Baliyan, Vinit; Tajmir, Shahein; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.
Venous incompetence in the lower extremity is a common clinical problem. Basic understanding of venous anatomy, pathophysiologic mechanisms of venous reflux is essential for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. The complex interplay of venous pressure, abdominal pressure, venous valvular function and gravitational force determine the venous incompetence. This review is intended to provide a succinct review of the pathophysiology of venous incompetence and the current role of imaging in its management. PMID:28123974
Ratchford, Elizabeth V; Evans, Natalie S
Lower extremity edema is extremely common among patients seen across multiple specialties. The differential diagnosis is broad and ranges from simple dependent edema to more complex conditions such as chronic venous disease and lymphedema. Several key features from the history and physical exam can assist with the diagnosis. Imaging is rarely necessary at the initial visit unless venous thromboembolism is suspected. Treatment is specific to the etiology of the edema, but compression stockings, elevation, exercise, and weight loss remain the cornerstone in most cases.
Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa
Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.
Öztürk, Semi; Kalyoncuoğlu, Muhsin; Durmuş, Gündüz; Topçu, Adem; Can, Mehmet
A 61-year-old man underwent successful percutaneous revascularization of both lower limbs with multiple stent implantations. Paralysis of right lower limb was noticed after completion of procedure when transferring the patient from angiography table. Since hematoma compressing lumbosacral neural plexus could be a fatal complication, computed tomography (CT) image was taken. CT showed bulge of distended bladder compressing stent struts. Following placement of Foley catheter, condition improved and he was subsequently discharged uneventfully.
Tubbs, R Shane; Smyth, Matthew D; Dure, Leon S; Oakes, W Jerry
Mirror movements usually seen in the Klippel-Feil syndrome are most commonly appreciated in the upper extremities. Lower extremity involvement is seen rarely and when observed, is found in conjunction with upper extremity mirror movements. We report what we believe to be the first case of mirror movements found exclusively in the lower extremities in a female patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome. Our hopes are that this report will help elucidate mechanisms involved with these anomalous movements, as currently there is no commonly accepted etiology.
Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.
Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P < 0.001) and ankle sprains (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.69; P < 0.001), yet not ACL ruptures (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.36-3.29; P = 0.87) in basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID
31. Lower level, battery at extreme lower right, launch tube heater control panel at right, looking east - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD
Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K
The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.
Neil, Janice A
Today's complex farm environment can pose many threats to the lower extremities of all people especially those with chronic diseases that affect the lower extremities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries to the lower extremities among farmers and to rank the importance of these incidents in order to plan prevention programs. one hundred farmers were surveyed at a large farm show in the southeastern United States. An average of 4.86 injuries per farmer were reported. Blisters from work shoes or boots, followed by injuries from animals stepping on the feet were the most common injuries. Since those with chronic illnesses are especially prone to injury and disability, regular foot assessments, evaluation, and education about the hazards of farming are mainstays of prevention.
Bibbo, Christopher; Ehrlich, David; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J
Patients who have undergone a lower extremity amputation may develop an unstable soft tissue envelope of the amputation stump. This envelope may result in pain that prohibits prosthetic use or may become chronically infected. Providing stable soft tissue coverage at the amputation site may provide relief from pain and cure of infection. Additionally, a stable amputation soft tissue envelope may assist with the ability of that patient to maintain his or her existing level of ambulation, overall sense of wellness, and ability to maintain social integration. Salvage of a lower extremity amputation level may significantly improve a patient's overall quality of life. Attempts to salvage an amputation level that is plagued by unstable wounds, pain, or infection are warranted in those patients who have the physiologic reserves to undergo salvage of their amputation level. This article presents an approach to the salvage of lower extremity amputations utilizing both local tissue rearrangements and free tissue transfer techniques.
Gamba, J.L.; Silverman, P.M.; Ling, D.; Dunnick, N.R.; Korobkin, M.
The CT findings of two cases of primary lymphedema of the lower extremities are presented. CT showed a coarse, nonenhancing, reticular pattern in an enlarged subcutaneous compartment. CT excluded the diagnosis of secondary lymphedema from an obstructing mass by demonstrating a normal retroperitoneum and pelvis. The CT findings are correlated with pedal lymphangiograms.
Amanatullah, Derek F; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J
There are approximately 1.6 million lower extremity amputees in the United States. Lower extremity amputees are subject to increased physical demands proportional to their level of amputation. Lower extremity amputees have a 6-fold higher risk of developing radiographic osteoarthritis in the ipsilateral hip and a 2-fold risk of developing radiographic osteoarthritis in contralateral hip when compared with the non-amputee population. Additionally, there is a 3-fold increased risk of developing radiographic osteoarthritis in the ipsilateral hip after an above knee amputation when compared with a below knee amputation. The authors retrospectively reviewed 35 total hip arthroplasties after lower extremity amputation. The mean clinical follow-up was 5.3±4.0 years. The mean time from lower extremity amputation to total hip arthroplasty was 12.2±12.8 years after a contralateral amputation and 5.4±6.0 years after an ipsilateral amputation (P=.050). The mean time to total hip arthroplasty was 15.6±15.4 years after an above knee amputation and 6.4±6.1 years after a below knee amputation (P=.021). There was a statistically significant improvement in the mean Harris Hip Score from 35.9±21.8 to 76.8±12.8 with total hip arthroplasty after a contralateral amputation (P<.001). There also was a statistically significant improvement in the mean Harris Hip Score from 25.4±21.7 to 78.6±17.1 with total hip arthroplasty after an ispilateral amputation (P<.001). Three (17.7%) total hip arthroplasties after a contralateral amputation and 2 (11.1%) total hip arthroplasties after an ipsilateral amputation required revision total hip arthroplasty. Patients with an ipsilateral amputation or a below knee amputation progress to total hip arthroplasty faster than those with a contralateral amputation or an above knee amputation, respectively. Lower extremity amputees experience clinically significant improvements with total hip arthroplasty after lower extremity amputation.
Fullem, Brian W
When athletes train harder the risk of injury increases, and there are several common overuse injuries to the lower extremity. Three of the most common lower extremity overuse injuries in sports are discussed including the diagnosis and treatments: medial tibal stress syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome, and stress fractures. The charge of sports medicine professionals is to identify and treat the cause of the injuries and not just treat the symptoms. Symptomatology is an excellent guide to healing and often the patient leads the physician to the proper diagnosis through an investigation of the athlete's training program, past injury history, dietary habits, choice of footwear, and training surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Non-operative treatments for degenerative arthritis, such as physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory medication, and occupational therapy, can help reduce the impact of the disease on the joint and hence on the mobility of the patient. Once the joint has become so diseased that non-operative modalities are inadequate, it is the task of the orthopedic surgeon to evaluate these individuals and determine which ones would benefit from a reconstructive procedure. The author explores the indications for arthrotomies, resection arthroplasties, arthrodeses, osteotomies, and total joint replacements. Total joint arthroplasty has revolutionized the treatment of degenerative arthritis of the lower extremity, although it is not a panacea for arthritis in the lower extremity. PMID:21234075
Acland, R D
This chapter recommends numerous factors that are significant refinements in approach and execution of lower extremity free flaps. I encourage a clear conceptual separation between the two essential phases of successful reconstruction of problem wounds: wound preparation and flap transfer. I have found that antibiotic beads maintain the sterility of temporary bony dead space. Due emphasis should be given to preparation of the surgeon, patient, and wound, allowing a nonemergency approach to lower extremity free flap coverage. The surgeon needs to be familiar with a variety of flaps beyond the usual workhorse group. Also, attention should be paid to perioperative warmth and hydration, and vessels affected by posttraumatic vessel disease must be avoided. A positive attitude toward the use of vein grafts whenever necessary is important. I also favor careful planning of the exact size and shape of the flap and length of the vessels along with use of a widely spatulated technique of end-to-side anastomoses.
Goldberg, T; Goldberg, S; Pollak, J
Postoperative management of lower extremity amputation continues to evolve with advances in prosthetic technology, surgical technique, and rehabilitation considerations. Almost 50 years ago, the first immediate postoperative prosthesis was conceived, and has been used since with varying degrees of success. More recently, use of the removable rigid dressing combined with aggressive physical therapy has been found to be a safe and cost-effective method of treatment for the new amputee.
Dischinger, PC; Read, KM; Kufera, JA; Kerns, TJ; Burch, CA; Jawed, N; Ho, SM; Burgess, AR
Lower extremity injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes are common and have become relatively more important as more drivers with newer occupant restraints survive high-energy crashes. CIREN data provide a greater level of clinical detail based on coding guidelines from the Orthopedic Trauma Association. These detailed data, in conjunction with long-term follow-up data obtained from patient interviews, reveal that the most costly and disabling injuries are those involving articular (joint) surfaces, especially those of the ankle/foot. Patients with such injuries exhibit residual physical and psychosocial problems, even at one year post-trauma. PMID:15319134
Koritnik, Tomaz; Bajd, Tadej; Munih, Marko
This study proposed virtual reality (VR) as a modality of lower-extremities training. A kinematic model of a human body and a corresponding virtual figure were developed, in order to visualize the movements of the subject in a real-time virtual environment on a large display, which represented a virtual mirror. An optical system with active markers was used to assess the movements of a training subject. A preliminary investigation was conducted with a group of healthy male subjects, who performed the stepping-in-place test by tracking the movements of the reference virtual figure, which represented a virtual instructor. Both figures were shown in the virtual mirror at the same time from the desired angle of view. Four stepping tasks featuring different cadences and hip angles were performed, with difficulty levels ranging from easy to demanding. The results obtained included basic kinematic and temporal parameters, which provided quantitative measures of a subject's adaptation to the virtual training environment, and thereby justifying the feasibility of the virtual mirror as a useful system in lower-extremities training applications.
Toonen, W. H. J.; de Molenaar, M. M.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.
Assessment of the magnitude of design discharges (floods with an expected recurrence of 1/1250-yr) requires knowledge on the frequency and magnitude of extreme events. The current estimate of the size of the design flood for the Lower Rhine is based on the discharge record of the last 100 years, but it is improbable that its extrapolation is optimal for prediction of the magnitude of extreme events, as larger floods than those in the observational records have not been measured. Reconstructing palaeoflood magnitudes and frequencies from sedimentary records may provide insight in the potential maximum magnitude of extreme Rhine discharges. This helps to improve the determination of the design discharge with a reduced uncertainty, especially for extreme values. We reconstructed the magnitude of a Middle-Holocene flood in the Lower Rhine valley (Germany) based on the highest slackwater deposits on elevated terrace levels and in a palaeochannel fill in a section across the valley. A Chézy-based hydraulic model was used to calculate the palaeoflood discharge out of carefully evaluated geological data; e.g., palaeochannel dimensions, Middle-Holocene natural floodplain landscape, surface roughness, and palaeostage indicators. To account for the uncertainty in the reconstructed input variables, we considered an ensemble of 10 sets of input variables. These represent a realistic range of model inputs and results. From this set we determined a 'best guess' estimate for the minimum magnitude of floods that left the highest registered slackwater deposits in the cross section. The calculated discharge is 13,250 m3s-1 with an estimated recurrence time of 1,250 to 2,500-yr. The recurrence time is based on AMS dating and palynological analysis of the organic palaeochannel fill, which occasionally contains flood event layers. The use of the calculated discharge in flood frequency analysis for the present-day situation is not straightforward, as the Middle-Holocene flood was
Edris, Bree; Reed, James F
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequently isolated bacteria in wound cultures. MRSA has been linked to lengthened wound healing times, an increase in adverse postoperative outcomes, and mortality. This study investigated the incidence of MRSA in lower extremity wounds and examined outcomes associated with MRSA-infected wounds versus non-MRSA-infected wounds. A retrospective study was conducted. Patients with MRSA-infected wounds were compared with those with uninfected wounds in a 1:2 ratio. Demographics, infection, and stay information were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. 51 patients were included (17 with MRSA and 34 without MRSA). Patients with MRSA had increased lengths of stay and a higher incidence of adverse postoperative outcomes compared with non-MRSA patients. An MRSA infection adversely affects a patient's hospital course. Preoperative screening for MRSA and postoperative surveillance should be considered to prevent and eliminate the spread of this virulent bacterium.
Trower, Ted A
In recent years, much attention has been given to the revolution in new materials for prosthetics and the components that they have made possible. The average weight of a delivered prosthesis has decreased, currently available components offer improved function and superior symmetry of gait, and limb interfaces provide superior skin protection and comfort. The focus on the features of these components sometimes has led to neglect of the basic elements of prosthetic design--the fit and the alignment. If the fit and alignment are on the mark, an amputee can function at remarkably high levels with rudimentary components. This article discusses the basics of lower extremity prosthetic practice and addresses challenges for the future.
Wells, Mark D.; Bowen, C. Vaughan; Manktelow, Ralph T.; Graham, John; Boyd, J. Brian
Objective To identify factors related to free-flap coverage of lower extremity fractures that are linked to a negative outcome. Design A chart review. Setting A large microsurgical referral centre. Patients From 1981 to 1989, the records of all patients who underwent free-tissue transfer to the lower extremity with more than 1 year of follow-up were selected. From this was drawn a subgroup of 49 patients (mean age, 36 years) who had tibial fractures (55% were motor vehicle injuries) and in almost all cases established soft-tissue or bony defects. They formed the study group. Intervention Free-flap transfer. Outcome Measures Factors that might be associated with free-flap failure: mechanism of injury, grade of tibial fracture, history of smoking, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, vascular compromise in the leg preoperatively, recipient artery used, type of anastomosis, and hypertension or hypotension intraoperatively. Results Type IIIB tibial fractures were the most frequent (67%) and carried a significantly (p = 0.02) higher risk of free-flap failure than other types of fracture. Patients underwent a mean of four procedures before referral for free-tissue transfer. The mean time from injury to flap coverage was 1006 days. Stable, long-term coverage of the free flaps was achieved in 78% of patients. Wound breakdown was most often caused by recurrent osteomyelitis (65%). Seventy-four percent of the fractures healed. The amputation rate was 10%. Four patients required repeat free-flap transfer for limb salvage. Conclusion Only the grade of tibial fracture could be significantly related to postoperative free-flap failure. PMID:8640624
Alt, Tobias; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Potthast, Wolfgang
Curve running requires the generation of centripetal force altering the movement pattern in comparison to the straight path run. The question arises which kinematic modulations emerge while bend sprinting at high velocities. It has been suggested that during curve sprints the legs fulfil different functions. A three-dimensional motion analysis (16 high-speed cameras) was conducted to compare the segmental kinematics of the lower extremity during the stance phases of linear and curve sprints (radius: 36.5 m) of six sprinters of national competitive level. Peak joint angles substantially differed in the frontal and transversal plane whereas sagittal plane kinematics remained unchanged. During the prolonged left stance phase (left: 107.5 ms, right: 95.7 ms, straight: 104.4 ms) the maximum values of ankle eversion (left: 12.7°, right: 2.6°, straight: 6.6°), hip adduction (left: 13.8°, right: 5.5°, straight: 8.8°) and hip external rotation (left: 21.6°, right: 12.9°, straight: 16.7°) were significantly higher. The inside leg seemed to stabilise the movement in the frontal plane (eversion-adduction strategy) whereas the outside leg provided and controlled the motion in the horizontal plane (rotation strategy). These results extend the principal understanding of the effects of curve sprinting on lower extremity kinematics. This helps to increase the understanding of nonlinear human bipedal locomotion, which in turn might lead to improvements in athletic performance and injury prevention.
Altner, P C; Rockley, P; Kirby, K
A retrospective study of 52 consecutive patients was conducted to determine the influence of certain factors on the ambulatory rehabilitation of patients with hemiplegia and lower extremity amputation. Factors studied included side of hemiplegia, laterality of disability, level of amputation, order of disability (amputation first or hemiplegia first), neuromuscular status, mental status, sex, age. The level of function was defined as independent, limited, or nonambulatory. Of 52 double-disability patients, thirty were fitted with a prosthesis. Eight patients attained independent prosthetic function while 16 patients were limited and six were nonambulatory. Factors such as ipsilateral BK amputation preceding hemiplegia, a good-to-fair neuromuscular status, and an intact mental status have been associated with better functional results. Although producing higher fitting rates, none of these factors has been found in the present study to be associated with statistically higher levels of ambulatory function. A good-to-fair neuromuscular status seemed to be the prime requisite for good ambulation with a prosthesis in a patient with the double disability of amputation and hemiplegia.
Mayers, Lester; Bronner, Shaw; Agraharasamakulam, Sujani; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi
Tap dance is a unique performing art utilizing the lower extremities as percussion instruments. In a previous study these authors reported decreased injury prevalence among tap dancers compared to other dance and sports participants. No biomechanical analyses of tap dance exist to explain this finding. The purpose of the current pilot study was to provide a preliminary overview of normative peak kinetic and kinematic data, based on the hypothesis that tap dance generates relatively low ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments. Six professional tap dancers performed four common tap dance sequences that produced data captured by the use of a force platform and a five-camera motion analysis system. The mean vertical ground reaction force for all sequences was found to be 2.06+/-0.55 BW. Mean peak sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane joint moments (hip, knee, and ankle) ranged from 0.07 to 2.62 N.m/kg. These small ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments support our hypothesis, and may explain the relatively low injury incidence in tap dancers. Nevertheless, the analysis is highly complex, and other factors remain to be studied and clarified.
Henderson, Alison W; Turner, Aaron P; Williams, Rhonda M; Norvell, Daniel C; Hakimi, Kevin N; Czerniecki, Joseph M
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of sexual activity among individuals experiencing their first dysvascular lower extremity amputation. A prospective cohort was recruited from 4 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Of 198 potential participants who met inclusion criteria, 113 (57%) agreed to participate within 7 days of amputation (baseline) and 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months post-amputation; 105 completed the sexual activity items at baseline. Measures included self-reported frequency of sexual activity; desire for more or less sexual activity; importance of sexual activity to satisfaction with life; Patient Health Questionnaire-9; Locomotor Capability Index-5; pain intensity/frequency; quality of life. Depending on the time period post-amputation, 11%-24% reported engaging in any sexual activity, although a majority indicated that sexual activity is very important to their satisfaction with life. Frequency of sexual activity increased between 6 weeks and 4 and 12 months post-amputation. In univariate analyses, older age was associated with decreased sexual activity at all time points; at 4 and 12 months, greater mobility was associated with increased sexual activity. In multivariable models, mobility was associated with sexual activity at 4 and 12 months; age and race remained associated with sexual activity at 4 and 12 months, respectively. At all time points, frequency and importance of sexual activity were significantly associated with one another. Although a minority of individuals engaged in any sexual activity during the study period, it remained an important factor in overall satisfaction with life. Younger age and improved mobility were associated with increased sexual activity. Rehabilitation specialists are encouraged to address sexuality and, if relevant, incorporate it into rehabilitation goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chiles, Nancy S.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Patel, Kushang V.
Objective Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. Research Design and Methods This study included 983 participants, age 65 and older from the InCHIANTI Study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0-12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cut-points of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0-5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. Results and Conclusion 12.8% (n=126) of participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β= −0.99; p< 0.01), decreased walking speed (β= −0.1m/s; p< 0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β= −1.7m/s; p< 0.01), and increased neuropathy (β= 0.25; p< 0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. PMID:24120281
The potential for lifestyle recovery is tremendous for most lower extremity amputees. The amazing and ever-expanding array of adaptive prosthetics can help make the devastating loss of amputation more bearable for patients, their families, and their health care team. The new amputee, in a state of shock and grief, does not know what his or her prosthetic options are. It is crucial that the surgeon is knowledgeable about what the patient can have and what the patient needs to ask for. Dana Bowman stated: Ideally, the new amputee should say to their doctor, "I'd like my leg to be lightweight, flexible, durable, comfortable. I want to do sports or I want to ride bikes with my kids." Whatever it is they like to do. I was told I would never be able to wear two dynamic feet and that my sky diving days were over. I said, "Well how do you know? Can't I try?" It took years to find out what I could have and then to find people to help me get it. The prosthetic prescription the physician writes is the patient's gateway to the kind of prosthetics that will enable him or her to pursue the activities of their life. Often, new amputees end up with the bare minimum prosthesis, which can cause problems with comfort and mobility. A poorly designed or badly fitting prosthesis is as disabling as the actual amputation. When the surgeon can help the amputee and his or her family understand what kind of prosthetic choices are available, it establishes an optimistic outlook that is highly beneficial to the entire recovery process physically and mentally. "When I lost my leg, if someone would have told me that I could at least try to run again, that would have meant a lot," said Brian Frasure. "Getting that positive mental attitude is every bit as important as having good medical and prosthetic care." By asking probing questions about the patient's preamputation lifestyle and postamputation goals, the physician can write a prescription for truly adaptive prosthetics. The surgeon should
Surgery is known to be a major risk factor of vein thrombosis. Progression from lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to pulmonary embolism can lead to catastrophic outcome, although the incidence ratio is low. The ability to rule in or rule out DVT is becoming essential for anesthesiologists. Non-invasive technique of ultrasonography is a sensitive and specific tool for the assessment of lower extremity DVT. This article introduces the basics and practical methods of ultrasound examination for lower extremity DVT.
Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum
Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography. PMID:28260355
Malanga, Gerard A; Dentico, Richard; Halperin, Jonathan S
Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic evaluation of the proximal lower limb includes the evaluation of the soft tissue structures, including tendons, ligaments, or muscles, and the bony structures of this region, include the hip, pubic symphysis, and sacroiliac joints. The evaluation of the hip or proximal lower limb region can be performed in an efficient and systematic manner. Ultrasonography of the lateral hip, intra-articular hip, medial thigh, and posterior thigh are discussed in the article.
Graham, James E.; Deutsch, Anne; O’Connell, Ann A.; Karmarkar, Amol M.; Granger, Carl V.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.
Background It is unclear if volume-outcome relationships exist in inpatient rehabilitation. Objectives Assess associations between facility volumes and two patient-centered outcomes in the three most common diagnostic groups in inpatient rehabilitation. Research Design We used hierarchical linear and generalized linear models to analyze administrative assessment data from patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services for stroke (n=202,423), lower extremity fracture (n=132,194), or lower extremity joint replacement (n=148,068) between 2006 and 2008 in 717 rehabilitation facilities across the U.S. Facilities were assigned to quintiles based on average annual diagnosis-specific patient volumes. Measures Discharge functional status (FIM instrument) and probability of home discharge. Results Facility-level factors accounted for 6–15% of the variance in discharge FIM total scores and 3–5% of the variance in home discharge probability across the 3 diagnostic groups. We used the middle volume quintile (Q3) as the reference group for all analyses and detected small, but statistically significant (p < .01) associations with discharge functional status in all three diagnosis groups. Only the highest volume quintile (Q5) reached statistical significance, displaying higher functional status ratings than Q3 each time. The largest effect was observed in FIM total scores among fracture patients, with only a 3.6-point difference in Q5 and Q3 group means. Volume was not independently related to home discharge. Conclusions Outcome-specific volume effects ranged from small (functional status) to none (home discharge) in all three diagnostic groups. Patients with these conditions can be treated locally rather than at higher-volume regional centers. Further regionalization of inpatient rehabilitation services is not needed for these conditions. PMID:23579350
bone fracture, ligament tear, and muscle rupture. While these injuries may seem well-defined through medical imaging, the process of injury and the... process of high strain rate direct axial loading that leads to bone fracture and fragmentation is investigated. 15. SUBJECT TERMS failure, lower...While these injuries may seem well-defined through medical imaging, the process of injury and the effects of vehicle system design to protection are
Jarvis, Danielle N; Kulig, Kornelia
In dance, high demands are placed on the lower extremity joints during jumping tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical demands placed on the lower extremity joints during the takeoff and landing phases of saut de chat leaps.
Cox, P St L; Williams, S K P; Weaver, S R
Lower limb amputees typically have reduced mobility which affects their ability to perform daily tasks and to successfully reintegrate into community life. A major goal of rehabilitation for amputees is to improve quality of life (QOL). This study therefore focussed on QOL and functional independence for persons with lower limb amputations secondary to diabetes. To determine the QOL and functional independence of lower limb diabetic amputees one to three years post amputation, using variables such as age, gender and amputation level. A total of 87 participants were selected from the 2006-2009 physiotherapy records at the St Ann's Bay Hospital. These participants completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHO QOL-BREF) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Data were analysed using SPSS (version 12) and the mean values for QOL and functional independence were calculated. Relationships between the variables: age, gender and level of amputation with QOL and functional independence were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Among the 35 males and 52 females participating in the study, below knee amputees recorded higher scores for QOL (p < 0.05) and functional independence (p < 0.0001) compared to the above knee amputees. The result also showed that females had a significantly higher average score than males among the four domains for QOL. Similar results were obtained from the FIM where women again had significantly higher scores than males (p < 0.0001). The majority of females across the age groups reported average to high QOL (p < 0.0001) compared to the males. A positive correlation (r = 0.5999, p < 0.0001) was found between functional independence and quality of life of all participants. The results showed that below knee amputees functioned better than those with above knee amputations and that females were more likely to cope and function with the disability than males.
Johansen, K; Daines, M; Howey, T; Helfet, D; Hansen, S T
MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score) is a simple rating scale for lower extremity trauma, based on skeletal/soft-tissue damage, limb ischemia, shock, and age. Retrospective analysis of severe lower extremity injuries in 25 trauma victims demonstrated a significant difference between MESS values for 17 limbs ultimately salvaged (mean, 4.88 +/- 0.27) and nine requiring amputation (mean, 9.11 +/- 0.51) (p less than 0.01). A prospective trial of MESS in lower extremity injuries managed at two trauma centers again demonstrated a significant difference between MESS values of 14 salvaged (mean, 4.00 +/- 0.28) and 12 doomed (mean, 8.83 +/- 0.53) limbs (p less than 0.01). In both the retrospective survey and the prospective trial, a MESS value greater than or equal to 7 predicted amputation with 100% accuracy. MESS may be useful in selecting trauma victims whose irretrievably injured lower extremities warrant primary amputation.
Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O’Brien, Peter J.
Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. PMID:20858378
Kelechi, T J; Lukacs, K S
The Comprehensive Lower Extremity Assessment Form was developed in response to the need for a screening tool in a nurse-managed foot care clinic. It differs from other such tools because it includes clinical measures that identify the potential for foot pathology. The Comprehensive Lower Extremity Assessment Form also serves as an assessment teaching guide in a foot care course and is included as part of a home-study program. The authors demonstrate how the Comprehensive Lower Extremity Assessment Form has generated revenue as part of an intrapreneurial outgrowth of their foot clinic and provides a comprehensive approach to lower extremity assessment. The form can be tailored to meet the needs of the advanced practice nurse, the clinical setting, or patient population.
lower extremity and are overuse in nature.[4-8] The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control has estimated that more than 10,000 Americans seek...of all injuries . Strategies to prevent injury would reduce healthcare costs and help maintain a fit, ready force. Lower extremity overuse...that 20-50% of these injuries may be preventable . Injury prevention programs with even a modest 5% reduction in injury rates could save the over
Intenzo, C.M.; Desai, A.G.; Kim, S.S.; Park, C.H.; Merli, G.J. )
Contrast lymphangiography has been the traditional radiographic method for imaging the lymphatic system of the lower extremities. Because of the difficulty in performing the procedure and its potential side effects, radionuclide lymphangiography is a safe and reliable alternative. Technetium-99m labeled to antimony trisulfide colloid was used in nine patients presenting with lymphedema of the lower extremities. The procedure was relatively simple to perform, and no adverse effects were noted.
Gell, Nancy; Werner, Robert A; Hartigan, Anne; Wiggermann, Neal; Keyserling, W Monroe
Work-related fatigue of the lower extremities is a known cause of lost productivity and significant employer costs. Common workplace solutions to reduce fatigue levels include anti-fatigue matting, shoe orthoses, or sit/stand work stations. However, assessment of these anti-fatigue measures within the workplace has been limited. This was a cross sectional study in an automotive assembly plant on employees with at least 6 months tenure. Subject data were collected via questionnaires including Likert-scale questions to define fatigue severity. Jobs were evaluated for lower extremity ergonomic exposures via videotaping, pedometers, interviews, and industrial engineering records. Lower extremity fatigue at the end of the work day was associated with a higher prevalence of smoking, rheumatoid arthritis, job dissatisfaction, use of shoes with firmer outsoles, and increased time on the job spent standing or walking. Supervisor support and increased time spent on carpet were protective. Lower extremity fatigue that interfered with activities outside of work had additional risk factors including higher BMI, prior diagnosis of osteoarthritis, and increased hours per week spent working. While these results identify carpet as being protective against lower extremity fatigue, no similar relationship was identified for anti-fatigue mats. No adverse relationship was found between hard surfaces such as concrete and lower extremity fatigue. Given the high costs associated with work-related fatigue, future areas for potential intervention include smoking cessation, specific shoe recommendations, and enhancing psychosocial aspects of work such as supervisor support. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hara, Hisako; Zhou, Han Peng; Tange, Shuichi; Kikuchi, Kazuki
Background: We investigate the effectiveness of lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) in releasing lymphedema-associated pain. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis. Subjects of this study included lower extremity lymphedema patients who presented persistent and constant degrees of pain in their lower limbs. LVA was performed under local anesthesia. The preoperative lower extremity pain and postoperative lower extremity pain were surveyed using the visual analog scale on a score from 0 to 10. The circumferences of the limbs were also recorded. Results: A total of 8 patients (16 lower limbs) were included. The subjects included 1 man and 7 women, and their average age was 72 years. The average follow-up period was 17 months. The average preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale scores were 5.3 and 1.8, respectively. Moreover, 7 patients who had records of their lower extremity circumference observed an average changing rate of −4.7% in lower extremity lymphedema index after the surgery. Conclusion: LVA can release the pain in the affected limbs of lymphedema. PMID:28203506
Gilbert, Frances C; Burdette, G Trey; Joyner, A Barry; Llewellyn, Tracy A; Buckley, Thomas A
Concussions have been associated with elevated musculoskeletal injury risk; however, the influence of unreported and unrecognized concussions has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between concussion and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury rates across a diverse array of sports among collegiate student-athletes at the conclusion of their athletic career. The hypothesis was that there will be a positive association between athletes who reported a history of concussions and higher rates of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Student-athletes (N = 335; 62.1% women; mean age, 21.2 ± 1.4 years) from 13 sports completed a reliable injury history questionnaire. Respondents indicated the total number of reported, unreported, and potentially unrecognized concussions as well as lower extremity injuries including ankle sprains, knee injuries, and muscle strains. Chi-square analyses were performed to identify the association between concussion and lower extremity injuries. There were significant associations between concussion and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.012), knee injury ( P = 0.002), and lower extremity muscle strain ( P = 0.031). There were also significant associations between reported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.003), unreported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.002), and unrecognized concussions and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.001) and lower extremity muscle strains ( P = 0.006), with odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.9. There was a positive association between concussion history and lower extremity injuries (odds ratios, 1.6-2.9 elevated risk) among student-athletes at the conclusion of their intercollegiate athletic careers. Clinicians should be aware of these elevated risks when making return-to-participation decisions and should incorporate injury prevention protocols.
Breidthardt, Tobias; Irfan, Affan; Klima, Theresia; Drexler, Beatrice; Balmelli, Cathrin; Arenja, Nisha; Socrates, Thenral; Ringger, Rebekka; Heinisch, Corinna; Ziller, Ronny; Schifferli, Jürg; Meune, Christophe; Mueller, Christian
The pathophysiology and key determinants of lower extremity edema in patients with acute heart failure are poorly investigated. We prospectively enrolled 279 unselected patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute heart failure. Lower extremity edema was quantified at predefined locations. Left ventricular ejection fraction, central venous pressure quantifying right ventricular failure, biomarkers to quantify hemodynamic cardiac stress (B-type natriuretic peptide), and the activity of the arginine-vasopressin system (copeptin) also were recorded. Lower extremity edema was present in 218 (78%) patients and limited to the ankle in 22%, reaching the lower leg in 40%, reaching the upper leg in 11%, and was generalized (anasarca) in 3% of patients. Patients in the 4 strata according to the presence and extent of lower leg edema had comparable systolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, central venous pressure, and B-type natriuretic peptide levels, as well as copeptin and glomerular filtration rate (P=NS for all). The duration of dyspnea preceding the presentation was longer in patients with more extensive edema (P=.006), while serum sodium (P=.02) and serum albumin (P=.03) was lower. Central venous pressure, hemodynamic cardiac stress, left ventricular ejection fraction, and the activity of the arginine-vasopressin system do not seem to be key determinants of the presence or extent of lower extremity edema in acute heart failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barbour, John R; Schweppe, Mark; O, Seung-Jun
Lower-extremity burns in a pediatric patient require special consideration. The management of burn reconstruction in pediatric patients is often complex, requiring multiple reconstructive operations, and the primary intention of the surgeon is to prevent burn scar deformities. Timely management of the burn wound and postburn scars has decreased the incidence of burn scar deformities and contractures of the lower extremity in recent years. We present an overview of the principles of reconstruction techniques using skin grafting and biologic skin substitutes to restore the important barrier lost secondary to burns. In addition, we address methods of repairing scar contracture, a common occurrence in burn patients, at specific locations on the lower extremity. Finally, special scenarios such as burns associated with fractures, burn injury in insensate children, and Marjolin ulcer are discussed.
Background: The purpose of this study was to introduce a comprehensive approach to lower extremity free-tissue transfer and report the clinical outcome that has been achieved with this approach. Methods: The comprehensive approach developed by the author includes patient selection, flap selection, selection of the recipient vessels, flap dissection, flap preparation, microvascular anastomosis, flap inset, immediate postoperative care, intermediate postoperative care, and further follow-up care. Each part of this approach has its own special considerations. In an 8-year period, 28 consecutive lower extremity free-tissue transfers were performed in 28 patients by the author. The clinical outcomes were recorded based on the success of free-tissue transfer, any reoperations related to the revision of microvascular anastomosis, and any partial or total flap loss during an 8-year follow-up. Results: All 28 lower extremity free-tissue transfers were performed successfully. All patients were discharged home once they tolerated dangling. No reoperations were needed for revision of microvascular anastomosis. No total or partial flap loss was encountered. Overall success of free-tissue transfer to the lower extremity in this series was 100%. Conclusions: An ideal outcome of free-tissue transfer to the lower extremity can be accomplished with this comprehensive approach developed by the author. With good surgical judgment, adequate microsurgical skill, step-by-step intraoperative execution, and a protocol-driven clinical practice, the reconstructive surgeon should be able to improve his or her success for free-tissue transfer to the lower extremity. PMID:28280670
Mooney, James F
Familial concern regarding perceived rotational and angular deformities is a common part of any primary care practice. It is essential for the medical practitioner to understand the wide normal range in children and the natural history of lower extremity development over time. Most lower extremity rotational and angular issues in young children resolve spontaneously over time, and require little or no intervention. In the current atmosphere of medical cost containment, coupled with the shortage of pediatric orthopedic surgeons, many of these patients should be managed by the primary care provider and do not require referral for more specialized care.
Iannucci, Glen J; Slesnick, Timothy C; Kogon, Brian; Samai, Cyrus
A previously healthy 11-year-old girl was referred for pediatric cardiology evaluation because of the development of progressive bilateral lower extremity swelling over the course of 2 years. Her prior workup had included a negative result for proteinuria and a negative ultrasound for deep venous thrombosis. On physical examination, in addition to her edema, she was found to have a severe pectus excavatum deformity, which prompted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. This study demonstrated compression of the inferior vena cava. She underwent uneventful pectus repair with use of a modified Ravitch procedure and experienced complete resolution of her lower extremity edema.
Battiston, Bruno; Ciclamini, Davide; Tang, Jin Bo
Novel and combined tissue transfers from the lower extremity provide new tools to combat soft tissue defects of the hand, foot, and ankle, or fracture nonunion. Flaps can be designed for special purposes, such as providing a gliding bed for a grafted or repaired tendon or for thumb or finger reconstruction. Propeller flaps can cover soft tissue defects of the leg and foot. In repairing severe bone and soft tissue defects of the lower extremity, combined approaches, including external fixators, one-stage vascularized bone grafting, and skin or muscle flap coverage of the traumatized leg and foot, have become popular.
Milewski, Matthew D; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Solomito, Matthew; Westwell, Melany; Nissen, Carl W
Documentation of the lower extremity motion patterns of adolescent pitchers is an important part of understanding the pitching motion and the implication of lower extremity technique on upper extremity loads, injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to take the initial step in this process by documenting the biomechanics of the lower extremities during the pitching cycle in adolescent pitchers and to compare these findings with the published data for older pitchers. Three-dimensional motion analysis using a comprehensive lower extremity model was used to evaluate the fast ball pitch technique in adolescent pitchers. Thirty-two pitchers with a mean age of 12.4 years (range 10.5-14.7 years) and at least 2 years of experience were included in this study. The pitchers showed a mean of 49 ± 12° of knee flexion of the lead leg at foot contact. They tended to maintain this position through ball release, and then extended their knee during the follow through phase (ball release to maximal internal glenohumeral rotation). The lead leg hip rapidly progressed into adduction and flexion during the arm cocking phase with a range of motion of 40 ± 10° adduction and 30 ± 13° flexion. The lead hip mean peak adduction velocity was 434 ± 83°/s and flexion velocity was 456 ± 156°/s. Simultaneously, the trailing leg hip rapidly extended approaching to a mean peak extension of -8 ± 5° at 39% of the pitch cycle, which is close to passive range of motion constraints. Peak hip abduction of the trailing leg at foot contact was -31 ± 12°, which also approached passive range of motion constraints. Differences and similarities were also noted between the adolescent lower extremity kinematics and adult pitchers; however, a more comprehensive analysis using similar methods is needed for a complete comparison.
Wortmann, M; Alldinger, I; Böckler, D; Ulrich, A; Hyhlik-Dürr, A
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of the retroperitoneum and the lower limb with invasion of major blood vessels are very rare malignancies. This study analyses the outcome of patients with vascular replacement during resection of STS of the retroperitoneum and the lower extremity with either arterial or concomitant arterial and venous infiltration. Patients with vascular replacement during resection of sarcoma of the retroperitoneum and the lower extremity between 1990 and 2014 were included in this retrospective single center study. Patients with a sole infiltration of a major vein were excluded. The follow up was obtained from medical records, the general practitioner and a clinical examination whenever possible. The main endpoints were survival, graft patency and the rate of major amputations. Fourty seven patients were included in this study. Twenty patients have received an operation for a retroperitoneal STS, twenty seven for a STS of the lower extremity. The median follow-up was 24.5 months. The median survival was 113 months with a median tumor-free survival of 25 months. The two-year patency for arterial bypasses in the retroperitoneum and the lower extremity was 88% and 66%, respectively. Limb salvage rate was 89%. Invasion of major blood vessels is no contraindication for a resection of a STS in the retroperitoneum and the lower extremity, but it is accompanied by a high postoperative morbidity. Since surgical resection is the only curative therapy in these patients, it should also be offered to patients with infiltration of major blood vessels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Ege, Tolga; Unlu, Aytekin; Tas, Huseyin; Bek, Dogan; Turkan, Selim; Cetinkaya, Aytac
Background: Decision of limb salvage or amputation is generally aided with several trauma scoring systems such as the mangled extremity severity score (MESS). However, the reliability of the injury scores in the settling of open fractures due to explosives and missiles is challenging. Mortality and morbidity of the extremity trauma due to firearms are generally associated with time delay in revascularization, injury mechanism, anatomy of the injured site, associated injuries, age and the environmental circumstance. The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the extent of extremity injuries due to ballistic missiles and to detect the reliability of mangled extremity severity score (MESS) in both upper and lower extremities. Materials and Methods: Between 2004 and 2014, 139 Gustillo Anderson Type III open fractures of both the upper and lower extremities were enrolled in the study. Data for patient age, fire arm type, transporting time from the field to the hospital (and the method), injury severity scores, MESS scores, fracture types, amputation levels, bone fixation methods and postoperative infections and complications retrieved from the two level-2 trauma center's data base. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the MESS were calculated to detect the ability in deciding amputation in the mangled limb. Results: Amputation was performed in 39 extremities and limb salvage attempted in 100 extremities. The mean followup time was 14.6 months (range 6–32 months). In the amputated group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremity were 8.8 (range 6–11) and 9.24 (range 6–11), respectively. In the limb salvage group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremities were 5.29 (range 4–7) and 5.19 (range 3–8), respectively. Sensitivity of MESS in upper and lower extremities were calculated as 80% and 79.4% and positive predictive values detected as 55.55% and 83.3%, respectively. Specificity of MESS score for
Ege, Tolga; Unlu, Aytekin; Tas, Huseyin; Bek, Dogan; Turkan, Selim; Cetinkaya, Aytac
Decision of limb salvage or amputation is generally aided with several trauma scoring systems such as the mangled extremity severity score (MESS). However, the reliability of the injury scores in the settling of open fractures due to explosives and missiles is challenging. Mortality and morbidity of the extremity trauma due to firearms are generally associated with time delay in revascularization, injury mechanism, anatomy of the injured site, associated injuries, age and the environmental circumstance. The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the extent of extremity injuries due to ballistic missiles and to detect the reliability of mangled extremity severity score (MESS) in both upper and lower extremities. Between 2004 and 2014, 139 Gustillo Anderson Type III open fractures of both the upper and lower extremities were enrolled in the study. Data for patient age, fire arm type, transporting time from the field to the hospital (and the method), injury severity scores, MESS scores, fracture types, amputation levels, bone fixation methods and postoperative infections and complications retrieved from the two level-2 trauma center's data base. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the MESS were calculated to detect the ability in deciding amputation in the mangled limb. Amputation was performed in 39 extremities and limb salvage attempted in 100 extremities. The mean followup time was 14.6 months (range 6-32 months). In the amputated group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremity were 8.8 (range 6-11) and 9.24 (range 6-11), respectively. In the limb salvage group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremities were 5.29 (range 4-7) and 5.19 (range 3-8), respectively. Sensitivity of MESS in upper and lower extremities were calculated as 80% and 79.4% and positive predictive values detected as 55.55% and 83.3%, respectively. Specificity of MESS score for upper and lower extremities was 84% and 86.6%; negative
Gensburg, R.S.; Kawashima, A.; Sandler, C.M.
The scintigraphic findings on bone imaging in two patients with extensive lower extremity periostitis secondary to venous insufficiency are presented. One of these patients had bilateral disease. The use of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scanning in an attempt to exclude concurrent osteomyelitis is also addressed.
Brindle, Richard A; Milner, Clare E; Zhang, Songning; Fitzhugh, Eugene C
Step width is a spatiotemporal parameter that may influence lower extremity biomechanics at the hip and knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical response of the lower extremity joints to step width changes during running. Lower extremity data from 30 healthy runners, half of them male, were collected during running in three step width conditions: preferred, wide, and narrow. Dependent variables and step width were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA and pairwise t-tests for post hoc comparisons. Step width was successfully altered in the wide and narrow conditions. Generally, frontal plane peak values decreased as step width increased from narrow to preferred to wide. Peak hip adduction and rearfoot eversion angles decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Peak knee abduction moment and knee abduction impulse also decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Although men and women ran differently, gender only influenced the effect of step width on peak rearfoot inversion moment. In conclusion, step width influences lower extremity biomechanics in healthy runners. When step width increased from narrow to wide, peak values of frontal plane variables decreased. In addition to previously reported changes at the rearfoot, the hip and knee joint biomechanics were also influenced by changes in step width.
Schiraldi-Deck, F G; Grovit, M; Desai, S N
Voluminous information can be written on the nutritional deficiencies that are secondary to gastrointestinal disease. This highly complicated system, with its immunologic pathogenesis, can affect every system of the body. This article describes how these manifestations of gastrointestinal disease affect the lower extremities.
Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Boling, Michelle C.; Levine, Beverly; Shultz, Sandra J.
Objective To determine the extent to which select lower extremity alignment characteristics of the pelvis, hip, knee, and foot are related to the Q angle. Design Descriptive cohort study design. Setting Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Participants Two hundred eighteen participants (102 males, 116 females). Assessment of Risk Factors Eight clinical measures of static alignment of the left lower extremity were measured by a single examiner to determine the impact of lower extremity alignment on the magnitude of Q angle. Main Outcome Measures Q angle, pelvic angle, hip anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, navicular drop, and femur and tibia length. Results Once all alignment variables were accounted for, greater tibiofemoral angle and femoral anteversion were significant predictors of greater Q angle in both males and females. Pelvic angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, navicular drop, and femur to tibia length ratio were not significant independent predictors of Q angle in males or females. Conclusions Greater femoral anteversion and tibiofemoral angle result in greater Q angle, with changes in tibiofemoral angle having a substantially greater impact on the magnitude of the Q angle compared with femoral anteversion. As such, the Q angle seems to largely represent a frontal plane alignment measure. As many knee injuries seem to result from a combination of both frontal and transverse plane motions and forces, this may in part explain why Q angle has been found to be a poor independent predictor of lower extremity injury risk. PMID:19423972
Qiu, Yongbin; Zhu, Yi; Jia, Wei; Chen, Songhua; Meng, Qingzhou
To investigate the effect of spa adjuvant therapy on diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). 128 patients with type II diabetes were separated into three groups according to the degree of lower extremity vascular stenosis. Patients within each group were then randomly divided to receive no treatment (control) or spa adjuvant therapy (treatment). Clinical symptoms, blood pressure and hemodynamic analyses were compared between control and treatment groups by Chi square or t-test. After adjuvant therapy with spa, patients' pain, numbness, and cold sensation were significantly improved compared with control groups (P<0.05). Spa adjuvant therapy also significantly increased the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio of patients with mild lower extremity vascular stenosis compared with control groups (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences between the two groups for patients with moderate and severe stenosis (P>0.05). Both in the spa and control groups, there were no significant differences before and after medication for fasting, 2-h postprandial blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) analyses (P>0.05). Spa adjuvant therapy can significantly alleviate lower extremity pain, numbness, and cold sensory symptoms in diabetic LEAD patients with stenosis. Moreover, in LEAD patients with mild stenosis, spa adjuvant therapy also improves the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio, suggesting a potential role for spa therapy as an early intervention strategy to treat the initial stages of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silverberg, R; Lombardo, G; Gorga, D; Nagler, W; Himel, H; Yurt, R
Functional ambulation is an expected outcome of physical therapy after burn injuries on the lower extremities. The purpose of this study was to document temporal and spatial gait parameters of adult patients with the use of the GAITRite system (CIR Systems Inc, Clifton, NJ) after the patients were burned on their lower extremities and to compare these results with previous data reported for normal subjects. Twenty-five adults with lower extremity burns (19 men and 6 women; mean age, 35.6+/-8.3 years) were evaluated within 5 days of discharge from an acute care facility. The GAITRite system, which consists of an electronic walkway that contains 6 sensor pads encapsulated in a rolled-up carpet, was used to collect temporal and spatial variables. The patients walked at their preferred rate of ambulation and completed 2 passes; the 2 passes were then averaged by the software to determine the patients' gait parameters. A 2-tailed t test was used for comparison of the mean values for the patients and the previously published data. The results indicated that for both men and women, cycle time and base of support were significantly higher (P < or = .01) in the patients with burn injuries than in normal subjects. For men, all of the remaining parameters were significantly lower (P < or = .01) in the patients with burns except stride length, which was not significantly different (P > .05). For women, stance time as a percentage of the gait cycle and cadence, velocity, step length, and stride length, were all significantly lower (P < or = .01) in the patients with burn injuries, whereas double support as a percentage of the gait cycle was not significantly different (P > .05) between the 2 groups. These results indicate that immediately after an acute care hospitalization, patients with lower extremity burns have significantly different gait patterns than gender-and age-matched normal subjects. Future studies are necessary to determine whether these impairments in gait limit
Barla, M; Gavanier, B; Mangin, M; Parot, J; Bauer, C; Mainard, D
There is currently no consensus on how to treat patients with lower extremity trauma. Should amputation be performed early on to avoid complications or should the limb be saved at any price? The goal of this study was to show that early amputation is a viable treatment option in lower extremity trauma cases. Twenty patients who underwent early amputation and 16 patients who underwent limb-salvage were included with a minimum follow-up of 1year. The main endpoints were the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) used to predict amputation, complications, sequelae, bone union and functional outcomes. The amputees had a higher MESS score than those treated conservatively (7.8 vs. 4.9, P<0.00001), had a shorter hospital stay (P<0.022) and had fewer postoperative complications (P<0.003), especially infection-related (P<0.001). The prevalence of infection in limb-salvage patients was 61%. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of quality of life. In cases of lower extremity trauma, early amputation and limb-sparing treatment each have their advantages and disadvantages. Early amputation seems to be better in cases of complications, despite similar quality of life in the two groups in the long-term. It is a viable treatment option in cases of lower extremity trauma. Amputation must not be considered as a failure, but a deliberate choice due to the functional impact of complications that occur after limb-salvage. Level IV study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Karanas, Yvonne L; Nigriny, John; Chang, James
The timing of post traumatic microsurgical lower extremity reconstruction was defined by Godina in 1986, with recommendations for flap coverage of Gustillo grade IIIb/c fractures within 72 hours of injury. Godina's study showed the highest risk of infection and flap loss in the delayed period (72 hours-90 days). Subsequent authors have also cited lower rates of flap loss and infection when repair was performed "early". However, the definition of "early" remains ambiguous. We hypothesized that definitive debridement with optimal dressing care, meticulous microsurgical treatment planning, and vessel anastomoses outside of the zone of injury would allow for delayed reconstruction with high success rates. A retrospective review of 14 lower extremity reconstructions with free flaps was undertaken over a 4-year period. All patients underwent reconstruction in the delayed (>72 hours) period. There were no flap losses and one case of late osteomyelitis. We conclude that lower extremity reconstruction can be performed safely and effectively in the "delayed" period to allow for wound debridement, stabilization of other injuries, and transfer to a microsurgical facility.
Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.
A lower extremity model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and therefore no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most important contributions of the muscles to the lower extremity response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed important to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower extremity model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower extremity injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.
Stranix, John T; Lee, Z-Hye; Bellamy, Justin; Rifkind, Kenneth; Thanik, Vishal
Cellulitis is a common cause for emergency department (ED) presentation and subsequent hospital admission. Underlying fracture, osteomyelitis, or foreign body is often considered in the clinical evaluation of these patients. Accordingly, plain radiographs (XRs) of the affected extremity are often ordered during the initial work-up. The utility of these imaging studies in the treatment of uncomplicated lower-extremity cellulitis, however, remains unclear. In an effort to treat this common problem more efficiently, we evaluated our imaging practices and results in a cohort of consecutive patients admitted to a large public city hospital for treatment of uncomplicated lower-extremity cellulitis. Retrospective cohort study of 288 consecutive ED admissions for treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis, of which 214 met the inclusion criteria for this study. Patient demographics, history, vitals, laboratory values, and test results were evaluated with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. XRs of the affected lower extremity were obtained in 158 patients (73.8%). Positive XR findings were present in 19 patients (12.0%) and positively correlated with a history of acute trauma to the extremity (P < .001) or the presence of a chronic wound (P < .01). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a history of trauma (P < .001) or the presence of a chronic wound (P < .05) to be independent predictors of positive XR findings with relative risks of 6.24 and 2.98, respectively. The establishment of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of lower-extremity cellulitis has potential to significantly improve clinical efficiency and reduce cost by eliminating unnecessary testing. Based on our results, patients without a recent history of trauma to the affected extremity or the presence of a chronic wound do not appear to warrant XRs. When applied to our cohort, only 48 of 158 patients had a history of trauma or chronic wound. This means that 110 patients
Meler, J. D.; Solomon, M. A.; Steele, J. R.; Yancy, C. W. Jr; Parkey, R. W.; Fleckenstein, J. L.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)
PURPOSE: Our goal was to describe the MR findings of volume overload (VO) in the lower extremities. METHOD: Fifteen individuals were studied, including eight healthy controls and seven patients with VO (four cardiac, three renal). MR evaluation included various SE techniques. Edema detection, localization, and symmetry were assessed subjectively. Relaxation time estimates were also made of the subcutaneous tissue, marrow, and three muscles. RESULTS: Subcutaneous tissue was markedly edematous in seven of seven patients and asymmetric in four of seven, whereas marrow was normal in all patients. Muscle edema was mild and asymmetric in six and two of seven patients, respectively. Perifascial fluid collections were identified in six of seven patients. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous tissue edema is the dominant feature of VO in the lower extremities. Perifascial fluid is common but does not necessarily distribute symmetrically. Muscle edema is relatively mild. These findings should aid in identifying VO as the potential cause of swelling in patients with swollen legs.
Bar-Sever, Z; Connolly, L P; Gebhardt, M C; Treves, S T
To describe scintigraphic characteristics of bone allografts used in limb salvage reconstruction after resection of lower extremity osteosarcoma. The authors reviewed 85 skeletal scintigrams of 20 pediatric patients followed up for 0.5-5.7 years after resection of lower extremity osteosarcoma and allograft reconstruction. Uptake in the allograft and adjacent host tissues was assessed visually. Lack of tracer uptake in the allografts was seen in 99% of the studies and a faint rim of tracer localization outlining the allograft's periphery was seen in 95% of the studies. Increased uptake was noted at the allograft-host bone junction in 78% of the studies. Uptake was increased in the joint surfaces of native bones articulating with allografts (97% of studies), including the patella (93% of studies) when the knee was involved. These findings were stabilized as time passed. Cadaveric bone allografts have a characteristic scintigraphic appearance in this selected patient group that reflects the physiology of their incorporation process.
Zuker, Ronald M; Redett, Rick; Alman, Ben; Coles, John G; Timoney, Norma; Ein, Sigmund H
Composite tissue transplantation has emerged as a viable alternative to prosthetics and complex reconstructive surgery. Thus far it is reserved for cases which cannot be effectively reconstructed and where it offers some benefits over prostheses. It has been used in the upper extremity with encouraging results and, most recently, in the face. This report outlines what is believed to be the first such use in the lower extremity. A normal lower limb in a 3-month-old ischiopagus twin who was not going to survive was transplanted to the appropriate pelvic position, revascularized, and reinnervated in an otherwise healthy sister. The limb survived and, because of the immune compatibility, did not require immune suppressive therapy. The return of muscle function in the transplanted limb is encouraging. The transplanted limb appears to be fully sensate. In addition to reinnervation, the limb is now spontaneously under the cortical control of the recipient.
Arslan, Hüseyin; Ersöz, Hüseyin; Kişin, Bülent; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Necmioğlu, Serdar
The purpose of this study was to investigate post-therapeutic lower extremity rotational profiles in children with developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH), the differences between these values and those of normal children, and the relationship between these differences and clinical and radiological results. In 82 lower extremities of 64 patients, the foot-progression angle was measured clinically and the transmalleolar axis angle photographically, and hip rotations and thigh-foot angle were measured both clinically and photographically. The data obtained were compared with Staheli's data for normal children. In addition, clinical and radiographic data were compared within subgroups and with Staheli's data. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation. The medial rotation of the hip, the average clinical value was 44.66 masculine, and the photographic value was 42.28 masculine. Lateral rotation of the hip, the average clinical value was 38.01 masculine, and the average photographic value was 37.29 masculine. Thigh-foot angle, his angle was clinically 8.23 masculine and photographically 9.68 masculine. Angle of the transmalleolar axis, the photographic average was 21.59 masculine. Foot-progression angle, the clinical average was 10.70 masculine. It was determined that the lower extremity rotational profiles of children with DDH treated after walking did not differ from those of normal children, but that the internal and external hip rotations of McKay type III and IV patients were below those of normal children and of McKay type I and II patients. Lower extremity rotational profiles in children with DDH who received appropriate treatment were the same as those for normal children.
Wampler, Meredith A.; Galantino, Mary Lou; Huang, Sujuan; Gilchrist, Laura S.; Marchese, Victoria G.; Morris, G. Stephen; Scalzitti, David A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.
INTRODUCTION Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcoma are largely physically inactive, a behavior which potentially compounds their health burden. Altering this behavior requires understanding those factors that contribute to their physical inactivity. Therefore, this investigation sought to identify factors associated with inactivity in this subpopulation of cancer survivors. METHODS Demographic, personal, treatment and physical activity information from adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas was obtained from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables that best identified those individuals who were physically inactive. RESULTS Only 41% of survivors met Center for Disease Control (CDC) activity guidelines. Survivors were 1.20 (95% CI 1.11–1.30) more likely compared to CCSS sibling cohort and 1.12 (95% CI 1.10–1.15) times more likely than the general population to fail to meet CDC guidelines. Significant predictors of physical inactivity included female sex, hemipelvectomy surgery, and platinum and vinca alkaloid chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS The primary findings of this study are that survivors of childhood onset lower-extremity sarcoma are 1) highly likely to be physically inactive and 2) less likely than their siblings or the general population to regularly exercise. This study has identified treatment related risk factors associated with inactivity that will help health and wellness practitioners develop successful exercise interventions to help these survivors achieve recommended levels of physical activity for health. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS These results suggest that physical activity interventions for adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas should be sex specific and responsive to unique physical late effects experienced by these survivors. PMID:21681405
Meinerz, Carolyn M.; Malloy, Philip; Geiser, Christopher F.; Kipp, Kristof
Context Continued research into the mechanism of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury helps to improve clinical interventions and injury-prevention strategies. A better understanding of the effects of anticipation on landing neuromechanics may benefit training interventions. Objective To determine the effects of anticipation on lower extremity neuromechanics during a single-legged land-and-cut task. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Participants Eighteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age = 19.7 ± 0.8 years, height = 167.3 ± 6.0 cm, mass = 66.1 ± 2.1 kg). Intervention(s) Participants performed a single-legged land-and-cut task under anticipated and unanticipated conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s) Three-dimensional initial contact angles, peak joint angles, and peak internal joint moments and peak vertical ground reaction forces and sagittal-plane energy absorption of the 3 lower extremity joints; muscle activation of selected hip- and knee-joint muscles. Results Unanticipated cuts resulted in less knee flexion at initial contact and greater ankle toe-in displacement. Unanticipated cuts were also characterized by greater internal hip-abductor and external-rotator moments and smaller internal knee-extensor and external-rotator moments. Muscle-activation profiles during unanticipated cuts were associated with greater activation of the gluteus maximus during the precontact and landing phases. Conclusions Performing a cutting task under unanticipated conditions changed lower extremity neuromechanics compared with anticipated conditions. Most of the observed changes in lower extremity neuromechanics indicated the adoption of a hip-focused strategy during the unanticipated condition. PMID:26285089
Coleman, Jamie J; Tavoosi, Saharnaz; Zarzaur, Ben L; Brewer, Brian L; Rozycki, Grace S; Feliciano, David V
Problems related to the combination of an arterial injury and a blunt fracture in the lower extremity are well known-delayed diagnosis, damaged soft tissue, and high amputation rate. The actual incidence of this injury pattern is, however, unknown. The purposes of this study were to determine the current incidence of named arterial injuries in patients with blunt fractures in the lower extremities and assess potential associated risk factors. This was a 7-year (2007-2013) retrospective review of patients ≥18 years with blunt lower extremity fractures at a Level I trauma center. Fracture location and concomitant arterial injury were determined and patients stratified by age, gender, and injury velocity. Low injury velocity was defined as falls or assaults, whereas an injury secondary to a motorized vehicle was defined as high velocity. A total of 4413 patients (mean age 52.2 years, 54.3% male, mean Injury Severity Score 13.1) were identified. Forty-six patients (1.04%) had arterial injuries (20.4% common femoral, 8.2% superficial femoral, 44.9% popliteal, and 26.5% shank). After stratifying by age and injury velocity, younger age was associated with a significantly higher rate of vascular injury. For high-velocity injuries, there was no difference based on age. In conclusion, the prevalence of arterial injury after blunt lower extremity fractures is 1.04 per cent in our study. A significant paradoxical relationship exists between age and associated arterial injuries in patients with low-velocity injuries. If these data are confirmed in future studies, a low index of suspicion in patients >55 years after falls is appropriate.
van Dongen, Thijs T C F; Huizinga, Eelco P; de Kruijff, Loes G M; van der Krans, Arie C; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoencamp, Rigo
The use of improvised explosive devices is a frequent method of insurgents to inflict harm on deployed military personnel. Consequently, lower extremity injuries make up the majority of combat related trauma. The wounding pattern of an explosion is not often encountered in a civilian population and can lead to substantial disability. It is therefore important to study the impact of these lower extremity injuries and their treatment (limb salvage versus amputation) on functional outcome and quality of life. All Dutch repatriated service members receiving treatment for wounds on the lower extremity sustained in the Afghan theater between august 2005 and August 2014, were invited to participate in this observational cohort study. We conducted a survey regarding their physical and mental health using the Short Form health survey 36, EuroQoL 6 dimensions and Lower Extremity Functional Scale questionnaires. Results were collated in a specifically designed electronic database combined with epidemiology and hospital statistics gathered from the archive of the Central Military Hospital. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences between combat and non-combat related injuries and between limb salvage treatment and amputation. In comparison with non-battle injury patients, battle casualties were significantly younger of age, sustained more severe injuries, needed more frequent operations and clinical rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome scores in areas concerning well-being, social and cognitive functioning, were significantly lower. Regarding treatment, amputees experienced higher physical well-being and less pain compared to those treated with limb salvage surgery. Sustaining a combat injury to the lower extremity can lead to partial or permanent dysfunction. However, wounded service members, amputees included, are able to achieve high levels of activity and participation in society, proving a remarkable resilience. These long-term results demonstrate
Bolliger, Marc; Banz, Raphael; Dietz, Volker; Lünenburger, Lars
Isometric force measurements in the lower extremity are widely used in rehabilitation of subjects with neurological movement disorders (NMD) because walking ability has been shown to be related to muscle strength. Therefore muscle strength measurements can be used to monitor and control the effects of training programs. A new method to assess isometric muscle force was implemented in the driven gait orthosis (DGO) Lokomat. To evaluate the capabilities of this new measurement method, inter- and intra-rater reliability were assessed. Reliability was assessed in subjects with and without NMD. Subjects were tested twice on the same day by two different therapists to test inter-rater reliability and on two separate days by the same therapist to test intra-rater reliability. Results showed fair to good reliability for the new measurement method to assess isometric muscle force of lower extremities. In subjects without NMD, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.97 and intra-rater reliability from 0.71 to 0.90. In subjects with NMD, ICC ranged from 0.66 to 0.97 for inter-rater and from 0.50 to 0.96 for intra-rater reliability. Inter- and intra- rater reliability of an assessment method for measuring maximal voluntary isometric muscle force of lower extremities was demonstrated. We suggest that this method is a valuable tool for documentation and controlling of the rehabilitation process in patients using a DGO.
Chu, Virginia W; Hornby, T George; Schmit, Brian D
This study aimed to improve our understanding of static and dynamic lower extremity sensory perception and the impact of sensory impairments on the control of walking in stroke survivors. Using a custom, real-time unloading system, we tested load perception at heel strike, mid stance and push off in 10 stroke survivors and compared their performance to 10 age-matched and 5 young adult control subjects. Dynamic load perception was based on a judgment of which leg was bearing more load, which was altered on a step by step basis. We also examined lower extremity static load perception, coordination, proprioception, balance, and gait symmetry. The stroke survivors performed significantly worse than the control subjects in dynamic load perception, coordination, proprioception, balance and gait symmetry. Gait symmetry correlated with static and dynamic load perception measures but not with age, proprioception, coordination, and balance. Sensory deficits related to load detection in the impaired limb could result in an increased uncertainty of limb load and a gait strategy in which stroke survivors minimize loading of the impaired limb. This new method of measuring lower extremity dynamic load perception provides a framework for understanding gait-related sensory impairments in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn
The 1927 flood in the lower Mississippi River was the most destructive flood in American history, inundating more than 68,000 square kilometers of land, resulting in approximately 500 fatalities and leaving more than 700,000 people homeless. Despite the prominence of the 1927 flood, hard details on the flood, and the storms that produced the flood, are sparse. We examine the hydrometeorology, hydroclimatolgy and hydrology of the 1927 flood in the lower Mississippi River through empirical analyses of rainfall and streamflow records and through downscaling simulations of the storms that were responsible for cata-strophic flooding. We use 20th Century Reanalysis fields as boundary conditions and initial conditions for downscaling simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We place the hydrometeorological analyses of the 1927 storms in a hydroclimatolog-ical context through analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Analyses are designed to assess the physical processes that control the upper tail of flooding in the lower Missis-sippi River. We compare the 1927 flood in the Lower Mississippi River to floods in 2011, 1937 and 1973 that represent the most extreme flooding in the Lower Mississippi River. Our results show that extreme flooding is tied to anomalous water vapor transport linked to strength and position of the North Atlantic Subtropical High. More generally, the results are designed to provide insights to the hydroclimatology of flooding in large rivers.
Glaser, Julia D.; Bensley, Rodney P.; Hurks, Rob; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark C.; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.
Objective Lower extremity amputation is often performed in patients where both lower extremities are at risk due to peripheral arterial disease or diabetes, yet the proportion of patients who progress to amputation of their contralateral limb is not well defined. We sought to determine the rate of subsequent amputation on both the ipsilateral and contralateral lower extremities following initial amputation. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing lower extremity amputation (exclusive of trauma or tumor) at our institution from 1998 to 2010. We used International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes to identify patients and procedures as well as comorbidities. Outcomes included the proportion of patients at 1 and 5 years undergoing contralateral and ipsilateral major and minor amputation stratified by initial major vs minor amputation. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of major contralateral amputation. Results We identified 1715 patients. Mean age was 67.2 years, 63% were male, 77% were diabetic, and 34% underwent an initial major amputation. After major amputation, 5.7% and 11.5% have a contralateral major amputation at 1 and 5 years, respectively. After minor amputation, 3.2% and 8.4% have a contralateral major amputation at 1 and 5 years while 10.5% and 14.2% have an ipsilateral major amputation at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed end-stage renal disease (hazard ratio [HR], 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–6.5), chronic renal insufficiency (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5–3.3), atherosclerosis without diabetic neuropathy (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5–5.7), atherosclerosis with diabetic neuropathy (HR, 9.1; 95% CI, 3.7–22.5), and initial major amputation (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.6) were independently predictive of subsequent contralateral major amputation. Conclusions Rates of contralateral limb amputation are high and predicted
Pavlov-Dolijanovic, Slavica R; Vujasinovic Stupar, Nada Z; Gavrilov, Nikola; Seric, Srdjan
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare but complex and potentially life-threatening autoimmune disease of childhood. Significant proportions of patients have residual weakness, muscle atrophy, joint contractures, and calcinosis. Recently, new clinical findings, such as lipodystrophy accompanied with increased fat deposition in certain areas, have been reported. So far, it is not known whether the redistribution of body fat may be the type of lipedema of lower extremity. We describe a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with JDM at the age of 7. Later she developed symmetrical lipodystrophy of upper extremities and symmetrical lipedema of lower extremities (making 2 and 58.3 % of total body fat mass, respectively), with multiple calcified nodules in the subcutaneous tissues. These nodules gradually increased in size despite therapy. Capillaroscopy findings showed scleroderma-like abnormalities. ANA and anti-U1RNP antibodies were positive. Similar cases with simultaneous occurrence of the lipedema of lower extremities, lipodystrophy of upper extremities, and severe calcinosis complicating JDM have not been published so far. We showed that the calcinosis and lipodystrophy were associated with short duration of active disease. Also, we display case that raises the question whether it is possible overlapping autoimmune diseases revealed during follow-up.
Hirth, Christopher J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.
Objective: Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of Exercise Sandals results in a number of positive clinical outcomes. However, little research has been conducted to determine their efficacy objectively. Our purposes were to determine the effect of Exercise Sandals on lower leg electromyography (EMG) during activities in the Exercise Sandals and to compare EMG associated with Exercise Sandals with traditional lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Design and Setting: Two within-subjects, repeated-measures designs were used to identify differences in lower extremity EMG: (1) between activities with and without Exercise Sandals and (2) between Exercise Sandals activities and traditional rehabilitation activities. All data were collected in the Sports Medicine Research Laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen subjects involved in rehabilitation using Exercise Sandals for at least 2 weeks within the year before data collection. Measurements: Mean EMG amplitudes from the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were measured during single-leg stance, side stepping, and “high knees,” all performed with and without the Exercise Sandals, as well as single-leg stance on a foam surface and T-band kicks in the sagittal and frontal planes. Results: Exercise Sandals increased lower leg EMG activity, particularly in the ankle invertors and evertors. Also, activities involving the Exercise Sandals resulted in EMG activity similar to or exceeding that associated with traditional ankle-rehabilitation exercises. Conclusions: These results, coupled with the fact that Exercise Sandals are used in a functional closed kinetic chain manner, suggest that they are an effective means of increasing lower extremity muscle activity. PMID:14608427
Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime
Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered.
Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yen, Cheng-Yo
Vascularized bone grafting seems to be a valuable reconstructive technique for the treatment of osteomyelitis with skeletal defects greater than 6 cm in length. Fibular osteocutaneous, composite rib, and iliac osteocutaneous flaps are the most commonly used vascularized bone grafts clinically. Vascularized bone can obliterate dead space, bridge large bone defects, enhance bone healing, resist infection by ensuring blood supply, allow early rehabilitation, and ensure better clinical outcomes in the treatment of lower extremity osteomyelitis. Success rates range from 80% to 95%. Complications of surgery include anastomosis failure, donor site problems, and fracture of the grafted bone.
Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen
Cobb syndrome (Cutaneomeningospinal Angiomatosis) is a rare segmental neurocutaneous syndrome associated with metameric cutaneous and spinal cord arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In this syndrome, capillary malformation or angiokeratoma-like lesions are formed in a dermatomal distribution, with an AVM in the corresponding segment of the spinal cord. The spinal cord lesions can cause neurological disorder and paraplegia, which typically develop during young adulthood. We report a 32-year-old male with the Cobb syndrome associated with lower extremity painful wounds and acute-onset paraplegia due to metameric vascular malformations.
Lu, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Tao; Kong, Xiang-Fei; Tang, Wen-Hao; Cheng, Jian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Liang
Gas gangrene is a necrotizing soft tissue infection characterized by muscular necrosis and gas formation. It develops quickly and can cause septic shock and death. In adults, gas gangrene used to be a well-known complication of war wounds. Recently, cases of spontaneous or nontraumatic gas gangrene have been reported in both adults and children. We report a case of nontraumatic gas gangrene involving both the lower extremities simultaneously. Pathogenesis of this fatal soft tissue infection is discussed.We also review the diagnosis and treatment aspects of this entity.
Wise, Eric S; Wergin, Justine E; Mace, Eric H; Kallos, Justiss A; Muhlestein, Whitney E; Shelburne, Nicholas J; Hocking, Kyle M; Brophy, Colleen M; Guzman, Raul J
Increased pulse pressure reflects pathologic arterial stiffening and predicts cardiovascular events and mortality. The effect of pulse pressure on outcomes in lower extremity bypass patients remains unknown. We thus investigated whether preoperative pulse pressure could predict amputation-free survival in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for atherosclerotic occlusive disease. An institutional database identified 240 included patients undergoing lower extremity bypass from 2005 to 2014. Preoperative demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, operative factors, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded, and compared between patients with pulse pressures above and below 80 mm Hg. Factors were analyzed in bi- and multivariable models to assess independent predictors of amputation-free survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the temporal effect of pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg on amputation-free survival. Patients with a pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg were older, male, and had higher systolic and lower diastolic pressures. Patients with pulse pressure <80 mm Hg demonstrated a survival advantage on Kaplan-Meier analysis at six months (log-rank P = 0.003) and one year (P = 0.005) postoperatively. In multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for decreased amputation-free survival at six months included nonwhite race, tissue loss, infrapopliteal target, and preoperative pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg (hazard ratio 2.60; P = 0.02), while only tissue loss and pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg (hazard ratio 2.30, P = 0.02) remained predictive at one year. Increased pulse pressure is independently associated with decreased amputation-free survival in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass. Further efforts to understand the relationship between increased arterial stiffness and poor outcomes in these patients are needed.
Almassi, F; Mousavi, B; Masumi, M; Souroush, M R; Honari, G
We conducted this study to determine the types and frequency of skin problems among war related bilateral lower limb amputees. Three hundred and thirty five cases were examined for dermatologic problems in about 20 years (20 +/- 3.89) after bilateral lower extremity amputation. The subjects were injured during the Iraq-Iran war. Descriptive statistics were used. At least one skin problem was found in 189 (56.4%) of the amputees. Three hundred and nineteen skin problems were diagnosed in 189 amputees. The most common skin problems were contact dermatitis 39.5% (n=126), calluses 26.6% (n=85), folliculitis 14.42% (n=46) and ulcers 7.2% (n=23). The skin problems were more frequently seen in subjects with bilateral below the knee amputation. Skin problems were highly incident in our amputees. The substantial multidisciplinary rehabilitation team included a dermatologist, orthopedic surgeon, prosthetist and physical therapist is recommended to prevent and diagnose these problems on time.
Maggioni, Serena; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Lünenburger, Lars; Riener, Robert; van der Kooij, Herman
The assessment of sensorimotor functions is extremely important to understand the health status of a patient and its change over time. Assessments are necessary to plan and adjust the therapy in order to maximize the chances of individual recovery. Nowadays, however, assessments are seldom used in clinical practice due to administrative constraints or to inadequate validity, reliability and responsiveness. In clinical trials, more sensitive and reliable measurement scales could unmask changes in physiological variables that would not be visible with existing clinical scores.In the last decades robotic devices have become available for neurorehabilitation training in clinical centers. Besides training, robotic devices can overcome some of the limitations in traditional clinical assessments by providing more objective, sensitive, reliable and time-efficient measurements. However, it is necessary to understand the clinical needs to be able to develop novel robot-aided assessment methods that can be integrated in clinical practice.This paper aims at providing researchers and developers in the field of robotic neurorehabilitation with a comprehensive review of assessment methods for the lower extremities. Among the ICF domains, we included those related to lower extremities sensorimotor functions and walking; for each chapter we present and discuss existing assessments used in routine clinical practice and contrast those to state-of-the-art instrumented and robot-aided technologies. Based on the shortcomings of current assessments, on the identified clinical needs and on the opportunities offered by robotic devices, we propose future directions for research in rehabilitation robotics. The review and recommendations provided in this paper aim to guide the design of the next generation of robot-aided functional assessments, their validation and their translation to clinical practice.
Saeed, Abdullah Bin; Saeed, Usama Bin; Zain-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Ahmad Khan, Rana Dawood; Yasin, Ajmal
More than 100,000 major lower extremity amputations -- amputations at the metatarsal, below-knee or above-knee level -- are performed yearly in the United States. Despite improvements in long-term outcome, operative mortality following such amputations has remained stable at 9% to 10% over the last 20 years. Several predictors for functional outcome of amputee patients are mentioned in the literature. The current study was planned to assess the impact of comorbidities on functional status after lower extremity amputations. It was a prospective comparative study held at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, and affiliated hospitals. The study included 104 patients regardless of age and gender. Patients were allocated into trans-metatarsal (TM) group, below-knee (BK) amputation group and above-knee (AK) amputation group. Comorbidities before amputation included diabetes mellitus (70.7%), coronary heart disease (57.1%), chronic kidney disease (53.6%), and/or congestive heart failure (52.1%). Mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge was 9%, and hospital readmission was 27.7%. Stroke, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and poor baseline cognitive function were associated with the poorest functional outcome after amputation. Patients undergoing BK or AK amputation failed to return to their functional baseline within 6 months. Higher amputation level, history of stroke, ESRD, poor baseline cognitive scores, and female gender are factors associated with inferior functional status after amputation.
Aydıngöz, Üstün; Özdemir, Zeynep Maraş; Güneş, Altan; Ergen, Fatma Bilge
Although generally more common in adults, lower extremity impingement and friction syndromes are also observed in the pediatric age group. Encompassing femoroacetabular impingement, iliopsoas impingement, subspine impingement, and ischiofemoral impingement around the hip; patellar tendon–lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome; iliotibial band friction syndrome; and medial synovial plica syndrome in the knee as well as talocalcaneal impingement on the hindfoot, these syndromes frequently cause pain and may mimic other, and occasionally more ominous, conditions in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal impingement and friction syndromes. Iliopsoas, subspine, and ischiofemoral impingements have been recently described, while some features of femoroacetabular and talocalcaneal impingements have recently gained increased relevance in the pediatric population. Fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists and radiologists with imaging workloads of exclusively or overwhelmingly pediatric patients (particularly those without a structured musculoskeletal imaging program as part of their imaging training) specifically need to be aware of these rare syndromes that mostly have quite characteristic imaging findings. This review highlights MRI features of lower extremity impingement and friction syndromes in children and provides updated pertinent pathophysiologic and clinical data. PMID:27538047
Dadkhah, Arash; Pang, Xing; Solis, Elizabeth; Fang, Ruogu; Godavarty, Anuradha
Lower extremity ulcers are one of the most common complications that not only affect many people around the world but also have huge impact on economy since a large amount of resources are spent for treatment and prevention of the diseases. Clinical studies have shown that reduction in the wound size of 40% within 4 weeks is an acceptable progress in the healing process. Quantification of the wound size plays a crucial role in assessing the extent of healing and determining the treatment process. To date, wound healing is visually inspected and the wound size is measured from surface images. The extent of wound healing internally may vary from the surface. A near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging approach has been developed for non-contact imaging of wounds internally and differentiating healing from non-healing wounds. Herein, quantitative wound size measurements from NIR and white light images are estimated using a graph cuts and region growing image segmentation algorithms. The extent of the wound healing from NIR imaging of lower extremity ulcers in diabetic subjects are quantified and compared across NIR and white light images. NIR imaging and wound size measurements can play a significant role in potentially predicting the extent of internal healing, thus allowing better treatment plans when implemented for periodic imaging in future.
Gunderson, Craig G; Chang, John J
Compression ultrasound (CUS) is often ordered in hospitalized patients with cellulitis to assess for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Despite this common practice, the rate of use and utility of CUS has not been well described. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with lower extremity cellulitis hospitalized between October 1, 2008 and September 30, 2013 at an academic medical center. Cases meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed for the use of CUS, the indication for CUS, the occurrence of DVT, and the 3 month follow-up occurrence of DVT after discharge. A total of 239 patients were identified using ICD-9 coding data with a discharge diagnosis of cellulitis or abscess of leg. Of these, 183 met criteria for inclusion in the study, 133 of whom had CUS to assess for DVT (73%). Of the 133 who received CUS, 11 studies found DVTs (8%). Of the 11 DVTs, 8 had been previously diagnosed, and 3 were new. Of the new DVTs, only one was ipsilateral to the leg with cellulitis. Most patients admitted with lower extremity cellulitis received CUS to assess for DVT. Despite this common practice, the rate of acute ipsilateral DVT was low and matched the rate of acute contralateral DVT. Previously diagnosed DVTs were commonly re-imaged. Overall the use of CUS had minimal impact on patient management and the routine use of CUS to assess for DVT in hospitalized patients with cellulitis appears to be unnecessary. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Horsak, Brian; Baca, Arnold
The Reebok Easy Tone shoe concept was developed to induce instability during walking and standing with the primary purpose of increasing muscle activity of the lower extremity muscles. To the authors' knowledge, no scientific work has been published, which analyzed neuromuscular and biomechanical effects when walking and standing with Reebok Easy Tone shoes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of using such footwear on gait biomechanics for the lower extremity in healthy participants. Five healthy female and seven healthy male participants volunteered to participate in this study. During quiet standing, centre of pressure excursion was determined. 3D gait analyses were performed with simultaneously collecting surface electromyography data of the leg muscles when walking with regular shoes and with Reebok Easy Tone shoes. Centre of pressure excursion did not show any significant differences. For walking, only slight differences were found in kinematics and kinetics. When walking with Reebok Easy Tone shoes, the first vertical peak of the ground reaction force was significantly increased as well as the maximum plantarflexion moment during initial contact and loading response. Mean muscle activation for vastus medialis and lateralis showed an increase during the second half of stance, but failed to reach significance. Results of this study did not show any increased instability during standing and only a slight increase of vastii activity during stance. Thus, the marketing claims that "toning shoes" could serve as a sort of training devices for lower limb muscles during walking, cannot be supported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suckow, Bjoern D.; Goodney, Philip P.; Cambria, Robert A.; Bertges, Daniel J.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Indes, Jeffrey E.; Schanzer, Andres; Stone, David H.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.
Background Some patients who undergo lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia ultimately require amputation. The functional outcome achieved by these patients after amputation is not well known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the functional outcome of patients who undergo amputation after LEB, and to describe the pre- and perioperative factors associated with independent ambulation at home after lower extremity amputation. Methods Within a cohort of 3,198 patients who underwent an LEB between January, 2003 and December, 2008, we studied 436 patients who subsequently received an above-knee (AK), below-knee (BK), or minor (forefoot or toe) ipsilateral or contralateral amputation. Our main outcome measure consisted of a “good functional outcome,” defined as living at home and ambulating independently. We calculated univariate and multivariate associations among patient characteristics and our main outcome measure, as well as overall survival. Results Of the 436 patients who underwent amputation within the first year following LEB, 224 of 436 (51.4%) had a minor amputation, 105 of 436 (24.1%) had a BK amputation, and 107 of 436 (24.5%) had an AK amputation. The majority of AK (75 of 107, 72.8%) and BK amputations (72 of 105, 70.6%) occurred in the setting of bypass graft thrombosis, whereas nearly all minor amputations (200 of 224, 89.7%) occurred with a patent bypass graft. By life-table analysis at 1 year, we found that the proportion of surviving patients with a good functional outcome varied by the presence and extent of amputation (proportion surviving with good functional outcome = 88% no amputation, 81% minor amputation, 55% BK amputation, and 45% AK amputation, p = 0.001). Among those analyzed at long-term follow-up, survival was slightly lower for those who had a minor amputation when compared with those who did not receive an amputation after LEB (81 vs. 88%, p = 0.02). Survival among major amputation patients did not significantly
Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime
Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered. PMID:26885421
Xie, Xiao-Liang; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Li, Peng-Feng; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Feng; Tan, Min; Wang, Hongbo; Hu, Guoqing
This paper mainly focuses on the trajectory tracking control of a lower extremity rehabilitation robot during passive training process of patients. Firstly, a mathematical model of the rehabilitation robot is introduced by using Lagrangian analysis. Then, a model based computed-torque control scheme is designed to control the constrained four-link robot (with patient's foot fixed on robot's end-effector) to track a predefined trajectory. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model based computed-torque algorithm. In the simulation, a multi-body dynamics and motion software named ADAMS is used. The combined simulation of ADAMS and MATLAB is able to produce more realistic results of this complex integrated system.
Heldman, Dustin A.; Filipkowski, Danielle E.; Riley, David E.; Whitney, Christina M.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Gunzler, Steven A.; Giuffrida, Joseph P.; Mera, Thomas O.
The objective was to develop and evaluate algorithms for quantifying gait and lower extremity bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease using kinematic data recorded on a heel-worn motion sensor unit. Subjects were evaluated by three movement disorder neurologists on four domains taken from the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale while wearing the motion sensor unit. Multiple linear regression models were developed based on the recorded kinematic data and clinician scores and produced outputs highly correlated to clinician scores with an average correlation coefficient of 0.86. The newly developed models have been integrated into a home-based system for monitoring Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms. PMID:23366299
Matthes, I; Beirau, M; Ekkernkamp, A; Matthes, G
Approximately 61,000 amputations are performed in Germany per year. In most cases the lower limbs are affected. The reasons for amputations are arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, severe infections, tumors and complex trauma to the extremities. A decision must be made concerning whether a salvage procedure or amputation is appropriate, specially after trauma. In cases where the need for amputation is clear, the site of amputation needs to be planned in advance with the aim of creating a stump which allows sufficient prosthetic attachment. Adjuvant pain therapy is mandatory, especially in order to avoid subsequent phantom pain. The type of prosthetic restoration is influenced by the grade of mobility and personal requirements of patients. Moreover, aftercare and adjusted rehabilitation are recommended.
Notowitz, L B
Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.
Koper, C. A., Jr.; Sadeh, W. Z.
A model in which the Lagrangian autocorrelation is expressed by a domain integral over a set of usual Eulerian autocorrelations acquired concurrently at all points within a turbulence box is proposed along with a method for ascertaining the statistical stationarity of turbulent velocity by creating an equivalent ensemble to investigate the flow in the extreme lower atmosphere. Simultaneous measurements of turbulent velocity on a turbulence line along the wake axis were carried out utilizing a longitudinal array of five hot-wire anemometers remotely operated. The stationarity test revealed that the turbulent velocity is approximated as a realization of a weakly self-stationary random process. Based on the Lagrangian autocorrelation it is found that: (1) large diffusion time predominated; (2) ratios of Lagrangian to Eulerian time and spatial scales were smaller than unity; and, (3) short and long diffusion time scales and diffusion spatial scales were constrained within their Eulerian counterparts.
Johnson, Erika L; Pierpont, Yvonne N; Donate, Guillermo; Hiro, Mattew H; Mannari, Rudolph J; Strickland, Theodore J; Robson, Martin C; Payne, Wyatt G
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) typically presents as multiple bilateral cutaneous patches or plaques of the lower extremities. This malignancy, however, can evolve with atypical presentation masquerading as a chronic wound. Lesions can mimic venous stasis ulcers, arterial insufficiency, vascular ulcers or chronic-infected wounds. With acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated KS, lesions are even more widespread, and can affect the respiratory tract, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, liver and, rarely, bone. As the initial diagnosis of KS is generally determined clinically, a high index of suspicion is necessary for all patients with a known or suspected history of HIV/AIDS. Tissue biopsy with histological analysis is essential for all wound types in this patient subset, regardless of wound presentation. The purpose of this report is to review the pathogenesis as well as the typical and atypical presentations of KS with an example of a diagnostic dilemma.
Brumitt, Jason; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith; Meira, Erik P
The primary goal of a sports rehabilitation program is to return the injured athlete back to competition as quickly and as safely as possible. Sports physical therapists utilize a variety of exercise equipment to help an athlete restore function after an injury. An injured athlete's therapeutic exercise program frequently includes the prescription of functional strengthening and power exercises during the later stages of rehabilitation. One piece of exercise equipment, the kettlebell, has gained popularity for its ability to allow the user to perform functional power exercises. The unique exercises that can be performed with kettlebells may have utility in sports physical therapy practice. This clinical suggestion outlines the clinical rationale for the inclusion of kettlebell exercises when rehabilitating an athlete with a lower extremity injury.
En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith; Meira, Erik P.
The primary goal of a sports rehabilitation program is to return the injured athlete back to competition as quickly and as safely as possible. Sports physical therapists utilize a variety of exercise equipment to help an athlete restore function after an injury. An injured athlete's therapeutic exercise program frequently includes the prescription of functional strengthening and power exercises during the later stages of rehabilitation. One piece of exercise equipment, the kettlebell, has gained popularity for its ability to allow the user to perform functional power exercises. The unique exercises that can be performed with kettlebells may have utility in sports physical therapy practice. This clinical suggestion outlines the clinical rationale for the inclusion of kettlebell exercises when rehabilitating an athlete with a lower extremity injury. PMID:21655384
Senoo, Naohiko; Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has recently been developed as a noninvasive therapeutic method. In our study, a novel noninvasive therapy with HIFU was proposed for occlusion of lower extremity varicose veins. The temperature increase caused by HIFU is used to occlude varicose veins. Occluded veins became fibrotic, resulting in complete recovery. Our final goal is the medical application of HIFU treatment for varicose veins. In this study, we attempted to occlude the veins of rabbits. Prior to venous occlusion experiments, the area heated by HIFU was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) gel, which denatures at >70 °C. The results indicate that the size of the heated area mainly depends on intensity at the focal point and the exposure time. A tendency was also seen for the heated area to extend toward the transducer with increasing exposure time. In animal experiments, skin burns during HIFU exposure represented a critical problem. We therefore examined the safe range of HIFU intensities in abdominal exposure experiments before conducting venous occlusion experiments. The ultrasound frequency was 1.7 MHz. Intensity at the focal point was 900 W/cm2, and the exposure time was 20 s. Rabbits underwent chemical depilation and echo gel was applied to the exposed skin to fill the boundary gap. Target veins were compressed during HIFU exposure to avoid thermal dissipation, and hyaluronan water solution was injected between the veins and skin to maintain the distance between the skin and veins at ≥5 mm. Veins were then exposed to HIFU and occluded. The capability of HIFU treatment to occlude lower extremity varicose veins was verified by the present study.
Linnhoff, Fabian; van Essen, Fabian; Pingel, Simon; Schaefer, Christian Alexander; Schahab, Nadjib; Fimmers, Rolf; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk
In view of their common chronic inflammatory process, we sought to determine the linkage between peripheral artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 107 COPD patients (mean±sd age 64.6±10.4 years, 52.2% male) and 22 control smokers without previously diagnosed peripheral artery disease underwent standardised angiological examination for lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and carotid artery disease. LEAD was significantly more prevalent in COPD patients than in controls (80.4% versus 54.5%, p=0.002). Among COPD patients, 57.0%, 12.2%, 10.3% and 0.9% were found to be in Fontaine stages I, IIA, IIB and III, respectively. As with carotid artery disease, its frequency increased from 36.4% in controls to 58.9% in COPD patients (p=0.003). Carotid plaque burden, LEAD Fontaine degrees as well as pulse wave index and ankle–brachial index manifested significant impairment over percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 % pred) (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease status was the strongest independent predictor for the presence of plaque in lower extremity arteries (odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.19–2.25, p=0.003) and carotids (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.14–2.44, p=0.009). As compared with control smokers, peripheral artery disease is diagnosed in a sizeable proportion of COPD patients and exhibits significant distributive differences over FEV1 % pred that exceed the susceptibility conferred by common cardiovascular stressors. PMID:28053972
Harris, Anthony M; Althausen, Peter L; Kellam, James; Bosse, Michael J; Castillo, Renan
Our objective is to report the nature and incidence of major complications after severe lower extremity trauma. Multicenter, prospective, observational study. Eight level-1 trauma centers. Five hundred forty-five patients were followed for 2 years. Amputation or reconstruction. The type and number of complications associated with these injuries were recorded at baseline, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month intervals. One hundred forty-nine underwent amputation during the initial hospitalization. The revision amputation rate was 5.4%. Among the amputation group, a complication was noted most frequently at 3 months (24.8%), and the most commonly seen complication was wound infection (34.2%). Wound complications including dehiscence (13.4%) were seen more commonly in the amputation group. Three hundred seventy-one limb reconstructions were performed with 25 patients (3.9%) requiring late amputation. The most frequently reported complication was at 6 months for the salvage group (37.7%), and the most commonly seen complication was wound infection (23.2%). Not surprisingly, osteomyelitis (8.6%) and nonunions (31%) were seen more commonly in the salvage group. Complications of wound infection, osteomyelitis, nonunion, malunion, and prominent hardware resulted in rehospitalization in at least one-third of patients. However, patients who underwent reconstruction were more likely to be hospitalized for these complications. Patients with severe lower extremity injuries can expect a significant number of complications, most notably wound infection, nonunion, wound necrosis, and osteomyelitis. A large portion of these will require additional inpatient or operative treatment. Patients electing for reconstruction can expect a higher risk of complications.
Pizarro, Carmen; Linnhoff, Fabian; van Essen, Fabian; Pingel, Simon; Schaefer, Christian Alexander; Schahab, Nadjib; Fimmers, Rolf; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk
In view of their common chronic inflammatory process, we sought to determine the linkage between peripheral artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 107 COPD patients (mean±sd age 64.6±10.4 years, 52.2% male) and 22 control smokers without previously diagnosed peripheral artery disease underwent standardised angiological examination for lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and carotid artery disease. LEAD was significantly more prevalent in COPD patients than in controls (80.4% versus 54.5%, p=0.002). Among COPD patients, 57.0%, 12.2%, 10.3% and 0.9% were found to be in Fontaine stages I, IIA, IIB and III, respectively. As with carotid artery disease, its frequency increased from 36.4% in controls to 58.9% in COPD patients (p=0.003). Carotid plaque burden, LEAD Fontaine degrees as well as pulse wave index and ankle-brachial index manifested significant impairment over percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 % pred) (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease status was the strongest independent predictor for the presence of plaque in lower extremity arteries (odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.25, p=0.003) and carotids (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.44, p=0.009). As compared with control smokers, peripheral artery disease is diagnosed in a sizeable proportion of COPD patients and exhibits significant distributive differences over FEV1 % pred that exceed the susceptibility conferred by common cardiovascular stressors.
Gilbert, Shawn R; MacLennan, Paul A; Backstrom, Ian; Creek, Aaron; Sawyer, Jeffrey
To determine whether there are differences in fracture patterns and femur fracture treatment choices in obese versus nonobese pediatric trauma patients. Prognostic study, retrospective chart review. Two level I pediatric trauma centers. The trauma registries of 2 pediatric hospitals were queried for patients with lower extremity long-bone fractures resulting from blunt trauma. 2858 alerts were examined, and 397 patients had lower extremity fractures. Three hundred thirty-one patients with a total of 394 femur or tibia fractures met the inclusion criteria, and 70 patients (21%) were obese. Weight for age >95th percentile was defined as obese. Radiographs were reviewed, and fractures were classified according the OTA/AO pediatric fracture classification system. Fracture patterns (OTA subsegment), severity, and choice of intervention for femur fractures were the primary outcomes. Overall, obese patients were twice as likely [risk ratio (RR), 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-3.89] to have fractures involving the physis. Physeal fracture risk was greater for femur fractures (RR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.35-7.78) than tibia fractures (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.76-3.26). Severity did not differ between groups. Obese patients with femur fractures were more likely to be treated with locked nails. Obese pediatric trauma patients are more likely to sustain fractures involving the physis than nonobese patients. This could be related to intrinsic changes to the physis related to obesity or altered biomechanical forces. This is consistent with the observed relationships between obesity and other conditions affecting the physis including Blount disease and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
MacLennan, Paul A.; Backstrom, Ian; Creek, Aaron; Sawyer, Jeffrey
Objective To determine whether there are differences in fracture patterns and femur fracture treatment choices in obese vs. non-obese pediatric trauma patients. Design Prognostic study, retrospective chart review. Setting Two level I pediatric trauma centers. Patients The trauma registries of two pediatric hospitals were queried for patients with lower extremity long bone fractures resulting from blunt trauma. 2858 alerts were examined and 397 patients had lower extremity fractures. 331 patients with a total of 394 femur or tibia fractures met inclusion criteria, and 70 patients (21%) were obese. Main Outcome Measurements Weight for age >95th percentile was defined as obese. Radiographs were reviewed and fractures were classified according the OTA/AO pediatric fracture classification system. Fracture patterns (OTA subsegment), severity, and choice of intervention for femur fractures were primary outcomes. Results Overall, obese patients were twice as likely (RR=2.20, 95% CI 1.25–3.89) to have fractures involving the physis. Physeal fracture risk was greater for femur fractures (RR=3.25, 95% CI 1.35–7.78) than tibia fractures (RR=1.58, 95% CI 0.76–3.26). Severity did not differ between groups. Obese patients with femur fractures were more likely to be treated with locked nails. Conclusion Obese pediatric trauma patients are more likely to sustain fractures involving the physis than non-obese patients. This could be related to intrinsic changes to the physis related to obesity, or altered biomechanical forces. This is consistent with the observed relationships between obesity and other conditions affecting the physis including Blount’s and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. PMID:24740109
Owens, Brett D.; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.; Smith, Besa; Ryan, Margaret A.K.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Smith, Tyler C.; Bagnell, Melissa
Background: Overuse injuries have a significant impact on United States military service members, but research to date has been limited in its ability to assess occupational and behavioral risk factors. Hypothesis/Purpose: To prospectively identify risk factors for the development of lower extremity tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis in United States military personnel. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a long-term observational cohort of military personnel, were utilized. Service members were enrolled in the cohort in 2001, 2004, and 2007. A total of 80,106 active-duty personnel were followed over 1 year for the development of patellar tendinopathy, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Regression analyses were used to estimate significant associations between each tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and demographic, behavioral, and occupational characteristics. Results: Using medical records, 450 cases of Achilles tendinitis, 584 cases of patellar tendinopathy, and 1228 cases of plantar fasciitis were identified. Recent deployment was associated with an increased risk for developing plantar fasciitis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.56). Moderate weekly alcohol consumption was marginally associated with an increased risk for Achilles tendinopathy (AOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.76). Overweight or obese individuals were more likely to develop Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis. Conclusion: Lower extremity tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis are common among military service members, and this study identified several modifiable risk factors for their occurrence. These potential risk factors could serve as the focus for future preventive and intervention studies. PMID:26535232
Lam, E Y; Taylor, L M; Landry, G J; Porter, J M; Moneta, G L
Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLs), which consist of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLs) or lupus anticoagulant (LA), are associated with venous thrombosis, stroke, and cardiac events. Although they are present in many patients with lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive disease (LEAOD), the relationship between APL and the progression of LEAOD has not been reported. A comparison of progression of LEAOD as determined with direct imaging studies in patients with and without APL forms the basis for this report. APL+ patients (immunoglobulin M [IgM] or IgA or IgG ACL > 3 SD units above control mean or positive LA) who underwent lower extremity bypass grafting between January 1990 and June 1999 (n = 79) were compared with an APL control group (n = 68). Members of the study and control groups were similar with respect to age, procedure, sex, length of follow-up, and multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. Progression of LEAOD was determined by comparing preoperative arteriograms with postoperative imaging studies (arteriograms or duplex scanning). External iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral and popliteal arteries were graded as < 50% stenosis, > or = 50% stenosis, or occluded. Posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries were graded as patent or occluded. Progression was defined as any increase in stenosis category. The mean follow-up period was 31 months for APL+ and 35 months for APL- patients (P = not significant). Progression of LEAOD occurred in 58 (73%) of 79 APL+ patients and in 25 (37%) of 68 APL- patients (P <.001). There was no difference in progression in external iliac or common femoral arteries. Differences in progression were noted in more distal arteries; APL+ patients had significantly more progression in superficial femoral (45% vs 16%, P <.01), popliteal (31% vs 12%, P <.01), posterior tibial (29% vs 13%, P <.05), and anterior tibial arteries (29% vs 14%, P <.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant independent
Ernst, Stefan Fischbach, Roman; Brochhagen, Hans-Georg; Heindel, Walter; Landwehr, Peter
We present an analysis of 37 interventions in the arteries of the lower limbs via a transbrachial arterial approach. Twenty-six patients (42-79 years) underwent 37 interventional procedures in the lower extremities (iliac n = 6, iliac + femoro-popliteal n = 1, femoro-popliteal n = 30) with a vascular approach via the brachial artery (33 left sided, 4 right sided, introducer sheath 4-7 F). The transbrachial approach was chosen to avoid puncture of femoral bypass graft material. Technical success could be achieved in 11/13 thrombolyses, 8/9 PTAs, 7/10 combinations of thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminar angioplasty (PTA) and in the placement of two stents. One patient suffered from periprocedural severe re-thrombosis due to insufficient anticoagulation during fibrinolysis, and twice thrombolysis was incomplete. One puncture-related false aneurysm of the brachial artery had to be corrected surgically. One transient ischemic attack (TIA) and four minor complications occurred. Transbrachial vascular approach for arterial interventions in iliac and femoro-popliteal pathologies is a reasonable alternative to the transaxillary access if transfemoral puncture has to be avoided. The technical success rate is comparable with the results of the transaxillary and transfemoral approach. To minimize, at least theoretically, the risk of cerebral complications, the left- sided approach should be preferred and intravenous heparin should be administered routinely.
Luther, C; Unger, K; Heppert, V; Simon, R; Hitzigrath, C; Germann, G; Sauerbier, M
The purpose of this investigation was the retrospective analysis of patients with delayed infections, chronic posttraumatic osteitis of the lower extremities and free-flap coverage after radical debridement of bone and soft tissue. From the time period 1994-2003 a total of 22 patients including 4 females and 18 males were investigated. In 16 patients treatment was carried out on the lower leg and in 6 patients the foot was treated with subsequent free-flap coverage. In 14 cases the latissimus dorsi muscle was used, in 5 cases the gracilis muscle, in 2 cases parascapula flaps were used and in 1 case the serratus anterior muscle. The average age of the patients was 43 years (range 17-63 years) and grouping was according to the HOST classification. Functional outcome was evaluated by a standardized questionnaire (Funktionsfragebogen Hannover FFbH-OA 2,0), quality of life and social reintegration by non-standardized questionnaires. In the cases investigated the following results could be achieved: full leg activity 55%, leg pain while walking 73%, special footwear 68%, normal gait 55%, positive quality of life and social reintegration 55%, port activities 36% and reemployment 45%. According to the results of this study the quality of life of patients with chronic osteitis of the lower leg is in general satisfying. In order to improve quality management and cost reduction in public health an interdisciplinary treatment concept of plastic and orthopedic surgeons should be established for complex fracture management as this is the most effective tool in treating chronic osteitis.
Brantingham, James W; Globe, Gary; Pollard, Henry; Hicks, Marian; Korporaal, Charmaine; Hoskins, Wayne
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on manipulative therapy for lower extremity conditions and expand on a previously published literature review. The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site www.ccgpp.org (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; Science Direct; and Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched from December 2006 to February 2008. Search terms included chiropractic, osteopathic, orthopedic, or physical therapy and MeSH terms for each region. Inclusion criteria required a diagnosis and manipulative therapy (mobilization and manipulation grades I-V) with or without adjunctive care. Exclusion criteria were pain referred from spinal sites (without diagnosis), referral for surgery, and conditions contraindicated for manipulative therapy. Clinical trials were assessed using a modified Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network ranking system. Of the total 389 citations captured, 39 were determined to be relevant. There is a level of C or limited evidence for manipulative therapy combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for hip osteoarthritis. There is a level of B or fair evidence for manipulative therapy of the knee and/or full kinetic chain, and of the ankle and/or foot, combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for knee osteoarthritis, patellofemoral pain syndrome, and ankle inversion sprain. There is also a level of C or limited evidence for manipulative therapy of the ankle and/or foot combined
Greenblatt, David Yu; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Mell, Matthew W
Surgical site infection (SSI) after open surgery for lower extremity revascularization is a serious complication that may lead to graft infection, prolonged hospitalization, and increased cost. Rates of SSI after revascularization vary widely, with most studies reported from single institutions. The objective of this study was to describe the rate and predictors of SSI after surgery for arterial occlusive disease using national data, and to identify any association between SSI and length of hospital stay, reoperation, graft loss, and mortality. Patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass or thromboendarterectomy from 2005-2008 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) participant use files. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of SSI. Odds ratios were adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative factors. The association between SSI and other 30-day outcomes such as mortality and graft failure was determined. Of 12,330 patients who underwent revascularization, 1367 (11.1%) were diagnosed with an SSI within 30 days. Multivariate predictors of SSI included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.6), obesity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), dialysis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), preoperative hyponatremia (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), and length of operation >4 hours (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). SSI was associated with prolonged (>10 days) hospital stay (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and higher rates of 30-day graft loss (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1) and reoperation (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.1-4.6). SSI was not associated with increased 30-day mortality. SSI is a common complication after open revascularization and is associated with a more than twofold increased risk of early graft loss and reoperation. Several patient and operation-related risk
Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea
Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The
Executive Summary Background Objective In January 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat received an application from University Health Network to provide an evidentiary platform on stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease. The purpose of this health technology assessment is to examine the effectiveness of primary stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a progressive disease occurring as a result of plaque accumulation (atherosclerosis) in the arterial system that carries blood to the extremities (arms and legs) as well as vital organs. The vessels that are most affected by PAD are the arteries of the lower extremities, the aorta, the visceral arterial branches, the carotid arteries and the arteries of the upper limbs. In the lower extremities, PAD affects three major arterial segments i) aortic-iliac, ii) femoro-popliteal (FP) and iii) infra-popliteal (primarily tibial) arteries. The disease is commonly classified clinically as asymptomatic claudication, rest pain and critical ischemia. Although the prevalence of PAD in Canada is not known, it is estimated that 800,000 Canadians have PAD. The 2007 Trans Atlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC) II Working Group for the Management of Peripheral Disease estimated that the prevalence of PAD in Europe and North America to be 27 million, of whom 88,000 are hospitalizations involving lower extremities. A higher prevalence of PAD among elderly individuals has been reported to range from 12% to 29%. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated that the prevalence of PAD is 14.5% among individuals 70 years of age and over. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with PAD include advanced age, male gender, family history, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. PAD is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction (MI
Cross, K M; Wilson, R W; Perrin, D H
Cryotherapy is a widely accepted component of treatment for acute injuries. It has recently re-entered the later stages of rehabilitation as a contributing modality. Cryotherapy's depressive effects on the body's physiological systems have generated concern among many health care practitioners about its effect on motor activity. This study examined the effects of an ice immersion on three functional performance tests: the shuttle run, the 6-m hop test, and the single-leg vertical jump. Twenty volunteers from Division III soccer and football teams who had not sustained an injury to the lower extremity within the past 6 months were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. Subjects in the experimental group performed three trials of each functional performance test before and after the application of a 20-minute ice immersion (13 degrees C) to the lower leg. Subjects in the comparison group followed the same procedure except that a 20-minute resting period replaced the cold treatment. A mixed design analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Vertical jump scores decreased in the experimental group (41.4 +/- 6.8 cm to 39.3 +/- 6.1 cm) but not in the control group (45.2 +/- 5.5 cm to 45.7 +/- 5.9 cm) as a result of the treatment. Shuttle run times decreased in the experimental group (6.5 +/- 0.3 seconds to 6.7 +/- 0.4 seconds) but not in the control group (6.8 +/- 0.4 seconds to 6.8 +/- 0.4 seconds). Six-meter hop test values were not affected. We suggest that clinicians should carefully consider the immediate effects, potentially, of cold on motor activity.
Lin, Pei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Chen, Kuo-Tai
Objective The flood after a typhoon may lead to increase in patients with cellulitis of lower limbs. However, the microbiological features of these cases are rarely reported. We conducted a study of patients with lower extremity cellulitis after a typhoon followed in southern Taiwan to study the risk factors of cellulitis and the bacteriological features of the patients. Methods We reviewed all the medical records of cellulitis at emergency departments of two teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan 30 days before and after the landing of Typhoon Morakot and collected data on the demographic and bacteriological characteristics. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the daily number of patients and the rainfall in the Tainan area. Results The number of cellulitis patients increased from 183 to 344 during the 30-day period after the typhoon. The number peaked in the third and fourth days and lasted for 3 weeks. The proportion of patients with water immersion of the affected limb was higher after the typhoon (6% vs. 37%, odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–17.2). We found cultures from the infected limbs with immersion had more polymicrobial (73% vs. 26%, OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.2–19.2) and Gram-negative bacilli infection (86% vs. 34%, OR: 11.8, 95% CI: 4.1–34.5). Conclusions Flood arose from Typhoon Morakot caused increases in cellulitis patients, which lasted for 3 weeks. Antibiotic treatment that were effective to both Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli are recommended for patients with limbs emerged in the water. PMID:23785441
Lin, Pei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Chen, Kuo-Tai
The flood after a typhoon may lead to increase in patients with cellulitis of lower limbs. However, the microbiological features of these cases are rarely reported. We conducted a study of patients with lower extremity cellulitis after a typhoon followed in southern Taiwan to study the risk factors of cellulitis and the bacteriological features of the patients. We reviewed all the medical records of cellulitis at emergency departments of two teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan 30 days before and after the landing of Typhoon Morakot and collected data on the demographic and bacteriological characteristics. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the daily number of patients and the rainfall in the Tainan area. The number of cellulitis patients increased from 183 to 344 during the 30-day period after the typhoon. The number peaked in the third and fourth days and lasted for 3 weeks. The proportion of patients with water immersion of the affected limb was higher after the typhoon (6% vs. 37%, odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 4.7-17.2). We found cultures from the infected limbs with immersion had more polymicrobial (73% vs. 26%, OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.2-19.2) and Gram-negative bacilli infection (86% vs. 34%, OR: 11.8, 95% CI: 4.1-34.5). Flood arose from Typhoon Morakot caused increases in cellulitis patients, which lasted for 3 weeks. Antibiotic treatment that were effective to both Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli are recommended for patients with limbs emerged in the water.
When assessing injuries to the lower extremity, they can best be discussed if divided into two groups: (1) vehicular or crushing injuries; and (2) nonvehicular, torsion, or overuse injuries. Vehicular injuries require speedy, accurate assessment as they are often complex and frequently involve other systems. The patient is initially stabilized, then assessment of orthopedic problems is begun. The nurse's role is an assistive one. If the patient is admitted to the hospital, orthopedic care involves prevention of complications, reduction of pain, and assisting the patient in daily activities. Nonvehicular injuries are more chronic in nature. The patient may have unsuccessfully ignored the problem, tried home remedies, or attempted to work with it. At this point, they are seen in the physician's office, hoping for a cure. After diagnosis, proper instruction for a rehabilitation program is begun. Treatment for a sprain, strain, or overuse syndrome can often be done at home. An active program should be encouraged and the patient should be taught why the problem occurred initially and how it can be prevented in the future.
Wang, Fangyong; Hong, Yi
[Purpose] To study the characteristics and treatment strategy for patients with paraplegia and lower extremity amputation. [Subjects] Six cases were selected from among the patients admitted to the China Rehabilitation Research Center from 1991 to 2014. The criteria for the six cases were spinal cord injury with amputation immediately or in a short time (1 week) after the trauma. [Methods] General information, clinical diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and other data were analyzed. [Results] All the six cases were injured by high energy or complex energy accidents: two cases by falls after high voltage electric shock, one by an oil pipeline explosion, one by the impact of a falling tower crane and received high energy traffic accident injuries (one was hit by a train, and the other was hit by a truck at high speed). All the six cases had thoracic and lumbar vertebral injuries and complete paraplegia. Amputation stump infection occurred in four cases. After comprehensive rehabilitation treatment, patients' functional independence measure (FIM) scores improved significantly, but American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores and ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grades showed no significant improvement. [Conclusion] When formulating the clinical treatment and rehabilitation for spinal cord injury with amputation patients, simultaneous consideration of the characteristics of the spinal cord injury and amputation is needed to develop an individualized strategy. For spinal cord injury with limb amputation patients, prostheses should allow the improvement of patients' self-care ability.
Koper, C. A., Jr.; Sadeh, W. Z.
Turbulent diffusion in the extreme lower layer of the atmosphere (up to 5 m) has been investigated. Turbulent flow was simulated under dry, stable and calm conditions by means of a 3.04 m diameter fan installed at a field site situated on flat grassland. The ambient wind was continuously monitored by means of a cup anemometer placed outside the wake, and the temperature distribution was measured by four thermometers placed on an 18 m tower, also outside the wake. Balloons and red smoke were used to visualize the wake flow and investigate the predominant sizes of turbulent eddies and their streamwise behavior. The mean and turbulent velocities along the turbulence line were measured using an array of hot-wire anomometers. Results provide substantial verification of a recently proposed model (Koper and Sadeh, 1975; Koper et al., 1978) relating the Lagrangian to the Eulerian turbulent velocity autocorrelation. In this model the Lagrangian autocorrelation is given by a domain integral over a set of ordinary Eulerian autocorrelations acquired simultaneously at all points within the flow field in question, which is viewed as a turbulence 'box'.
Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seon; Nam, Byung Ho; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon
The objective of this study was to investigate clinical manifestations of lower extremity edema (LEE) in early ovarian cancer. Patients with early ovarian cancer who underwent staging surgery between January 2001 and December 2010. Medical records for LEE and/or responses to the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ) were evaluated. Patients had a median age of 46 years. Twenty-nine patients (40.8%) had past (13 patients, 44.8%) and/or current patient-reported LEE (16 patients, 55.2%). Symptoms reported on the GCLQ in over 20% of respondents were numbness, firmness/tightness, swelling, heaviness, limited movement of knee, and aching. GCLQ total symptoms score was significantly higher in patients with current LEE. Most of the LEE (25/29, 86.2%) developed within 12 months after surgery and LEE lasted more than 6 months in approximately two-thirds of the patients (18/29, 62.1%). Only half of the patients (52.1%) indicated knowledge of lymphedema: 86.2% of LEE patients and 28.6% of patients with no LEE. Although a significant proportion of patients with ovarian cancer have LEE after surgery, most are not aware of lymphedema until they develop. Education and analyses for LEE and lymphedema are needed in patients with ovarian cancer.
Background The objective of this study was to investigate clinical manifestations of lower extremity edema (LEE) in early ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with early ovarian cancer who underwent staging surgery between January 2001 and December 2010. Medical records for LEE and/or responses to the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ) were evaluated. Results Patients had a median age of 46 years. Twenty-nine patients (40.8%) had past (13 patients, 44.8%) and/or current patient-reported LEE (16 patients, 55.2%). Symptoms reported on the GCLQ in over 20% of respondents were numbness, firmness/tightness, swelling, heaviness, limited movement of knee, and aching. GCLQ total symptoms score was significantly higher in patients with current LEE. Most of the LEE (25/29, 86.2%) developed within 12 months after surgery and LEE lasted more than 6 months in approximately two-thirds of the patients (18/29, 62.1%). Only half of the patients (52.1%) indicated knowledge of lymphedema: 86.2% of LEE patients and 28.6% of patients with no LEE. Conclusions Although a significant proportion of patients with ovarian cancer have LEE after surgery, most are not aware of lymphedema until they develop. Education and analyses for LEE and lymphedema are needed in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:24602386
Eltoukhy, Moataz; Kuenze, Christopher; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Asfour, Shihab; Travascio, Francesco
Tortuosity describes how twisted or how much curvature is present in an observed movement or path. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in segmental tortuosity between Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach directions. Fifteen healthy participants completed this study. Participants completed the modified three direction (anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral) SEBT with three-dimensional motion analysis using an 8 camera BTS Smart 7000DX motion analysis system. The tortuosity of stance limb retro-reflective markers was then calculated and compared between reach directions using a 1 × 3 ANOVA with repeated measures, while the relationship between SEBT performance and tortuosity was established using Pearson product moment correlations. Anterior superior iliac spine tortuosity was significantly greater (p < 0.001) and lateral knee tortuosity was lesser (p = 0.018) in the anterior direction compared to the posteromedial and posterolateral directions. In addition, second metatarsal tortuosity was greater in the anterior reach direction when compared to posteromedial direction (p = 0.024). Tortuosity is a novel biomechanical measurement technique that provides an assessment of segmental movement during common dynamic tasks such as the SEBT. This enhanced level of detail compared to more global measures of joint kinematic may provide insight into compensatory movement strategies adopted following lower extremity joint injury.
Wang, Fangyong; Hong, Yi
[Purpose] To study the characteristics and treatment strategy for patients with paraplegia and lower extremity amputation. [Subjects] Six cases were selected from among the patients admitted to the China Rehabilitation Research Center from 1991 to 2014. The criteria for the six cases were spinal cord injury with amputation immediately or in a short time (1 week) after the trauma. [Methods] General information, clinical diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and other data were analyzed. [Results] All the six cases were injured by high energy or complex energy accidents: two cases by falls after high voltage electric shock, one by an oil pipeline explosion, one by the impact of a falling tower crane and received high energy traffic accident injuries (one was hit by a train, and the other was hit by a truck at high speed). All the six cases had thoracic and lumbar vertebral injuries and complete paraplegia. Amputation stump infection occurred in four cases. After comprehensive rehabilitation treatment, patients’ functional independence measure (FIM) scores improved significantly, but American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores and ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grades showed no significant improvement. [Conclusion] When formulating the clinical treatment and rehabilitation for spinal cord injury with amputation patients, simultaneous consideration of the characteristics of the spinal cord injury and amputation is needed to develop an individualized strategy. For spinal cord injury with limb amputation patients, prostheses should allow the improvement of patients’ self-care ability. PMID:26644641
Chen, Jin-Ling; Gu, Dong-Yun
Lower limb amputees have a higher fall risk during slope walking compared with non-amputees. However, studies on amputees' slope walking were not well addressed. The aim of this study was to identify the difference of slope walking between amputees and non-amputees. Lyapunov exponents λS was used to estimate the local dynamic stability of 7 transtibial amputees' and 7 controls' lower extremity joint kinematics during uphill and downhill walking. Compared with the controls, amputees exhibited significantly lower λS in hip (P=0.04) and ankle (P=0.01) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.01) of the prosthetic limb during uphill walking, while they exhibited significantly lower λS in knee (P=0.02) and ankle (P=0.03) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.03) of the prosthetic limb during downhill walking. Compared with amputees level walking, they exhibited significantly lower λS in ankle joints of the sound limb during both uphill (P=0.01) and downhill walking (P=0.01). We hypothesized that the better local dynamic stability of amputees was caused by compensation strategy during slope walking.
Ghomrawi, Hassan M K; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Herrero, Christina; Joseph, Amethia; Padgett, Douglas; Westrich, Geoffrey; Parks, Michael; Lyman, Stephen
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scale and the Lower Extremity Activity Scale (LEAS) are the two most-widely used and rigorously developed scales for assessing activity level in patients having joint replacement. However, the two scales are not convertible, and the level of correlation between the two is not clear. Creating a crosswalk between these scales; that is, a concordance table to convert scores from one scale to the other and vice versa, will help compare results from existing studies using either scale, and pool those results for meta-analyses. It also will facilitate pooling data from multiple registries and data sources. To create a crosswalk between the UCLA and the LEAS activity scales for patients having THA or TKA. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative UCLA and LEAS scores for a cohort of patients undergoing primary TKA or THA at the Hospital for Special Surgery between May 2007 and December 2011 were matched from two registries. The scales were self-administered by patients. Three hundred sixty-four patients having TKAs (67% women; mean age, 67 years) and 403 having THA (66% women; mean age, 66 years) had both scores available. The equipercentile equating method was used to create the crosswalk. The standard response mean was used to assess responsiveness of the converted versus actual UCLA and LEAS scores from baseline to 2 years. Crosswalk validation also included comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the actual and converted scores to evaluate their ability to discriminate different levels of function measured using the Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale for patients having THA and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale for patients having TKA. Difference between scores was assessed using the inequality test. For patients having TKA, converted mean scores (UCLA to LEAS, 9.5 ± 3.0; LEAS
Loprinzi, Paul D
To examine whether lower extremity strength (LES) is predictive of all-cause mortality, independent of physical activity and among those with vary levels of sedentary behavior. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used (N = 2768; 50-85 years). Peak isokinetic knee extensor strength was objectively measured, sedentary behavior and physical activity were self-reported, and mortality was assessed via the National Death Index, with follow-up through 2011. Participants were followed for up to 12.6 years with the weighted average follow-up period lasting 9.9 years (standard error, 1.13). In the sample, 321,996 person-months occurred with a mortality rate of 2.1 deaths per 1000 person-months. After adjustments (including physical activity), for every 15 N increase in LES, participants had a 7 % reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.91-0.95; P < 0.001). When adding a three-level sedentary behavior variable (< 2, 2-4, 5+ h/day) as a covariate in this model, results were unchanged (HR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.92-0.96; P < 0.001). Similarly, when sedentary behavior was included as a continuous covariate in the model, results regarding the relationship between LES and mortality were unchanged (HR = 0.94; 95 % CI 0.91-0.96; P < 0.001). There was no evidence of statistical interaction between LES and sedentary behavior on all-cause mortality (HRinteraction = 1.01; 95 % CI 0.92-1.10; P = 0.88). LES was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, and this association was unchanged when considering the participant's sedentary behavior.
Crowell, Harrison Philip; Davis, Irene S
tibial stress fractures, which are among the most common running related injuries, have been associated with increased lower extremity loading (i.e., peak positive acceleration of the tibia, vertical force impact peak, and average and instantaneous vertical force loading rates) during initial contact. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a gait retraining program designed to reduce this loading during running and to assess the short-term persistence of these reductions. ten runners (six females and four males) with peak positive tibial acceleration greater than 8g, measured in an initial screening, participated in the retraining program. During the retraining sessions, subjects ran on a treadmill and received real-time visual feedback from an accelerometer attached to their distal tibias. Tibial acceleration and vertical ground reaction force data were collected from subjects during overground data collection sessions held pre-training, post-training, and at a 1-month follow-up. peak positive acceleration of the tibia, vertical force impact peak, and average and instantaneous vertical force loading rates were all reduced immediately following the gait retraining. The decrease in tibial acceleration was nearly 50%. The reductions in vertical force loading rates and vertical force impact peak were approximately 30% and 20%, respectively. These reductions were maintained at the 1-month follow-up. subjects were able to run with reduced tibial acceleration and vertical force loading immediately following completion of the gait retraining program and at the 1-month follow-up evaluation. This may reduce their risk of stress fractures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Crowell, Harrison Philip; Davis, Irene S.
Background Tibial stress fractures, which are among the most common running related injuries, have been associated with increased lower extremity loading (i.e., peak positive acceleration of the tibia, vertical force impact peak, and average and instantaneous vertical force loading rates) during initial contact. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a gait retraining program designed to reduce this loading during running and to assess the short-term persistence of these reductions. Methods Ten runners (six females and four males) with peak positive tibial acceleration greater than 8 g, measured in an initial screening, participated in the retraining program. During the retraining sessions, subjects ran on a treadmill and received real-time visual feedback from an accelerometer attached to their distal tibias. Tibial acceleration and vertical ground reaction force data were collected from subjects during overground data collection sessions held pre-training, post-training, and at a 1-month follow-up. Findings Peak positive acceleration of the tibia, vertical force impact peak, and average and instantaneous vertical force loading rates were all reduced immediately following the gait retraining. The decrease in tibial acceleration was nearly 50%. The reductions in vertical force loading rates and vertical force impact peak were approximately 30% and 20%, respectively. These reductions were maintained at the 1-month follow-up. Interpretation Subjects were able to run with reduced tibial acceleration and vertical force loading immediately following completion of the gait retraining program and at the 1-month follow-up evaluation. This may reduce their risk of stress fractures. PMID:20888675
Bae, Hyo Sook; Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seon; Lee, Yumi; Nam, Byung Ho; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Chung, Seung Hyun; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon
The goal of this study was to investigate clinical manifestations of lower extremity edema (LEE) after lymph node dissection in patients with primary endometrial cancer. Women with primary endometrial cancer who underwent staging surgery between November 2001 and March 2011 were included in the study. Medical records and/or responses to the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ) were used for LEE evaluation. All 154 patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection, and 126 patients (81.8 %) underwent paraaortic LN dissection. The median age of the patients was 52 years, the majority had stage I cancer (78.6 %), and most had endometrioid histology (90.9 %). The most frequent GCLQ responses were "experienced swelling" (35.7 %), "experienced numbness" (30.5 %), "experienced heaviness" (29.9 %), and "experienced aching" (29.9 %). Sixty-four patients (41.6 %) had previous (9/64, 14.1 %) and/or current (55/64, 85.9 %) patient-reported LEE. Most patients developed LEE within 12 months after surgery (39/56, 69.6 %), and LEE lasted for more than 12 months in most patients (45/56, 80.4 %). Three patients reported recurrent LEE after recovery. Multivariate logistic regression identified the number of dissected pelvic lymph node (≥21) as a risk factor for LEE [odds ratio (OR) 3.28; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.058-10.136] and postoperative radiotherapy (OR 3.81, 95 % CI 1.67-8.69). LEE developed in more than one-third of patients with endometrial cancer after surgery, and LEE lasted for more than 12 months in most patients. A high number of dissected pelvic lymph nodes and postoperative radiotherapy is associated with LEE.
Chiles, Nancy S; Phillips, Caroline L; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Patel, Kushang V
Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower-extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine the following: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. This study included 983 participants, age 65 years and older from the InCHIANTI study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0 to 12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cutpoints of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0 to 5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. One hundred twenty-six (12.8%) participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β=-0.99; p<0.01), decreased walking speed (β=-0.1m/s; p<0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β=-1.7m/s; p<0.01), and increased neuropathy (β=0.25; p<0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. © 2014.
Demeritt, Kerry M; Shultz, Sandra J; Docherty, Carrie L; Gansneder, Bruce M; Perrin, David H
OBJECTIVE: To determine if functional performance is impaired in individuals with self-reported chronic ankle instability. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a between-groups design to assess 3 functional variables. All data were collected at a Division III college and a military academy. Before testing, all subjects performed a 5-minute warm-up, followed by a series of stretches for the lower extremity muscles. Subjects then performed cocontraction, shuttle run, and agility hop tests in a counterbalanced fashion. Three trials for each functional test were completed and averaged for analysis. SUBJECTS: Twenty men with a history of at least 1 significant ankle sprain and episodes of at least 1 repeated ankle injury or feelings of instability or "giving way" were compared with 20 men with no prior history of ankle injury. Subjects were matched by age, height, weight, and activity level. MEASUREMENTS: Time to completion was measured in seconds for the cocontraction and the shuttle run tests. The agility hop test was measured on an error point scale. RESULTS: Using 3 separate, independent, 2-tailed t tests, we found no significant difference between groups for the cocontraction (P =.452), shuttle run (P =.680), or agility hop (P =.902) tests. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ankle instability is a subjectively reported phenomenon defined as the tendency to "give way" during normal activity. Although athletes commonly complain of subjective symptoms associated with chronic ankle instability, our findings suggest that these symptoms do not negatively influence actual functional performance. Future researchers should evaluate other, more demanding functional-performance tests to further substantiate these findings.
Bannazadeh, Mohsen; Sarac, Timur P; Bena, James; Srivastava, Sunita; Ouriel, Kenneth; Clair, Daniel
We evaluated our experience using cryopreserved cadaver vein allografts (CVGs) for infrageniculate revascularization in patients with a history of failed bypass or no suitable autogenous vein. Records of all patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization with CVG for critical limb ischemia were reviewed. Patient demographics, vessel treated, and postoperative course were analyzed. Patients who had a redo cadaver vein bypass were compared to those with a first-time cadaver vein bypass. Cumulative patency rates, limb salvage, mortality, and factors associated with outcomes were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method with Cox proportional hazards. Between January 2000 and December 2006, 66 CVGs were done in 56 patients out of 1,726 total bypasses. There were 36 men and 20 women, and the mean age was 71.67 +/- 10.50 years. Mean follow-up was 12.12 +/- 14.16 months. Seventy-eight percent of patients had previous bypasses, and 50% of all failed bypasses were failed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypasses. Operative indications were tissue loss (73%) and ischemic rest pain (27%). The mean preoperative ankle-brachial index was 0.43 +/- 0.16, and this increased to 0.89 +/- 0.18 at 30 days (p = 0.001). Procedure-related complications included graft infection (3, 4%), graft thrombosis (3, 4%), pseudoaneurysm (3, 4%), and bleeding (2, 3%). Cumulative 1-year primary, primary assisted, secondary patencies, limb salvage, and survival rates with confidence intervals were 0.19 (0.10-0.36), 0.29 (0.18-0.47), 0.42 (0.29-0.60), 0.73 (0.62-0.86), and 0.77 (0.65-0.90). Reoperative procedures fared the same as primary procedures. Multivariable analysis showed that predictors for increased risk of secondary patency loss were age >70 (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.13, p = 0.009) and patients with secondary revascularization (HR = 3.36, p = 0.015). Older patients (HR = 2.92, p = 0.042) and those with renal insufficiency (HR = 2.92, p = 0.019) were at increased risk of mortality. CVG
Sytema, Renee; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U; ten Duis, Hendrik J; van der Sluis, Corry K
To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Retrospective cohort study. An emergency department of a large European level I trauma center. A total of 25 120 patients with a simple sports injury, attending during 1990-2005. Independent variables used to assess risk factors were extracted from a local database. These include age, sex, type of injury, site and side of the injury, type of sport, injury mechanism, and data on admission. Main outcome measure was the relation of various risk factors to the occurrence of either upper or lower extremity injury. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for upper extremity injury. Thirty-five percent upper and 53% lower extremity injuries were recorded. Most injuries were sustained when playing soccer (36%). Fractures were more frequently diagnosed in the upper than in the lower extremities (44% and 14%, respectively), especially in children. Falling was the main cause of upper extremity injury. Further risk factors were young age and playing individual sports, no-contact sports, or no-ball sports. Women were at risk in speed skating, inline skating, and basketball, whereas men mostly got injured during skiing and snowboarding. A high percentage of sports injuries are sustained to the upper extremity. Different risk factors were identified for both sexes. These risk factors should be taken into account when designing preventive measures.
Goodney, Philip P.; Holman, Kerianne; Henke, Peter K.; Travis, Lori L.; Dimick, Justin B.; Stukel, Therese A.; Fisher, Elliott. S.; Birkmeyer, John D.
Objective To examine the relationship between the intensity of vascular care and population-based rate of major lower extremity amputation (above-or below-knee) from vascular disease. Background Because patient-level differences do not fully explain the variation in amputation rate across the United States, we hypothesized that variation in intensity of vascular care may also affect regional rates of amputation. Methods Intensity of vascular care was defined as the proportion of Medicare patients who underwent any vascular procedure in the year prior to amputation, calculated at the regional level (2003–2006), using the 306 hospital referral regions in the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare. We examined relationship between intensity of vascular care and major amputation rate, at the regional level, between 2007–2009. Results Amputation rates varied widely by region, from 1 to 27 per 10,000 Medicare patients. Compared to regions in the lowest quintile of amputation rate, patients in the highest quintile were commonly African American (50% versus 13%) and diabetic (38% versus 31%). Intensity of vascular care also varied across regions: fewer than 35% of patients underwent revascularization in the lowest quintile of intensity, while nearly 60% of patients underwent revascularization in the highest quintile. Overall, there was an inverse correlation between intensity of vascular care and amputation rate ranging from R= −0.36 for outpatient diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, to R= −0.87 for inpatient surgical revascularizations. In analyses adjusting for patient characteristics and socioeconomic status, patients in high vascular care regions were significantly less likely to undergo amputation without an antecedent attempt at revascularization (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.34–0.37, p<0.001). Conclusions The intensity of vascular care provided to patients at risk for amputation varies, and regions with the most intensive vascular care have the lowest amputation rate
Afzal, Muhammad Zubair; Saleh, Mian Muhammad; Razvi, Syed; Hashmi, Hamza; Lampen, Russell
Cellulitis and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities (LE) often have similar presentations: erythema, swelling, and calf tenderness. The overlap of these symptoms often results in physicians ordering unnecessary LE Doppler ultrasounds in patients with LE cellulitis. This practice leads to subjecting patients to unwarranted procedures and results in increased healthcare costs. We aimed to determine the percentage of Doppler ultrasounds performed in patients admitted with LE cellulitis and the prevalence of DVT in that population. A retrospective chart review was performed of the patients admitted January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 who had a diagnosis of LE cellulitis. The number of Doppler ultrasounds performed and the presence of DVT was recorded. Patients were divided into groups of Doppler ultrasounds with no DVT and Doppler ultrasounds that were positive for DVT to compare the risk factors. There were 624 patients identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code for LE cellulitis at the time of admission. Slightly more than half of the subjects were men (315/624) and the average age was 61.4 ± 18.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). There were 417 (66.8%) patients who underwent Doppler ultrasound. Only 25 (5.9%) patients had DVT. Multivariate analysis showed that prior cerebrovascular accident, calf swelling, and history of thromboembolism were statistically significant predictors for DVT (P < 0.05). A concurrent incidence of DVT and LE cellulitis is rare. In the absence of known risk factors of DVT, the yield of LE Doppler is low and Doppler ultrasound is not required as a part of a standard admission evaluation.
Mir, Hassan R; Boulton, Christina L; Russell, George V; Archdeacon, Michael
It can be challenging for surgeons to obtain proper alignment and to create stable constructs for the maintenance of many lower extremity fractures until union is achieved. Whether lower extremity fractures are treated with plates and screws or intramedullary nails, there are numerous pearls that may help surgeons deal with these difficult injuries. Various intraoperative techniques can be used for lower extremity fracture reduction and stabilization. The use of several reduction tools, tips, and tricks may facilitate the care of lower extremity fractures and, subsequently, improve patient outcomes.
Lephart, Scott M; Ferris, Cheryl M; Riemann, Bryan L; Myers, Joseph B; Fu, Freddie H
This study evaluated kinematic, vertical ground reaction forces, and strength variables in healthy collegiate female basketball, volleyball, and soccer players compared with matched male subjects. Thirty athletes did single-leg landing and forward hop tasks. An electromagnetic tracking device synchronized with a force plate provided kinematic data and vertical ground reaction force data, respectively. Maximum angular displacement and time to maximum angular displacement kinematic variables were calculated for hip flexion, abduction, rotation, knee flexion, and lower leg rotation. Vertical ground reaction force data normalized to body mass provided impulse, maximum force, time to maximum force, and stabilization time variables. An isokinetic device measured quadriceps and hamstring peak torque to body mass at 60 degrees /second. With both tasks, females had significantly less knee flexion and lower leg internal rotation maximum angular displacement, and less knee flexion time to maximum angular displacement than males. For the single-leg land, females had significantly more hip internal rotation maximum angular displacement, and less lower leg internal rotation time to maximum angular displacement than males. For the forward hop, females had significantly more hip rotation time to maximum angular displacement than males. Females also had significantly less peak torque to body mass for the quadriceps and hamstrings than males. Weaker thigh musculature may be related to the abrupt stiffening of the knee and lower leg on landing in females.
Szalay, E A
Myelodysplasia is a multisystem disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach. The orthopaedist is often the first to identify a changing neurologic picture or deformity and must work closely with neurosurgical colleagues to identify correctable neurologic lesions. The role of the orthopaedist begins at the birth of the child with spina bifida. At this time, the level of neurologic involvement can be determined. Education of the parents can then begin by outlining the expected ambulatory potential of the child, and predicting deformities or complications that might be anticipated depending on the level of neurologic involvement. The orthopaedist must also emphasize the extreme importance of neurosurgical care in preventing deterioration of neurologic function, so that goals for ambulation and musculoskeletal function can be achieved. As the child gets older, motor milestones paralleling those of a normal child should be sought with use of a corner chair or sitting device, followed by the use of a standing frame if needed. If appropriate, the child will then progress to full-control braces, with weaning as determined by neurologic level of involvement . Long-term mobility may be achieved by bracing or by the use of a wheelchair. A realistic approach must be taken in goal-setting, so that a child is not pressured to achieve unrealistic goals yet is enabled to achieve full functional capacity.
Locomotion, Stair, Sensory Replacement, Sensory Feedback, Vibrotactile, Haptic , Psychophysics, Targeted Reinnervation, Targeted Muscle Reinnervation...these aims. Keywords Prosthetic Limb, Lower Extremity, Mobility, Locomotion, Stair, Sensory Replacement, Sensory Feedback, Vibrotactile, Haptic ...TR in lower extremity via Semmes- Weinstein monofilament exam, then use hand-held vibrotactile stimulator to measure for the vibrotactile haptic
Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.
Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…
Anselmo, Derek S; Love, Ebony; Tango, Dana N; Robinson, Lesly
Pregnant women are often burdened with musculoskeletal symptoms of the lower extremity due to the physical, hormonal, and anatomical changes that occur throughout pregnancy. These symptoms are associated with musculoskeletal dysfunctions, modified gait, joint laxity, muscle imbalance, and increased body mass. This article reviews the literature involving the lower-extremity changes experienced by women during pregnancy and their respective pathophysiologic causes.
Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.
Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…
Duncan, C E
The use of a ramp surface in our Burn Center has demonstrated benefits in improving gait, standing postures, and lower extremity muscle length. This technique has been effective with a wide age range of patients and is most useful as part of an overall treatment program including prestretching of lower extremities.
Iacovelli, Jaclyn Nicole; Yang, Jingzhen; Thomas, Geb; Wu, Hongqian; Schiltz, Trisha; Foster, Danny T
Considerable improvement has been made in football field surfaces and types of shoe, yet relatively few epidemiological studies have investigated their roles in the risk of football injuries. This study examined the effects of field surface, surface condition and shoe type on the likelihood of lower extremity football injuries. Deidentified data from 188 players from one division I university football team during the 2007-2010 seasons were analysed. Lower extremity injury rate and rate ratio, along with 95% confidence limits, were calculated by football activity, playing surface condition and shoe type. A total of 130 lower extremity injuries were sustained, with an overall lower extremity injury rate of 33.5/10 000 athlete-sessions. The lower extremity injury rate was 2.61 times higher when the surface condition was abnormal compared with when the surface condition was normal. During games, the risk for lower extremity injury was 3.34 times higher (95% CI 1.70 to 6.56) on artificial turf compared with natural grass. However, this trend was not statistically significant in practice sessions. Furthermore, neither the number of shoe cleats nor the height of the shoe top was statistically associated with risk of lower extremity injuries. Football players who played on artificial turf or when the surface condition was abnormal were susceptible to lower extremity injuries. Evidence from this study suggests that further research into playing surfaces and shoe types may provide fruitful opportunities to reduce injuries to collegiate football players.
Shim, Je-myung; Kwon, Hae-yeon; Kim, Ha-roo; Kim, Bo-in; Jung, Ju-hyeon
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity. PMID:24409018
Radak, D; Rosato, E; Cyba-Altunbay, S
During a year (1987/88) a study was performed at he Clinic of Thoracal and Vascular Surgery, supervised by Prof. dr J. Vollmar. Analysis of all cases with complications after reconstruction of the lower limbs arteries necessitating reoperation was performed. There were 56 patients in all. They were retrospectively analysed for establishing risk factors, clinical stage (by Fonstine), and time lapse from the surgery to the occurrence of complications. There were 12(21,4%), 23 (41,1%) and 21 (37,5%) of immediate, early and late complications, respectively. The following causes of complications following reconstruction of the lower limbs arteries were recorded: graft trombosis (41,1%), pseudoaneurism of anastomosis (17,8%), progressive arteriosclerosis (12,7%), proximally or distally to the operated segment. The following reoperations were applied: graft prolongation due to distal occlusion (35,7%), desobstruction of the graft and patch plasty (21,2%), partial or total replacement of the graft (17,9%), correction of the supplying vascular tree (7,1%). More than one reoperation were performed in 22 cases (39,2%) and amputation of the limb was necessitated in 4 (7,1%) cases.
Dinc, Tolga; Polat Duzgun, Arife; Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Erdogan, Ahmet; Yavuz, Zeynep; Coskun, Faruk
Our aim was to evaluate the factors affecting the mortality of patients who underwent nontraumatic major lower limb amputation due to ischemic and/or diabetic causes. A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Among these patients, 70 (70%) underwent below-knee amputation, whereas 30 (30%) underwent above-knee amputation. Eleven (15.7%) of the 70 patients who underwent below-knee amputation and 12 (40%) of the 30 patients who underwent above-knee amputation (P = .008) were deceased. After multivariable Poisson regression analysis, female gender (risk ratio [RR] = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.74) and a neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) less than 6.8 (RR = 5.12, 95% CI = 1.86-14.08) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The value of 6.8 was used as a cutoff point for the NLR (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.62-0.85), with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 83%, 66%, 57%, and 92%, respectively. The NLR and female gender were found to be independent factors that are related to increased mortality in patients who underwent lower limb amputation due to diabetic and/or ischemic causes. The coexistence of congestive heart failure and the amputation level (above knee) were found to be predictors of mortality in univariable analysis, but significance could not be demonstrated in multivariable analysis. © The Author(s) 2016.
Jenkins, Walter L; Raedeke, Susanne G
One hundred thirty-two female basketball players were observed for lower-extremity overuse injury between 1993 and 2004. Athletes studied between 1993 and 1996 did not receive foot orthotic devices and composed the control group. The treatment group comprised athletes studied between 1996 and 2004. Athletes in the treatment group were given a foot orthotic device before participation in basketball. Data analysis included lower-extremity overuse injury rates and the effect of foot orthotic devices on lower-extremity overuse injury rates by means of an incidence density ratio. The control group had a lower-extremity overuse injury rate of 5.37 per 1,000 exposures, and the treatment group had a rate of 6.44 per 1,000 exposures. The incidence density ratio was not significant (P = .44). This study rejects the concept that foot orthotic devices may assist in prevention of lower-extremity overuse injury in female basketball players.
Fiève, G; Brice, M; Cazaigne, J
The authors report 38 observations of vascular traumatisms associated to osteo-articular lesions of lower members cured by restorative treatment. The authors define a diagnostic and therapeutic line of conduct. They insisted upon the necessity of early diagnosis of vascular lesion, based on ultrasonic exploration of vessels as soon as the patient was admitted to hospital. Restoration must be considered from a global point of view in taking into account the state of integuments , the type of selected osseous restoration, the vascular approach and the possible necessity of aponeurotomy . The importance of vascular lesion and the slowness of circulation restoration induced the results of the treatment, the major risks of which were infection and metabolic lesion of the kidney. In 18% of the cases amputation was necessary.
Vella, Janis; Vella, Maria; Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Liberato; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M; LaFerla, Godfrey
The aims of this study were to evaluate factors influencing the distribution of ciprofloxacin in tissue of patients suffering from varying degrees of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Blood and tissue samples were collected from patients undergoing debridement or amputation procedures and the amount of ciprofloxacin in them was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. All patients were administered a 200-mg dose of intravenous ciprofloxacin prior to the debridement or amputation procedure. Data, including patient gender, age, type of diabetes, presence of neuropathy, medications taken, and severity of PAD were collected. These data were then analyzed to determine factors influencing the concentrations of ciprofloxacin in tissue of the lower limbs. The Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman correlation, and chi-square test were used to relate covariates and fixed factors with the concentration of ciprofloxacin in tissue. Following bivariate analysis, a 3-predictor regression model was fitted to predict tissue concentrations of ciprofloxacin given information about these predictors. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 50 patients having an average age of 68 years. Thirty-three patients were males and 35 patients suffered from type 2 diabetes. The average number of medications that these patients were taking was 10. The majority of patients (n = 35) were suffering from severe PAD. Tissue concentrations of ciprofloxacin were mainly related to plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin, number of medications that the patients were taking and severity of PAD. © The Author(s) 2015.
Poole, Janet L; Brandenstein, Jane
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of lower extremity impairments in motion and strength in people with systemic sclerosis and the relationships of the impairments to limitations in activities of daily living primarily involving the lower extremities. Participants were 69 persons with SSc who received evaluations of lower extremity joint motion (Keitel function test), strength (timed-stands test), and basic mobility (timed up and go test) and completed a demographic questionnaire regarding symptoms in the lower extremities. Activity limitations were measured by the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) which examines functional ability, pain, and quality of life. The participants had difficulty with items requiring external rotation of the hips and lower extremity strength. There were moderate correlations between the impairment measures of joint motion, strength, mobility, and activity limitations. Fair correlations were found between the skin scores and the RAOS sections except for pain. The results of this study show that lower extremity involvement is present in persons with SSc. The findings, regarding strength, mobility, and joint motion are related to the ability to perform everyday activities involving the lower extremities, suggest that these areas should be targeted for intervention in persons with SSc.
Hardman, Rulon L.; Rochon, Paul J.
Lower extremity venous insufficiency affects over half of all women. Interventional radiologists should be aware of the clinical evaluation of women with venous insufficiency and classification of disease. Endovascular therapies available for treatment of lower extremity venous insufficiency include: endovenous laser ablation, radiofrequency endovascular ablation, and sclerotherapy. The interventional radiologist should be versed on which therapy to select in each clinical presentation and the procedural techniques. The authors review the role of the interventional radiologist in managing this lower extremity venous disorder. PMID:24436566
Hwang, Ji Young
Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.
Heigh, Evelyn G; Maletta-Bailey, April; Haight, John; Landis, Gregg S
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and potentially fatal infection, with mortality of up to 30%. This case report describes a patient recovering from a laryngectomy for laryngeal squamous cell cancer who developed nosocomial necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity due to Serratia marcescens . Only eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis exclusive to the lower extremity due to S marcescens have been previously reported. Patients with S marcescens necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity often have multiple comorbidities, are frequently immunosuppressed, and have a strikingly high mortality rate.
Neal, Joseph M
Successful performance of lower-extremity regional anesthesia includes sensory and/or motor block assessment of up to 4 major peripheral nerves. This brief report describes a methodology for the rapid evaluation of lower-extremity anesthesia before surgical incision. Illustrations highlight the techniques for evaluation of sciatic, obturator, lateral femoral cutaneous, and femoral nerve anesthesia. This methodology is based on a Four P's acronym: push, pull, pinch, punt. Accurate assessment of lower-extremity regional anesthesia can be achieved rapidly using The Four Ps evaluation tool.
Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:28219004
Li, Yulai; Lu, Qing; Chen, Tian-wu; Yao, Yuan; Zhao, Zizhou; Li, Yang; Xu, Jianrong; Hu, Jiani; Haacke, Mark
Chronic progressive swelling of the lower extremity due to secondary lower extremity lymphedema (LEL) can affect a patient's quality of life, both physically and psychologically. A feasible and reproducible method for detecting and staging LEL will facilitate decision-making about appropriate management strategies. To determine whether the thickness of the soft tissues of the lower extremities, measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could stage unilateral secondary LEL. Seventy-two women with unilateral LEL and 22 participants without LEL underwent lower extremity MRI after treatment of uterine malignancies. LEL was classified clinically as stage 0, 1, 2, or 3. On fat-suppressed T2-weighted mid-axial images of calves and thighs, the total thickness of the soft tissue (TT), muscle thickness (MT), subcutaneous tissue thickness (STT), and the differences in TT (DTT), MT (DMT), and STT (DSTT) values and corresponding measurements in the contralateral lower extremity, were obtained and analyzed statistically for staging LEL. There was a trend for the TT and STT of the affected calf and thigh to increase with increasing LEL stage. These parameters were strongly and moderately correlated with LEL stage, respectively (P < 0.001). Both the DTT and DSTT of the calves or thighs were strongly correlated with LEL stage (P < 0.001). Among the parameters, the DSTT of the calves could best stage LEL, with an area under the receiver operating curve of more than 0.89. The DSTT of the calves could be recommended as an informative indicator for staging LEL. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.
Andrade, Alonso; Tyroch, Alan H.; McLean, Susan F.; Smith, Jody; Ramos, Alex
Background: Due to the high incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolus [PE]) after injury, many trauma centers perform lower extremity surveillance duplex ultrasounds. We hypothesize that trauma patients are at a higher risk of upper extremity DVTs (UEDVTs) than lower extremity DVTs (LEDVTs), and therefore, all extremities should be evaluated. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart and trauma registry review of Intensive Care Unit trauma patients with upper and LEDVTs detected on surveillance duplex ultrasound from January 2010 to December 2014 was carried out. Variables reviewed were age, gender, injury severity score, injury mechanism, clot location, day of clot detection, presence of central venous pressure catheter, presence of inferior vena cava filter, mechanical ventilation, and fracture. Results: A total of 136 patients had a DVT in a 5-year period: upper - 71 (52.2%), lower - 61 (44.9%), both upper and lower - 4 (2.9%). Overall, 75 (55.2%) patients had a UEDVT. Upper DVT vein: Brachial (62), axillary (26), subclavian (11), and internal jugular (10). Lower DVT vein: femoral (58), popliteal (14), below knee (4), and iliac (2). 10.3% had a PE: UEDVT - 5 (6.7%) and LEDVT - 9 (14.8%) P = 0.159. Conclusions: The majority of the DVTs in the study were in the upper extremities. For trauma centers that aggressively screen the lower extremities with venous duplex ultrasound, surveillance to include the upper extremities is warranted. PMID:28367009
Israel, Richard G.
A study determined the effects of fatigue produced in the upper extremities on the reaction time, movement time, and response time of the lower extremities in 30 male subjects, 19-25 years old. Each subject participated in a 10 trial practice session one day prior to the experiment and immediately preceding the pre-test. The pre-test consisted of…
Blair, James A; Eisenstein, Emmanuel D; Pierrie, Sarah N; Gordon, Wade; Owens, Johnny G; Hsu, Joseph R
American survivability during the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan continues to improve, though the rate of extremity injury remains quite high. The decision to proceed with amputation versus limb salvage remains controversial. Exposure to combat wound with severe high-energy lower extremity trauma during the previous 14 years at war has incited important advances in limb salvage technique and rehabilitation.
Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Jia, Ge; Li, Na; Jia, Yulong
In order to investigate the prevalence of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and to explore its possible reasons in children patients who received neurosurgery operation. Clinical data of 4958 cases children patients with lower-extremity DVT and without the thrombosis after the neurosurgery operation from 2010 January to 2014 December in department of neurosurgery of Tian Tan hospital were collected and analyzed. 18 cases children were diagnosed with lower-extremity DVT. All of them had invasive operation of lower-extremity deep venous catheterization. The mainly primary diseases of thrombosis children were craniopharyngioma. They have longer operation time compared with those without thrombosis (P<0.05). Therefore, the causes of DVT in neurosurgical children involve not only deep venous catheter-related but also neurological primary disease and operation time.
Khan, Imtiaz; West, Charles A; Sangster, Guillermo P; Heldmann, Maureen; Doucet, Linda; Olmedo, Margaret
Nonatherosclerotic etiologies of arterial insufficiency are uncommon but important causes of chronic lower extremity ischemia. We report a patient with multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) presenting with lifestyle-limiting lower extremity claudication and popliteal artery occlusion secondary to a large osteochondroma. The presence of MHE with associated osteochondroma resulting in arterial occlusion is a rare condition. Management strategies for treating large osteochondromas adjacent to or with vessel involvement in asymptomatic patients remain undefined.
Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N; Hegedus, Eric J
Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level 2. Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P < 0.001) and ankle sprains (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.69; P < 0.001), yet not ACL ruptures (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.36-3.29; P = 0.87) in basketball athletes. In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. © 2015 The Author(s).
Fanelli, Andrea; Ghisi, Daniela; Melotti, Rita Maria
Ultrasound guidance currently represents the gold standard for regional anesthesia. In particular for lower extremity blocks, despite the heterogeneity and the lack of large randomized controlled trials, current literature shows a modest improvement in block onset and quality compared with other localization techniques. This review aims to present the most recent findings on the application of ultrasound guidance for each single lower extremity approach. PMID:26918177
Murphy, D; Connolly, D; Beynnon, B
Prospective studies on risk factors for lower extremity injury are reviewed. Many intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors have been implicated; however, there is little agreement with respect to the findings. Future prospective studies are needed using sufficient sample sizes of males and females, including collection of exposure data, and using established methods for identifying and classifying injury severity to conclusively determine addtional risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:12547739
Haskoor, John; Sinno, Sammy; Blank, Alan; Saadeh, Pierre; Rapp, Timothy
Computer assisted modeling (CAM) has become an important tool in surgical oncology and reconstructive surgery. The preservation of the limb is an important consideration when approaching the treatment of lower extremity and pelvic tumors. The use of cutting guides allows for optimal conservation of disease-free bone and maintenance of function. We present a small case series that illustrates the use of CAM in patients with lower extremity and pelvic bone tumors.
We describe the case of a patient suffering from freezing of the lower extremities, for which continuous epidural-blockade, over a period of four days, was conducted. By this means it was possible to relieve the vessel-spasm caused by the freezing and the patient was spared bilateral upper-thigh amputation. As the lower extremities are concerned in many cases of freezing, a continuous epidural-blockade as described here, seems to be the therapy to choose.
Fergason, John; Keeling, John J; Bluman, Eric M
Blast-related extremity trauma represents a serious challenge because of the extent of bone and soft tissue damage. Fragmentation and blast injuries account for 56% of all injuries produced within the Iraqi and Afghan theaters where, as of July 2009, 723 combatants have sustained lower extremity limb loss. If limb salvage is not practical, or fails, then amputation should be considered. Amputation can be a reliable means toward pain relief and improvement of function. Optimizing functional outcome is paramount when deciding on definitive amputation level. Preservation of joint function improves limb biomechanics in many cases. Increased limb length also allows for the benefits associated with articular and distal limb proprioception. Amputees with improved lower extremity function also usually exhibit less energy consumption. Function and length are generally directly correlated, whereas energy consumption and length are inversely related. This article discusses the surgical principles of lower extremity amputation and postoperative management of amputees, and the various prosthetic options available.
Goodney, Philip P; Beck, Adam W; Nagle, Jan; Welch, H Gilbert; Zwolak, Robert M
Advances in endovascular interventions have expanded the options available for the invasive treatment of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Whether endovascular interventions substitute for conventional bypass surgery or are simply additive has not been investigated, and their effect on amputation rates is unknown. We sought to analyze trends in lower extremity endovascular interventions (angioplasty and atherectomy), lower extremity bypass surgery, and major amputation (above and below-knee) in Medicare beneficiaries between 1996 and 2006. We used 100% samples of Medicare Part B claims to calculate annual procedure rates of lower extremity bypass surgery, endovascular interventions (angioplasty and atherectomy), and major amputation between 1996 and 2006. Using physician specialty identifiers, we also examined trends in the specialty performing the primary procedure. Between 1996 and 2006, the rate of major lower extremity amputation declined significantly (263 to 188 per 100,000; risk ratio [RR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-0.8). Endovascular interventions increased more than threefold (from 138 to 455 per 100,000; RR = 3.30; 95% CI: 2.9-3.7) while bypass surgery decreased by 42% (219 to 126 per 100,000; RR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7). The increase in endovascular interventions consisted both of a growth in peripheral angioplasty (from 135 to 337 procedures per 100,000; RR = 2.49; 95% CI: 2.2-2.8) and the advent of percutaneous atherectomy (from 3 to 118 per 100,000; RR = 43.12; 95% CI: 34.8-52.0). While radiologists performed the majority of endovascular interventions in 1996, more than 80% were performed by cardiologists and vascular surgeons by 2006. Overall, the total number of all lower extremity vascular procedures almost doubled over the decade (from 357 to 581 per 100,000; RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.5-1.8). Endovascular interventions are now performed much more commonly than bypass surgery in the treatment of lower extremity PAD. These
Riskowski, JL; Dufour, AB; Hagedorn, TJ; Hillstrom, Howard; Casey, VA; Hannan, MT
Objective Studies have implicated foot posture and foot function as risk factors for lower extremity pain. Empirical population-based evidence for this assertion is lacking; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of foot posture and foot function to lower extremity joint pain in a population-based study of adults. Methods Participants were members of the Framingham Foot Study. lower extremity joint pain was determined by the response to the NHANES-type question, “On most days do you have pain, aching or stiffness in your [hips, knees, ankles, or feet]?” Modified Arch Index (MAI) classified participants as having planus, rectus (referent) or cavus foot posture. Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI) classified participants as having over-pronated, normal (referent) or over-supinated foot function. Crude and adjusted (age, gender, BMI) logistic regression determined associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain. Results Participants with planus structure had higher odds of knee (1.57, 95% CI: 1.24– 1.99) or ankle (1.47, 95% CI: 1.05–2.06) pain, whereas those with a cavus foot structure had increased odds of ankle pain only (7.56, 95% CI: 1.99–28.8) and pain at one lower extremity site (1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.80). Associations between foot function and lower extremity joint pain were not statistically significant, except for a reduced risk of hip pain in those with an over-supinated foot function (0.69, 95% CI: 0.51–0.93). Conclusions These findings offer a link between foot posture and lower extremity pain, highlighting the need for longitudinal or intervention studies. PMID:24591410
McNally, M P; Yontz, N; Chaudhari, A M
While the golf swing is a complex whole body movement requiring coordination of all joints to achieve maximum ball velocity, the kinetic contribution of the lower extremities to club head velocity has not been quantified, despite the perception that the legs are a primary source of power during the swing. Mechanical power at the hips, knees, and ankles was estimated during the downswing phase of a full swing with a driver using a passive optical motion capture system and 2 force plates for adult males across a range of age and self-reported skill levels. Total work by the lower extremities was calculated by integrating the powers of all 6 joints over the downswing. Regression analyses showed that total lower extremity work was a strong predictor of club head velocity (R=0.63). Secondary analyses showed different relationships to club head velocity in lead and trail leg lower extremity joints, but none of these were as predictive of club head velocity as the total work performed by the lower extremities. These results provide quantitative evidence that the lower body's kinetic contribution may be an important factor in achieving greater club head velocity, contributing to greater driving distance and overall golf performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
MacKenzie, Ellen J; Bosse, Michael J
The Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) is a multicenter study of severe lower extremity trauma in the US civilian population. At 2- and 7-year follow-ups, the LEAP study found no difference in functional outcome between patients who underwent either limb salvage surgery or amputation. However, outcomes on average were poor for both groups. This study and others provide evidence of wide-ranging variations in outcome following major limb trauma, with a substantial proportion of patients experiencing long-term disability. In addition, outcomes often are more affected by the patient's economic, social, and personal resources than by the initial treatment of the injury--specifically, amputation or reconstruction and level of amputation. A conceptual framework for examining outcomes after injury may be used to identify opportunities for interventions that would improve outcomes. Because of essential differences between the civilian and military populations, the findings of the LEAP study may correlate only roughly with combat casualty outcomes.
Benaya, A; Schwartz, Y; Kory, R; Yinnon, A M; Ben-Chetrit, E
Peripheral venous access in elderly, hospitalized patients is often challenging. The usual alternative is insertion of a central venous catheter, with associated risk for complications. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative incidence of phlebitis secondary to lower as compared to upper extremity intravenous catheters (IVCs) and associated risk factors. A non-randomized, observational, cohort-controlled study was carried out. Consecutive patients receiving a lower extremity IVC were enrolled and compared with patients receiving an upper extremity IVC. Patients were followed from insertion until removal of the IVC. The major endpoint was phlebitis. The incidence of phlebitis secondary to upper extremity IVCs was 3/50 (6 %) compared to 5/53 (9.4 %) in lower extremity IVCs (χ(2) Yates = 0.08, p = 0.776). Age, gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, site (arm versus leg, left versus right), and size of needle were not found to be risk factors for phlebitis according to univariate analysis. None of the patients developed bloodstream infection. In elderly patients with poor venous access, lower extremity IVCs are a reasonable and low-risk alternative to central venous catheters.
Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin temperature of the lower extremity. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin temperature using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in temperature with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower extremity resulting in decrease of temperature of the lower extremity. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair.
Reddy, Ravi Shankar; Alahmari, Khalid A
Background and Objective The purpose of this study was to find “Effect of lower extremity stretching exercises on balance in the geriatric population. Method 60 subjects (30 male and 30 female) participated in the study. The subjects underwent 10 weeks of lower limb stretching exercise program. Pre and post 10 weeks stretching exercise program, the subjects were assessed for balance, using single limb stance time in seconds and berg balance score. These outcome measures were analyzed. Results Pre and post lower extremity stretching on balance was analyzed using paired t test. Of 60 subjects 50 subjects completed the stretching exercise program. Paired sample t test analysis showed a significant improvement in single limb stance time (eyes open and eyes closed) (p<0.001) and berg balance score (p<0.001). Conclusion Lower extremity stretching exercises enhances balance in the geriatric population and thereby reduction in the number of falls. PMID:27610062
Reddy, Ravi Shankar; Alahmari, Khalid A
The purpose of this study was to find "Effect of lower extremity stretching exercises on balance in the geriatric population. 60 subjects (30 male and 30 female) participated in the study. The subjects underwent 10 weeks of lower limb stretching exercise program. Pre and post 10 weeks stretching exercise program, the subjects were assessed for balance, using single limb stance time in seconds and berg balance score. These outcome measures were analyzed. Pre and post lower extremity stretching on balance was analyzed using paired t test. Of 60 subjects 50 subjects completed the stretching exercise program. Paired sample t test analysis showed a significant improvement in single limb stance time (eyes open and eyes closed) (p<0.001) and berg balance score (p<0.001). Lower extremity stretching exercises enhances balance in the geriatric population and thereby reduction in the number of falls.
Vallianou, N; Gounari, P; Skourtis, A; Kougias, M; Sioula, E
Pyomyositis is a rarely encountered infection among diabetics, which usually affects lower extremities. Herein, we present a case of lower extremities and iliopsoas pyomyositis with concurrent septic arthritis and spinal epidural abscess in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Chimera, Nicole J; Knoeller, Shelby; Cooper, Ron; Kothe, Nicholas; Smith, Craig; Warren, Meghan
There are varied reports in the literature regarding the association of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) with injury. The FMS™ has been correlated with hamstring range of motion and plank hold times; however, limited research is available on the predictability of lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and core function on FMS™ performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether active lower extremity ROM measurements and core functional tests predict FMS™ performance. The authors hypothesized that lower extremity ROM and core functional tests would predict FMS™ composite score (CS) and performance on individual FMS™ fundamental movement patterns. Descriptive cohort study. Forty recreationally active participants had active lower extremity ROM measured, performed two core functional tests, the single leg wall sit hold (SLWS) and the repetitive single leg squat (RSLS), and performed the FMS™. Independent t tests were used to assess differences between right and left limb ROM measures and outcomes of core functional tests. Linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to determine the best predictors of FMS™ CS and fundamental movement patterns, respectively. On the left side, reduced DF and SLWS significantly predicted lower FMS™ CS. On the right side only reduced DF significantly predicted lower FMS™ CS. Ordinal logistic regression models for the fundamental movement patterns demonstrated that reduced DF ROM was significantly associated with lower performance on deep squat. Reduced left knee extension was significantly associated with better performance in left straight leg raise; while reduced right hip flexion was significantly associated with reduced right straight leg raise. Lower SLWS was associated with reduced trunk stability performance. FMS™ movement patterns were affected by lower extremity ROM and core function. Researchers should consider lower FMS™ performance as indicative of underlying issues in ROM and
Sigl, Martin; Hsu, Eric; Scheffel, Hans; Haneder, Stefan; Rümenapf, Gerhard; Amendt, Klaus
Most patients with peripheral arterial disease suffer from arteriosclerosis, the prevalence of which increases with age. In some of these patients, however, the ischemic symptoms are not caused by stenotic arteriosclerosis, but by large vessel giant cell arteritis (LV-GCA), a disease also predominantly affecting patients of the older generation. Identifying large vessel vasculitis is a challenge for all physicians caring for patients with peripheral artery disease. The results of invasive treatment such as bypass surgery and angioplasty of inflammatory vascular lesions differ fundamentally from those of patients with atherosclerosis. Duplex ultrasound is a widely available diagnostic method for examining patients with lower limb claudication and pathological ankle-/toe- brachial index or pulse volume recording with or without exercise. Knowledge of characteristic sonographic findings suspicious about large vessel vasculitis is essential for a differential diagnosis of vasculitis versus atherosclerosis. In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, further imaging techniques, e.g. contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or a combination of positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) can provide information on further vessel involvement and inflammatory activity. The present study focuses on diagnostic imaging of LV-GCA in patients presenting with claudication, illustrated by a series of cases.
Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M
Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.
Glaviano, Neal R; Saliba, Susan
Evaluate the relationship between subjective knee function and lower extremity strength in individuals with patellofemoral pain(PFP). Cohort. Laboratory. Participants were 30 individuals with PFP (20 females, 10 males; 76.02±17.88kg, 173.04±7.58cm, 24.9±7years). Subjects completed the Activities of Daily Living Scale(ADLS) and had lower extremity hip and knee isometric strength assessed. Strength was compared between low and high subjective function ADLS groups. Correlations for strength and subjective function were assessed; with a linear regression utilized to determine if strength predicted subjective function. Quadriceps strength was significantly greater in the high subjective function group 38.5±13.9%BM than low subjective function: 27.88±8.96%BM, p=.02. Significant correlations were seen between the ADLS and all five lower extremity strength measures(r=0.376-0.535). Quadriceps strength was a strong predictor of subjective function in those with PFP, explaining 28.6% of the total variance in the ADLS. Quadriceps strength was a strong predictor of subjective function when assessed by the ADLS PFP patients and significantly greater in those with higher subjective function. A strong relationship exists between self-reported function and lower extremity strength, suggesting the need to evaluate and treat lower extremity weakness.
Cannada, Lisa K; Vaidya, Rahul; Covey, Dana C; Hanna, Kathryn; Dougherty, Paul
The mangled lower extremity is a challenging injury to treat. Orthopaedic surgeons treating patients with these severe injuries must have a clear understanding of contemporary advantages and disadvantages of limb salvage versus amputation. It is helpful to review the acute management of mangled extremity injuries in the civilian and military populations, to be familiar with current postoperative protocols, and to recognize recent advances in prosthetic devices.
Kucherenko, N V; Skrypova, T V; Liutkevych, V F; Turans'kyĭ, A I; Skybun, V M
Possibilities of diagnosis and treatment of the lower extremities neuropathy were studied in 118 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Neurological examination, investigation of algesic, vibratory and temperature sensibility, thermography of feet were done in each patient. Electrostimulation treatment using therapeutic-diagnostic complex "Salut 11" was applied in 47 patients. Algesic syndrome and paresthesia occurs in the absence of the ulcerative-necrotic changes of foot or together with disorders of passability of the lower extremity main arteries. Ulcerative-necrotic changes of the foot tissues, caused by diabetic microangiopathy, are observed in the absence of pain and paresthesia, witnessing the presence of various mechanisms of the diabetic neuropathy occurrence. Application of the alpha-lipoic acid preparations had promoted the reduction of the pain and paresthesia intensity in 63% of patients. Usage of the lower extremities electromyoneurostimulation with the help of permanent impulsive current promotes the healing improvement of the purulent-necrotic wounds and ulcers of foot in patients with DM.
Necas, M; Dastychová, E
The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of contact sensitization in patients with lower extremity dermatitis. Between the years 2001 and 2007, the authors investigated 462 patients (mean age 49.1 years, 196 men and 266 women) with the eczema/dermatitis localized on their lower extremities, including feet. The patients were investigated with epicutaneous tests of the European Standard Series and also with other special patch tests. The most frequent allergens were balsam of Peru, 44/462 (9.5%); wool alcohols, 41/462 (8.9%); nickel sulphate, 39/462 (8.4%); propolis, 35/462 (7.6%); fragrance mix, 34 (7.4%) and colophony, 29/462 (6.3%). In patients with lower extremity dermatitis the frequency of contact sensitization is still high, and therefore investigation with epicutaneous tests should belong to the routine dermatological diagnostic procedure in these patients.
Patel, Manesh R.; Conte, Michael S.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Dib, Nabil; Geraghty, Patrick; Gray, William; Hiatt, William R.; Ho, Mami; Ikeda, Koji; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Jaff, Michael R.; Jones, W. Schuyler; Kawahara, Masayuki; Lookstein, Robert A.; Mehran, Roxana; Misra, Sanjay; Norgren, Lars; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Povsic, Thomas J.; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Rundback, John; Shamoun, Fadi; Tcheng, James; Tsai, Thomas T.; Suzuki, Yuka; Vranckx, Pascal; Wiechmann, Bret N.; White, Christopher J.; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Krucoff, Mitchell W.
The lack of consistent definitions and nomenclature across clinical trials of novel devices, drugs, or biologics poses a significant barrier to accrual of knowledge in and across peripheral artery disease therapies and technologies. Recognizing this problem, the Peripheral Academic Research Consortium, together with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, has developed a series of pragmatic consensus definitions for patients being treated for peripheral artery disease affecting the lower extremities. These consensus definitions include the clinical presentation, anatomic depiction, interventional outcomes, surrogate imaging and physiological follow-up, and clinical outcomes of patients with lower-extremity peripheral artery disease. Consistent application of these definitions in clinical trials evaluating novel revascularization technologies should result in more efficient regulatory evaluation and best practice guidelines to inform clinical decisions in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease. PMID:25744011
Understanding trends in the prevalence of children with cerebral palsy is vital to evaluating and estimating supportive services for children, families, and caregivers. The majority of children with cerebral palsy require lower extremity orthoses to stabilize their muscles. The pediatric nurse needs a special body of knowledge to accurately assess, apply, manage, teach, and evaluate the use of lower extremity orthoses typically prescribed for this vulnerable population. Inherent in caring for these children is the need to teach the child, the family, and significant others the proper application and care of the orthoses used in hospital and community settings. Nursing literature review does not provide a basis for evidence in designing and teaching orthopaedic care for children with orthoses. A protocol for orthoses management has been developed to assist caregivers to accurately care for children with lower extremity orthotic devices.
Yablon, Corrie M; Hammer, Matthew R; Morag, Yoav; Brandon, Catherine J; Fessell, David P; Jacobson, Jon A
Ultrasonography (US) is commonly used to assess the peripheral nerves of the lower extremity because of its many advantages over magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The most obvious advantages over MR imaging are superior soft-tissue resolution, low cost, portability, lack of magnetic susceptibility artifact, and the ability to image patients who cannot undergo MR imaging. US has been shown to have equal specificity and greater sensitivity than MR imaging in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Additional benefits are the capability of real-time and dynamic imaging, and the ability to scan an entire extremity quickly without the need for a patient to lie motionless for long periods of time, as with MR imaging. Any abnormal findings can be easily compared against the contralateral side. Published literature has shown that US has clinical utility in patients suspected of having peripheral nerve disease: US can be used to guide diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, as well as help confirm electrodiagnostic findings. Common indications for lower extremity peripheral nerve US are the evaluation for injury due to penetrating trauma, entrapment by scar tissue, or tumor. To confidently perform US of the peripheral nerves of the lower extremity, it is important to gain a thorough knowledge of anatomic landmarks and the course of each nerve. Readers who may not be familiar with US will be introduced to the basics of scanning the peripheral nerves of the lower extremity. Important anatomic landmarks and common sites of injury and entrapment will be reviewed. (©)RSNA, 2016.
Meyr, Andrew J; Spiess, Kerianne E
Although the effect of lower extremity pathology and surgical intervention on automobile driving function has been a topic of contemporary interest, we are unaware of any analysis of the effect of lower extremity diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy on driving performance. The objective of the present case-control investigation was to assess the mean brake response time in diabetic drivers with lower extremity neuropathy compared with that of a control group and a brake response safety threshold. The driving performances of participants were evaluated using a computerized driving simulator with specific measurement of the mean brake response time and frequency of abnormally delayed brake responses. We analyzed a control group of 25 active drivers with neither diabetes nor lower extremity neuropathy and an experimental group of 25 active drivers with type 2 diabetes and lower extremity neuropathy. The experimental group demonstrated a 37.89% slower mean brake response time (0.757 ± 0.180 versus 0.549 ± 0.076 second; p < .001), with abnormally delayed responses occurring at a greater frequency (57.5% versus 3.5%; p < .001). Independent of a comparative statistical analysis, the observed mean brake response time in the experimental group was slower than the reported safety brake response threshold of 0.70 second. The results of the present investigation provide original data with respect to abnormally delayed brake responses in diabetic patients with lower extremity neuropathy and might raise the potential for impaired driving function in this population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medina McKeon, Jennifer M; Hertel, Jay
Context: A discrepancy in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates exists between men and women. Structural differences between the sexes often are implicated as a factor in this discrepancy. Researchers anecdotally assume that men and women tend to display different normative values for certain lower extremity alignments, but published information about these values is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effect of sex on 6 measures of lower extremity alignment and to report representative values of these measures from a sample of active adults and elite athletes. Design: Descriptive cohort design. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 118 healthy adults (57 men: age = 21.1 ± 3.0 years, height = 179.1 ± 7.3 cm, mass = 79.8 ± 13.0 kg; 61 women: age = 20.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 167.7 ± 6.7 cm, mass = 62.7 ± 5.5 kg) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s): Six common measures of lower extremity posture (navicular drop, tibial varum, quadriceps angle, genu recurvatum, anterior pelvic tilt, femoral anteversion) were collected using established methods. One measurement was taken for each participant for each lower extremity alignment. We measured the right lower extremity only. Results: Compared with men, women demonstrated larger quadriceps angles, more genu recurvatum, greater anterior pelvic tilt, and more femoral anteversion. Conclusions: We observed differences between men and women for 4 of the 6 lower extremity alignments that we measured. Future researchers should focus on identifying how sex and skeletal alignment affect biomechanical performance of functional tasks and what these differences specifically mean regarding the discrepancy in anterior cruciate ligament injury rates between the sexes. PMID:19478840
Lohrmann, Christian; Pache, Gregor; Felmerer, Gunter; Foeldi, Etelka; Schaefer, Oliver; Langer, Mathias
To assess for the first time the morphology of the lymphatic system in patients with posttraumatic edema of the lower extremities by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the interstitial lymphangiography technique Six patients with posttraumatic edema in eight of their 12 lower extremities were examined by MR lymphangiography. Eighteen mL of gadoteridol and one mL of mepivacainhydrochloride 1% were subdivided into 10 portions and injected intracutaneously. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5-T system equipped with high-performance gradients. For MR lymphangiography, a 3D-spoiled gradient-echo sequence was used. In five of the eight (63%) traumatized lower extremities, enlarged lymphatic vessels were detected, with the largest diameter measuring 5 mm. Additionally, a fast lymphatic outflow was observed in seven of the eight (88%) traumatized legs with enhancement of the inguinal lymph nodes already in the first image acquisition 15 minutes after contrast material injection. In two of the eight (25%) traumatized lower extremities, an extensive network of collateral lymphatic vessels was detected at the level of the calf. In both extremities, lymphatic collateralization involved not only the epifascial but also the subfascial lymphatic system. In one patient, who sustained a trauma of the left lower leg with tibial fracture, a small aneurysmatic widening of 7 mm could be detected at the middle level of the calf. MR lymphangiography is a safe and accurate minimal-invasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphatic circulation in patients with posttraumatic edema of the lower extremities. If the extent of lymphatic damage is unclear at the initial clinical examination or requires a better definition for optimal therapeutic planning, MR lymphangiography is able to identify the anatomic and physiological derangements and to establish an objective baseline.
Haddas, Ram; James, C. Roger; Hooper, Troy L.
Context: Low back pain and lower extremity injuries affect athletes of all ages. Previous authors have linked a history of low back pain with lower extremity injuries. Fatigue is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries, some of which are known to affect female athletes more often than their male counterparts. Objective: To determine the effects of lower extremity fatigue and sex on knee mechanics, neuromuscular control, and ground reaction force during landing in people with recurrent low back pain (LBP). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A clinical biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three young adults with recurrent LBP but without current symptoms. Intervention(s): Fatigue was induced using a submaximal free-weight squat protocol with 15% body weight until task failure was achieved. Main Outcome Measure(s): Three-dimensional knee motion, knee and ankle moments, ground reaction force, and trunk and lower extremity muscle-activity measurements were collected during 0.30-m drop vertical-jump landings. Results: Fatigue altered landing mechanics, with differences in landing performance between sexes. Women tended to have greater knee-flexion angle at initial contact, greater maximum knee internal-rotation angle, greater maximum knee-flexion moment, smaller knee-adduction moment, smaller ankle-inversion moment, smaller ground reaction force impact, and earlier multifidus activation. In men and women, fatigue produced a smaller knee-abduction angle at initial contact, greater maximum knee-flexion moment, and delays in semitendinosus, multifidus, gluteus maximus, and rectus femoris activation. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that during a fatigued 0.30-m landing sequence, women who suffered from recurrent LBP landed differently than did men with recurrent LBP, which may increase women's exposure to biomechanical factors that can contribute to lower extremity injury. PMID:25322344
Grooms, Dustin R.; Palmer, Thomas; Onate, James A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Grindstaff, Terry
Context: A number of comprehensive injury-prevention programs have demonstrated injury risk-reduction effects but have had limited adoption across athletic settings. This may be due to program noncompliance, minimal exercise supervision, lack of exercise progression, and sport specificity. A soccer-specific program described as the F-MARC 11+ was developed by an expert group in association with the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) to require minimal equipment and implementation as part of regular soccer training. The F-MARC 11+ has been shown to reduce injury risk in youth female soccer players but has not been evaluated in an American male collegiate population. Objective: To investigate the effects of a soccer-specific warm-up program (F-MARC 11+) on lower extremity injury incidence in male collegiate soccer players. Design: Cohort study. Setting: One American collegiate soccer team followed for 2 seasons. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-one male collegiate athletes aged 18–25 years. Intervention(s): The F-MARC 11+ program is a comprehensive warm-up program targeting muscular strength, body kinesthetic awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements. Training sessions and program progression were monitored by a certified athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Lower extremity injury risk and time lost to lower extremity injury. Results: The injury rate in the referent season was 8.1 injuries per 1000 exposures with 291 days lost and 2.2 injuries per 1000 exposures and 52 days lost in the intervention season. The intervention season had reductions in the relative risk (RR) of lower extremity injury of 72% (RR = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.09, 0.85) and time lost to lower extremity injury (P < .01). Conclusions: This F-MARC 11+ program reduced overall risk and severity of lower extremity injury compared with controls in collegiate-aged male soccer
Greene, Arin K; Karnes, Julie; Padua, Horacio M; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Kasser, James R; Labow, Brian I
Lipofibromatosis is a slow-growing, childhood soft-tissue neoplasm that is often confused with other conditions. We report a patient with lipofibromatosis causing extremity enlargement at birth. The lesion initially was thought to be a vascular anomaly or lipedema on clinical and MRI examination. When involving the lower extremity, diffuse lipofibromatosis must be differentiated from more common causes of lower limb enlargement in children: lymphatic malformation, lymphedema, or lipedema. Compared with these more frequent conditions, lipofibromatosis usually causes less morbidity. Management of the tumor includes observation or excision. Because complete extirpation of the lesion is difficult, the recurrence rate is high.
Subramanian, Subramanian; Moe, David C; Vo, Jack N
Tunneled lower extremity peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are placed in infants under combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance in the interventional radiology suite. In infants requiring a bedside procedure, image guidance is limited, often using portable radiographs during the procedure. This report demonstrates feasibility of placing tunneled lower extremity PICCs using ultrasound as the sole imaging modality for vascular access, intravascular length measurement, and final confirmation of catheter tip position in a case series of 15 critically ill infants. The technique negates the need for added imaging confirmation methods that use ionizing radiation and can be performed at the bedside.
Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C
The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Simons, D G; Travell, J G
Gluteal, pelvic, and lower extremity muscles are common sites of origin of myofascial low back pain. Trigger points (TPs) in the gluteus maximus and medius muscles refer pain locally to the gluteal and sacral regions, while those in the gluteus minimus are likely to refer pain down the lower extremity as far as the ankle on the same side. TPs in intrapelvic muscles refer pain chiefly to the pelvic region. Besides producing referred myofascial pain, TPs in the piriformis muscle can cause symptoms of entrapment of the peroneal portion or all of the sciatic nerve. TPs in the soleus muscle may refer pain to the sacroiliac joint.
Mattalino, A J; Deese, J M; Campbell, E D
Lower extremity problems in the runner are common and often perplexing. Although many problems such as acute tendinitis and mild sprains can be treated with short periods of rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, some will be chronic or recurrent in nature. These persistent problems can cause even a serious runner to reduce his activity greatly or even give up the sport entirely. Chronic recurring ailments should be examined carefully with a high suspicion of a biomechanical imbalance in the foot or lower extremity. With a basic understanding of the biomechanics of the foot and ankle and the stresses incurred during running, most of the problems can be managed conservatively.
Waljee, Jennifer; Zhong, Lin; Baser, Onur; Yuce, Huseyin; Fox, David A.; Chung, Kevin C.
Background: For elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis, aggressive immunosuppression can be difficult to tolerate, and surgery remains an important treatment option for joint pain and deformity. We sought to examine the epidemiology of surgical reconstruction for rheumatoid arthritis among older individuals who were newly diagnosed with the disorder. Methods: We identified a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (sixty-six years of age and older) newly diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis from 2000 to 2005, and followed these patients longitudinally for a mean of 4.6 years. We used univariate analysis to compare the time from the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis to the first operation among the 360 patients who underwent surgery during the study period. Results: In our study cohort, 589 procedures were performed among 360 patients, and 132 patients (37%) underwent multiple procedures. The rate of upper extremity reconstruction was 0.9%, the rate of lower extremity reconstruction was 1.2%, and knee arthroplasty was the most common procedure performed initially (31%) and overall (29%). Upper extremity procedures were performed sooner than lower extremity procedures (fourteen versus twenty-five months; p = 0.02). In multivariable analysis, surgery rates declined with age for upper and lower extremity procedures (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Knee replacement remains the most common initial procedure among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, upper extremity procedures are performed earlier than lower extremity procedures. Understanding the patient and provider factors that underlie variation in procedure rates can inform future strategies to improve the delivery of care to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:25740031
Golas, Alyssa R; Levine, Jamie P; Ream, Justin; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
An accurate and comprehensive understanding of lower extremity arterial anatomy is essential for the successful harvest and transfer of a free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap (FFF). Minimum preoperative evaluation includes detailed history and physical including lower extremity pulse examination. Controversy exists regarding whether preoperative angiographic imaging should be performed for all patients. Elevation of an FFF necessitates division of the peroneal artery in the proximal lower leg and eradicates its downstream flow. For patients in whom the peroneal artery comprises the dominant arterial supply to the foot, FFF elevation is contraindicated. Detailed preoperative knowledge of patient-specific lower extremity arterial anatomy can help to avoid ischemia or limb loss resulting from FFF harvest. If preoperative angiographic imaging is omitted, careful attention must be paid to intraoperative anatomy. Should pedal perfusion rely on the peroneal artery, reconstructive options other than an FFF must be pursued. Given the complexity of surgical decision making, the authors propose an algorithm to guide the surgeon from the preoperative evaluation of the potential free fibula flap patient to the final execution of the surgical plan. The authors also provide 3 clinical patients in whom aberrant lower extremity anatomy was encountered and describe each patient's surgical course.
Golas, Alyssa R; Levine, Jamie P; Ream, Justin; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
An accurate and comprehensive understanding of lower extremity arterial anatomy is essential for the successful harvest and transfer of a free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap (FFF). Minimum preoperative evaluation includes detailed history and physical including lower extremity pulse examination. Controversy exists regarding whether preoperative angiographic imaging should be performed for all patients. Elevation of an FFF necessitates division of the peroneal artery in the proximal lower leg and eradicates its downstream flow. For patients in whom the peroneal artery comprises the dominant arterial supply to the foot, FFF elevation is contraindicated. Detailed preoperative knowledge of patient-specific lower extremity arterial anatomy can help to avoid ischemia or limb loss resulting from FFF harvest. If preoperative angiographic imaging is omitted, careful attention must be paid to intraoperative anatomy. Should pedal perfusion rely on the peroneal artery, reconstructive options other than an FFF must be pursued. Given the complexity of surgical decision making, the authors propose an algorithm to guide the surgeon from the preoperative evaluation of the potential free fibula flap patient to the final execution of the surgical plan. The authors also provide 3 clinical patients in whom aberrant lower extremity anatomy was encountered and describe each patient's surgical course.
Ozal, E; Us, M H; Bingöl, H; Oz, B S; Kuralay, E; Tatar, H
The management of lower extremity trauma with vasculary involvement should be directed toward to the salvage of the extremity or to the primary amputation according to the additional pathologies, parameters of the patient and the extremity. We investigated the efficiency of Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) system which is proposed as an grading system to evaluate the change to extremity salvage or the risk for onset of systemic complications. 81 patients with lower extremity trauma were analyzed according to MESS criteria. 79 of the patients were men and mean age was 23 +/- 4. Fourteen patients had higher MESS score. (MESS > 7). Seven of them were older than 50 years. Primary amputation was performed in four of these 7 patients. Vascular repair was performed in three of patients. Multiorgan failure was developed in two of them and both patients died. Secondary amputation was performed to another patients underwent vasculary repair who had MESS > 7 score. Primary amputation was not performed directly in young patients who had MESS > 7. Secondary amputation was required in two of these patients. MESS scoring system can easily predict amputation in older patients but may cause unnecessary amputation in young patients.
Han, Seok; Song, Dan; Yun, Sangchul
Purpose: The lower extremity has received its fair share of attention as a vascular access site in patients who have exhausted their upper arm vessels. However, experiences with lower extremity arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) have so far been disappointing because of high infection rates and severe limb ischemia. We report our experience with hemodialysis access from the lower extremity. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 60 lower extremity AVGs created between January 2003 and December 2011 was performed. Age, sex, etiology of end-stage renal disease and complications were tabulated. Primary and secondary patency rates were determined. Results: The average age of the study population was 56 years and 38 patients were female. Renal failure was associated with hypertension in 40 (66.7%) patients, diabetes in 28 (46.7%) patients and cardiovascular disease in 9 (15.0%) patients. The follow-up period was 8–108 months. Fifty-four patients had bilateral central vein stenosis. Seven (11.7%) patients had primary failure of their AVG. There was no operation-related death. Primary and secondary patency rates were: 66% and 90% at 1 year, 40% and 90% at 2 years, 27% and 87% at 3 years, and 18% and 87% at 5 years, respectively. There were 105 postoperative complications that developed in 67 patients. Postoperative complications were: thrombosis (30), proximal vein stenosis (56), infection (9), bleeding with hematoma (1), perigraft seroma (3), steal syndrome (2), and pseudoaneurysm (4). Conclusion: A lower extremity AVG seems to be a viable option in patients with unusable upper extremity veins. PMID:28042558
Mizuno, Koji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Daisuke; Han, Yong; Hitosugi, Masahito
A cyclist assumes various cyclic postures of the lower extremities while pushing the pedals in a rotary motion while pedaling. In order to protect cyclists in collisions, it is necessary to understand what influence these postures have on the global kinematics and injuries of the cyclist. Finite element (FE) analyses using models of a cyclist, bicycle, and car were conducted. In the simulations, the Total Human Model of Safety (THUMS) occupant model was employed as a cyclist, and the simulation was set up such that the cyclist was hit from its side by a car. Three representative postures of the lower extremities of the cyclist were examined, and the kinematics and injury risk of the cyclist were compared to those obtained by a pedestrian FE model. The risk of a lower extremity injury was assessed based on the knee shear displacement and the tibia bending moment. When the knee position of the cyclist was higher than the hood leading edge, the hood leading edge contacted the leg of the cyclist, and the pelvis slid over the hood top and the wrap-around distance (WAD) of the cyclist's head was large. The knee was shear loaded by the hood leading edge, and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptured. The tibia bending moment was less than the injury threshold. When the cyclist's knee position was lower than the hood leading edge, the hood leading edge contacted the thigh of the cyclist, and the cyclist rotated with the femur as the pivot point about the hood leading edge. In this case, the head impact location of the cyclist against the car was comparable to that of the pedestrian collision. The knee shear displacement and the tibia bending moment were less than the injury thresholds. The knee height of the cyclist relative to the hood leading edge affected the global kinematics and the head impact location against the car. The loading mode of the lower extremities was also dependent on the initial positions of the lower extremities relative to the car structures. In
Vihma, T. P.; Uotila, P.; Nygård, T.
First, a review is presented on Arctic forcing to mid-latitude weather extremes, and mid- and lower latitude forcing to Arctic weather extremes. Several studies have addressed the following mechanisms: reduction of the meridional temperature gradient; southward shift, weakening and increased meandering of the polar jet stream; changes in storm tracks and blocking; planetary wave trains generated by anomalous surface heating; and wave trapping due to resonance with surface forcing. These mechanisms undoubtedly affect mid-latitude weather extremes but uncertainty remains on the relative contributions of Arctic and lower latitudes to the mechanisms. A major part of the Arctic tropospheric warming is driven by mid- and lower latitudes, and their role is particularly evident for extremes in Arctic air temperatures and precipitation rates. Second, new results are presented on the relationships between regional weather extremes and properties of the jet stream. The results are based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1979-2016, applying Self-Organizing Maps clustering method. Seasonal and spatial differences in the relationships are analyzed. The spatial differences include, among others, a strong wavenumber 3 pattern in the correlation between the 500 hPa meridional wind and Arctic 2-m air temperature anomaly. Further, case studies are presented on recent events of a strongly amplified (wavy) or split jet streams, including those in January 2016. Such cases often, particularly in winter, cause almost simultaneous cold extremes in mid-latitudes and warm extremes in the Arctic. In summer, the Arctic coastal zone experiences large variations in 2-m air temperature, but only in rare cases the anomalies extend over the melting sea ice zone.
Nelson, Jonas A; Fischer, John P; Haddock, Nicholas T; Mackay, Duncan; Wink, Jason D; Newman, Andrew S; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J
Many patients with successful lower extremity salvage have postoperative functional and esthetic concerns. Such concerns range from contour irregularity preventing proper shoe-fitting to esthetic concerns involving color, contour, and texture match. The purpose of this study is to determine the overall incidence as well as factors associated with an increased likelihood of undergoing secondary, esthetic refinements of lower extremity free flaps and to review current revision techniques. All patients undergoing lower extremity soft tissue coverage for limb salvage procedures between January 2007 and June 2013 at a single institution were included in the analysis. Patients who underwent secondary refinements for lower extremity free flaps were compared with patients not undergoing secondary procedures. During the study period, 152 patients underwent reconstruction and were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 32 (21.1%) patients underwent secondary, esthetic revisions. Few differences in patient or case characteristics were noted, although revision patients trended toward being younger, having lower body mass index, with defects secondary to acute trauma located below the ankle. The most common revision was complex soft tissue rearrangement or surgical flap debulking/direct excision (87.5% of patients), followed by scar revision (12.5%), suction-assisted lipectomy (3.1%), laser scar revision (3.1%), and tissue expansion with local tissue rearrangement (3.1%). A significant portion of patients desire secondary revisions following the initial procedure. This is especially true of younger patients with below ankle reconstruction. In many patients, an esthetic consideration should not be of secondary concern, but should be part of the ultimate reconstructive algorithm for lower extremity limb salvage. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Singer, Jonathan; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Sanchez, Gabriela; Iribarren, Carlos; Eisner, Mark D.; Blanc, Paul D.
PURPOSE We sought to quantify the impact of respiratory muscle and lower extremity strength on exercise capacity and lower extremity function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS In 828 persons with COPD, we assessed the impact of reduced respiratory (maximum inspiratory pressure, MIP) and lower extremity muscle strength (quadriceps, QS) on exercise capacity (6 Minute Walk Distance, 6MWT) and lower extremity function (LEF, Short Physical Performance Battery). Multiple regression analyses taking into account key covariates, including lung function and smoking, tested the associations between muscle strength and exercise and functional capacity. RESULTS For each ½ standard deviation (0.5 SD) decrement in QS, men walked 18.3 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI −24.1 to −12.4); women 25.1 meters less (95% CI −31.1 to −12.4). For each 0.5 SD decrement in MIP, men walked 9.4 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI – 15.2 to −3.6); women 8.7 meters less (95% CI −14.1 to −3.4). For each 0.5 SD decrease in QS, men had a 1.32 higher odds (95% CI: 1.11 to 1.15) of poor LEF; women, 1.87 higher odds (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.27). Lower MIP (per 0.5 SD) was associated with increased odds of poor LEF in women (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39), but not in men (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.31). CONCLUSION In COPD, reduced respiratory and lower extremity muscle strength are associated with decreased exercise and functional capacity. Muscle weakness is likely an important component of impairment and disability in patients with COPD. PMID:21240003
AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0144 TITLE: Evaluation of Spine Health and Spine Mechanics in Servicemembers with Traumatic Lower... Mechanics in Servicemembers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER with Traumatic Lower-Extremity Amputation or Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0144 5c. PROGRAM...injury and LBP via changes in spine mechanics and spine health, two important factors associated with LBP risk. Using a novel set of clinical
Varicous veins and postthrombotic syndrome can make typical reversible or irreversible skin changes on the lower extremities if no treatment is initiated. The typical clinical signs should be recognised in an early stage and possible differential diagnoses have to be excluded.
Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults were randomized to either high-velocity high-power training (POW), slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR) or a control group of lower extremity stretching (CON). Training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks and subjects completed t...
Anderson, James C; Yamasaki, Dwayne S
This article describes the benefits of intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) and proposes methods for integration into nerve decompression procedures. Standard procedures for intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) are illustrated as they would apply to the 3 nerve tunnels that have significant motor components within the lower extremity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rasouli, Mohammad R; Moini, Majid; Khaji, Ali; Heidari, Pedram; Anvari, Arash
This study aimed to determine the pattern of traumatic lower extremity vascular injuries in Iran. Patients with vascular injury of the lower extremity were selected from the Iranian National Trauma Project. This project was conducted in eight major cities during 2000-2004 and consisted of more than 17000 patients. Sixty-three subjects (54 men) with a total of 92 vascular injuries of the lower extremity were identified. Mean age of the patients was 25.87 +/- 13.37 years. Blunt trauma was more frequent than penetrating (62% vs. 38%). In 36 cases (57%), road traffic crash (RTC) was the cause of injury. In 21% of the patients (n=24), vascular injury resulted from occupational trauma. Workers (n=23, 20%) were the most frequently affected group. Three patients (5%) died due to severity of the associated injuries. Our results revealed that RTC is the most frequent cause of lower extremity vascular injuries in Iran. Our findings also showed that occupational injuries have considerable prevalence. Establishment of preventive strategies to reduce the frequency of these injuries is recommended.
Bennett, John P; Sayers, Mark G L; Burkett, Brendan J
Resistance sprint training is a sprint-specific training protocol commonly employed by athletes and coaches to enhance sprint performance. This research quantified the impact of lower extremity mass and inertia manipulation on key temporal and kinematic variables associated with sprint performance. A 3-dimensional analysis of 40 m sprinting was conducted on 8 elite sprinters under normal conditions and resisted sprint training. Results of the study showed that lower extremity additional mass training (at 10% individual segment weight) led to a significant reduction in sprint time for both the 10-m to 20-m and the 30-m to 40-m splits and the total 40 m measure. The stride velocity throughout the 20-m to 30-m phase of the sprint trials was also shown to be significantly reduced in the lower extremity mass and inertia manipulation condition. Importantly, no significant differences were observed across the remaining spatiotemporal variables of stride length, stride frequency, total stride time, and ground contact time. For coaches and athletes, the addition of specific lower extremity mass could improve the athlete's sprint performance without any measured effect on the technique of highly trained elite sprinters.
Objectives This study examined the influence of lower extremity body composition and muscle strength on the severity of mobility-disability in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Fifty-seven older males and females (age 74.2 +/- 7 yrs; BMI 28.9 +/- 6 kg/m2) underwent an objective assessment ...
Dell'Era, Silvina; Dimaro, Mariana; Gamboa, Anabella; Spath, María Belén; Salzberg, Sandra; Hernández, Daniel
The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) is a self-report questionnaire created to evaluate a patient's functional status in a wide spectrum of lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions. Thus far, there is no valid version in Argentina. The aims of this study were to translate the LEFS, cross-culturally adapt it for use in the Argentine population, and validate it in our country by determining its psychometric properties in patients over the age of 18 with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions, comparing it with the SF-36 and the following functional tests: step test and timed up and go. One hundred and thirty three patients were included between July 2010 and January 2012. The test-retest reliability was high, with an ICC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 - 0.94). The correlation of the LEFS with the physical functioning subscale and the physical component summary score of the SF-36 was high (p < 0.001) and showed moderate response with the timed up and go and step test at the baseline (p < 0.001). This version of the LEFS is a valid, reliable tool used in Argentina to measure functional status in patients with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions that we recommend for future clinical research projects and daily clinical use.
Bowerman, Erin; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Karin, Janet
To identify growth, maturation and biomechanical risk factors for overuse injury in elite adolescent ballet dancers. Maturation (Tanner scale), growth (foot length change) and age at onset of menarche were recorded in elite adolescent ballet dancers. A modified knee valgus angle and lateral tilt of the pelvis were measured using 2D video during two dance movements (fondu, temps levé) to quantify lower extremity alignment. Overuse dance injuries were recorded by a physiotherapist. The injury rate ratio (RR) associated with each variable was estimated using over-dispersed Poisson regression modelling. Changes in right foot length (RR = 1.41, CI = 0.93-2.13), right knee angles during the fondu (RR = 0.68, CI = 0.45-1.03) and temps levé (RR = 0.72, CI = 0.53-0.98), and pelvic angles during the temps levé on the left (RR = 0.52, CI = 0.30-0.90) and fondu on the right (RR = 1.28, CI = 0.91-1.80) were associated with substantial changes in injury risk. Rate of growth in elite adolescent ballet dancers is likely associated with an increase in risk of lower extremity overuse injury and better right lower extremity alignment is likely associated with a reduction in risk of right lower extremity overuse injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background and Aims This study investigated whether high-velocity high-power training (POW) improved lower extremity muscle power and quality in functionally-limited elders greater than traditional slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR). Methods Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adul...
Mortazavi, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Mitra M; Spencer, Frederick A
The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with erysipelas and cellulitis of the lower extremities is unknown. As such, the indication and efficacy of prophylactic anticoagulation for prevention of DVT in these patients is unclear. The main goal of this review is to provide an estimate of the incidence of DVT in erysipelas and cellulitis based on existing literature. A comprehensive search of the electronic sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILAC and Cochrane without any language limitation was performed from 1950 to April 2011 for articles focused on the occurrence of DVT in cellulitis or erysipelas of the lower extremities. The selected studies were divided into two groups according to presence or absence of systematic investigation for DVT. Those studies in which the patients received prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulants before a diagnosis of DVT were excluded. The reported incidence rate of DVT in patients with erysipelas or cellulitis of the lower extremities is highly variable, ranging from 0 to 15%. In this review, the overall incidence rates of DVT in studies with and without systematic investigation for thromboembolism were 2.72% (95% CI: 1.71-3.75%) and 0.68% (95% CI: 0.27-1.07%), respectively. Given the low reported overall incidence of DVT, neither routine prophylactic anticoagulation nor systematic paraclinical investigation for DVT is indicated in low risk patients with erysipelas or cellulitis of the lower extremities. DVT should still be considered in patients with high pretest probability or other thromboembolic risk factors.
Kurichi, Jibby E.; Kwong, Pui; Vogel, W. Bruce; Xie, Dawei; Ripley, Diane Cowper; Bates, Barbara E.
Our objective was to determine the relationship between receipt of a prescription for a prosthetic limb and three-year mortality post-surgery among veterans with lower extremity amputation. We conducted a retrospective observational study that included 4,578 veterans hospitalized for lower extremity amputation and discharged in Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality from the amputation surgical date up to the 3-year anniversary of the surgical date. There were 1,300 (28.4%) veterans with lower extremity amputations who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within a year after the surgical amputation. About 46% (n=2086) died within three-years of the surgical anniversary. Among those who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb, only 25.2% died within 3 years of the surgical anniversary. After adjustment, veterans who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb were less likely to die after the surgery than veterans without a prescription with a hazard ratio of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.60-0.77). Findings demonstrated that veterans with lower extremity amputations who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within a year after the surgical amputation were less likely to die within three years of the surgical amputation after controlling for patient-, treatment-, and facility-level characteristics. PMID:26348602
van der Waal, J M; Bot, S D M; Terwee, C B; van der Windt, D A W M; Schellevis, F G; Bouter, L M; Dekker, J
Objective To estimate the incidence and consultation rate of lower extremity complaints in general practice. Methods Data were obtained from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, in which 195 general practitioners (GPs) in 104 practices recorded all contacts with patients during 12 consecutive months in computerised patient records. GPs classified the symptoms and diagnosis for each patient at each consultation according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). Incidence densities and consultation rates for different complaints were calculated. Results During the registration period 63.2 GP consultations per 1000 person‐years were attributable to a new complaint of the lower extremities. Highest incidence densities were seen for knee complaints: 21.4 per 1000 person‐years for women and 22.8 per 1000 person‐years for men. The incidence of most lower extremity complaints was higher for women than for men and higher in older age. Conclusions Both incidences of and consultation rates for lower extremity complaints are substantial in general practice. This implies a considerable impact on the workload of the GP. PMID:16269430
Wareńczak, Agnieszka; Lisiński, Przemysław; Huber, Juliusz
This paper deals with evaluation of the lower extremity efficiency and balance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The authors' own test (LLFT-lower extremities functional test) and balance tests during normal standing and tandem positions with eyes opened or closed were used. Twelve patients with RA and fifteen controls for comparison were examined. Center feet of pressure dislocation on platform in normal standing with eyes open, normal standing with eyes closed, tandem left foot in front and tandem right foot in front positions and further dynamic balance tests on three different boards were analyzed. Visual Analogue Scale monitored the level of pain after each LLFT task. There was found a relation between the intensity of pain and overloading of joints in particular tasks, resulting in lower extremities dysfunction. A significant disbalance in medio-lateral direction during normal standing with eyes closed and tandem right foot in front positions and also in anterior-posterior direction in tandem right foot in front position during static balance tests was found. Correlations showed that patient's age, disease duration and Steinbrocker Functional Classes have an influence on parameters of balance tests. Results indicate that complex dysfunction of lower extremities causes disbalance of posture in static conditions.
Momeni, Arash; Lanni, Michael; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J
Few reports focus exclusively on microsurgical reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity defects in children. Hence, the authors felt it prudent to contribute to this area of clinical research. The authors hypothesized that reconstructive success would be comparable to success rates reported in adults, and that young age or concerns regarding vessel size or behavior do not negatively impact surgical outcome. A retrospective review of microsurgical lower extremity reconstruction cases at two academic medical centers was performed. All pediatric patients who underwent microsurgical reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity defects between 1997 and 2012 were included for analysis. Forty flaps transferred in 40 patients with a mean age of 11.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years) were included for analysis. Muscle flaps were predominantly used [n = 23 (57.5 percent)]; however, there was a recent increase in use of fasciocutaneous flaps [n = 16 (40 percent)]. Postoperative complications were seen in 25 percent of patients, with a total flap loss rate of 5 percent. No donor-site complications were observed. The mean postoperative length of hospital stay was 12.9 days (range, 4 to 41 days), with patients returning to full weight-bearing after a mean of 2.6 months (range, 1 to 8 months). Microsurgical reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity defects in the pediatric population is safe. Concerns related to patient age, vessel size, or vessel behavior (i.e., vasospasm) should not detract from offering free flap reconstruction, as they do not negatively impact outcomes. Therapeutic, IV.
Lee, Sangwoo; DeRosia, Kyle D; Lamie, Landon M
This study evaluated the contribution of lower extremity (hip, knee and ankle) net joint torques (NJT) to whole body power (WBP) output during the power snatch (PS). Ten experienced weightlifters (five males and five females) performed five trials of the PS with 60% of one repetition maximum. Lower extremity NJT and WBP were extracted through a three-dimensional motion analyses and used for data analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained to observe the relationship between lower extremity NJT and WBP. Multiple-regression (stepwise) analyses was also conducted to evaluate the contribution of lower extremity NJT to WBP during the PS with the hip, knee and ankle NJT being the independent variables. Hip NJT was characterised as a significant positive correlation with WBP (r = 0.47, p < 0.01), while knee NJT showed a significant negative correlation with WBP (r = -0.34, p < 0.05). A significant inter-correlation was also observed between hip NJT and knee NJT (r = -0.66, p < 0.01). Hip NJT was identified as a significant contributor to WBP during the PS. Practically, this study suggested that training skills allowing weightlifters to utilise hip extensor muscle action would help to improve WBP during the PS.
Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction, a common source of low back and buttock pain, can occur from cumulative shear or torsional forces during activities such as walking that require weight to transfer from one extremity to the other. Individuals with lower extremity lymphedema may also experience SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this article was to describe the examination, diagnosis, and intervention for a patient with lower extremity lymphedema and sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The patient was a 50-year-old female with increased left lower extremity lymphedema and left buttock and groin pain that was previously treated unsuccessfully with physical therapy. SIJ dysfunction was attributable to an alteration in gait pattern caused by increased limb volume associated with lymphedema. The patient was treated for 19 visits over six weeks with complete decongestive therapy (CDT), muscle energy techniques, core stabilization, and the application of a pelvic support belt. Objective changes include decreased lymphedema, increased lower abdominal and lumbar extension strength, and decreased Oswetry Disability Index ratings. The patient was able to ambulate community distances without an assistive device and to resume unsupervised strength and conditioning without pain.
LeFrock, J L; Joseph, W S
The foot is the most common site of infection in the diabetic individual, and one of every four diabetics eventually seeks medical care for a foot problem. This article examines pathologic conditions of the lower extremity from a variety of views, including pathophysiology, classification, microbiology, infections, osteomyelitis, treatment, and prevention strategies.
Pedersen, Scott J.; Surburg, Paul R.
This study investigated the movement preparation (reaction time) and movement execution (movement time) of children with and without ADHD by manipulating the uncertainty of occurrence. Participants performed a seated lower extremity choice response time protocol, which contained either 10% catch trials or 30% catch trials along with 27 empirical…
Ahsan, Syed T.
Lower-extremity edema is encountered by internists, nephrologists, vascular specialists, and many others. We report a case of an elderly woman who presented with a painful, swollen left leg. Without a clear diagnosis, she had been taking diuretics for the past 8 years for swelling in both legs. After extensive investigation, we found that her lower-extremity edema was due to bilateral iliopsoas bursal distention secondary to degeneration of her hip prostheses. Chronic breakdown of the polyethylene component of the hip prostheses had led to a communication between the artificial joints and the iliopsoas bursae. With the aid of ultrasonographic guidance, she underwent drainage, followed by clinical and radiographic improvement. Although case reports have described leg swelling arising from extravascular compression by enlarged iliopsoas bursae, we think that this is the first case of clinically significant bilateral lower-extremity edema arising from that cause. More important than the novelty is the inappropriate use of diuretics to treat lower-extremity edema without first establishing a diagnosis. PMID:28100982
Westberry, David E; Carpenter, Ashley M
Biplanar radiography with 3-dimensional (3D) modeling (EOS) provides a comprehensive assessment of lower limb alignment in an upright weight-bearing position with less radiation than conventional radiography. A study was performed to assess the consistency and reliability of 2 lower extremity 3D biplanar radiograph models created at least 1 year apart in a pediatric population. All patients who had 2 lower extremity radiographic evaluations with EOS performed at visits a minimum of 1 year apart were reviewed. Digital radiographs, of lower extremities in both frontal and sagittal planes, were acquired simultaneously, using the EOS system. The 3D reconstruction of the images was achieved utilizing the SterEOS software. Pelvic position, femoral and tibial anatomy, and the torsional profile were evaluated and compared using t tests. In total, 53 patients with a mean age of 11.7 years (range, 6.1 to 18.9 y) met inclusion criteria. When comparing 3D models between visits, minimal differences were noted in proximal femoral anatomy and pelvic alignment (pelvic incidence, sacral slope, sagittal tilt, neck shaft angle). Expected differences in femoral and tibial length corresponded with normal longitudinal growth between visits. Sagittal plane knee position varied widely between examinations. Femoral and/or tibial rotational osteotomies were performed in 37% of extremities between examinations. After femoral derotational osteotomy, a significant difference in femoral anteversion was appreciated when comparing preoperative and postoperative 3D models. However, this difference was less than the expected difference based on the anatomic correction achieved intraoperatively. No differences were noted in tibial torsion measures after tibial derotational osteotomy. The 3D modeling based on biplanar radiographs provides consistent and reliable measures of pelvic and hip joint anatomy of the lower extremity. Patient positioning may influence the reproducibility of knee alignment
Patel, Ketan M; Seruya, Mitchel; Franklin, Brenton; Attinger, Christopher E; Ducic, Ivica
Lower extremity hardware salvage remains challenging in patients with complex comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with failed hardware salvage after microsurgical lower extremity reconstruction. A retrospective, institutional review board-approved review was performed of patients who underwent lower extremity hardware salvage via free tissue transfer from 2004 to 2010. Outcomes were binarized into successful versus failed hardware salvage, with failure defined as nonelective removal. Patient demographics, wound characteristics, microbiology, and pathology were compared. Thirty-four patients underwent lower extremity hardware salvage via free tissue transfer, with an average follow-up of 3.2 years (range, 0.3-7.0 years). Of these patients, 15 (44.1%) had successful hardware salvage and 19 (55.9%) required hardware removal. By demographics, a higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities was found in patients with failed hardware salvage. Wound characteristics revealed a significantly longer time to hardware coverage and longer duration of intravenous antibiotics in failed versus successful hardware salvage patients (38.9 vs 9.3 weeks, P=0.02; 6.5 vs 4.1 weeks, P=0.03, respectively). Initial wound cultures demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of positive growth in patients with failed versus successful hardware salvage (100.0% vs 57.1%, P=0.003). Initial pathology revealed a borderline-significantly higher frequency of chronic osteomyelitis in failed versus successful salvage patients (66.7% vs 33.3%, P=0.08). In this retrospective review of microsurgical lower extremity reconstruction, factors associated with failed hardware salvage included multiple comorbidities, longer time to hardware coverage, increased duration of intravenous antibiotics, positive initial wound cultures, and chronic osteomyelitis on initial pathology.
Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.
Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2–18.4; P < 0.05), hip external: internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166
Jensen, Mads R; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny; Bülow, Jens
Lymphoscintigraphy is currently the leading diagnostic modality of lower extremity lymphoedema but has been criticized for being unreliable. Washout rate constants have been investigated and proven to be of diagnostic value in several studies of breast-cancer-related lymphoedema; however, the applicability in lower extremity lymphoedema needs further evaluation. The aim of the study was to verify if washout of (99m) Tc-human serum albumin ((99m) Tc-HSA) is a reliable diagnostic tool in lower extremity lymphoedema. Twenty healthy volunteers and eight patients (11 legs) with lymphoscintigraphy verified lower extremity lymphoedema participated in the study. A depot consisting of 0.1 ml 10 MBq/ml (99m) Tc-HSA was injected subcutaneously into the dorsum of each foot. The depot washout rate was measured using a portable scintillation detector system and time-activity curves were generated. After 30 min of supine rest and 10 min of standardized ergometric exercise, measurements were recorded for 20 min. Following correction for physical decay of (99m) Tc, the depot washout rate constant was calculated using linear regression analysis. Finally depot half-life was calculated from the washout rate constant. Median half-life for healthy volunteers was 9.4 h (range 2.5-28.3 h). Median half-life for lymphoedema patients was 10.7 h (range 1.5-35.1 h). No statistical significant difference could be detected between healthy volunteers and lymphoedema patients (P = 0.78). The washout rate of a subcutaneous (99m) Tc-HSA depot is not a reliable diagnostic tool in examination of lower extremity lymphoedema. Additional examinations revealed in vivo instability of the utilized (99m) Tc-HSA as the likely reason. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Cortes, Nelson; Quammen, David; Lucci, Shawn; Greska, Eric; Onate, James
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a functional agility fatigue protocol on lower extremity biomechanics between two unanticipated tasks (stop-jump and sidestep). The subjects consisted of fifteen female collegiate soccer athletes (19 ± 0.7 years, 1.67 ± 0.1 m, 61.7 ± 8 kg) free of lower extremity injury. Participants performed five trials of stop-jump and sidestep tasks. A functional short-term agility protocol was performed, and immediately following participants repeated the unanticipated running tasks. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic values were obtained pre and post fatigue. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable with an alpha level set at 0.05. Knee position post-fatigue had increased knee internal rotation (11.4 ± 7.5° vs. 7.9 ± 6.5° p = 0.011) than pre-fatigue, and a decreased knee flexion angle (−36.6 ± 6.2° vs.−40.0 ± 6.3°, p = 0.003), as well as hip position post-fatigue had decreased hip flexion angle (35.5 ± 8.7° vs. 43.2 ± 9.5°, p = 0.002). A quick functional fatigue protocol altered lower extremity mechanics of Division I collegiate soccer athletes during landing tasks. Proper mechanics should be emphasized from the beginning of practice/game to aid in potentially minimizing the effects of fatigue in lower extremity mechanics. PMID:22424559
Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W
A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.
Schwameder, Hermann; Lindenhofer, Elke; Müller, Erich
Lower extremity joint loading during walking is strongly affected by the steepness of the slope and might cause pain and injuries in lower extremity joint structures. One feasible measure to reduce joint loading is the reduction of walking speed. Positive effects have been shown for level walking, but not for graded walking or hiking conditions. The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of walking speed (separated into the two components, step length and cadence) on the joint power of the hip, knee and ankle and to determine the knee joint forces in uphill and downhill walking. Ten participants walked up and down a ramp with step lengths of 0.46, 0.575 and 0.69 m and cadences of 80, 100 and 120 steps per minute. The ramp was equipped with a force platform and the locomotion was filmed with a 60 Hz video camera. Loading of the lower extremity joints was determined using inverse dynamics. A two-dimensional knee model was used to calculate forces in the knee structures during the stance phase. Walking speed affected lower extremity joint loading substantially and significantly. Change of step length caused much greater loading changes for all joints compared with change of cadence; the effects were more distinct in downhill than in uphill walking. The results indicate that lower extremity joint loading can be effectively controlled by varying step length and cadence during graded uphill and downhill walking. Hikers can avoid or reduce pain and injuries by reducing walking speed, particularly in downhill walking.
Sophromadze, Z; Chabashvili, N; Kakhabrishvili, Z
Modern sport, along with the high technical, tactic and psychological readiness, requires good physical preparation achieved by a big physical load during trainings and competitions. Aim of the investigations was to study lower extremity venous system functional condition during physical load in highly qualified football players and wrestlers. Highly qualified 25 football players and 30 wrestlers, of age 18-25 years, were studied. Olympic, World and Europe champions were included among wrestlers. Lower extremity venous system digital photopletismography (D-PPG) was conducted by apparatus: Rheo Dopplex II of Huntleight Diagnostics. The equipment digitally analyses photopletismoghraphic plots. Significant functional parameters: vein restoration time (VRT) and venous pump function (VP) in deep venous system were reported by the apparatus appropriate software. It included parameter interpretation diagram, defining degree of venous system condition as normal, equivocal or pathological. Target sportsmen were examined in siting position with physical loading pedis. Sportsmen lower extremity vein light transducing change registration associated with the degree of vessel filling was studied by digital photopletismography . The study results showed that vein restoration time (VRT) in football players is two times minor to compare to the one of wrestlers, while venous pump (VP) function is about 1.5 times higher in footballers than in wrestlers. Degree of lower extremity venous system condition according to parameter interpretation diagram program showed normal values only in few cases. Slight deviations were observed only in individuals with recent trauma. Further examination after the appropriate treatment revealed normal values in traumatic subjects. The search also showed that digital photopletismography appears to be effective, simple and financialy available diagnostic method, which should be more frequently applied in lower extremity vein function examinations among
Cortes, Nelson; Quammen, David; Lucci, Shawn; Greska, Eric; Onate, James
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a functional agility fatigue protocol on lower extremity biomechanics between two unanticipated tasks (stop-jump and sidestep). The subjects consisted of fifteen female collegiate soccer athletes (19±0.7 years, 1.67±0.1 m, 61.7±8 kg) free of lower extremity injury. Participants performed five trials of stop-jump and sidestep tasks. A functional short-term agility protocol was performed, and immediately following participants repeated the unanticipated running tasks. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic values were obtained pre and post fatigue. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable with an alpha level set at 0.05. Knee position post-fatigue had increased knee internal rotation (11.4±7.5° vs. 7.9±6.5° p=0.011) than pre-fatigue, and a decreased knee flexion angle (-36.6±6.2° vs. −40.0±6.3°, p = 0.003), as well as hip position post-fatigue had decreased hip flexion angle (35.5±8.7° vs. 43.2±9.5°, p = 0.002). A quick functional fatigue protocol altered lower extremity mechanics of Division I collegiate soccer athletes during landing tasks. Proper mechanics should be emphasized from the beginning of practice/game to aid in potentially minimizing the effects of fatigue in lower extremity mechanics.
Kayssi, Ahmed; de Mestral, Charles; Forbes, Thomas L.; Roche-Nagle, Graham
Background To our knowledge, there have been no previously published reports characterizing lower-extremity amputations in Canada. The objective of this study was to describe the indications and outcomes of lower-extremity amputations in the Canadian population. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients who underwent lower-extremity amputation in Canada between 2006 and 2009. Patients were identified from the Canadian Institute for Health Information’s Discharge Abstract Database, which includes all hospital admissions across Canada with the exception of the province of Quebec. Pediatric, trauma, and outpatients were excluded. Results During the study period, 5342 patients underwent lower-extremity amputations in 207 Canadian hospitals. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years, and 68% were men. Amputations were most frequently indicated after admission for diabetic complications (81%), cardiovascular disease (6%), or cancer (3%). In total, 65% of patients were discharged to another inpatient or long-term care facility, and 26% were discharged home with or without extra support. Most patients were diabetic (96%) and most (65%) required a below-knee amputation. Predictors of prolonged (> 7 d) hospital stay included amputation performed by a general surgeon; cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, or hyperlipidemia; and undergoing the amputation in the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, or British Columbia. Conclusion There is variability in the delivery of lower-extremity amputations and postoperative hospital discharges among surgical specialists and regions across Canada. Future work is needed to investigate the reasons for this variability and to develop initiatives to shorten postoperative hospital stays. PMID:27007090
Woo, Eung Je; Kim, Hyung Joong; Minhas, Atul S; Kim, Young Tae; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kwon, O
Cross-sectional conductivity images of lower extremities were reconstructed using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) techniques. Carbon-hydrogel electrodes were adopted for postmortem swine and in vivo human imaging experiments. Due to their large surface areas and good contacts on the skin, we could inject as much as 10 mA into the lower extremities of human subjects without producing a painful sensation. Using a 3T MREIT system, we first performed a series of postmortem swine experiments and produced high-resolution conductivity images of swine legs. Validating the experimental protocol for the lower extremities, we revised it for the following human experiments. After the review of the Institutional Review Board (IRB), we conducted our first MREIT experiments of human subjects using the same 3T MREIT system. Collecting magnetic flux density data inside lower extremities subject to multiple injection currents, we reconstructed cross-sectional conductivity images using the harmonic B(z) algorithm. The conductivity images very well distinguished different parts of muscles inside the lower extremities. The outermost fatty layer was clearly shown in each conductivity image. We could observe severe noise in the outer layer of the bones primarily due to the MR signal void phenomenon there. Reconstructed conductivity images indicated that the internal regions of the bones have relatively high conductivity values. Future study is desired in terms of the conductivity image reconstruction algorithm to improve the image quality. Further human imaging experiments are planned and being conducted to produce high-resolution conductivity images from different parts of the human body.
Zhang, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Soangra, Rahul
Fatigue in lower extremity musculature is associated with decline in postural stability, motor performance and alters normal walking patterns in human subjects. Automated recognition of lower extremity muscle fatigue condition may be advantageous in early detection of fall and injury risks. Supervised machine learning methods such as support vector machines (SVMs) have been previously used for classifying healthy and pathological gait patterns and also for separating old and young gait patterns. In this study we explore the classification potential of SVM in recognition of gait patterns utilizing an inertial measurement unit associated with lower extremity muscular fatigue. Both kinematic and kinetic gait patterns of 17 participants (29 ± 11 years) were recorded and analyzed in normal and fatigued state of walking. Lower extremities were fatigued by performance of a squatting exercise until the participants reached 60% of their baseline maximal voluntary exertion level. Feature selection methods were used to classify fatigue and no-fatigue conditions based on temporal and frequency information of the signals. Additionally, influences of three different kernel schemes (i.e., linear, polynomial, and radial basis function) were investigated for SVM classification. The results indicated that lower extremity muscle fatigue condition influenced gait and loading responses. In terms of the SVM classification results, an accuracy of 96% was reached in distinguishing the two gait patterns (fatigue and no-fatigue) within the same subject using the kinematic, time and frequency domain features. It is also found that linear kernel and RBF kernel were equally good to identify intra-individual fatigue characteristics. These results suggest that intra-subject fatigue classification using gait patterns from an inertial sensor holds considerable potential in identifying "at-risk" gait due to muscle fatigue.
Nilstad, Agnethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Holme, Ingar; Steffen, Kathrin
The incidence of lower extremity injuries in female soccer players is high, but the risk factors for injuries are unknown. To investigate risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Players in the Norwegian elite female soccer league (N = 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests before the 2009 competitive soccer season. The screening included tests assessing maximal lower extremity strength, dynamic balance, knee valgus angles in a drop-jump landing, knee joint laxity, generalized joint laxity, and foot pronation. Also included was a questionnaire to collect information on demographic data, elite-level experience, and injury history. Time-loss injuries and exposure in training and matches were recorded prospectively in the subsequent soccer season using weekly text messaging. Players reporting an injury were contacted to collect data regarding injury circumstances. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ±1 standard deviation of change. In total, 173 players underwent complete screening tests and registration of injuries and exposure throughout the season. A total of 171 injuries in 107 players (62%) were recorded; ligament and muscle injuries were the most frequent. Multivariate analyses showed that a greater body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.21-1.90; P = .001) was the only factor significantly associated with new lower extremity injuries. A greater BMI was associated with new thigh injuries (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.08-2.11; P = .01), a lower knee valgus angle in a drop-jump landing was associated with new ankle injuries (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-1.00; P = .04), and a previous knee injury was associated with new lower leg and foot injuries (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.27-9.99; P = .02), whereas none of the factors investigated influenced the risk of new knee injuries. A greater BMI was associated with
Meyer, Philippe; Guiraud, Thibaut; Curnier, Daniel; Juneau, Martin; Gayda, Mathieu; Nozza, Anna; Nigam, Anil
Cold temperature is known to commonly precipitate angina pectoris in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). It was previously shown that the ischemic threshold was lower during exercise testing at -8 degrees C than at +20 degrees C in patients with a history of cold-induced angina, whereas it was unchanged in patients without cold-induced angina. Few data exist on the impact of more severe cold exposure on myocardial ischemia. To determine the effect of extreme cold exposure (-20 degrees C) on the ischemic threshold among CAD patients. Thirteen men with CAD and documented exercise-induced ischemia performed two treadmill exercise tests, one at +20 degrees C and one at -20 degrees C, in random order. Electrocardiograms were recorded every 30 s and analyzed separately in random order by two experienced readers blinded to temperature. The mean (+/- SD) time to ischemic electrical threshold was 53+/-60 s lower at -20 degrees C than at +20 degrees C (P=0.008), corresponding to a relative change of -8.0+/-10.5%. All other exercise parameters, including total exercise time and rate-pressure product, were unchanged during exposure to extreme cold. Exposure to extreme cold (-20 degrees C) lowers the ischemic threshold during exercise testing in patients with CAD, even if asymptomatic or without a history of cold-induced angina. Patients with CAD and evidence of exertional angina or myocardial ischemia wishing to perform exercise at extremely low temperatures should discuss this matter with their physicians.
Rodgers, Susan; Birkholz, Lorri; Hebert, Randy
Lower extremity oedema is common in patients with advanced illness and can normally be managed with oral diuretics and elevation of the involved extremities. The management of oedema can be more complicated in home hospice patients, however. They tend to be more frail and are often less able to tolerate usual interventions. We present a case of a home hospice patient with severe oedema treated by creating subcutaneous tracts in his legs to allow drainage of excess interstitial fluid. The procedure was very successful in improving the patient's quality of life.
Dimachkie, M M; Justiz, W; Vriesendorp, F J
Benign monomelic amyotrophy is an uncommon cause of progressive mildly disabling atrophy and weakness of a limb. It predominantly affects the distal upper limb of young men. We present two women with benign monomelic of amyotrophy of the lower extremity. Although thedisorder seemed clinically confined to a leg, we confirmed by electromyography chronic denervgation of the contralaterral extremity of both patients and in the arm of one patient.We review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis. Benign monomelic amyotrophy is a diagnosis of exclusion that requires consideration in young women with unilateral leg atrophy.
Landin, Dennis; Thompson, Melissa; Reid, Meghan
The extremities of the human body contain several bi-articular muscles. The actions produced by muscles at the joints they cross are greatly influenced by joint moment arms and muscle length. These factors are dynamic and subject to change as joint angles are altered. Therefore, to more completely understand the actions of such muscles, the angles of both joints must be manipulated. This report reviews investigations, which have explored the actions of two bi-articular muscles of the lower extremities (gastrocnemius and rectus femoris) as the joints they cross are moved into various combinations of angles. The findings have both clinical and physical performance ramifications. PMID:27298656
McNamara, M G; Heckman, J D; Corley, F G
Recent reports using the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) suggest that a score of > or = 7 is 100% accurate in predicting the need for amputation of severely injured lower extremities. To further evaluate the value of the MESS in predicting amputation, specifically with respect to type IIIB and type IIIC (Gustilo and Anderson) open fractures of the tibia, we retrospectively evaluated 24 patients with these injuries. A significant difference (p = 0.001) between MESS values of 13 salvaged (6.36 +/- 0.35 SEM) and 11 amputated limbs (6.36 +/- 0.54 SEM) was found. A MESS value of > or = 4 was most sensitive (100%); a MESS value of > or = 7 was most specific, and a MESS value of > or = 7 was found to have a positive predictive value of 100%. Subsequently, we addressed recent criticisms of the MESS by including nerve injury in the scoring system and by separating soft-tissue and skeletal injury components of the MESS. We modified the MESS with a score called the NISSSA and applied it retrospectively to our cases. After careful statistical comparison we found both the MESS and NISSSA to be highly accurate (p < 0.005) in predicting amputation. The NISSSA was found to be more sensitive (81.8% versus 63.6%) and more specific (92.3 versus 69.2%).
Yi, C-Y; Zhou, D-X; Li, H-H; Wang, Y; Chen, K; Chen, J; Huang, B-C; Xu, X-L
This study adopted self-control study method to assess the efficacy of fresh blood imaging (FBI) and contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) for patients with diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (DLEAD) (Fontaine stage I to IV), and to evaluate the imaging of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in different stages of diabetes mellitus (DM). 1. This study recruited 44 diabetic patients with suspected lower extremity PAD to take both FBI and CE-MRA. 2. Two experienced cardiovascular radiologists assessed the image quality, the detection of lower extremity arterial branches, and tissue contamination (veins, arteries, and soft tissues) of FBI and CE-MRA, as well as the presence and severity of stenotic lesions. 3. Statistical differences of the quality of FBI and CE-MRA were determined using paired t-test. 4. Correlation analysis was adopted for determining the direction and strength of the relationship between the changes of the indexes of FBI and the different Fontaine stages. 1. The quality evaluation results of the image of lower extremity arteries from the 44 diabetic patients indicated no statistically significant difference between FBI and CE-MRA in the patients with Fontaine stage I-III (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the patients with Fontaine stage IV (p <0.05), and the quality of FBI was slightly worse. 2. Arterial branches that observed from FBI and CE-MRA were 885 and 904, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for the arterial branches between FBI and CE-MRA in the patients with Fontaine stage I-III (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the patients with Fontaine stage IV (p <0.05), and CE-MRA indicated more artery branches than FBI. 3. There was a statistically significant difference for the evaluation of venous contamination between FBI and CE-MRA (p <0.05), and there was less venous contamination using FBI. 4. The study results
Storberget, Marianne; Grødahl, Linn Helen J; Snodgrass, Suzanne; van Vliet, Paulette; Heneghan, Nicola
Verbal augmented feedback (VAF) is commonly used in physiotherapy rehabilitation of individuals with lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction or to induce motor learning for injury prevention. Its effectiveness for acquisition, retention and transfer of learning of new skills in this population is unknown. First, to investigate the effect of VAF for rehabilitation and prevention of lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction. Second, to determine its effect on motor learning and the stages of acquisition, retention and transfer in this population. Systematic review designed in accordance with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and reported in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed and five additional databases were searched to identify primary studies with a focus on VAF for prevention and rehabilitation of lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction. One reviewer screened the titles and abstracts. Two reviewers retrieved full text articles for final inclusion. The first reviewer extracted data, whereas the second reviewer audited. Two reviewers independently assessed risk of bias and quality of evidence using Cochrane Collaboration's tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation, respectively. Six studies were included, with a total sample of 304 participants. Participants included patients with lateral ankle sprain (n=76), postoperative ACL reconstruction (n=16) and healthy individuals in injury prevention (n=212). All six studies included acquisition, whereas retention was found in five studies. Only one study examined transfer of the achieved motor learning (n=36). VAF was found to be effective for improving lower extremity biomechanics and postural control with moderate evidence from five studies. VAF should be considered in the rehabilitation of lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunctions. However, it cannot be unequivocally confirmed that VAF is effective in
Nagarajan, Rajaram; Mogil, Rona; Neglia, Joesph P.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.
Introduction Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity bone tumors may experience physical and psychosocial late effects that impact physical performance, global function and quality of life. The identification of survivors at greatest risk for poor outcomes will inform potential intervention targets. Methods Study participants were selected from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a multi-institutional study of childhood cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n=629) of either childhood onset osteosarcoma or Ewing’s sarcoma, with a primary tumor location in the lower-extremity were identified and contacted via mail to complete an additional questionnaire. Participants completed the Reintegration into Normal Living Index (RNL) to evaluate global function (maximum score of 22), daily function (maximum score of 16) and self perception (maximum score of 6). Results Survivors reported high levels of global function with an adjusted mean overall RNL index score of 20.6 (SE 0.14), mean daily function score of 15.0 (SD 0.10) and mean self perception score of 5.6 (SE 0.05). While female gender and increasing age were associated with lower RNL scores, the magnitude of difference is of questionable clinical significance. Global function was only moderately correlated with physical performance (r=0.56) and QOL (r=0.59). Discussion Based upon the RNL index, the vast majority of long-term survivors of childhood lower extremity bone tumors adapt well to their environment. Implications for cancer survivors While some long-term survivor of lower-extremity bone tumors may report measurable limitations in physical performance and quality of life, the majority do not report moderate or severe difficulties with social integration. PMID:19030995
Krüger, Andreas; McAlpine, Paul; Borrani, Fabio; Edelmann-Nusser, Jürgen
In the biomechanical literature only a few studies are available focusing on the determination of joint loading within the lower extremities in snowboarding. These studies are limited to analysis in a restricted capture volume due to the use of optical video-based systems. To overcome this restriction the aim of the present study was to develop a method to determine net joint moments within the lower extremities in snowboarding for complete measurement runs. An experienced snowboarder performed several runs equipped with two custom-made force plates as well as a full-body inertial measurement system. A rigid, multi-segment model was developed to describe the motion and loads within the lower extremities. This model is based on an existing lower-body model and designed to be run by the OpenSim software package. Measured kinetic and kinematic data were imported into the OpenSim program and inverse dynamic calculations were performed. The results illustrate the potential of the developed method for the determination of joint loadings within the lower extremities for complete measurement runs in a real snowboarding environment. The calculated net joint moments of force are reasonable in comparison to the data presented in the literature. A good reliability of the method seems to be indicated by the low data variation between different turns. Due to the unknown accuracy of this method the application for inter-individual studies as well as studies of injury mechanisms may be limited. For intra-individual studies comparing different snowboarding techniques as well as different snowboard equipment the method seems to be beneficial. The validity of the method needs to be studied further.
Tashiro, Kensuke; Shibata, Takashi; Mito, Daisuke; Ishiura, Ryohei; Kato, Motoi; Yamashita, Shuji; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao
Indocyanine green lymphography has recently been used to assess lymphatic vessel function in lymphedema patients. Postoperative collateral lymphatic vessels toward ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes are rarely seen above the umbilical level in lower lymphedema patients. Between January 2012 and December 2014, we performed indocyanine green lymphography of 192 limbs in 96 lower extremity lymphedema cases. As a result, dermal back flow appeared in 95 cases, with 38 in the lower abdominal area and 31 in the genital area. We confirmed 3 cases of superficial lymphatic collateral ways extending above the umbilical level to the axillary lymph nodes. All 3 cases had similarity in lower abdominal edema, so excessive lymphatic fluid in the lower abdomen was assumed to be the cause. Lymphatic collateral ways from abdomen to axillary lymph nodes in this study was likely to be designed to prevent the progress of lymphedema.
Kumar, Anand R; Grewal, Navanjun S; Chung, Thomas L; Bradley, James P
War wounds associated with Operation Iraqi Freedom have created a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to report and analyze the timing and success rates of lower extremity reconstruction associated with devastating war wounds. A retrospective review was conducted of injured personnel requiring extremity flap reconstruction at the National Naval Medical Center over a 30-month period. Collected data included mechanism of injury, time from initial injury to closure, number of prereconstruction wound washouts, types of flap, flap failures, associated injuries, and wound culture characteristics. From September of 2004 to February of 2007, 46 (36 pedicled and 10 free flaps) lower extremity flap reconstructions (10 fasciocutaneous, 34 musculocutaneous, and two adipofascial) were performed on 43 patients. Patient age ranged from 19 to 37 years. Time to reconstruction ranged from 7 to 82 days (average, 21 days). Seventy-six percent of all injuries were associated with an improvised explosive device blast. Mean number of prereconstructive washouts was five (range, two to 13). Fifty percent of all wounds cultured at admission revealed positive results, of which 57 percent were associated with Acinetobacter species. Total flap loss occurred in one flap and partial flap loss occurred in two flaps. Despite reconstruction in the subacute period, the high rate of antimicrobial colonization before wound closure, and the devastating nature of improvised explosive device blast injuries, early analysis of the National Naval Medical Center war extremity reconstruction cohort demonstrates low total and partial flap loss rates and acceptable infection rates.
Ko, Sanghyung; Park, Noh Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung Jin; Baek, Jung Hyun; Lim, Jeong-Wook; Choi, Dongjin
Intestinal entrapment between two vertebral bodies is very rare. In all previous cases, it occurred by major trauma. However, the bowel entrapment between two vertebral bodies without trauma has never been reported, not to mention as the cause of lower extremity radicular pain. We describe the case of an 82-year-old female patient with right lower extremity radicular pain without recent trauma history. The patient was diagnosed sigmoid colon entrapment between the L5 and S1 vertebrae by lumbar spinal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and showed improvement in radicular pain after manual reduction of interpositioned colon during surgery. Intestinal entrapment between two vertebrae without trauma is caused by degenerative and vacuum changes of the intervertebral disc combined with the anterior longitudinal ligament injury. PMID:26619145
Sista, Akhilesh K.; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A.
The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26101920
Chmielewski, Terese L
Sports fans know that movement patterns are important for athletic performance. Similarly, clinicians know that addressing abnormal movement patterns after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is important for a successful return to sport. The kinematic (motion) component of movement patterns is more easily observed than the kinetic (forces) component, thus more commonly addressed in ACL reconstruction rehabilitation. Ignoring the kinetic component, though, could impede a successful return to sport. Asymmetrical lower extremity loading has been reported in a variety of activities following ACL reconstruction, and may contribute to both short- and long-term consequences. It is important that clinicians become aware of the potential for asymmetrical lower extremity loading to affect patient outcomes and for researchers to enlarge the body of knowledge.
Lower extremity amputation (LEA) is one of the most disabling complications of diabetes. Lower extremity problems tend to recur among persons because of underlying complications, including the loss of "protective" sensation. To define the burden of LEA among persons with diabetes in New Mexico, the New Mexico Diabetes Prevention and Control Program (DPCP) analyzed data from the Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database (HIDD) and the Santa Fe Indian Hospital (SFIH) from 2000 by linking hospital discharges to persons to create "episodes" of LEA. This report summarizes the findings of that analysis, which indicated that the age-adjusted rate of LEA by episode was approximately 3.5 times higher for American Indians (AIs) (11.4 per 1,000 persons with diabetes) than for non-Hispanic whites (3.3). To address this disparity, DPCP is collaborating with the Indian Health Service (IHS) to determine the needs for foot-care resources and education in AI communities.
Smith, Robert G; Joseph, Warren S
The discovery of antibiotic drugs was one of the most significant medical achievements of the 20th century. The improper use of antibiotic drugs to prevent and treat infections has resulted in the emergence of resistance. Antimicrobic stewardship programs are becoming a mainstay in the fight against multidrug-resistant organisms. Individual clinicians should be encouraged to adopt the principles of antibiotic stewardship when treating lower-extremity infections in their scope of practice. First, a review of the available literature outlining the concept and practice of antibiotic stewardship is offered. Second, a discussion describing how to adopt and apply these principles to the individual clinician's practice as it applies to lower-extremity infections is offered. Finally, specific antimicrobial pharmacologic spectra and antibiogram information are offered.
Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Young Hwan; Joh, Jin Hyun; Kang, Jin Mo; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyung-Kee; Chang, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Jang Yong; Bae, Jae Ik; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Chang Won; Park, Sung Il; Yim, Nam Yeol; Jeon, Yong Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Park, Ki Hyuk
Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis is a serious medical condition that can result in death or major disability due to pulmonary embolism or post-thrombotic syndrome. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are required to improve symptoms and salvage the affected limb. Early thrombus clearance rapidly resolves symptoms related to venous obstruction, restores valve function and reduces the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome. Recently, endovascular treatment has been established as a standard method for early thrombus removal. However, there are a variety of views regarding the indications and procedures among medical institutions and operators. Therefore, we intend to provide evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis by multidisciplinary consensus. These guidelines are the result of a close collaboration between interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons. The goals of these guidelines are to improve treatment, to serve as a guide to the clinician, and consequently to contribute to public health care. PMID:27699156
van Gent, R N; Siem, D; van Middelkoop, M; van Os, A G; Bierma‐Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W
The purpose of this study was to present a systematic overview of published reports on the incidence and associated potential risk factors of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners. An electronic database search was conducted using the PubMed–Medline database. Two observers independently assessed the quality of the studies and a best evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. The incidence of lower extremity running injuries ranged from 19.4% to 79.3%. The predominant site of these injuries was the knee. There was strong evidence that a long training distance per week in male runners and a history of previous injuries were risk factors for injuries, and that an increase in training distance per week was a protective factor for knee injuries. PMID:17473005
Amanatullah, Derek F; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J
Below knee amputation protects the ipsilateral knee from osteoarthritis and overloads the contralateral knee predisposing it to symptomatic osteoarthritis. We retrospectively reviewed 13 primary total knee arthroplasty (TKAs) in 12 patients with a prior lower extremity amputation. Twelve TKAs were performed on the contralateral side of the amputated limb while only one TKA was performed on the ipsilateral side. The average clinical follow-up was 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Knee Society Scores improved from 30.4 ± 11.8 to 88.5 ± 4.2 after TKA with a prior contralateral amputation. Three (23.1%) patients with TKA after contralateral amputation had aseptic loosening of the tibial component. Patients experience clinically significant improvement with TKA after lower extremity amputation. Augmentation of tibial fixation with a stem may be advisable during TKA after contralateral amputation.
Priebe, M; Davidoff, G; Lampman, R M
Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a high risk of coronary artery disease. The risk is even greater when the peripheral vascular disease leads to lower extremity amputation. Exercise testing using lower extremity exercise has been the "gold standard" for screening for coronary artery disease, but many patients with peripheral vascular disease and those with amputations have difficulty doing this type of exercise. Arm exercise ergometry has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative for the detection of coronary artery disease in patients who cannot do leg exercise. This test has also been used to determine safe exercise levels and may be able to predict the ultimate level of prosthetic use in amputees. Exercise training with arm ergometry also improves cardiovascular efficiency and upper body strength in poorly conditioned patients. Studies are needed to appreciate fully the role of exercise testing and training in the recovery of these patients after amputation.
Tan, Hao; Zhang, Lian-Yang; Guo, Qing-Shan; Yao, Yuan-Zhang; Sun, Shi-Jin; Wang, Tao; Li, Ying-Cai; Xiong, Kun-Lin
As a new surgical technique, "one-stop hybrid procedure" is rarely applied in trauma patients. This paper aims to explore its role in vascular injury of the lower extremity. Vascular intervention combined with open surgery was performed to treat three cases of vessel injuries of the lower extremity in our hybrid operating room. One patient with stab injury to the left femoral vein was treated by temporary artery blocking after excluding arterial injury by angiography, followed by blocking surgery and debridement and repair of the injured vein. The other two patients with drug addiction history, who were found to have pricking injuries to the femoral artery combined with local infection, were successfully treated by endovascular techniques and open debridement. One-stop hybrid procedure in treating vascular injury patients could simplify the operation procedure, reduce operative risk, and achieve good curative effect.
Caliskan Uckun, Asli; Celik, Canan; Ucan, Halil; Ordu Gokkaya, Nilufer Kutay
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of lower extremity orthoses on energy expenditure in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). We included 48 children with CP using lower extremity orthosis. Energy expenditures determined based on heart rate, yielded an energy expenditure index (EEI) with and without orthosis during walking. RESULTS were compared statistically between orthosis groups (solid polyethylene ankle foot orthosis (PAFO), articulated PAFO, ground reaction foot orthosis (GRAFO), plastic and metallic knee-ankle-foot-orthosis (KAFO), and metallic AFO). It was found that an advancement in energy expenditure was seen with plastic orthoses which is more prominent by solid PAFO (p = 0.008). It was concluded that especially solid PAFO can be more beneficial in terms of energy consumption in CP patients. In rehabilitation phase, the EEI measurement was seen to be a useful and practical method for choosing the proper orthosis type.
Nedelec, Bernadette; Serghiou, Michael A; Niszczak, Jonathan; McMahon, Margaret; Healey, Tanja
The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the available clinical evidence for early ambulation of burn survivors after lower extremity skin grafting procedures so that practice guidelines could be proposed. It provides evidence-based recommendations, specifically for the rehabilitation interventions required for early ambulation of burn survivors. These guidelines are designed to assist all healthcare providers who are responsible for initiating and supporting the ambulation and rehabilitation of burn survivors after lower extremity grafting. Summary recommendations were made after the literature, retrieved by systematic review, was critically appraised and the level of evidence determined according to Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. A formal consensus exercise was performed to address some of the identified gaps in the literature which were believed to be critical building blocks of clinical practice.
McLoughlin, R; O'Leary, G; Fitzgerald, L P; O'Donnell, J A
The site of distal anastomosis of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) lower extremity bypass grafts may significantly affect results. We examined patency in 144 cases; 45 femoro-popliteal above knee (AK), 55 femoro-popliteal below the knee (BK) and 44 femoro-distal (D) PTFE bypasses, the groups being comparable with regard to other risk factors studied. Cumulative graft patency at 3 years was 71.3% for AK, 36.7% for BK, 16.4% for D and overall 35%. The site of distal anastomosis is an important determinant, of PTFE lower extremity bypass patency. We have abandoned the use of PTFE for BK and D, but feel that AK PTFE is a suitable alternative to autogenous reversed saphenous vein.
Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E; Games, Kenneth E; Wasik, Mitch
Stress fractures account for between 1% and 20% of athletic injuries, with 80% of stress fractures in the lower extremity. Stress fractures of the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing activities such as running, military and aerobic exercise and therefore require practitioner expertise in diagnosis and management. Accurate diagnosis for stress fractures is dependent on the anatomical area. Anatomical regions such as the pelvis, sacrum, and metatarsals offer challenges due to difficulty differentiating pathologies with common symptoms. Special tests and treatment regimes, however, are similar among most stress fractures with resolution between 4 weeks to a year. The most difficult aspect of stress fracture treatment entails mitigating internal and external risk factors. Practitioners should address ongoing risk factors to minimize recurrence. PMID:25848327
Pierce, Sarah; Fergus, Andrea; Brady, Brooks; Wolff-Burke, Melissa
To assess the validity of the Functional Mobility Assessment (FMA) for children and adolescents with lower extremity amputations. Twenty-five subjects (mean age = 12.36 ± 1.42 years) with lower extremity amputations and 12 subjects (mean age = 10.25 ± 1.42 years) with typical development were examined using the FMA, which includes the Timed Up and Go, Timed Up and Down Stairs, 9-minute walk/run, heart rate, and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion. A subjective interview was also performed including questions related to pain, walking satisfaction, and participation in and challenges with various physical activities. Significant differences were identified between the control and amputation groups in FMA score and 3 individual items (P < .05). However, no differences were identified between groups for other items on the FMA. Discriminant validity of the FMA as a whole is supported. However, reevaluation of the items within the FMA is warranted.
Mason-Mackay, A R; Whatman, C; Reid, D
To examine the evidence for effect of ankle bracing on lower-extremity landing biomechanics. Literature review. Systematic search of the literature on EBSCO health databases. Articles critiqued by two reviewers. Ten studies were identified which investigated the effect of ankle bracing on landing biomechanics. Overall results suggest that landing biomechanics are altered with some brace types but studies disagree as to the particular variables affected. There is evidence that ankle bracing may alter lower-extremity landing biomechanics in a manner which predisposes athletes to injury. The focus of studies on specific biomechanical variables rather than biomechanical patterns, analysis of pooled data means in the presence of differing landing styles between participants, variation in landing-tasks investigated in different studies, and lack of studies investigating goal-directed sport-specific landing tasks creates difficulty in interpreting results. These areas require further research. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerkar, Ashwini P; Farber, Alik; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Siracuse, Jeffrey J
Lower-extremity compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening event necessitating emergent treatment using fasciotomy. Recurrent compartment syndrome is rare and has only been reported after trauma and in conjunction with underlying connective tissue disorders. In this report, we present a case of recurrent lower-extremity compartment syndrome caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury, in a patient previously treated with adequate 4-compartment fasciotomies. As such, this is the first reported case of recurrent compartment syndrome in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury that required treatment with 4-compartment fasciotomies on both occasions. This case demonstrates that fasciotomy is not protective against the development of recurrent compartment syndrome due to ischemia-reperfusion injury and that patients at high risk require monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galanakos, Spyridon P; Bot, Arjan G J; Macheras, George A
The Iliad, composed approximately in the middle of the eighth century bc, constitutes the leading and oldest known example of heroic epic. The Homeric epic presents the conflicts that took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War, offering a realistic description of battle wounds. We studied the text of The Iliad in ancient Greek and in the translations in modern Greek and English and searched for all recorded injuries to the pelvis and lower extremities. A total of 16 traumatic injuries of pelvis and lower extremities were described, including 7 fatal wounds, while in 9 cases, the outcome was unknown.The Iliad remains the oldest record of Greek medicine and a unique source of surgical history. To study the vividly reported events is a great experience, particularly for a surgeon.
L., B. DRINKWATER, M. JOHNSON, and A. LOUCKS. American college of sports medicine position stand. The female athlete triad . Med. Sci. Sports Exerc...However, the overall lower-extremity overuse injury rates were comparable with females in a study of high school runners that used a per athletic exposure...concurs with other female recruit (28) and athlete studies (2,5). The conflicting injury distributions among female recruit studies may be attributable to
Wampler, Meredith A; Galantino, Mary Lou; Huang, Sujuan; Gilchrist, Laura S; Marchese, Victoria G; Morris, G Stephen; Scalzitti, David A; Hudson, Melissa M; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Stovall, Marilyn; Leisenring, Wendy M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K
Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcoma are largely physically inactive, a behavior which potentially compounds their health burden. Altering this behavior requires understanding those factors that contribute to their physical inactivity. Therefore, this investigation sought to identify factors associated with inactivity in this subpopulation of cancer survivors. Demographic, personal, treatment, and physical activity information from adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas was obtained from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables that best identified those individuals who were physically inactive. Only 41% of survivors met Center for Disease Control (CDC) activity guidelines. Survivors were 1.20 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.11-1.30) more likely compared to CCSS sibling cohort and 1.12 (95% CI 1.10-1.15) times more likely than the general population to fail to meet CDC guidelines. Significant predictors of physical inactivity included female sex, hemipelvectomy surgery, and platinum and vinca alkaloid chemotherapy. The primary findings of this study are that survivors of childhood onset lower-extremity sarcoma are (1) highly likely to be physically inactive and (2) less likely than their siblings or the general population to regularly exercise. This study has identified treatment-related risk factors associated with inactivity that will help health and wellness practitioners develop successful exercise interventions to help these survivors achieve recommended levels of physical activity for health. These results suggest that physical activity interventions for adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas should be sex specific and responsive to unique physical late effects experienced by these survivors.
Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Okura, Tomohiro
Many falls in the elderly are caused by tripping. After tripping, a certain level of lower-extremity functional fitness is necessary, in order to make protective responses and to avoid falling. The purpose of this study was to test whether our new exercise program (a square-stepping exercise: SSE) would improve lower-extremity functional fitness in the elderly. Fifty-two individuals aged 60-80 years were divided into two groups (non-randomized control design); SSE (n=26) and controls (n=26). Lower-extremity functional fitness was defined as standing up from a lying position (agility), chair-stand in ten seconds (leg power), walking round two cones (locomotion speed), sit-and-reach (flexibility) and single-leg balance with eyes closed (balance). The SSE group participated in a six-month regimen of SSE once a week. SSE was performed on a thin mat of 250 cm by 100 cm, partitioned into 40 small squares (25 cm each side). SSE included not only forward steps but also backward, lateral and oblique steps, and step patterns were progressively made more complicated. Controls maintained their usual lifestyles. In the SSE group, significant improvements were observed in agility, leg power, locomotion speed, flexibility and balance. No significant changes were detected in any tests in the control group. The SSE program improved lower-extremity functional fitness, lack of which constitutes a risk factor for falls in the elderly. This program should be tested further to determine if it can effectively reduce the incidence of falls in the elderly.
Ebrahim, Mojgan; Savitcheva, Irina; Axelsson, Rimma
Lymphoscintigraphy is an imaging technique to diagnose and characterize the severity of edema in the upper and lower extremities. In lymphoscintigraphy, a scoring system can increase the ability to differentiate between diagnoses, but the use of any scoring system requires sufficient reliability. Our aim was to determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability of a proposed scoring system for visual interpretation of lymphoscintigrams of the lower extremities. Methods: The lymphoscintigrams of 81 persons were randomly selected from our database for retrospective evaluation. Two nuclear medicine physicians scored these scans according to the 8 criteria of a proposed scoring system for visual interpretation of lymphoscintigrams of the lower extremities. Each scan was scored twice 3 mo apart. The total score was the sum of the scores for all criteria, with a potential range of 0 (normal lymphatic drainage) to 58 (severe lymphatic impairment). The intra- and interobserver reliability of the scoring system was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, percentage of agreement, weighted κ, and intraclass correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval. In addition, for 7 categories, differences in total scores between and within observers were determined. Results: We found some insignificant differences between observers. Percentage agreement was high or very high, at 82.7%-99.4% between observers and 84.6%-99.4% within observers. For each criterion of the scoring system, the κ-correlations showed moderate to very good inter- or intraobserver reliability. The total scores for all criteria had good inter- and intraobserver reliability. Regarding the interobserver comparison, 66% and 64% of the difference in total scores were within ±1 scale point (-1, +1), and regarding the intraobserver comparison, 68% and 72% of the difference in total scores were within ±1 scale point. Conclusion: The proposed scoring system is a reliable tool for visual qualitative
Meyer, Andrew J; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J
Neuromusculoskeletal disorders affecting walking ability are often difficult to manage, in part due to limited understanding of how a patient's lower extremity muscle excitations contribute to the patient's lower extremity joint moments. To assist in the study of these disorders, researchers have developed electromyography (EMG) driven neuromusculoskeletal models utilizing scaled generic musculoskeletal geometry. While these models can predict individual muscle contributions to lower extremity joint moments during walking, the accuracy of the predictions can be hindered by errors in the scaled geometry. This study presents a novel EMG-driven modeling method that automatically adjusts surrogate representations of the patient's musculoskeletal geometry to improve prediction of lower extremity joint moments during walking. In addition to commonly adjusted neuromusculoskeletal model parameters, the proposed method adjusts model parameters defining muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms. We evaluated our EMG-driven modeling method using data collected from a high-functioning hemiparetic subject walking on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 m/s. EMG-driven model parameter values were calibrated to match inverse dynamic moments for five degrees of freedom in each leg while keeping musculoskeletal geometry close to that of an initial scaled musculoskeletal model. We found that our EMG-driven modeling method incorporating automated adjustment of musculoskeletal geometry predicted net joint moments during walking more accurately than did the same method without geometric adjustments. Geometric adjustments improved moment prediction errors by 25% on average and up to 52%, with the largest improvements occurring at the hip. Predicted adjustments to musculoskeletal geometry were comparable to errors reported in the literature between scaled generic geometric models and measurements made from imaging data. Our results demonstrate that with
Zviagin, V N; Sineva, I M
The authors studied the osteological collection of the Chair of Antropology of the Moscow State University. The results of measurement of length of long tubular bones and articular parts of scapula and pelvis were statistically treated. The complex of discriminant models calculated by the Fisher's method is recommended for the sex identification. The diagnostic accuracy is 74 - 83.5% (separated bones) and 85.7 - 95.2% (complex of bones of upper and lower extremities).
Moolyk, Amy N; Carey, Jason P; Chiu, Loren Z F
Jumping and weightlifting tasks involve impact phases, where work is performed by the lower extremity to absorb energies present at contact. This study compared the lower extremity kinematic and kinetic strategies to absorb energy during the impact phase of jumping and weightlifting activities. Ten women experienced in jumping and weightlifting performed 4 tasks (landing from a jump, drop landing, clean, and power clean) in a motion analysis laboratory. Work performed at the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated during the landing and receiving phases of jumping and weightlifting tasks, respectively. Additionally, segment and joint kinematics and net joint moments were determined. The most lower extremity work was performed in the clean and drop landing, followed by landing from a jump, and the least work was performed in the power clean (p < 0.05). For all tasks, work performed by the knee extensors was the greatest contributor to lower extremity work. Knee extensor net joint moment was greater in the power clean than jump and drop landings, and greater in the clean than all other tasks (p < 0.05). Knee flexion angle was not different between the power clean and jump landing (p > 0.05) but greater in the drop landing and clean (p < 0.05). A common characteristic of the impact phase of jumping and weightlifting tasks is a large contribution of knee extensor work. Further, the correspondence in kinematics between impact phases of jumping and weightlifting tasks suggests that similar muscular strategies are used to perform both types of activities. Weightlifting tasks, particularly the clean, may be important exercises to develop the muscular strength required for impact actions due to their large knee extensor net joint moments.
Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.
Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097
Leight, Hayley; Zinn, Zachary; Jalali, Omid
Here, we report a case of a middle-aged woman presenting with severe, long-standing, hyperkeratotic plaques of the lower extremities unrelieved by over-the-counter medications. Initial history and clinical findings were suggestive of an inherited ichthyosis. Ichthyoses are genetic disorders characterized by dry scaly skin and altered skin-barrier function. A diagnosis of ichthyosis vulgaris was confirmed by histopathology. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:26396540
Reed, Amy B; Delvecchio, Cindy; Giglia, Joseph S
Lower extremity revascularization is often described as excessively lesion-centric, with insufficient focus on the patient. We investigated patients' perspectives of multiple procedures for limb salvage that culminated in major lower extremity amputation. A prospective vascular surgery database was queried from January 2000 to December 2005 for patients who had undergone below-knee (BKA) or above-knee (AKA) amputation after failed lower extremity revascularization. Patients were surveyed via telephone by a vascular nurse regarding thoughts on undergoing multiple procedures for limb salvage, involvement in decision making, functional status (work, meal preparation, shopping, driving), use of prosthesis, and independence. The Social Security Death Index was utilized to verify patient survival. Amputations for infection were excluded. Seventy-eight patients underwent AKA or BKA after failed revascularization. Forty-six patients (59%) were alive at 5 years. Thirteen patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 33 available for survey. A total of 142 lower extremity revascularizations (median = 4/patient) were performed on these patients including 94 surgical bypasses (median = 3/patient) and 48 percutaneous interventions (median = 1/patient). Eighty-five percent (28 of 33 patients) of amputees surveyed would do everything to save the leg if faced with a similar scenario, regardless of the number of procedures. Fifty-four percent (18/33) of patients actively used a prosthesis, and 91% (30/33) resided at home. In retrospect, patients are willing to undergo multiple revascularizations--percutaneous or open--to attempt limb salvage even if the eventual result is major amputation. Independence and functional status appear to be obtainable in a majority of patients. Patient-oriented outcomes are necessary to guide revascularization, whether it is by a percutaneous or open technique.
Meyer, Andrew J.; Patten, Carolynn
Neuromusculoskeletal disorders affecting walking ability are often difficult to manage, in part due to limited understanding of how a patient’s lower extremity muscle excitations contribute to the patient’s lower extremity joint moments. To assist in the study of these disorders, researchers have developed electromyography (EMG) driven neuromusculoskeletal models utilizing scaled generic musculoskeletal geometry. While these models can predict individual muscle contributions to lower extremity joint moments during walking, the accuracy of the predictions can be hindered by errors in the scaled geometry. This study presents a novel EMG-driven modeling method that automatically adjusts surrogate representations of the patient’s musculoskeletal geometry to improve prediction of lower extremity joint moments during walking. In addition to commonly adjusted neuromusculoskeletal model parameters, the proposed method adjusts model parameters defining muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms. We evaluated our EMG-driven modeling method using data collected from a high-functioning hemiparetic subject walking on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 m/s. EMG-driven model parameter values were calibrated to match inverse dynamic moments for five degrees of freedom in each leg while keeping musculoskeletal geometry close to that of an initial scaled musculoskeletal model. We found that our EMG-driven modeling method incorporating automated adjustment of musculoskeletal geometry predicted net joint moments during walking more accurately than did the same method without geometric adjustments. Geometric adjustments improved moment prediction errors by 25% on average and up to 52%, with the largest improvements occurring at the hip. Predicted adjustments to musculoskeletal geometry were comparable to errors reported in the literature between scaled generic geometric models and measurements made from imaging data. Our results demonstrate that
Wang, Feng-dan; Wang, Hong-wei; Wu, Zhi-hong; Hou, Bo; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Feng; Jin, Zheng-yu; Yuan, Xie
To evaluate the clinical and musculoskeletal characteristics of localized scleroderma with lower extremities affected. All the localized scleroderma patients,who received magnetic resonance (MR ) examinations of affected lower extremities at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from April 2013 to June 2014,were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinical data and laboratory results of antinuclear antibody,anti-double stranded-DNA antibody, and anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibody were collected and analyzed. All the MR examinations were non-contrast imaging using Siemens Skyra 3.0T MR scanner. There were 16 localized scleroderma patients with lower extremities affected, 11 of whom were linear scleroderma, 4 generalized morphea, and 1 deep morphea. Female to male ratio was 1:2.2. The mean age was 22.5 years. The mean time span was 7.4 years. Four of the 14 patients (28.6%) who received antinuclear antibody test were positive. All the 10 patients who received anti-double stranded-DNA antibody test and the 7 patients who received anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibody test were negative. The most common musculoskeletal MR features were subcutaneous septal thickening (16/16) and fascial thickening (11/16). The thickened speta and fascia could either be hypointenstiy or hyperintensity on turbo inversion recovery magnitude/proton density weighted imaging. Other MR manifestations were intramuscular speta thickening (3/16), muscular abnormal signals (1/16), and bone marrow abnormal signals (2/16). Musculoskeletal manifestations of the lower extremities with localized scleroderma can be well revealed using MR imaging.
OʼKane, John W; Gray, Kristen E; Levy, Marni R; Neradilek, Moni; Tencer, Allan F; Polissar, Nayak L; Schiff, Melissa A
To describe acute lower extremity injuries and evaluate extrinsic risk factors in female youth soccer. Nested case-control study. Youth soccer clubs in Seattle, WA. Female soccer players (n = 351) ages 11 to 15 years randomly selected from 4 soccer clubs from which 83% of their players were enrolled with complete follow-up for 92% of players. Injured players were interviewed regarding injury, field surface, shoe type, and position. Uninjured controls, matched on game or practice session, were also interviewed. The association between risk factors and acute lower extremity injury using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). One hundred seventy-three acute lower extremity injuries occurred involving primarily the ankle (39.3%), knee (24.9%), and thigh (11.0%). Over half (52.9%) recovered within 1 week, whereas 30.2% lasted beyond 2 weeks. During practices, those injured were approximately 3-fold (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.49-5.31) more likely to play on grass than artificial turf and 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.03-5.96) more likely to wear cleats on grass than other shoe and surface combinations. During games, injured players were 89% (95% CI, 1.03-4.17) more likely to play defender compared with forward. Half of the acute lower extremity injuries affected the ankle or knee. Grass surface and wearing cleats on grass increased training injuries. The majority, 64%, of female youth soccer players' acute injuries involve the ankle and knee and injury prevention strategies in this age group should target these areas. When considering playing surfaces for training, communities and soccer organizations should consider the third-generation artificial turf a safe alternative to grass.
Henyk, S M; Oleksyn, V I; Henyk, I S
The results of treatment in 1080 patients with the lower extremities varicose disease (VD) were analyzed. For the subcutaneous veins recurrent varicose (SVV) there were operated 11.2% patients, including, once--76.1%, twice--17.4%, three times--6.5%. In all 146 the operations were performed. Sclerosing therapy of SVV was applied in 21 patients. Basic mistake during performance of the first operative intervention for the VD was insufficient evaluation of character of the blood outflow disorder.
Raff, Adam B; Weng, Qing Yu; Cohen, Jeffrey M; Gunasekera, Nicole; Okhovat, Jean-Phillip; Vedak, Priyanka; Joyce, Cara; Kroshinsky, Daniela; Mostaghimi, Arash
Cellulitis has many clinical mimickers (pseudocellulitis), which leads to frequent misdiagnosis. To create a model for predicting the likelihood of lower extremity cellulitis. A cross-sectional review was performed of all patients admitted with a diagnosis of lower extremity cellulitis through the emergency department at a large hospital between 2010 and 2012. Patients discharged with diagnosis of cellulitis were categorized as having cellulitis, while those given an alternative diagnosis were considered to have pseudocellulitis. Bivariate associations between predictor variables and final diagnosis were assessed to develop a 4-variable model. In total, 79 (30.5%) of 259 patients were misdiagnosed with lower extremity cellulitis. Of the variables associated with true cellulitis, the 4 in the final model were asymmetry (unilateral involvement), leukocytosis (white blood cell count ≥10,000/uL), tachycardia (heart rate ≥90 bpm), and age ≥70 years. We converted these variables into a points system to create the ALT-70 cellulitis score as follows: Asymmetry (3 points), Leukocytosis (1 point), Tachycardia (1 point), and age ≥70 (2 points). With this score, 0-2 points indicate ≥83.3% likelihood of pseudocellulitis, and ≥5 points indicate ≥82.2% likelihood of true cellulitis. Prospective validation of this model is needed before widespread clinical use. Asymmetry, leukocytosis, tachycardia, and age ≥70 are predictive of lower extremity cellulitis. This model might facilitate more accurate diagnosis and improve patient care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wagner, Amy; Luna, Sarah
Lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition among older adults; given the risks of surgical and pharmaceutical interventions, conservative, lower-cost management options such as footwear warrant further investigation. This systematic review investigated the effects of footwear, including shoe inserts, in reducing lower extremity joint pain and improving gait, mobility, and quality of life in older adults with OA. The CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, RECAL, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for publications from January 1990 to September 2014, using the terms "footwear," "shoes," "gait," "pain," and "older adult." Participants who were 50 years or older and those who had OA in at least one lower extremity joint narrowed the results. Outcomes of interest included measures of pain, comfort, function, gait, or quality of life. Exclusion criteria applied to participants with rheumatoid arthritis, amputation, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, use of modified footwear or custom orthotics, purely biomechanical studies, and outcomes of balance or falls only. Single-case studies, qualitative narrative descriptions, and expert opinions were also excluded. The initial search resulted in a total of 417 citations. Eleven articles met inclusion criteria. Two randomized controlled trials and 3 quasiexperimental studies reported lateral wedge insoles may have at least some pain-relieving effects and improved functional mobility in older adults at 4 weeks to 2 years' follow-up, particularly when used with subtalar and ankle strapping. Three randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes reported that lateral wedges provided no knee pain relief compared with flat insoles. Hardness of shoe soles did not significantly affect joint comfort in the foot in a quasiexperimental study. A quasiexperimental designed study investigating shock-absorbing insoles showed reduction in knee joint pain with 1 month of wear. Finally, a cross-sectional prognostic study indicated
Agresta, Cristine; Ward, Christian R; Wright, W Geoffrey; Tucker, Carole A
Many field sports involve equipment that restricts one or both arms from moving while running. Arm swing during running has been examined from a biomechanical and physiologic perspective but not from an injury perspective. Moreover, only bilateral arm swing suppression has been studied with respect to running. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of running with one arm restrained on lower extremity mechanics associated with running or sport-related injury. Fifteen healthy participants ran at a self-selected speed with typical arm swing, with one arm restrained and with both arms restrained. Lower extremity kinematics and spatiotemporal measures were analysed for all arm swing conditions. Running with one arm restrained resulted in increased frontal plane knee and hip angles, decreased foot strike angle, and decreased centre of mass vertical displacement compared to typical arm swing or bilateral arm swing restriction. Stride length was decreased and step frequency increased when running with one or both arms restrained. Unilateral arm swing restriction induces changes in lower extremity kinematics that are not similar to running with bilateral arm swing restriction or typical arm swing motion. Running with one arm restrained increases frontal plane mechanics associated with risk of knee injury.
Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Price, Patricia; Attinger, Christopher E.; Steen, Virginia D.
Nondigital lower extremity ulcers are a difficult to treat complication of scleroderma, and a significant cause of morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nondigital lower extremity ulcers in scleroderma and describe the associations with autoantibodies and genetic prothrombotic states. A cohort of 249 consecutive scleroderma patients seen in the Georgetown University Hosptial Division of Rheumatology was evaluated, 10 of whom had active ulcers, giving a prevalence of 4.0%. Patients with diffuse scleroderma had shorter disease duration at the time of ulcer development (mean 4.05 years ± 0.05) compared to those with limited disease (mean 22.83 years ± 5.612, P value .0078). Ulcers were bilateral in 70%. In the 10 patients with ulcers, antiphospholipid antibodies were positive in 50%, and genetic prothrombotic screen was positive in 70% which is higher than expected based on prevalence reports from the general scleroderma population. Of patients with biopsy specimens available (n = 5), fibrin occlusive vasculopathy was seen in 100%, and all of these patients had either positive antiphospholipid antibody screen, or positive genetic prothrombotic profile. We recommend screening scleroderma patients with lower extremity ulcers for the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies and genetic prothrombotic states. PMID:20827313
Tamura, Akihiro; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Shiozawa, Junya; Toda, Yuka; Yamada, Kaori
[Purpose] Fatigue alters lower extremity landing strategies and decreases the ability to attenuate impact during landing. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of fatigue on dynamic alignment and joint angular velocities in the lower extremities during a single leg landing. [Subjects and Methods] The 34 female college students were randomly assigned to either the fatigue or control group. The fatigue group performed single-leg drop vertical jumps before, and after, the fatigue protocol, which was performed using a bike ergometer. Lower extremity kinematic data were acquired using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The ratio of each variable (%), for the pre-fatigue to post-fatigue protocols, were calculated to compare differences between each group. [Results] Peak hip and knee flexion angular velocities increased significantly in the fatigue group compared with the control group. Furthermore, hip flexion angular velocity increased significantly between each group at 40 milliseconds after initial ground contact. [Conclusion] Fatigue reduced the ability to attenuate impact by increasing angular velocities in the direction of hip and knee flexion during landings. These findings indicate a requirement to evaluate movement quality over time by measuring hip and knee flexion angular velocities in landings during fatigue conditions. PMID:28356640
Kipp, Kristof; Harris, Chad; Sabick, Michelle B
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of load on lower extremity biomechanics during the pull phase of the clean. Kinematic and kinetic data of the 3 joints of the lower extremity were collected while participants performed multiple sets of cleans at 3 percentages: 65, 75, and 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). General linear models with repeated measures were used to assess the influence of load on angular velocities, net torques, powers, and rates of torque development at the ankle, knee, and hip joint. The results suggest that the biomechanical demands required from the lower extremities change with the lifted load and to an extent depend on the respective joint. Most notably, the hip and knee extended significantly faster than the ankle independent of load, whereas the hip and ankle generally produced significantly higher torques than the knee did. Torque, rate of torque development (RTD), and power were maximimal at 85% of 1RM for the ankle joint and at 75% of 1RM for the knee joint. Torque and RTD at the hip were maximal at loads >75% of 1RM. This study provides important novel information about the mechanical demands of a weightlifting exercise and should be heeded in the design of resistance training programs.
Criswell, Susan R; Crowner, Beth E; Racette, Brad A
Hypertonicity is a leading cause of disability for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Botulinum toxin A (BTA) chemically denervates muscle tissue and is commonly used in the management of lower-extremity hypertonicity in children with CP because of its focal effects and wide safety margin. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that BTA injections in the ankle flexors, hamstrings, and adductors reduce spasticity and result in improved passive and active range of motion. In other studies, improvements in gait and measurements of functional outcome were found in appropriately selected children who had been injected with BTA. A multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes physical therapists, occupational therapists, orthotists, neurologists, physicians with expertise in performing botulinum toxin injections, orthopedic surgeons, and neurosurgeons is critical to optimize care in children with lower-extremity tone due to CP. In this paper, the authors propose treatment algorithms based on clinical presentation, detailed dosing, and technical information to optimize the treatment of these children. With a multidisciplinary approach, children with lower-extremity hypertonicity due to CP can experience improvements in muscle tone and function.
Kwon, Ohjeoung; Yun, Mijung; Lee, Wanhee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intrinsic patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) in young adults and lower extremity biomechanics. [Subjects] This experiment was carried out with sixty (24 men and 32 women), who are normal university students as subjects. [Methods] All subjects underwent 3 clinical evaluations. For distinguishing the intrinsic PFPS from controls, we used the Modified Functional Index Questionnaire (MFIQ), Clarke's test and the Eccentric step test. Based on the results of the tests, subjects who were classified as positive for 2 more tests were allocated to the bilateral or unilateral intrinsic PFPS group (n=14), and the others were allocated to the control group (n=42). These two groups were tested for hamstring tightness, foot overpronation, and static Q-angle and dynamic Q-angle. These are the four lower extremity biomechanic, cited as risk factors of patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Results] The over pronation, static Q-angle and the dynamic Q-angle were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the hamstring tightness of the PFPS group was significantly greater than that of the controls. [Conclusion] We examined individuals for intrinsic patellofemoral pain syndrome in young adults and lower extremity biomechanics. We found a strong correlation between intrinsic PFPS and hamstring tightness.
Pasanen, Kati; Rossi, Marko T; Parkkari, Jari; Heinonen, Ari; Steffen, Kathrin; Myklebust, Grethe; Krosshaug, Tron; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannus, Pekka; Avela, Janne; Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Perttunen, Jarmo; Kujala, Urho M; Bahr, Roald
Introduction Several intrinsic risk factors for lower extremity injuries have been proposed, including lack of proper knee and body control during landings and cutting manoeuvres, low muscular strength, reduced balance and increased ligament laxity, but there are still many unanswered questions. The overall aim of this research project is to investigate anatomical, biomechanical, neuromuscular, genetic and demographic risk factors for traumatic non-contact lower extremity injuries in young team sport athletes. Furthermore, the research project aims to develop clinically oriented screening tools for predicting future injury risk. Methods Young female and male players (n=508) from nine basketball teams, nine floorball teams, three ice hockey teams, and one volleyball team accepted the invitation to participate in this four-and-half-year prospective follow-up study. The players entered the study either in 2011, 2012 or 2013, and gave blood samples, performed physical tests and completed the baseline questionnaires. Following the start of screening tests, the players will be followed for sports injuries through December 2015. The primary outcome is a traumatic non-contact lower extremity injury. The secondary outcomes are other sports-related injuries. Injury risk is examined on the basis of anatomical, biomechanical, neuromuscular, genetic and other baseline factors. Univariate and multivariate regression models will be used to investigate association between investigated parameters and injury risk. PMID:27900143
Mozumdar, Arupendra; Roy, Subrata K
Anthropometric somatotyping is one of the methods to describe the shape of the human body, which shows some associations with an individual's health and disease condition, especially with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Individuals with lower extremity amputation (LEA) are known to be more vulnerable to the cardiovascular risk. The objectives of the present study are to report the somatotype of the individuals having lower extremity amputation, to study the possible variation in somatotype between two groups of amputated individuals, and to study the association between cardiovascular disease risk factor and somatotype components among individuals with locomotor disability. 102 adult male individuals with unilateral lower-extremity amputation residing in Calcutta and adjoining areas were investigated. The anthropometric data for somatotyping and data on cardiovascular risk traits (such as body mass index, blood pressure measurements, blood lipids) have been collected. The somatotyping technique of Carter & Heath (1990) has been followed. The result shows high mean values of endomorphy and mesomorphy components and a low mean value of the ectomorphy component among the amputated individuals having cardiovascular risks. The results of both discriminant analysis and logistic regression analysis show a significant relationship between somatotype components and CVD risk among the individuals with LEA. The findings of the present study support the findings of similar studies conducted on the normal population. Diagnosis of CVD risk condition through somatotyping can be utilized in prevention/treatment management for the individuals with LEA.
Franz, Randall W; Prok, Aleksey
A young adult man with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome presented to our pain management service with complaints of severe lower extremity neuropathic pain (pain scale 8 of 10 on the left and 4 of 10 on the right). The pain in his left leg was so severe that he wanted to undergo a left lower extremity amputation. The patient declined chronic use of narcotic medications for pain relief, believing that this would interfere with his educational and lifestyle pursuits. After a complete evaluation for possible sources of pain, we performed a trial placement of a spinal cord stimulator at the T9 level, which relieved his pain. We then placed a stimulator at the T10 level. At 1 year postimplantation, he was pain free (pain scale 1 of 10 bilaterally) and was able to function normally without narcotic support. We believe this to be the first use of a spinal cord stimulator for lower extremity pain resulting from Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome. We also discuss the clinical evaluation and treatment of a Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome patient with chronic pain.
Seay, Joseph F; Fellin, Rebecca E; Sauer, Shane G; Frykman, Peter N; Bensel, Carolyn K
The dose-response relationship between biomechanical variables and the magnitude of external loads is unclear. The use of different load distributions (e.g., pack types) may confound results because of changes in torso center of mass. Therefore, we examined the relationship between load magnitude and sagittal plane lower extremity mechanics of Soldiers walking with two symmetrically distributed loads. Fourteen Soldiers marched on a force-sensing treadmill at 1.34 m/s for 10 minutes with no load (BW_00) and while wearing vest-borne loads of 15 kg (BW_15) and 55 kg (BW_55). The effects of the loads on sagittal plane joint angles and moments were compared using 1-way repeated measures analyses of variance. Compared with BW_00, knee extension moment increased with the 15- and the 55-kg loads (both p < 0.003), confirming previously reported load-related biomechanical responses. Knee moment increases during early stance appeared to be the primary means by which the lower extremity counteracted BW_15 during early stance; in contrast, hip extensors and ankle dorsiflexors appeared to be the primary muscular efforts responsible for propulsion during late stance. Findings elucidated the effects of load magnitude on lower extremity mechanics without postural changes that result from pack-related shifts in torso center of mass.
Ulrich, Slif D; Kyle, Brad; Johnson, Aaron J; Zywiel, Mike G; Mont, Michael A
Concerns about blood loss and the safety of allogenic blood transfusion have led to the development of many transfusion options for lower extremity joint arthroplasty. Techniques for dealing with such blood loss include allogenic blood transfusion, autologous donation and transfusion, hemodilution, perioperative blood salvage, intraoperative cell savers, bipolar sealers, and pharmacological agents. A blood management strategy must consider both the patient and the surgical procedure, assess the transfusion risks, and formulate a plan to address them appropriately. This article is an overview of the blood management techniques for lower extremity joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this review is to report our opinion regarding the use of alternative blood management strategies and to discuss the possible advantages and disadvantages of each technique. The results of this review indicate that a patient-focused algorithm using one or more strategies such as preoperative administration of erythropoietin, preoperative autologous blood donation, use of a bipolar sealer, intraoperative blood collection and reinfusion, as well as postoperative reinfusion drains may reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusions in patients undergoing primary and revision lower-extremity joint arthroplasties. The authors believe that a patient-specific algorithm utilizing the aforementioned techniques can lead to a substantial decrease in morbidity and mortality and an overall cost saving for both patients and medical institutions.
Kim, Jae Kwang; Chung, Moon Sang; Lee, Sang Ki
Congenital lateral ray deficiency is considered to be a manifestation of fibular hemimelia. However, we have noted patients with absent lateral ray but stable knee and ankle joints, and named this condition terminal hemimelia of the lower extremity. This study was undertaken to further define this group of patients and to compare these patients with fibular hemimelia patients. Four boys and one girl of mean age six years two months were in the terminal hemimelic group and four boys and three girls of mean age eight years seven months in the fibular hemimelic group at the final evaluation. Clinical features commonly observed in the fibular hemimelia such as knee valgus, knee instability, tibial bowing, ball and socket ankle, ankle instability, tarsal coalition, leg length inequality were compared between both groups. Terminal hemimelia of the lower extremity was the same as fibular hemimelia in clinical features below the ankle joint. However, terminal hemimela was found to be milder than fibular hemimelia in terms of limb shortening. The clinical features above the ankle joint were different between both groups. Knees and ankles were stable, and gait disturbance were rarely noticed in patients with terminal hemimelia of the lower extremity. PMID:17558505
Oliver, Noah G.; Steinberg, John S.; Powers, Kelly; Evans, Karen K.; Kim, Paul J.; Attinger, Christopher E.
Partial calcanectomy (PC) is an established limb salvage procedure for treatment of deep heel ulceration with concomitant calcaneal osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of calcaneus removed during PC and the resulting lower extremity function and limb salvage outcomes. Consecutive PC patients were retrospectively divided into two cohorts defined by the amount of calcaneus resected before wound closure: patients in cohort 1 retained = 50% of calcaneus, while patients in cohort 2 underwent resection of >50% of the calcaneus. The Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS) was used to assess postoperative lower extremity function. The average amount of calcaneus resected was 13% ± 9.2 (1–39%) and 74% ± 19.5 (51–100) in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.0001). Below knee amputation was performed in 7 (28%) and 5 (29%) of subjects in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P = 1.0). The average LEFS score was 33.9 ± 15.0 for subjects in cohort 1 and 36.2 ± 19.9 for the subjects cohort 2 (P = 0.8257) which correlates to “moderate to quite a bit of difficulty.” Our study suggests that regardless of the amount of calcaneus resected, PC provides a viable treatment option for high-risk patients with calcaneal osteomyelitis. PMID:25692151
Chung, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Ji Hye
Objective To develop an algorithmic quantitative skin and subcutaneous tissue volume measurement protocol for lower extremity lymphedema (LEL) patients using computed tomography (CT), to verify the usefulness of the measurement techniques in LEL patients, and to observe the structural characteristics of subcutaneous tissue according to the progression of LEL in gynecologic cancer. Methods A program for algorithmic quantitative analysis of lower extremity CT scans has been developed to measure the skin and subcutaneous volume, muscle compartment volume, and the extent of the peculiar trabecular area with a honeycombed pattern. The CT venographies of 50 lower extremities from 25 subjects were reviewed in two groups (acute and chronic lymphedema). Results A significant increase in the total volume, subcutaneous volume, and extent of peculiar trabecular area with a honeycombed pattern except quantitative muscle volume was identified in the more-affected limb. The correlation of CT-based total volume and subcutaneous volume measurements with volumetry measurement was strong (correlation coefficient: 0.747 and 0.749, respectively). The larger extent of peculiar trabecular area with a honeycombed pattern in the subcutaneous tissue was identified in the more-affected limb of chronic lymphedema group. Conclusion CT-based quantitative assessments could provide objective volume measurements and information about the structural characteristics of subcutaneous tissue in women with LEL following treatment for gynecologic cancer. PMID:28028991
Zhao, Zhongyuan; Wang, Weiguang; Wang, Shijun; Jiang, Limin; Zhang, Shudong; Zhao, Yuchi
Besides the long-leg standing X-ray film focusing on static standing mechanical alignment of the lower extremity, dynamic alignment from full extension to 90° flexion after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rarely mentioned. Computer-assisted surgical technology enables surgeons to measure and assess knee behaviour during surgery. This study was designed to analyse the influences of femoral rotation on dynamic alignment of the lower extremity in TKA. Seventy-six consecutive patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis were enrolled. External rotation osteotomy of the distal femur during TKA was completed according to the pre-operative external rotation angle (ERA), intra-operative transepicondylar axis (TEA) and anteroposterior (AP) line. Passive dynamic alignment of the lower extremity during knee flexion was recorded. The variation trend of hip-knee-ankle (HKA) alignment and the influences of femoral external rotation osteotomy were analysed. Postoperative deviation of HKA alignment from 0° to 90° flexion was associated with the rotational alignment of the femoral component (r = -0.769, p < 0.001). Variation trend of HKA alignment during knee flexion tended to be varus, valgus and neutral according to the selected angle of external rotation osteotomy of the distal femur. External rotation osteotomy of the distal femur played a crucial role in determining dynamic HKA alignment in TKA.
Powers, Christopher M
Although patellofemoral pain (PFP) is recognized as being one of the most common disorders of the lower extremity, treatment guidelines and underlying rationales remain vague and controversial. The premise behind most treatment approaches is that PFP is the result of abnormal patellar tracking and/or patellar malalignment. Given as such, interventions typically focus on the joint itself and have traditionally included strengthening the vastus medialis oblique, taping, bracing, soft tissue mobilization, and patellar mobilization. More recently, it has been recognized that the patellofemoral joint and, therefore, PFP may be influenced by the interaction of the segments and joints of the lower extremity. In particular, abnormal motion of the tibia and femur in the transverse and frontal planes may have an effect on patellofemoral joint mechanics. With this in mind, interventions aimed at controlling hip and pelvic motion (proximal stability) and ankle/foot motion (distal stability) may be warranted and should be considered when treating persons with patellofemoral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this paper is to provide a biomechanical overview of how altered lower-extremity mechanics may influence the patellofemoral joint. By addressing these factors, better long-term treatment success and prevention may be achieved.
Gir, Phanette; Cheng, Angela; Oni, Georgette; Mojallal, Ali; Saint-Cyr, Michel
Pedicled-perforator (propeller) flaps for lower extremity reconstruction have gained popularity due to minimal donor site morbidity, relatively simple surgical technique, and replacement of tissue using "like-by-like" principles. We reviewed and analyzed the clinical use of these flaps in regards to patient age and gender, etiology and location of the defect, size and type of flap, arc of rotation, and complications to determine the reliability of this technique. A systematic review of the PubMed database using search terms to include perforator, pedicled, and propeller flaps in the lower extremity. Data from 15 case series provided 186 cases of pedicled-perforator (propeller) flaps for analysis using Chi-square tests. The Peroneal Artery Perforator (PAP) flaps and Posterior Tibial Artery Perforator (PTAP) flaps were the most frequently used flaps. The overall complication rate was 25.8% and the failure rate was 1.1%. No significant differences were found in complication rate related to age, gender, etiology or location of the defect, type or size of the flap. The most common complications were partial flap loss and venous congestion (11.3 and 8.1%). Pedicled-perforator flaps appear to be a reliable and safe procedure for the coverage soft tissue defects of the lower extremity based on favorable results reported in the literature. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Tucker, Jennifer; Moore, Megan; Rooy, Julie; Wright, Amy; Rothschild, Carey; Werk, Lloyd N
To determine intrarater and interrater reliability of common measures of lower extremity alignment among children with obesity. The Craig test for femoral anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, Foot Posture Index-6, and sit-and-reach test were performed on 25 children without obesity and 25 children with obesity. Intrarater reliability of all measures in both groups was high. The Craig test demonstrated greatest variability with slight interrater reliability in children who were nonobese [intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] (95% confidence interval [CI]), 0.372 (-0.051 to 0.6420)] and moderate reliability in children who were obese [ICC (95% CI), 0.527 (0.242 to 0.717)]. Interrater reliability for the tibiofemoral angle and Foot Posture Index-6 was moderate to substantial and for the sit-and-reach test was substantial (ICC >0.99) and highly correlated. Measurement of lower extremity alignment among children with obesity was more reproducible than among children who were not obese. Measures of lower extremity alignment and general flexibility in children with obesity are both reproducible and reliable.
Kanchan, Tanuj; Sinha, Shreya; Krishan, Kewal
A probable correlation between stature and footstep length is expected, and consequently, the stature may be estimated from footstep length. The present research was conducted to study the correlation of footstep length with length of the lower extremities and stature. The study participants (n=142) were asked to walk on a paper sheet with inked feet and footstep length was measured. Mean stature and lower limb length were significantly larger in males. Sex differences were not observed in the average footstep length. Average footstep length and lower limb length did not show a significant correlation among the participants. A statistically significant correlation was observed between average footstep length and stature only among females. Our observations suggest that the length of the lower limb may not be a major factor in determining the footstep length of a person and that the forensic utility of stature estimation from footstep length may be limited. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Lollo, Loreto; Grabinsky, Andreas
Background: Acute lower extremity compartment syndrome (CS) is a condition that untreated causes irreversible nerve and muscle ischemia. Treatment by decompression fasciotomy without delay prevents permanent disability. The use of intracompartmental pressure (iCP) measurement in uncertain situations aids in diagnosis of severe leg pain. As an infrequent complication of lower extremity trauma, consequences of CS include chronic pain, nerve injury, and contractures. The purpose of this study was to observe the clinical and functional outcomes for patients with lower extremity CS after fasciotomy. Methods: Retrospective chart analysis for patients with a discharge diagnosis of CS was performed. Physical demographics, employment status, activity at time of injury, injury severity score, fracture types, pain scores, hours to fasciotomy, iCP, serum creatine kinase levels, wound treatment regimen, length of hospital stay, and discharge facility were collected. Lower extremity neurologic examination, pain scores, orthopedic complications, and employment status at 30 days and 12 months after discharge were noted. Results: One hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. One hundred and eight patients were assessed at 12 months. Eighty-one percent were male. Motorized vehicles caused 51% of injuries in males. Forty-one percent of injuries were tibia fractures. Acute kidney injury occurred in 2.4%. Mean peak serum creatine kinase levels were 58,600 units/ml. Gauze dressing was used in 78.9% of nonfracture patients and negative pressure wound vacuum therapy in 78.2% of fracture patients. About 21.6% of patients with CS had prior surgery. Nearly 12.9% of patients required leg amputation. Around 81.8% of amputees were male. Sixty-seven percent of amputees had associated vascular injuries. Foot numbness occurred in 20.5% of patients and drop foot palsy in 18.2%. Osteomyelitis developed in 10.2% of patients and fracture nonunion in 6.8%. About 14.7% of patients
Sandler, R; Robinovitch, S
At least 280 000 hip fractures occur annually in the U.S. at an estimated cost of $9 billion. While over 90 percent of these are caused by falls, only about 2 percent of all falls result in hip fracture. Evidence suggests that the most important determinants of hip fracture risk during a fall are the body's impact velocity and configuration. Accordingly, protective responses for reducing impact velocity and the likelihood for direct impact to the hip, strongly influence fracture risk. One method for reducing the body's impact velocity and kinetic energy during a fall is to absorb energy in the lower extremity muscles during descent, as occurs during sitting and squatting. In the present study, we employed a series of in verted pendulum models to determine: (a) the theoretical effect of this mechanism on impact severity during a backward fall, and (b) the effect on impact severity of age-related declines (or exercise-induced enhancements) in lower extremity strength. Compared to the case of a fall with zero energy absorption in the lower extremity joints, best-case falls (which involved 81 percent activation of ankle and hip muscles, but only 23 percent activation of knees muscles) involved 79 percent attenuation (from 352 J to 74 J) in the body's vertical kinetic energy at impact (KEv), and 48 percent attenuation (from 3.22 to 1.68 m/s) in the downward velocity of the pelvis at impact (v(v)). Among the mechanisms responsible for this were: (1) eccentric contraction of lower extremity muscles during descent, which resulted in up to 150 J of energy absorption; (2) impact with the trunk in an upright configuration, which reduced the change in potential energy associated with the fall by 100 J; and (3) knee extension during the final stage of descent, which "transferred" up to 90 J of impact energy into horizontal (as opposed to vertical) kinetic energy. Declines in joint strength reduced the effectiveness of mechanisms (1) and (3), and thereby increased impact
Montgomery, Melissa M; Tritsch, Amanda J; Cone, John R; Schmitz, Randy J; Henson, Robert A; Shultz, Sandra J
The extent to which lower extremity lean mass (LELM) relative to total body mass influences one's ability to maintain safe landing biomechanics during prolonged exercise when injury incidence increases is unknown. To examine the influence of LELM on (1) pre-exercise lower extremity biomechanics and (2) changes in biomechanics during an intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) and (3) determine whether these relationships differ by sex. We hypothesized that less LELM would predict higher-risk baseline biomechanics and greater changes toward higher-risk biomechanics during the IEP. Cohort study. Controlled laboratory. A total of 59 athletes (30 men: age = 20.3 ± 2.0 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, mass = 75.2 ± 7.2 kg; 29 women: age = 20.6 ± 2.3 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.08 m, mass = 61.8 ± 9.0 kg) participated. Before completing an individualized 90-minute IEP designed to mimic a soccer match, participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry testing for LELM. Three-dimensional lower extremity biomechanics were measured during drop-jump landings before the IEP and every 15 minutes thereafter. A previously reported principal components analysis reduced 40 biomechanical variables to 11 factors. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis then determined the extent to which sex and LELM predicted the baseline score and the change in each factor over time. Lower extremity lean mass did not influence baseline biomechanics or the changes over time. Sex influenced the biomechanical factor representing knee loading at baseline (P = .04) and the changes in the anterior cruciate ligament-loading factor over time (P = .03). The LELM had an additional influence only on women who possessed less LELM (P = .03 and .02, respectively). Lower extremity lean mass influenced knee loading during landing in women but not in men. The effect appeared to be stronger in women with less LELM. Continually decreasing knee loading over time may reflect a
Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Manske, Robert C.; Niemuth, Paul E.; Rauh, Mitchell J.
Purpose/Background: Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single‐leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time‐loss sports‐related low back or lower extremity injury. Methods: A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury. Results: Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time‐loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side‐to‐side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4‐fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3‐fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury. Conclusions: The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population. Clinical Relevance: The single‐leg hop for
Brumitt, Jason; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Manske, Robert C; Niemuth, Paul E; Rauh, Mitchell J
Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single-leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time-loss sports-related low back or lower extremity injury. A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury. Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time-loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side-to-side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4-fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3-fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury. The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population. The single-leg hop for distance and the lower extremity functional test, when administered to Division III
Vogel, Todd R; Smith, Jamie B; Kruse, Robin L
The effect of postoperative hyperglycemia in patients undergoing open and endovascular procedures on the lower extremities has not been fully characterized with regard to associated admission diagnoses, hospital complications, mortality, and 30-day readmission. This study evaluated the relationship of postoperative hyperglycemia on outcomes after lower extremity vascular procedures for peripheral artery disease. Patients with peripheral artery disease admitted for elective lower extremity procedures between September 2008 and March 2014 were selected from the Cerner Health Facts (Cerner Corporation, Kansas City, Mo) database using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes. Using χ(2) analysis, we evaluated the relationship of postoperative hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) with sociodemographic characteristics, acute and chronic diagnoses, infections, hospital length of stay (LOS), and 30-day readmission. An adjusted multivariable logistic model was used to examine the association of postoperative hyperglycemia with infection and LOS. Of 3586 patients in the study, 2812 (78%) had optimal postoperative glucose control, and 774 (22%) had suboptimal glucose control (hyperglycemia). On average, patients with postoperative hyperglycemia experienced longer hospital stays (6.9 vs 5.1 days; P < .0001), higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (3.4 vs 2.5, P < .0001), higher rates of infection (23% vs 14%, P < .0001), more acute complications (ie, fluid and electrolyte disorders, acute renal failure, postoperative respiratory complications), and chronic problems (ie, anemia, chronic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes) than patients with optimal glucose control. Overall 30-day readmission was 10.9% and was similar between the groups (10.9% for both; P = .93). Major amputations did not differ between groups (P = .21). After adjusting for other risk factors using multivariable logistic
Castillo, Renan C; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Webb, Lawrence X; Bosse, Michael J; Avery, Jennifer
To examine the utilization of physical therapy (PT), the level of perceived need for PT, and the proportion of patients with perceived need receiving no PT in a cohort of severe lower-extremity trauma patients treated at level I trauma centers. Longitudinal, observational study of severe lower-extremity trauma patients. Patients were interviewed by a research coordinator and examined by an orthopedic surgeon and a physical therapist during initial admission, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postdischarge. Eight level I trauma centers. Of 601 patients age 18 to 65 enrolled in the parent study over a 40-month period, 550 with unilateral study injuries and followed up at least once over the 2-year study period were included in this analysis. Not applicable. Patient reported number of PT visits at each follow-up time point, inpatient rehabilitation admissions, and their perceived need for PT. Perceived need for PT was also assessed by an orthopedic surgeon and a physical therapist. Overall, concordance between physician, physical therapist, and patient's assessment of need for PT was low, with kappa statistics ranging between .12 and .41. Amputation and reconstruction patients used comparable amounts of PT services. Regardless of the criteria used to evaluate need, the proportion of patients with perceived need for PT receiving no PT services increased over the course of the follow-up, from 23% to 46% at first follow-up to over 68% by 2 years. Factors associated with increased risk for having a perceived need but receiving no therapy included lack of private insurance, pain, lower levels of education, lower fitness levels at time of injury, being a smoker, and having severe muscle injury. The results suggest a significant proportion of patients in the severe lower-extremity trauma population have perceived need for PT, yet receive no PT services.
Xu, B; Yang, C Z; Wu, S B; Zhang, D; Wang, L N; Xiao, L; Chen, Y; Wang, C R; Tong, A; Zhou, X F; Li, X H; Guan, X H
Objective: To explore the risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot. Methods: The clinical data of 1 771 patients with diabetic foot at the Air Force General Hospital of PLA from November 2001 to April 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the non-amputation and amputation groups. Within the amputation group, subjects were further divided into the minor and major amputation subgroups. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between risk factors and lower extremity amputation. Results: Among 1 771 patients with diabetic foot, 323 of them (18.24%) were in the amputation group (major amputation: 41; minor amputation: 282) and 1 448 (81.76%) in the non-amputation group. Compared with non-amputation patients, those in the amputation group had a longer hospital stay and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR)levels. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reaction protein (CRP), ESR, ferritin, fibrinogen and WBC levels of the amputation group were higher, while hemoglobin albumin, transferrin, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C were lower than those of the non-amputation group (all P<0.05). The proportion of hypertension(52.48% vs 59.98%), peripheral vascular disease (PAD)(68.11% vs 25.04%), and coronary heart disease(21.33% vs 28.71%)were different between the amputation and non-amputation groups (all P<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that Wagner's grade, PAD and CRP were the independent risk factors associated with lower extremity amputation in hospitalized patients with diabetic foot. Conclusion: Wagner's grade, ischemia of lower limbs and infection are closely associated with amputation of diabetic foot patients.
In a combat environment the extremities continue to be the most common sites of injury with associated high rates of infectious complications due to initial contamination. The aim of this observational study was to determine therapeutic procedures effective in a combat environment and to assess functional outcomes of definitive Scare. METHODS. A total of 44 casualties with combat-related lower extremities fractures sustained during combat operations in former Yugoslavia in a 2-year period (1993-1994) were enrolled. Initial management of these injuries was performed at battlefield (echelon 1), surgical treatment was provided in the hospital in Trebinje (echelon II) and definitive care was provided in the Orthopedic Ward of General Hospital in Nikiid (echelon III). RESULTS. All combat casualties received surgical treatment within 6-48 hours. Antibiotics were administered during hospitalization in 37 (84%) of all the patients. In all the cases fractures healed, while 15 (38.59%) of them developed complications (most notably osteomyelitis in 3 of the cases, dysfunction in adjacent joints in 3 of the cases and infection of the soft tissue around pins in 3 of the cases). Follow-up period was a little bit over 2 years and reliable conclusions regarding the therapy and the outcomes could be made. Good functional outcomes were prevalent (63.63%), satisfactory were present in one fifth and inadequate in 13.63% of all the cases. There were no amputations or fatalities. Internal fixation was shown to be the method of definitive surgical care of combat-related lower extremity fractures. CONCLUSION. The management of combat-related lower extremity fractures is complex, multidisciplinary approach through echelons is necessary and internal fixation as the method of definitive surgical care is essential.
Background: Lower extremity asymmetries are challenging problems in plastic and aesthetic surgery practice. Regardless of their origin, atrophies and asymmetries can be extremely varied and difficult to solve with simple techniques. Objectives: The author reports his experience in the treatment of four patients suffering from severe lower extremity atrophy and asymmetry of different etiologies with autologous fat grafting. Methods: A total of four cases are presented. Patient selection was based on the severity of atrophy and asymmetry. Two patients were treated with two sessions of simple fat grafting and two patients with one session of cell-enriched fat grafting. The end point in each session was determined by tension/blanching of soft tissues. All patients were followed up for at least 12 months after the last session. During the postoperative follow-up, variables, such as objective volume improvement, objective girth loss, return to daily activities, and patient satisfaction, were analyzed. Results: The initial analysis of postoperative results showed a good patient satisfaction rate with no relevant complications and an early return to daily activities. Estimated mean volume improvement for simple fat grafting cases was estimated as 44% after two treatments. Mean volume improvement in cell-enriched fat grafting cases was estimated as 25% after only one treatment. Conclusions: Autologous fat grafting is a safe, effective, and reliable technique to perform aesthetic and reconstructive reshaping of a lower extremity in cases of atrophy or severe asymmetry. Depending on the preoperative soft tissue compliance, cell-assisted fat grafting will play an important role in reducing the number of sessions to perform. PMID:26824005
Williams, Zachary F; Bools, Lindsay M; Adams, Ashley; Clancy, Thomas V; Hope, William W
Leg-threatening injuries present patients and clinicians with the difficult decision to pursue primary amputation or attempt limb salvage. The effects of delayed amputation after failed limb salvage on outcomes, such as prosthetic use and hospital deposition, are unclear. We evaluated the timing of amputations and its effects on outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed all trauma patients undergoing lower extremity amputation from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2010 at a Level 2 trauma center. Patients undergoing early amputation (amputation within 48 hours of admission) were compared with patients undergoing late amputation (amputations >48 hours after admission). Patient demographics, injury specifics, operative characteristics, and outcomes were documented. During the 11-year study period, 43 patients had a lower extremity amputation and 21 had early amputations. The two groups were similar except for a slightly higher Mangled Extremity Severity Score in the early amputation group. Total hospital length of stay significantly differed between groups, with the late amputation group length of stay being nearly twice as long. The late amputation group had significantly more ipsilateral leg complications than the early group (77% vs 15%). There was a trend toward more prosthetic use in the early group (93%vs 57%, P = 0.07). Traumatic lower extremity injuries requiring amputation are rare at our institution (0.3% incidence). Regardless of the amputation timing, most patients were able to obtain a prosthetic. Although the late group had a longer length of hospital stay and more local limb complications, attempted limb salvage still appears to be a viable option for appropriately selected trauma patients.
Peng, Yi-Chien; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Wang, Lin-Hwa
This study investigated the differences in joint motions and muscle activities of the lower extremities involved in various squatting postures. The motion capture system with thirty-one reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the quadriceps, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles of the pivot and stride leg. The joint extension and flexion in wide squatting are greater than in general squatting (p = 0.005). Knee joint extension and flexion in general squatting are significantly greater than in wide squatting (p = 0.001). The adduction and abduction of the hip joint in stride passing are significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000). Furthermore, the adduction and abduction of the knee joint in stride passing are also significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000). When stride passing is performed, the muscle activation of the hamstring of the pivot foot in general squatting is significantly greater than in wide squatting (p < 0.05), and this difference continues to the stride period. Most catchers use a general or wide squatting width, exclusive of a narrow one. Therefore, the training design for strengthening the lower extremity muscles should consider the appropriateness of the common squat width to enhance squat-up performance. For lower limb muscle activation, wide squatting requires more active gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. Baseball players should extend the knee angle of the pivot foot before catching the ball. Key pointsCommon squatting width can enhance squat-up performance through strengthening lower body muscle.Wide squatting width might improve lower body muscle activation, leading to more effective communication between the brain and the muscle group. The benefit might be improved coordination of lower body muscle.Common and wide squatting width might be cycled through training to enhance the strengthen and
Peng, Yi-Chien; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Wang, Lin-Hwa
This study investigated the differences in joint motions and muscle activities of the lower extremities involved in various squatting postures. The motion capture system with thirty-one reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the quadriceps, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles of the pivot and stride leg. The joint extension and flexion in wide squatting are greater than in general squatting (p = 0.005). Knee joint extension and flexion in general squatting are significantly greater than in wide squatting (p = 0.001). The adduction and abduction of the hip joint in stride passing are significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000). Furthermore, the adduction and abduction of the knee joint in stride passing are also significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000). When stride passing is performed, the muscle activation of the hamstring of the pivot foot in general squatting is significantly greater than in wide squatting (p < 0.05), and this difference continues to the stride period. Most catchers use a general or wide squatting width, exclusive of a narrow one. Therefore, the training design for strengthening the lower extremity muscles should consider the appropriateness of the common squat width to enhance squat-up performance. For lower limb muscle activation, wide squatting requires more active gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. Baseball players should extend the knee angle of the pivot foot before catching the ball. Key points Common squatting width can enhance squat-up performance through strengthening lower body muscle. Wide squatting width might improve lower body muscle activation, leading to more effective communication between the brain and the muscle group. The benefit might be improved coordination of lower body muscle. Common and wide squatting width might be cycled through training to enhance the strengthen and
Jensen, Mads R; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny; Bülow, Jens
Lymphoedema of the lower extremities is a chronic debilitating disease that is often underdiagnosed. Early diagnosis and treatment is paramount in reducing the risk of progression and complications. Lymphoedema has traditionally been defined as interstitial oedema and protein accumulation because of a defect in the lymphatic drainage; however, some findings suggest that the interstitial protein concentration may be low in some types of lymphoedema. Primary lymphoedema is caused by an inherent defect in the lymphatic vessels or lymph nodes. Secondary lymphoedema is caused by damages to the lymphatic system most often caused by cancer or its treatment. Many of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Many methods have been developed for examination of the lymphatic system. Lymphoscintigraphy is presently the preferred diagnostic modality. Lack of consensus regarding protocol and qualitative interpretation criteria results in a too observer dependent outcome. Methods for objectifying the scintigraphy through quantification have been criticized. Depot clearance rates are an alternative method of quantification of lymphatic drainage capacity. This method however has mostly been applied on upper extremity lymphoedema. The aim of this review is to provide a literature-based overview of the aetiology and pathophysiology of lower extremity lymphoedema and to summarize the current knowledge about lymphoscintigraphy and depot clearance techniques. The abundance of factors influencing the outcome of the examination stresses the need for consensus regarding examination protocols and interpretation. Further studies are needed to improve diagnostic performance and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms.
Dabrowski, Janusz; Merkert, Ryszard; Kuśmierek, Jacek
The elementary diagnostic method for the detection of lymph circulation abnormalities in extremities is lymphoscintigraphy. This method provides information on the morphology and function of the lymphatic system. However, there are no generally acceptable standards for lymphoscintigraphy, which makes judgment of its clinical usefulness very difficult. In this work, a discussion is presented on the usefulness of static qualitative scintigraphy of the lymphatic system of lower extremities as well as of its quantitative interpretation, depending upon: (1) time measurement of radiopharmaceutical transport in the system, and (2) assessment of its regional uptake in lymph nodes. The effectiveness of visual assessment combined with each of the quantitative evaluations mentioned is also presented. Combination of visual evaluation of static scintigraphy with each of the listed quantitative procedures improves the sensitivity of lymphoscintigraphy in the diagnosis of lymphatic oedema of lower extremities without affecting the specificity of visual evaluation. Both combined methods are characterized by similar indices of diagnostic efficacy. This enables limitation of the quantitative evaluation of lymphatic scintigraphy to the measurement of the final uptake of RPh in the inguinal lymphatic nodes.
Ly, Thuan V.; Travison, Thomas G.; Castillo, Renan C.; Bosse, Michael J.; MacKenzie, Ellen J.
Background: Lower-extremity injury severity scoring systems were developed to assist surgeons in decision-making regarding whether to amputate or perform limb salvage after high-energy trauma to the lower extremity. These scoring systems have been shown to not be good predictors of limb amputation or salvage. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical utility of the five commonly used lower-extremity injury severity scoring systems as predictors of final functional outcome. Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of patients who participated in a multicenter prospective study of clinical and functional outcomes after high-energy lower-extremity trauma. Injury severity was assessed with use of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score; the Limb Salvage Index; the Predictive Salvage Index; the Nerve Injury, Ischemia, Soft-Tissue Injury, Skeletal Injury, Shock, and Age of Patient Score; and the Hannover Fracture Scale-98. Functional outcomes were measured with use of the physical and psychosocial domains of the Sickness Impact Profile at both six months and two years following hospital discharge. Four hundred and seven subjects for whom the reconstruction regimen was considered successful at six months were included in the analysis. We used partial correlation statistics and multiple linear regression models to quantify the association between injury severity scores and Sickness Impact Profile outcomes with the subjects' ages held constant. Results: The mean age of the patients was thirty-six years (interquartile range, twenty-six to forty-four years); 75.2% were male and 24.8% were female. The median Sickness Impact Profile scores were 15.2 and 6.0 points at six and twenty-four months, respectively. The analysis showed that none of the scoring systems were predictive of the Sickness Impact Profile outcomes at six or twenty-four months to any reasonable degree. Likewise, none were predictive of patient recovery between six and twenty-four months postoperatively as
Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth
The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.
Forsythe, Raquel M; Peitzman, Andrew B; DeCato, Thomas; Rosengart, Matthew R; Watson, Gregory A; Marshall, Gary T; Ziembicki, Jenny A; Billiar, Timothy R; Sperry, Jason L
Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after injury. Prophylactic anticoagulation is often delayed as a result of injuries or required procedures. Those patients at highest risk in this early vulnerable window postinjury are not well characterized. We sought to determine those patients at highest risk for an early pulmonary embolism (PE) after injury. A retrospective analysis using data derived from a large state wide trauma registry (1997-2007) was performed. Patients with a documented PE and time of occurrence were selected (n = 712). Patients with fat emboli and lower extremity vascular injuries were excluded. Patients with a PE within the first 72 hours of admission (EARLY, n = 122) were compared with those with DELAYED presentation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to characterize the timing of death between the two groups. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors for EARLY PE relative to those with DELAYED PE. EARLY and DELAYED groups were similar in age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale, emergency department systolic blood pressure, and injury mechanism. The EARLY PE group had a lower Injury Severity Score but injuries more commonly included femur fracture. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that EARLY PE patients have a significantly higher risk of early mortality relative to DELAYED PE patients (p = 0.012). Regression analysis revealed that the only independent risk factor for EARLY PE was lower extremity/pelvic orthopedic fixation (<48 hours from injury). The risk of EARLY PE was more than threefold higher (odds ratios, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.9-7.6; p < 0.001) for those who underwent early lower extremity orthopedic fixation versus those who did not. Early lower extremity/pelvis orthopedic fixation is the single independent predictor of EARLY PE in this patient cohort. Venous thromboembolism/PE prevention strategies should be made a priority in this group of patients, including early
Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer
Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint.
Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer
Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint. PMID:22973179
Sadowsky, Cristina L; Hammond, Edward R; Strohl, Adam B; Commean, Paul K; Eby, Sarah A; Damiano, Diane L; Wingert, Jason R; Bae, Kyongtae T; McDonald, John W
To examine the effect of long-term lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the physical integrity and functional recovery in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Retrospective cohort, mean follow-up 29.1 months, and cross-sectional evaluation. Washington University Spinal Cord Injury Neurorehabilitation Center, referral center. Twenty-five people with chronic SCI who received FES during cycling were matched by age, gender, injury level, and severity, and duration of injury to 20 people with SCI who received range of motion and stretching. Lower extremity FES during cycling as part of an activity-based restorative treatment regimen. Change in neurological function: motor, sensory, and combined motor-sensory scores (CMSS) assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment scale. Response was defined as ≥ 1 point improvement. FES was associated with an 80% CMSS responder rate compared to 40% in controls. An average 9.6 CMSS point loss among controls was offset by an average 20-point gain among FES subjects. Quadriceps muscle mass was on average 36% higher and intra/inter-muscular fat 44% lower, in the FES group. Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was 30 and 35% greater, respectively, in the FES group. Quality of life and daily function measures were significantly higher in FES group. FES during cycling in chronic SCI may provide substantial physical integrity benefits, including enhanced neurological and functional performance, increased muscle size and force-generation potential, reduced spasticity, and improved quality of life.
Tu, T.; Trinh, T. Q.; Carr, K. J.; Ercan, A.; Kavvas, M. L.; Brown, K.; Nosacka, J.
Sediment transported along with extreme floods may greatly affect flood conveyance and associated operations and management in the lower Cache Creek system. In this study, the relative sediment capture and transport in Lower Cache Creek, under current bathymetric conditions and one modification alternative (2A) is evaluated. Flow and sediment dynamics in the Lower Cache Creek system, which includes a floodplain and settling basin, are evaluated under four extreme flow events (10, 50,100 and 200-year floods). Of particular interest is the sediment trap efficiency of the Cache Creek Settling Basin (CCSB) under these different flood scenarios. The CCSB was designed as a retention basin to capture sediment and reduce sediment loading into the Yolo Bypass, therefore preserving flood conveyance of the bypass. Sediment dynamics for each flow event, under both the current condition and 2A, are simulated with the CCHE2D model, a two-dimensional depth-averaged flow and sediment transport model. The simulations allow relative comparison of the sediment trapping performance of the current condition and 2A. Preliminary simulation results are presented here.
Fritz, Jan; Efron, David T; Fishman, Elliot K
Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) of the lower extremities is an integral part of the decision-making process of lower extremity trauma. MDCTA can be integrated into multiphasic whole-body trauma MDCT and has replaced the traditional gold standard of catheter-based angiography as the preferred technique for the initial assessment of lower extremity trauma in many institutions worldwide. Advances in MDCT technology enable high speed simultaneous evaluation of both complete lower extremities, rapid image reconstruction, and advanced image visualization for the noninvasive and accurate diagnosis of vascular, including hematoma, active extravasation, vasospasm, stenosis, external compression, occlusion, intimal injury and dissection, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysm formation. In this exhibit, we outline the role of MDCTA in the management of lower extremity trauma, review current MDCT protocols and the practical use of advanced visualization techniques, and illustrate typical MDCTA findings, pearls, and pitfalls, which help to accurately characterize vascular injury and guide management.
Goto, Shiho; Aminaka, Naoko; Gribble, Phillip A
Altered lower extremity muscle activity has been suggested to be associated with lower extremity kinematics in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, few studies examined these relationships and the results are inconsistent. To compare the lower extremity muscle activity, kinematics, pain level, and reach distance during the anterior reach of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) between participants with PFP and healthy individuals (CON). Case-control. Research laboratory. Twenty-eight (PFP=14, CON=14) participants volunteered. Each participant performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of the gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), adductor longus (AL), and vastus medialis (VM) and five anterior reaches of the SEBT. Three-dimensional joint kinematics of the hip and knee at the time of touch-down of the SEBT and integrated-electromyography (iEMG) of each muscule was recorded during the descent phase of the SEBT. Coactivation ratios between the GMED and AL were calculated (GMED/AL). Pain level was assessed at the baseline and during performance of the SEBT, using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Participants with PFP demonstrated decreased GMED/AL co-activation ratio (p=0.01) and shorter reach distance (p=0.014) during anterior reach of the SEBT compared to the CON group. Participants with PFP demonstrated higher pain levels at baseline (p<0.027) and during test performance (p<0.001) compared to the CON group and increased pain level during the test performance compared to baseline (p<0.001). No other significant differences were observed. There were alterations in muscle activity during SEBT performance, suggesting that over-activity of AL relative to GMED is a unique neural recruitment pattern in those with PFP. However, hip and knee joint kinematics did not seem to contribute to deficits in the anterior reach distance, suggesting a need for continued assessment of these deficiencies.
Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Bagg, Elizabeth A
Ascending stairs is an important functional activity that is affected by lower extremity pathology including amputation. Although several studies have demonstrated stair ascent is more challenging than level ground walking, our understanding of the mechanics remains limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between lower extremity joint power generation and vertical COM acceleration (COM(A)) during stair ascent. Twenty-two healthy individuals underwent a biomechanical gait assessment while walking up a 16-step instrumented staircase. The association between the peak joint powers and peak COM(A) during stance were assessed with respect to timing and magnitude. With respect to timing, peak ankle joint power was highly correlated with peak COM(A) (R(2)=0.93), while peak knee and hip joint powers demonstrated limited association with COM(A) (R(2)=0.41 and 0.08, respectively). Only the magnitude of peak ankle power was associated with peak COM(A) (R(2)=0.3). Significant temporal and magnitude associations between peak ankle joint power and peak COM(A) suggest ankle power is a key contributor to COM(A). Although peak knee joint power and COM(A) are temporally associated, the association is weaker and the occurrence of peak joint knee power is nearly 10% after peak COM(A), suggesting knee joint power plays a lesser role in COM(A). These combined findings indicate the role of trail limb ankle plantarflexors should be recognized in the stair ascent cycle definition and demonstrate the potential importance of a power generated by the ankle plantarflexors to normalize stair ascent performance following lower extremity amputation. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Reid, Alexander T; Perdue, Aaron; Goulet, James A; Robbins, Christopher B; Pour, Aidin Eslam
The complications of emergent or urgent surgery in solid organ transplant recipients are unclear. The goal of this nonrandomized retrospective case study, conducted at a large public university teaching hospital, was to determine the following: (1) 90-day postsurgical complications in solid organ transplant recipients who undergo fracture surgery of the lower extremities; (2) 90-day and 1-year mortality rates for this cohort; (3) correlation of particular postsurgical complications with the 90-day or 1-year mortality rate; and (4) correlation of body mass index with the 90-day or 1-year mortality rate. Subjects included 36 solid organ transplant recipients who underwent surgical treatment for 37 emergent or urgent lower extremity fractures within 72 hours of presentation to the emergency department. Patients were followed for all medical and surgical complications for 90 days and for all-cause mortality for 1 year. Within 90 days of surgery, patients had complications that included acute renal failure (15, 40.5%), deep venous thrombosis (3, 8.1%), pulmonary embolus (2, 5.4%), pneumonia (7, 18.9%), superficial surgical site infection (3, 8.1%), and nonorthopedic sepsis (4, 10.8%). In addition, 3 (8.1%) and 5 (13.9%) patients died within 90 days and 1 year, respectively. Hospital readmission correlated with a higher 1-year mortality rate (odds ratio, 14.000; P=.016). Higher body mass index correlated with higher 90-day (odds ratio, 1.425; P=.035) and 1-year (odds ratio, 1.334; P=.033) mortality rates. Solid organ transplant recipients with lower extremity fracture have high 90-day and 1-year mortality rates and may have multiple complications within 90 days of treatment. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1063-e1069.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Background A high percentage of young children present with flatfeet. Although the percentage of those with flatfeet declines with age, about 15% of the population maintains a flat arch. A reduction in longitudinal arch height usually combines with excessive subtalar joint pronation and may be related to other musculoskeletal problems of the lower extremity kinetic chain. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the lower extremity kinematics between children with normal arches and those with flexible flatfeet, with the intent of providing practical information for decision making when treating children with flexible flatfeet. Methods Twenty children with flexible flatfeet (years age mean (SD), 9.7 (0.9) years) and 10 children with normal arches (yeas age mean (SD), 9.6 (1.2) years) were included. Kinematic data (maximum and minimum angles, and movement range, velocity, and excursion) of the hip, knee and rearfoot were collected during walking using Liberty Electromagnetic Tracking System. Kinematic variables were compared between the normal arches and flexible flatfeet groups using repeated measures mixed effects ANOVA. Results Movement patterns at the hip, knee and ankle joints were similar between children with flexible flatfeet and with normal arches. The results of ANOVA showed no significant main effect or interaction in any of the kinematic variables (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusions This study identified no kinematic adaptation during walking in children with flexible flatfoot. We suggested that future research should take the influence of the mid-foot and forefoot into consideration when examining lower extremity kinematics in children with flexible flatfoot. PMID:22381254
Shih, Yi-Fen; Chen, Chao-Yin; Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Hsiu-Chen
A high percentage of young children present with flatfeet. Although the percentage of those with flatfeet declines with age, about 15% of the population maintains a flat arch. A reduction in longitudinal arch height usually combines with excessive subtalar joint pronation and may be related to other musculoskeletal problems of the lower extremity kinetic chain. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the lower extremity kinematics between children with normal arches and those with flexible flatfeet, with the intent of providing practical information for decision making when treating children with flexible flatfeet. Twenty children with flexible flatfeet (years age mean (SD), 9.7 (0.9) years) and 10 children with normal arches (yeas age mean (SD), 9.6 (1.2) years) were included. Kinematic data (maximum and minimum angles, and movement range, velocity, and excursion) of the hip, knee and rearfoot were collected during walking using Liberty Electromagnetic Tracking System. Kinematic variables were compared between the normal arches and flexible flatfeet groups using repeated measures mixed effects ANOVA. Movement patterns at the hip, knee and ankle joints were similar between children with flexible flatfeet and with normal arches. The results of ANOVA showed no significant main effect or interaction in any of the kinematic variables (P ≥ 0.05). This study identified no kinematic adaptation during walking in children with flexible flatfoot. We suggested that future research should take the influence of the mid-foot and forefoot into consideration when examining lower extremity kinematics in children with flexible flatfoot.
Objective: Various treatment options exist for wound healing; however, clinical assessment of the patient and the wound environment must be considered before determining an optimal wound treatment plan. Negative pressure wound therapy alone and/or with an instilled topical solution can be effective in adjunctive management of acute and chronic wounds. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has also been shown to contribute to the wound-healing process. A pilot evaluation using a multistep approach of adjunctive negative pressure wound therapy with instillation and a dwell time, standard negative pressure wound therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy was explored to manage postsurgical, diabetic lower-extremity wounds with a significant bioburden. Methods: Three diabetic patients with lower-extremity ulcers were treated after surgical intervention. Multistep wound therapy consisted of (1) negative pressure wound therapy with instillation of normal saline with a 20-minute dwell time, followed by 2 hours of negative pressure at −150 mm Hg for 3 to 4 days; (2) 1 to 3 weeks of continuous negative pressure at −150 mm Hg; and (3) multiple treatments of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Results: After surgery, wound closure was achieved within 4 weeks postinitiation of multistep wound therapy. All patients regained limb function and recovered with no long-term sequelae. Conclusions: In these 3 cases, a multistep wound therapy approach after surgery resulted in successful outcomes; however, larger prospective studies are needed to demonstrate the potential efficacy of this approach in the postsurgical management of complex, diabetic lower-extremity wounds. PMID:28077984
Hawkins, Alexander T.; Pallangyo, Anthony J.; Herman, Ayesiga M.; Schaumeier, Maria J.; Smith, Ann D.; Hevelone, Nathanael D.; Crandell, David M.; Nguyen, Louis
Objective Major lower extremity amputation is a common procedure that results in a profound change in a patient's life. We sought to determine the association between social support and outcomes after amputation. We hypothesized that patients with greater social support will have better post amputation outcomes. Methods From November 2011 to May 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study. Social integration was measured by the social integration subset of the Short Form (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART). Systemic social support was assessed by comparing a US and Tanzanian population. Walking function was measured using the 6MWT and quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EQ-5D. Results 102 major lower extremity amputees were recruited. 63 patients were enrolled in the US with a mean age of 58.0. Forty-two (67%) were male. Patients with low social integration were more likely to be unable to ambulate (no walk 39% vs. slow walk 23% vs. fast walk 10%; P=.01) and those with high social integration were more likely to be fast walkers (no walk 10% vs. slow walk 59% vs. fast walk 74%; P=.01). This relationship persisted in a multivariable analysis. Increasing social integration scores were also positively associated with increasing quality of life scores in a multivariable analysis (β .002; SE .0008; P = .02). In comparing the US population with the Tanzanian cohort (39 subjects), there were no significant differences between functional or quality of life outcomes in the systemic social support analysis. Conclusions In the US population, increased social integration is associated with both improved function and quality of life outcomes among major lower extremity amputees. Systemic social support, as measured by comparing the US population with a Tanzanian population, was not associated with improved function or quality of life outcomes. In the US, steps should be taken to identify and aid amputees with poor
The objective of the study was to determine if the use of locally implanted, synthetic calcium sulfate tablets, impregnated with antibiotics, can heal lower-extremity osteomyelitis, without the use of oral and/or intravenous antibiotics or wound complications associated with similarly used mined or refined calcium sulfate. Over a 5-year period, 354 patients with clinically confirmed osteomyelitis of the lower extremity were evaluated, and 337 met the inclusion criteria; 14 were lost to follow-up. Devitalized or infected bone was debrided to the level of healthy cancellous and cortical bone. Compromised soft tissue was resected. At the onset of each operative encounter, the synthetic calcium sulfate tablets were mixed with a standard antibiotic mixture: 500 mg of powdered vancomycin mixed into 240 mg of gentamicin (normally supplied as a liquid in a concentration of 80 mg/2 mL). Vancomycin and gentamicin were chosen because they cover a broad spectrum of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A total of 279 of 323 patents (86.4%) clinically healed without the use of intravenous antibiotics following surgical debridement and tablet implantation. In addition, 24/323 (7.4%) required the use of intravenous antibiotics, but still healed; 20/323 (6.2%) required amputation, of which, 12 (3.7%) were digital amputations, 2 (0.6%) were ray amputations, and 6 (1.9%) were below-knee amputations. The use of locally implanted antibiotic-impregnated, synthetic calcium sulfate tablets in the surgical debridement site for bone infections of the lower extremity, without the concurrent use of intravenous antibiotics, has shown encouraging results.
Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott
A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.
Fu, Michael C; DeLuke, Levi; Buerba, Rafael A; Fan, Richard E; Zheng, Ying Jean; Leslie, Michael P; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Grauer, Jonathan N
After lower-extremity orthopedic trauma and surgery, patients are often advised to restrict weight bearing on the affected limb. Conventional training methods are not effective at enabling patients to comply with recommendations for partial weight bearing. The current study assessed a novel method of using real-time haptic (vibratory/vibrotactile) biofeedback to improve compliance with instructions for partial weight bearing. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: verbal instruction, bathroom scale training, and haptic biofeedback. Participants were instructed to restrict lower-extremity weight bearing in a walking boot with crutches to 25 lb, with an acceptable range of 15 to 35 lb. A custom weight bearing sensor and biofeedback system was attached to all participants, but only those in the haptic biofeedback group were given a vibrotactile signal if they exceeded the acceptable range. Weight bearing in all groups was measured with a separate validated commercial system. The verbal instruction group bore an average of 60.3±30.5 lb (mean±standard deviation). The bathroom scale group averaged 43.8±17.2 lb, whereas the haptic biofeedback group averaged 22.4±9.1 lb (P<.05). As a percentage of body weight, the verbal instruction group averaged 40.2±19.3%, the bathroom scale group averaged 32.5±16.9%, and the haptic biofeedback group averaged 14.5±6.3% (P<.05). In this initial evaluation of the use of haptic biofeedback to improve compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing, haptic biofeedback was superior to conventional physical therapy methods. Further studies in patients with clinical orthopedic trauma are warranted.
Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H
Lack of the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation by lower extremity joint muscles may be implicated in elevated impact stresses present during landing from greater heights. These increased stresses are experienced by supporting tissues like cartilage, ligaments and bones, thus aggravating injury risk. This study sought to investigate frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energetics of lower extremity joints during landing from different heights. Eighteen male recreational athletes were instructed to perform drop-landing tasks from 0.3- to 0.6-m heights. Force plates and motion-capture system were used to capture ground reaction force and kinematics data, respectively. Joint moment was calculated using inverse dynamics. Joint power was computed as a product of joint moment and angular velocity. Work was defined as joint power integrated over time. Hip and knee joints delivered significantly greater joint power and eccentric work (p<0.05) than the ankle joint at both landing heights. Substantial increase (p<0.05) in eccentric work was noted at the hip joint in response to increasing landing height. Knee and hip joints acted as key contributors to total energy dissipation in the frontal plane with increase in peak ground reaction force (GRF). The hip joint was the top contributor to energy absorption, which indicated a hip-dominant strategy in the frontal plane in response to peak GRF during landing. Future studies should investigate joint motions that can maximize energy dissipation or reduce the need for energy dissipation in the frontal plane at the various joints, and to evaluate their effects on the attenuation of lower extremity injury risk during landing.
MacLean, Christopher; Davis, Irene McClay; Hamill, Joseph
To investigate the influence of a custom foot orthotic intervention on the lower extremity dynamics in healthy runners. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected on 15 female runners (>15 miles per week) while each performed the over-ground running trials in either a shoe only or a shoe+custom foot orthotic condition. Kinematic and kinetic variables were analyzed using Paired Sample t-tests. Custom foot orthotics are frequently prescribed treatment modality for the management of overuse running injuries. Although it is generally accepted that a custom foot orthotic intervention produces positive clinical outcomes, it remains unclear what influence this therapeutic modality has on the dynamics of the lower extremity. Each subject performed five acceptable over-ground running trials (3.6 m s(-1) +/-5%) with and without the custom foot orthotic intervention in a running shoe. Selected maximum ankle and knee joint angles and moments were measured during the stance phase. While wearing the custom foot orthotic, subjects exhibited significantly decreased maximum values in rearfoot eversion angle, rearfoot eversion velocity and internal ankle inversion moment. In this sample of healthy female runners, the custom foot orthotic intervention led to significant decreases in maximum values for ankle dynamics in the frontal plane and in the sagittal plane of the knee joint. Relevance It remains unclear how a custom foot orthotic intervention influences lower extremity dynamics to produce positive clinical outcomes. Furthering our understanding of the dynamic influence will not only inform improved prescription and manufacturing practices but may provide insight into the mechanisms that cause overuse injuries.
Dingenen, Bart; Malfait, Bart; Nijs, Stefaan; Peers, Koen H E; Vereecken, Styn; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip F
Study Design Controlled laboratory study with a prospective cohort design. Background Postural stability deficits during single-leg stance have been reported in persons with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, ACL reconstruction, and chronic ankle instability. It remains unclear whether impaired postural stability is a consequence or cause of these injuries. Objectives To prospectively investigate whether postural stability deficits during single-leg stance predict noncontact lower extremity injuries. Methods Fifty injury-free female athletes performed a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance with eyes closed. Center-of-pressure displacement, the main outcome variable, was measured during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was reached during single-leg stance. Noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded at a 1-year follow-up. Results Six participants sustained a noncontact ACL injury or ankle sprain. Center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was significantly increased in the injured (P = .030) and noninjured legs (P = .009) of the injured group compared to the respective matched legs of the noninjured group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis revealed significant discriminative accuracy between groups for the center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point of the injured (AUC = 0.814, P = .015) and noninjured legs (AUC = 0.897, P = .004) of the injured group compared to the matched legs of the noninjured group. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that postural stability measurements during the single-leg stance phase of the double- to single-leg stance transition task may be a useful predictor of increased risk of noncontact lower extremity injury. Further research is indicated. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports PhysTher 2016
Lu, Qing; Delproposto, Zachary; Hu, Alice; Tran, Christine; Liu, Ningfei; Li, Yulai; Xu, Jianrong; Bui, Duy; Hu, Jiani
To characterize lymphatic vessel morphology in lower extremity lymphedema using MR lymphography at 3T. Forty females with lower extremity lymphedema secondary to gynecologic carcinoma treatment underwent MR lymphography (MRL) at 3T. Lymphatic vessel morphology in normal and affected limbs was compared. The median diameter of the lymphatic vessels in swollen calf and thigh were significantly larger than that in the contralateral calf and thigh, respectively (p<0.05). The median number of lymphatic vessels visualized in normal calf was less than that in the lymphedematous calf (p<0.01), while no significant difference was found between the normal thigh and swollen thigh. Lymphatic vessel number in the affected calf was significantly greater than that in affected thigh and the mean diameter of affected calf was also significantly wider than that of affected thigh (p<0.01). Mean diameter of lymphatic vessels in the affected calf was significantly different between stage I and stage III (p<0.05), but not significantly different between stages I and II, and between stages II and III (p>0.05). The median number of lymphatic vessels for affected calf showed significant difference between stage I and stage III, and between stage II and stage III (p<0.05), but no significant difference between stage I and stage II (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in mean diameter or median number of lymphatic vessels in the affected thigh found between different stages (p>0.05). There are significant differences in the number or diameter of lymphatic vessels between normal and affected limbs and there are significant differences for affected calf between early and late stages of lymphedema; therefore, MR lymphography can be helpful in diagnosis or clinical staging for lower extremity with gynecologic oncology-related lymphedema.
Cobb, Stephen C.; Bazett-Jones, David M.; Joshi, Mukta N.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; James, C. Roger
Context: Identification of impaired balance as a risk factor for lower extremity injury regardless of injury history has led to subsequent investigation of variables that may adversely affect balance in healthy individuals. Objectives: To investigate the relationship among core and lower extremity muscle function, foot posture, and balance. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Musculoskeletal injury biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 108 individuals (40 men, 68 women; age = 22.8 ± 4.7 years, height = 168.5 ± 10.4 cm, mass = 69.9 ± 13.3 kg) participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core endurance was assessed during 1 time-to-failure trial, and isometric hip and ankle strength were assessed using a handheld dynamometer and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. Foot structure was quantified using the digital photographic measurement method. Single-limb–stance time to boundary was assessed using a force plate during an eyes-closed condition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict balance using lower extremity strength, foot posture, and core endurance. Results: Foot posture (β = −0.22, P = .03) and ankle-inversion strength (β = −0.29, P = .006) predicted mediolateral balance. Increasing arch posture and ankle-inversion strength were associated with decreased mediolateral single-limb–stance balance. Conclusions: Increasing arch height was associated with decreased mediolateral control of single-limb stance. The relationship between time to boundary and injury risk, however, has not been explored. Therefore, the relationship between increasing arch height and injury due to postural instability cannot be determined from this study. If authors of future prospective studies identify a relationship between decreased time to boundary and increased injury risk, foot structure may be an important variable to assess during preparticipation physical examinations. The relationship
Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.
Rytter, Søren; Homilius, Morten
Penetrating injuries caused by cartridge casing are rarely described in the literature. This case report presents a 21-year-old male soldier with a lower extremity injury caused by a heavy machine gun cartridge casing. Physical examination revealed an entrance wound proximal and anterior of his right thigh and there were no exit wound identified. A radiograph of the femur showed the cartridge casing to have travelled caudally into the posterior aspect of the knee. There were no associated fractures or neurovascular injuries. The patient underwent surgical wound debridement and removal of the foreign body and was discharged fully recovered after three days.
Kapamajian, Michael A; Ahmad, Amjad; Burnett, Joseph W; Burnett, Henry W; Frenkel, Shahar
A 3-year 10-month-old child initially developed locally recurrent cutaneous eruptions within the first 2 weeks after sustaining a jellyfish sting to her lower extremities. After 5 asymptomatic weeks, she developed unilateral orbital inflammation that did not respond to systemic antibiotics, antihistamines, or steroids. Imaging revealed a rapidly growing mass of the right lacrimal gland. Urgent anterior orbitotomy was performed and the lacrimal gland was biopsied. Histopathologic diagnosis revealed sclerosing dacryodenitis consistent with orbital inflammatory syndrome and/or an immune response to an antigen challenge.
Kauvar, David S; Sarfati, Mark R; Kraiss, Larry W
Lower extremity injury is common in trauma patients; however, the influence of arterial injury on devastating patient and limb outcomes can be confounded by the presence and physiological derangement of concomitant head or thoracoabdominal injuries. We analyzed isolated lower extremity injuries with an arterial component. Our aim was to elucidate factors associated with mortality and limb loss in this selected population. We reviewed trauma incidents from the National Trauma Data Bank (2002-2006) containing isolated lower extremity injury codes and a specified infrainguinal arterial injury. Demographics, injury patterns, clinical characteristics, and adverse outcomes (death, amputation) during initial hospitalization were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for limb loss. There were 651 isolated infrainguinal arterial injuries. Death (18) and early limb loss (42) were studied by mechanism (penetrating, n = 431; blunt, n = 220). Half of the deaths involved injury to the common femoral artery (CFA), and over 80% had injury to the CFA or superficial femoral artery (SFA). Death was three times as frequent in the CFA/SFA than in the popliteal/tibial injuries (P = .02). Penetrating injuries were present in almost 80% of deaths, and most of these were gunshot wounds. Patients who died had mean initial systolic blood pressure of 59.7 mm Hg, and almost 40% had no blood pressure on arrival. Mean initial Glasgow Coma Score was 4.5, and almost 80% arrived with a Glasgow Coma Score of 3 despite the absence of head injury. Twenty-seven above- and 15 below-the-knee amputations were performed. The popliteal artery was injured in half of the amputations, with injury isolated to the popliteal or tibial arteries in about three-quarters. Amputation was twice as frequent in popliteal/tibial than CFA/SFA injury (P = .03) and twice as frequent in blunt than penetrating injury (P = .05). Multiple arterial injuries (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence
Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tian, Jing; Xue, Qian-Li; Walston, Jeremy; Cappola, Anne R.; Fried, Linda P.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Blaum, Caroline S.
Objectives To determine the degree to which hyperglycemia predicts the development of frailty and/or lower extremity mobility limitations. Design Secondary data analysis of longitudinal data collected in a prospective cohort study. Setting Baltimore, Maryland Participants We examined 329 women from the Women’s Health and Aging Studies II aged 70–79 years at baseline who had all variables needed for analysis. Methods Hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] at baseline was the independent variable and categorized as: <5.5%, 5.5 to 5.9%, 6.0–6.4%, 6.5–7.9%, ≥8%. The incidence of frailty and lower extremity mobility limitations (based on self-reported walking difficulty, walking speed, and short performance physical battery [SPPB] score) was determined (follow-up≈9 years). Frailty was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Covariates included demographics, body mass index, interleukin-6, and clinical history of comorbidities. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression models adjusting for key covariates. Results In time-to-event analyses, HbA1c category was associated with incidence of walking difficulty (p=0.049) and low physical performance (p=0.001); association with incidence of frailty and low walking speed had a trend towards significance (both p=0.10). In demographics-adjusted regression models, HbA1c≥8% (versus<5.5%) was associated with an approximately three-times increased risk of incident frailty and three-to-five times increased risk of lower extremity mobility limitations (all p<0.05). In fully adjusted models, HbA1c≥8% (versus<5.5%) was associated with incident frailty (hazard ratio[HR]=3.33, 95% confidence interval=1.24–8.93), walking difficulty (HR=3.47,1.26–9.55), low walking speed (HR=2.82,1.19–6.71), and low physical performance (HR=3.60,1.52–8.53). Conclusions Hyperglycemia is associated with the development of frailty and lower extremity mobility limitations in older women; future studies
Dhawale, Arjun A; Church, Chris; Henley, John; Holmes, Laurens; Thacker, Mihir M; Mackenzie, William G; Miller, Freeman
The gait in children with Morquio syndrome (MPS IV) has not been previously described. We reviewed the charts, gait analysis reports, and radiographs of nine children with no previous lower extremity surgery. Children with MPS IV had a slower walking speed, reduced cadence, and reduced stride length as compared with normal (P<0.05). There was increased knee flexion, genu valgus, and external tibial torsion during stance (P<0.05). Kinetics showed that knee varus moment was increased (P<0.05). There was a strong correlation between genu valgus measured on gait analysis and standing radiographs (r=0.89).
Dwyer, Maureen K.; Boudreau, Samantha N.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Uhl, Timothy L.; Lattermann, Christian
Abstract Context: Closed kinetic chain exercises are an integral part of rehabilitation programs after lower extremity injury. Sex differences in lower extremity kinematics have been reported during landing and cutting; however, less is known about sex differences in movement patterns and activation of the hip musculature during common lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Objective: To determine whether lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation levels differ between sexes during closed kinetic chain rehabilitation exercises. Design: Cross-sectional with 1 between-subjects factor (sex) and 1 within-subjects factor (exercise). Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 21 women (age = 23 ± 5.8 years, height = 167.6 ± 5.1 cm, mass = 63.7 ± 5.9 kg) and 21 men (age = 23 ± 4.0 years, height = 181.4 ± 7.4 cm, mass = 85.6 ± 16.5 kg). Intervention(s): In 1 testing session, participants performed 3 trials each of single-leg squat, lunge, and step-up-and-over exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded the peak joint angles (degrees) of knee flexion and valgus and hip flexion, extension, adduction, and external rotation for each exercise. We also recorded the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, adductor longus, and bilateral gluteus medius muscles for the concentric and eccentric phases of each exercise. Results: Peak knee flexion angles were smaller and peak hip extension angles were larger for women than for men across all tasks. Peak hip flexion angles during the single-leg squat were smaller for women than for men. Mean root-mean-square amplitudes for the gluteus maximus and rectus femoris muscles in both the concentric and eccentric phases of the 3 exercises were greater for women than for men. Conclusions: Sex differences were observed in sagittal-plane movement patterns during the rehabilitation exercises. Because of the sex differences
Amyoplasia congenita is a diagnostic subgroup of children with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). AMC is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by multiple joint contractures at birth. Amyoplasia congenita is the most common type of this syndrome with an occurrence rate of 1 in 10,000 live births, and mainly refers to the disorders with limb involvement. In this report, the author presents a premature baby with amyoplasia congenita, whose hips showed flexion, abduction, and external rotation contractures. The knees showed fixed extension contractures, so that his lower extremities were cylindrical with absent skin creases at birth. PMID:16127784
Adam, D J; Roy-Choudhury, S; Bradbury, A W
We report a 90-year old man who presented with severe lower extremity ischaemia due to spontaneous dissection of a non-aneurysmal infrarenal abdominal aorta. The aortic lesion was treated using an aorto-uni-iliac stent-graft with contralateral common iliac artery occlusion and femoro-femoral cross-over bypass. The patient underwent digital amputation and debridement of the foot four weeks post-operatively. At 12 months follow-up, he remains symptom-free with an excluded dissection, patent reconstruction and healed foot.
Stanley, Sharon S; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Siskind, Eric; Kasabian, Armen K; Huang, Su-I D
The Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed, internal degloving injury that results when a strong, shearing force is applied parallel to the plane of injury, as is common in vehicular trauma. It is an underdiagnosed entity that is often missed during the initial trauma workup as symptoms can be subtle. There are few reports of lesions occurring below the knee. Most cases affect the proximal thigh and trochanter, as these tend to be dependent areas in high velocity trauma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature report of bilateral lower extremity Morel-Lavallee lesions.
Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati
Pterocarpus santalinus is described in the Ayurveda for its wide spectrum of medicinal properties including wound healing. Previously the authors reported animal studies that demonstrated that an ointment made from the bark of this tree was effective without any toxic effects. They used the same ointment in 6 cases of lower extremity wounds. Healing was observed in all wounds. The study was not controlled, the findings are presented here as case studies. Further studies are planned to develop a wound healing ointment from a locally available and inexpensive plant.
Çelik, Derya; Çoban, Özge; Kılıçoğlu, Önder
Purpose: MCID scores for outcome measures are frequently used evidence-based guides to gage meaningful changes. To conduct a systematic review of the quality and content of the the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) relating to 16 patient-rated outcome measures (PROM) used in lower extremity. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review on articles reporting MCID in lower extremity outcome measures and orthopedics from January 1, 1980, to May 10, 2016. We evaluated MCID of the 16 patient reported outcome measures (PROM) which were Harris Hip Score (HHS), Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Hip Outcome Score (HOS), Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC), The Lysholm Scale, The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET), The Anterior Cruciate Ligament Quality of Life Questionnaire (ACL-QOL), The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), The Western Ontario and Mcmaster Universities Index (WOMAC), Knee İnjury And Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patellar Tendinosis (Jumper’s Knee) (VİSA-P), Tegner Activity Rating Scale, Marx Activity Rating Scale, Foot And Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), The Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot And Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), The Foot And Ankle Disability Index Score and Sports Module, Achill Tendon Total Rupture Score(ATRS), The Victorian İnstitute Of Sports Assesment Achilles Questionnaire(VİSA-A), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). A search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, PEDro and Cochrane Cen¬tral Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases from the date of inception to May 1, 2016 was conducted. The terms “minimal clinically important difference,” “minimal clinically important change”, “minimal clinically important improvement” “were combined with one of the PROM as mentioned above
de Souza, Alexandre Leite; Sztajnbok, Jaques; Salgado, Maristela Marques; Romano, Carla C; Alkmin, Maria das Graças Adelino; Duarte, Alberto J S; Seguro, Antonio Carlos
In patients with meningococcal infection, devastating presentations, such as purpura fulminans, which can progress to extensive tissue necrosis of the limbs and digits, have a significant social impact. The case presented herein illustrates such a phenomenon in a patient who developed bilateral necrosis of the lower extremities as a result of infection with Neisseria meningitis. We emphasize that severe myalgia was the first clinical manifestation of meningococcal purpura fulminans in our case. However, myalgia has typically been overlooked and undervalued as an early clinical feature of meningococcal sepsis. Early recognition and prompt initial antibiotic therapy continue to be the cornerstones of the successful management of this dramatic disease, reducing morbidity and mortality.
Ozer, Ayse B; Tosun, Fadime; Demirel, Ismail; Unlu, Serap; Bayar, Mustafa K; Erhan, Omer L
The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of anesthetic technique and ambient temperature on thermoregulation for patients undergoing lower extremity surgery. Our study included 90 male patients aged 18-60 years in American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status groups I or II who were scheduled for lower extremity surgery. Patients were randomly divided into three groups according to anesthetic technique: general anesthesia (GA), epidural anesthesia (EA), and femoral-sciatic block (FS). These groups were divided into subgroups according to room temperature: the temperature for group I was 20-22 °C and that for group II was 23-25 °C. Therefore, we labeled the groups as follows: GA I, GA II, EA I, EA II, FS I, and FS II. Probes for measuring tympanic membrane and peripheral temperature were placed in and on the patients, and mean skin temperature (MST) and mean body temperature (MBT) were assessed. Postoperative shivering scores were recorded. During anesthesia, tympanic temperature and MBT decreased whereas MST increased for all patients. There was no significant difference between tympanic temperatures in either the room temperature or anesthetic method groups. MST was lower in group GA I than in group GA II after 5, 10, 15, 20, 60 and 90 min whereas MBT was significantly lower at the basal level (p < 0.05). MST after 5 min was significantly lower in group GA I than in group FS I (p < 0.05). Shivering score was significantly higher in group GA I (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in thermoregulation among anesthetic techniques. Room temperature affected thermoregulation in Group GA.
Joosten, Michel M.; Joshipura, Kaumudi J.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.
Objective Lower concentrations of adiponectin have been linked to subsequent risk of coronary heart disease in healthy individuals. Whether similar relationships exist for the development of systemic atherosclerosis, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), is uncertain. We investigated the association between total adiponectin and risk of lower extremity PAD. Methods and Results We performed a prospective, nested case-control study among 18,225 male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease at the time of blood draw (1993-1995). During 14 years of follow-up, 143 men developed PAD. Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 3:1 ratio and matched on age, smoking status, fasting status, and date of blood draw (n=429). Median (interquartile range) adiponectin concentrations at baseline were lower among cases compared to controls (4.1 [3.2-5.5] vs. 5.4 [3.8-7.5] μg/mL; P<0.001). A log-linear inverse association was evident over the full spectrum of adiponectin concentrations with PAD risk after controlling for baseline cardiovascular risk factors using restricted spline conditional logistic regression. Adiponectin was associated with a 42% lower risk of PAD per SD increase in natural log-transformed adiponectin (Relative risk [RR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.74) after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. The RR was attenuated (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92) after further accounting for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and cystatin C. Additional adjustment for hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides, and gamma-glutamyltransferase had little impact on this association (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.92). Conclusion Total adiponectin is inversely associated with risk of symptomatic lower extremity PAD in men. PMID:23448969
Li, Ye; Guan, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Rui; Li, Bin; Ning, Bo; Su, Wei; Sun, Tao; Li, Hong-Yan
Background The aim of this study was to assess the preventive value of active ankle movements in the formation of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT), attempting to develop a new method for rehabilitation nursing after orthopedic surgery. Material/Methods We randomly assigned 193 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the lower limbs into a case group (n=96) and a control group (n=97). The control group received routine nursing while the case group performed active ankle movements in addition to receiving routine nursing. Maximum venous outflow (MVO), maximum venous capacity (MVC), and blood rheology were measured and the incidence of DVT was recorded. Results On the 11th and 14th days of the experiment, the case group had significantly higher MVO and MVC than the control group (all P<0.05). The whole-blood viscosity at high shear rate and the plasma viscosity were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group on the 14th day (both P<0.05). During the experiment, a significantly higher overall DVT incidence was recorded in the control group (8 with asymptomatic DVT) compared with the case group (1 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.034). During follow-up, the case group presented a significantly lower DVT incidence (1 with symptomatic DVT and 4 with asymptomatic DVT) than in the control group (5 with symptomatic DVT and 10 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.031). Conclusions Through increasing MVO and MVC and reducing blood rheology, active ankle movements may prevent the formation of lower-extremity DVT after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27600467
Dunning, Kari; Ying, Jun; Laine, Jarmo; Page, Stephen J.
Objectives. (a) To determine associations among motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, MEP latency, lower extremity (LE) impairment, and gait velocity and (b) determine the association between the presence of a detectable MEP signal with LE impairment and with gait velocity. Method. 35 subjects with chronic, stable LE hemiparesis were undergone TMS, the LE section of the Fugl-Meyer Impairment Scale (LE FM), and 10-meter walk test. We recorded presence, amplitude, and latency of MEPs in the affected tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO). Results. MEP presence was associated with higher LEFM scores in both the TA and SO. MEP latency was larger in subjects with lower LEFM and difficulty walking. Conclusion. MEP latency appears to be an indicator of LE impairment and gait. Significance. Our results support the precept of using TMS, particularly MEP latency, as an adjunctive LE outcome measurement and prognostic technique. PMID:28243474
DeWitt, John K.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Hagan, R. Donald
During locomotion, humans adapt their motor patterns to maintain coordination despite changing conditions (Reisman et al., 2005). Bernstein (1967) proposed that in addition to the present state of a given joint, other factors, including limb inertia and velocity, must be taken into account to allow proper motion to occur. During locomotion with added mass counterbalanced using vertical suspension to maintain body weight, vertical ground reaction forces (GRF's) increase during walking but decrease during running, suggesting that adaptation may be velocity-specific (De Witt et al., 2006). It is not known, however, how lower extremity joint torques adapt to changes in inertial forces. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increasing body mass while maintaining body weight upon lower-limb joint torque during walking and running. We hypothesized that adaptations in joint torque patterns would occur with the addition of body mass.
Mastroianni, Melissa; Leto Barone, Angelo A; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Leonard, David A; Di Rosa, Luigi; Feingold, Randall S; Israeli, Ron; Cetrulo, Curtis L
Reconstruction of limb-threatening lower extremity defects presents unique challenges. The selected method must provide adequate coverage of exposed bone, joints, and tendons while maximizing function of the limb. The traditional workhorse flaps, the free latissimus dorsi and rectus abdominis flaps, have been associated with donor site morbidity and bulkiness that can impair rehabilitation. We report a case series (n = 18) in which the free serratus anterior muscle flap and split thickness skin graft (STSG) was used for lower limb soft tissue coverage. Injuries were due to diabetes (9/18), trauma (7/18), and chronic venous stasis (2/18). A 94% flap survival rate was observed and all but one patient was ambulatory. No donor site morbidity was reported. Our series demonstrates that serratus anterior is an advantageous, reliable free flap with minimal donor site morbidity.
Leotta, Daniel F; Primozich, Jean F; Lowe, Christopher M; Karr, Leni N; Bergelin, Robert O; Beach, Kirk W; Zierler, R Eugene
The attachment sites of lower extremity bypass grafts are known to exhibit a wide range of geometries. Factors that determine the geometry of a given anastomosis include graft material, graft site, native vessel size, graft size and individual patient anatomy. Therefore, it is difficult to specify a standard anastomosis geometry before surgery and difficult to predict the effect of the geometry on long-term graft patency. We have used 3-D ultrasound imaging to study 46 proximal anastomoses of lower limb bypass grafts. We have developed methods to characterize the 3-D geometry of the anastomosis in terms of component sizes and angles. These detailed geometric measurements describe a range of anastomosis geometries and establish standardized parameters across cases that can be used to relate anastomosis geometry to outcome.
Vogel, Todd R; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y; Carson, Jeffrey L; Haser, Paul B; Graham, Alan M
Lower extremity percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (LE PTA) is currently performed by a variety of endovascular specialists. We hypothesized that cardiologists (CRD) and vascular surgeons (VAS) may have different practice patterns, indications for intervention, and hospital resource utilization. Using the State Inpatient Databases for New Jersey (2003-2007), patients with elective admission undergoing PTA procedures with indications of claudication, rest pain, and gangrene/ulceration were examined. Physician specialty was determined based on all procedures performed. We contrasted by specialty, the indication for LE PTA for the procedure, volume, and hospital resource utilization. Of the 1887 cases of LE PTA, VAS performed 866 (45.9%) and CRD 1021 (54.1%) procedures. The mean patient age was 68.0 years (CRD) vs 70.7 years (VAS), P = .0163. Indications for intervention were compared for CRD vs VAS: claudication 80.7% vs 60.7%, (P < .002); rest pain 6.2% vs 16.0%, (P < .002); gangrene/ulceration 13.1% vs 23.3%, (P < .002). Stents (64.8% of cases) were utilized similarly among physicians (P = .18), and mean hospital length of stay were similar (2.38 days vs 2.41 days, P = .85). Hospital charges by indication varied between CRD vs VAS (all procedures: $49,748 vs $42,158 [P < .0001]). Revenue center charges were different between CRD vs VAS: medical surgical supply $19,128 vs $12,737, (P < .0001); pharmacy $1,959 vs $1,115, (P < .0001). Only 10.7% of CRD were high volume practitioners, compared with 36.8% among VAS (P < .05). High volume practitioners had significantly lower hospital charges ($41,730 vs $51,014, P < .001). Cardiologists performing lower extremity angioplasty were more likely to treat patients with claudication than those with rest pain or gangrene/ulceration. Despite treating younger patients with less severe peripheral vascular disease, cardiologists used significantly greater hospital resources. High practitioner volume, regardless of specialty
Takata, Shinjiro; Abbaspour, Aziz; Kashihara, Michiharu; Nakao, Shigetaka; Yasui, Natsuo
We studied the effects of unilateral chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury on bone size, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), soft tissue composition and muscle strength of the injured lower extremity in Japanese 21 men and 12 women aged 15 to 39 years. Bone area, BMD, BMC, lean mass and fat mass of lower extremity were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The isometric and isokinetic muscle strength was assessed by an isokinetic machine.BMC, lean mass, circumference of the thigh and circumference of the lower leg of the injured lower extremity were significantly smaller than those of the intact lower extremity (p=0.0002, p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p=0.0131). In contrast, fat mass and %Fat of the injured lower extremity was significantly greater than that of the intact lower extremity (p=0.0301, p<0.0001). Bone area and BMD did not produce significant difference. These findings suggest that chronic insufficiency of ACL decreases BMC and lean mass of the injured lower extremity.
Background Techniques for the skeletal attachment of amputation-prostheses have been developed over recent decades. This type of attachment has only been performed on a small number of patients. It poses various potential advantages compared to conventional treatment with a socket, but is also associated with an increased risk of bone or implant-bone interface fracture in the case of a fall. We therefore investigated the bending stiffness and ultimate bending moment of such devices implanted in human and synthetic bones. Methods Eight human specimens and 16 synthetic models of the proximal femora were implanted with lower extremity prostheses and eight human specimens and six synthetic humeri were implanted with upper extremity prostheses. They were dissected according to typical amputation levels and underwent loading in a material testing machine in a four-point bending setup. Bending stiffness, ultimate bending moment and fracture modes were determined in a load to failure experiment. Additionally, axial pull-out was performed on eight synthetic specimens of the lower extremity. Results Maximum bending moment of the synthetic femora was 160.6±27.5 Nm, the flexural rigidity of the synthetic femora was 189.0±22.6 Nm2. Maximum bending moment of the human femora was 100.4±38.5 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 137.8±29.4 Nm2. The maximum bending moment of the six synthetic humeri was 104.9±19.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 63.7±3.6 Nm2. For the human humeri the maximum bending moment was 36.7±11.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity at was 43.7±10.5 Nm2. The maximum pull-out force for the eight synthetic femora was 3571±919 N. Conclusion Significant differences were found between human and synthetic specimens of the lower and upper extremity regarding maximum bending moment, bending displacement and flexural rigidity. The results of this study are relevant with respect to previous finding regarding the load at the interfaces of osseointegrated prosthesis
Li, Qiang; Yu, Zongxue; Wang, Jinjun; Chen, Xiao; Li, Lin
The aim of the present study was to observe the long-term prognostic value of early interventional therapy for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LDVT). In total, 85 patients diagnosed with LDVT for the first time were consecutively selected (identified course of disease was <3 months), and were divided into the control group with 43 cases and the observation group with 42 cases according to different therapeutic methods. The control group received anticoagulation therapy and thrombolysis, or integrated surgical thrombectomy, a conventional open operation, while the observation group received comprehensive treatment, combining endovascular catheter-directed thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The therapeutic effects were compared. After treatment, the differences in circumference of the thigh and shank between the affected and unaffected extremities, and vein dysfunction score of the two groups were decreased compared with before treatment. In addition, the above indexes of the observation group were significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05). The clinical effective rate and effective extent of the observation group were higher than those of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The occurrence rate of post-thrombotic syndrome in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, and there was no difference in comparison of grading. The recurrence rate and restenosis rate of the observation group were lower than in the control group, while the patency rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, early catheter-directed invention of thrombolysis with thrombectomy for LDVT has good clinical effect in the short-term and long-term. PMID:28105087
Chang, Chun-Chin; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Su, Yu-Wen; Chiu, Chun-Chih; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong
Recent studies have elucidated the vascular protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. However, to date, no large-scale studies have been carried out to determine the impact of DPP-4 inhibitors on the occurrence of peripheral arterial disease, and lower extremity amputation risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a retrospective registry analysis using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the correlation between the use of DPP-4 inhibitors and risk of peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 82,169 propensity score-matched pairs of DPP-4 inhibitor users and nonusers with type 2 diabetes mellitus were examined for the period 2009 to 2011. The mean age of the study subjects was 58.9 ± 12.0 years, and 54% of subjects were male. During the mean follow-up of 3.0 years (maximum, 4.8 years), a total of 3369 DPP-4 inhibitor users and 3880 DPP-4 inhibitor nonusers were diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease. Compared with nonusers, DPP-4 inhibitor users were associated with a lower risk of peripheral arterial disease (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.88). Additionally, DPP-4 inhibitor users had a decreased risk of lower-extremity amputation than nonusers (hazard ratio 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.79). The association between use of DPP-4 inhibitors and risk of peripheral arterial disease was also consistent in subgroup analysis. This large-scale nationwide population-based cohort study is the first to demonstrate that treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors is associated with lower risk of peripheral arterial disease occurrence and limb amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beling, J; Wolfe, G A; Allen, K A; Boyle, J M
The evaluation of lower limb preference in physical therapy practice is critical in order for the clinician to assist patients with functional retraining tasks. No studies in the physical therapy literature present a systematic approach to determine the criteria needed to identify the preferred limb. This research was designed to present a series of tests for effectiveness in determining limb preference. The purpose of this study was to determine whether lower limb preference existed in a group of recreationally athletic women when performing either stability or dynamic skills with the lower extremities while sitting or standing. The relationship of such a preference to handedness was also determined. Forty female recreational athletes, 20 right-handed subjects and 20 left-handed subjects, who ranged in age from 21 to 35 years, participated in this study. Subjects performed three repetitions of the following tests in both sitting and standing: kick a ball, swing a leg over a box, pick up a marble with the toes, and trace a triangle with the toes. The subjects were also asked to stand on one leg. The order of performing the tests was randomized. The results indicated that right-handed subjects performed activities more consistently with one lower extremity when compared with left-handed subjects, regardless of posture (sitting or standing). The difference in limb choice between right- and left-handed subjects was significant for all activities (p < .05). The considerable sensitivity of foot and leg performance following neurological insult renders the assessment of foot and leg preference very important for purposes of clinical rehabilitation.
Burke, Erin; Dobkin, Bruce H; Noser, Elizabeth A; Enney, Lori A; Cramer, Steven C
Behavioral measures are often used to distinguish subgroups of patients with stroke (eg, to predict treatment gains, stratify clinical trial enrollees, or select rehabilitation therapy). In studies of the upper extremity, measures of brain function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have also been found useful, but this approach has not been examined for the lower extremity. The current study hypothesized that an fMRI-based measure of cortical function would significantly improve prediction of treatment-induced lower extremity behavioral gains. Biomarkers of treatment gains were also explored. Patients with hemiparesis 1 to 12 months after stroke were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of ropinirole+physical therapy versus placebo+physical therapy, results of which have previously been reported (NCT00221390).(15) Primary end point was change in gait velocity. Enrollees underwent baseline multimodal assessment that included 19 measures spanning 5 assessment categories (medical history, impairment, disability, brain injury, and brain function), and also underwent reassessment 3 weeks after end of therapy. In bivariate analysis, 8 baseline measures belonging to 4 categories (medical history, impairment, disability, and brain function) significantly predicted change in gait velocity. Prediction was strongest, however, using a multivariate model containing 2 measures (leg Fugl-Meyer score and fMRI activation volume within ipsilesional foot sensorimotor cortex). Increased activation volume within bilateral foot primary sensorimotor cortex correlated positively with treatment-induced leg motor gains. A multimodal model incorporating behavioral and fMRI measures best predicted treatment-induced changes in gait velocity in a clinical trial setting. Results also suggest potential use of fMRI measures as biomarkers of treatment gains. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Mason-Mackay, A R; Whatman, C; Reid, D
To examine the evidence for effect of restricted ankle dorsiflexion range of motion on lower-extremity landing mechanics. Literature review. Systematic search of the literature. Articles critiqued by two reviewers. Six studies were identified that investigated the effect of restricted DF ROM on landing mechanics. Overall, results suggest that landing mechanics are altered with restricted DF ROM, but studies disagree as to the particular mechanical variables affected. There is evidence that restricted dorsiflexion range of motion may alter lower-extremity landing mechanics in a manner, which predisposes athletes to injury. Interpretation of results was made difficult by the variation in landing tasks investigated and the lack studies investigating sport-specific landing tasks. The focus of studies on specific mechanical variables rather than mechanical patterns and the analysis of pooled data in the presence of different compensation strategies between participants also made interpretation difficult. These areas require further research. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Highsmith, M Jason; Andrews, Casey R; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Lewis, Katherine L; Bradley, Rachel C; Orriola, John J
Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked.
Williams, Rhonda M; Turner, Aaron P; Green, Monica; Norvell, Daniel C; Henderson, Alison W; Hakimi, Kevin N; Blake, Donna Jo; Czerniecki, Joseph M
The aim of this study was to examine associations between a cognitive screen and four neuropsychologic tests administered at both 6 wks and 4 mos after amputation and five functional outcomes measured 12 mos after lower extremity amputation. This study includes a prospective cohort from four medical centers. Participants were primarily male Veterans experiencing their first lower extremity amputation as a result of complications of diabetes mellitus or peripheral arterial disease. Of those eligible, 87 (64%) enrolled; 75 (86%) were retained at 12 mos. Measures included demographic/health information, four neuropsychologic measures, the Locomotor Capability Index-5, the Gronigen Activity Restriction Scale, prosthetic use, community participation, and social integration. Better performance on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire at 4 mos was associated with greater 12-mo mobility and social integration. Better attention and working memory abilities 6 wks after amputation were associated with increased 12-mo prosthetic wear; and at 4 mos after amputation, with greater 12-mo mobility. Better verbal memory at 6 wks was associated with greater 12-mo social integration and community participation as well as increased prosthetic wear. These findings highlight the potential value in including a brief, formal cognitive assessment in addition to a general mental status screen. Specific domains of cognitive function are differentially associated with functional outcomes and may inform amputation rehabilitation decisions.
Ergin, Gulbin; Karadibak, Didem; Sener, Hulya Ozlem; Gurpinar, Baris
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the aqua-lymphatic therapy (ALT) on unilateral lower extremity lymphedema in the maintenance phase. This is a randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. The study was completed with 30 ALT and 27 control group participants. Foot volume was assessed by a water displacement device, limb volume by circumference measurements, functional capacity by a 6-minute walk test, quality of life by Short Form-36, and social appearance by Social Appearance Anxiety Scale and hopeless by Beck Hopeless Scale. The ALT and the control group had group sessions twice in a week for 6 weeks directed by a physiotherapist. The mean age of ALT patients was 44.50 ± 13.69 years, whereas that of the control patients was 47.66 ± 16.82 years. After the intervention, both groups' measurement of edema, functional level, quality of life, as well as social and future concerns improved significantly but this improvement was higher in the ALT group (p < 0.05, p ≤ 0.001). ALT was found to be a safe effective method for unilateral lower extremity lymphedema patients during the maintenance phase of Complex Decongestive Physiotherapy.
Galvagno, Samuel M; Brayanov, Jordan; Williams, George; George, Edward E
Care of military casualties requires not only assessment of patient, injury, and setting, but also the consequences of care decisions on other organ systems. In contemporary conflicts, pelviperineal and lower extremity trauma are common injuries, yet the optimal perioperative anesthetic and analgesic care remains unclear. Residual anesthesia and opioids can cause respiratory depression, specifically postoperative respiratory depression and opioid-induced respiratory depression. This observational study quantified and compared the incidences of respiratory depression following general anesthesia (GA) and spinal anesthesia (SA) for lower extremity surgery. Respiratory data were collected from 173 patients receiving either GA (n = 43) or SA (n = 130) via a bioimpedance-based respiratory volume monitor. Patients were further subdivided by postoperative opioid administration. The overall incidence of respiratory depression was significantly higher in the SA group (48/130 vs. 6/43, p = 0.004). These findings suggest that, while SA may be considered the safer alternative, it may in fact introduce confounding factors, which increase the risk of respiratory depression. Ensuring adequate respiratory status is particularly critical for the military population, as combat casualties are often monitored in understaffed environments following surgery. Using an SA strategy instead of GA may not prevent postoperative respiratory depression, and respiratory volume monitor monitoring may be useful to optimize care.
Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Kalish, Robert A; Canoso, Juan J; Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Biundo, Joseph J; de Toro Santos, Francisco Javier; McGonagle, Dennis; Carette, Simon; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel
This study aimed to generate a minimum list of structural and functional anatomical items about the pelvis/hip, knee, ankle/foot, gait, and lower limb innervation, which are most relevant to the practice of rheumatology. To determine their perceived relevance to clinical practice, seven members of the Mexican Clinical Anatomy Task Force compiled an initial list of 470 anatomical items. Ten local and international experts according to a 0-10 Likert scale ranked these items. Of the original list, 101 (21.48%) items were considered relevant (global rate >40). These included 36/137 (26.27%) pelvis and hip items, 25/82 (30.48%) knee items, 22/168 (13.98%) ankle/foot items, 11/68 (16.17%) neurologic items, and 7/15 (46.66%) gait-related items. We propose that these 101 anatomical items of the lower extremity, when added to the 115 anatomic items of the upper extremity and spine we previously reported, may represent an approximation to the minimal anatomical knowledge central to the competent practice of rheumatology. The meager representation of ankle and foot items may reflect a lesser emphasis in these anatomical regions during rheumatologic training. Attention to these and related items during rheumatologic training and beyond may sharpen the rheumatologist's ability in the differential diagnosis of regional pain syndromes as well as strengthen an endangered art: the rheumatologic physical examination.
Stout, N; Partsch, H; Szolnoky, G; Forner-Cordero, I; Mosti, G; Mortimer, P; Flour, M; Damstra, R; Piller, N; Geyer, M J; Benigni, J-P; Moffat, C; Cornu-Thenard, A; Schingale, F; Clark, M; Chauveau, M
Chronic edema is a multifactorial condition affecting patients with various diseases. Although the pathophysiology of edema varies, compression therapy is a basic tenant of treatment, vital to reducing swelling. Clinical trials are disparate or lacking regarding specific protocols and application recommendations for compression materials and methodology to enable optimal efficacy. Compression therapy is a basic treatment modality for chronic leg edema; however, the evidence base for the optimal application, duration and intensity of compression therapy is lacking. The aim of this document was to present the proceedings of a day-long international expert consensus group meeting that examined the current state of the science for the use of compression therapy in chronic edema. An expert consensus group met in Brighton, UK, in March 2010 to examine the current state of the science for compression therapy in chronic edema of the lower extremities. Panel discussions and open space discussions examined the current literature, clinical practice patterns, common materials and emerging technologies for the management of chronic edema. This document outlines a proposed clinical research agenda focusing on compression therapy in chronic edema. Future trials comparing different compression devices, materials, pressures and parameters for application are needed to enhance the evidence base for optimal chronic oedema management. Important outcomes measures and methods of pressure and oedema quantification are outlined. Future trials are encouraged to optimize compression therapy in chronic edema of the lower extremities.
Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different shoe types on lower extremity muscle activity in healthy young women by using electromyography. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy young women in their 20s were included in this single-group repeated measures study. The subjects were divided into three groups: Converse sneakers, rain boots, and combat boots. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h for 30 min, during which six muscles were examined using electromyography: the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, semimembranosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and medial head of the gastrocnemius. Between switching shoe types, a 24-h rest period was instated to prevent the fatigue effect from treadmill walking. [Results] One-way analysis of variance used to compare electromyography results among the three groups showed that the main effect of group differed significantly for the vastus medialis. Vastus medialis activity was higher in the rain boots group than the Converse sneakers group, and it was higher in the combat boots group than rain boots group. [Conclusion] Shoe type affects lower extremity muscle activity. Our findings may help individuals choose the ideal shoes for daily walking.
Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different shoe types on lower extremity muscle activity in healthy young women by using electromyography. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy young women in their 20s were included in this single-group repeated measures study. The subjects were divided into three groups: Converse sneakers, rain boots, and combat boots. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h for 30 min, during which six muscles were examined using electromyography: the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, semimembranosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and medial head of the gastrocnemius. Between switching shoe types, a 24-h rest period was instated to prevent the fatigue effect from treadmill walking. [Results] One-way analysis of variance used to compare electromyography results among the three groups showed that the main effect of group differed significantly for the vastus medialis. Vastus medialis activity was higher in the rain boots group than the Converse sneakers group, and it was higher in the combat boots group than rain boots group. [Conclusion] Shoe type affects lower extremity muscle activity. Our findings may help individuals choose the ideal shoes for daily walking. PMID:26834363
Buchecker, M; Wagner, H; Pfusterschmied, J; Stöggl, T L; Müller, E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Masai barefoot technology (MBT) shoes on lower extremity joint loading in overweight males during level walking. Therefore, lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and muscle electromyographic signals of the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were recorded in 10 overweight males at a self-chosen walking speed with MBT shoes and conventional shoes. Selected peak joint moments, maximal joint force loading rates, mean muscle intensities, and co-activation indices of the VL/BF, as well as of the VL/GM were analyzed and compared for the two shoe conditions using paired Student's t-tests (α=0.05). Results showed that walking with MBT shoes reduced first peak knee adduction moments in overweight subjects. During midstance and terminal stance, increases in VL/GM co-activation, accompanied by increases in VL and GM (only terminal stance) intensities were found for the MBT situation. Kinetic variables analyzed to assess ankle and hip joint loading did not exhibit any statistical differences. These results suggest that using MBT shoes diminishes medial compartment loads at the knee without overloading hip or ankle joints in overweight males. However, the additional muscle loading should not be overlooked, and warrants further investigation.
Macedo, F I B; Sciarretta, J D; Otero, C A; Ruiz, G; Ebler, D J; Pizano, L R; Namias, N
Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) can occur in trauma patients without abdominal injuries. Surgical management of patients presenting with secondary ACS after isolated traumatic lower extremity vascular injury (LEVI) continues to evolve, and associated outcomes remain unknown. From January 2006 to September 2011, 191 adult trauma patients presented to the Ryder Trauma Center, an urban level I trauma center in Miami, Florida with traumatic LEVIs. Among them 10 (5.2 %) patients were diagnosed with secondary ACS. Variables collected included age, gender, mechanism of injury, and clinical status at presentation. Surgical data included vessel injury, technical aspects of repair, associated complications, and outcomes. Mean age was 37.4 ± 18.0 years (range 16-66 years), and the majority of patients were males (8 patients, 80 %). There were 7 (70 %) penetrating injuries (5 gunshot wounds and 2 stab wounds), and 3 blunt injuries with mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) 21.9 ± 14.3 (range 9-50). Surgical management of LEVIs included ligation (4 patients, 40 %), primary repair (1 patient, 10 %), reverse saphenous vein graft (2 patients, 20 %), and PTFE interposition grafting (3 patients, 30 %). The overall mortality rate in this series was 60 %. The association between secondary ACS and lower extremity vascular injuries carries high morbidity and mortality rates. Further research efforts should focus at identifying parameters to accurately determine resuscitation goals, and therefore, prevent such a devastating condition.
Munia, Marco Antonio; Wolosker, Nelson; Munia, Christine Guarnieri; Chao, Woo Su; Puech-Leão, Pedro
Lower extremity telangiectasia affects approximately 40% of women. The demand for aesthetic treatment of these veins continues to grow. Few studies have compared laser and sclerotherapy to treat leg telangiectasias. To compare the efficacy of conventional sclerotherapy and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser in the treatment of leg telangiectasias. Thirty women were enrolled in the study. One leg was randomly assigned laser treatment and the other sclerotherapy with 75% glucose solution. All patients were photographed before and after treatment. The applying physician and two independent observers rated photographic improvement of the treated areas. Complications and adverse effects were noted during follow-up. Patients answered a questionnaire that addressed pain, clearing of the vessels, and satisfaction with the results. There was a significant difference between the modes of treatment regarding pain. Twelve patients using laser and 16 using sclerotherapy considered the clearing of the vessels to be good to excellent after three sessions of both laser and scleratherapy. Mean scores after photographic assessment were 7.9 for laser and 7.0 for sclerotherapy. Lower extremity telangiectases may be treated equally well using Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser or conventional sclerotherapy. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nelson, Peter R.; O'Malley, Kerri A.; Feezor, Robert J.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Seeger, James M.
This translational research program applies a working model of advanced functional genomics/proteomics and bioinformatics to human peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). It is a multidisciplinary collaborative effort of clinicians, scientists, and statisticians with an advisory panel comprised of experts in inflammation biology, vascular biology, molecular genetics, bioinformatics, clinical trial design, and epidemiology. The proposed human initiative is designed to study 300 symptomatic patients with PAOD undergoing medical management with or without vascular intervention by either lower extremity angioplasty/stenting or vein graft bypass. The study aims to test the hypothesis that the systemic inflammatory response following vascular intervention influences the local milieu responsible for vascular repair and adaptation. The expectation is that this response is not uniform in all patients, but rather, is modulated by either preoperative genetic predisposition or post-procedure differential regulation of the innate immune response to injury that promotes a maladaptive phenotype leading to intervention failure. Therefore, some of these differences may be present and detectable pre-intervention amenable to class prediction and prospective treatment strategies, while others may be detectable in the early post-procedure period, prior to the onset of clinical failure, permitting interventions to prevent an adverse outcome. The combination of genomic/proteomic data together with functional and quality of life outcome measures to define a critical model for class prediction and analysis should lead to new knowledge about failure mechanisms of vascular intervention and new strategies to improve existing approaches to lower extremity revascularization. PMID:17544028
Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the extent of lower extremity muscle activity before and after walking based on rain boot shaft length. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects, 12 young and healthy females, were divided into three groups based on rain boot shaft length (long, middle, and short). They walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and gastrocnemius was measured using electromyography before and after walking. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the muscle activities of each group. [Results] There were no significant differences in terms of the interactive effects between group and time for all muscles, the main effects of group, or the main effects of time. [Conclusion] The results of this study may indicate that movement of the lower extremities was not significantly limited by friction force based on the characteristics of the boot material or the circumference of the boot shaft. Thus, it may be helpful instead to consider the material of the sole or the weight of the boots when choosing which rain boots to wear. PMID:27799685
Johst, Sören; Orzada, Stephan; Fischer, Anja; Schäfer, Lena C.; Nassenstein, Kai; Umutlu, Lale; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan
In this study three sequences for non-contrast-enhanced MRA of the lower extremity arteries at 7T were compared. Cardiac triggering was used with the aim to reduce signal variations in the arteries. Two fast single-shot 2D sequences, a modified Ultrafast Spoiled Gradient Echo (UGRE) sequence and a variant of the Quiescent-Interval Single-Shot (QISS) sequence were triggered via phonocardiogram and compared in volunteer examinations to a non-triggered 2D gradient echo (GRE) sequence. For image acquisition, a 16-channel transmit/receive coil and a manually positionable AngioSURF table were used. To tackle B1 inhomogeneities at 7T, Time-Interleaved Acquisition of Modes (TIAMO) was integrated in GRE and UGRE. To compare the three sequences quantitatively, a vessel-to-background ratio (VBR) was measured in all volunteers and stations. In conclusion, cardiac triggering was able to suppress flow artifacts satisfactorily. The modified UGRE showed only moderate image artifacts. Averaged over all volunteers and stations, GRE reached a VBR of 4.18±0.05, UGRE 5.20±0.06, and QISS 2.72±0.03. Using cardiac triggering and TIAMO imaging technique was essential to perform non-enhanced MRA of the lower extremities vessels at 7T. The modified UGRE performed best, as observed artifacts were only moderate and the highest average VBR was reached. PMID:24454963
Ku, Pei Xuan; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar
Postural control has been widely evaluated for the normal population and different groups over the past 20 years. Numerous studies have investigated postural control in quiet standing posture among amputees. However, a comprehensive analysis is lacking on the possible contributing factors to balance. The present systematic review highlights the current findings on variables that contribute to balance instability for lower extremity amputees. The search strategy was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, and CINAHL and then followed by additional manual searching via reference lists in the reviewed articles. The quality of the articles was evaluated using a methodological quality assessment tool. This review included and evaluated a total of 23 full-text articles. Despite the inconsistencies in the methodological design of the studies, all articles scored above the acceptable level in terms of quality. A majority of the studies revealed that lower extremity amputees have increased postural sway in the standing posture. Asymmetry in body weight, which is mainly distributed in the non-amputated leg, was described. Aside from the centre of pressure in postural control, sensory inputs may be a related topic for investigation in view of evidence on their contribution, particularly visual input. Other balance-related factors, such as stump length and patients' confidence level, were also neglected. Further research requires examination on the potential factors that affect postural control as the information of standing postural is still limited. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rozbruch, S R; Chang, V; Bohne, W H; Deland, J T
This article reviews 54 consecutive patients with lower extremity ganglion cysts that were surgically removed and histologically confirmed at the Hospital for Special Surgery from 1981 to 1993. Lower extremity ganglia were more common among women. Patients' ages ranged from 13 to 80 years, with the fifth and sixth decades being the most common. Size of the cysts ranged from 3 cm to 10 cm (average: 2.9 cm). Thirty-six (67%) patients had ganglion cysts of the foot and ankle, and 18 (33%) patients had ganglion cysts of the knee area. Four (7%) patients had intraosseous ganglia located in the proximal tibia, patella, and the first metatarsal head. Follow-up data of 40 (74%) patients at an average of 5.9 years (range: 1 to 12.5 years) were obtained. Satisfaction was reported by 83% of patients. Recurrence was seen in 10% of patients, and a report of no or mild pain was given by 86% of the group. Patients who underwent revision ganglion excision had inferior results. Only 25% reported satisfaction and 50% reported no or mild pain. Patients who underwent curettage of an intraosseous ganglion appeared to have superior results. All patients reported satisfaction and no or mild pain. The performance of a concomitant surgical procedure, the anatomic region of the ganglion, or type of postoperative immobilization did not appear to affect the outcome.
Song, Jin Woo; Ben-Nakhi, Muneera; Hong, Joon Pio
Pediatric reconstruction using microsurgery is accepted normal practice, and the use of perforator flaps is slowly increasing. This study presents clinical work using various perforator free flaps by free style approach to reconstruct lower extremity soft tissue defects in pediatric patients and evaluates its efficacy. Between June 2002 and February 2011, 32 cases (mean age: 10.1 years) were reconstructed with free style perforator free flaps. Retrospective evaluations for flap survival, growth character, and other associated morbidities were performed. Flaps used in this series are anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator, superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP), upper medial thigh perforator, and posterior interosseous perforator free flaps. The free style approach for pedicle dissection was successful in all cases. Early postoperative complications were 15.6% from hematoma collection to partial loss of flap. Although there was no total loss in this series, one case needed additional flap coverage to cover the partial loss of the flap. The long-term follow-up showed contracture along the margin, with 16% needing a releasing procedure. Bone growth was not affected by flap contracture. The overall results show perforator flaps using the free style approach to be a reliable and feasible approach for lower extremity reconstruction in the pediatric population.
Hallock, G G
Coverage of any lower extremity amputation stump must be durable to resist external forces, well contoured, and thin enough for proper shoewear or prothesis fitting. Preservation of bone length to maximise the ability to ambulate is also of paramount importance. If local soft tissues are inadequate to fulfil these prerequisites, consideration of a microsurgical tissue transfer is a reasonable option, especially to cover bone or save a major joint. Muscle perforator free flaps, as shown in this series of eight patients using four different donor sites, are a versatile alternative for the necessary soft tissue augmentation. Multiple choices are available and often even from the involved lower extremity to minimise further morbidity. The vascular pedicles of this genré of flaps are relatively exceedingly long and of respectable calibre to facilitate reaching an appropriate recipient site. They can be sensate if desired. Of course, muscle function is by definition preserved. Complications are minimal and usually related to the reason for the amputation in the first place.
Lee, Jangwon; Park, Hye-Sang
This research was performed to identify the incidence of deformity of lower extremity and to identify the relationship of the incidence between the deformities. Once the incidences and relationship are found, next purpose was to find the effects of physical characteristics and residence styles on the development of lower extremity deformities. One hundred fifteen males and 108 females participated in this study. Data collecting was performed by questionnaire and visual postural evaluation. The incidence of genu varus was significantly high in standing-up life style compared to sitting-on life style (chi-square=8.28; P=0.004). However, the incidences of heel varus (chi-square=13.223; P=0.004) and femoral torsion (chi-square=19.347; P<0.0001) were significantly high in sitting-on life style than standing-up life style. The incidences of genu varus (chi-square=24.18; P<0.0001), heel varus (chi-square= 15.412; P<0.0001), and tibial torsion (chi-square=6.285; P<0.012) were significantly high in sitting-on life style compared to standing-up life style (P<0.05). The odd ratio result for sitting-on life style against standing-up life style showed 6.6 times significantly high relationship in femoral torsion (95% confidence range, 1.64-26.47) in men.
Wen, Xiao-Rong; Lü, Xia-Fei; Liu, Chun-Cheng; Luo, Yan; Chen, Da-Wei; Wang, Chun; Ran, Xing-Wu
To identify the ultrasound image characteristics of lower limb arteries in diabetic feet. 189 patients with diabetic feet were recruited in this study. 375 lower limbs of the patients were classified into grade I-IV according to their Fontaine classifications and accepted Color Doppler Ultrasound examinations. Of the 375 lower limbs, 210 were classified as level I, 46 as level II, 43 as level III and 76 as level IV. The degree of artery stenosis was categorized into < or = 50% reduction in diameter, 51%-99% reduction in diameter and complete occlusion. The lesion characteristics of common femoral arteries, superficial femoral arteries, popliteal arteries, anterior tibial arteries, posterior tibial arteries, peroneal arteries and dorsalis pedis arteries were analyzed. The ultrasound scores of lower limbs arterial diseases were compared in the patients with different levels of Fontaine classifications. The incidence of plagues in lower extremities arteries was 97.60% (366/375). Most plaques (97.60%, 366/375) were distributed in crus arteries and the majority of plaques (59.47%, 223/375) were serious. The incidence of PAD was 63.73% (239/375). Crus vasculars involvement was more serious. The levels of Fontaine classifications of the lower limb arteries were associated with ultrasound vascular disease severity scores. The higher grade had higher scores. The lower limbs with at least one occlusive blood vessel in the patients with Fontaine grade I reached 30%. The Ultrasound image is an important screening tool for PAD in diabetic feet. It can estimate the type of plaques, the seriousness of artery diseases and the location of lesions. Because up to 30% diabetic feet with Fontaine I classifications have at least one occlusive blood vessel, the clinical manifestations do not provide enough evidence for the diagnosis of PAD.
Castillo, Renan C; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Archer, Kristin R; Bosse, Michael J; Webb, Lawrence X
To examine the effect of physical therapy (PT) use on a range of measures of physical impairment in a cohort of patients with lower-extremity trauma. Longitudinal, observational study of patients with severe lower-extremity trauma. Patients were interviewed by a research coordinator and examined by an orthopedic surgeon and a physical therapist during initial admission and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postdischarge. Eight level I trauma centers. Patients (N=382) whose legs were salvaged after limb-threatening trauma to the lower limb. Not applicable. Unmet need for PT was assessed from 2 perspectives: an orthopedic surgeon and a physical therapist independently evaluated each patient and were asked whether the patient would benefit from PT. Patients classified by these health professionals as needing PT services over a given period and who reported receiving no PT at the end of that period were classified as having unmet need as evaluated by the orthopedic surgeon or physical therapist for that follow-up period. Multiple variable regression techniques were used to compare improvement in 5 measures of physical impairment and functional limitation between the met and unmet need groups over the periods of 3 to 6, 6 to 12, and 12 to 24 months: percentage of impairment in knee and ankle range of motion (ROM), reciprocal stair climbing pattern, gait deviations when walking, self-selected walking speed greater than 1.2 m/s (4 ft/s), and the mobility subscores of the FIM instrument. Patients with unmet need for PT as assessed by a physical therapist were statistically significantly less likely to improve in all 5 of the selected domains of physical impairment and functional limitation than patients whose PT need was met. These results remained constant after adjustment for patient sociodemographic, personality, and social resources, as well as injury and treatment characteristics, reported pain intensity, and impairment level at the beginning of the study period. Patients
Wang, W. J.; Liu, F.; Zhu, Y.W.; Sun, M.H.; Qiu, Y.
Objectives Normal sagittal spine-pelvis-lower extremity alignment is crucial in humans for maintaining an ergonomic upright standing posture, and pathogenesis in any segment leads to poor balance. The present study aimed to investigate how this sagittal alignment can be affected by severe knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and whether associated changes corresponded with symptoms of lower back pain (LBP) in this patient population. Methods Lateral radiograph films in an upright standing position were obtained from 59 patients with severe KOA and 58 asymptomatic controls free from KOA. Sagittal alignment of the spine, pelvis, hip and proximal femur was quantified by measuring several radiographic parameters. Global balance was accessed according to the relative position of the C7 plumb line to the sacrum and femoral heads. The presence of chronic LBP was documented. Comparisons between the two groups were carried by independent samples t-tests or chi-squared test. Results Patients with severe KOA showed significant backward femoral inclination (FI), hip flexion, forward spinal inclination, and higher prevalence of global imbalance (27.1% versus 3.4%, p < 0.001) compared with controls. In addition, patients with FI of 10° (n = 23) showed reduced lumbar lordosis and significant forward spinal inclination compared with controls, whereas those with FI > 10° (n = 36) presented with significant pelvic anteversion and hip flexion. A total of 39 patients with KOA (66.1%) suffered from LBP. There was no significant difference in sagittal alignment between KOA patients with and without LBP. Conclusions The sagittal alignment of spine-pelvis-lower extremity axis was significantly influenced by severe KOA. The lumbar spine served as the primary source of compensation, while hip flexion and pelvic anteversion increased for further compensation. Changes in sagittal alignment may not be involved in the pathogenesis of LBP in this patient population. Cite this article: W. J. Wang, F. Liu
Sadowsky, Cristina L.; Hammond, Edward R.; Strohl, Adam B.; Commean, Paul K.; Eby, Sarah A.; Damiano, Diane L.; Wingert, Jason R.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; McDonald, John W.
Objective To examine the effect of long-term lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the physical integrity and functional recovery in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Retrospective cohort, mean follow-up 29.1 months, and cross-sectional evaluation. Setting Washington University Spinal Cord Injury Neurorehabilitation Center, referral center. Participants Twenty-five people with chronic SCI who received FES during cycling were matched by age, gender, injury level, and severity, and duration of injury to 20 people with SCI who received range of motion and stretching. Intervention Lower extremity FES during cycling as part of an activity-based restorative treatment regimen. Main outcome measure Change in neurological function: motor, sensory, and combined motor–sensory scores (CMSS) assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment scale. Response was defined as ≥1 point improvement. Results FES was associated with an 80% CMSS responder rate compared to 40% in controls. An average 9.6 CMSS point loss among controls was offset by an average 20-point gain among FES subjects. Quadriceps muscle mass was on average 36% higher and intra/inter-muscular fat 44% lower, in the FES group. Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was 30 and 35% greater, respectively, in the FES group. Quality of life and daily function measures were significantly higher in FES group. Conclusion FES during cycling in chronic SCI may provide substantial physical integrity benefits, including enhanced neurological and functional performance, increased muscle size and force-generation potential, reduced spasticity, and improved quality of life. PMID:24094120
Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu
Introduction: Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Results: Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. PMID:28134091
Heald, Elizabeth; Hart, Ronald; Kilgore, Kevin; Peckham, P Hunter
Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of intact axons across a spinal cord lesion, even in those clinically diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). These axons may allow volitional motor signals to be transmitted through the injury, even in the absence of visible muscle contraction. To demonstrate the presence of volitional electromyographic (EMG) activity below the lesion in motor complete SCI and to characterize this activity to determine its value for potential use as a neuroprosthetic command source. Twenty-four subjects with complete (AIS A or B), chronic, cervical SCI were tested for the presence of volitional below-injury EMG activity. Surface electrodes recorded from 8 to 12 locations of each lower limb, while participants were asked to attempt specific movements of the lower extremity in response to visual and audio cues. EMG trials were ranked through visual inspection, and were scored using an amplitude threshold algorithm to identify channels of interest with volitional motor unit activity. Significant below-injury muscle activity was identified through visual inspection in 16 of 24 participants, and visual inspection rankings were well correlated to the algorithm scoring. The surface EMG protocol utilized here is relatively simple and noninvasive, ideal for a clinical screening tool. The majority of subjects tested were able to produce a volitional EMG signal below their injury level, and the algorithm developed allows automatic identification of signals of interest. The presence of this volitional activity in the lower extremity could provide an innovative new command signal source for implanted neuroprostheses or other assistive technology.
Hackney, James; Brummel, Sara; Newman, Mary; Scott, Shannon; Reinagel, Matthew; Smith, Jennifer
We carried out a study to investigate how low stiffness flooring may help prevent overuse injuries of the lower extremity in dancers. It was hypothesized that performing a ballet jump (sauté) on a reduced stiffness dance floor would decrease maximum joint flexion angles and negative angular velocities at the hips, knees, or ankles compared to performing the same jump on a harder floor. The participants were 15 young adult female dancers (age range 18 to 28, mean = 20.89 ± 2.93 years) with at least 5 years of continuous ballet experience and without history of serious lower body injury, surgery, or recent pain. They performed sautés on a (low stiffness) Harlequin ® WoodSpring Floor and on a vinyl-covered hardwood on concrete floor. Maximum joint flexion angles and negative velocities at bilateral hips, knees, and ankles were measured with the "Ariel Performance Analysis System" (APAS). Paired one-tailed t-tests yielded significant decreases in maximum knee angle (average decrease = 3.4° ± 4.2°, p = 0.026) and angular negative velocity of the ankles (average decrease = 18.7°/sec ± 27.9°/sec, p = 0.009) with low stiffness flooring. If the knee angle is less acute, then the length of the external knee flexion moment arm will also be shorter and result in a smaller external knee flexion moment, given an equal landing force. Also, high velocities of eccentric muscle contraction, which are necessary to control negative angular velocity of the ankle joint, are associated with higher risk of musculotendinous injury. Hence, our findings indicate that reduced floor stiffness may indeed help decrease the likelihood of lower extremity injuries.
Wong, Jason K F; Deek, Nidal; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Hung
The use of pedicled perforator flaps provides an alternative to free tissue transfer for lower limb reconstruction. We use computer-aided image analysis to investigate the versatility of pedicled perforator flaps for the reconstruction of lower limb defects. Between April 2007 and April 2011, a case series of 61 patients with wounds of the lower extremity from knee to ankle were reconstructed with pedicled perforator flaps. We performed 16 pedicled reverse-flow anterolateral thigh (RF-ALT) flaps, 8 pedicled medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flaps, 26 pedicled peroneal artery perforator (PAP) flaps, and 11 pedicled posterior tibial artery perforator (PTAP) flaps. Digital planimetry of defects covered was analyzed and the "efficiency" of each flap was calculated, which allowed the assessment of the merits of each flap in the management of lower limb defects. Flaps healed primarily in 82% of cases (50/61). Approximately 50% of the secondary donor sites required skin grafting. Complications requiring secondary surgery occurred in 18% (11/61) of the cases. Six required secondary skin grafting (10%). One RF-ALT flap was converted into a free flap, one PAP required arterial supercharging, and three pedicled RF-ALT flaps required venous supercharging. Image analysis showed that these pedicled perforator flaps could cover 75% of the surface area of the lower leg. The higher length of perforator allowed for greater "flap efficiency" and better versatility of tissue cover. Image analysis can be used as a modality to assess the versatility of individual flaps in the reconstruction of lower limb defects. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dennis, Douglas A; Kittelson, Andrew J; Yang, Charlie C; Miner, Todd M; Kim, Raymond H; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E
Tourniquet use during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) improves visibility and reduces intraoperative blood loss. However, tourniquet use may also have a negative impact on early recovery of muscle strength and lower extremity function after TKA. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether tourniquet use affects recovery of quadriceps strength (primary outcome) during the first 3 postoperative months; and (2) to examine the effects of tourniquet application on secondary outcomes: voluntary quadriceps activation, hamstring strength, unilateral limb balance as well as the effect on operative time and blood loss. Twenty-eight patients (mean age 62 ± 6 years; 16 men) undergoing same-day bilateral TKA (56 lower extremities) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study. Subjects were randomized to receive a tourniquet-assisted knee arthroplasty on one lower extremity while the contralateral limb underwent knee arthroplasty without extended tourniquet use. In the former group, the tourniquet was inflated just before the incision was made and released after cementation; in the latter group, a tourniquet was not used (10 of 28 [36%]) or inflated only during component cementation (18 of 28 [64%]). The choice of no tourniquet or use just during cementation was based on surgeon choice, because some surgeons felt a tourniquet during cementation was necessary to achieve a dry surgical field to maximize cement fixation. A median parapatellar approach and the identical posterior-stabilized TKA design were used by all four fellowship-trained knee surgeons involved. Isometric quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, voluntary quadriceps activation, and unilateral balance were assessed preoperatively, 3 weeks, and 3 months after bilateral knee arthroplasty. Other factors, including pain, range of motion, and lower extremity girth, were assessed for descriptive purposes at each of these time points as well as on the second postoperative day. Quadriceps strength was
Kuy, SreyRam; Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan; Dua, Arshish; Patel, Bhavin; Tondravi, Nader; Seabrook, Gary R; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Lee, Cheong J; Kuy, SreyReath; Subbarayan, Rishi; Rossi, Peter J
We sought to evaluate the incidence, epidemiology, and factors associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions and determine outcomes based on SSI status. This is a single-institution, retrospective cohort study of 106 patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization procedures involving femoral artery exposure through a groin incision at a tertiary referral hospital. The primary outcome was occurrence of SSI at the groin wound. The duration of hospital stay, reoperation within 30 days, discharge disposition, and 30-day mortality were also evaluated. Independent variables included patient demographics and operative variables (i.e., procedure type, transfusion requirements, preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative vasopressors, and operative duration). Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable regression analysis. Of the 106 patients who underwent a lower extremity revascularization procedure with a groin incision for femoral artery exposure, 62% were male, and the mean age was 62 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (93%), dyslipidemia (65%), statin use (63%), active smoker (50%), diabetes (24%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (23%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics, 50% required intraoperative pressors, 21% received a blood transfusion, and the mean operative time was 296 min. The overall duration of stay was 10.7 days, the 30-day reoperation rate was 18%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 12%. Overall, 22% developed a seroma or hematoma, and 31% developed a SSI. Patients who developed an SSI compared with those who did not were more likely to have a postoperative seroma or hematoma (55% vs 5%) and to receive a blood transfusion (33% vs 15%), but less likely to be treated with a statin (47% vs 69%) or carry a diagnosis of dyslipidemia (50% vs 72%), respectively, all P < 0.05. Patients with an SSI had a longer
Seyahi, Emire; Cakmak, Osman Serdal; Tutar, Burcin; Arslan, Caner; Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Sut, Necdet; Kantarci, Fatih; Tuzun, Hasan; Melikoglu, Melike; Yazici, Hasan
Abstract Vascular involvement can be seen in up to 40% of patients with Behcet syndrome (BS), the lower-extremity vein thrombosis (LEVT) being the most common type. The aim of the current study was to compare venous Doppler findings and clinical features between BS patients with LEVT and control patients diagnosed as having LEVT due to other causes. All consecutive 78 patients (71 men, 7 women; mean age 38.6 ± 10.3 years) with LEVT due to BS and 50 control patients (29 men, 21 women; mean age 42.0 ± 12.5 years) who had LEVT due to other causes, or idiopathic, were studied with the help of a Doppler ultrasonography after a detailed clinical examination. Patterns of venous disease were identified by cluster analyses. Clinical features of chronic venous disease were assessed using 2 classification systems. Venous claudication was also assessed. Patients with BS were more likely to be men, had significantly earlier age of onset of thrombosis, and were treated mainly with immunosuppressives and less frequently with anticoagulants. Furthermore, they had significantly more bilateral involvement, less complete recanalization, and more frequent collateral formation. While control patients had a disorganized pattern of venous involvement, BS patients had a contiguous and symmetric pattern, involving all deep and superficial veins of the lower extremities, with less affinity for crural veins. Clinical assessment, as measured by the 2 classification systems, also indicated a more severe disease among the BS patients. In line, 51% of the BS patients suffered from severe post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and 32% from venous claudication, whereas these were present in 8% and 12%, respectively, among the controls. Among BS patients, a longer duration of thrombosis, bilateral femoral vein involvement, and using no anticoagulation along with immunosuppressive treatment when first diagnosed were found to be associated independently with severe PTS. Lower-extremity vein
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common occurrence in sports requiring stop-jump tasks. Single- and double-leg stop-jump techniques are frequently executed in sports. The higher risk of ACL injury in single-leg drop landing task compared to a double-leg drop landing task has been identified. However the injury bias between single- and double-leg landing techniques has not been investigated for stop-jump tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between single- and double-leg stop-jump tasks in knee kinetics that were influenced by the lower extremity kinematics during the landing phase. Ground reaction force, lower extremity kinematics, and knee kinetics data during the landing phase were obtained from 10 subjects performing single- and double-leg stop-jump tasks, using motion-capture system and force palates. Greater peak posterior and vertical ground reaction forces, and peak proximal tibia anterior and lateral shear forces (p < 0.05) during landing phase were observed of single-leg stop-jump. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited smaller hip and knee flexion angle, and knee flexion angular velocity at initial foot contact with the ground (p < 0.05). We found smaller peak hip and knee flexion angles (p < 0.05) during the landing phase of single-leg stop-jump. These results indicate that single-leg landing may have higher ACL injury risk than double-leg landing in stop-jump tasks that may be influenced by the lower extremity kinematics during the landing phase. Key points Non-contact ACL injuries are more likely to occur during the single-leg stop-jump task than during the double-leg stop-jump task. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited greater peak proximal tibia anterior and lateral shear forces, and peak posterior and vertical ground reaction forces during the landing phase than the double-leg stop-jump task. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited smaller hip flexion angle, knee flexion angle, and knee flexion angular velocity at initial foot
Curran, Thomas; Zhang, Jennifer Q.; Lo, Ruby C.; Fokkema, Margriet; McCallum, John C.; Buck, Dominique; Darling, Jeremy; Schermerhorn, Marc L.
BACKGROUND Postoperative readmission, recently identified as a marker of hospital quality in the Affordable Care Act, is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs, yet data on readmission following lower extremity amputation is limited. We evaluated risk factors for readmission and post-discharge adverse events following lower extremity amputation in the ACS-NSQIP. STUDY DESIGN All patients undergoing transmetatarsal (TMA), below-knee (BKA) or above-knee amputation (AKA) in the 2011 – 2012 NSQIP were identified. Independent pre-discharge predictors of 30-day readmission were determined using multivariable logistic regression. Readmission indication and re-interventions, available in the 2012 NSQIP only, were also evaluated. RESULTS We identified 5,732 patients undergoing amputation (TMA: 12%; BKA: 51%; AKA: 37%). Readmission rate was 18%. Post-discharge mortality rate was 5% (TMA: 2%; BKA: 3%; AKA: 8%; p<.001). Overall complication rate was 43% (In-hospital: 32%; Post-discharge: 11%). Reoperation was for wound related complication or additional amputation in 79% of cases. Independent predictors of readmission included chronic nursing home residence (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7), non-elective surgery (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.7), prior revascularization/amputation (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.7), preoperative congestive heart failure (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2–2.4), and preoperative dialysis (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2–1.9). Guillotine amputation (OR: .6; 95%CI: .4–.9) and non-home discharge (OR: .7; 95%CI: .6–1.0) were protective of readmission. Wound related complications accounted for 49% of readmissions. CONCLUSIONS Post discharge morbidity, mortality and readmission are common following lower extremity amputation. Closer follow up of high risk patients, optimization of medical comorbidities and aggressive management of wound infection may play a role in decreasing readmission and post discharge adverse events. PMID:24985536
Clagett, G P; Bowers, B L; Lopez-Viego, M A; Rossi, M B; Valentine, R J; Myers, S I; Chervu, A
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the morbidity, mortality, and intermediate term follow-up of patients undergoing replacement of their aortoiliac-femoral systems with lower extremity deep and superficial veins. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most commonly used treatment for aortic prosthetic infection is ectopic bypass and removal of the prosthesis. The overall mortality rate with this approach is approximately 20%, with an amputation rate of 10% to 14%. Other limitations include thrombosis of the ectopic bypass leading to limb loss, reinfection of the ectopic bypass, and aortic stump blowout. Dissatisfaction with this approach has led the authors to develop the following. METHODS: A neo-aortoiliac system (NAIS) was fashioned from lower extremity deep veins (DV), greater saphenous veins (GSV), or both in patients with infected aortobifemoral prosthesis (n = 17) and other complex aortic problems (n = 3). Removal of infected prosthetic material, harvest of vein, and creation of NAIS was performed as a single-staged procedure. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality and amputation rates were 10% each. The mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) operative time was 6.5 +/- 1.8 hours and the blood transfusion requirement was 4 +/- 3 units. Four patients experienced postoperative gastrointestinal complications with peritonitis and sepsis; NAIS vein graft resisted infection and remained intact. The mean follow-up time was 22.5 +/- 16 months. NAISs constructed from GSVs were prone to the development of focal stenoses requiring intervention or diffuse neointimal hyperplasia leading to occlusion. In contrast, all NAISs from larger caliber DVs have remained widely patent. The failure rate of GSV NAISs was 64%, compared to 0% for DV NAISs (p = 0.006). Despite the high failure rate in patients with GSV NAISs, none has required amputation. In patients who had DVs harvested for NAIS reconstruction, limb edema and other signs of venous hypertension have been minimal. CONCLUSION: NAIS
Platts, Steven H.; Summers, Richard L.; Martin, David S.; Meck, Janice V.; Coleman, Thomas G.
Reentry orthostasis after exposure to the conditions of spaceflight is a persistent problem among astronauts. In a previous study, a computer model systems analysis was used to examine the physiologic mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this analysis, it was determined that an augmented capacitance of lower extremity veins due to a fluid volume contracture of the surrounding interstitial spaces during spaceflight results in an increase in sequestered blood volume upon standing and appears to be the initiating mechanism responsible for reentry orthostasis. In this study, we attempt to validate the central premise of this hypothesis using a ground-based spaceflight analog. 10 healthy subjects were placed at bed rest in a 6 head down tilt position for 60 days of bed rest. The impact of adaptations in interstitial fluid volume and venous capacitance in the lower extremities were then observed during a standard tilt test protocol performed before and after the confinement period. The interstitial thickness superficial to the calcaneous immediately below the lateral malleolus was measured using ultrasound with a 17-5 MHz linear array transducer. Measurements of the changes in anterior tibial vein diameter during tilt were obtained by similar methods. The measurements were taken while the subjects were supine and then during upright tilt (80') for thirty minutes, or until the subject had signs of presyncope. Additional measurements of the superficial left tibia interstitial thickness and stroke volume by standard echocardiographic methods were also recorded. In addition, calf compliance was measured over a pressure range of 10-60 mmHg, using plethysmography, in a subset of these subjects (n = 5). There was a average of 6% diminution in the size of the lower extremity interstitial space as compared to measurements acquired prior to bed rest. This contracture of the interstitial space coincided with a subsequent relative increase in the percentage change in tibial
Bedigrew, Katherine M; Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Wilken, Jason M; Owens, Johnny G; Blanck, Ryan V; Stinner, Daniel J; Kirk, Kevin L; Hsu, Joseph R
Patients with severe lower extremity trauma have significant disability 2 years after injury that worsens by 7 years. Up to 15% seek late amputation. Recently, an energy-storing orthosis demonstrated improved function compared with standard orthoses; however, the effect when integrated with rehabilitation over time is unknown. (1) Does an 8-week integrated orthotic and rehabilitation initiative improve physical performance, pain, and outcomes in patients with lower extremity functional deficits or pain? (2) Is the magnitude of recovery different if enrolled more than 2 years after their injury versus earlier? (3) Does participation decrease the number considering late amputation? We prospectively evaluated 84 service members (53 less than and 31 > 2 years after injury) who enrolled in the initiative. Fifty-eight sustained fractures, 53 sustained nerve injuries with weakness, and six had arthritis (there was some overlap in the patients with fractures and nerve injuries, which resulted in a total of > 84). They completed 4 weeks of physical therapy without the orthosis followed by 4 weeks with it. Testing was conducted at Weeks 0, 4, and 8. Validated physical performance tests and patient-reported outcome surveys were used as well as questions pertaining to whether patients were considering an amputation. By 8 weeks, patients improved in all physical performance measures and all relevant patient-reported outcomes. Patients less than and greater than 2 years after injury improved similarly. Forty-one of 50 patients initially considering amputation favored limb salvage at the end of 8 weeks. We found this integrated orthotic and rehabilitation initiative improved physical performance, pain, and patient-reported outcomes in patients with severe, traumatic lower extremity deficits and that these improvements were sustained for > 2 years after injury. Efforts are underway to determine whether the Return to Run clinical pathway with the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal
LV, LULU; XU, PENG; SHI, YIBING; HAO, JINGMING; HU, CHUNAI; ZHAO, BAOZHONG
Epithelioid angiosarcomas are extremely rare malignant tumors formed from endothelial cells. The majority of studies reporting these tumors have been concerned with the clinical and pathological aspects, with limited reporting of radiological diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to provide a reference to improve understanding of diagnosis, treatment choice and prognosis assessment of epithelioid angiosarcoma. The current study reports the case of a 44-year-old woman with epithelioid angiosarcoma located in the deep soft tissue of the lower extremities. Physical examination of the right thigh revealed a palpable hard mass and movement was clearly restricted and painful. X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to evaluate the imaging features of the tumor. Using X-ray and CT scanning, an inhomogenous tumor with osteolytic osseous destruction was observed. MRI revealed that the bordering skeletal muscles were infiltrated. The patient was treated with palliative surgery and chemotherapy, but succumbed to disease 1 year later. PMID:27123135
Krebsbach, Meaghen A; Muci-Küchler, Karim Heinz; Hinz, Brandon J
This article presents an experimental study that examines the relationship between initial projectile speed and bacterial distribution along a wound track due to surface contamination. A ballistic gelatin cylinder was used as a lower extremity surrogate, and surface contamination was simulated using circular filter paper moistened with a solution containing Escherichia coli strain K-12 that was previously transformed to express green fluorescent protein and be resistant to ampicillin. An 11.43-mm caliber round-nose lead projectile was shot through the contaminated area and into the extremity surrogate at firing velocities ranging from 61 to 199 m/s. The "wound track" was extracted and cut into 10 evenly spaced slices. Then, the permanent cavity was removed from each slice using a biopsy punch, liquefied, and grown on selective agar containing ampicillin. Direct and normalized bacterial colony counts and normalized extents of area covered by bacteria colonies were used to compare the differences between distribution trends corresponding to different projectile speeds. The results obtained showed that, for the cases considered, an increase in projectile speed resulted in a significant shift in the percentage of contamination from the "wound" entrance region to the "wound" exit region.
Erdmann, D; Lee, B; Roberts, C D; Levin, L S
Lawnmower-associated trauma remains a substantial source of extremity injury in the pediatric and adolescent patient populations, producing complex wounds that require a combined orthopedic and plastic surgical approach. The authors review their experience with 16 patients, 2 to 17 years of age (mean age, 6.2 years), who were admitted to Duke University Medical Center for lower extremity lawnmower trauma between January 1988 and December 1999. The average hospitalization time was 13.5 days, and an average of 2.9 surgical procedures per patient were performed. Early debridement and bony fixation were carried out in all patients; 8 patients sustained traumatic amputations. Fifteen of 20 nonamputation fractures involved the foot and were managed with either closed reduction or K-wire fixation. Three of five long-bone fractures underwent external fixation. Wound closure was achieved with direct closure or skin grafting in the majority of patients. However, five microsurgical free flap transfers were required for extensive defect reconstruction of the foot (N = 4) and knee (N = 1). Adequate immediate debridement, fracture reduction, and early primary or if necessary secondary wound coverage including microsurgical free tissue transfer to prevent further damage and long-term disability in these type of devastating injuries is recommended.
Jorgenson, D S; Antoine, G A
A review of six patients with severe lower extremity injuries (four of six with grade IIIB tibia fractures), resulting from combat in Somalia, was undertaken to identify patterns of injury, treatment, and problems unique to combat injuries. An AK-47 gunshot was the mechanism of injury in five of six patients. Muscle flaps were required in all patients (four pedicled muscle flaps and three free vascularized flaps), with five of six patients undergoing flap closure during the subacute phase. Ilizarov devices were used in three of four grade IIIB tibia fractures. Five major nerve injuries were identified in three of six patients. The ballistic effect of an AK-47 to the soft tissues of the extremity is not a high-energy wound as seen in civilian blunt trauma. Knowledge of ballistics and the delay in definitive flap coverage secondary to evacuation allowed definition of zones of injury and successful use of local flaps in the majority of our patients. The high number of nerve injuries not commonly described with blunt trauma may prevent full rehabilitation.
The purpose of this study was to examine the modulating effects of age on lower limb stiffness and net muscle joint activity degeneration when performing a functional activity involving SSC. Seven young males and seven older males were recruited as subjects for this study. A high-speed camera and a force plate were synchronized to collect the biomechanical parameters. The kinetic parameters were calculated with the inverse dynamics process. The stiffness of lower limbs was calculated with the spring-mass model. The Student’s t-test was used to test the differences of two age groups. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. The present research showed that the older group produced a smaller peak net muscle joint moment at hip and knee. There were no differences in leg stiffness, hip stiffness, and ankle stiffness between the two age groups. Knee stiffness was smaller in the older group. In elderly adults, reduced muscle strength in the lower limbs, especially in the hip and knee, and reduced stiffness of the knee, influence the basic functions of human life and increase the risk of injury. Differences in lower extremity kinetics and stiffness in elderly adults during SSC movement may have implications for new preventive measures. Key pointsThe present research showed that the older group reduced muscle strength in the lower limbs, especially in the hip and knee, and reduced stiffness of the knee, influence the basic functions of human life and increase the risk of injury.There were no differences in leg stiffness, hip stiffness, and ankle stiffness between the two age groups.Older subjects maintain hip angular stiffness by decreasing joint angles in order to protect the joint and to increase stability during movement.In elderly adults, insufficient angular stiffness of the knee joint may increase the risk of knee injury during a functional activity involving SSC. PMID:24149906
Zeytoonjian, Trisha; Mankin, Henry J; Gebhardt, Mark C; Hornicek, Francis J
Primary sarcomas in the distal leg, tibia, fibula, ankle, and foot are uncommon and are believed to be less malignant than those that arise in other sites, but only limited information is available to support this contention. Using a computerized system containing extensive information regarding over 14,000 patients, mostly with tumors treated by our center over a 25-year period, 175 sarcomatous lesions with MSTS stage I, II, and III were located in the distal lower extremity. These were compared with 2367 lesions of similar diagnoses in other body parts. The principal studies included diagnostic distribution and outcome (recorded as death as a result of disease). Data were compared for diagnosis, gender, age, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) stage, anatomic site, and treatment methods and evaluated statistically by chi-square methods. The most frequent distal lower limb tumors were synovial cell sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and Ewing's tumor and the percentage distribution of the various tumors for that site as compared with the rest of the body was quite different. Of even more importance was the remarkable difference in outcome with the death rate for the lower limb tumors set at 10%, while the same tumors at other sites had a death rate of 27% (p <.000002). Furthermore, gender, stage, age, and the type of operative procedure showed highly significant differences between the tumors of the lower leg and those of the remainder of the body. On the basis of these data, it is evident that far fewer sarcomas occur in the lower leg, tibia, fibula, ankle, and foot than in other body sites and that their diagnostic distribution is different. Of perhaps greater interest is the fact that the rate of metastasis and death is markedly reduced for this site as compared with others. The authors speculate on the causes of this remarkable alteration in numbers and outcome.
Lee, Kyeong Tae; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lim, So-Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyung; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung; Mun, Goo-Hyun
Ketorolac is commonly prescribed for relieving postoperative pain and is known to have an anticoagulation effect, though this has not been studied in a clinical series. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketorolac on microvascular thrombosis in lower extremity reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who underwent lower limb reconstruction with a free flap between January of 2005 and September of 2011. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the administration of ketorolac for postoperative pain relief. Complications were assessed, and the two groups were compared for vascular insufficiency, total or partial flap loss, and hematoma formation. A total of 128 patients underwent microsurgical flap transfer, including 111 thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps, four latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps, seven deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps, and six anterolateral thigh flaps. Eighty patients were administrated ketorolac, and 48 patients were not. The nonketorolac group had significantly higher rates of vascular-related complications, and the difference remained significant after adjusting for confounding factors on multivariate logistic regression analysis. There was a correlation between the duration of ketorolac administration and complication rates, for which longer periods of ketorolac administration yielded lower complication rates. Ketorolac administration has a protective effect against the development of microvascular thrombosis and can be a preferred analgesic in free tissue transfer. Therapeutic, III.
Bedoya, Maria A; Chauvin, Nancy A; Jaramillo, Diego; Davidson, Richard; Horn, B David; Ho-Fung, Victor
Congenital lower limb shortening is a group of relatively rare, heterogeneous disorders. Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) and fibular hemimelia (FH) are the most common pathologic entities in this disease spectrum. PFFD is characterized by variable degrees of shortening or absence of the femoral head, with associated dysplasia of the acetabulum and femoral shaft. FH ranges from mild hypoplasia to complete absence of the fibula with variable shortening of the tibia. The development of the lower limb requires complex and precise gene interactions. Although the etiologies of PFFD and FH remain unknown, there is a strong association between the two disorders. Associated congenital defects in the lower extremity are found in more than 50% of patients with PFFD, ipsilateral FH being the most common. FH also has a strong association with shortening and bowing of the tibia and with foot deformities such as absence of the lateral rays of the foot. Early diagnosis and radiologic classification of these abnormalities are imperative for appropriate management and surgical planning. Plain radiography remains the main diagnostic imaging modality for both PFFD and FH, and appropriate description of the osseous abnormalities seen on radiographs allows accurate classification, prognostic evaluation, and surgical planning. Minor malformations may commonly be misdiagnosed.
Chicarilli, Z.N.; Ariyan, S.; Cuono, C.B.
Microsurgical techniques have developed numerous territories suitable for free tissue transfer. However, the demand for thin cutaneous resurfacing limits the choice of flaps available to the reconstructive microsurgeon. The radial forearm flap is a thin, axial, fasciocutaneous flap, offering pliable cutaneous resurfacing, with or without sensation. We have used 15 flaps to reconstruct defects in the head and neck and lower extremity resulting from burns, blunt and avulsive trauma, radiation necrosis, and tumor ablation. Two flaps (15 percent) developed venous congestion and were salvaged by reoperation. One retrograde flap (7.5 percent) developed partial necrosis from arterial insufficiency. Neural re-innervation was successful in two out of three patients in whom it was attempted. Two patients (15%) sustained minor donor site skin graft loss that healed secondarily. In our series of predominantly older patients the donor sites have been relatively inconspicuous at one year follow-up. A functional restoration was achieved in all patients.
Yuchua-Guillen, Angela; Dofitas, Belen L
Verrucous leprosy is rare, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. Visceral involvement is frequent but often overlooked, causing significant morbidity and mortality. A 45-year-old Filipino male with a 16-year history of hyperpigmented, hypoesthetic plaques, amputated digits, enlarged ulnar nerve, and cardiovascular congestion was diagnosed with Hansen's disease-lepromatous type. He had multiple cauliflower-like nodules and plaques with foul-smelling discharge on the lower extremities presenting a diagnostic dilemma. After an exhaustive search, the causative agent for these verrucous nodules was confirmed to still be Mycobacterium leprae. In addition, he had glomerulonephritis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, deep venous thrombosis, neuritis, keratitis, and glaucoma, which are all complications of advanced leprosy and multiple attacks of erythema nodosum leprosum reactions. He was treated with a multibacillary regimen of Rifampicin, Dapsone, Clofazimine, and systemic corticosteroids, with remarkable improvement. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Dorsey, Julie; Bradshaw, Michelle
Lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can have a major impact on the ability to carry out daily activities. The effectiveness of interventions must be examined to enable occupational therapy practitioners to deliver the most appropriate services. This systematic review examined the literature published between 1995 and July 2014 that investigated the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for LE MSDs. Forty-three articles met the criteria and were reviewed. Occupational therapy interventions varied on the basis of population subgroup: hip fracture, LE joint replacement, LE amputation or limb loss, and nonsurgical osteoarthritis and pain. The results indicate an overall strong role for occupational therapy in treating clients with LE MSDs. Activity pacing is an effective intervention for nonsurgical LE MSDs, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation is effective for LE joint replacement and amputation. Further research on specific occupational therapy interventions in this important area is needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Yilmaz, Guney; Oto, Murat; Thabet, Ahmed M; Rogers, Kenneth J; Anticevic, Darko; Thacker, Mihir M; Mackenzie, William G
Lower extremity angular deformities are common in children with skeletal dysplasia and can be treated with various surgical options. Both acute correction by osteotomy with internal fixation and gradual correction by external fixation have been used with acceptable results. Recently, the Guided Growth concept using temporary hemiepiphysiodesis for correction of angular deformities in the growing child has been proposed. This study presents the results of temporary hemiepiphysiodesis using eight-Plates and medial malleolus transphyseal screws in children with skeletal dysplasia with lower extremity angular deformities. Twenty-nine patients (50 lower extremities) with skeletal dysplasia of different types were treated for varus or valgus deformities at 2 centers. The mean age at the time of hemiepiphysiodesis was 10±2.9 years. A total of 66 eight-Plates and 12 medial malleolus screws were used. The average follow-up time between the index surgery and the latest follow-up with the eight-Plate in was 25±13.4 months. Erect long-standing anteroposterior and lateral view radiographs were obtained for deformity planning before the procedure. Angular deformities on radiograph were evaluated by mechanical axis deviation, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, medial proximal tibial angle, and lateral distal tibial angle. Mechanical axis deviation was also expressed as a percentage to one half of the width of the tibial plateau, and the magnitude of the deformity was classified by determining the zones through which the mechanical axis of the lower extremity passed. Four zones were determined on both the medial and lateral side of the knee and the zones were labeled 1, 2, 3, and 4, corresponding to the severity of the deformity. A positive value was assigned for valgus alignment and a negative for varus alignment. Patients were analyzed in valgus and varus groups. There was correction in 34 of 38 valgus legs and 7 of 12 varus legs. In the valgus group, the mean
Wroński, S; Wojciechowski, P; Wójcik, K; Kusz, D
Ilizarov method for lower extremity lengthening has been employed in 107 patients. Some 25% of numerous complications are bony union disturbances. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for assessment of new bone formation was introduced to reduce these problems. Detailed densitometry methodology developed on the ground of 93 measurements in 11 patients is presented. Pre-operative measurement was followed by subsequent evaluations done every 3 weeks after the onset of distraction. DEXA was capable of showing the callus 3-4 weeks earlier than conventional radiography. DEXA allows for adjusting the pace of lengthening to the extent of new bone mineralization, evaluation of lengthening achieved, determining the timing for safe removal of the apparatus. The need for temporary rearranging of the apparatus and troublesome image analysis are among the drawbacks of the method.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of the bridging plus exercise with heel lift on lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy males participated. The subjects performed bridging exercises under two conditions. Surface electromyography was used to measure the electrical activities of the medial hamstring (MH) and the gluteus maximus (GM) muscles. [Results] Activation of the MH muscle during bridging with heel lift decreased, and activation of the GM muscle during bridging with heel lift increased compared to those with the bridging exercise. [Conclusion] This result showed that bridging plus exercises with heel lift could be an effective exercise for patients with compensatory mechanisms during bridging exercises, such as weak GM with hamstring tightness. PMID:27313376
Pedersen, M.E; DaCambra, M.P; Jibri, Z; Dhillon, S; Jen, H; Jomha, N.M
Chondral and osteochondral fractures of the lower extremities are important injuries because they can cause pain and dysfunction and often lead to osteoarthritis. These injuries can be misdiagnosed initially which may impact on the healing potential and result in poor long-term outcome. This comprehensive review focuses on current pitfalls in diagnosing acute osteochondral lesions, potential investigative techniques to minimize diagnostic errors as well as surgical treatment options. Acute osteochondral fractures are frequently missed and can be identified more accurately with specific imaging techniques. A number of different methods can be used to fix these fractures but attention to early diagnosis is required to limit progression to osteoarthritis. These fractures are common with joint injuries and early diagnosis and treatment should lead to improved long term outcomes. PMID:26587063
Kraemer, Bruce A; Geiger, Scott E; Deigni, Oliver A; Watson, John Tracy
Open wounds of the distal third of the leg and foot with exposed bone, fractures, and hardware are challenging wounds for which to achieve stable coverage. The orthopedic advances in lower extremity fracture management over the last 30 years have allowed a rethinking of the standard operative approach to close these complex wounds. The ability of extracellular matrix (ECM) products to facilitate constructive remodeling of a wound seemed a reasonable approach for treatment, especially in patients who are often poor surgical candidates for more advanced reconstructive procedures. The authors reviewed 9 patients with 11 open fractures of the leg, ankle, or foot treated with a newer ECM wound healing device to total closure. The clinical course and patient management are reviewed. The authors conclude that newer ECM products can provide a reasonable method of management for patients who have wounds with exposed hardware, distal leg wounds, and open foot fractures compared to prolonged negative pressure wound therapy or complex reconstructive operative procedures.
Background The incidence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) continues to increase and associated morbidity remains high. Despite the significant development of percutaneous revascularization strategies, over the past decade, LE-PAD still represents a unique challenge for interventional cardiologists and vascular surgeons. Method Typical features of atherosclerosis that affects peripheral vascular bed (diffuse nature, poor distal runoff, critical limb ischemia, chronic total occlusion) contribute to the disappointing results of traditional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). New technologies have been developed in attempt to improve the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous revascularization. Among these, atherectomy, debulking and removing atherosclerotic plaque, offers the potential advantage of eliminating stretch on arterial walls and reducing rates of restenosis. Conclusions This review summarizes the features and the current applications of new debulking devices. PMID:23173800
Girish, Gandikota; Jacobson, Jon A; Kim, Sung Moon; Brigido, Monica K; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David A
MR imaging appearances of different types of reconstructive muscle flaps following reconstructive surgery of the lower extremity with associated post-surgical changes due to altered anatomy, radiation, and potential complications, can be challenging. A multidisciplinary therapeutic approach to tumors allows for limb salvage therapy in a majority of the patients. Decision-making for specific types of soft tissue reconstruction is based on the body region affected, as well as the size and complexity of the defect. Hematomas and infections are early complications that can jeopardize flap viability. The local recurrence of a tumor within six months after a complete resection with confirmed tumor-free margins and adjuvant radiation therapy is rare. Identification of a new lesion similar to the initial tumor favors a finding of tumor recurrence. PMID:25598685
Childress, Beverly B; Berceli, Scott A; Nelson, Peter R; Lee, W Anthony; Ozaki, C Keith
Surgical wounds for lower extremity revascularization are prone to infection and dehiscence. Acticoat Absorbent, an antimicrobial dressing, offers sustained release of ionic silver. We hypothesized that immediate application of Acticoat as a postoperative dressing would reduce wound complications in patients undergoing leg revascularization. All infrainguinal revascularization cases involving leg incisions at a single Veterans Administration Medical Center were identified from July 1, 2002, to September 30, 2005. The control group received conventional dressings, while the treatment group received an Acticoat dressing. Wound complication rates were captured via National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Patient characteristics and procedure distributions were similar between groups. The wound complication rate fell 64% with utilization of the Acticoat-based dressing (control 14% [17/118], treatment 5% [7/130]; P = 0.016). An Acticoat-based dressing system offers a potentially useful, cost-effective adjunct to reduce open surgical leg revascularization wound complications.
Galkin, R A; Kotel'nikov, G P; Makarov, I V; Oparin, A N
The article sums up results of treatment of 152 patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries which were exposed to 2-3 G gravitation overloading made in a centrifuge of a short radius in direction head--pelvis. The gravitation overloading in the regimen followed were not found to have negative effects of central hemodynamics. Peripheral circulation was noted to considerably improve which is confirmed: 1) by clinical data showing 2-5 times longer distance of painless walking; 2) by the data of ultrasound dopplerography manifested as larger volume rate of blood flow and regional perfusion index; 3) by thermographic explorations evidencing the recovery of the thermoprophile of the legs and feet. Thus, the application of gravitation overloading is a new effective method of conservative treatment of patients with the pathology in question.
Yim, Eugene S; Friedberg, Ryan P
We report a case of a high-performance athlete with hemoglobin SC who presented with asymmetric calf soreness after an intense calf workout. By ultrasonography, he was diagnosed with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of his right calf. Subsequently he presented with a number of sequelae of sickle cell disease: acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis of the hips, and chronic kidney disease. The case is instructive as an example of DVT after exercise of the lower extremities, which has not been documented well. The case also illustrates a number of health sequelae of sickle cell disease that mimic more common musculoskeletal complaints. Sports medicine providers will have to consider these uncommon but profound diagnostic entities when caring for athletes with sickle cell disease. The case further highlights how research can inform the clinical decisions and policies aimed at reducing the risk of life-threatening and lifelong sequelae of sickle cell disease in athletes.
Dickinson, Brian P; Lawrence, Peter F
Heparin is a common cause of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients. Between 10% and 15% of patients receiving therapeutic doses of heparin develop thrombocytopenia. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can cause severe bleeding and thrombosis owing to intravascular platelet aggregation. HIT must be distinguished from other causes of thrombocytopenia. Importantly, heparin use is often associated with an early fall in the platelet count that usually occurs within the first 4 days of initiation and recovers without cessation of heparin treatment. This nonimmune heparin-associated thrombocytopenia has not been found to be associated with thrombosis and does not necessitate discontinuation of heparin. The authors present a case report of a 70-year-old man who received heparin therapy following aortic tissue valve replacement and aortic root repair with graft and developed bilateral lower extremity arterial clots 6 days postoperatively in the setting of positive heparin antibody titers. Ultimately the patient required bilateral above-knee amputations.
Lee, Mi Hyun; Song, Jang Ho; Lee, Doo Ik; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Park, Ji Woong
During the early stage of postherpetic neuralgia, an epidural block on the affected segment is helpful in controlling pain and preventing progression to a chronic state. The main neurologic complication following an epidural block is cord compression symptom due to an epidural hematoma. When neurologic complications arise from an epidural block for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia, it is important to determine whether the complications are due to the procedure or due to the herpes zoster itself. We report a case of a patient who was diagnosed with herpes zoster myelitis during treatment for postherpetic neuralgia. The patient complained of motor weakness in the lower extremities after receiving a thoracic epidural block six times. Although initially, we believed that the complications were due to the epidural block, it was ultimately determined to be from the herpes zoster myelitis. PMID:23342213
Milligan, Ryan O.
The extreme ultra-violet (EUV) portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature- and density-sensitive line ratios, Doppler-shifted emission lines, nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this article I review some of the recent advances that have been made using these techniques to infer physical properties of heated plasma at footpoint and ribbon locations during the initial stages of solar flares. I primarily focus on studies that have utilised spectroscopic EUV data from Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar Dynamics Observatory/EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), and I also provide some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.
Casagranda, Bethany; Srivastava, Udayan; Heller, Matthew T.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) absence is thought to have either embryologic or developmental etiologies, depending on the degree of absence. Entire absence of the IVC is thought to be due to embryologic insult, whereas recent studies propose that infrarenal IVC absence is developmental, secondary to perinatal thrombosis. Here we report on an adolescent woman with infrarenal absence of IVC and common iliac veins. Clinically, she presented with bilateral lower-extremity numbness and ataxia following strenuous exercise (running > 1 mile). Symptoms resolved with 30 seconds of rest. Radiographically, MRI revealed extensive collateral vasculature that had developed within the paravertebral soft tissues and epidural space of the spinal canal; these collaterals coursed through the neural foramina and caused moderate stenosis at L4/5 and L5/S1. PMID:27186259
Damiano, Diane L.; Alter, Katharine E.; Chambers, Henry
Synopsis Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent physical disability in childhood and includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations and levels of capability in individuals given this diagnosis. This chapter will focus on current and future intervention strategies for improving mobility and participation over the lifespan for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The provision and integration of physical therapy, medical and orthopedic surgery management focused primarily on the lower extremities will be discussed here. Some of the newer trends are: more intense and task-related exercise strategies, greater precision in tone identification and management, and a shift towards musculoskeletal surgery that focuses more on promoting dynamic bony alignment and less on releasing or lengthening tendons. Advances in basic and clinical science and technology development are changing existing paradigms and offering renewed hope for improved functioning for children with CP who are currently facing a lifelong disability with unique challenges at each stage in life. PMID:19643348
Gaumétou, E; Quijano, S; Ilharreborde, B; Presedo, A; Thoreux, P; Mazda, K; Skalli, W
Lower limb torsion varies substantially among healthy children during growth. Values reported in the literature to date have been obtained using semi-quantitative clinical or 2D measurement methods. Quantitative 3D measurement would help determine the physiological range of lower limb torsion. Low-dose stereoradiography with 3D reconstruction provides a good alternative. Its use increases in pediatrics because of radiation minimization. Previous studies have shown accurate and reproducible results of lower limbs reconstruction in adults and children but the torsional parameters haven't been measured yet. The present study reports the values of lower limb segmental torsion and its course during growth in a cohort of healthy children and young adults using the EOS low-dose biplanar X-ray. EOS 3D reconstruction is an accurate and reproducible method to measure the torsional parameters in children. Femoral torsion (FT) and tibial torsion (TT) were studied on 114 volunteers (228 lower limbs) from 6 to 30 years of age divided by age into 5 groups. The EOS™ acquisitions were obtained in subjects standing with their feet offset. Mean FT decreased during growth, passing from 21.6° to 18°, whereas mean TT increased from 26.8° to 34.7°. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 extreme age groups, but no difference was found between any other age groups. The ICC for intra-observer reproducibility was 0.96 and 0.95 for FT and TT for the first operator, and 0.79 and 0.83 for the second operator respectively. The ICC for inter-observer reproducibility was 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. The course of lower limb segmental torsion observed was consistent with literature reports based upon clinical and 2D measurements. 3D reconstruction of EOS low-dose biplanar imaging appears to be a safe and reliable tool for lower limbs measurements, especially for investigating lower limb segmental torsion in children and adults. Level IV. Copyright © 2013. Published by
Koyuncu, E; Nakipoğlu Yüzer, G F; Çam, P; Özgirgin, N
Retrospective descriptive study. The present study aimed to investigate the rate of using orthosis among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients for whom orthosis was recommended for standing and walking, the relationship between the clinical and demographic characteristics of SCI and the use of orthosis and the reasons for not using orthosis. Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Turkey. The study included 62 SCI patients for whom orthosis was recommended for standing and ambulation. The patients were classified into two groups as individuals using and not using the recommended orthosis every day in order to evaluate the effect of age, gender, residence, duration of disease/recommended duration of orthosis, recommended orthosis, lesion level-degree, lower extremity tonus-range of motion and ambulation level on the frequency of orthosis use. The orthosis most commonly recommended was hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis with waist or pelvic belt (45.2%). Of the patients, 25.8% have never used the orthosis. The most common reason for not using the recommended orthosis was the failure to facilitate the daily life activities of the patient (30%), the difficulties in putting them on and taking them off (20%), the belief that it is unnecessary (15%) and the pressure (15%). In addition, the assessed clinical and demographic features were detected as not important risk factors for not using orthosis. At least one out of four patients with SCI do not use the recommended lower extremity orthosis. Selecting eligible patients, patient training and follow-up are important for increased frequency of orthosis usage.
Cull, David L; Manos, Ginger; Hartley, Michael C; Taylor, Spence M; Langan, Eugene M; Eidt, John F; Johnson, Brent L
The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) recently established the Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System, a staging system using Wound characteristic, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) to stratify the risk for limb amputation at 1 year. Although intuitive in nature, this new system has not been validated. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether the WIfI system is predictive of limb amputation and wound healing. Between 2007 and 2010, we prospectively obtained data related to wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of postrevascularization ischemia in 139 patients with foot wounds who presented for lower extremity revascularization (158 revascularization procedures). After adapting those data to the WIfI classifications, we analyzed the influence of wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of ischemia on time to wound healing; empirical Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared with theoretical outcomes predicted by WIfI expert consensus opinion. Of the 158 foot wounds, 125 (79%) healed. The median time to wound healing was 2.7 months (range, 1-18 months). Factors associated with wound healing included presence of diabetes mellitus (P = .013), wound location (P = .049), wound size (P = .007), wound depth (P = .004), and degree of ischemia (P < .001). The WIfI clinical stage was predictive of 1-year limb amputation (stage 1, 3%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and wound nonhealing (stage 1, 8%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and correlated with the theoretical outcome estimated by the SVS expert panel. The theoretical framework for risk stratification among patients with critical limb ischemia provided by the SVS expert panel appears valid. Further validation of the WIfI classification system with multicenter data is justified. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul John; Hobbs, Sarah Jane
Errors in kinematic data are referred to as noise and are an undesirable portion of any waveform. Noise is typically removed using a low-pass filter which removes the high frequency components of the signal. The selection of an optimal frequency cut-off is very important when processing kinematic information and a number of techniques exists for the determination of an optimal frequency cut-off. Despite the importance of cut-off frequency to the efficacy of kinematic analyses there is currently a paucity of research examining the influence of different cut-off frequencies on the resultant 3-D kinematic waveforms and discrete parameters. Twenty participants ran at 4.0 m•s-1 as lower extremity kinematics in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system. The data were filtered at a range of cut-off frequencies and the discrete kinematic parameters were examined using repeated measures ANOVA's. The similarity between the raw and filtered waveforms were examined using intra-class correlations. The results show that the cut-off frequency has a significant influence on the discrete kinematic measure across displacement and derivative information in all three planes of rotation. Furthermore, it was also revealed that as the cut-off frequency decreased the attenuation of the kinematic waveforms became more pronounced, particularly in the coronal and transverse planes at the second derivative. In conclusion, this investigation provides new information regarding the influence of digital filtering on lower extremity kinematics and re-emphasizes the importance of selecting the correct cut-off frequency.
Gardner, L I; Dziados, J E; Jones, B H; Brundage, J F; Harris, J M; Sullivan, R; Gill, P
A prospective controlled trial was carried out to determine the usefulness of a viscoelastic polymer insole in prevention of stress fractures and stress reactions of the lower extremities. The subjects were 3,025 US Marine recruits who were followed for 12 weeks of training at Parris Island, South Carolina. Polymer and standard mesh insoles were systematically distributed in boots that were issued to members of odd and even numbered platoons. The most important finding was that an elastic polymer insole with good shock absorbency properties did not prevent stress reactions of bone during a 12-week period of vigorous physical training. To control for the confounding effects of running in running shoes, which occurred for about one and one-half hours per week for the first five weeks, we also examined the association of age of shoes and cost of shoes with injury incidence. A slight trend of increasing stress injuries by increasing age of shoes was observed. However, this trend did not account for the similarity of rates in the two insole groups. In addition, we observed a strong trend of decreasing stress injury rate by history of increasing physical activity, as well as a higher stress injury rate in White compared to Black recruits. The results of the trial were not altered after controlling for these factors. This prospective study confirms previous clinical reports of the association of stress fractures with physical activity history. The clinical application of a shock absorbing insole as a preventive for lower extremity stress reactions is not supported in these uniformly trained recruits. The findings are relevant to civilian populations. PMID:3056045
Schwane, Brandi G.; Goerger, Benjamin M.; Goto, Shiho; Blackburn, J. Troy; Aguilar, Alain J.; Padua, Darin A.
Context There is limited evidence indicating the contribution of trunk kinematics to patellofemoral pain (PFP). A better understanding of the interaction between trunk and lower extremity kinematics in this population may provide new avenues for interventions to treat PFP. Objective To compare trunk and lower extremity kinematics between participants with PFP and healthy controls during a stair-descent task. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty women with PFP (age = 22.2 ± 3.1 years, height = 164.5 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 63.5 ± 13.6 kg) and 20 healthy women (age = 21.0 ± 2.6 years, height = 164.5 ± 7.1 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 12.7 kg). Intervention(s) Kinematics were recorded as participants performed stair descent at a controlled velocity. Main Outcome Measure(s) Three-dimensional joint displacement of the trunk, hip, and knee during the stance phase of stair descent for the affected leg was measured using a 7-camera infrared optical motion-capture system. Pretest and posttest pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale. Kinematic differences between groups were determined using independent-samples t tests. A 2 × 2 mixed-model analysis of variance (group = PFP, control; time = pretest, posttest) was used to compare knee pain. Results We observed greater knee internal-rotation displacement for the PFP group (12.8° ± 7.2°) as compared with the control group (8.9° ± 4.4°). No other between-groups differences were observed for the trunk, hip, or other knee variables. Conclusions We observed no difference in trunk kinematics between groups but did note differences in knee internal-rotation displacement. These findings contribute to the current knowledge of altered movement in those with PFP and provide direction for exercise interventions. PMID:25898109
van Vliet, Kirsten E; de Jong, Vincent M; Termaat, M Frank; Schepers, Tim; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L F; Goslings, J Carel; Schep, Niels W L
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has proven to have a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of bone infections. In patients with delayed union it may be clinically important to differentiate between aseptic and septic delayed union. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and to assess the optimal diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT in differentiating between aseptic and septic delayed union in the lower extremity. This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT scanning for suspicion of septic delayed union of the lower extremity. Diagnosis of aseptic delayed union or septic delayed union was made based on surgical deep cultures following PET/CT scanning and information on clinical follow-up. FDG-uptake values were measured at the fractured site by use of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT were calculated at various SUVmax cut-off points. A total of 30 patients were included; 13 patients with aseptic delayed unions and 17 patients with septic delayed unions. Mean SUVmax in aseptic delayed union patients was 3.23 (SD ± 1.21). Mean SUVmax in septic delayed union patients was 4.77 (SD ± 1.87). A cut-off SUVmax set at 4.0 showed sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT were 65, 77 and 70% to differentiate between aseptic and septic delayed union, respectively. Using a semi-quantitative measure (SUVmax) for interpretation of FDG-PET/CT imaging seems to be a promising tool for the discrimination between aseptic and septic delayed union.
Seki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Kurazono, Arito; Mori, Masanori; Kato, Yoichi; Koshima, Isao
Lymphatic vessel diameter and lymph flow are important for accurate anastomosis and effective lymph-to-venous flow in lymphaticovenular anastomosis. The authors developed a reliable method, the superioredge-of-the-knee incision method, for detecting and making the best use of high-flow lymphatic vessels in the distal medial thigh between the deep and superficial fascia, where movement of the knee, combined with compression between these fascial layers, theoretically results in upward propulsion of lymphatic fluid. Intraoperative detection of large lymphatic vessels and of venous reflux and postoperative lymphedematous volume reduction were compared between 15 patients in whom lymphaticovenular anastomoses with the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision method were undergone and 15 in whom conventional lymphaticovenular anastomoses were undergone. Lymphaticovenular anastomosis at the thigh yielded 30 anastomoses in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group and 32 anastomoses in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group. Large lymphatic vessels were more frequently found in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group than in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group (60.0 percent versus 18.8 percent; p = 0.002). Venous reflux occurred less frequently in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group than in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group (10.0 percent versus 65.6 percent; p < 0.001). Reduction of the lower extremity lymphedema index was significantly greater in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group than in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group (24.427 ± 12.400 versus 0.032 ± 20.535; p < 0.001). The superior-edge-of-the-knee incision method facilitates detection and use of large, high-flow lymphatic vessels in the distal medial thigh, both of which are important for optimum therapeutic effects in patients with lower extremity lymphedema. Therapeutic, III.
Mote, Gregory A; Malay, D Scot
Power-pulsed lavage is a common adjunct to surgical wound debridement, although few studies have examined the effect of this technique in lower extremity wounds. Fifty-five consecutively enrolled patients underwent 73 surgical debridements with power-pulsed lavage, and specimens were obtained for Gram stain and culture and sensitivity analyses before and after lavage. A number of risk factors were analyzed in regard to a successful outcome, which was defined as the absence of any organisms observed on the immediate postlavage culture. The incidence of a successful outcome was 69.86%, and debridement plus power-pulsed lavage statistically significantly decreased bacteria between the immediate prelavage and immediate postlavage specimens, for Gram stain (P = .0004) and culture (P = .005) analyses. Generalized estimation equations provided fully adjusted effect estimates that revealed a decreased likelihood of observing success if the patient's age was 85 years or older, or if rare or many organisms, or gram-negative rods, were present on the immediate prelavage Gram stain; whereas an increased likelihood of success was observed if the patient's body mass index was indicative of normal weight, and if few bacteria were noted on the immediate prelavage culture specimen. Based on these results, we concluded that power-pulsed lavage can be effective in decreasing the presence of bacteria in lower extremity wounds, and an awareness of the patient characteristics and microbiological factors associated with the persistence of bacteria may be helpful to surgeons treating such wounds. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Degirmenci, Nevbahar A; Ozakyol, Aysegul H; Atlanoglu, Sahinde; Akcan, Esra; Susuz, Salim
To determine incidence of abnormal reflux flow (ARF) in legs of cirrhotic patients by Doppler ultrasonography (DUS). We prospectively studied 100 patients and 56 controls from the Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Eskisehir, Turkey, between January 2010 and December 2011. We classified the legs according to the Clinical Etiology Anatomy Pathophysiology (CEAP) scores. Lower extremity superficial and deep veins were examined in supine position by DUS for ARF. Reflux flows more than 1000 msec were considered as abnormal. Abnormal reflux flow was classified in 3 categories as superficial (SARF), deep (DARF), and SARF and/or DARF (ARF). We also performed abdominal DUS to depict anterior abdominal collateral and paraumbilical vein. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance with Tukey test, t-test, and correlation coefficient analysis. Percentages of SARF in patients were 56%, DARF 52%, and ARF 58%. Correlation analysis showed association between SARF or DARF or ARF and cirrhosis (p=0.002, p=0.000, p=0.001). Patients were distributed within CEAP 1 to CEAP 4. There was an association between SARF or DARF and CEAP 1 (p=0.007, p=0.000) or CEAP 2 (p=0.004, p=0.041) or CEAP 4 (p=0.022, p=0.90). We showed no correlation between CEAP 3 and SARF or DARF. There were also correlation between paraumbilical vein and SARF (p=0.015). Cirrhotic patients increased incidence of ARF at lower extremity veins and CEAP classification creates and provides essential information.
Donovan, Luke; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay
Ankle-destabilization devices are rehabilitation tools that may improve neuromuscular control by increasing lower-extremity muscle activation. Their effects should be tested in healthy individuals before being implemented in rehabilitation programs. To compare EMG activation of lower-extremity muscles during walking while wearing 2 different ankle-destabilization devices. Crossover. Laboratory. 15 healthy young adults (5 men, 10 women). Surface EMG activity was recorded from the anterior tibialis, peroneus longus, lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius as subjects walked on a treadmill shod, with an ankle-destabilization boot (ADB), and an ankle-destabilization sandal (ADS). Normalized amplitudes 100 ms before and 200 ms after initial heel contact, time of onset activation relative to initial contact, and percent of activation time across the stride cycle were calculated for each muscle in each condition. The precontact amplitudes of the peroneus longus and lateral gastrocnemius and the postcontact amplitudes of the lateral gastrocnemius were significantly greater in the ADB and ADS conditions. In the ADB condition, the rectus femoris and biceps femoris postcontact amplitudes were significantly greater than shod. The peroneus longus and lateral gastrocnemius were activated significantly earlier, and the anterior tibialis, lateral gastrocnemius, and rectus femoris were activated significantly longer across the stride cycle in the ADB and the ADS conditions. In addition, the peroneus longus was activated significantly longer in the ADB condition when compared with shod. Both ankle-destabilization devices caused an alteration in muscle activity during walking, which may be favorable to an injured patient. Therefore, implementing these devices in rehabilitation programs may be beneficial to improving neuromuscular control.
Wanivenhaus, Florian; Mauler, Flavien; Stelzer, Teresa; Tschopp, Alois; Böni, Thomas; Berli, Martin C
This article reports the revision rate and possible risk factors for lower extremity amputations in patients with diabetes mellitus or peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were collected from 421 patients with diabetes mellitus or PAD who underwent amputations of the lower extremity at the authors' institution from 2002 to 2012. There was a 25.2% overall revision rate. Mean time from amputation to revision was 244 days (range, 2-2590 days). Patients with diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher rate of revision to a more proximal level compared with patients without diabetes mellitus (type 1: odds ratio [OR]=3.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-11.52; P=.022; and type 2: OR=2.3; 95% CI, 1.07-4.95; P=.033). A significant increase in revision rates was observed from Fontaine stage 0 to IV (stage 0: 17.9%; stage IV, 34.7%; P=.03). Risk factors for revision were diabetic nephropathy (OR=2.26; 95% CI, 1.4-3.63; P=.001) and polyneuropathy (OR=1.68; 95% CI, 1.03-2.73; P=.037). Patients who underwent revision amputation had a significantly younger mean age than patients who did not undergo revision amputation (65.23 years [range, 40-92 years] vs 68.52 years [range, 32-96 years]; P=.013). Anticipated amputation in this patient population requires a multidisciplinary approach with optimization of the patient's health. In the authors' clinical practice, the determination of the appropriate amputation level is performed individually for each patient, considering the risk factors identified in this study and the patient's expected mobilization potential, social background, and acceptance of a more proximal primary amputation level.
Lombardo, Flavia L.; Maggini, Marina; De Bellis, Alessandra; Seghieri, Giuseppe; Anichini, Roberto
Objective To analyze hospitalization for lower extremity amputations (LEAs) and amputee rates in persons with and without diabetes in Italy. Research Design and Methods All patients with LEAs in the period 2001–2010 were identified analyzing the National Hospital Discharge Record database. For each year, amputee and hospitalization rates for LEAs were calculated either for persons with diabetes or without. Time trend for major and minor amputations were analysed. Results From 2001 to 2010 a mean annual number of 11,639 individuals underwent a lower extremity amputation: 58.6% had diabetes accounting for 60.7% of total hospitalizations. In 2010, the crude amputee rate for LEAs was 20.4 per 100,000 inhabitants: 247.2 for 100.000 persons with diabetes, and 8.6 for those without diabetes. Having diabetes was associated to an increased risk of amputation (Poisson estimated RR 10.9, 95%CI 9.4–12.8). Over the whole period, a progressive reduction of amputee rates was observed for major amputations either among persons with diabetes (−30.7%) or without diabetes (−12.5%), while the rates of minor amputations increased progressively (+22.4%) among people without diabetes and were nearly stable in people with diabetes (−4.6%). A greater number of minor amputations were performed among persons with than without diabetes: in 2010, the minor-to-major ratio among persons with diabetes (2.5) was more than twice than in those without diabetes (1.0). Conclusions The nationwide analyses confirm a progressive reduction of hospitalization and amputee rates for major LEAs, suggesting an earlier and more diffuse approach aimed at limb salvage. PMID:24489723
LI, Jun-Sheng; Ma, Jie; Yan, Zi-Xing; Cheng, Dong-Ming; Chang, Liang; Zhang, Hai-Chun; Liu, Jiang-Yan
Abstract Introduction: Ebstein's anomaly is a benign and stable congenital heart disease for asymptomatic patients. Despite a low incidence of Ebstein's anomaly (EA), patients’ quality of life can be badly affected by EA without positive surgical intervention. Especially EA is associated with other congenital heart disease, such as the atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and arterial embolism exclude other reasons, it is often considered to be the consequence of paradoxical embolism, and surgical intervention must be conducted. Case report: An 11-year-old girl falling off the bed suffered pain from left lower extremity. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed an EA, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and secundum atrial septal defect. Both left leg amputation and cardiac surgery were conducted after recovery. Under the condition of anesthesia cardiopulmonary bypass extracorporeal circulation, atrial septal defect repair and Cone reconstruction of the tricuspid valve were performed. Patient recovered well and left hospital smoothly. Discussion: EA is a rare and complex congenital cardiac malformation. There are about 80% to 90% of EA patients with combined atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale. Sudden arterial occlusion is very rare especially in childhood. When thoracic roentgenoscopy, arterial blood gas analysis, coagulation test, and echocardiographic of lower extremity deep venous system are all normal, one should consider the possibility of a paradoxical embolism. If patients have the paradoxical embolism or worsening tricuspid regurgitation, the most suitable therapeutic regimen should be chosen according to patients’ condition. With surgical techniques and methods renewed continuously, cone reconstruction of the tricuspid valve has been confirmed in clinical trials, which can use its own tissues to form not only central bloodstream, but also the coaption between leaflet and leaflet. PMID:28151866
Sotoda, Yoko; Hirooka, Shigeki; Orita, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Ichiro
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic obstructive disease of the arteries in lower extremities. Patients with PAD show high rates of mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. Smoking as well as diabetes is an important risk factor for PAD. A lesion of PAD in the lower extremities tends to be more proximal in smokers than in nonsmokers and to be more distal in patients with diabetes than in nondiabetics. By a systematic review, the odds ratio for PAD of smokers vs nonsmokers has been reported to be in the range of 1.7-7.4. Previous epidemiological studies suggest a stronger association of smoking with PAD than that with CAD. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule suppressing the progression of atherosclerosis, but this function is compromised by smoking. Smoking decreases the bioactivity of NO and the expression level of NO synthase. In addition, smoking results in deteriorations of risk factors for atherosclerosis such as decreases in blood HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and tissue plasminogen activator levels and increases in the levels of blood triglycerides, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, fibrinogen and the von Willebrand factor. Thus, smoking increases blood coagulability and deteriorates the blood lipid profile, resulting in thrombogenetic proneness and dyslipidemia. Smoking also increases the generation of atherogenic oxidized LDL in blood and decreases antiatherogenic prostacyclin production in the vascular endothelium. Smoking cessation is important for the prevention and therapy of PAD, and to this end, counseling by physicians and nicotine replacement therapy are useful and strongly recommended for patients with PAD.
Highsmith, M. Jason; Andrews, Casey R.; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Lewis, Katherine L.; Bradley, Rachel C.; Orriola, John J.
Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked. PMID:28066520
Gonsalves, Wanda C; Gessey, Mark E; Mainous, Arch G; Tilley, Barbara C
Several studies have shown that lower extremity non-traumatic amputations for diabetic patients disproportionately affect senior minorities. Our study uses population and Medicare data from the year 2000 to profile the magnitude of this disparity by county in South Carolina and its relation to race, gender, per capita income, and the number of primary care physicians. Data from 1998-2001 is used to investigate trends in amputation rates for the state as a whole and for individual counties. Lower extremity non-traumatic amputation (LEA) rates in black diabetic Medicare patients are more than twice that of White diabetic Medicare patients. In 2000, the three counties with the highest LEA rates for black males were Barnwell (5.06%), Allendale (4.87%), and Florence (4.50%). LEA rates are not related to the number of primary care physicians per 10,000 county residents or per capita income. All gender/race groups saw declines in LEA rates. Although our study could not explain the socioeconomic factors involved, it does mirror other prior studies that show a racial disparity in LEAs. Similarly, men have a greater risk of diabetic non-traumatic LEAs. Interestingly however, having more primary care physicians per 10,000 county residents does not decrease the rate of amputations. Policy makers and insurance brokers may utilize our findings to target the areas of most need for intervention and further studies. Improved adherence to guidelines by primary care physicians, decreasing barriers to health care access, educating patients about the severity of diabetes and its complications, and providing more culturally competent care may lessen the burden of this disability for our minority patients. In the era of "pay for performance", the rate of LEAs as a proxy of poor diabetic care management must clearly improve. Fortunately, the decrease in LEA rates over time as shown in our study is a step in the right direction. However, the decrease is not consistent across all counties
Background Lower extremity amputations are costly and debilitating complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim was to investigate changes in the amputation rate in patients with DM at the Karolinska University Hospital in Solna (KS) following the introduction of consensus guidelines for treatment and prevention of diabetic foot complications, and to identify risk groups of lower extremity amputations that should be targeted for preventive treatment. Methods 150 diabetic and 191 nondiabetic patients were amputated at KS between 2000 and 2006; of these 102 diabetic and 99 nondiabetic patients belonged to the catchment area of KS. 21 diabetic patients who belonged to KS catchment area were amputated at Danderyd University Hospital. All patients' case reports were searched for diagnoses of diabetes, vascular disorders, kidney disorders, and ulcer infections of the foot. Results There was a 60% reduction in the rate of amputations performed above the ankle in patients with DM during the study period. Patients with DM who underwent amputations were more commonly affected by foot infections and kidney disorders compared to the nondiabetic control group. Women with DM were 10 years older than the men when amputated, whereas men with DM underwent more multiple amputations and had more foot infections compared to the women. 88% of all diabetes-related amputations were preceded by foot ulcers. Only 30% of the patients had been referred to the multidisciplinary foot team prior to the decision of amputation. Conclusions These findings indicate a reduced rate of major amputations in diabetic patients, which suggests an implementation of the consensus guidelines of foot care. We also propose further reduced amputation rates if patients with an increased risk of future amputation (i.e. male sex, kidney disease) are identified and offered preventive treatment early. PMID:22385577
Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul John; Hobbs, Sarah Jane
Errors in kinematic data are referred to as noise and are an undesirable portion of any waveform. Noise is typically removed using a low-pass filter which removes the high frequency components of the signal. The selection of an optimal frequency cut-off is very important when processing kinematic information and a number of techniques exists for the determination of an optimal frequency cut-off. Despite the importance of cut-off frequency to the efficacy of kinematic analyses there is currently a paucity of research examining the influence of different cut-off frequencies on the resultant 3-D kinematic waveforms and discrete parameters. Twenty participants ran at 4.0 m•s−1 as lower extremity kinematics in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system. The data were filtered at a range of cut-off frequencies and the discrete kinematic parameters were examined using repeated measures ANOVA’s. The similarity between the raw and filtered waveforms were examined using intra-class correlations. The results show that the cut-off frequency has a significant influence on the discrete kinematic measure across displacement and derivative information in all three planes of rotation. Furthermore, it was also revealed that as the cut-off frequency decreased the attenuation of the kinematic waveforms became more pronounced, particularly in the coronal and transverse planes at the second derivative. In conclusion, this investigation provides new information regarding the influence of digital filtering on lower extremity kinematics and re-emphasizes the importance of selecting the correct cut-off frequency. PMID:24511338
Kurichi, Jibby E.; Small, Dylan S.; Bates, Barbara E.; Prvu-Bettger, Janet A.; Kwong, Pui L.; Vogel, W. Bruce; Bidelspach, Douglas E.; Stineman, Margaret G.
Background Little is known about the effect of different types of inpatient rehabilitation on outcomes of patients undergoing lower extremity amputation for nontraumatic reasons. Objective To compare outcomes between patients who received inpatient rehabilitation on specific rehabilitation bed units (specialized) to patients who received rehabilitation on general medical/surgical units (generalized) during the acute postoperative period. Methods This was an observational study including 1339 veterans who underwent lower extremity amputation between October 1, 2002 and September 30, 2004. Data were compiled from 9 administrative databases from the Veterans Health Administration. Propensity score risk adjustment methodology was used to reduce selection bias in looking at the effect of type of rehabilitation on outcomes (1-year survival, home discharge from the hospital, prescription of a prosthetic limb within 1 year post surgery, and improvement in physical functioning at rehabilitation discharge). Results After applying propensity score risk adjustment, there was strong evidence that patients who received specialized versus generalized rehabilitation were more likely to be discharged home (risk difference = 0.10), receive a prescription for a prosthetic limb (risk difference = 0.13), and improve physical functioning (gains on average 6.2 points higher). Specialized patients had higher 1-year survival (risk difference = 0.05), but the difference was not statistically significant. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated our findings to be unaffected by a moderately strong amount of unmeasured confounding. Conclusions Receipt of specialized compared with generalized rehabilitation during the acute postoperative inpatient period was associated with better outcomes. Future studies will need to look at different intensity, timing, and location of rehabilitation services. PMID:19238103
Craven, B C; Morris, A R
Observational study. To report the intra-rater (one rater), inter-rater (two raters) and inter-session (one subject, sessions 1-5) reliability of lower extremity modified Ashworth scale (MAS) scores among patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Tertiary Academic Rehab Centre in Toronto, Canada. MAS scores of 20 subjects with chronic SCI (C5-T10 AIS A-D>12 months) were recorded for the hip abductors and adductors, knee flexors and extensors, and ankle plantar and dorsiflexors. MAS scores were assessed by two blinded raters (A and B) at the same time of day, weekly for 5 weeks using standardized test positions, a one-cycle per second metronome, with ratings recorded on the second cycle. MAS score reproducibility [intra-rater, inter-rater] were calculated using Cohen's Kappa. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to determine inter-session (trials 1-5) reliability; Kappa values >or=0.81 and ICC values >or=0.75 were desired. Intra-rater reliability was fair to almost perfect (0.2
Tepavcevic, Brankica; Matic, Predrag; Radak, Djordje
Telangiectasias represent an esthetic problem. Sclerotherapy, laser and radiowave coagulation are established methods of treatment. The aim of the treatment is a cosmetic improvement in the leg appearance. To define which method provides best results in lower extremity telangiectasias treatment and also to determine which method is most comfortable for the patient. Thirty female volunteers, ages 30-66 years (mean 49 years), were included in the research, with telangiectasias in the thigh measuring 0,1 to 2 mm in diameter, and skin phototype according to Fitzpatrick I-IV. Three rectangular areas 3 × 5 cm, were marked on the thigh, with nearly same pattern and appearance of telangiectasias in each field. In each rectangle, only one session of sclerotherapy, laser, and radiowave coagulation were performed, respectively. It is completely documented with the digital camera prior to the therapy and 3 months after the treatment. At the end of the study, three blinded experts graded leg telangiectasias for clearance using obtained digital images. Patients were also required to describe the sense of pain during each procedure as minimal, mild, or strong. Chi-square test was used for statistical data processing. After 3 months period, there was a high statistical significant difference among methods of treatment (χ(2) = 45.492, p < 0.01). The most efficient was sclerotherapy. Also there was a high statistical significant difference (χ(2) test = 30.549, p < 0.01) among levels of pain experienced by patients in the study. Minimal sense of pain was associated with sclerotherapy. Our study revealed that the most efficient method in terms of telangiectasias clearance is sclerotherapy. It also showed that most comfortable method for the patient is sclerotherapy, since it produces minimal pain during the procedure. It can be concluded that sclerotherapy is a successful method in treating lower extremity telangiectasias leaving both, patient and physician content.
Overmoyer, Grant V; Reiser, Raoul F
Joint flexibility, bilateral asymmetries in flexibility, and bilateral asymmetries in performance of the Y Balance Test have been associated with injuries. However, relationships among these attributes are unclear. The goal of this investigation was to examine how flexibility and flexibility asymmetries relate to the Y Balance Test. Twenty healthy active young adults (9 men and 11 women; mean ± SD: age = 21.9 ± 2.6 years; height = 171 ± 8.8 cm; mass = 67.2 ± 1.9 kg) performed 9 different lower extremity active range of motion (AROM) tests and the Y Balance Test in a single visit. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) existed between bilateral average AROM measures and bilateral average Y Balance Test scores at the ankle and hip. Specifically, ankle dorsiflexion AROM at 0° knee flexion significantly correlated with Anterior, Posterolateral, and Composite directional scores of the Y Balance Test (r = 0.497-0.736). Significant correlations in ankle dorsiflexion AROM at 90° knee flexion also existed with Anterior, Posterolateral, Posteromedial, and Composite directional scores (r = 0.472-0.795). Hip flexion AROM was significantly correlated with Posterolateral, Posteromedial, and Composite directional scores (r = 0.457-0.583). Significant correlations between asymmetries in AROM and asymmetries in the Y Balance Test existed only in ankle plantarflexion with Anterior, Posterolateral, and Composite directional scores of the Y Balance Test (r = 0.520-0.636). Results suggest that when used with recreationally active healthy adults, the Y Balance Test may help identify lower-extremity flexibility deficits and flexibility asymmetries in the ankle and hip regions but may need to be used in conjunction with additional tests to understand a broader picture of functional movement and injury risk.
Wu, Yu; Xiao, Fei; Gu, Dong-Yun
Backward walking has become a popular training method in physical exercise and clinical rehabilitation. For the sake of safety, it is important to keep a stable gait during backward walking. However, the gait stability during backward walking was rarely studied. This study investigated the effects of walking direction on local dynamic stability of the trunk segments (neck, torso and pelvis) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The maximum Lyapunov exponents (λ(s)) of 17 young healthy male adults were calculated while they were walking under three conditions: backward walking with preferred walking speed (BW), forward walking (FW) with the same speed determined by BW, and forward walking with normal speed (FWN). We found that compared with FW, BW showed significant higher values of λ(s) in the trunk segments in vertical (VT) direction (p<0.05). The torso segment also displayed a higher value of λ(s) in anterior-posterior (AP) direction (p<0.01); Higher values of λ(s) during BW were found in the rotation (RT) motion of hip and knee joint (p=0.036, and p=0.009, respectively), and in the abduction/adduction (AB/AD) motion of knee and ankle joint (p=0.013, and p=0.021, respectively). The significant effect of walking speed was found between FW and FWN condition in VT direction (p<0.01). These findings indicate that backward walking did impair the local dynamic stability in trunk segments and lower extremity joints. Especially, the negative effect of BW on the poor gait stability in the AP direction of torso segment, and AB/AD and RT motion of knee joint should not be neglected.
Schmitz, Randy J; Cone, John C; Copple, Timothy J; Henson, Robert A; Shultz, Sandra J
Potential biomechanical compensations allowing for maintenance of maximal explosive performance during prolonged intermittent exercise, with respect to the corresponding rise in injury rates during the later stages of exercise or competition, are relatively unknown. To identify lower-extremity countermovement-jump (CMJ) biomechanical factors using a principal-components approach and then examine how these factors changed during a 90-min intermittent-exercise protocol (IEP) while maintaining maximal jump height. Mixed-model design. Laboratory. Fifty-nine intermittent-sport athletes (30 male, 29 female) participated in experimental and control conditions. Before and after a dynamic warm-up and every 15 min during the 1st and 2nd halves of an individually prescribed 90-min IEP, participants were assessed on rating of perceived exertion, sprint/cut speed, and 3-dimensional CMJ biomechanics (experimental). On a separate day, the same measures were obtained every 15 min during 90 min of quiet rest (control). Univariate piecewise growth models analyzed progressive changes in CMJ performance and biomechanical factors extracted from a principal-components analysis of the individual biomechanical dependent variables. While CMJ height was maintained during the 1st and 2nd halves, the body descended less and knee kinetic and energetic magnitudes decreased as the IEP progressed. The results indicate that vertical-jump performance is maintained along with progressive biomechanical changes commonly associated with decreased performance. A better understanding of lower-extremity biomechanics during explosive actions in response to IEP allows us to further develop and individualize performance training programs.
Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero
The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.