstart. Because the purpose of this report is to make the phase I (blockage and actuation systems) data rapidly available to the community, the data is presented largely without analysis of the internal shock interactions or the unstart process. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  4. Wind-tunnel tests and modeling indicate that aerial dispersant delivery operations are highly accurate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture’s high-speed wind tunnel facility in College Station, Texas, USA was used to determine droplet size distributions generated by dispersant delivery nozzles at wind speeds comparable to those used in aerial dispersant application. A laser particle size anal...

  5. Correction factors for wind tunnels of elliptic section with partly open and partly closed test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegels, Fritz W

    1951-01-01

    Jet boundary corrections for partly open and partly closed elliptical wind tunnels for the cases of one and two solid wall segments are presented. Also presented are the combinations of model span and extent of the solid portion of the tunnel wall for which the average correction factor is zero.

  6. Two-Dimensional Scramjet Inlet Unstart Model: Wind-Tunnel Blockage and Actuation Systems Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This supplement to NASA TM 109152 shows the Schlieren video (10 min. 52 sec., color, Beta and VHS) of the external flow field and a portion of the internal flow field of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet model in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; this (phase I) effort examines potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure. In the video, flow is from right to left, and the inlet is oriented inverted with respect to flight, i.e., with the cowl on top. The plug motion is obvious because the plug is visible in the aft window. The cowl motion, however, is not as obvious because the cowl is hidden from view by the inlet sidewall. The end of the cowl actuator arm, however, becomes visible above the inlet sidewalls between the windows when the cowl is up (see figure 1b of the primary document). The model is injected into the tunnel and observed though several actuation sequences with two plug configurations over a range of unit freestream Reynolds number at a nominal freestream Mach number of 6. The framing rate and shutter speed of the camera were too slow to fully capture the dynamics of the unstart but did prove sufficient to identify inlet start and unstart. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  7. Parametric Inlet Tested in Glenn's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Davis, David O.; Solano, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    The Parametric Inlet is an innovative concept for the inlet of a gas-turbine propulsion system for supersonic aircraft. The concept approaches the performance of past inlet concepts, but with less mechanical complexity, lower weight, and greater aerodynamic stability and safety. Potential applications include supersonic cruise aircraft and missiles. The Parametric Inlet uses tailored surfaces to turn the incoming supersonic flow inward toward an axis of symmetry. The terminal shock spans the opening of the subsonic diffuser leading to the engine. The external cowl area is smaller, which reduces cowl drag. The use of only external supersonic compression avoids inlet unstart--an unsafe shock instability present in previous inlet designs that use internal supersonic compression. This eliminates the need for complex mechanical systems to control unstart, which reduces weight. The conceptual design was conceived by TechLand Research, Inc. (North Olmsted, OH), which received funding through NASA s Small-Business Innovation Research program. The Boeing Company (Seattle, WA) also participated in the conceptual design. The NASA Glenn Research Center became involved starting with the preliminary design of a model for testing in Glenn s 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10 10 SWT). The inlet was sized for a speed of Mach 2.35 while matching requirements of an existing cold pipe used in previous inlet tests. The parametric aspects of the model included interchangeable components for different cowl lip, throat slot, and sidewall leading-edge shapes and different vortex generator configurations. Glenn researchers used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools for three-dimensional, turbulent flow analysis to further refine the aerodynamic design.

  8. Aerodynamic results of wind tunnel tests on a 0.010-scale model (32-QTS) space shuttle integrated vehicle in the AEDC VKF-40-inch supersonic wind tunnel (IA61)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daileda, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Plotted and tabulated aerodynamic coefficient data from a wind tunnel test of the integrated space shuttle vehicle are presented. The primary test objective was to determine proximity force and moment data for the orbiter/external tank and solid rocket booster (SRB) with and without separation rockets firing for both single and dual booster runs. Data were obtained at three points (t = 0, 1.25, and 2.0 seconds) on the nominal SRB separation trajectory.

  9. Field wind tunnel testing of two silt loam soils on the North American Central High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Van Pelt, R.; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Schlegel, Alan J.; Vigil, Merle F.; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that threatens agricultural sustainability and environmental quality globally. Protecting the soil surface with cover crops and plant residues, practices common in no-till and reduced tillage cropping systems, are highly effective methods for shielding the soil surface from the erosive forces of wind and have been credited with beneficial increases of chemical and physical soil properties including soil organic matter, water holding capacity, and wet aggregate stability. Recently, advances in biofuel technology have made crop residues valuable feed stocks for ethanol production. Relatively little is known about cropping systems effects on intrinsic soil erodibility, the ability of the soil without a protective cover to resist the erosive force of wind. We tested the bare, uniformly disturbed, surface of long-term tillage and crop rotation research plots containing silt loam soils in western Kansas and eastern Colorado with a portable field wind tunnel. Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) were measured using glass fiber filters and respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, were measured using optical particle counters sampling the flow to the filters. The results were highly variable and TSP emission rates varied from less than 0.5 mg m-2 s-1 to greater than 16.1 mg m-2 s-1 but all the results indicated that cropping system history had no effect on intrinsic erodibility or dust emissions from the soil surfaces. We conclude that prior best management practices will not protect the soil from the erosive forces of wind if the protective mantle of crop residues is removed.

  10. Hover test of a full-scale hingeless helicopter rotor: Aeroelastic stability, performance and loads data. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.; Warmbrodt, W.

    1984-01-01

    A hover test of a full-scale, hingeless rotor system was conducted in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The rotor was tested on the Ames rotor test apparatus. Rotor aeroelastic stability, performance, and loads at various rotational speeds and thrust coefficients were investigated. The primary objective was to determine the inplane stability characteristics of the rotor system. Rotor inplane damping data were obtained for operation between 350 and 425 rpm (design speed), and for thurst coefficients between 0.0 and 0.12. The rotor was stable for all conditions tested. At constant rotor rotational speed, a minimum inplane dampling level was obtained at a thrust coefficient approximately = 0.02. At constant rotor lift, a minimum in rotor inplane damping was measured at 400 rpm.

  11. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Stremel, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75 scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14x22 and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40x80 low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  12. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Jospeh A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Stremel, Paul M.; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75% scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14'x22' and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40'x80' low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  13. Full-Span Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) Overview and 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Test. [conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCluer, Megan S.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most helicopter data trends cannot be extrapolated to tiltrotors because blade geometry and aerodynamic behavior, as well as rotor and fuselage interactions, are significantly different for tiltrotors. A tiltrotor model has been developed to investigate the aeromechanics of tiltrotors, to develop a comprehensive database for validating tiltrotor analyses, and to provide a research platform for supporting future tiltrotor designs. The Full-Span Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Model (FS TRAM) is a dual-rotor, powered aircraft model with extensive instrumentation for measurement of structural and aerodynamic loads. This paper will present the Full-Span TRAM test capabilities and the first set of data obtained during a 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test conducted in late 2000 at NASA Ames Research Center. The Full-Span TRAM is a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 Osprey aircraft, and a heavily instrumented NASA and U.S. Army wind tunnel test stand. Rotor structural loads are monitored and recorded for safety-of-flight and for information on blade loads and dynamics. Left and right rotor balance and fuselage balance loads are monitored for safety-of-flight and for measurement of vehicle and rotor aerodynamic performance. Static pressure taps on the left wing are used to determine rotor/wing interactional effects and rotor blade dynamic pressures measure blade airloads. All of these measurement capabilities make the FS TRAM test stand a unique and valuable asset for validation of computational codes and to aid in future tiltrotor designs. The Full-Span TRAM was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel from October through December 2000. Rotor and vehicle performance measurements were acquired in addition to wing pressures, rotor acoustics, and Laser Light Sheet (LLS) flow visualization data. Hover, forward flight, and airframe (rotors off) aerodynamic runs were performed. Helicopter-mode data were acquired during angle of attack and thrust sweeps for

  14. Pressure distribution on the roof of a model low-rise building tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goliber, Matthew Robert

    With three of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States along the Gulf coast (Houston, Tampa, and New Orleans), residential populations ever increasing due to the subtropical climate, and insured land value along the coast from Texas to the Florida panhandle greater than $500 billion, hurricane related knowledge is as important now as ever before. This thesis focuses on model low-rise building wind tunnel tests done in connection with full-scale low-rise building tests. Mainly, pressure data collection equipment and methods used in the wind tunnel are compared to pressure data collection equipment and methods used in the field. Although the focus of this report is on the testing of models in the wind tunnel, the low-rise building in the field is located in Pensacola, Florida. It has a wall length of 48 feet, a width of 32 feet, a height of 10 feet, and a gable roof with a pitch of 1:3 and 68 pressure ports strategically placed on the surface of the roof. Built by Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in 2002, the importance of the test structure has been realized as it has been subjected to numerous hurricanes. In fact, the validity of the field data is so important that the following thesis was necessary. The first model tested in the Bill James Wind Tunnel for this research was a rectangular box. It was through the testing of this box that much of the basic wind tunnel and pressure data collection knowledge was gathered. Knowledge gained from Model 1 tests was as basic as how to: mount pressure tubes on a model, use a pressure transducer, operate the wind tunnel, utilize the pitot tube and reference pressure, and measure wind velocity. Model 1 tests also showed the importance of precise construction to produce precise pressure coefficients. Model 2 was tested in the AABL Wind Tunnel at Iowa State University. This second model was a 22 inch cube which contained a total of 11 rows of pressure ports on its front and top faces. The purpose of Model 2 was to

  15. Hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles B.; Carraway, Debra L.; Stainback, P. Calvin; Fancher, M. F.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the determination of the location of boundary-layer transition is necessary for the correct interpretation of aerodynamic data in transonic wind tunnels. In the late 1970s the Douglas Aircraft Company developed a vapor deposition hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels. Tests of the hot-films in a low-speed tunnel demonstrated the ability to obtain on-line transition data with an enhanced simultaneous hot-film data acquisition system. The equipment design and specifications are described.

  16. Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 1: A Sidewall Supported Semispan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation and Flutter Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer.

    2013-01-01

    of a two part document. Part 2 is titled: "Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models, Part 2: A Centerline Supported Fullspan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation." A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, flexible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a semispan, aeroelastically scaled, wind tunnel model of a flying wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to demonstrate gust load alleviation. In the second and third tests, the same wing was mated to a new, multi-degree of freedom, sidewall mount. This mount allowed the half-span model to translate vertically and pitch at the wing root, allowing better simulation of the full span vehicle's rigid body modes. Gust load alleviation (GLA) and Body freedom flutter (BFF) suppression were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees-of-freedom required that the model be flown in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort.

  17. The Next Generation of High-Speed Dynamic Stability Wind Tunnel Testing (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomek, Deborah M.; Sewall, William G.; Mason, Stan E.; Szchur, Bill W. A.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout industry, accurate measurement and modeling of dynamic derivative data at high-speed conditions has been an ongoing challenge. The expansion of flight envelopes and non-conventional vehicle design has greatly increased the demand for accurate prediction and modeling of vehicle dynamic behavior. With these issues in mind, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) embarked on the development and shakedown of a high-speed dynamic stability test technique that addresses the longstanding problem of accurately measuring dynamic derivatives outside the low-speed regime. The new test technique was built upon legacy technology, replacing an antiquated forced oscillation system, and greatly expanding the capabilities beyond classic forced oscillation testing at both low and high speeds. The modern system is capable of providing a snapshot of dynamic behavior over a periodic cycle for varying frequencies, not just a damping derivative term at a single frequency.

  18. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) Wake Deficit Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Schuster, David M.

    2014-01-01

    During descent after re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere, the Orion CM deploys its drogue parachutes at approximately Mach 0.7. Accurately predicting the dynamic pressure experienced by the drogue parachutes at deployment is critical to properly designing the parachutes. This NASA Engineering and Safety Center assessment was designed to provide a complete set of flowfield measurements on and around an idealized Orion Crew Module shape with the most appropriate wind tunnel simulation of the Orion flight conditions prior to parachute deployment. This document contains the details of testing and the outcome of the assessment.

  19. Investigation of solid plume simulation criteria to produce flight plume effects on multibody configuration in wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, A. L.; Dill, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation to determine the sensitivity of the space shuttle base and forebody aerodynamics to the size and shape of various solid plume simulators was conducted. Families of cones of varying angle and base diameter, at various axial positions behind a Space Shuttle launch vehicle model, were wind tunnel tested. This parametric evaluation yielded base pressure and force coefficient data which indicated that solid plume simulators are an inexpensive, quick method of approximating the effect of engine exhaust plumes on the base and forebody aerodynamics of future, complex multibody launch vehicles.

  20. Wind Tunnel Testing of a One-Dimensional Laser Beam Scanning and Laser Sheet Approach to Shock Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Adamovsky, Grigory; Anderson, Robert; Hirt, Stefanie; Huang, John; Floyd, Bertram

    2012-01-01

    A 15- by 15-cm supersonic wind tunnel application of a one-dimensional laser beam scanning approach to shock sensing is presented. The measurement system design allowed easy switching between a focused beam and a laser sheet mode for comparison purposes. The scanning results were compared to images from the tunnel Schlieren imaging system. The tests revealed detectable changes in the laser beam in the presence of shocks. The results lend support to the use of the one-dimensional scanning beam approach for detecting and locating shocks in a flow, but some issues must be addressed in regards to noise and other limitations of the system.

  1. Design, implementation, simulation, and testing of digital flutter suppression systems for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Boyd, III; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hoadley, Sherwood Tiffany; Cole, Stanley R.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Houck, Jacob A.

    1990-01-01

    Active flutter suppression control laws were designed, implemented, and tested on an aeroelastically-scaled wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. One of the control laws was successful in stabilizing the model while the dynamic pressure was increased to 24 percent greater than the measured open-loop flutter boundary. Other accomplishments included the design, implementation, and successful operation of a one-of-a-kind digital controller, the design and use of two simulation methods to support the projet, and the development and successful use of a methodology for online controller performance evaluation.

  2. A Wind-tunnel Test Technique for Measuring the Dynamic Rotary Stability Derivatives at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, Benjamin H

    1956-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic stability derivatives of a model airplane in a wind tunnel. The characteristic features of this system are that single-degree-of-freedom oscillations were used to obtain combinations of rolling, yawing and pitching motions; that the oscillations were excited and controlled by velocity feedback which permitted operation under conditions unfavorable for more conventional types of oscillatory testing; and that data processing was greatly simplified by using analog computer elements in the strain-gage circuitry. A small number of experimental data are included to illustrate the general scope of results obtainable with this system.

  3. Wind-tunnel tests on combinations of a wing with fixed auxiliary airfoils having various chords and profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Sanders, Robert

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on various auxiliary airfoils having three different airfoil sections and several different chord lengths in combination with a Clark y model wing in a sufficient number of relative positions to determine the optimum with regard to certain criterions of aerodynamic performance. The airfoil sections included a symmetrical profile, one of medium camber, and a highly cambered one. The chord sizes of the auxiliary airfoils ranged from 7.5 to 25 percent of the chord of the main wing, and the span was equal to that of the main wing.

  4. Aeroservoelastic Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Free-Flying, Joined-Wing SensorCraft Model for Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Castelluccio, Mark A.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Boeing, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, exible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a full-span, aeroelastically scaled, wind-tunnel model of a joined-wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to acquire a basic aerodynamic data set. In the second and third tests, the same wind-tunnel model was mated to a new, two-degree-of-freedom, beam mount. This mount allowed the full-span model to translate vertically and pitch. Trimmed flight at -10% static margin and gust load alleviation were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees of freedom required that the model be own in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free-flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort. The balance and free ying wind-tunnel tests will be summarized. The design of the trim and gust load alleviation control laws along with the associated results will also be discussed.

  5. Wind tunnel test of model target thrust reversers for the Pratt and Whitney aircraft JT8D-100 series engines installed on a 727-200 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambly, D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a low speed wind tunnel test of 0.046 scale model target thrust reversers installed on a 727-200 model airplane are presented. The full airplane model was mounted on a force balance, except for the nacelles and thrust reversers, which were independently mounted and isolated from it. The installation had the capability of simulating the inlet airflows and of supplying the correct proportions of primary and secondary air to the nozzles. The objectives of the test were to assess the compatibility of the thrust reversers target door design with the engine and airplane. The following measurements were made: hot gas ingestion at the nacelle inlets; model lift, drag, and pitching moment; hot gas impingement on the airplane structure; and qualitative assessment of the rudder effectiveness. The major parameters controlling hot gas ingestion were found to be thrust reverser orientation, engine power setting, and the lip height of the bottom thrust reverser doors on the side nacelles. The thrust reversers tended to increase the model lift, decrease the drag, and decrease the pitching moment.

  6. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  7. Analysis of SRB reentry acoustic environments. [aeroacoustic spectra determined from wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, T.; Dandridge, R. E.; Haddock, U. W.

    1979-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket booster reentry aeroacoustic environments were estimated. Particular emphasis was given to the aft skirt/exit plane region for the Mach number regime 0.6 = or greater than M infinity = or less than 3.5. The analysis is based on the evaluation of wind tunnel model results in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation of trajectory parameters. The experimental approach is described as well as the evaluation process utilized. Predicted environments are presented in terms of one-third octave band spectra representing space averaged values for critical regions on the solid rocket booster.

  8. Comparison of aerodynamic coefficients obtained from theoretical calculations wind tunnel tests and flight tests data reduction for the alpha jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiot, R.; Wunnenberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The methods by which aerodynamic coefficients are determined and discussed. These include: calculations, wind tunnel experiments and experiments in flight for various prototypes of the Alpha Jet. A comparison of obtained results shows good correlation between expectations and in-flight test results.

  9. Correlation of the Drag Characteristics of a Typical Pursuit Airplane Obtained from High-Speed Wind-Tunnel and Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, James M; Gadebero, Burnett L; Hamilton, William T

    1948-01-01

    In order to obtain a correlation of drag data from wind-tunnel and flight tests at high Mach numbers, a typical pursuit airplane, with the propeller removed, was tested in flight at Mach numbers up to 0.755, and the results were compared with wind-tunnel tests of a 1/3-scale model of the airplane. The tests results show that the drag characteristics of the test airplane can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy from tests in the Ames 16-foot high-speed wind tunnel of the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory at both high and low Mach numbers. It is considered that this result is not unique with the airplane.

  10. F-16XL Wind Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a multiple exposure image of the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) model in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This wind tunnel test was conducted to verify design pressure distributions for the SLFC flight experiment (see modified port wing) and to obtain simulator coefficients for stability and control investigations.

  11. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  12. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Reed, Darren K.; Nance, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Flight vehicle aeroacoustic environments induced during transonic and supersonic flight are usually predicted by subscale wind tunnel testing utilizing high frequency miniature pressure transducers. In order to minimize noise induced by the measurement itself, transducer flush mounting with the model surface is very important. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has accomplished flushness in recent testing campaigns via use of a transducer holder that can be machined and sanded. A single hole in the holder allows the flow medium to interact with the transducer diaphragm. Noise is induced by the resulting cavity however, and is a challenge to remove in post-processing. A new holder design has been developed that minimizes the effects of this transducer mount induced noise (XMIN) by reducing the resonance amplitude or increasing its resonance frequency beyond the range of interest. This paper describes a test conducted at the NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Trisonic Wind Tunnel intended to verify the effectiveness of this design. The results from this test show that this new transducer holder design does significantly reduce the influence of XMIN on measured fluctuating pressure levels without degrading a transducer's ability to accurately measure the noise external to the model.

  13. Design of a High Angle of Attack Robotic Sting Mount for Tests in a Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    tunnel time. This constraint originates in the requirement to shut down the tunnel to set the sting to a new angle by repositiong pins at the hase of the...constraint originates in the requirement to shut down the tunnel to set the sting to a new angle by repositiong pins at the base of the sting. Simply...circuit oupu These power ratings make these isulpuor ( Sfr to g?&rld). The aoiro amplifers an oieal chi" for those systema peak current, canoe

  14. National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC) Final Report summarizes the work carried out by a unique Government/Industry partnership during the period of June 1994 through May 1996. The objective of this partnership was to plan, design, build and activate 'world class' wind tunnel facilities for the development of future-generation commercial and military aircraft. The basis of this effort was a set of performance goals defined by the National Facilities Study (NFS) Task Group on Aeronautical Research and Development Facilities which established two critical measures of improved wind tunnel performance; namely, higher Reynolds number capability and greater productivity. Initial activities focused upon two high-performance tunnels (low-speed and transonic). This effort was later descoped to a single multipurpose tunnel. Beginning in June 1994, the NWTC Project Office defined specific performance requirements, planned site evaluation activities, performed a series of technical/cost trade studies, and completed preliminary engineering to support a proposed conceptual design. Due to budget uncertainties within the Federal government, the NWTC project office was directed to conduct an orderly closure following the Systems Design Review in March 1996. This report provides a top-level status of the project at that time. Additional details of all work performed have been archived and are available for future reference.

  15. Aeroacoustic wind tunnel measurements on propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, F. R.; Stiewitt, H.

    1985-02-01

    Model tests were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel to determine the sound radiation of 5 propellers with different blade designs including variations of thickness ratios, blade profiles, blade planforms and blade tip configurations. The diameter of the propellers was 0.9 m, the propeller speed was kept constant. The tip Mach number was M sub I = 0.66 and the helical tip Mach number varied between 0.66 and 0.69. The main objectives were to investigate the effects of blade geometry on near field and far field noise and to locate the dominant sound sources in the propeller plane, radiating to the observer, by means of a highly directional microphone system. The results include: (1) comparisons of noise spectra of different propeller configurations; (2) near field sound pressures as function of axial distance from the propeller plane; and (3) directivity of sound radiation from the moving blades.

  16. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1936-01-01

    Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.

  17. Evaluation of discrete frequency sound in closed-test-section wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to assess the adequacy of linear acoustic theory with an impedance wall boundary condition for modeling the detailed sound field of an acoustic source in a duct. This study compares measurements and calculations of a simple acoustic source in a rectangular concrete duct lined with foam on the walls and anechoic end terminations. Measuring acoustic pressure for 12 wave numbers provides variation in frequency and absorption characteristics of the duct walls. The cases in this study contain low frequencies and low wall absorptions corresponding to measurements of low-frequency helicopter noise in a lined wind tunnel. This regime is particularly difficult to measure in wind tunnels due to high levels of the reverberant field relatively close to the source. Close to the source, where the interference of wall reflections is minimal, correlation is very good. Away from the source, correlation degrades, especially for the lower frequencies. Sensitivity studies show little effect on the predicted results for changes in impedance boundary condition values, source location, measurement location, temperature, and source model for variations spanning the expected measurement error.

  18. Burning carbon monoxide in the settling chamber of a hotshot wind tunnel for obtaining the CO2 test gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumskii, V. V.; Yaroslavtsev, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    A method of formation and heating of CO2 as a test gas in the settling chamber of a hotshot wind tunnel is considered. To form and heat CO2, the chamber is filled with a source gas mixture of CO, O2, and CO2, and after initiation, these substances participate in an exothermic chemical reaction in accordance with the formula CO + 0.5 O2 + xCO2 = (1 + x)CO2. A stoichiometric ratio of the concentrations of carbon monoxide CO and oxygen is used. Variation of the number of moles x of ballast CO2 in the left part of the chemical formula allows changing the temperature of the resultant test gas in a wide range. Experiments in the IT-302M hotshot wind tunnel carried out at ITAM SB RAS have shown that a pressure increase during an isochoric process in the settling chamber due to the joint effect of heat released in the reaction CO + 0.5 O2 and an electric charge provides the completeness of CO combustion almost equal to unity. The time of reaction completion at its initiation by an electric arc is no more than several milliseconds.

  19. Performance and aerodynamic braking of a horizontal-axis wind turbine from small-scale wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, H. V.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of three 20" diameter, zero twist, zero pitch wind turbine rotor models were conducted in a 7' x 10' wind tunnel to determine the performance of such rotors with NACA 23024 and NACA 64 sub 3-621 airfoil sections. Aerodynamic braking characteristics of a 38% span, 30% chord, vented aileron configuration were measured on the NACA 23024 rotor. Surface flow patterns were observed using fluorescent mini-tufts attached to the suction side of the rotor blades. Experimental results with and without ailerons are compared to predictions using airfoil section data and a momentum performance code. Results of the performance studies show that the 64 sub 3-621 rotor produces higher peak power than the 23024 rotor for a given rotor speed. Analytical studies, however, indicate that the 23024 should produce higher power. Transition strip experiments show that the 23024 rotor is much more sensitive to roughness than the 64 sub 3-621 rotor. These trends agree with analytical predictions. Results of the aileron test show that this aileron, when deflected, produces a braking torque at all tip speed ratios. In free wheeling coastdowns the rotor blade stopped, then rotated backward at a tip speed ratio of -0.6.

  20. Effects of forward velocity on noise for a J85 turbojet engine with multitube suppressor from wind tunnel and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Miles, J. H.; Sargent, N. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight and wind tunnel noise tests were conducted using a J85 turbojet engine as a part of comprehensive programs to obtain an understanding of forward velocity effects on jet exhaust noise. Nozzle configurations of primary interest were a 104-tube suppressor with and without an acoustically-treated shroud. The installed configuration of the engine was as similar as possible in the flight and wind tunnel tests. Exact simultaneous matching of engine speed, exhaust velocity, and exhaust temperature was not possible, and the wind tunnel maximum Mach number was approximately 0.27, while the flight Mach number was approximately 0.37. The nominal jet velocity range was 450 to 640 m/sec. For both experiments, background noise limited the jet velocity range for which significant data could be obtained. In the present tests the observed directivity and forward velocity effects for the suppressor are more similar to predicted trends for internally-generated noise than unsuppressed jet noise.

  1. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Scirocco Plasma Wind Tunnel Test on a Large TPS Demonstrator and Comparison with Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Benedetto, S.; Rufolo, G. C.; Marini, M.; Trifoni, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is focused on the CFD activity performed during the rebuilding phase of the test, executed in the CIRA "Scirocco" Plasma Wind Tunnel (PWT) in the frame of the ESA FLPP project. Aim of the test has been to validate the behaviour of a large thermal protection system assembly, the FLPP-SPS TPS Demonstrator built by Snecma Propulsion, Solide, under atmospheric re-entry conditions. During the test, surface temperature has been measured by infrared (IR) thermography and a dual-colour pyrometer, while back wall temperature has been recorded in eleven points of the test article by B-type thermocouples. The test has been rebuilt by means of a three-dimensional CFD simulation performed on the full test article configuration, having as requirements the values measured on the PWT calibration probe during the test.

  2. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Effects of Chordwise Wing Fences and Horizontal-Tail Position on the Static Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of an Airplane Model with a 35 Degree Sweptback Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M J; Jaquet, Byron M; Wolhart, Walter D

    1954-01-01

    Low-speed tests of a model with a wing swept back 35 degrees at the 0.33-chord line and a horizontal tail located well above the extended wing-chord plane indicated static longitudinal instability at moderate angles of attack for all configurations tested. An investigation therefore was made to determine whether the longitudinal stability could be improved by the use of chordwise wing fences, by lowering the horizontal tail, or by a combination of both. The results of the investigation showed that the longitudinal stability characteristics of the model with slats retracted could be improved at moderate angles of attack by placing chordwise wing fences at a spanwise station of about 73 percent of the wing semispan from the plane of symmetry provided the nose of the fence extended slightly beyond or around the wing leading edge.

  3. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  4. Design, manufacturing and characterization of aero-elastically scaled wind turbine blades for testing active and passive load alleviation techniques within a ABL wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnolo, Filippo; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Bettini, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    In the research described in this paper, a scaled wind turbine model featuring individual pitch control (IPC) capabilities, and equipped with aero-elastically scaled blades featuring passive load reduction capabilities (bend-twist coupling, BTC), was constructed to investigate, by means of wind tunnel testing, the load alleviation potential of BTC and its synergy with active load reduction techniques. The paper mainly focus on the design of the aero-elastic blades and their dynamic and static structural characterization. The experimental results highlight that manufactured blades show desired bend-twist coupling behavior and are a first milestone toward their testing in the wind tunnel.

  5. Some theoretical considerations of longitudinal stability in power-on flight with special reference to wind-tunnel testing, November 1942

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Some problems relating to longitudinal stability in power-on flight are considered. A derivation is included which shows that, under certain conditions, the rate of change of the pitching moment coefficient with lift coefficient as obtained in wind tunnel tests simulating constant power operation is directly proportional to one of the indices of stability commonly associated with flight analysis, (the slope of the curve relating the elevator angle for trim and lift coefficient). The necessity of analyzing power-on wind tunnel data for trim conditions is emphasized, and a method is provided for converting data obtained from constant thrust tests to simulated constant throttle flight conditions.

  6. Wind Tunnel Test of a Risk-Reduction Wing/Fuselage Model to Examine Juncture-Flow Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    A wing/fuselage wind-tunnel model was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel in preparation for a highly-instrumented Juncture Flow Experiment to be conducted in the same facility. This test, which was sponsored by the NASA Transformational Tool and Technologies Project, is part of a comprehensive set of experimental and computational research activities to develop revolutionary, physics-based aeronautics analysis and design capability. The objectives of this particular test were to examine the surface and off-body flow on a generic wing/body combination to: 1) choose a final wing for a future, highly instrumented model, 2) use the results to facilitate unsteady pressure sensor placement on the model, 3) determine the area to be surveyed with an embedded laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, 4) investigate the primary juncture corner- flow separation region using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to see if the particle seeding is adequately entrained and to examine the structure in the separated region, and 5) to determine the similarity of observed flow features with those predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This report documents the results of the above experiment that specifically address the first three goals. Multiple wing configurations were tested at a chord Reynolds number of 2.4 million. Flow patterns on the surface of the wings and in the region of the wing/fuselage juncture were examined using oil- flow visualization and infrared thermography. A limited number of unsteady pressure sensors on the fuselage around the wing leading and trailing edges were used to identify any dynamic effects of the horseshoe vortex on the flow field. The area of separated flow in the wing/fuselage juncture near the wing trailing edge was observed for all wing configurations at various angles of attack. All of the test objectives were met. The staff of the 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel provided outstanding support and delivered

  7. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  8. Wind tunnel tests of the dynamic characteristics of the fluidic rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fourth phase is given of a continuing program to develop the means to stabilize and control aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power. Previous phases have demonstrated the feasibility of (1) generating adequate control forces on a standard airfoil, (2) controlling those forces with a fluidic amplifier and (3) cascading non-vented fluidic amplifiers operating on ram air supply pressure. The foremost objectives of the fourth phase covered under Part I of this report were to demonstrate a complete force-control system in a wind tunnel environment and to measure its static and dynamic control characteristics. Secondary objectives, covered under Part II, were to evaluate alternate configurations for lift control. The results demonstrate an overall response time of 150 msec, confirming this technology as a viable means for implementing low-cost reliable flight control systems.

  9. Overview of Selected Measurement Techniques for Aerodynamics Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is given of selected measurement techniques used in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of aerospace vehicles operating at supersonic speeds. A broad definition of a measurement technique is adopted in this paper and is any qualitative or quantitative experimental approach that provides information leading to the improved understanding of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics. On surface and off-surface measurement techniques used to obtain discrete (point) and global (field) measurements and planar and global flow visualizations are described, and examples of all methods are included. The discussion is limited to recent experiences in the UPWT and is. therefore, not an exhaustive review of existing experimental techniques. The diversity and high quality of the measurement techniques and the resultant data illustrate the capabilities of a around-based experimental facility and the key role that it plays in the advancement of our understanding, prediction, and control of supersonic aerodynamics.

  10. A computer-controlled, on-board data acquisition system for wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, H. J.; Cambra, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled data acquisition system has been developed for the 40x80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. The system, consisting of several small onboard units installed in the model and a data-managing, data-displaying ground station, is capable of sampling up to 256 channels of raw data at a total sample rate of 128,000 samples/sec. Complete signal conditioning is contained within the on-board units. The sampling sequence and channel gain selection is completely random and under total control of the ground station. Outputs include a bar-graph display, digital-to-analog converters, and digital interface to the tunnel's central computer, an SEL 840MP. The system can be run stand-alone or under the control of the SEL 840MP.

  11. Dynamic Wind-Tunnel Testing of a Sub-Scale Iced Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Dickes, Edward; Thacker, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ice accretion on a 1/12-scale complete aircraft model of a business jet was studied in a rotary-balance wind tunnel. Three types of ice accretions were considered: ice protection system failure shape, pre-activation roughness, and runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal ice protection system. The results were compared with those from a 1/12-scale semi-span wing of the same aircraft at similar Reynolds number. The data showed that the full aircraft and the semi-span wing models showed similar characteristics, especially post stall behavior under iced configuration. However, there were also some discrepancies, such as the magnitude in the reductions in the maximum lift coefficient. Most of the ice-induced effects were limited to longitudinal forces. Rotational and forced oscillation studies showed that the effects of ice on lateral forces were relatively minor.

  12. Cryogenic wind tunnels. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the cryogenic concept to various types of tunnels including Ludwieg tube tunnel, Evans clean tunnel, blowdown, induced-flow, and continuous-flow fan-driven tunnels is discussed. Benefits related to construction and operating costs are covered, along with benefits related to new testing capabilities. It is noted that cooling the test gas to very low temperatures increases Reynolds number by more than a factor of seven. From the energy standpoint, ambient-temperature fan-driven closed-return tunnels are considered to be the most efficient type of tunnel, while a large reduction in the required tunnel stagnation pressure can be achieved through cryogenic operation. Operating envelopes for three modes of operation for a cryogenic transonic pressure tunnel with a 2.5 by 2.5 test section are outlined. A computer program for calculating flow parameters and power requirements for wind tunnels with operating temperatures from saturation to above ambient is highlighted.

  13. Capabilities of wind tunnels with two-adaptive walls to minimize boundary interference in 3-D model testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebstock, Rainer; Lee, Edwin E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An initial wind tunnel test was made to validate a new wall adaptation method for 3-D models in test sections with two adaptive walls. First part of the adaptation strategy is an on-line assessment of wall interference at the model position. The wall induced blockage was very small at all test conditions. Lift interference occurred at higher angles of attack with the walls set aerodynamically straight. The adaptation of the top and bottom tunnel walls is aimed at achieving a correctable flow condition. The blockage was virtually zero throughout the wing planform after the wall adjustment. The lift curve measured with the walls adapted agreed very well with interference free data for Mach 0.7, regardless of the vertical position of the wing in the test section. The 2-D wall adaptation can significantly improve the correctability of 3-D model data. Nevertheless, residual spanwise variations of wall interference are inevitable.

  14. Small scale noise and wind tunnel tests of upper surface blowing nozzle flap concepts. Volume 1. Aerodynamic test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renselaer, D. J.; Nishida, R. S.; Wilkin, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results and analyses of aerodynamic and acoustic studies conducted on the small scale noise and wind tunnel tests of upper surface blowing nozzle flap concepts are presented. Various types of nozzle flap concepts were tested. These are an upper surface blowing concept with a multiple slot arrangement with seven slots (seven slotted nozzle), an upper surface blowing type with a large nozzle exit at approximately mid-chord location in conjunction with a powered trailing edge flap with multiple slots (split flow or partially slotted nozzle). In addition, aerodynamic tests were continued on a similar multi-slotted nozzle flap, but with 14 slots. All three types of nozzle flap concepts tested appear to be about equal in overall aerodynamic performance but with the split flow nozzle somewhat better than the other two nozzle flaps in the landing approach mode. All nozzle flaps can be deflected to a large angle to increase drag without significant loss in lift. The nozzle flap concepts appear to be viable aerodynamic drag modulation devices for landing.

  15. The 727 airplane side inlet low-speed performance confirmation model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuehle, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a low-speed wind tunnel test of a 0.3 scale model 727 airplane side inlet for JT8D-100 engines are presented. The objectives of the test were to develop lines for a full-scale flightworthy inlet, to evaluate inlet total pressure recovery and steady-state total pressure distortion, and to obtain model-scale distortion data which can be used in the assessment of the compatibility of the inlet with the JT8D-100 series engines. A secondary objective was to obtain internal/external cowl static pressures for the determination of nacelle loads. Two basic inlet models were tested at static, forward speed, angle-of-attack (inflow angle), and cross-wind conditions. One model was with and one without an acoustic ring. Two modifications to the models were also tested, one with the ring closer to the inlet throat and one with a larger lip. Test measurements consisted of inlet surface static pressure, engine face total pressure, inlet airflow, tunnel total pressure, tunnel total temperature and tunnel velocity. Total pressure traverses were taken directly behind the ring and strut. No dynamic measurements were taken.

  16. Development of pneumatic test techniques for subsonic high-lift and in-ground-effect wind tunnel investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Wind tunnel evaluations of two-dimensional high-lift airfoils and of vehicles operating in ground effect near the tunnel floor require special test facilities and procedures. These are needed to avoid errors caused by proximity to the walls and interference from the wall boundary layers. Pneumatic test techniques and facilities were developed for GTRI aerodynamic research tunnels and calibrated to verify that these wall effects had been removed. The modified facilities were then employed to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of blown very-high-lift airfoils and of racing hydroplanes operating in ground effect at various levels above the floor. The pneumatic facilities, techniques and calibrations are discussed and typical aerodynamic data recorded both with and without the test-section blowing systems are presented.

  17. Experimental Determination of Jet Boundary Corrections for Airfoil Tests in Four Open Wind Tunnel Jets of Different Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Harris, Thomas A

    1931-01-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted primarily for the purpose of obtaining a method of correcting to free air conditions the results of airfoil force tests in four open wind tunnel jets of different shapes. Tests were also made to determine whether the jet boundaries had any appreciable effect on the pitching moments of a complete airplane model. Satisfactory corrections for the effect of the boundaries of the various jets were obtained for all the airfoils tested, the span of the largest being 0.75 of the jet width. The corrections for angle of attack were, in general, larger than those for drag. The boundaries had no appreciable effect on the pitching moments of either the airfoils or the complete airplane model. Increasing turbulence appeared to increase the minimum drag and maximum lift and to decrease the pitching moment.

  18. Configuration design studies and wind tunnel tests of an energy efficient transport with a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henne, P. A.; Dahlin, J. A.; Peavey, C. C.; Gerren, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of high aspect ratio supercritical wings suitable for a medium range, narrow body transport aircraft flying near M=0.80 were presented. The basic characteristics of the wing design were derived from system studies of advanced transport aircraft where detailed structural and aerodynamic tradeoffs were used to determine the most optimum design from the standpoint of fuel usage and direct operating cost. These basic characteristics included wing area, aspect ratio, average thickness, and sweep. The detailed wing design was accomplished through application of previous test results and advanced computational transonic flow procedures. In addition to the basic wing/body development, considerable attention was directed to nacelle/plyon location effects, horizontal tail effects, and boundary layer transition effects. Results of these tests showed that the basic cruise performance objectives were met or exceeded.

  19. Pressure data for four analytically defined arrow wings in supersonic flow. [Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to provide experimental data for comparison with newly developed finite difference methods for computing supersonic flows over aircraft configurations, wind tunnel tests were conducted on four arrow wing models. The models were machined under numeric control to precisely duplicate analytically defined shapes. They were heavily instrumented with pressure orifices at several cross sections ahead of and in the region where there is a gap between the body and the wing trailing edge. The test Mach numbers were 2.36, 2.96, and 4.63. Tabulated pressure data for the complete test series are presented along with selected oil flow photographs. Comparisons of some preliminary numerical results at zero angle of attack show good to excellent agreement with the experimental pressure distributions.

  20. Wind tunnel material test to quantify space shuttle external tank insulation requirements. Final report 26-28 July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, A.S.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of this test was to determine the response of the thermal protection material used in the press line bracket/cable tray region of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) to an aerothermal environment. Foam insulation specimens were mounted on a concave plate which was injected to the edge of the wind tunnel nozzle. This allowed the nozzle boundary layer to flow onto the specimen plate. Thus, the turbulent boundary layer approaching the specimen region was significantly thicker than could be produced by other more standard test methods. Data from this test will be used to evaluate a possible reduction in weight of the Space Shuttle External Tank by reducing the amount of insulative material or replacing it with a lighter material.

  1. Two-Dimensional Bifurcated Inlet/Engine Tests Completed in 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, John D.

    1999-01-01

    A Two-Dimensional Bifurcated (2DB) Inlet was successfully tested in NASA Lewis Research Center s 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. These tests were the culmination of a collaborative effort between the Boeing Company, General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Lewis. Extensive support in-house at Lewis contributed significantly to the progress and accomplishment of this test. The results, which met or exceeded many of the High-Speed Research (HSR) Program goals, were used to revise system studies within the HSR Program. The HSR Program is focused on developing low-noise, low-polluting, high-efficiency supersonic commercial aircraft. A supersonic inlet is an important component of an efficient, low-noise vehicle.

  2. Wind tunnel test results for the direction controlled antitank DCAT missile at Mach numbers from 0.64 to 2.50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. A.; Spring, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results are presented to show aerodynamic characteristics over the Mach number range of 0.64 to 2.50 of the DCAT missile. Data are presented showing the interference created by the rear mounted reaction control system. Two candidate fins were installed on the model during tests: a flat folding fin and a curved wrap around fin.

  3. Preliminary Computational Study for Future Tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot' x 7 foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, Jason M.; Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; WInski, Courtney S.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Commercial Supersonics Technology Project seeks to advance tools and techniques to make over-land supersonic flight feasible. In this study, preliminary computational results are presented for future tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot x 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel to be conducted in early 2016. Shock-plume interactions and their effect on pressure signature are examined for six model geometries. Near- field pressure signatures are assessed using the CFD code USM3D to model the proposed test geometries in free-air. Additionally, results obtained using the commercial grid generation software Pointwise Reigistered Trademark are compared to results using VGRID, the NASA Langley Research Center in-house mesh generation program.

  4. Icing testing in the large Modane wind-tunnel on full-scale and reduced scale models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charpin, F.; Fasso, G.

    1979-01-01

    Icing tests on full scale models of parts of aircraft (wings, tailplanes, radome) equipped with actual de-icing systems were carried out in the large Modane wind tunnel of ONERA. For studying icing on the Concorde, it was necessary to use a 1/6 scale half model. The equations governing the relevant parameter ratios to obtain reasonably good similitude water catching and ice accretion are recalled. Despite the inherent limitations of this particular kind of testing, i.e., the impossibility of duplicating both the Mach and Reynolds conditions for the main flow pattern, it is possible to obtain on a reduced scale model a reasonably good representation of icing cloud catching and of the shape of resulting ice accretion.

  5. Error propagation equations and tables for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, calibration Mach number and Reynolds number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-stream Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for nine fundamental aerodynamic ratios, most of which relate free-stream test conditions (pressure, temperature, density or velocity) to a reference condition. Tables of the ratios, R, absolute sensitivity coefficients, {partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}, and relative sensitivity coefficients, (M{infinity}/R) ({partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}), are provided as functions of M{infinity}.

  6. Exploratory study to induce fan noise in the test section of the NASA Langley full-scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ver, I. L.; Hayden, R. E.; Myles, M. M.; Murray, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measures to reduce the intensity of fan noise in the NASA Langley 30 ft x 60 ft subsonic wind tunnel were sought. Measurements were first performed to document existing aerodynamic and acoustic conditions. The purpose of these experiments was to (1) obtain the transfer function between the sound power output of the fan and the sound pressure on the test platform, (2) evaluate the sound attenuation around the tunnel circuit, (3) measure simultaneously the flow profile and the turbulence spectrum of the inflow to the fan and the noise on the test platform, and (4) perform flow observations and identify secondary noise sources. Subsequently, these data were used to predict (1) the relative contribution of the major aerodynamic parameters to total fan noise and (2) the effect of placing a dissipative silencer in the collector duct upstream of the fan. Promising noise control measures were identified and recommendations were made on how to evaluate them.

  7. Performance and loads data from a wind tunnel test of a full-scale, coaxial, hingeless rotor helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felker, F. F., III

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale XH-59A advancing blade concept helicopter was tested in Ames Research Center's 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel. The helicopter was tested with the rotor on and off, rotor hub fairings on and off, interrotor shaft fairing on and off, rotor instrumentation module on and off, and auxiliary propulsion thrust on and off. An advance ratio range of 0.25 and 0.45 with the rotor on and from 60 to 180 knots with the rotor off was investigated. Data on aerodynamic forces and moments, rotor loads, rotor control positions and vibration for the XH-59A as well as the aerodynamic performance of the isolated rotor are presented.

  8. Wind tunnel test of the 0.019 (2A configuration) jet plume space shuttle integrated vehicle in the ARC 9- by 7-foot unitary wind tunnel (IA12B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, R. B.; Burrows, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The wind tunnel test of the 0.019 jet plume space shuttle integrated vehicle in the Ames 9 ft by 7 ft unitary wind tunnel was conducted at Mach numbers of 1.55 and 2.0 over a Reynolds number range from 3.5 million to 4.1 million/ft. Data were obtained at angles of attack from minus 8 deg to plus 8 deg at 0 deg sideslip and at angles of sideslip from minus 9 deg to plus 8 deg at 0 deg angle of attack. The basic configuration tested was the 2A vehicle with the orbiter at 0 deg angle of incidence with respect to the external tank. The other deviations to the 2A configuration were the solid rocket motor shrouds, which were designed to vehicle '3' lines, and the tank nose, which consisted of the retro-package being removed and replaced by a 16.5 inch full scale radius nose.

  9. Comparison of the NASA Common Research Model European Transonic Wind Tunnel Test Data to NASA Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Quest, Jurgen; Rudnik, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment, surface pressure and wing bending and twist data are presented herein.

  10. Comparison of the NASA Common Research Model European Transonic Wind Tunnel Test Data to NASA Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa; Quest, Juergen; Rudnik, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment and surface pressure data are presented herein.

  11. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, A. J.; Reed, D. K.; Nance, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of launch vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is a field best studied through experimentation, which is often carried out in the form of large scale wind tunnel testing. Measurement of the fluctuating pressures induced by the boundary layer noise is customarily made with miniature pressure transducers installed into a model of the vehicle of interest. Literature shows that noise level increases between two to five decibels (dB referenced to 20 micropascal) can be induced when the transducer surface is not mounted perfectly flush with the model outer surface. To reduce this artificially induced noise, special transducer holders have been used for aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing by NASA. This holder is a sleeve into which the transducer fits, with a cap that allows it to be mounted in a recessed hole in the model. A single hole in the holder allows the transport of the tunnel medium so the transducer can discriminate the fluctuating pressure due to the turbulent boundary layer noise. The holder is first dry fitted into the model and any difference in height between the holder and the model surface can be sanded flush. The holder is then removed from the model, the transducer glued inside the holder, and the holder replaced in the model, secured also with glue, thus eliminating the problem of noise level increases due to lack of flushness. In order to work with this holder design, special transducers have been ordered with their standard screen removed and the diaphragm moved as close to the top of the casing as possible to minimize any cavity volume. Although this greatly reduces induced noise due to the transducers being out of flush, the holders can also induce a cavity resonance that is usually at a very high frequency. This noise is termed transducer mount induced noise (XMIN). The peak of the mode can vary with the cavity depth, boundary layer noise that can excite the mode, tunnel flow medium, and the build of the transducers. Because the boundary

  12. Application of system identification to analytic rotor modeling from simulated and wind tunnel dynamic test data, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Banerjee, D.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to aircraft state and parameter identification methods is presented. A simplified form of the maximum likelihood method is selected to extract analytical aeroelastic rotor models from simulated and dynamic wind tunnel test results for accelerated cyclic pitch stirring excitation. The dynamic inflow characteristics for forward flight conditions from the blade flapping responses without direct inflow measurements were examined. The rotor blades are essentially rigid for inplane bending and for torsion within the frequency range of study, but flexible in out-of-plane bending. Reverse flow effects are considered for high rotor advance ratios. Two inflow models are studied; the first is based on an equivalent blade Lock number, the second is based on a time delayed momentum inflow. In addition to the inflow parameters, basic rotor parameters like the blade natural frequency and the actual blade Lock number are identified together with measurement bias values. The effect of the theoretical dynamic inflow on the rotor eigenvalues is evaluated.

  13. Rectification control points selection method of triangle mesh in optical pressure measurement of wind-tunnel test.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Chang

    2014-08-01

    In optical pressure measurement of wind-tunnel test, triangle mesh is usually built to rectify the images that are distorted in geometry. In this paper, a novel method of control points selection of triangle mesh is proposed by combining the artificial points and margin control points. For the problem that in the condition of wind the margin control point is difficult to extract due to model distortion and grey variation, an improved Smallest Univalue Segment Assimilating Nucleus algorithm based on region selection and adaptive threshold is designed. The connection method is employed to verify the availability of points, which avoids that the noisy points are mistakenly regarded as the angular points. The distorted images of aircraft model are rectified and the results are analyzed. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method greatly improves the rectification effect.

  14. Pressure coefficient evaluation on the surface of the SONDA III model tested in the TTP Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. L. C. C.; Falcao Filho, J. B. P.; Basso, E.; Caldas, V. R.

    2015-02-01

    A test campaign of the Brazilian sounding rocket Sonda III was carried out at the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel, TTP. The aim of the campaign was to investigate aerodynamic phenomena taking place at the connection region of the first and second stages. Shock and expansion waves are expected at this location causing high gradients in airflow properties around the vehicle. Pressure taps located on the surface of a Sonda III half model measure local static pressures. Other measured parameters were freestream static and total pressures of the airflow. Estimated parameters were pressure coefficients and Mach numbers. Uncertainties associated with the estimated parameters were calculated by employing the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method. It was found that both uncertainty evaluation methods resulted in similar values. A Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation code was elaborated to help understand the changes in the flow field properties caused by the disturbances.

  15. Tests of Round and Flat Spoilers on a Tapered Wing in the NACA 19-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Bowen, John D

    1941-01-01

    Several arrangements of round and flat spanwise spoilers attached to the upper surface of a tapered wing were tested in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the most effective type, location, and size of spoiler necessary to reduce greatly the lift on the wings of large flying boats when moored. The effect of the various spoilers on the lift, the drag, and the pitching-moment characteristics of the tapered wing was measured over a range of angles of attack from zero to maximum lift. The most effective type of spoiler was found to be the flat type with no space between it and the wing surface. The chordwise location of such a spoiler was not critical within the range investigated, from 5 to 20 percent of the wing chord from the leading edge.

  16. Developing, mechanizing and testing of a digital active flutter suppression system for a modified B-52 wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthew, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A digital flutter suppression system was developed and mechanized for a significantly modified version of the 1/30-scale B-52E aeroelastic wind tunnel model. A model configuration was identified that produced symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes that occur at 2873N/sq m (60 psf) dynamic pressure with violent onset. The flutter suppression system, using one trailing edge control surface and the accelerometers on each wing, extended the flutter dynamic pressure of the model beyond the design limit of 4788N/sq m (100 psf). The hardware and software required to implement the flutter suppression system were designed and mechanized using digital computers in a fail-operate configuration. The model equipped with the system was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center and results showed the flutter dynamic pressure of the model was extended beyond 4884N/sq m (102 psf).

  17. Wind tunnel pressurization and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pejack, Edwin R.; Meick, Joseph; Ahmad, Adnan; Lateh, Nordin; Sadeq, Omar

    1988-01-01

    The high density, low toxicity characteristics of refrigerant-12 (dichlorofluoromethane) make it an ideal gas for wind tunnel testing. Present limitations on R-12 emissions, set to slow the rate of ozone deterioration, pose a difficult problem in recovery and handling of large quantities of R-12. This preliminary design is a possible solution to the problem of R-12 handling in wind tunnel testing. The design incorporates cold temperature condensation with secondary purification of the R-12/air mixture by adsorption. Also discussed is the use of Freon-22 as a suitable refrigerant for the 12 foot wind tunnel.

  18. Interspecific pheromone plume interference among sympatric heliothine moths: a wind tunnel test using live, calling females.

    PubMed

    Lelito, Jonathan P; Myrick, Andrew J; Baker, Thomas C

    2008-06-01

    Three species of North American heliothine moths were used to determine the level at which interspecific female interference of male attraction to conspecific females occurs. We used live calling females of Heliothis virescens, H. subflexa, and Helicoverpa zea, as lures for conspecific males in a wind tunnel, and then placed heterospecific females on either side of the original species such that the plumes of the three females overlapped downwind. In nearly all combinations, in the presence of heterospecific females, fewer males flew upwind and contacted or courted the source than when only conspecific females were used in the same spatial arrangement. Males did not initiate upwind flight to solely heterospecific female arrangements. Our results show that the naturally emitted pheromone plumes from heterospecific females of these three species can interfere with the ability of females to attract conspecific males when multiple females are in close proximity. However, the fact that some males still located their calling, conspecific females attests to the ability of these male moths to discriminate point source odors by processing the conflicting information from interleaved strands of attractive and antagonistic odor filaments on a split-second basis.

  19. Experimental investigations of a sphere anemometer: Wind tunnel and field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisselmann, Hendrik; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael

    2013-11-01

    In our contribution we will compare the sphere anemometer and two standard sensors for wind energy and meteorology based on results from laboratory and atmospheric measurements. The sphere anemometer is a drag-based sensor for simultaneous wind speed and direction measurements. The new anemometer makes use of the velocity-dependent deflection of a lightweight sphere mounted on top of a flexible tube. The deflection of the sphere is detected by means of a highly sensitive light pointer, as used in atomic force microscopy. This allows for the detection of very small displacements and thus enables a high sensor resolution. In wind tunnel experiments the sphere anemometer, a 3D sonic anemometer and a standard cup anemometer were exposed to a turbulent wind field generated with a so-called active grid. All acquired data was compared to those of a highly resolving hot-wire probe. Moreover, the sphere anemometer and the two reference sensors were installed on two near-shore sites in the German Wadden Sea. Several month of data from these campaigns were analyzed regarding wind speed and direction measurements as well as durability and stability of the new anemometer. The presented work was founded by the German Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.

  20. Estimation of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Load on Space Shuttle External Tank Protuberances from a Component Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayatana; Martin, Fred W.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    At the wake of the Columbia (STS-107) accident it was decided to remove the Protuberance Aerodynamic Load (PAL) Ramp that was originally intended to protect various protuberances outside of the Space Shuttle External Tank from high buffet load induced by cross-flows at transonic speed. In order to establish the buffet load without the PAL ramp, a wind tunnel test was conducted where segments of the protuberances were instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers; and power-spectra of sectional lift and drag forces at various span-wise locations between two adjacent support brackets were measured under different cross flow angles, Mach number and other conditions. Additionally, frequency-dependent spatial correlations between the sectional forces were also established. The sectional forces were then adjusted by the correlation length to establish span-averaged spectra of normal and lateral forces that can be suitably "added" to various other unsteady forces encountered by the protuberance. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the correlation-adjusted power spectrum of the buffet load. A second part of the paper describes wind-tunnel results on the difference in the buffet load on the protuberances with and without the PAL ramp. In general when the ramp height is the same as that of the protuberance height, such as that found on the liquid Oxygen part of the tank, the ramp is found to cause significant reduction of the unsteady aerodynamic load. However, on the liquid Hydrogen part of the tank, where the Oxygen feed-line is far larger in diameter than the height of the PAL ramp, little protection is found to be available to all but the Cable Tray.