Science.gov

Sample records for lower extremities

  1. Pediatric lower extremity mower injuries.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sean M; Elwood, Eric T

    2011-09-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children represent an unfortunate common problem to the plastic reconstructive surgeon. There are approximately 68,000 per year reported in the United States. Compounding this problem is the fact that a standard treatment algorithm does not exist. This study follows a series of 7 pediatric patients treated for lower extremity mower injuries by a single plastic surgeon. The extent of soft tissue injury varied. All patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy as a bridge to definitive closure. Of the 7 patients, 4 required skin grafts, 1 required primary closure, 1 underwent a lower extremity amputation secondary to wounds, and 1 was repaired using a cross-leg flap. Function limitations were minimal for all of our patients after reconstruction. Our basic treatment algorithm is presented with initial debridement followed by the simplest method possible for wound closure using negative pressure wound therapy, if necessary.

  2. Acute lower extremity paralysis after lower extremity endovascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Semi; Kalyoncuoğlu, Muhsin; Durmuş, Gündüz; Topçu, Adem; Can, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    A 61-year-old man underwent successful percutaneous revascularization of both lower limbs with multiple stent implantations. Paralysis of right lower limb was noticed after completion of procedure when transferring the patient from angiography table. Since hematoma compressing lumbosacral neural plexus could be a fatal complication, computed tomography (CT) image was taken. CT showed bulge of distended bladder compressing stent struts. Following placement of Foley catheter, condition improved and he was subsequently discharged uneventfully.

  3. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P < 0.001) and ankle sprains (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.69; P < 0.001), yet not ACL ruptures (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.36-3.29; P = 0.87) in basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID

  4. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  5. Computational Failure Modeling of Lower Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    bone fracture, ligament tear, and muscle rupture . While these injuries may seem well-defined through medical imaging, the process of injury and the...to vehicles from improvised explosives cause severe injuries to the lower extremities, in- cluding bone fracture, ligament tear, and muscle rupture ...modeling offers a powerful tool to explore the insult-to-injury process with high-resolution. When studying a complex dynamic process such as this, it is

  6. Lower Extremity Reconstruction with Free Gracilis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Nicoson, Michael C; Parikh, Rajiv P; Tung, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    Background There have been significant advancements in lower extremity reconstruction over the last several decades, and the plastic surgeon’s armamentarium has grown to include free muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps along with local perforator and propeller flaps. While we have found a use for a variety of techniques for lower extremity reconstruction, the free gracilis has been our workhorse flap due to the ease of harvest, reliability, and low donor site morbidity. Methods This is a retrospective review of a single surgeon’s series of free gracilis flaps utilized for lower extremity reconstruction. Demographic information, comorbidities, outcomes and secondary procedures were analyzed. Results We identified 24 free gracilis flaps. The duration from injury to free flap coverage was 7 days or less in 6 patients, 8–30 days in 11 patients, 31–90 days in 4 patients, and > 90 days in 3 patients. There were 22 (92%) successful flaps and an overall limb salvage rate of 92%. There was one partial flap loss. Two flaps underwent incision and drainage in the operating room for infection. Two patients developed donor site hematomas. Four patients underwent secondary procedures for contouring. Our subset of pediatric patients had 100% flap survival and no secondary procedures at a mean 30 month follow up. Conclusions This study demonstrates the utility of the free gracilis flap in reconstruction of small to medium sized defects of the lower extremity. This flap has a high success rate and low donor site morbidity. Atrophy of the denervated muscle over time allows for good shoe fit, often obviating the need for secondary contouring procedures. PMID:28024305

  7. Sexuality in persons with lower extremity amputations.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, C; Kerrigan, A J; Garber, S L; Monga, T N

    2000-06-15

    There is a paucity of information regarding sexual functioning in persons with lower extremity amputations. The purpose of this study was to describe sexual and psychological functioning and health status in persons with lower extremity amputation. Self-report surveys assessed sexual functioning (Derogatis Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory, anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and health status (Health Status Questionnaire) in a convenience sample of 30 men with lower extremity amputations. Mean age of the participants was 57 years (range 32-79). Mean duration since amputation was 23 months (range 3-634 months). Twenty one subjects (70%) had trans-tibial and seven subjects (23%) had trans-femoral amputations. A majority of subjects were experiencing problems in several domains of sexual functioning. Fifty three percent (n = 16) of the subjects were engaged in sexual intercourse or oral sex at least once a month. Twenty seven percent (n = 8) were masturbating at least once a month. Nineteen subjects (63%) reported orgasmic problems and 67% were experiencing erectile difficulties. Despite these problems, interest in sex was high in over 90% of the subjects. There was no evidence of increased prevalence of depression or anxiety in these subjects when compared to other outpatient adult populations. Sexual problems were common in the subjects studied. Despite these problems, interest in sex remained high. Few investigations have been directed toward identifying the psychological and social factors that may contribute to these problems and more research with a larger population is needed in this area.

  8. Footwear traction and lower extremity noncontact injury.

    PubMed

    Wannop, John W; Luo, Geng; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-11-01

    Football is the most popular high school sport; however, it has the highest rate of injury. Speculation has been prevalent that foot fixation due to high footwear traction contributes to injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the athlete's specific footwear traction (measured with their own shoes on the field of play) and lower extremity noncontact injury in high school football. For 3 yr, 555 high school football athletes had their footwear traction measured on the actual field of play at the start of the season, and any injury the athletes suffered during a game was recorded. Lower extremity noncontact injury rates, grouped based on the athlete's specific footwear traction (both translational and rotational), were compared. For translational traction, injury rate reached a peak of 23.3 injuries/1000 game exposures within the midrange of translational traction, before decreasing to 5.0 injuries/1000 game exposures in the high range of traction. For rotational traction, there was a steady increase in injury rate as footwear traction increased, starting at 4.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at low traction and reaching 19.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at high traction. A relationship exists between footwear traction and noncontact lower extremity injury, with increases in rotational traction leading to a greater injury rate and increases in translational traction leading to a decrease in injury. It is recommended that athletes consider selecting footwear with the lowest rotational traction values for which no detriment in performance results.

  9. Cycling injuries of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Wanich, Tony; Hodgkins, Christopher; Columbier, Jean-Allain; Muraski, Erika; Kennedy, John G

    2007-12-01

    Cycling is an increasingly popular recreational and competitive activity, and cycling-related injuries are becoming more common. Many common cycling injuries of the lower extremity are preventable. These include knee pain, patellar quadriceps tendinitis, iliotibial band syndrome, hip pain, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, numbness of the foot, and metatarsalgia. Injury is caused by a combination of inadequate preparation, inappropriate equipment, poor technique, and overuse. Nonsurgical management may include rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injection, ice, a reduction in training intensity, orthotics, night splints, and physical therapy. Injury prevention should be the focus, with particular attention to bicycle fit and alignment, appropriate equipment, proper rider position and pedaling mechanics, and appropriate training.

  10. Lower extremity kinematics of athletics curve sprinting.

    PubMed

    Alt, Tobias; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Potthast, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Curve running requires the generation of centripetal force altering the movement pattern in comparison to the straight path run. The question arises which kinematic modulations emerge while bend sprinting at high velocities. It has been suggested that during curve sprints the legs fulfil different functions. A three-dimensional motion analysis (16 high-speed cameras) was conducted to compare the segmental kinematics of the lower extremity during the stance phases of linear and curve sprints (radius: 36.5 m) of six sprinters of national competitive level. Peak joint angles substantially differed in the frontal and transversal plane whereas sagittal plane kinematics remained unchanged. During the prolonged left stance phase (left: 107.5 ms, right: 95.7 ms, straight: 104.4 ms) the maximum values of ankle eversion (left: 12.7°, right: 2.6°, straight: 6.6°), hip adduction (left: 13.8°, right: 5.5°, straight: 8.8°) and hip external rotation (left: 21.6°, right: 12.9°, straight: 16.7°) were significantly higher. The inside leg seemed to stabilise the movement in the frontal plane (eversion-adduction strategy) whereas the outside leg provided and controlled the motion in the horizontal plane (rotation strategy). These results extend the principal understanding of the effects of curve sprinting on lower extremity kinematics. This helps to increase the understanding of nonlinear human bipedal locomotion, which in turn might lead to improvements in athletic performance and injury prevention.

  11. Lower extremity kinetics in tap dance.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Lester; Bronner, Shaw; Agraharasamakulam, Sujani; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2010-01-01

    Tap dance is a unique performing art utilizing the lower extremities as percussion instruments. In a previous study these authors reported decreased injury prevalence among tap dancers compared to other dance and sports participants. No biomechanical analyses of tap dance exist to explain this finding. The purpose of the current pilot study was to provide a preliminary overview of normative peak kinetic and kinematic data, based on the hypothesis that tap dance generates relatively low ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments. Six professional tap dancers performed four common tap dance sequences that produced data captured by the use of a force platform and a five-camera motion analysis system. The mean vertical ground reaction force for all sequences was found to be 2.06+/-0.55 BW. Mean peak sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane joint moments (hip, knee, and ankle) ranged from 0.07 to 2.62 N.m/kg. These small ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments support our hypothesis, and may explain the relatively low injury incidence in tap dancers. Nevertheless, the analysis is highly complex, and other factors remain to be studied and clarified.

  12. Diabetes, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Lower Extremity Function

    PubMed Central

    Chiles, Nancy S.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. Research Design and Methods This study included 983 participants, age 65 and older from the InCHIANTI Study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0-12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cut-points of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0-5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. Results and Conclusion 12.8% (n=126) of participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β= −0.99; p< 0.01), decreased walking speed (β= −0.1m/s; p< 0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β= −1.7m/s; p< 0.01), and increased neuropathy (β= 0.25; p< 0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. PMID:24120281

  13. Radiographic parameters improve lower extremity prosthetic alignment.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Ryan; Carry, Patrick; Wylie, Erin; Schultz, Abby; McNair, Bryan; Page, Carol; Biffl, Susan; Heare, Travis

    2013-12-01

    The goal of prosthetic fitting is to provide comfort and functionality to the patient. It is thought that incorporating the use of standing anterior-posterior long leg radiographs (LLR) into the fitting of lower extremity prostheses will provide an objective guide when making adjustments, and be a better assessment of alignment. This study compares prosthetic alignment before and after radiography-guided adjustments. This retrospective study was performed at a multidisciplinary amputee clinic on patients with congenital and/or acquired limb deficiencies. Their prosthetic alignment was evaluated by LLR and adjusted as needed. Satisfactory alignment was defined as a mechanical axis angular deviation of ≤1° and a leg length discrepancy of ≤10 mm. A total of 45 unique prostheses from 24 subjects (10 female and 14 male) were included. Post-adjustment radiographs were obtained from 29 prostheses. After the initial prosthetic fitting, the probability of a satisfactory fit was 20.0 % (95 % CI 10.9-34.9 %). Following the baseline adjustment, the probability of a satisfactory fit improved to 53.3 % (95 % CI 37.5-70.9 %). After adjustment number 4, the probability of a satisfactory fit further improved to 76.7 % (95 % CI 41.9-98.0 %). There were also significant improvements in distal offset distance (p = 0.0040) and leg length discrepancy (p = 0.0206). The distal offset distance decreased by an average of 10.7 mm (95 % CI 3.6-17.8), and leg length discrepancy decreased by an average of 3.0 mm (95 % CI 00.48-5.5). The addition of LLRs to existing fitting methods significantly improves prosthetic alignment and length.

  14. [Ultrasound examination for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kosaku

    2014-09-01

    Surgery is known to be a major risk factor of vein thrombosis. Progression from lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to pulmonary embolism can lead to catastrophic outcome, although the incidence ratio is low. The ability to rule in or rule out DVT is becoming essential for anesthesiologists. Non-invasive technique of ultrasonography is a sensitive and specific tool for the assessment of lower extremity DVT. This article introduces the basics and practical methods of ultrasound examination for lower extremity DVT.

  15. Sequences of upper and lower extremity motions in javelin throwing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Leigh, Steve; Yu, Bing

    2010-11-01

    Javelin throwing is technically demanding. Sequences of upper and lower extremity motions are important for javelin throwing performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the general sequences of upper and lower extremity motions of elite male and female javelin throwers. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected for 32 female and 30 male elite javelin throwers during competitions. Shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, lower trunk, and upper trunk joint and segment angles were reduced for the best trial of each participant. Beginning times of 6 upper extremity and 10 lower extremity joint and segment angular motions were identified. Sequences of the upper and lower extremity motions were determined through statistical analyses. Upper and lower extremity motions of the male and female elite javelin throwers followed specific sequences (P ≤ 0.050). Upper extremity motions of the male and female elite javelin throwers did not follow a proximal-to-distal sequence as suggested in the literature. Male and female elite javelin throwers apparently employed different sequences for upper and lower extremity motions (P < 0.001). Further studies are needed to determine the effects of sequences of upper and lower extremity motions on javelin throwing performance.

  16. Factors Associated with Lower Extremity Dysmorphia Caused by Lower Extremity Lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Yamamoto, N; Yoshimatsu, H; Narushima, M; Koshima, I

    2017-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography has been reported to be useful for the early diagnosis of lymphoedema. However, no study has reported the usefulness of ICG lymphography for evaluation of lymphoedema with lower extremity dysmorphia (LED). This study aimed to elucidate independent factors associated with LED in secondary lower extremity lymphoedema (LEL) patients. This was a retrospective observational study of 268 legs of 134 secondary LEL patients. The medical charts were reviewed to obtain data of clinical demographics and ICG lymphography based severity stage (leg dermal backflow [LDB] stage). LED was defined as a leg with a LEL index of 250 or higher. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with LED. LED was observed in 106 legs (39.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed that independent factors associated with LED were higher LDB stages compared with LDB stage 0 (LDB stage III; OR 17.586; 95% CI 2.055-150.482; p = .009) (LDB stage IV; OR 76.794; 95% CI 8.132-725.199; p < .001) (LDB stage V; OR 47.423; 95% CI 3.704-607.192; p = .003). On the other hand, inverse associations were observed in higher age (65 years or older; OR 0.409; 95% CI 0.190-0.881; p = .022) and higher body mass index (25 kg/m 2 or higher; OR 0.408; 95% CI 0.176-0.946; p = .037). Independent factors associated with LED were elucidated. ICG lymphography based severity stage showed the strongest association with LED, and was useful for evaluation of progressed LEL with LED. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inpatient Rehabilitation Volume and Functional Outcomes in Stroke, Lower Extremity Fracture, and Lower Extremity Joint Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James E.; Deutsch, Anne; O’Connell, Ann A.; Karmarkar, Amol M.; Granger, Carl V.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear if volume-outcome relationships exist in inpatient rehabilitation. Objectives Assess associations between facility volumes and two patient-centered outcomes in the three most common diagnostic groups in inpatient rehabilitation. Research Design We used hierarchical linear and generalized linear models to analyze administrative assessment data from patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services for stroke (n=202,423), lower extremity fracture (n=132,194), or lower extremity joint replacement (n=148,068) between 2006 and 2008 in 717 rehabilitation facilities across the U.S. Facilities were assigned to quintiles based on average annual diagnosis-specific patient volumes. Measures Discharge functional status (FIM instrument) and probability of home discharge. Results Facility-level factors accounted for 6–15% of the variance in discharge FIM total scores and 3–5% of the variance in home discharge probability across the 3 diagnostic groups. We used the middle volume quintile (Q3) as the reference group for all analyses and detected small, but statistically significant (p < .01) associations with discharge functional status in all three diagnosis groups. Only the highest volume quintile (Q5) reached statistical significance, displaying higher functional status ratings than Q3 each time. The largest effect was observed in FIM total scores among fracture patients, with only a 3.6-point difference in Q5 and Q3 group means. Volume was not independently related to home discharge. Conclusions Outcome-specific volume effects ranged from small (functional status) to none (home discharge) in all three diagnostic groups. Patients with these conditions can be treated locally rather than at higher-volume regional centers. Further regionalization of inpatient rehabilitation services is not needed for these conditions. PMID:23579350

  18. Inpatient rehabilitation volume and functional outcomes in stroke, lower extremity fracture, and lower extremity joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Deutsch, Anne; O'Connell, Ann A; Karmarkar, Amol M; Granger, Carl V; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2013-05-01

    It is unclear if volume-outcome relationships exist in inpatient rehabilitation. Assess associations between facility volumes and 2 patient-centered outcomes in the 3 most common diagnostic groups in inpatient rehabilitation. We used hierarchical linear and generalized linear models to analyze administrative assessment data from patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services for stroke (n=202,423), lower extremity fracture (n=132,194), or lower extremity joint replacement (n=148,068) between 2006 and 2008 in 717 rehabilitation facilities across the United States. Facilities were assigned to quintiles based on average annual diagnosis-specific patient volumes. Discharge functional status (FIM instrument) and probability of home discharge. Facility-level factors accounted for 6%-15% of the variance in discharge FIM total scores and 3%-5% of the variance in home discharge probability across the 3 diagnostic groups. We used the middle volume quintile (Q3) as the reference group for all analyses and detected small, but statistically significant (P<0.01) associations with discharge functional status in all 3 diagnosis groups. Only the highest volume quintile (Q5) reached statistical significance, displaying higher functional status ratings than Q3 each time. The largest effect was observed in FIM total scores among fracture patients, with only a 3.6-point difference in Q5 and Q3 group means. Volume was not independently related to home discharge. Outcome-specific volume effects ranged from small (functional status) to none (home discharge) in all 3 diagnostic groups. Patients with these conditions can be treated locally rather than at higher volume regional centers. Further regionalization of inpatient rehabilitation services is not needed for these conditions.

  19. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O’Brien, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. PMID:20858378

  20. Lymphoscintigraphic findings in chylous reflux in a lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Gholam R; Iker, Emily; Glass, Edwin C

    2007-09-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful and safe tool for the diagnostic evaluation of a swollen extremity. Unilateral leg swelling with cutaneous chylous vesicles is a common manifestation of chylous reflux. The authors present a case of chylous reflux in an 11-year-old boy who presented with swelling and skin lesions of the left lower extremity.

  1. Association Between Concussion and Lower Extremity Injuries in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Frances C.; Burdette, G. Trey; Joyner, A. Barry; Llewellyn, Tracy A.; Buckley, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concussions have been associated with elevated musculoskeletal injury risk; however, the influence of unreported and unrecognized concussions has not been investigated. Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between concussion and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury rates across a diverse array of sports among collegiate student-athletes at the conclusion of their athletic career. The hypothesis was that there will be a positive association between athletes who reported a history of concussions and higher rates of lower extremity injuries. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Student-athletes (N = 335; 62.1% women; mean age, 21.2 ± 1.4 years) from 13 sports completed a reliable injury history questionnaire. Respondents indicated the total number of reported, unreported, and potentially unrecognized concussions as well as lower extremity injuries including ankle sprains, knee injuries, and muscle strains. Chi-square analyses were performed to identify the association between concussion and lower extremity injuries. Results: There were significant associations between concussion and lateral ankle sprain (P = 0.012), knee injury (P = 0.002), and lower extremity muscle strain (P = 0.031). There were also significant associations between reported concussions and knee injury (P = 0.003), unreported concussions and knee injury (P = 0.002), and unrecognized concussions and lateral ankle sprain (P = 0.001) and lower extremity muscle strains (P = 0.006), with odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.9. Conclusion: There was a positive association between concussion history and lower extremity injuries (odds ratios, 1.6-2.9 elevated risk) among student-athletes at the conclusion of their intercollegiate athletic careers. Clinical Relevance: Clinicians should be aware of these elevated risks when making return-to-participation decisions and should incorporate injury prevention protocols. PMID:27587598

  2. Association Between Concussion and Lower Extremity Injuries in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frances C; Burdette, G Trey; Joyner, A Barry; Llewellyn, Tracy A; Buckley, Thomas A

    Concussions have been associated with elevated musculoskeletal injury risk; however, the influence of unreported and unrecognized concussions has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between concussion and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury rates across a diverse array of sports among collegiate student-athletes at the conclusion of their athletic career. The hypothesis was that there will be a positive association between athletes who reported a history of concussions and higher rates of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Student-athletes (N = 335; 62.1% women; mean age, 21.2 ± 1.4 years) from 13 sports completed a reliable injury history questionnaire. Respondents indicated the total number of reported, unreported, and potentially unrecognized concussions as well as lower extremity injuries including ankle sprains, knee injuries, and muscle strains. Chi-square analyses were performed to identify the association between concussion and lower extremity injuries. There were significant associations between concussion and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.012), knee injury ( P = 0.002), and lower extremity muscle strain ( P = 0.031). There were also significant associations between reported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.003), unreported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.002), and unrecognized concussions and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.001) and lower extremity muscle strains ( P = 0.006), with odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.9. There was a positive association between concussion history and lower extremity injuries (odds ratios, 1.6-2.9 elevated risk) among student-athletes at the conclusion of their intercollegiate athletic careers. Clinicians should be aware of these elevated risks when making return-to-participation decisions and should incorporate injury prevention protocols.

  3. Kinematic and neuromuscular relationships between lower extremity clinical movement assessments.

    PubMed

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Cram, Tyler R; Frank, Barnett S; Begalle, Rebecca L; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2018-06-01

    Lower extremity injuries have immediate and long-term consequences. Lower extremity movement assessments can assist with identifying individuals at greater injury risk and guide injury prevention interventions. Movement assessments identify similar movement characteristics and evidence suggests large magnitude kinematic relationships exist between movement patterns observed across assessments; however, the magnitude of the relationships for electromyographic (EMG) measures across movement assessments remains largely unknown. This study examined relationships between lower extremity kinematic and EMG measures during jump landings and single leg squats. Lower extremity three-dimensional kinematic and EMG data were sampled from healthy adults (males = 20, females = 20) during the movement assessments. Pearson correlations examined the relationships of the kinematic and EMG measures and paired samples t-tests compared mean kinematic and EMG measures between the assessments. Overall, significant moderate correlations were observed for lower extremity kinematic (r avg  = 0.41, r range  = 0.10-0.61) and EMG (r avg  = 0.47, r range  = 0.32-0.80) measures across assessments. Kinematic and EMG measures were greater during the jump landings. Jump landings and single leg squats place different demands on the body and necessitate different kinematic and EMG patterns, such that these measures are not highly correlated between assessments. Clinicians should, therefore, use multiple assessments to identify aberrant movement and neuromuscular control patterns so that comprehensive interventions can be implemented.

  4. Cervical Myelopathy in a Patient Referred for Lower Extremity Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Steven M

    2017-07-01

    The patient was a 38-year-old male referred to physical therapy with complaints of right lower extremity radicular pain and left lower extremity weakness. Following physical therapy examination, the primary care physician referred the patient to a neurologist, who performed electromyography and nerve conduction studies and ordered a magnetic resonance image. Cervical spine imaging revealed a C5-6 disc extrusion with myelopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(7):510. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.5071.

  5. Reliability of the mangled extremity severity score in combat-related upper and lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    Ege, Tolga; Unlu, Aytekin; Tas, Huseyin; Bek, Dogan; Turkan, Selim; Cetinkaya, Aytac

    2015-01-01

    Decision of limb salvage or amputation is generally aided with several trauma scoring systems such as the mangled extremity severity score (MESS). However, the reliability of the injury scores in the settling of open fractures due to explosives and missiles is challenging. Mortality and morbidity of the extremity trauma due to firearms are generally associated with time delay in revascularization, injury mechanism, anatomy of the injured site, associated injuries, age and the environmental circumstance. The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the extent of extremity injuries due to ballistic missiles and to detect the reliability of mangled extremity severity score (MESS) in both upper and lower extremities. Between 2004 and 2014, 139 Gustillo Anderson Type III open fractures of both the upper and lower extremities were enrolled in the study. Data for patient age, fire arm type, transporting time from the field to the hospital (and the method), injury severity scores, MESS scores, fracture types, amputation levels, bone fixation methods and postoperative infections and complications retrieved from the two level-2 trauma center's data base. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the MESS were calculated to detect the ability in deciding amputation in the mangled limb. Amputation was performed in 39 extremities and limb salvage attempted in 100 extremities. The mean followup time was 14.6 months (range 6-32 months). In the amputated group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremity were 8.8 (range 6-11) and 9.24 (range 6-11), respectively. In the limb salvage group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremities were 5.29 (range 4-7) and 5.19 (range 3-8), respectively. Sensitivity of MESS in upper and lower extremities were calculated as 80% and 79.4% and positive predictive values detected as 55.55% and 83.3%, respectively. Specificity of MESS score for upper and lower extremities was 84% and 86.6%; negative

  6. Reliability of the mangled extremity severity score in combat-related upper and lower extremity injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ege, Tolga; Unlu, Aytekin; Tas, Huseyin; Bek, Dogan; Turkan, Selim; Cetinkaya, Aytac

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision of limb salvage or amputation is generally aided with several trauma scoring systems such as the mangled extremity severity score (MESS). However, the reliability of the injury scores in the settling of open fractures due to explosives and missiles is challenging. Mortality and morbidity of the extremity trauma due to firearms are generally associated with time delay in revascularization, injury mechanism, anatomy of the injured site, associated injuries, age and the environmental circumstance. The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the extent of extremity injuries due to ballistic missiles and to detect the reliability of mangled extremity severity score (MESS) in both upper and lower extremities. Materials and Methods: Between 2004 and 2014, 139 Gustillo Anderson Type III open fractures of both the upper and lower extremities were enrolled in the study. Data for patient age, fire arm type, transporting time from the field to the hospital (and the method), injury severity scores, MESS scores, fracture types, amputation levels, bone fixation methods and postoperative infections and complications retrieved from the two level-2 trauma center's data base. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the MESS were calculated to detect the ability in deciding amputation in the mangled limb. Results: Amputation was performed in 39 extremities and limb salvage attempted in 100 extremities. The mean followup time was 14.6 months (range 6–32 months). In the amputated group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremity were 8.8 (range 6–11) and 9.24 (range 6–11), respectively. In the limb salvage group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower extremities were 5.29 (range 4–7) and 5.19 (range 3–8), respectively. Sensitivity of MESS in upper and lower extremities were calculated as 80% and 79.4% and positive predictive values detected as 55.55% and 83.3%, respectively. Specificity of MESS score for

  7. Early Reconstructions of Complex Lower Extremity Battlefield Soft Tissue Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Azin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Severe lower extremity trauma as a devastating combat related injury is on the rise and this presents reconstructive surgeons with significant challenges to reach optimal cosmetic and functional outcomes. This study assessed early reconstructions of complex lower extremity battlefield soft tissue wounds. METHODS This was a prospective case series study of battled field injured patients which was done in the Department of Plastic Surgery, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences hospitals, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2015. In this survey, 73 patients were operated for reconstruction of lower extremity soft tissue defects due to battlefield injuries RESULTS Seventy-three patients (65 men, 8 womens) ranging from 21-48 years old (mean: 35 years) were enrolled. Our study showed that early debridement and bone stabilization and later coverage of complex battlefields soft tissue wounds with suitable flaps and grafts of lower extremity were effective method for difficult wounds managements with less amputation and infections. CONCLUSION Serial debridement and bone stabilization before early soft tissue reconstruction according to reconstructive ladder were shown to be essential steps. PMID:29218283

  8. Does trampoline or hard surface jumping influence lower extremity alignment?

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Tamura, Akihiro; Katsuta, Aoi; Sagawa, Ayako; Otsudo, Takahiro; Okubo, Yu; Sawada, Yutaka; Hall, Toby

    2017-12-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether repetitive trampoline or hard surface jumping affects lower extremity alignment on jump landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy females participated in this study. All subjects performed a drop vertical jump before and after repeated maximum effort trampoline or hard surface jumping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates were used to record lower extremity angles, moments, and vertical ground reaction force during drop vertical jumps. [Results] Knee extensor moment after trampoline jumping was greater than that after hard surface jumping. There were no significant differences between trials in vertical ground reaction force and lower extremity joint angles following each form of exercise. Repeated jumping on a trampoline increased peak vertical ground reaction force, hip extensor, knee extensor moments, and hip adduction angle, while decreasing hip flexion angle during drop vertical jumps. In contrast, repeated jumping on a hard surface increased peak vertical ground reaction force, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and hip extensor moment during drop vertical jumps. [Conclusion] Repeated jumping on the trampoline compared to jumping on a hard surface has different effects on lower limb kinetics and kinematics. Knowledge of these effects may be useful in designing exercise programs for different clinical presentations.

  9. Does trampoline or hard surface jumping influence lower extremity alignment?

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Tamura, Akihiro; Katsuta, Aoi; Sagawa, Ayako; Otsudo, Takahiro; Okubo, Yu; Sawada, Yutaka; Hall, Toby

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether repetitive trampoline or hard surface jumping affects lower extremity alignment on jump landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy females participated in this study. All subjects performed a drop vertical jump before and after repeated maximum effort trampoline or hard surface jumping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates were used to record lower extremity angles, moments, and vertical ground reaction force during drop vertical jumps. [Results] Knee extensor moment after trampoline jumping was greater than that after hard surface jumping. There were no significant differences between trials in vertical ground reaction force and lower extremity joint angles following each form of exercise. Repeated jumping on a trampoline increased peak vertical ground reaction force, hip extensor, knee extensor moments, and hip adduction angle, while decreasing hip flexion angle during drop vertical jumps. In contrast, repeated jumping on a hard surface increased peak vertical ground reaction force, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and hip extensor moment during drop vertical jumps. [Conclusion] Repeated jumping on the trampoline compared to jumping on a hard surface has different effects on lower limb kinetics and kinematics. Knowledge of these effects may be useful in designing exercise programs for different clinical presentations. PMID:29643592

  10. Is prescribed lower extremity weight-bearing status after geriatric lower extremity trauma associated with increased mortality?

    PubMed

    Gitajn, Ida Leah; Connelly, Daniel; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Breazeale, Stephen; Berger, Peter; Schoonover, Carrie; Martin, Brook; O'Toole, Robert V; Pensy, Raymond; Sciadini, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate whether mortality after discharge is elevated in geriatric fracture patients whose lower extremity weight-bearing is restricted. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Urban Level 1 trauma center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1746 patients >65 years of age INTERVENTION: Post-operative lower extremity weight-bearing status MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, as determined by the Social Security Death Index RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were weight-bearing as tolerated on bilateral lower extremities (BLE) had significantly higher 5-year mortality compared to patients with restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity and restricted weight-bearing on BLE (30%, 21% and 22% respectively, p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis controlling for variables including age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Injury Severity Scale, combined UE/LE injury, injury mechanism (high vs low), sex, BMI and GCS demonstrated that, in comparison to patients who were weight bearing as tolerated on BLE, restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.20, p = 0.76) and restricted weight-bearing in BLE had a HR of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.36, p = 0.73). In geriatric patients, prescribed weight-bearing status did not have a statistically significant association with mortality after discharge, when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), mechanism of injury, nonoperative treatment and admission GCS. This remained true in when the analysis was restricted to operative injuries only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lower extremity finite element model for crash simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.

    1996-03-01

    A lower extremity model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and thereforemore » no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most important contributions of the muscles to the lower extremity response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed important to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower extremity model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower extremity injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.« less

  12. The MR appearance of volume overload in the lower extremities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meler, J. D.; Solomon, M. A.; Steele, J. R.; Yancy, C. W. Jr; Parkey, R. W.; Fleckenstein, J. L.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our goal was to describe the MR findings of volume overload (VO) in the lower extremities. METHOD: Fifteen individuals were studied, including eight healthy controls and seven patients with VO (four cardiac, three renal). MR evaluation included various SE techniques. Edema detection, localization, and symmetry were assessed subjectively. Relaxation time estimates were also made of the subcutaneous tissue, marrow, and three muscles. RESULTS: Subcutaneous tissue was markedly edematous in seven of seven patients and asymmetric in four of seven, whereas marrow was normal in all patients. Muscle edema was mild and asymmetric in six and two of seven patients, respectively. Perifascial fluid collections were identified in six of seven patients. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous tissue edema is the dominant feature of VO in the lower extremities. Perifascial fluid is common but does not necessarily distribute symmetrically. Muscle edema is relatively mild. These findings should aid in identifying VO as the potential cause of swelling in patients with swollen legs.

  13. Computed tomography, anatomy and morphometry of the lower extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogewoud, H.M.; Rager, G.; Burch, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date information on CT imaging of the lower extremity. It includes an atlas correlating new, high-resolution CT scans with identical thin anatomical slices covering the lower extremity from the crista iliaca to the planta pedis. Additional figures, including CT arthrograms of the hip, knee and ankle, depict the anatomy in detail The technique and clinical relevance of CT measurements especially in orthopedic surgery are also clearly explained. Of special interest is the new method developed by the authors for assessing the coverage of the femoral head. The special morphometry software and a 3D program allowing representation inmore » space make it possible to precisely and accurately measure the coverage with normal CT scans of the hip.« less

  14. Outcomes of lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Baril, Donald T.; Patel, Virendra I.; Judelson, Dejah R.; Goodney, Philip P.; McPhee, James T.; Hevelone, Nathanael D.; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute limb ischemia remains one of the most challenging emergencies in vascular surgery. Historically, outcomes following interventions for acute limb ischemia have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine contemporary outcomes following lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia. Methods All patients undergoing infrainguinal lower extremity bypass between 2003 and 2011 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified. Patients were stratified according to whether or not the indication for lower extremity bypass was acute limb ischemia. Primary end points included bypass graft occlusion, major amputation, and mortality at 1 year postoperatively as determined by Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate independent predictors of mortality and major amputation at 1 year. Results Of 5712 lower extremity bypass procedures, 323 (5.7%) were performed for acute limb ischemia. Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for acute limb ischemia were similar in age (66 vs 67; P = .084) and sex (68% male vs 69% male; P = .617) compared with chronic ischemia patients, but were less likely to be on aspirin (63% vs 75%; P < .0001) or a statin (55% vs 68%; P < .0001). Patients with acute limb ischemia were more likely to be current smokers (49% vs 39%; P < .0001), to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (33% vs 24%; P = .004) or a prior ipsilateral percutaneous intervention (41% vs 29%; P = .001). Bypasses performed for acute limb ischemia were longer in duration (270 vs 244 minutes; P = .007), had greater blood loss (363 vs 272 mL; P < .0001), and more commonly utilized prosthetic conduits (41% vs 33%; P = .003). Acute limb ischemia patients experienced increased in-hospital major adverse events (20% vs 12%; P < .0001) including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure exacerbation

  15. Outcomes of lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Patel, Virendra I; Judelson, Dejah R; Goodney, Philip P; McPhee, James T; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Cronenwett, Jack L; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-10-01

    Acute limb ischemia remains one of the most challenging emergencies in vascular surgery. Historically, outcomes following interventions for acute limb ischemia have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine contemporary outcomes following lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia. All patients undergoing infrainguinal lower extremity bypass between 2003 and 2011 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified. Patients were stratified according to whether or not the indication for lower extremity bypass was acute limb ischemia. Primary end points included bypass graft occlusion, major amputation, and mortality at 1 year postoperatively as determined by Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate independent predictors of mortality and major amputation at 1 year. Of 5712 lower extremity bypass procedures, 323 (5.7%) were performed for acute limb ischemia. Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for acute limb ischemia were similar in age (66 vs 67; P = .084) and sex (68% male vs 69% male; P = .617) compared with chronic ischemia patients, but were less likely to be on aspirin (63% vs 75%; P < .0001) or a statin (55% vs 68%; P < .0001). Patients with acute limb ischemia were more likely to be current smokers (49% vs 39%; P < .0001), to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (33% vs 24%; P = .004) or a prior ipsilateral percutaneous intervention (41% vs 29%; P = .001). Bypasses performed for acute limb ischemia were longer in duration (270 vs 244 minutes; P = .007), had greater blood loss (363 vs 272 mL; P < .0001), and more commonly utilized prosthetic conduits (41% vs 33%; P = .003). Acute limb ischemia patients experienced increased in-hospital major adverse events (20% vs 12%; P < .0001) including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure exacerbation, deterioration in renal function

  16. Lower extremity lawn-mower injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Farley, F A; Senunas, L; Greenfield, M L; Warschausky, S; Loder, R T; Kewman, D G; Hensinger, R N

    1996-01-01

    Lower extremity lawn-mower injuries in children result in significant morbidity with a significant financial burden to the family and society. We reviewed 24 children with lower extremity lawn-mower injuries; all mothers completed standardized psychologic assessments of their children, and 18 children were interviewed. Fifty percent of the mothers had defensive profiles on the standardized psychologic assessment, suggesting the likelihood of denial or underreporting of the child's psychologic difficulties. Therefore, we found the interview with the child to be a more accurate measure of psychologic distress. Prevention measures aimed at parents must emphasize that a child must not be allowed in a yard that is being mowed with a riding mower.

  17. Lower Extremity Stiffness Changes after Concussion in Collegiate Football Players.

    PubMed

    Dubose, Dominique F; Herman, Daniel C; Jones, Deborah L; Tillman, Susan M; Clugston, James R; Pass, Anthony; Hernandez, Jorge A; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Horodyski, Marybeth; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that a concussion increases the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Neuromuscular changes after concussion might contribute to the increased risk of injury. Many studies have examined gait postconcussion, but few studies have examined more demanding tasks. This study compared changes in stiffness across the lower extremity, a measure of neuromuscular function, during a jump-landing task in athletes with a concussion (CONC) to uninjured athletes (UNINJ). Division I football players (13 CONC and 26 UNINJ) were tested pre- and postseason. A motion capture system recorded subjects jumping on one limb from a 25.4-cm step onto a force plate. Hip, knee, and ankle joint stiffness were calculated from initial contact to peak joint flexion using the regression line slopes of the joint moment versus the joint angle plots. Leg stiffness was (peak vertical ground reaction force [PVGRF]/lower extremity vertical displacement) from initial contact to peak vertical ground reaction force. All stiffness values were normalized to body weight. Values from both limbs were averaged. General linear models compared group (CONC, UNINJ) differences in the changes of pre- and postseason stiffness values. Average time from concussion to postseason testing was 49.9 d. The CONC group showed an increase in hip stiffness (P = 0.03), a decrease in knee (P = 0.03) and leg stiffness (P = 0.03), but no change in ankle stiffness (P = 0.65) from pre- to postseason. Lower extremity stiffness is altered after concussion, which could contribute to an increased risk of lower extremity injury. These data provide further evidence of altered neuromuscular function after concussion.

  18. Anticipatory Effects on Lower Extremity Neuromechanics During a Cutting Task.

    PubMed

    Meinerz, Carolyn M; Malloy, Philip; Geiser, Christopher F; Kipp, Kristof

    2015-09-01

    Continued research into the mechanism of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury helps to improve clinical interventions and injury-prevention strategies. A better understanding of the effects of anticipation on landing neuromechanics may benefit training interventions. To determine the effects of anticipation on lower extremity neuromechanics during a single-legged land-and-cut task. Controlled laboratory study. University biomechanics laboratory. Eighteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age = 19.7 ± 0.8 years, height = 167.3 ± 6.0 cm, mass = 66.1 ± 2.1 kg). Participants performed a single-legged land-and-cut task under anticipated and unanticipated conditions. Three-dimensional initial contact angles, peak joint angles, and peak internal joint moments and peak vertical ground reaction forces and sagittal-plane energy absorption of the 3 lower extremity joints; muscle activation of selected hip- and knee-joint muscles. Unanticipated cuts resulted in less knee flexion at initial contact and greater ankle toe-in displacement. Unanticipated cuts were also characterized by greater internal hip-abductor and external-rotator moments and smaller internal knee-extensor and external-rotator moments. Muscle-activation profiles during unanticipated cuts were associated with greater activation of the gluteus maximus during the precontact and landing phases. Performing a cutting task under unanticipated conditions changed lower extremity neuromechanics compared with anticipated conditions. Most of the observed changes in lower extremity neuromechanics indicated the adoption of a hip-focused strategy during the unanticipated condition.

  19. Lower Extremity Stiffness Changes following Concussion in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    DuBose, Dominique F.; Herman, Daniel C.; Jones, Debi L.; Tillman, Susan M.; Clugston, James R.; Pass, Anthony; Hernandez, Jorge A.; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Chmielewski, Terese L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent research indicates that a concussion increases risk of musculoskeletal injury. Neuromuscular changes following concussion might contribute to the increased risk of injury. Many studies have examined gait post-concussion, but few studies have examined more demanding tasks. This study compared changes in stiffness across the lower extremity, a measure of neuromuscular function, during a jump-landing task in athletes with a concussion (CONC) to uninjured athletes (UNINJ). Methods Division I football players (13 CONC, 26 UNINJ) were tested pre- and post-season. A motion-capture system recorded subjects jumping on one limb from a 25.4 cm step onto a force plate. Hip, knee, and ankle joint stiffness were calculated from initial contact to peak joint flexion using the regression line slopes of the joint moment versus joint angle plots. Leg stiffness was (peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF)/lower extremity vertical displacement) from initial contact to PVGRF. All stiffness values were normalized to bodyweight. Values from both limbs were averaged. General linear models compared group (CONC, UNINJ) differences in the changes of pre- and post-season stiffness values. Results Average time from concussion to post-season testing was 49.9 days. The CONC group showed an increase in hip stiffness (p=0.03), a decrease in knee (p=0.03) and leg stiffness (p=0.03), but no change in ankle stiffness (p=0.65) from pre- to post-season. Conclusion Lower extremity stiffness is altered following concussion, which could contribute to an increased risk of lower extremity injury. These data provide further evidence of altered neuromuscular function after concussion. PMID:27501359

  20. Amputation: Not a failure for severe lower extremity combat injury.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Thijs T C F; Huizinga, Eelco P; de Kruijff, Loes G M; van der Krans, Arie C; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoencamp, Rigo

    2017-02-01

    The use of improvised explosive devices is a frequent method of insurgents to inflict harm on deployed military personnel. Consequently, lower extremity injuries make up the majority of combat related trauma. The wounding pattern of an explosion is not often encountered in a civilian population and can lead to substantial disability. It is therefore important to study the impact of these lower extremity injuries and their treatment (limb salvage versus amputation) on functional outcome and quality of life. All Dutch repatriated service members receiving treatment for wounds on the lower extremity sustained in the Afghan theater between august 2005 and August 2014, were invited to participate in this observational cohort study. We conducted a survey regarding their physical and mental health using the Short Form health survey 36, EuroQoL 6 dimensions and Lower Extremity Functional Scale questionnaires. Results were collated in a specifically designed electronic database combined with epidemiology and hospital statistics gathered from the archive of the Central Military Hospital. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences between combat and non-combat related injuries and between limb salvage treatment and amputation. In comparison with non-battle injury patients, battle casualties were significantly younger of age, sustained more severe injuries, needed more frequent operations and clinical rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome scores in areas concerning well-being, social and cognitive functioning, were significantly lower. Regarding treatment, amputees experienced higher physical well-being and less pain compared to those treated with limb salvage surgery. Sustaining a combat injury to the lower extremity can lead to partial or permanent dysfunction. However, wounded service members, amputees included, are able to achieve high levels of activity and participation in society, proving a remarkable resilience. These long-term results demonstrate

  1. [Ultrasonic monitoring foam sclerotherapy for serious varicosis of lower extremity].

    PubMed

    Yin, Heng-hui; Pan, Fu-shun; Huang, Xue-ling; Chang, Guang-qi; Wang, Shen-ming

    2013-11-19

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of foam sclerotherapy for lower extremity varicosis in C4 to C6 patients. A total of 32 patients (32 limbs) with serious lower extremity varicosis classified as C4 to C6 were enrolled. Ultrasonic monitoring of foam sclerotherapy was performed after subfascial endoscopic perforator suture and saphenous vein ligation. They were followed up monthly at outpatient department. Duplex Doppler scan was performed during each interview. All patients were treated successfully. An average of 3.2 perforators were ligated per leg (1-5 perforators). The average volume of foam sclerosing agent was 27.5 ml per leg. Mild chest tightness was observed in one patient but computed tomography (CT) scan excluded pulmonary embolism. Obvious local inflammatory reaction was observed in 4 patients. Residual vein mass without blood signal was seen in 3 patients. No such serious complication as cerebral ischemia was observed. The average follow-up period was 4.8 (1-10) months. Obvious varicose veins and clinical symptoms disappeared at 1 month. And venous ulcers in patients classified as C5 healed within 3 months. Ultrasonic monitoring of foam sclerotherapy, incorporation with saphenous vein ligation and subfascial endoscopic perforator suture, is both safe and effective in the treatment of serious lower extremity varicosis classified as C4 to C6.

  2. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries among male marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Van Middelkoop, M; Kolkman, J; Van Ochten, J; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for lower extremity injuries in male marathon runners. A random sample of 1500 recreational male marathon runners was drawn. Possible risk factors were obtained from a baseline questionnaire 1 month before the start of the marathon. Information on injuries sustained shortly before or during the marathon was obtained using a post-race questionnaire. Of the 694 male runners who responded to the baseline and post-race questionnaire, 28% suffered a self-reported running injury on the lower extremities in the month before or during the marathon run. More than six times race participation in the previous 12 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.66; confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.56], a history of running injuries (OR 2.62; CI 1.82-3.78), high education level (OR 0.73; CI 0.51-1.04) and daily smoking (OR 0.23; CI 0.05-1.01) were associated with the occurrence of lower extremity injuries. Among the modifiable risk factor studies, a training distance <40 km a week is a strong protective factor of future calf injuries, and regular interval training is a strong protective factor for knee injuries. Other training characteristics appear to have little or no effect on future injuries.

  3. Responsiveness of SF-36 and Lower Extremity Functional Scale for assessing outcomes in traumatic injuries of lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shin-Liang; Liang, Huey-Wen; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Yeh, Tian-Shin

    2014-11-01

    To assess the responsiveness of one generic questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and one region-specific outcome measure, Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), in patients with traumatic injuries of lower extremities. A prospective and observational study of patients after traumatic injuries of lower extremities. Assessments were performed at baseline and 3 months later. In-patients and out-patients in two university hospitals in Taiwan. A convenience sample of 109 subjects were evaluated and 94 (86%) were followed. Not applicable. Assessments of responsiveness with distribution-based approach (effect size, standardized response mean [SRM], minimal detectable change) and anchor-based approach (receiver's operating curve analysis, ROC analysis). LEFS and physical component score (PCS) of SF-36 were all responsive to global improvement, with fair-to-good accuracy in discriminating between participants with and without improvement. The area under curve gained by ROC analysis for LEFS and SF-36 PCS was similar (0.65 vs. 0.70, p=0.26). Our findings revealed comparable responsiveness of LEFS and PCS of SF-36 in a sample of subjects with traumatic injuries of lower limbs. Either type of functional measure would be suitable for use in clinical trials where improvement in function was an endpoint of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. When are CT angiograms indicated for patients with lower extremity fractures? A review of 275 extremities.

    PubMed

    Monazzam, Shafagh; Goodell, Parker B; Salcedo, Edgardo S; Nelson, Sandahl H; Wolinsky, Philip R

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) is frequently utilized to detect vascular injuries even without examination findings indicating a vascular injury. We had the following hypotheses: (1) a CTA for lower extremity fractures with no clinical signs of a vascular injury is not indicated, and (2) fracture location and pattern would correlate with the risk of a vascular injury. A retrospective review was conducted on patients who had an acute lower extremity fracture(s) and a CTA. Their charts were reviewed for multiple factors including the presence or absence of hard or soft signs of a vascular injury, soft tissue status, and fracture location/pattern. Every CTA radiology report was reviewed and any vascular intervention or amputation resulting from a vascular injury was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. Of the 275 CTAs of fractured extremities reviewed, 80 (29%) had a positive CTA finding and 16 (6%) required treatment. A total of 109 (40%) of the extremities had no hard or soft signs; all had normal CTAs. Having at least one hard or soft sign was a significant risk factor for having a positive CTA. An open fracture, isolated proximal third fibula fracture, distal and shaft tibia fractures, and the presence of multiple fractures in one extremity were also associated with an increased risk for having a positive CTA. We found no evidence to support the routine use of CTAs to evaluate lower extremity fractures unless at least one hard or soft sign is present. The presence of an open fracture, distal tibia or tibial shaft fractures, multiple fractures in one extremity, and/or an isolated proximal third fibula fracture increases the risk of having a finding consistent with a vascular injury on a CTA. Only 6% of the cases required treatment, and all of them had diminished or absent distal pulses on presentation. Diagnostic test, level III.

  5. Hip abductor function and lower extremity landing kinematics: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Cale A; Uhl, Timothy L; Mattacola, Carl G; Shapiro, Robert; Rayens, William S

    2007-01-01

    Rapid deceleration during sporting activities, such as landing from a jump, has been identified as a common mechanism of acute knee injury. Research into the role of potential sex differences in hip abductor function with lower extremity kinematics when landing from a jump is limited. To evaluate sex differences in hip abductor function in relation to lower extremity landing kinematics. 2 x 2 mixed-model factorial design using a between-subjects factor (sex) and a repeated factor (test). University laboratory. A sample of convenience consisting of 30 healthy adults (15 women, 15 men) with no history of lower extremity surgery and no lower extremity injuries within 6 months of testing. Landing kinematics were assessed as subjects performed 3 pre-exercise landing trials that required them to hop from 2 legs and land on a single leg. Isometric peak torque (PT) of the hip abductors was measured, followed by an endurance test during which subjects maintained 50% of their PT to the limits of endurance. After a 15-minute rest period, subjects completed a 30-second bout of isometric hip abduction, from which we calculated the percentage of endurance capacity (%E). Immediately after exercise, subjects completed 3 postexercise landing trials. PT, %E, and peak joint displacement (PJD) of the hip and knee in all 3 planes of motion. Women demonstrated lower PT values (5.8 +/- 1.2% normalized to body weight and height) than did their male counterparts (7.2 +/- 1.5% normalized to body weight and height, P = .009). However, no sex differences were seen in %E. Women also demonstrated larger knee valgus PJD (7.26 degrees +/- 6.61 degrees) than did men (3.29 degrees +/- 3.54 degrees, P = .04). Women's PT was moderately correlated with hip flexion, adduction, and knee valgus PJD; however, PT did not significantly correlate with men's landing kinematics. Regardless of sex, hip flexion (P = .002) and hip adduction (P = .001) were significantly increased following the 30-second bout of

  6. Gas gangrene without wound: both lower extremities affected simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Tao; Kong, Xiang-Fei; Tang, Wen-Hao; Cheng, Jian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Liang

    2008-10-01

    Gas gangrene is a necrotizing soft tissue infection characterized by muscular necrosis and gas formation. It develops quickly and can cause septic shock and death. In adults, gas gangrene used to be a well-known complication of war wounds. Recently, cases of spontaneous or nontraumatic gas gangrene have been reported in both adults and children. We report a case of nontraumatic gas gangrene involving both the lower extremities simultaneously. Pathogenesis of this fatal soft tissue infection is discussed.We also review the diagnosis and treatment aspects of this entity.

  7. Mechanical Prophylaxis after Lower Extremity Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Morad; Newman, Jared M; Solow, Max; Davidson, Iyooh U; Sodhi, Nipun; Gaal, Benjamin; Khlopas, Anton; Sultan, Assem A; Mont, Michael A

    2017-12-22

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication that can occur after total hip and knee arthroplasty, and can potentially lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. While various modalities have been used to prevent VTE development, the medications can be associated with a number of adverse events. Therefore, mechanical prophylaxis with pumps and compressive devices has been used more frequently alone, or in combination, with medications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on mechanical prophylaxis for VTEs after lower extremity total joint arthroplasty. Specifically, we reviewed mechanical prophylaxis after: 1) total hip arthroplasty and 2) total knee arthroplasty.

  8. Multiple Lower Extremity Mononeuropathies by Segmental Schwannomatosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Na Yeon; Oh, Hyun-Mi

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma is an encapsulated nerve sheath tumor that is distinct from neurofibromatosis. It is defined as the occurrence of multiple schwannomas without any bilateral vestibular schwannomas. A 46-year-old man with multiple schwannomas involving peripheral nerves of the ipsilateral lower extremity presented with neurologic symptoms. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed multiple mononeuropathies involving the left sciatic, common peroneal, tibial, femoral and superior gluteal nerves. Histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. We reported this rare case of segmental schwannomatosis that presented with neurologic symptoms including motor weakness, which was confirmed as multiple mononeuropathies by electrodiagnostic studies. PMID:26605183

  9. Multiple Lower Extremity Mononeuropathies by Segmental Schwannomatosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Na Yeon; Oh, Hyun-Mi; Ko, Young Jin

    2015-10-01

    Schwannoma is an encapsulated nerve sheath tumor that is distinct from neurofibromatosis. It is defined as the occurrence of multiple schwannomas without any bilateral vestibular schwannomas. A 46-year-old man with multiple schwannomas involving peripheral nerves of the ipsilateral lower extremity presented with neurologic symptoms. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed multiple mononeuropathies involving the left sciatic, common peroneal, tibial, femoral and superior gluteal nerves. Histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. We reported this rare case of segmental schwannomatosis that presented with neurologic symptoms including motor weakness, which was confirmed as multiple mononeuropathies by electrodiagnostic studies.

  10. Robot-aided assessment of lower extremity functions: a review.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Serena; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Lünenburger, Lars; Riener, Robert; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-08-02

    The assessment of sensorimotor functions is extremely important to understand the health status of a patient and its change over time. Assessments are necessary to plan and adjust the therapy in order to maximize the chances of individual recovery. Nowadays, however, assessments are seldom used in clinical practice due to administrative constraints or to inadequate validity, reliability and responsiveness. In clinical trials, more sensitive and reliable measurement scales could unmask changes in physiological variables that would not be visible with existing clinical scores.In the last decades robotic devices have become available for neurorehabilitation training in clinical centers. Besides training, robotic devices can overcome some of the limitations in traditional clinical assessments by providing more objective, sensitive, reliable and time-efficient measurements. However, it is necessary to understand the clinical needs to be able to develop novel robot-aided assessment methods that can be integrated in clinical practice.This paper aims at providing researchers and developers in the field of robotic neurorehabilitation with a comprehensive review of assessment methods for the lower extremities. Among the ICF domains, we included those related to lower extremities sensorimotor functions and walking; for each chapter we present and discuss existing assessments used in routine clinical practice and contrast those to state-of-the-art instrumented and robot-aided technologies. Based on the shortcomings of current assessments, on the identified clinical needs and on the opportunities offered by robotic devices, we propose future directions for research in rehabilitation robotics. The review and recommendations provided in this paper aim to guide the design of the next generation of robot-aided functional assessments, their validation and their translation to clinical practice.

  11. Core strength and lower extremity alignment during single leg squats.

    PubMed

    Willson, John D; Ireland, Mary Lloyd; Davis, Irene

    2006-05-01

    Muscles of the trunk, hip, and knee influence the orientation of the lower extremity during weight bearing activities. The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to compare the orientation of the lower extremity during a single leg (SL) squat among male and female athletes; second, to compare the strength of muscle groups in the trunk, hips, and knees between these individuals; and third, to evaluate the association between trunk, hip, and knee strength and the orientation of the knee joint during this activity. Twenty-four male and 22 female athletes participated in this study. Peak isometric torque was determined for the following muscle actions: trunk flexion, extension, and lateral flexion, hip abduction and external rotation, and knee flexion and extension. The frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee during a 45 degrees SL squat was determined using photo editing software. Males and females moved in opposite directions during the SL squat test (F(1,42) = 5.05, P = 0.03). Females typically moved toward more extreme FPPA during SL squats (P = 0.056), while males tended to move toward more neutral alignment (P = 0.066). Females also generated less torque in all muscle groups, with the exception of trunk extension. The projection angle of the knee during the SL squat test was most closely associated with hip external rotation strength. Using instruments suitable for a clinical setting, females were found to have greater FPPA and generally decreased trunk, hip, and knee isometric torque. Hip external rotation strength was most closely associated with the frontal plane projection angle.

  12. Early Ambulation After Microsurgical Reconstruction of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Orseck, Michael J; Smith, Christopher Robert; Kirby, Sean; Trujillo, Manuel

    2018-06-01

    Successful outcomes after microsurgical reconstruction of the lower extremity include timely return to ambulation. Some combination of physical examination, ViOptix tissue oxygen saturation monitoring, and the implantable venous Doppler have shown promise in increasing sensitivity of current flap monitoring. We have incorporated this system into our postoperative monitoring protocol in an effort to initiate earlier dependency protocols. A prospective analysis of 36 anterolateral thigh free flap and radial forearm flaps for lower extremity reconstruction was performed. Indications for reconstruction were acute and chronic wounds, as well as oncologic resection. Twenty-three patients were able to ambulate and 3 were able to dangle their leg on the first postoperative day. One flap showed early mottling that improved immediately after elevation. After reelevation and return to baseline, the dependency protocol was successfully implemented on postoperative day 3. All flaps went on to successful healing. Physical examination, implantable venous Doppler, and ViOptix can be used reliably as an adjunct to increase the sensitivity of detecting poorly performing flaps during the postoperative progression of dependency.

  13. MRI of lower extremity impingement and friction syndromes in children

    PubMed Central

    Aydıngöz, Üstün; Özdemir, Zeynep Maraş; Güneş, Altan; Ergen, Fatma Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Although generally more common in adults, lower extremity impingement and friction syndromes are also observed in the pediatric age group. Encompassing femoroacetabular impingement, iliopsoas impingement, subspine impingement, and ischiofemoral impingement around the hip; patellar tendon–lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome; iliotibial band friction syndrome; and medial synovial plica syndrome in the knee as well as talocalcaneal impingement on the hindfoot, these syndromes frequently cause pain and may mimic other, and occasionally more ominous, conditions in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal impingement and friction syndromes. Iliopsoas, subspine, and ischiofemoral impingements have been recently described, while some features of femoroacetabular and talocalcaneal impingements have recently gained increased relevance in the pediatric population. Fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists and radiologists with imaging workloads of exclusively or overwhelmingly pediatric patients (particularly those without a structured musculoskeletal imaging program as part of their imaging training) specifically need to be aware of these rare syndromes that mostly have quite characteristic imaging findings. This review highlights MRI features of lower extremity impingement and friction syndromes in children and provides updated pertinent pathophysiologic and clinical data. PMID:27538047

  14. Wound size measurement of lower extremity ulcers using segmentation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadkhah, Arash; Pang, Xing; Solis, Elizabeth; Fang, Ruogu; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-03-01

    Lower extremity ulcers are one of the most common complications that not only affect many people around the world but also have huge impact on economy since a large amount of resources are spent for treatment and prevention of the diseases. Clinical studies have shown that reduction in the wound size of 40% within 4 weeks is an acceptable progress in the healing process. Quantification of the wound size plays a crucial role in assessing the extent of healing and determining the treatment process. To date, wound healing is visually inspected and the wound size is measured from surface images. The extent of wound healing internally may vary from the surface. A near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging approach has been developed for non-contact imaging of wounds internally and differentiating healing from non-healing wounds. Herein, quantitative wound size measurements from NIR and white light images are estimated using a graph cuts and region growing image segmentation algorithms. The extent of the wound healing from NIR imaging of lower extremity ulcers in diabetic subjects are quantified and compared across NIR and white light images. NIR imaging and wound size measurements can play a significant role in potentially predicting the extent of internal healing, thus allowing better treatment plans when implemented for periodic imaging in future.

  15. Calf pump activity influencing venous hemodynamics in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Recek, Cestmir

    2013-03-01

    Calf muscle pump is the motive force enhancing return of venous blood from the lower extremity to the heart. It causes displacement of venous blood in both vertical and horizontal directions, generates ambulatory pressure gradient between thigh and lower leg veins, and bidirectional streaming within calf perforators. Ambulatory pressure gradient triggers venous reflux in incompetent veins, which induces ambulatory venous hypertension in the lower leg and foot. Bidirectional flow in calf perforators enables quick pressure equalization between deep and superficial veins of the lower leg; the outward (into the superficial veins) oriented component of the bidirectional flow taking place during calf muscle contraction is no pathological reflux but a physiological centripetal flow streaming via great saphenous vein into the femoral vein. Calf perforators are communicating channels between both systems making them conjoined vessels; they are not involved in the generation of pathological hemodynamic situations, nor do they cause ambulatory venous hypertension. The real cause why recurrences develop has not as yet been cleared. Pressure gradient arising during calf pump activity between the femoral vein and the saphenous remnant after abolition of saphenous reflux triggers biophysical and biochemical events, which might induce recurrence. Thus, abolition of saphenous reflux removes the hemodynamic disturbance, but at the same time it generates precondition for reflux recurrence and for the comeback of the previous pathological situation; this chain of events has been called hemodynamic paradox.

  16. Analysis of muscle activation in lower extremity for static balance.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Chatterjee, Debatri; Das, Rajat Kumar; Tripathy, Soumya Ranjan; Sinha, Aniruddha

    2017-07-01

    Balance plays an important role for human bipedal locomotion. Degeneration of balance control is prominent in stroke patients, elderly adults and even for majority of obese people. Design of personalized balance training program, in order to strengthen muscles, requires the analysis of muscle activation during an activity. In this paper we have proposed an affordable and portable approach to analyze the relationship between the static balance strategy and activation of various lower extremity muscles. To do that we have considered Microsoft Kinect XBox 360 as a motion sensing device and Wii balance board for measuring external force information. For analyzing the muscle activation pattern related to static balance, participants are asked to do the single limb stance (SLS) exercise on the balance board and in front of the Kinect. Static optimization to minimize the overall muscle activation pattern is carried out using OpenSim, which is an open-source musculoskeletal simulation software. The study is done on ten normal and ten obese people, grouped according to body mass index (BMI). Results suggest that the lower extremity muscles like biceps femoris, psoas major, sartorius, iliacus play the major role for both maintaining the balance using one limb as well as maintaining the flexion of the other limb during SLS. Further investigations reveal that the higher muscle activations of the flexed leg for normal group demonstrate higher strength. Moreover, the lower muscle activation of the standing leg for normal group demonstrate more headroom for the biceps femoris-short-head and psoas major to withstand the load and hence have better static balance control.

  17. Ventilation Increases with Lower Extremity Venous Occlusion in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keller-Ross, Manda L.; Cowl, Andrielle L.; Cross, Troy; Johnson, Bruce D.; Olson, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous distention via sub-systolic occlusion of the lower limbs may augment ventilation via stimulation of group III/IV afferent neurons. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the ventilatory response to graded lower extremity venous occlusion during exercise in healthy adults. Methods Nineteen adults (9 men, 25±5 yr) completed two visits. Visit 1: a maximal cycle ergometry exercise test. Visit 2 included a 30% peak workload cycle exercise with randomized inflations of bilateral thigh pressure tourniquets to 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mmHg for 2 min each, separated by 2 min of deflation. Three min of cycling occurred prior to cuffing (CTL). Expired minute ventilation (VE), whole body gas exchange, rating of perceived exertion and dyspnea were measured during each session. Results VE increased significantly from the control condition (exercise only, control, CTL) to each occlusion pressure (p<0.05) with the greatest increase at 100 mmHg (CTL to 100 mmHg: 31.5±6.6 to 40.1±10.7 L/min). Respiratory rate (RR) increased as well (CTL to 100 mmHg: 24.8±6.0 to 30.9±11.5 breaths/min, p<0.05, condition effect) with no change in tidal volume (p>0.05). Tidal volume to inspiratory time (VT/TI) increased significantly from the CTL condition to each occlusion pressure (CTL to 100 mmHg: 1.5±0.3 to 1.8±0.4 L/min, p<0.05, all pressures). Dyspnea and RPE increased with all occlusion pressures from CTL exercise (p<0.05, all pressures). Conclusion Our findings suggest that mild-to-moderate venous occlusion of the lower extremity evokes a tachypneic breathing pattern which, in turn, augments VE and perceived breathing effort during exercise. PMID:26484951

  18. Influence of trunk posture on lower extremity energetics during running.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Powers, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of sagittal plane trunk posture on lower extremity energetics during running. Forty asymptomatic recreational runners (20 males and 20 females) ran overground at a speed of 3.4 m·s(-1). Sagittal plane trunk kinematics and lower extremity kinematics and energetics during the stance phase of running were computed. Subjects were dichotomized into high flexion (HF) and low flexion (LF) groups on the basis of the mean trunk flexion angle. The mean (±SD) trunk flexion angles of the HF and LF groups were 10.8° ± 2.2° and 3.6° ± 2.8°, respectively. When compared with the LF group, the HF group demonstrated significantly higher hip extensor energy generation (0.12 ± 0.06 vs 0.05 ± 0.04 J·kg(-1), P < 0.001) and lower knee extensor energy absorption (0.60 ± 0.14 vs 0.74 ± 0.09 J·kg(-1), P = 0.001) and generation (0.30 ± 0.05 vs 0.34 ± 0.06 J·kg(-1), P = 0.02). There was no significant group difference for the ankle plantarflexor energy absorption or generation (P > 0.05). Sagittal plane trunk flexion has a significant influence on hip and knee energetics during running. Increasing forward trunk lean during running may be used as a strategy to reduce knee loading without increasing the biomechanical demand at the ankle plantarflexors.

  19. Morbidity and mortality after emergency lower extremity embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Casillas-Berumen, Sergio; Sadri, Lili; Farber, Alik; Eslami, Mohammad H; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2017-03-01

    Emergency lower extremity embolectomy is a common vascular surgical procedure that has poorly defined outcomes. Our goal was to define the perioperative morbidity for emergency embolectomy and develop a risk prediction model for perioperative mortality. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement database was queried to identify patients undergoing emergency unilateral and lower extremity embolectomy. Patients with previous critical limb ischemia, bilateral embolectomy, nonemergency indication, and those undergoing concurrent bypass were excluded. Patient characteristics and postoperative morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate analysis for predictors of mortality was performed, and from this, a risk prediction model was developed to identify preoperative predictors of mortality. There were 1749 patients (47.9% male) who met the inclusion criteria. The average age was 68.2 ± 14.8 years. Iliofemoral-popliteal embolectomy was performed in 1231 patients (70.4%), popliteal-tibioperoneal embolectomy in 303 (17.3%), and at both levels in 215 (12.3%). Fasciotomies were performed concurrently with embolectomy in 308 patients (17.6%). The 30-day postoperative mortality was 13.9%. Postoperative complications included myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest (4.7%), pulmonary complications (16.0%), and wound complications (8.2%). The rate of return to the operating room ≤30 days was 25.7%. Hospital length of stay was 9.8 ± 11.5 days, and the 30-day readmission rate was 16.3%. A perioperative mortality risk prediction model based on factors identified in multivariate analysis included age >70 years, male gender, functional dependence, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, recent myocardial infarction/angina, chronic renal insufficiency, and steroid use. The model showed good discrimination (C = 0.769; 95% confidence interval, 0733-0.806) and calibrated well. Emergency lower extremity

  20. An investigation of turbulent transport in the extreme lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koper, C. A., Jr.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1975-01-01

    A model in which the Lagrangian autocorrelation is expressed by a domain integral over a set of usual Eulerian autocorrelations acquired concurrently at all points within a turbulence box is proposed along with a method for ascertaining the statistical stationarity of turbulent velocity by creating an equivalent ensemble to investigate the flow in the extreme lower atmosphere. Simultaneous measurements of turbulent velocity on a turbulence line along the wake axis were carried out utilizing a longitudinal array of five hot-wire anemometers remotely operated. The stationarity test revealed that the turbulent velocity is approximated as a realization of a weakly self-stationary random process. Based on the Lagrangian autocorrelation it is found that: (1) large diffusion time predominated; (2) ratios of Lagrangian to Eulerian time and spatial scales were smaller than unity; and, (3) short and long diffusion time scales and diffusion spatial scales were constrained within their Eulerian counterparts.

  1. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  2. Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Tendinopathies in Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Brett D.; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.; Smith, Besa; Ryan, Margaret A.K.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Smith, Tyler C.; Bagnell, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Overuse injuries have a significant impact on United States military service members, but research to date has been limited in its ability to assess occupational and behavioral risk factors. Hypothesis/Purpose: To prospectively identify risk factors for the development of lower extremity tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis in United States military personnel. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a long-term observational cohort of military personnel, were utilized. Service members were enrolled in the cohort in 2001, 2004, and 2007. A total of 80,106 active-duty personnel were followed over 1 year for the development of patellar tendinopathy, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Regression analyses were used to estimate significant associations between each tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and demographic, behavioral, and occupational characteristics. Results: Using medical records, 450 cases of Achilles tendinitis, 584 cases of patellar tendinopathy, and 1228 cases of plantar fasciitis were identified. Recent deployment was associated with an increased risk for developing plantar fasciitis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.56). Moderate weekly alcohol consumption was marginally associated with an increased risk for Achilles tendinopathy (AOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.76). Overweight or obese individuals were more likely to develop Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis. Conclusion: Lower extremity tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis are common among military service members, and this study identified several modifiable risk factors for their occurrence. These potential risk factors could serve as the focus for future preventive and intervention studies. PMID:26535232

  3. Functional Outcomes of Persons Undergoing Dysvascular Lower Extremity Amputations

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Carley N.; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Dillingham, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of post-acute rehabilitation setting on functional outcomes among patients undergoing major lower extremity dysvascular amputations. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in Maryland and Wisconsin. Data collected from medical records and patient interviews conducted during acute hospitalization following amputation and at six-month following the acute care discharge were analyzed using multivariate models and instrumental variable techniques. Results A total of 297 patients were analyzed based on post-acute care rehabilitation setting: acute inpatient rehabilitation (IRF), skilled nursing facility (SNF) or home. The majority (43.4%) received care in IRF, 32% in SNF, and 24.6% at home. On SF-36 subscales, significantly improved outcomes were observed for patients receiving post-acute care at an IRF relative to those cared for at a SNF in physical function (PF), role physical (RF) and physical component score (PCS). Patients receiving post-acute care in IRFs also experienced better RF and PCS outcomes compared to those discharged directly home. In addition, patients receiving post-acute care at an IRF were significantly more likely to score in the top quartile for general health in IRF compared to SNF or home, and less likely to score in the lowest quartile for PF, RF and PCS in IRF compared to SNF. Lower ADL impairment was observed in IRF compared to SNF. Conclusions Among this large and diverse cohort of patients undergoing major dysvascular lower limb amputations, receipt of interdisciplinary rehabilitation services at an IRF yielded improved functional outcomes six months after amputation relative to care received at SNFs or home. PMID:23291599

  4. Sex differences in lower extremity biomechanics during single leg landings.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Randy J; Kulas, Anthony S; Perrin, David H; Riemann, Bryan L; Shultz, Sandra J

    2007-07-01

    Females have an increased incident rate of anterior cruciate ligament tears compared to males. Biomechanical strategies to decelerate the body in the vertical direction have been implicated as a contributing cause. This study determined if females would exhibit single leg landing strategies characterized by decreased amounts of hip, knee, and ankle flexion resulting in greater vertical ground reaction forces and altered energy absorption patterns when compared to males. Recreationally active males (N=14) and females (N=14), completed five single leg landings from a 0.3m height onto a force platform while three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were simultaneously collected. Compared to males, females exhibited (1) less total hip and knee flexion displacements (40% and 64% of males, respectively, P<0.05) and less time to peak hip and knee flexion (48% and 78% of males, respectively, P<0.05), (2) 9% greater peak vertical ground reaction forces (P<0.05), (3) less total lower body energy absorption (76% of males, P<0.05), and (4) 11% greater relative energy absorption at the ankle (P<0.05). Females in this study appear to adopt a single leg landing style using less hip and knee flexion, absorbing less total lower body energy with more relative energy at the ankle resulting in a landing style that can be described as stiff. This may potentially cause increased demands on non-contractile components of the lower extremity. Preventative training programs designed to prevent knee injury may benefit from the biomechanical description of sex-specific landing methods demonstrated by females in this study by focusing on the promotion of more reliance on using the contractile components to absorb impact energy during landings.

  5. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The

  6. Quality of clinical practice guidelines of lower extremity venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Rumbo-Prieto, José María; Arantón-Areosa, Luis; Palomar-Llatas, Federico; Romero-Martín, Manuel

    The clinical variability and professional uncertainty in the prevention and treatment of lower extremity venous ulcers (VU) has as a main consequence, the fact that patients can be subjected to diagnostic and therapeutic tests, sometimes of dubious utility, these may even be harmful to the health of the patient and that, at other times, certain procedures or processes that may be appropriate to the patient's situation and needs may be omitted. It is for this reason that a series of specific documents called clinical practice guidelines for the approach of VU (CPG-VU) have been created, with the aim of improving the effectiveness and quality of care, reducing unjustified variability and establishing homogeneous criteria for its handling. Nevertheless, the literature shows that not all CPGs have the same methodological and evidence-drawing criteria. Many of them are of poor scientific quality and editorial rigor. This implies that CPGs should be periodically reviewed and updated based on the most current evidence and their quality contrasted with validated instruments such as AGREE-II. After an analysis of the quality of six CPG-VU available today, it has been possible to identify what guidelines are recommended for its implementation in the practice of care, which should be modified to improve their applicability and development of the evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Lower-extremity ground reaction forces in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Guido, John A; Werner, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ground reaction forces (GRF) in collegiate baseball pitchers and their relationship to pitching mechanics. Fourteen healthy collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. High-speed video and force plate data were collected for fastballs from each pitcher. The average ball speed was 35 ± 3 m/sec (78 ± 7 mph). Peak GRFs of 245 ± 20% body weight (BW) were generated in an anterior or braking direction to control descent. Horizontal GRFs tended to occur in a laterally directed fashion, reaching a peak of 45 ± 63% BW. The maximum vertical GRF averaged 202 ± 43% BW approximately 45 milliseconds after stride foot contact. A correlation between braking force and ball velocity was evident. Because of the downward inclination and rotation of the pitching motion, in addition to volume, shear forces may occur in the musculoskeletal tissues of the stride limb leading to many of the lower-extremity injuries seen in this athletic population.

  8. Assessment of dynamic balance via measurement of lower extremities tortuosity.

    PubMed

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Kuenze, Christopher; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Asfour, Shihab; Travascio, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Tortuosity describes how twisted or how much curvature is present in an observed movement or path. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in segmental tortuosity between Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach directions. Fifteen healthy participants completed this study. Participants completed the modified three direction (anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral) SEBT with three-dimensional motion analysis using an 8 camera BTS Smart 7000DX motion analysis system. The tortuosity of stance limb retro-reflective markers was then calculated and compared between reach directions using a 1 × 3 ANOVA with repeated measures, while the relationship between SEBT performance and tortuosity was established using Pearson product moment correlations. Anterior superior iliac spine tortuosity was significantly greater (p < 0.001) and lateral knee tortuosity was lesser (p = 0.018) in the anterior direction compared to the posteromedial and posterolateral directions. In addition, second metatarsal tortuosity was greater in the anterior reach direction when compared to posteromedial direction (p = 0.024). Tortuosity is a novel biomechanical measurement technique that provides an assessment of segmental movement during common dynamic tasks such as the SEBT. This enhanced level of detail compared to more global measures of joint kinematic may provide insight into compensatory movement strategies adopted following lower extremity joint injury.

  9. Determinants of lower extremity amputations: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Nabila; Khan, Mahjabeen; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Minhas, Muhammad Ali

    2013-07-01

    To determine the determinants of lower extremity amputations in diabetics and non-diabetics in a tertiary care institute. Cross-sectional, analytical study. Outpatients Department of the Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January 2007 to December 2010. All patients with amputations reporting at the study centre for prosthesis fitting were included in the study. Patient`s age, level of amputation, stump complications and associated risk factors of amputation were recorded on a structured proforma. Prosthesis and orthotic assessment were carried out. The frequency and determinants were collected to compare diabetic and non-diabetic amputees. The data was analyzed in SPSS windows version 16. A total of 1091 subjects were provided prosthesis, including 847 males (77.6%). Mean age in diabetic and nondiabetics being 49.6 ± 15.2 and 26.6 ± 17.9 years respectively which is significant at (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic status and educational levels were significantly associated with diabetic status (p < 0.001). Amputation was more common in non-diabetic 858 (78.6%) compared to diabetics 233 (21.4%). This study has identified that most common and significant predictors were gender, low social status and educational levels. Other significant predictors of amputation identified were type of lesion, (infections and ischaemia), initial diagnosis acute/chronic arterial insufficiency and diabetic foot.

  10. Lower extremity muscle function of front row rugby union scrummaging.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, Mostafa; Lark, Sally D; Page, Wyatt H; Fink, Philip W; Shultz, Sarah P

    2018-05-16

    A rugby scrum's front row must act uniformly to transfer maximal horizontal force and improve performance. This study investigated the muscle activation patterns of lower extremity muscles in front row forwards during live and machine scrums at professional and amateur levels. Electromyography was collected bilaterally on vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles of 75 male rugby prop players during live and machine scrums. ANOVAs compared muscle reaction time, rate of change in muscle amplitude and muscle amplitude between groups and conditions. Cross-correlation analysis explored muscle synchronicity. There were significantly greater rates of change in each muscle amplitude in professional players than amateur players. Additionally, there was significantly quicker muscle reaction time in all muscles, and greater amplitude in vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius, during the live scrum vs. machine condition. The professional props produced more synchronised muscle activation than amateur players and all players produced more synchronised muscle activation against the scrum machine vs. live scrummage. The results indicate a higher skill proficiency and muscle synchronicity in professional players. While scrum machine training is ideally suited for functional muscle strengthening during practice, to truly simulate the requirements of the scrum, training should incorporate the live situation as much as possible.

  11. [Necrotizing fasciitis of the upper and lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Kückelhaus, M; Hirsch, T; Lehnhardt, M; Daigeler, A

    2017-04-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal soft tissue infection that may affect the upper and lower extremities, scrotum, perineum and abdominal wall. Typically, the infection demonstrates rapid spreading along the fascial planes leading to sepsis with mortality rates of 15-46%. Without adequate treatment, the mortality rate increases to close to 100%. There are four groups of pathogens that can lead to necrotizing fasciitis, namely beta-hemolytic group A streptococci, mixed infections with obligate and facultative anaerobes, clostridium species and fungal infections. Clinical signs may include erythema, edema and pain out of proportion in the early stages and soft tissue necrosis with bullae during the subsequent course. In some cases, only a deterioration of the general condition is evident and the aforementioned clinical symptoms are initially missing. The decision for treatment is based on the clinical diagnosis and surgical debridement is the cornerstone of treatment, accompanied by broad spectrum i.v. antibiotic treatment, e. g. with penicillin, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin.

  12. Lower extremity joint kinetics and energetics during backward running.

    PubMed

    DeVita, P; Stribling, J

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure lower extremity joint moments of force and joint muscle powers used to perform backward running. Ten trials of high speed (100 Hz) sagittal plane film records and ground reaction force data (1000 Hz) describing backward running were obtained from each of five male runners. Fifteen trials of forward running data were obtained from one of these subjects. Inverse dynamics were performed on these data to obtain the joint moments and powers, which were normalized to body mass to make between-subject comparisons. Backward running hip moment and power patterns were similar in magnitude and opposite in direction to forward running curves and produced more positive work in stance. Functional roles of knee and ankle muscles were interchanged between backward and forward running. Knee extensors were the primary source of propulsion in backward running owing to greater moment and power output (peak moment = 3.60 N.m.kg-1; peak power = 12.40 W.kg-1) compared with the ankle (peak moment = 1.92 N.m.kg-1; peak power = 7.05 W.kg-1). The ankle plantarflexors were the primary shock absorbers, producing the greatest negative power (peak = -6.77 W.kg-1) during early stance. Forward running had greater ankle moment and power output for propulsion and greater knee negative power for impact attenuation. The large knee moment in backward running supported previous findings indicating that backward running training leads to increased knee extensor torque capabilities.

  13. Lower extremity injuries in runners. Advances in prediction.

    PubMed

    Macera, C A

    1992-01-01

    Recreational and competitive running is practised by many individuals to improve cardiorespiratory function and general well-being. The major negative aspect of running is the high rate of injuries to the lower extremities. Several well-designed population-based studies have found no major differences in injury rates between men and women; no increasing effect of age on injuries; a declining injury rate with more years of running experience; no substantial effect of weight or height; an uncertain effect of psychological factors; and a strong effect of previous injury on future injuries. Among the modifiable risk factors studied, weekly distance is the strongest predictor of future injuries. Other training characteristics (speed, frequency, surface, timing) have little or no effect on future injuries after accounting for distance run. More studies are needed to address the effects of appropriate stretching practices and abrupt change in training patterns. For recreational runners who have sustained injuries, especially within the past year, a reduction in running to below 32 km per week is recommended. For those about to begin a running programme, moderation is the best advice. For competitive runners, great care should be taken to ensure that prior injuries are sufficiently healed before attempting any racing event, particularly a marathon.

  14. Major lower extremity lawn mower injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Dormans, J P; Azzoni, M; Davidson, R S; Drummond, D S

    1995-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1993, 16 children with 18 lower extremity power lawn mower-related injuries were treated at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Eleven of 16 patients (69%) were bystanders or nonoperators. The average age at injury was 4 years 9 months. Length of follow-up averaged 3 years 10 months. There was an average of 4.9 procedures per patient. Fourteen of the 18 limbs injured required eventual amputation (78%). We propose a new classification of lawn mower injuries in children. The most common injury (16 of 18 limbs) was a shredding type injury and was either intercalary or distal. The second was a paucilaceration type (two of 18 limbs). Of the four salvaged limbs, there were two shredding type injuries, and on most recent follow-up are considered to have poor results. The two patients with the paucilaceration type injuries and limb salvage are considered to have excellent results. All patients with a shredding type injury ultimately required amputation or had poor results with the salvaged limb. Limb salvage surgery was associated with prolonged hospitalizations, a higher incidence of surgical problems, a longer treatment course, and more complications than early ablative procedures.

  15. Local dynamic stability of lower extremity joints in lower limb amputees during slope walking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ling; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Lower limb amputees have a higher fall risk during slope walking compared with non-amputees. However, studies on amputees' slope walking were not well addressed. The aim of this study was to identify the difference of slope walking between amputees and non-amputees. Lyapunov exponents λS was used to estimate the local dynamic stability of 7 transtibial amputees' and 7 controls' lower extremity joint kinematics during uphill and downhill walking. Compared with the controls, amputees exhibited significantly lower λS in hip (P=0.04) and ankle (P=0.01) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.01) of the prosthetic limb during uphill walking, while they exhibited significantly lower λS in knee (P=0.02) and ankle (P=0.03) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.03) of the prosthetic limb during downhill walking. Compared with amputees level walking, they exhibited significantly lower λS in ankle joints of the sound limb during both uphill (P=0.01) and downhill walking (P=0.01). We hypothesized that the better local dynamic stability of amputees was caused by compensation strategy during slope walking.

  16. Dancers with achilles tendinopathy demonstrate altered lower extremity takeoff kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Kornelia; Loudon, Janice K; Popovich, John M; Pollard, Christine D; Winder, Brooke R

    2011-08-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. To analyze lower extremity kinematics during takeoff of a "saut de chat" (leap) in dancers with and without a history of Achilles tendinopathy (AT). We hypothesized that dancers with AT would demonstrate different kinematic strategies compared to dancers without pathology, and that these differences would be prominent in the transverse and frontal planes. AT is a common injury experienced by dancers. Dance leaps such as the saut de chat place a large demand on the Achilles tendon. Sixteen female dancers with and without a history of AT (mean ± SD age, 18.8 ± 1.2 years) participated. Three-dimensional kinematics at the hip, knee, and ankle were quantified for the takeoff of the saut de chat, using a motion analysis system. A force platform was used to determine braking and push-off phases of takeoff. Peak sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane joint positions during the braking and push-off phases of the takeoff were examined statistically. Independent samples t tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = .05). The dancers in the tendinopathy group demonstrated significantly higher peak hip adduction during the braking phase of takeoff (mean ± SD, 13.5° ± 6.1° versus 7.7° ± 4.2°; P = .046). During the push-off phase, dancers with AT demonstrated significantly more internal rotation at the knee (13.2° ± 5.2° versus 6.9° ± 4.9°; P = .024). Dancers with AT demonstrate increased peak transverse and frontal plane kinematics when performing the takeoff of a saut de chat. These larger displacements may be either causative or compensatory factors in the development of AT.

  17. Diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and lower-extremity function.

    PubMed

    Chiles, Nancy S; Phillips, Caroline L; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Patel, Kushang V

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower-extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine the following: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. This study included 983 participants, age 65 years and older from the InCHIANTI study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0 to 12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cutpoints of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0 to 5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. One hundred twenty-six (12.8%) participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β=-0.99; p<0.01), decreased walking speed (β=-0.1m/s; p<0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β=-1.7m/s; p<0.01), and increased neuropathy (β=0.25; p<0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. © 2014.

  18. Predictive factors for lower extremity amputations in diabetic foot infections

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Zameer; Lin, Wong Keng; Nather, Aziz; Huak, Chan Yiong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs) and its predictive factors for lower extremity amputations. A prospective study of 100 patients with DFIs treated at the National University Hospital of Singapore were recruited in the study during the period of January 2005–June 2005. A protocol was designed to document patient's demographics, type of DFI, presence of neuropathy and/or vasculopathy and its final outcome. Predictive factors for limb loss were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the study population was 59.8 years with a male to female ratio of about 1:1 and with a mean follow-up duration of about 24 months. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common DFIs included abscess (32%), wet gangrene (29%), infected ulcers (19%), osteomyelitis (13%), necrotizing fasciitis (4%) and cellulitis (3%). Thirteen patients were treated conservatively, while surgical debridement or distal amputation was performed in 59 patients. Twenty-eight patients had major amputations (below or above knee) performed. Forty-eight percent had monomicrobial infections compared with 52% with polymicrobial infections. The most common pathogens found in all infections (both monomicrobial and polymicrobial) were Staphylococcus aureus (39.7%), Bacteroides fragilis (30.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.0%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (21.0%). Significant univariate predictive factors for limb loss included age above 60 years, gangrene, ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.8, monomicrobial infections, white blood cell (WBC) count ≥ 15.0×109/L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥100 mm/hr, C-reactive protein ≥15.0 mg/dL, hemoglobin (Hb) ≤10.0g/dL and creatinine ≥150 µmol/L. Upon stepwise logistic regression, only gangrene, ABI <0.8, WBC ≥ 15.0×109/L and Hb ≤10.0g/dL were significant. PMID:22396824

  19. Lower extremity endovascular interventions: can we improve cost-efficiency?

    PubMed

    O'Brien-Irr, Monica S; Harris, Linda M; Dosluoglu, Hasan H; Dayton, Merril; Dryjski, Maciej L

    2008-05-01

    Management of lower extremity arterial disease with endovascular intervention is on the rise. Current practice patterns vary widely across and within specialty practices that perform endovascular intervention. This study evaluated reimbursement and costs of different approaches for offering endovascular intervention and identified strategies to improve cost-efficiency. The medical records of all patients admitted to a university health system during 2005 for an endovascular intervention were retrospectively reviewed. Procedure type, setting, admission status, and financial data were recorded. Groups were compared using analysis of variance, Student t test for independent samples, and chi2. A total of 296 endovascular interventions were completed, and 184 (62%) met inclusion criteria. Atherectomy and stenting were significantly more costly when performed in the operating room than in the radiology suite: atherectomy, dollars 6596 vs dollars 4867 (P = .002); stent, dollars 5884 vs dollars 3292, (P < .001); angioplasty, dollars 2251 vs dollars 1881 (P = .46). Reimbursement was significantly higher for inpatient vs ambulatory admissions (P < .001). Costs were lowest when the endovascular intervention was done in the radiology suite on an ambulatory basis and highest when done as an inpatient in the operating room (dollars 5714 vs dollars 12,278; P < .001). Contribution margins were significantly higher for inpatients. Net profit was appreciated only for interventions done as an inpatient in the radiology suite. Reimbursement, contribution margins, and net profit were significantly lower among private pay patients in both the ambulatory and inpatient setting. The 30-day hospital readmission after ambulatory procedures was seven patients (6%). Practice patterns for endovascular interventions differ considerably. Costs vary by procedure and setting, and reimbursement depends on admission status and accurate documentation; these dynamics affect affordability. Organizing

  20. Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores and Lower Extremity Injury in NCAA Division I Athletes.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wilson C; Wang, Dean; Chen, James B; Vail, Jeremy; Rugg, Caitlin M; Hame, Sharon L

    2017-08-01

    Functional movement tests that are predictive of injury risk in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes are useful tools for sports medicine professionals. The Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) measures single-leg balance and reach distances in 3 directions. To assess whether the YBT-LQ predicts the laterality and risk of sports-related lower extremity (LE) injury in NCAA athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The YBT-LQ was administered to 294 NCAA Division I athletes from 21 sports during preparticipation physical examinations at a single institution. Athletes were followed prospectively over the course of the corresponding season. Correlation analysis was performed between the laterality of reach asymmetry and composite scores (CS) versus the laterality of injury. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal asymmetry cutoff score for YBT-LQ. A multivariate regression analysis adjusting for sex, sport type, body mass index, and history of prior LE surgery was performed to assess predictors of earlier and higher rates of injury. Neither the laterality of reach asymmetry nor the CS correlated with the laterality of injury. ROC analysis found optimal cutoff scores of 2, 9, and 3 cm for anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach, respectively. All of these potential cutoff scores, along with a cutoff score of 4 cm used in the majority of prior studies, were associated with poor sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, none of the asymmetric cutoff scores were associated with earlier or increased rate of injury in the multivariate analyses. YBT-LQ scores alone do not predict LE injury in this collegiate athlete population. Sports medicine professionals should be cautioned against using the YBT-LQ alone to screen for injury risk in collegiate athletes.

  1. Role of interventional radiologists in the management of lower extremity venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Rulon L; Rochon, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Lower extremity venous insufficiency affects over half of all women. Interventional radiologists should be aware of the clinical evaluation of women with venous insufficiency and classification of disease. Endovascular therapies available for treatment of lower extremity venous insufficiency include: endovenous laser ablation, radiofrequency endovascular ablation, and sclerotherapy. The interventional radiologist should be versed on which therapy to select in each clinical presentation and the procedural techniques. The authors review the role of the interventional radiologist in managing this lower extremity venous disorder.

  2. [Laserotherapy of diabetic angiopathy of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Zolotova, N B; Zolotnitskaia, V P

    2009-01-01

    Low-intensity laser radiation was included in combined therapy of lower limb angiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. The course and results of the treatment were monitored by means of perfusion scintiography.

  3. Clinical Considerations for the Use Lower Extremity Arthroplasty in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Otero-López, Antonio; Beaton-Comulada, David

    2017-11-01

    There is an increase in the aging population that has led to a surge of reported cases of osteoarthritis and a greater demand for lower extremity arthroplasty. This article aims to review the current treatment options and expectations when considering lower extremity arthroplasty in the elderly patient with an emphasis on the following subjects: (1) updated clinical guidelines for the management of osteoarthritis in the lower extremity, (2) comorbidities and risk factors in the surgical patient, (3) preoperative evaluation and optimization of the surgical patient, (4) surgical approach and implant selection, and (5) rehabilitation and life after lower extremity arthroplasty. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Lower extremity and pelvic stress fractures in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Liong, S Y; Whitehouse, R W

    2012-01-01

    Stress fractures occur following excessive use and are commonly seen in athletes, in whom the lower limbs are frequently involved. Delayed diagnosis and management of these injuries can result in significant long-term damage and athlete morbidity. A high index of suspicion may facilitate diagnosis, but clinical presentation may be non-specific. In this regard, imaging in the form of plain radiograph, CT, MRI and bone scintigraphy may be of value. This article reviews the incidence, presentation, radiological findings and management options for athletes with stress fractures of the lower limb. PMID:22815414

  5. Impact of Foot Type on Cost of Lower Extremity Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-25

    were at higher risk for injury. Additionally, researchers have found relationships between chronic heel pain and osteoarthritis of the knee and hip...Cost of Injury, in Physical Training and Sports Injury Prevention Guidelines . 2010, U.S. Army Public Health Command (Provisional). 11. Injury...study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2007. 8: p. 41. 48. Reilly, K., et al., The role of foot and ankle assessment of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis

  6. Comparison of vascular distensibility in the upper and lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Eiken, O; Kölegård, R

    2004-07-01

    Because of the great differences in hydrostatic pressure acting along the blood vessels in the erect posture, leg vessels are exposed to greater transmural pressures than arm vessels. The in vivo pressure-distension relationship of arteries, arterioles and veins in the arm were compared with those of the leg. Experiments were performed with the subject (n = 11) positioned in a pressure chamber with an arm or lower leg (test limb) extended at heart level through a hole in the chamber door. Intravascular pressure in the arm/lower leg was increased by stepwise increasing chamber pressure to +180 and +210 mmHg, respectively. Diameters of blood vessels and arterial flow were measured using ultrasonographic/Doppler techniques. Changes in forearm and lower leg volumes were assessed using an impedance technique. The subject rated perceived pain in the test limb. The brachial and radial arteries were found to be more distensible than the posterior tibial artery (P < 0.001). Likewise, the distension was more pronounced in the cephalic than in the great saphenous vein (P < 0.001). In the brachial artery, but not in the posterior tibial artery, flow increased markedly at the highest levels of distending pressure (P < 0.001). At the highest intravascular pressures, the rate of change in tissue impedance was greater in the forearm than the lower leg (P < 0.01). At any given level of markedly increased pressure, pain was rated higher in the arm than in the leg (P < 0.001). It seems that the wall stiffness of arteries, pre-capillary resistance vessels and veins adapts to meet the long-term demands imposed by the hydrostatic pressure acting locally on the vessel walls.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Walking with and without Nordic Pole on Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Muscle Activation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Je-Myung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Ha-Roo; Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity.

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Walking with and without Nordic Pole on Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Muscle Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Je-myung; Kwon, Hae-yeon; Kim, Ha-roo; Kim, Bo-in; Jung, Ju-hyeon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity. PMID:24409018

  9. The Effects of Load Carriage and Muscle Fatigue on Lower-Extremity Joint Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…

  10. Novel application of lower body positive-pressure in the rehabilitation of an individual with multiple lower extremity fractures.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Judit; Leiter, Jeff R S; Peeler, Jason D

    2011-06-01

    Lower extremity fractures, if not treated appropriately, can increase the risk of morbidity. Partial weight-bearing after surgical repair is recommended; however, current methods of partial weight-bearing may cause excessive loads through the lower extremity. A new rehabilitation tool that uses lower body positive-pressure is described, that may allow partial weight-bearing while preventing excessive loads, thereby improving functional outcomes. A patient with multiple lower extremity fractures underwent a 6-month rehabilitation programme using bodyweight support technology 3 times per week, post-surgery. The patient experienced a reduction in pain and an improvement in ankle range of motion (p=0.002), walking speed (p>0.05) and physical function (p=0.004), as assessed by the Foot and Ankle Module of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Lower Limb Outcomes Assessment Instrument. Training did not appear to affect fracture healing, as was evident on radiograph. The effect of lower body positive-pressure on effusion, which has not previously been reported in the literature, was also investigated. No significant difference in effusion of the foot and ankle when using lower body positive-pressure was found. Initial results suggest that this new technology may be a useful rehabilitation tool that allows partial weight-bearing during the treatment of lower extremity injuries.

  11. Focal myositis of lower extremity responsive to botulinum A toxin.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Josko; Prka, Zeljko; Zic, Rado; Marusic, Srecko; Morovic-Vergles, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rare, mostly benign disease (pseudotumor) of skeletal muscle, histopathologically characterized by interstitial myositis and tumorous enlargement of a single muscle. The etiology of focal myositis remains unknown; however, localized myopathy has been postulated to be caused by denervation lesions. This case report describes a patient that presented with clinical, laboratory, electromyoneurography, and magnetic resonance imaging features of focal myositis complicated with intervertebral disk protrusion in the lumbosacral spine affected with radicular distress. In most cases, focal myositic lesions show spontaneous regression, relapses are rare, and long-term prognosis is good. There is a wide spectrum of therapeutic options, from no therapy at all through nonsteroidal antirheumatics and glucocorticoids to radiotherapy, surgical excision, and immunosuppressants. In the patient presented, treatment with glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and surgical excision failed to produce satisfactory results. Clinical improvement, pain relief, and reduction in lower leg volume were only achieved by local infiltration of botulinum A toxin.

  12. Risk Factors for Lower-Extremity Injuries Among Contemporary Dance Students.

    PubMed

    van Seters, Christine; van Rijn, Rogier M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Stubbe, Janine H

    2017-10-10

    To determine whether student characteristics, lower-extremity kinematics, and strength are risk factors for sustaining lower-extremity injuries in preprofessional contemporary dancers. Prospective cohort study. Codarts University of the Arts. Forty-five first-year students of Bachelor Dance and Bachelor Dance Teacher. At the beginning of the academic year, the injury history (only lower-extremity) and student characteristics (age, sex, educational program) were assessed using a questionnaire. Besides, lower-extremity kinematics [single-leg squat (SLS)], strength (countermovement jump) and height and weight (body mass index) were measured during a physical performance test. Substantial lower-extremity injuries during the academic year were defined as any problems leading to moderate or severe reductions in training volume or in performance, or complete inability to participate in dance at least once during follow-up as measured with the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) Questionnaire on Health Problems. Injuries were recorded on a monthly basis using a questionnaire. Analyses on leg-level were performed using generalized estimating equations to test the associations between substantial lower-extremity injuries and potential risk factors. The 1-year incidence of lower-extremity injuries was 82.2%. Of these, 51.4% was a substantial lower-extremity injury. Multivariate analyses identified that ankle dorsiflexion during the SLS (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.52) was a risk factor for a substantial lower-extremity injury. The findings indicate that contemporary dance students are at high risk for lower-extremity injuries. Therefore, the identified risk factor (ankle dorsiflexion) should be considered for prevention purposes.

  13. Research of the BWS system for lower extremity rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Weida; Li, Juan; Cai, Xiaowei

    2017-07-01

    Body weight support (BWS) system is increasingly used in conjunction with treadmills to assist the patients with neurological impairments. Owing to lower limbs of the patients unable to bear the whole weight during the rehabilitation training, some weight can be removed to help the patients recover the basic walking ability gradually. Therefore, considering the man-machine relationship and the effects of the rehabilitation, a wire-driven BWS system is designed. The main unit of the system is an active closed-loop controlled drive to generate the exact desired force. The force acted on the body is through the adjustment of the length of the rope which is connected to the harness worn by the patient. The structure designed in the research is easy to operate to realize the goal of the rehabilitation. To verify the effectiveness and practicability of the BWS system, some experiments have been curried out. From the results, not only the constant unloading force can be realized, but also the response time is limited in a small range which can bring a positive effect on correcting gait, improving balance and reducing muscle spasms. Also, compared to the traditional body weight support system, such as static system or passive elastic system, it has the advantages of the fast response, small errors and constant unloading force.

  14. Peak Lower Extremity Landing Kinematics in Dancers and Nondancers.

    PubMed

    Hansberger, Bethany L; Acocello, Shellie; Slater, Lindsay V; Hart, Joseph M; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P

    2018-04-01

      Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often occur during jump landings and can have detrimental short-term and long-term functional effects on quality of life. Despite frequently performing jump landings, dancers have lower incidence rates of ACL injury than other jump-landing athletes. Planned versus unplanned activities and footwear may explain differing ACL-injury rates among dancers and nondancers. Still, few researchers have compared landing biomechanics between dancers and nondancers.   To compare the landing biomechanics of dancers and nondancers during single-legged (SL) drop-vertical jumps.   Cross-sectional study.   Laboratory.   A total of 39 healthy participants, 12 female dancers (age = 20.9 ± 1.8 years, height = 166.4 ± 6.7 cm, mass = 63.2 ± 16.4 kg), 14 female nondancers (age = 20.2 ± 0.9 years, height = 168.9 ± 5.0 cm, mass = 61.6 ± 7.7 kg), and 13 male nondancers (age = 22.2 ± 2.7 years, height = 180.6 ± 9.7 cm, mass = 80.8 ± 13.2 kg).   Participants performed SL-drop-vertical jumps from a 30-cm-high box in a randomized order in 2 activity (planned, unplanned) and 2 footwear (shod, barefoot) conditions while a 3-dimensional system recorded landing biomechanics.   Overall peak sagittal-plane and frontal-plane ankle-, knee-, and hip-joint kinematics (joint angles) were compared across groups using separate multivariate analyses of variance followed by main-effects testing and pairwise-adjusted Bonferroni comparisons as appropriate ( P < .05).   No 3-way interactions existed for sagittal-plane or frontal-plane ankle (Wilks λ = 0.85, P = .11 and Wilks λ = 0.96, P = .55, respectively), knee (Wilks λ = 1.00, P = .93 and Wilks λ = 0.94, P = .36, respectively), or hip (Wilks λ = 0.99, P = .88 and Wilks λ = 0.97, P = .62, respectively) kinematics. We observed no group × footwear interactions for sagittal-plane or frontal-plane ankle (Wilks λ = 0.94, P = .43 and Wilks λ = 0.96, P = .55, respectively), knee (Wilks

  15. Rasch validation of the Arabic version of the lower extremity functional scale.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the internal construct validity of the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (20-item Arabic LEFS) using Rasch analysis. Patients (n = 170) with lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction were recruited. Rasch analysis of 20-item Arabic LEFS was performed. Once the initial Rasch analysis indicated that the 20-item Arabic LEFS did not fit the Rasch model, follow-up analyses were conducted to improve the fit of the scale to the Rasch measurement model. These modifications included removing misfitting individuals, changing item scoring structure, removing misfitting items, addressing bias caused by response dependency between items and differential item functioning (DIF). Initial analysis indicated deviation of the 20-item Arabic LEFS from the Rasch model. Disordered thresholds in eight items and response dependency between six items were detected with the scale as a whole did not meet the requirement of unidimensionality. Refinements led to a 15-item Arabic LEFS that demonstrated excellent internal consistency (person separation index [PSI] = 0.92) and satisfied all the requirement of the Rasch model. Rasch analysis did not support the 20-item Arabic LEFS as a unidimensional measure of lower extremity function. The refined 15-item Arabic LEFS met all the requirement of the Rasch model and hence is a valid objective measure of lower extremity function. The Rasch-validated 15-item Arabic LEFS needs to be further tested in an independent sample to confirm its fit to the Rasch measurement model. Implications for Rehabilitation The validity of the 20-item Arabic Lower Extremity Functional Scale to measure lower extremity function is not supported. The 15-item Arabic version of the LEFS is a valid measure of lower extremity function and can be used to quantify lower extremity function in patients with lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Lower Extremity Caused by Serratia marcescens A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Heigh, Evelyn G; Maletta-Bailey, April; Haight, John; Landis, Gregg S

    2016-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and potentially fatal infection, with mortality of up to 30%. This case report describes a patient recovering from a laryngectomy for laryngeal squamous cell cancer who developed nosocomial necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity due to Serratia marcescens . Only eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis exclusive to the lower extremity due to S marcescens have been previously reported. Patients with S marcescens necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity often have multiple comorbidities, are frequently immunosuppressed, and have a strikingly high mortality rate.

  17. Effects of Arm Ergometry Exercise on the Reaction, Movement and Response Times of the Lower Extremities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.

    A study determined the effects of fatigue produced in the upper extremities on the reaction time, movement time, and response time of the lower extremities in 30 male subjects, 19-25 years old. Each subject participated in a 10 trial practice session one day prior to the experiment and immediately preceding the pre-test. The pre-test consisted of…

  18. The quality of visual information about the lower extremities influences visuomotor coordination during virtual obstacle negotiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aram; Kretch, Kari S; Zhou, Zixuan; Finley, James M

    2018-05-09

    Successful negotiation of obstacles during walking relies on the integration of visual information about the environment with ongoing locomotor commands. When information about the body and environment are removed through occlusion of the lower visual field, individuals increase downward head pitch angle, reduce foot placement precision, and increase safety margins during crossing. However, whether these effects are mediated by loss of visual information about the lower extremities, the obstacle, or both remains to be seen. Here, we used a fully immersive, virtual obstacle negotiation task to investigate how visual information about the lower extremities is integrated with information about the environment to facilitate skillful obstacle negotiation. Participants stepped over virtual obstacles while walking on a treadmill with one of three types of visual feedback about the lower extremities: no feedback, end-point feedback, or a link-segment model. We found that absence of visual information about the lower extremities led to an increase in the variability of leading foot placement after crossing. The presence of a visual representation of the lower extremities promoted greater downward head pitch angle during the approach to and subsequent crossing of an obstacle. In addition, having greater downward head pitch was associated with closer placement of the trailing foot to the obstacle, further placement of the leading foot after the obstacle, and higher trailing foot clearance. These results demonstrate that the fidelity of visual information about the lower extremities influences both feed-forward and feedback aspects of visuomotor coordination during obstacle negotiation.

  19. Overuse injuries of the lower extremity: shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jones, D C; James, S L

    1987-04-01

    The authors' discussion of overuse injuries of the lower extremity encompasses shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are considered for each disorder.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of functional status of lower extremity amputee-appliance systems: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, S

    1976-11-01

    This paper introduces an integrated, objective and biomechanically sound approach for the analysis and evaluation of the functional status of lower extremity amputee-appliance systems. The method is demonstrated here in its application to the unilateral lower extremity amputee-axillary crutches system and the unilateral below-knee amputee-PTB prosthesis system, both of which are commonly encountered in day-to-day rehabilitation practice.

  1. Risk factors for lower extremity injury: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D; Connolly, D; Beynnon, B

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies on risk factors for lower extremity injury are reviewed. Many intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors have been implicated; however, there is little agreement with respect to the findings. Future prospective studies are needed using sufficient sample sizes of males and females, including collection of exposure data, and using established methods for identifying and classifying injury severity to conclusively determine addtional risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:12547739

  2. [Fractures of the lower extremities in childhood : Part 2: lower leg and ankle fractures].

    PubMed

    Voth, M; Kremer, L; Marzi, I

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of pediatric patients in trauma surgery is a special situation in every aspect. For deciding on the correct treatment of fractures of the lower leg and ankle joint, various parameters, such as residual growth rate, skeletal age and height of the patient are decisive. The differences between fractures in children and adolescents are the open epiphyseal plate and the resulting residual growth. The bones of young children have a higher healing tendency and a greater potential for correction than in adolescents. Especially in the lower leg and the ankle joint, the potential for correction is decisive for the healing of fractures and for possible development of growth disorders. The limits of tolerance concerning axial malalignments and the expected spontaneous potential for correction must play an essential role for further treatment with conservative or operative therapy. This article deals with the special features of pediatric fractures of the lower leg and ankle joint.

  3. Relationship between lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Citaker, Seyit; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Yazici, Gokhan; Bayraktar, Deniz; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2013-01-01

    Muscle strength and standing balance decrease in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with MS. Forty-seven patients with MS and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Neurological disability level was assessed using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Isometric strength of seven lower extremity muscles (hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor) was assessed using hand-held dynamometer. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured using digital chronometer. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS when compared with controls (p < 0.05). All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength and EDSS level was related duration of one-leg standing balance in patients with MS. All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength (except ankle dorsal flexor) was related with EDSS. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength decreases in ambulatory MS patients. Lower extremity muscle weakness and neurological disability level are related with imbalance in MS population. Hip and knee region muscles weakness increases the neurological disability level. For the better balance and decrease neurological disability level whole lower extremity muscle strengthening should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  4. Anterolateral thigh flap harvested from paralytic lower extremity in a patient with late polio sequel.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Valentino; Terenzi, Valentina; Cassoni, Andrea; Battisti, Andrea; Della Monaca, Marco; Malavasi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Free flap reconstruction is the treatment of choice after extensive head and neck tumour resection. When treating a patient with a previous disability, such as lower extremity paralysis secondary to poliomyelitis, it is important to offer the best reconstruction whilst preserving healthy extremities. We report the case of a 51-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the right tongue and a left lower extremity paralysis secondary to an acute poliomyelitis during childhood in which reconstruction was successfully achieved with a left anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcranial Doppler and Lower Extremity Function in Older Adults: Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Ezzati, Ali; Rundek, Tatjana; Verghese, Joe; Derby, Carol A

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) measures of mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) in the major cerebral arteries are associated with measures of lower extremity function in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional study. Community sample. Individuals aged 70 and older (mean 79.5, 54% female) without dementia participating in the Einstein Aging Study (N = 200). All participants underwent TCD assessments and tests of lower extremity function at an annual clinic visit. Average MBFV for anterior (left and right anterior and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs)) and posterior (vertebral (VA) and basilar (BA) artery) circulation was measured using a standardized TCD protocol. Lower extremity function was characterized according to gait speed (cm/s) measured using an instrumented walkway, balance according to unipedal stance time (UPST, seconds), and lower extremity strength according to timed repeated chair rise (seconds). Multiple regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and medical comorbidities showed that lower MBFV in the MCA was associated with slower gait speed and chair rise time but not with UPST. Ordinal regression models showed that lower MBFV in the VA and BA is associated with shorter UPST. Low MBFV in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation was associated with worse lower extremity function and balance in older adults. This might be indicative of the importance of age-related changes in cerebral hemodynamics in the function of brain regions involved in specific aspects of physical performance. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Clinical features and risk factor analysis for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in Chinese neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fuyou; Shashikiran, Tagilapalli; Chen, Xi; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xianzhi; Song, Laijun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of neurosurgical patients; however, no data regarding lower extremity DVT in postoperative Chinese neurosurgical patients have been reported. Materials and Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, 196 patients without preoperative DVT who underwent neurosurgical operations were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography and D-dimer level measurements on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days after surgery. Follow-up clinical data were recorded to determine the incidence of lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients and to analyze related clinical features. First, a single factor analysis, Chi-square test, was used to select statistically significant factors. Then, a multivariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, was used to determine risk factors for lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients. Results: Lower extremity DVT occurred in 61 patients, and the incidence of DVT was 31.1% in the enrolled Chinese neurosurgical patients. The common symptoms of DVT were limb swelling and lower extremity pain as well as increased soft tissue tension. The common sites of venous involvement were the calf muscle and peroneal and posterior tibial veins. The single factor analysis showed statistically significant differences in DVT risk factors, including age, hypertension, smoking status, operation time, a bedridden or paralyzed state, the presence of a tumor, postoperative dehydration, and glucocorticoid treatment, between the two groups (P < 0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that an age greater than 50 years, hypertension, a bedridden or paralyzed state, the presence of a tumor, and postoperative dehydration were risk factors for lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients. Conclusions: Lower extremity DVT was a common complication following craniotomy in the enrolled Chinese neurosurgical patients. Multiple

  7. Associations of Foot Posture and Function to Lower Extremity Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, JL; Dufour, AB; Hagedorn, TJ; Hillstrom, Howard; Casey, VA; Hannan, MT

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have implicated foot posture and foot function as risk factors for lower extremity pain. Empirical population-based evidence for this assertion is lacking; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of foot posture and foot function to lower extremity joint pain in a population-based study of adults. Methods Participants were members of the Framingham Foot Study. lower extremity joint pain was determined by the response to the NHANES-type question, “On most days do you have pain, aching or stiffness in your [hips, knees, ankles, or feet]?” Modified Arch Index (MAI) classified participants as having planus, rectus (referent) or cavus foot posture. Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI) classified participants as having over-pronated, normal (referent) or over-supinated foot function. Crude and adjusted (age, gender, BMI) logistic regression determined associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain. Results Participants with planus structure had higher odds of knee (1.57, 95% CI: 1.24– 1.99) or ankle (1.47, 95% CI: 1.05–2.06) pain, whereas those with a cavus foot structure had increased odds of ankle pain only (7.56, 95% CI: 1.99–28.8) and pain at one lower extremity site (1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.80). Associations between foot function and lower extremity joint pain were not statistically significant, except for a reduced risk of hip pain in those with an over-supinated foot function (0.69, 95% CI: 0.51–0.93). Conclusions These findings offer a link between foot posture and lower extremity pain, highlighting the need for longitudinal or intervention studies. PMID:24591410

  8. Lower extremity work is associated with club head velocity during the golf swing in experienced golfers.

    PubMed

    McNally, M P; Yontz, N; Chaudhari, A M

    2014-08-01

    While the golf swing is a complex whole body movement requiring coordination of all joints to achieve maximum ball velocity, the kinetic contribution of the lower extremities to club head velocity has not been quantified, despite the perception that the legs are a primary source of power during the swing. Mechanical power at the hips, knees, and ankles was estimated during the downswing phase of a full swing with a driver using a passive optical motion capture system and 2 force plates for adult males across a range of age and self-reported skill levels. Total work by the lower extremities was calculated by integrating the powers of all 6 joints over the downswing. Regression analyses showed that total lower extremity work was a strong predictor of club head velocity (R=0.63). Secondary analyses showed different relationships to club head velocity in lead and trail leg lower extremity joints, but none of these were as predictive of club head velocity as the total work performed by the lower extremities. These results provide quantitative evidence that the lower body's kinetic contribution may be an important factor in achieving greater club head velocity, contributing to greater driving distance and overall golf performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Relative incidence of phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters in the lower versus upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Benaya, A; Schwartz, Y; Kory, R; Yinnon, A M; Ben-Chetrit, E

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral venous access in elderly, hospitalized patients is often challenging. The usual alternative is insertion of a central venous catheter, with associated risk for complications. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative incidence of phlebitis secondary to lower as compared to upper extremity intravenous catheters (IVCs) and associated risk factors. A non-randomized, observational, cohort-controlled study was carried out. Consecutive patients receiving a lower extremity IVC were enrolled and compared with patients receiving an upper extremity IVC. Patients were followed from insertion until removal of the IVC. The major endpoint was phlebitis. The incidence of phlebitis secondary to upper extremity IVCs was 3/50 (6 %) compared to 5/53 (9.4 %) in lower extremity IVCs (χ(2) Yates = 0.08, p = 0.776). Age, gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, site (arm versus leg, left versus right), and size of needle were not found to be risk factors for phlebitis according to univariate analysis. None of the patients developed bloodstream infection. In elderly patients with poor venous access, lower extremity IVCs are a reasonable and low-risk alternative to central venous catheters.

  10. Effect of Lower Extremity Stretching Exercises on Balance in Geriatric Population.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ravi Shankar; Alahmari, Khalid A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find "Effect of lower extremity stretching exercises on balance in the geriatric population. 60 subjects (30 male and 30 female) participated in the study. The subjects underwent 10 weeks of lower limb stretching exercise program. Pre and post 10 weeks stretching exercise program, the subjects were assessed for balance, using single limb stance time in seconds and berg balance score. These outcome measures were analyzed. Pre and post lower extremity stretching on balance was analyzed using paired t test. Of 60 subjects 50 subjects completed the stretching exercise program. Paired sample t test analysis showed a significant improvement in single limb stance time (eyes open and eyes closed) (p<0.001) and berg balance score (p<0.001). Lower extremity stretching exercises enhances balance in the geriatric population and thereby reduction in the number of falls.

  11. Results of a prospective randomized controlled trial of early ambulation for patients with lower extremity autografts.

    PubMed

    Lorello, David John; Peck, Michael; Albrecht, Marlene; Richey, Karen J; Pressman, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to keep those patients with lower extremity autografts immobile until post-operative day (POD) 5. There is however inherent risks associated with even short periods of immobility. As of now there are no randomized controlled trials looking at early ambulation of patients with lower extremity autografts in the burn community.The objective of this study was to show that patients who begin ambulation within 24 hours of lower extremity autografting will have no increased risk of graft failure than those patients who remain immobile until POD 5. Thirty-one subjects who received autografts to the lower extremity were randomized after surgery into either the early ambulation group (EAG;17 subjects) or the standard treatment group (STG;14 subjects). Those subjects randomized to the EAG began ambulating with physical therapy on POD 1. Subjects in the STG maintained bed rest until POD 5. There was no difference in the number of patients with graft loss in either the EAG or STG on POD 5, and during any of the follow-up visits. No subjects required regrafting. There was a significant difference in the mean minutes of ambulation, with the EAG ambulating longer than the STG (EAG 23.4 minutes [SD 12.03], STG 14.1 [SD 9.00], P=.0235) on POD 5. Burn patients with lower extremity autografts can safely ambulate on POD 1 without fear of graft failure compared with those patients that remain on bed rest for 5 days.

  12. New Surgical Drapes for Observation of the Lower Extremities during Abdominal Aortic Repair.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Yukio; Shigematsu, Hiroshi; Satou, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiko; Saiki, Naozumi; Koizumii, Nobusato

    2010-01-01

    For the early diagnosis and therapy of peripheral thromboembolism (TE) as a complication of abdominal aortic repair (AAR), we developed and evaluated the usefulness of surgical drapes that permit observation of the lower extremities during AAR. Between January 2007 and June 2009, the handling, durability, and usefulness of new surgical drapes were evaluated during AAR in 157 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and 9 patients with peripheral arterial disease. The drapes are manufactured by Hogy Medical Co. Ltd. and made of a water-repellent, spun lace, non-woven fabric, including a transparent polyethylene film that covers the patients' legs. This transparent film enables inspection and palpation of the lower extremities during surgery for early diagnosis and therapy of peripheral TE. As a peripheral complication, 1 patient had right lower extremity TE. This was diagnosed immediately after anastomosis, thrombectomy was performed, and the remaining clinical course was uneventful. In all patients, the drapes permitted observation of the lower extremities , and the dorsal arteries were palpable. There were no problems with durability. New surgical drapes permit observation of the lower extremities during AAR for early diagnosis and treatment of peripheral TE.

  13. Free flap lower extremity reconstruction in the obese population: does weight matter?

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Emily C; Fischer, John P; Nelson, Jonas A; Wink, Jason D; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J

    2014-05-01

    The obesity epidemic continues to grow, and we have observed greater numbers of obese individuals among patients seeking lower extremity reconstruction at our institution. These patients may present a greater reconstructive challenge, thus we sought to identify risk factors and differences in outcomes among patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction.In this study we have performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction with free tissue transfer at our institution from 2005 to 2012. Patients were classified using the World Health Organization criteria for obesity. Records were reviewed for patient characteristics, mechanism of injury, indications for reconstruction, and surgical technique, with a focus on intraoperative and early postoperative complications and outcomes.A total of 43 out of the 119 patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction were obese (body mass index ≥ 30). Mechanism of injury, wound location, and the indications for reconstruction were similar in both cohorts. No significant differences were found in operative characteristics and techniques, including the type of flap utilized, operative time, or thrombotic events. No significant differences were seen in complication rates overall, however, obese patients more frequently needed second flaps (11.6 vs. 0%, p=0.005).This study concludes that successful lower extremity reconstruction can be performed in the obese population, with few differences in complication rates and outcomes relative to healthy weight patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Effect of mirror use on lower extremity muscle strength of patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Choe, Yu-Won; Shin, Young-Jun; Peng, Cheng; Choi, Eun-Hong

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect on muscle strength of lower extremity muscle strength exercise while using a mirror on the non-paretic side in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to a non-mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), a mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), or a mirror lower extremity muscle strength exercise group (n=10). Subjects were asked to do the exercise assigned to their group (5 sets 30 times a day, 5 times weekly for 4 weeks) with general physical therapy in the hospital. Muscle strength in the knee extensor and flexor of paretic and non-paretic side were measured using electrical muscle testing device before and after the intervention. [Results] Muscle strength significantly increased within each group after intervention. No significant differences were found among the three groups. [Conclusion] This study showed that the lower extremity muscle strength exercise of the non-paretic side using a mirror has a positive effect on muscle strength in patient with chronic stroke.

  15. Patients with inferior vena cava thrombosis frequently present with lower back pain and bilateral lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Christiane; Hecking, Carola; Schwonberg, Jan; Schindewolf, Marc; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Linnemann, Birgit

    2013-07-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is rare, and data about the clinical presentation of patients are scarce. Therefore, we reviewed all cases of IVC thrombosis consecutively registered in the MAISTHRO (MAin-ISar-THROmbosis) database and described patients’ characteristics in terms of their clinical presentations in the acute setting of IVC thrombosis. From the MAISTHRO registry, which enrolled 1470 consecutive patients with documented histories of venous thromboembolism, we identified 60 patients (0,4 %; females 60 %) with IVC thrombosis and 888 patients (60.4 %; females 55 %) with isolated lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis (LE-DVT). The median age at the time of IVC thrombosis manifestation was 36.5 years (9 to 83). IVC thrombosis was the initial VTE event in 47 patients (78 %). In the majority of cases, IVC thrombosis extended to the lower-extremity veins, and both lower extremities were affected in 17 cases (28 %). The initial clinical symptom of IVC thrombosis was lower back or abdominal pain which preceded typical symptoms of LE-DVT in 29 (48 %) patients. Symptomatic pulmonary embolism was more frequently observed in IVC thrombosis patients when compared to a sex- and age-matched subgroup of LE-DVT patients, although the difference was not significant (27 % vs. 12 %; p = 0.064). Malignant disease was the only established VTE risk factor with a higher prevalence among IVC thrombosis patients than patients with isolated LE-DVT (27 % vs. 9 %; p = 0.015). Congenital IVC anomalies were identified in another eight IVC thrombosis patients (13 %). IVC thrombosis should be considered a differential diagnosis for inexplicable lower back or abdominal pain especially in young patients. Malignant disease and congenital IVC anomalies seem to be predisposing factors for thrombosis involving the inferior vena cava.

  16. Uncontacted tire explosion causing trauma to bilateral lower extremities: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Yang; Su, Yun; Meng, Xiang-Jun; Luan, Bo-Wu; Gu, Gui-Shan; Sun, Qiang; Zhao, De-Wei

    2017-06-01

    It is uncommon for tire explosion related injuries on the lower extremity. The bilateral lower extremities were injured by tire explosion when the patient was seated in a bus. She sustained an open fracture with partial bone loss in the right calcaneus (a comminuted fracture in the right ankle joint) and a closed comminuted fracture in the left tibia and fibula. This damage was caused by uncontacted tire explosion, thanks to a thick floor between the exploded tire and the patient's feet. This type of injury on lower extremity caused by uncontacted tire explosion was uncommon. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Soccer-Specific Warm-Up and Lower Extremity Injury Rates in Collegiate Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Dustin R.; Palmer, Thomas; Onate, James A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Grindstaff, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Context: A number of comprehensive injury-prevention programs have demonstrated injury risk-reduction effects but have had limited adoption across athletic settings. This may be due to program noncompliance, minimal exercise supervision, lack of exercise progression, and sport specificity. A soccer-specific program described as the F-MARC 11+ was developed by an expert group in association with the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) to require minimal equipment and implementation as part of regular soccer training. The F-MARC 11+ has been shown to reduce injury risk in youth female soccer players but has not been evaluated in an American male collegiate population. Objective: To investigate the effects of a soccer-specific warm-up program (F-MARC 11+) on lower extremity injury incidence in male collegiate soccer players. Design: Cohort study. Setting: One American collegiate soccer team followed for 2 seasons. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-one male collegiate athletes aged 18–25 years. Intervention(s): The F-MARC 11+ program is a comprehensive warm-up program targeting muscular strength, body kinesthetic awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements. Training sessions and program progression were monitored by a certified athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Lower extremity injury risk and time lost to lower extremity injury. Results: The injury rate in the referent season was 8.1 injuries per 1000 exposures with 291 days lost and 2.2 injuries per 1000 exposures and 52 days lost in the intervention season. The intervention season had reductions in the relative risk (RR) of lower extremity injury of 72% (RR = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.09, 0.85) and time lost to lower extremity injury (P < .01). Conclusions: This F-MARC 11+ program reduced overall risk and severity of lower extremity injury compared with controls in collegiate-aged male soccer

  18. Diabetic Driving Studies-Part 1: Brake Response Time in Diabetic Drivers With Lower Extremity Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Meyr, Andrew J; Spiess, Kerianne E

    Although the effect of lower extremity pathology and surgical intervention on automobile driving function has been a topic of contemporary interest, we are unaware of any analysis of the effect of lower extremity diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy on driving performance. The objective of the present case-control investigation was to assess the mean brake response time in diabetic drivers with lower extremity neuropathy compared with that of a control group and a brake response safety threshold. The driving performances of participants were evaluated using a computerized driving simulator with specific measurement of the mean brake response time and frequency of abnormally delayed brake responses. We analyzed a control group of 25 active drivers with neither diabetes nor lower extremity neuropathy and an experimental group of 25 active drivers with type 2 diabetes and lower extremity neuropathy. The experimental group demonstrated a 37.89% slower mean brake response time (0.757 ± 0.180 versus 0.549 ± 0.076 second; p < .001), with abnormally delayed responses occurring at a greater frequency (57.5% versus 3.5%; p < .001). Independent of a comparative statistical analysis, the observed mean brake response time in the experimental group was slower than the reported safety brake response threshold of 0.70 second. The results of the present investigation provide original data with respect to abnormally delayed brake responses in diabetic patients with lower extremity neuropathy and might raise the potential for impaired driving function in this population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of load carriage and muscle fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L

    2013-09-01

    Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded walking, walking with a 32-kg load, fatigued walking with a 32-kg load, and fatigued walking. After the second walking task, muscle fatigue was elicited through a fatiguing protocol consisting of metered step-ups and heel raises with a 16-kg load. Each walking task was performed at 1.67 m x s(-1) for 5 min. Walking movement was tracked by a VICON motion capture system at 120 Hz. Ground reaction forces were collected by a tandem force instrumented treadmill (AMTI) at 2,400 Hz. Lower-extremity joint mechanics were calculated in Visual 3D. There was no interaction between load carriage and fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics (p > .05). Both load carriage and fatigue led to pronounced alterations of lower-extremity joint mechanics (p < .05). Load carriage resulted in increases of pelvis anterior tilt, hip and knee flexion at heel contact, and increases of hip, knee, and ankle joint moments and powers during weight acceptance. Muscle fatigue led to decreases of ankle dorsiflexion at heel contact, dorsiflexor moment, and joint power at weight acceptance. In addition, muscle fatigue increased demand for hip extensor moment and power at weight acceptance. Statistically significant changes in lower-extremity joint mechanics during loaded and fatigued walking may expose military personnel to increased risk for overuse injuries.

  20. Preventing lower extremity injury in elite orienteerers: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Halvarsson, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    Background The high physical load associated with running through uneven terrain contributes toorienteerers being exposed to high injury risk, where the majority of injuries are located in the lower extremities. Specific training programmes have been effective at reducing injury risk in sports. Yet no trial has been conducted in elite orienteering. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a specific training programme in preventing lower extremity injury in adult elite orienteerers. Study design Randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Seventy-two Swedish elite orienteerers, aged 18–40 years, are allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention group performs four specific exercises, with three difficult levels intensified every second week over the first 4 weeks, targeting strength, flexibility and coordination of the lower extremity. The exercises are completed four times a week (10 min per session) in conjunction with normal training over 14 weeks. Injury data are collected every second week using a valid injury questionnaire distributed by text messages over 14 weeks. The primary outcome is number of substantial injuries in the lower extremity. The secondary outcomes are incidence of ankle sprains and the average substantial injury prevalence across 14 weeks. Discussion Due to high injury risk and lack of injury prevention trials in orienteering, an RCT investigating the effect of a specific exercise programme in preventing lower extremity injury is warranted. The results of this trial will be beneficial to orienteerers, clubs and federations, and increase our understanding on how lower extremity injuries can be prevented in a physically challenging sport. Trial registration number NCT03408925. PMID:29707231

  1. [Rehabilitation of the patients following the endoprosthetic replacement of the joints of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Rud, I M; Melnikova, E A; Rassulova, M A; Razumov, A N; Gorelikov, A E

    2017-12-28

    The present article is the analytical review of the literature pertaining to the problem of rehabilitation of the patients following the endoprosthetic replacement of joints of the lower extremities. The relevance of the problem of interest for medical rehabilitation is beyond any doubt. The traditional methods for the rehabilitation of the patients do not always lead to the desired results. The authors discuss in detail the need for and the contemporary approaches to the rehabilitation of the patients who had undergone reconstructive surgery and arthroplasty of the joints of the lower extremities. The pathogenetically-based three-stage algorithm for medical rehabilitation is proposed.

  2. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C

    2015-07-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  3. Distal Lower-Extremity Pain and Work Postures in the Quebec Population

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Karen; Tissot, France; Stock, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Standing at work has been associated with discomfort and cardiovascular symptoms. Because standing postures vary in duration, mobility, and constraint, we explored associations between specific postures and pain in the lower extremities. Methods. We used multiple logistic regression to analyze associations between work factors and pain in the lower extremities during the previous 12 months that interfered with usual activities. We used data from among 7757 workers who were interviewed in the 1998 Quebec Health and Social Survey. Results. Among all respondents, 9.4% reported significant ankle or foot pain, and 6.4% had lower-leg or calf pain. Significantly more women than men had pain at both sites. Both leg or calf and ankle or foot pain were strongly associated with standing postures, whole-body vibration, psychological distress, female gender, and being aged 50 years or older. Constrained standing postures were associated with increased ankle or foot pain for both men and women and with leg or calf pain for women, compared with standing with freedom to sit at will. Conclusions. Freedom to sit at work may prevent lower-extremity pain. The effects of specific sitting and standing postures on cartilage, muscle, and the cardiovascular system may help explain discomfort in the lower extremities. PMID:17761561

  4. Lower extremity injury criteria for evaluating military vehicle occupant injury in underbelly blast events.

    PubMed

    McKay, Brian J; Bir, Cynthia A

    2009-11-01

    Anti-vehicular (AV) landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) have accounted for more than half of the United States military hostile casualties and wounded in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) (Department of Defense Personnel & Procurement Statistics, 2009). The lower extremity is the predominantly injured body region following an AV mine or IED blast accounting for 26 percent of all combat injuries in OIF (Owens et al., 2007). Detonations occurring under the vehicle transmit high amplitude and short duration axial loads onto the foot-ankle-tibia region of the occupant causing injuries to the lower leg. The current effort was initiated to develop lower extremity injury criteria for occupants involved in underbelly blast impacts. Eighteen lower extremity post mortem human specimens (PMHS) were instrumented with an implantable load cell and strain gages and impacted at one of three incrementally severe AV axial loading conditions. Twelve of the 18 PMHS specimens sustained fractures of the calcaneus, talus, fibula and/or tibia. The initiation of skeletal injury was precisely detected by strain gages and corresponded with local peak axial tibia force. Survival analysis identified peak axial tibia force and impactor velocity as the two best predictors of incapacitating injury. A tibia axial force of 5,931 N and impactor velocity of 10.8 m/s corresponds with a 50 percent risk of an incapacitating injury. The criteria may be utilized to predict the probability of lower extremity incapacitating injury in underbelly blast impacts.

  5. The Effects of Shoe Traction and Obstacle Height on Lower Extremity Coordination Dynamics during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Leslie; Houser, Jeremy J.; Noble, John M.; Karst, Gregory M.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of shoe traction and obstacle height on lower extremity relative phase dynamics (analysis of intralimb coordination) during walking to better understand the mechanisms employed to avoid slippage following obstacle clearance. Ten participants walked at a self-selected pace during eight conditions: four obstacle heights (0%, 10%, 20%, and 40% of limb length) while wearing two pairs of shoes (low and high traction). A coordination analysis was used and phasing relationships between lower extremity segments were examined. The results demonstrated that significant behavioral changes were elicited under varied obstacle heights and frictional conditions. Both decreasing shoe traction and increasing obstacle height resulted in a more in-phase relationship between the interacting lower limb segments. The higher the obstacle and the lower the shoe traction, the more unstable the system became. These changes in phasing relationship and variability are indicators of alterations in coordinative behavior, which if pushed further may have lead to falling. PMID:19187929

  6. Striving for Normalcy after Lower Extremity Reconstruction with Free Tissue: The Role of Secondary Esthetic Refinements.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonas A; Fischer, John P; Haddock, Nicholas T; Mackay, Duncan; Wink, Jason D; Newman, Andrew S; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Many patients with successful lower extremity salvage have postoperative functional and esthetic concerns. Such concerns range from contour irregularity preventing proper shoe-fitting to esthetic concerns involving color, contour, and texture match. The purpose of this study is to determine the overall incidence as well as factors associated with an increased likelihood of undergoing secondary, esthetic refinements of lower extremity free flaps and to review current revision techniques. All patients undergoing lower extremity soft tissue coverage for limb salvage procedures between January 2007 and June 2013 at a single institution were included in the analysis. Patients who underwent secondary refinements for lower extremity free flaps were compared with patients not undergoing secondary procedures. During the study period, 152 patients underwent reconstruction and were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 32 (21.1%) patients underwent secondary, esthetic revisions. Few differences in patient or case characteristics were noted, although revision patients trended toward being younger, having lower body mass index, with defects secondary to acute trauma located below the ankle. The most common revision was complex soft tissue rearrangement or surgical flap debulking/direct excision (87.5% of patients), followed by scar revision (12.5%), suction-assisted lipectomy (3.1%), laser scar revision (3.1%), and tissue expansion with local tissue rearrangement (3.1%). A significant portion of patients desire secondary revisions following the initial procedure. This is especially true of younger patients with below ankle reconstruction. In many patients, an esthetic consideration should not be of secondary concern, but should be part of the ultimate reconstructive algorithm for lower extremity limb salvage. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Interjoint coordination of the lower extremities in short-track speed skating.

    PubMed

    Khuyagbaatar, Batbayar; Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Park, Won Man; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2017-10-01

    In short-track speed skating, the three-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremities during the whole skating cycle have not been studied. Kinematic parameters of the lower extremities during skating are presented as joint angles versus time. However, the angle-time presentation is not sufficient to describe the relationship between multi-joint movement patterns. Thus, angle-angle presentations were developed and used to describe interjoint coordination in sport activities. In this study, 15 professional male skaters' full body motion data were recorded using a wearable motion capture system during short-track speed skating. We investigated the three-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremities and then established the interjoint coordination between hip-knee and knee-ankle for both legs during the whole skating cycle. The results demonstrate the relationship between multi-joint movements during different phases of short-track speed skating. This study provides fundamentals of the movement mechanism of the lower extremities that can be integrated with physiotherapy to improve skating posture and prevent injuries from repetitive stress since physiological characteristics play an important role in skating performance.

  8. [Differential diagnosis of skin changes on the lower extremities in chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Binder, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Varicous veins and postthrombotic syndrome can make typical reversible or irreversible skin changes on the lower extremities if no treatment is initiated. The typical clinical signs should be recognised in an early stage and possible differential diagnoses have to be excluded.

  9. The Use of Bovine Collagen-glycosaminoglycan Matrix for Atypical Lower Extremity Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Caitlin S; Kim, Paul J; Matai, Vinay; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Mitnick, Carol Deane B; Attinger, Christopher E

    2016-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of bovine collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix on atypical lower extremity ulcers. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent application of bovine collagen matrix to a lower extremity ulcer with an atypical etiology including autoimmune disease, sickle cell anemia, radiation therapy, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, or coagulopathy from January 2009 to October 2014. The following outcomes were evaluated: rate of ulcer healing and closure, number of ulcers that received a split-thickness skin graft, improvement in pain, and complications related to the ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with 71 lower extremity ulcers were analyzed. The most common ulcer etiolo- gies included rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell anemia, and coagulopa- thy. After application of the bovine collagen matrix, 30 (42.3%) ulcers healed at a mean of 220.9 days. Of the 71 ulcers, 26 (36.6%) re- ceived a split-thickness skin graft after application of the matrix and 17 (65.4%) of those went on to complete healing. Ten patients had a local infection noted during follow-up, and 5 patients had dehiscence or dissociation of the matrix. Atypical lower extremity ulcers, such as those caused by autoimmune diseases and sickle cell anemia, proved difficult to heal. This case series shows that bovine collagen matrix can be a successful adjunctive therapy for the treatment of these challenging ulcers.

  10. Effects of aquatic PNF lower extremity patterns on balance and ADL of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns in the lower extremity on balance and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty poststroke participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed lower extremity patterns in an aquatic environment, and the control group performed lower extremity patterns on the ground. Both exercises were conducted for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Balance was measured with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), Functional Reach Test (FRT), and One Leg Stand Test (OLST). Activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). A paired t-test was used to measure pre- and post-experiment differences, and an independent t-test was used to measure between-group differences. [Results] The experimental and control groups showed significant differences for all pre- and post-experiment variables. In the between-group comparison, the experimental group was significantly difference from the control group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that performing aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns in the lower extremity enhances balance and ADL in stroke patients.

  11. Effects of aquatic PNF lower extremity patterns on balance and ADL of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns in the lower extremity on balance and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty poststroke participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed lower extremity patterns in an aquatic environment, and the control group performed lower extremity patterns on the ground. Both exercises were conducted for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Balance was measured with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), Functional Reach Test (FRT), and One Leg Stand Test (OLST). Activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). A paired t-test was used to measure pre- and post-experiment differences, and an independent t-test was used to measure between-group differences. [Results] The experimental and control groups showed significant differences for all pre- and post-experiment variables. In the between-group comparison, the experimental group was significantly difference from the control group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that performing aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns in the lower extremity enhances balance and ADL in stroke patients. PMID:25642076

  12. Are maturation, growth and lower extremity alignment associated with overuse injury in elite adolescent ballet dancers?

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Erin; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Karin, Janet

    2014-11-01

    To identify growth, maturation and biomechanical risk factors for overuse injury in elite adolescent ballet dancers. Maturation (Tanner scale), growth (foot length change) and age at onset of menarche were recorded in elite adolescent ballet dancers. A modified knee valgus angle and lateral tilt of the pelvis were measured using 2D video during two dance movements (fondu, temps levé) to quantify lower extremity alignment. Overuse dance injuries were recorded by a physiotherapist. The injury rate ratio (RR) associated with each variable was estimated using over-dispersed Poisson regression modelling. Changes in right foot length (RR = 1.41, CI = 0.93-2.13), right knee angles during the fondu (RR = 0.68, CI = 0.45-1.03) and temps levé (RR = 0.72, CI = 0.53-0.98), and pelvic angles during the temps levé on the left (RR = 0.52, CI = 0.30-0.90) and fondu on the right (RR = 1.28, CI = 0.91-1.80) were associated with substantial changes in injury risk. Rate of growth in elite adolescent ballet dancers is likely associated with an increase in risk of lower extremity overuse injury and better right lower extremity alignment is likely associated with a reduction in risk of right lower extremity overuse injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The incidences of and consultation rate for lower extremity complaints in general practice

    PubMed Central

    van der Waal, J M; Bot, S D M; Terwee, C B; van der Windt, D A W M; Schellevis, F G; Bouter, L M; Dekker, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence and consultation rate of lower extremity complaints in general practice. Methods Data were obtained from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, in which 195 general practitioners (GPs) in 104 practices recorded all contacts with patients during 12 consecutive months in computerised patient records. GPs classified the symptoms and diagnosis for each patient at each consultation according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). Incidence densities and consultation rates for different complaints were calculated. Results During the registration period 63.2 GP consultations per 1000 person‐years were attributable to a new complaint of the lower extremities. Highest incidence densities were seen for knee complaints: 21.4 per 1000 person‐years for women and 22.8 per 1000 person‐years for men. The incidence of most lower extremity complaints was higher for women than for men and higher in older age. Conclusions Both incidences of and consultation rates for lower extremity complaints are substantial in general practice. This implies a considerable impact on the workload of the GP. PMID:16269430

  14. Evaluation of Spine Health and Spine Mechanics in Servicemembers with Traumatic Lower Extremity Amputation or Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    of proximal compensations (e.g., hip-hiking) to assist with toe clearance (Michaud et al., 2000), or simply because these individuals feel more...related unilateral lower extremity amputation: a long-term survey in a prosthesis center in Iran. Journal of orthopaedic trauma 23(7), 525-530

  15. Chronic ergot toxicity presenting with bilateral external iliac artery dissection and lower extremity rest pain.

    PubMed

    Molkara, Afshin M; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Teruya, Theodore H; Bianchi, Christian; Killeen, J David

    2006-11-01

    Chronic use of ergot alkaloids has been recognized as a rare cause of lower extremity ischemia. Most patients with ergot toxicity present with symptoms of lower extremity claudication. Herein we present a woman with bilateral lower extremity rest pain and a history of chronic ergot use for migraine headaches. Arteriography demonstrated extensive pruning of the distal arterial tree along with bilateral external iliac artery dissections - a finding that is not often associated with young, normotensive patients with chronic ergot toxicity. This patient was treated with endovascular stenting of the dissections along with cessation of ergot. Her symptoms improved markedly, and follow-up arteriography 6 weeks later demonstrated resolution of the iliac dissections along with restoration of nearly normal lower extremity runoff vessels. Discontinuation of ergot-containing products and cessation of tobacco and caffeine use is the cornerstone of therapy in chronic ergot toxicity. The association of ergot toxicity and iliac dissection has not been previously described. Endovascular or surgical interventions may be considered in patients with ergot toxicity for specific indications or those whose symptoms progress despite conservative management.

  16. Intra-arterial Ultra-low-Dose CT Angiography of Lower Extremity in Diabetic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Özgen, Ali, E-mail: draliozgen@hotmail.com; Sanioğlu, Soner; Bingöl, Uğur Anıl

    2016-08-15

    PurposeTo image lower extremity arteries by CT angiography using a very low-dose intra-arterial contrast medium in patients with high risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN).Materials and MethodsThree cases with long-standing diabetes mellitus and signs of lower extremity atherosclerotic disease were evaluated by CT angiography using 0.1 ml/kg of the body weight of contrast medium given via 10-cm-long 4F introducer by puncturing the CFA. Images were evaluated by an interventional radiologist and a cardiovascular surgeon. Density values of the lower extremity arteries were also calculated. Findings in two cases were compared with digital subtraction angiography images performed for percutaneous revascularization. Blood creatininemore » levels were followed for possible CIN.ResultsIntra-arterial CT angiography images were considered diagnostic in all patients and optimal in one patient. No patient developed CIN after intra-arterial CT angiography, while one patient developed CIN after percutaneous intervention.ConclusionIntra-arterial CT angiography of lower extremity might be performed in selected patients with high risk of developing CIN. Our limited experience suggests that as low as of 0.1 ml/kg of the body weight of contrast medium may result in adequate diagnostic imaging.« less

  17. Shoe and field surface risk factors for acute lower extremity injuries among female youth soccer players

    PubMed Central

    O'Kane, John W.; Gray, Kristen E.; Levy, Marni R.; Neradilek, Moni; Tencer, Allan F.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Describe acute lower extremity injuries and evaluate extrinsic risk factors in female youth soccer Design Nested case-control study Setting Youth soccer clubs in Washington State, USA. Participants Female soccer players (N= 351) ages 11 to 15 years randomly selected from 4 soccer clubs from which 83% of their players were enrolled with complete follow-up for 92% of players. Interventions Injured players were interviewed regarding injury, field surface, shoe type, and position. Uninjured controls, matched on game or practice session, were also interviewed. Main Outcome Measures The association between risk factors and acute lower extremity injury using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results One hundred seventy-three acute lower extremity injuries occurred involving primarily the ankle (39.3%), knee (24.9%), and thigh (11.0%). Over half (52.9%) recovered within 1 week, while 30.2% lasted beyond 2 weeks. During practices, those injured were approximately 3-fold ( OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.49-5.31) more likely to play on grass than artificial turf and 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.03-5.96) more likely to wear cleats on grass than other shoe and surface combinations. During games injured players were 89% (95% CI 1.03-4.17) more likely to play defender compared to forward. Conclusions Half of the acute lower extremity injuries affected the ankle or knee. Grass surface and wearing cleats on grass increased training injuries. PMID:26327288

  18. Trends and Cost-Analysis of Lower Extremity Nerve Injury Using the National Inpatient Sample.

    PubMed

    Foster, Chase H; Karsy, Michael; Jensen, Michael R; Guan, Jian; Eli, Ilyas; Mahan, Mark A

    2018-06-08

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) of the lower extremities have been assessed in small cohort studies; however, the actual incidence, national trends, comorbidities, and cost of care in lower extremity PNI are not defined. Lack of sufficient data limits discussion on national policies, payors, and other aspects fundamental to the delivery of care in the US. To establish estimates of lower extremity PNIs incidence, associated diagnoses, and cost in the US using a comprehensive database with a minimum of a decade of data. The National Inpatient Sample was utilized to evaluate International Classification of Disease codes for specific lower extremity PNIs (9560-9568) between 2001 and 2013. Lower extremity PNIs occurred with a mean incidence of 13.3 cases per million population annually, which declined minimally from 2001 to 2013. The mean ± SEM age was 41.6 ± 0.1 yr; 61.1% of patients were males. Most were admitted via the emergency department (56.0%). PNIs occurred to the sciatic (16.6%), femoral (10.7%), tibial (6.0%), peroneal (33.4%), multiple nerves (1.3%), and other (32.0%). Associated diagnoses included lower extremity fracture (13.4%), complications of care (11.2%), open wounds (10.3%), crush injury (9.7%), and other (7.2%). Associated procedures included tibial fixation (23.3%), closure of skin (20.1%), debridement of open fractures (15.4%), fixation of other bones (13.5%), and wound debridement (14.5%). The mean annual unadjusted compounded growth rate of charges was 8.8%. The mean ± SEM annual charge over the time period was $64 031.20 ± $421.10, which was associated with the number of procedure codes (β = 0.2), length of stay (β = 0.6), and year (β = 0.1) in a multivariable analysis (P = .0001). These data describe associations in the treatment of lower extremity PNIs, which are important for considering national policies, costs, research and the delivery of care.

  19. [Topical problems of the diagnosis and rehabilitative treatment of lymphedema of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Badtieva, V A; Kniazeva, T A; Apkhanova, T V

    2010-01-01

    The present review of the literature data highlights modern approaches to and major trends in diagnostics and conservative treatment of lymphedema of the lower extremities based on the generalized world experience. Patients with lymphedema of the lower extremities comprise a "difficult to manage" group because the disease is characterized by steady progression and marked refractoriness to various conservative therapeutic modalities creating problems for both the patient and the attending physician. Modern methods for the diagnosis of lymphedema are discussed with special reference to noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques (such as lymphoscintiography, computed tomography, MRT, laser Doppler flowmetry, etc.). During the last 20 years, combined conservative therapy has been considered as the method of choice for the management of different stages and forms of lymphedema of the lower extremities in foreign clinics. The basis of conservative therapy is constituted by manual lymph drainage (MLD), compression bandages using short-stretch materials, physical exercises, and skin care (using the method of M. Foldi). Also reviewed are the main physiobalneotherapeutic methods traditionally widely applied for the treatment of lymphedema of the lower extremities in this country. Original methods for the same purpose developed by the authors are described including modifications of cryotherapy, pulsed matrix laserotherapy, hydro- and balneotherapy. Mechanisms of their therapeutic action on the main pathogenetic factors responsible for the development of lymphedema (with special reference to lymph transport and formation) are discussed. The principles of combined application of physiotherapeutic methods for the rehabilitative treatment of patients presenting with lymphedema of the lower extremities are briefly substantiated. Special emphasis is laid on their influence on major components of the pathological process.

  20. Epidemiology and Impact on Performance of Lower Extremity Stress Injuries in Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Rogowski, Joseph P; Stotts, Jeff; Samani, Marisa J; Sikka, Robby; Bedi, Asheesh

    Professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during both regular-season and off-season training. Little is known about the incidence of lower extremity bony stress injuries and their impact on return to play and performance in these athletes. Stress injuries of the lower extremity will have significant impact on performance. Case series. Level 4. All bony stress injuries from 2005 to 2015 were identified from the NBA. Number of games missed due to injury and performance statistics were collected from 2 years prior to injury to 2 years after the injury. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of injury for players who returned to sport. A total of 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries involving 75 NBA players (mean age, 25.4 ± 4.1 years) were identified. Fifty-five percent (42/76) involved the foot, and most injuries occurred during the regular season (82.9%, 63/76), with half occurring within the first 6 weeks. Among players who sustained a fifth metatarsal stress fracture, 42.9% were unable to return to professional play. Players who sustained stress injuries had reduced play performance, specifically related to number of games played ( P = 0.014) and number of steals per game ( P = 0.004). Players who had surgery had significantly better performance at 2 years than those who were managed nonoperatively, independent of the type of injury (β = 4.561; 95% CI, 1.255-7.868). Lower extremity bony stress injuries may significantly affect both short- and long-term player performance and career length. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics compared with those treated using conservative methods. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics.

  1. Evaluation of the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam: Lower Extremity Questions.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Basta, Marten N; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate the training of plastic surgery residents, we analyzed a knowledge-based curriculum for plastic and reconstructive surgery of the lower extremity. The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam (PSITE) is a commonly used tool to assess medical knowledge in plastic surgery. We reviewed the lower extremity content on 6 consecutive score keys (2008-2013). Questions were classified by taxonomy, anatomy, and subject. Answer references were quantified by source and relative year of publication. Totally, 107 questions related to the lower extremity (9.1% of all questions) and 14 questions had an associated image (13.1%). Questions required decision making (49%) over interpretation (36%) and direct recall (15%) skills (p < 0.001). Conditions of the leg (42.1%) and thigh (24.3%) constituted most of the questions. Subject matter focused on flap reconstruction (38.3%), nerve injury (8.4%), and congenital deformity (6.5%). Analysis of 263 citations to 66 unique journals showed that Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (54.9%) was the highest yield primary source. The median year of publication relative to PSITE administration was 6 (range: 1-58) with a mode of 2 years. Plastic Surgery by Mathes et al. was the most referenced textbook (21.9%). These data establish a benchmark for lower extremity training during plastic surgery residency. Study efforts focused on the most common topics and references will enhance trainee preparation for lower extremity PSITE questions. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of walking speed on lower extremity joint loading in graded ramp walking.

    PubMed

    Schwameder, Hermann; Lindenhofer, Elke; Müller, Erich

    2005-07-01

    Lower extremity joint loading during walking is strongly affected by the steepness of the slope and might cause pain and injuries in lower extremity joint structures. One feasible measure to reduce joint loading is the reduction of walking speed. Positive effects have been shown for level walking, but not for graded walking or hiking conditions. The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of walking speed (separated into the two components, step length and cadence) on the joint power of the hip, knee and ankle and to determine the knee joint forces in uphill and downhill walking. Ten participants walked up and down a ramp with step lengths of 0.46, 0.575 and 0.69 m and cadences of 80, 100 and 120 steps per minute. The ramp was equipped with a force platform and the locomotion was filmed with a 60 Hz video camera. Loading of the lower extremity joints was determined using inverse dynamics. A two-dimensional knee model was used to calculate forces in the knee structures during the stance phase. Walking speed affected lower extremity joint loading substantially and significantly. Change of step length caused much greater loading changes for all joints compared with change of cadence; the effects were more distinct in downhill than in uphill walking. The results indicate that lower extremity joint loading can be effectively controlled by varying step length and cadence during graded uphill and downhill walking. Hikers can avoid or reduce pain and injuries by reducing walking speed, particularly in downhill walking.

  3. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2–18.4; P < 0.05), hip external: internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166

  4. Classifying Lower Extremity Muscle Fatigue during Walking using Machine Learning and Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Soangra, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue in lower extremity musculature is associated with decline in postural stability, motor performance and alters normal walking patterns in human subjects. Automated recognition of lower extremity muscle fatigue condition may be advantageous in early detection of fall and injury risks. Supervised machine learning methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been previously used for classifying healthy and pathological gait patterns and also for separating old and young gait patterns. In this study we explore the classification potential of SVM in recognition of gait patterns utilizing an inertial measurement unit associated with lower extremity muscular fatigue. Both kinematic and kinetic gait patterns of 17 participants (29±11 years) were recorded and analyzed in normal and fatigued state of walking. Lower extremities were fatigued by performance of a squatting exercise until the participants reached 60% of their baseline maximal voluntary exertion level. Feature selection methods were used to classify fatigue and no-fatigue conditions based on temporal and frequency information of the signals. Additionally, influences of three different kernel schemes (i.e., linear, polynomial, and radial basis function) were investigated for SVM classification. The results indicated that lower extremity muscle fatigue condition influenced gait and loading responses. In terms of the SVM classification results, an accuracy of 96% was reached in distinguishing the two gait patterns (fatigue and no-fatigue) within the same subject using the kinematic, time and frequency domain features. It is also found that linear kernel and RBF kernel were equally good to identify intra-individual fatigue characteristics. These results suggest that intra-subject fatigue classification using gait patterns from an inertial sensor holds considerable potential in identifying “at-risk” gait due to muscle fatigue. PMID:24081829

  5. A functional agility short-term fatigue protocol changes lower extremity mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Nelson; Quammen, David; Lucci, Shawn; Greska, Eric; Onate, James

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a functional agility fatigue protocol on lower extremity biomechanics between two unanticipated tasks (stop-jump and sidestep). The subjects consisted of fifteen female collegiate soccer athletes (19 ± 0.7 years, 1.67 ± 0.1 m, 61.7 ± 8 kg) free of lower extremity injury. Participants performed five trials of stop-jump and sidestep tasks. A functional short-term agility protocol was performed, and immediately following participants repeated the unanticipated running tasks. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic values were obtained pre and post fatigue. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable with an alpha level set at 0.05. Knee position post-fatigue had increased knee internal rotation (11.4 ± 7.5° vs. 7.9 ± 6.5° p = 0.011) than pre-fatigue, and a decreased knee flexion angle (−36.6 ± 6.2° vs.−40.0 ± 6.3°, p = 0.003), as well as hip position post-fatigue had decreased hip flexion angle (35.5 ± 8.7° vs. 43.2 ± 9.5°, p = 0.002). A quick functional fatigue protocol altered lower extremity mechanics of Division I collegiate soccer athletes during landing tasks. Proper mechanics should be emphasized from the beginning of practice/game to aid in potentially minimizing the effects of fatigue in lower extremity mechanics. PMID:22424559

  6. Factors affecting perioperative mortality and wound-related complications following major lower extremity amputations.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patrick A; Flaherty, Sarah K; Aburahma, Ali F; Hass, Stephen M; Jackson, J Michelle; Hayes, J David; Hofeldt, Matthew J; Hager, Casey S; Elmore, Michael S

    2006-03-01

    Major lower extremity amputations continue to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, yet few recent large series have evaluated factors associated with perioperative mortality and wound complications. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting perioperative mortality and wound-related complications following major lower extremity amputation. A retrospective review was conducted of all adult patients who underwent nontraumatic major lower extremity amputations over a 5-year period at a single tertiary-care center in southern West Virginia. Demographic and clinical data, perioperative data, and outcomes were collected and analyzed to identify any relationship with perioperative mortality, as well as wound complications and early revisions (within 90 days) to a more proximal level. Variables were examined using chi-squared, two-tailed t-tests, and logistic regression. Three hundred eighty patients (61% male) underwent 412 major lower extremity amputations during 1999-2003. The initial level of amputation included 230 below-knee (BKA), 149 above-knee (AKA), and one hip disarticulation. Perioperative mortality was 15.5% (n = 59). From a regression model, age, albumin level, AKA, and lack of a previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were independently related to mortality. Patients who did not have a previous CABG were nearly three times more likely to die than those who did (p = 0.038). Overall early wound complications were noted in 13.4% (n = 51). Four factors were independently related to experiencing a 90-day wound complication: BKA, community (rather than care facility) living, type of anesthesia, and preoperative hematocrit >30%. Major lower extremity amputation in patients with peripheral vascular disease continues to be associated with considerable perioperative morbidity and mortality. Even though the surgical procedure itself may not be challenging from a technical standpoint, underlying medical conditions put this group

  7. Vision in relation to lower extremity deficit in older women: cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Jenni; Sipilä, Sarianna; Tiainen, Kristina; Pärssinen, Olavi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-10-01

    Vision problems are common experiences within the older population. This study aimed to examine the association between vision and lower extremity impairment. 434 women aged 63-75 participated in visual acuity (VA) measurements at baseline and 313 persons at three-year follow-up. Measurements of lower extremity function included maximal isometric knee extension strength, leg extension power, maximal walking speed and standing balance. At baseline, knee extension strength was lower among participants with visual impairment (VI) (273.2±6.4 N) compared to those with good vision (306.5±5.9 N, p<0.001) as well as leg extension power (95.2±2.7 W vs 104.2±2.6 W, p=0.009) and maximal walking speed (1.6±0.02 m/s vs 1.8±0.03 m/s, p<0.001). Higher velocity moment among persons with VI (53.5±2.7 mm²/s vs 42.7±1.4 mm²/s, p<0.001) indicated that persons with VI had poorer balance compared to persons with good vision. Decreased isometric knee extension strength (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.45), poorer standing balance (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35) as well as lower maximal walking speed (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13-1.59) were associated with VI in the logistic regression models. Additionally, the association between poorer leg extension power and VI (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.31) was of borderline statistical significance. In longitudinal analyses, VI did not predict decline in lower extremity function. Lower extremity impairment was associated with VI among relatively healthy older women. However, change in lower extremity function was quite similar between the vision groups. It is possible that decreased VA may be a marker of underlying systemic factors or the aging process, which lead to poorer functional capacity, or there may be shared background factors, which lead to decreased vision and lower extremity impairment.

  8. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Nilstad, Agnethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Holme, Ingar; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of lower extremity injuries in female soccer players is high, but the risk factors for injuries are unknown. To investigate risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Players in the Norwegian elite female soccer league (N = 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests before the 2009 competitive soccer season. The screening included tests assessing maximal lower extremity strength, dynamic balance, knee valgus angles in a drop-jump landing, knee joint laxity, generalized joint laxity, and foot pronation. Also included was a questionnaire to collect information on demographic data, elite-level experience, and injury history. Time-loss injuries and exposure in training and matches were recorded prospectively in the subsequent soccer season using weekly text messaging. Players reporting an injury were contacted to collect data regarding injury circumstances. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ±1 standard deviation of change. In total, 173 players underwent complete screening tests and registration of injuries and exposure throughout the season. A total of 171 injuries in 107 players (62%) were recorded; ligament and muscle injuries were the most frequent. Multivariate analyses showed that a greater body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.21-1.90; P = .001) was the only factor significantly associated with new lower extremity injuries. A greater BMI was associated with new thigh injuries (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.08-2.11; P = .01), a lower knee valgus angle in a drop-jump landing was associated with new ankle injuries (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-1.00; P = .04), and a previous knee injury was associated with new lower leg and foot injuries (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.27-9.99; P = .02), whereas none of the factors investigated influenced the risk of new knee injuries. A greater BMI was associated with

  9. Outcomes of Soft Tissue Reconstruction for Traumatic Lower Extremity Fractures with Compromised Vascularity.

    PubMed

    Badash, Ido; Burtt, Karen E; Leland, Hyuma A; Gould, Daniel J; Rounds, Alexis D; Azadgoli, Beina; Patel, Ketan M; Carey, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic lower extremity fractures with compromised arterial flow are limb-threatening injuries. A retrospective review of 158 lower extremities with traumatic fractures, including 26 extremities with arterial injuries, was performed to determine the effects of vascular compromise on flap survival, successful limb salvage and complication rates. Patients with arterial injuries had a larger average flap surface area (255.1 vs 144.6 cm2, P = 0.02) and a greater number of operations (4.7 vs 3.8, P = 0.01) than patients without vascular compromise. Patients presenting with vascular injury were also more likely to require fasciotomy [odds ratio (OR): 6.5, confidence interval (CI): 2.3-18.2] and to have a nerve deficit (OR: 16.6, CI: 3.9-70.0), fracture of the distal third of the leg (OR: 2.9, CI: 1.15-7.1) and intracranial hemorrhage (OR: 3.84, CI: 1.1-12.9). After soft tissue reconstruction, patients with arterial injuries had a higher rate of amputation (OR: 8.5, CI: 1.3-53.6) and flap failure requiring a return to the operating room (OR: 4.5, CI: 1.5-13.2). Arterial injury did not correlate with infection or overall complication rate. In conclusion, arterial injuries resulted in significant complications for patients with lower extremity fractures requiring flap coverage, although limb salvage was still effective in most cases.

  10. Comparison of imaging value for diabetic lower extremity arterial disease between FBI and CE-MRA.

    PubMed

    Yi, C-Y; Zhou, D-X; Li, H-H; Wang, Y; Chen, K; Chen, J; Huang, B-C; Xu, X-L

    2016-07-01

    This study adopted self-control study method to assess the efficacy of fresh blood imaging (FBI) and contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) for patients with diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (DLEAD) (Fontaine stage I to IV), and to evaluate the imaging of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in different stages of diabetes mellitus (DM). 1. This study recruited 44 diabetic patients with suspected lower extremity PAD to take both FBI and CE-MRA. 2. Two experienced cardiovascular radiologists assessed the image quality, the detection of lower extremity arterial branches, and tissue contamination (veins, arteries, and soft tissues) of FBI and CE-MRA, as well as the presence and severity of stenotic lesions. 3. Statistical differences of the quality of FBI and CE-MRA were determined using paired t-test. 4. Correlation analysis was adopted for determining the direction and strength of the relationship between the changes of the indexes of FBI and the different Fontaine stages. 1. The quality evaluation results of the image of lower extremity arteries from the 44 diabetic patients indicated no statistically significant difference between FBI and CE-MRA in the patients with Fontaine stage I-III (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the patients with Fontaine stage IV (p <0.05), and the quality of FBI was slightly worse. 2. Arterial branches that observed from FBI and CE-MRA were 885 and 904, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for the arterial branches between FBI and CE-MRA in the patients with Fontaine stage I-III (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the patients with Fontaine stage IV (p <0.05), and CE-MRA indicated more artery branches than FBI. 3. There was a statistically significant difference for the evaluation of venous contamination between FBI and CE-MRA (p <0.05), and there was less venous contamination using FBI. 4. The study results

  11. Sensitivity to change of mobility measures in musculoskeletal conditions on lower extremities in outpatient rehabilitation settings.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pujalte, Esther; Gacto-Sánchez, Mariano; Montilla-Herrador, Joaquina; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Ángeles Franco-Sierra, María; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2018-01-12

    Prospective longitudinal study. To examine the sensitivity of the Mobility Activities Measure for lower extremities and to compare it to the sensitivity of the Physical Functioning Scale (PF-10) and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) at week 4 and week 8 post-hospitalization in outpatient rehabilitation settings. Mobility Activities Measure is a set of short mobility measures to track outpatient rehabilitation progress: its scales have shown good properties but its sensitivity to change has not been reported. Patients with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited at admission in three outpatient rehabilitation settings in Spain. Data were collected at admission, week 4 and week 8 from an initial sample of 236 patients (mean age ± SD = 36.7 ± 11.1). Mobility Activities Measure scales for lower extremity; PF-10; and PSFS. All the Mobility Activities Measure scales were sensitive to both positive and negative changes (the Standardized Response Means (SRMs) ranged between 1.05 and 1.53 at week 4, and between 0.63 and 1.47 at week 8). The summary measure encompassing the three Mobility Activities Measure scales detected a higher proportion of participants who had improved beyond the minimal detectable change (MDC) than detected by the PSFS and the PF-10 both at week 4 (86.64% vs. 69.81% and 42.23%, respectively) and week 8 (71.14% vs. 55.65% and 60.81%, respectively). The three Mobility Activities Measure scales assessing the lower extremity can be used across outpatient rehabilitation settings to provide consistent and sensitive measures of changes in patients' mobility. Implications for rehabilitation All the scales of the Mobility Activities Measure for the lower extremity were sensitive to both positive and negative change across the follow-up periods. Overall, the summary measure encompassing the three Mobility Activities Measure scales for the lower extremity appeared more sensitive to positive changes than the Physical Functioning Scale

  12. Restraint use and lower extremity fractures in frontal motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Lance S; Alonso, Jorge E; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse; Rue, Loring W

    2004-08-01

    Seat belts and air bags have been shown to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality following MVCs. Research suggests that restraint use does not protect against lower extremity fracture; however, no population-based studies of this association exist. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of combined seat belt and airbag restraint systems with airbag alone, seat belt alone, and no restraints with respect to incidence and location of lower extremity fractures. A retrospective analysis of front seat occupants involved in police-reported, tow-away frontal MVCs was conducted using data from the 1995 through 2000 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Incidence and relative risk (RR) of fracture to specific bony regions were measured according to seat belt use and airbag deployment. Compared with unrestrained occupants, occupants restrained with airbag only had significantly higher risk for all types of lower extremity fractures whereas those occupants restrained with either seat belt only or seat belt and airbag had lower risk of fracture. The greatest difference was seen with tibia/fibula fractures in airbag only (RR, 2.14) but this trend continued to be significant with femur and pelvic fractures (RR, 1.13 and 1.23, respectively). While airbags may reduce the risk of death when used alone or in combination with seat belts, the results of this study demonstrate that air bags increase the risk of lower extremity fractures when used as the sole method of passenger protection. Also, they may do so differentially according to skeletal region. This data strongly support the consideration of developing accessory knee bolster airbags to prevent the "submarining" or sliding under the airbag that may be responsible for this finding.

  13. An Examination of Lower Extremity Function and its Correlates in Older African American and White Men.

    PubMed

    Clay, Olivio J; Thorpe, Roland J; Wilkinson, Larrell L; Plaisance, Eric P; Crowe, Michael; Sawyer, Patricia; Brown, Cynthia J

    2015-08-07

    Maintaining functional status and reducing/eliminating health disparities in late life are key priorities. Older African Americans have been found to have worse lower extremity functioning than Whites, but little is known about potential differences in correlates between African American and White men. The goal of this investigation was to examine measures that could explain this racial difference and to identify race-specific correlates of lower extremity function. Data were analyzed for a sample of community-dwelling men. Linear regression models examined demographics, medical conditions, health behaviors, and perceived discrimination and mental health as correlates of an objective measure of lower extremity function, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Scores on the SPPB have a potential range of 0 to 12 with higher scores corresponding to better functioning. The mean age of all men was 74.9 years (SD=6.5), and the sample was 50% African American and 53% rural. African American men had scores on the SPPB that were significantly lower than White men after adjusting for age, rural residence, marital status, education, and income difficulty (P<.01). Racial differences in cognitive functioning accounted for approximately 41% of the race effect on physical function. Additional models stratified by race revealed a pattern of similar correlates of the SPPB among African American and White men. The results of this investigation can be helpful for researchers and clinicians to aid in identifying older men who are at-risk for poor lower extremity function and in planning targeted interventions to help reduce disparities.

  14. Determination of three-dimensional joint loading within the lower extremities in snowboarding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Andreas; McAlpine, Paul; Borrani, Fabio; Edelmann-Nusser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    In the biomechanical literature only a few studies are available focusing on the determination of joint loading within the lower extremities in snowboarding. These studies are limited to analysis in a restricted capture volume due to the use of optical video-based systems. To overcome this restriction the aim of the present study was to develop a method to determine net joint moments within the lower extremities in snowboarding for complete measurement runs. An experienced snowboarder performed several runs equipped with two custom-made force plates as well as a full-body inertial measurement system. A rigid, multi-segment model was developed to describe the motion and loads within the lower extremities. This model is based on an existing lower-body model and designed to be run by the OpenSim software package. Measured kinetic and kinematic data were imported into the OpenSim program and inverse dynamic calculations were performed. The results illustrate the potential of the developed method for the determination of joint loadings within the lower extremities for complete measurement runs in a real snowboarding environment. The calculated net joint moments of force are reasonable in comparison to the data presented in the literature. A good reliability of the method seems to be indicated by the low data variation between different turns. Due to the unknown accuracy of this method the application for inter-individual studies as well as studies of injury mechanisms may be limited. For intra-individual studies comparing different snowboarding techniques as well as different snowboard equipment the method seems to be beneficial. The validity of the method needs to be studied further.

  15. The effect of ankle bracing on lower extremity biomechanics during landing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mason-Mackay, A R; Whatman, C; Reid, D

    2016-07-01

    To examine the evidence for effect of ankle bracing on lower-extremity landing biomechanics. Literature review. Systematic search of the literature on EBSCO health databases. Articles critiqued by two reviewers. Ten studies were identified which investigated the effect of ankle bracing on landing biomechanics. Overall results suggest that landing biomechanics are altered with some brace types but studies disagree as to the particular variables affected. There is evidence that ankle bracing may alter lower-extremity landing biomechanics in a manner which predisposes athletes to injury. The focus of studies on specific biomechanical variables rather than biomechanical patterns, analysis of pooled data means in the presence of differing landing styles between participants, variation in landing-tasks investigated in different studies, and lack of studies investigating goal-directed sport-specific landing tasks creates difficulty in interpreting results. These areas require further research. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Fukai, Yuta; Rikimaru, Mitsue; Henmi, Shoji; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2010-04-15

    We describe three patients from the same family with hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy followed by proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities. Sensory ataxic gait began as an initial symptom when patients were in their 50s. Mild proximal weakness in the lower extremities appeared several years later. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed sensory dominant axonal neuropathy, and short sensory evoked potentials showed involvement of the sensory nerve axon, dorsal root ganglia and posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. Needle electromyography showed fibrillation, positive sharp waves, and multiple giant motor unit potentials, suggesting the involvement of anterior horn motor neurons or the anterior root. Autosomal recessive inheritance was considered, because of consanguinity. The disorder described here may be a new clinical entity with unique clinical manifestations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Postoperative complications after lower extremity arterial bypass increase the risk of new deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Lehman, Erik; Blebea, John; Lurie, Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Background Deep venous thrombosis after any surgical operations is considered a preventable complication. Lower extremity bypass surgery is a commonly performed operation to improve blood flow to lower extremities in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. Despite advances in endovascular surgery, lower extremity arterial bypass remains the gold standard treatment for severe, symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical risk factors associated with development of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity bypass surgery. Methods The American College of Surgeons' NSQIP database was utilized and all lower extremity bypass procedures performed in 2013 were examined. Patient and procedural characteristics were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for the development of postoperative deep venous thrombosis. Results A total of 2646 patients (65% males and 35% females) underwent lower extremity open revascularization during the year 2013. The following factors were found to be significantly associated with postoperative deep venous thrombosis: transfusion >4 units of packed red blood cells (odds ratio (OR) = 5.21, confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-22.81, p = 0.03), postoperative urinary tract infection (OR = 12.59, CI = 4.12-38.48, p < 0.01), length of hospital stay >28 days (OR = 9.30, CI = 2.79-30.92, p < 0.01), bleeding (OR = 2.93, CI = 1.27-6.73, p = 0.01), deep wound infection (OR = 3.21, CI = 1.37-7.56, p < 0.01), and unplanned reoperation (OR = 4.57, CI = 2.03-10.26, p < 0.01). Of these, multivariable analysis identified the factors independently associated with development of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity bypass surgery to be unplanned reoperation (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.54-8.30, p < 0.01), reintubation (OR = 8.93, CI = 2

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Korean Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Young Hwan; Joh, Jin Hyun; Kang, Jin Mo; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyung-Kee; Chang, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Jang Yong; Bae, Jae Ik; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Chang Won; Park, Sung Il; Yim, Nam Yeol; Jeon, Yong Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Park, Ki Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis is a serious medical condition that can result in death or major disability due to pulmonary embolism or post-thrombotic syndrome. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are required to improve symptoms and salvage the affected limb. Early thrombus clearance rapidly resolves symptoms related to venous obstruction, restores valve function and reduces the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome. Recently, endovascular treatment has been established as a standard method for early thrombus removal. However, there are a variety of views regarding the indications and procedures among medical institutions and operators. Therefore, we intend to provide evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis by multidisciplinary consensus. These guidelines are the result of a close collaboration between interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons. The goals of these guidelines are to improve treatment, to serve as a guide to the clinician, and consequently to contribute to public health care. PMID:27699156

  19. Pelvic and lower extremity injuries in Homer's Iliad: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Galanakos, Spyridon P; Bot, Arjan G J; Macheras, George A

    2015-01-01

    The Iliad, composed approximately in the middle of the eighth century bc, constitutes the leading and oldest known example of heroic epic. The Homeric epic presents the conflicts that took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War, offering a realistic description of battle wounds. We studied the text of The Iliad in ancient Greek and in the translations in modern Greek and English and searched for all recorded injuries to the pelvis and lower extremities. A total of 16 traumatic injuries of pelvis and lower extremities were described, including 7 fatal wounds, while in 9 cases, the outcome was unknown.The Iliad remains the oldest record of Greek medicine and a unique source of surgical history. To study the vividly reported events is a great experience, particularly for a surgeon.

  20. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of stress fractures in the lower extremity in runners

    PubMed Central

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E; Games, Kenneth E; Wasik, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Stress fractures account for between 1% and 20% of athletic injuries, with 80% of stress fractures in the lower extremity. Stress fractures of the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing activities such as running, military and aerobic exercise and therefore require practitioner expertise in diagnosis and management. Accurate diagnosis for stress fractures is dependent on the anatomical area. Anatomical regions such as the pelvis, sacrum, and metatarsals offer challenges due to difficulty differentiating pathologies with common symptoms. Special tests and treatment regimes, however, are similar among most stress fractures with resolution between 4 weeks to a year. The most difficult aspect of stress fracture treatment entails mitigating internal and external risk factors. Practitioners should address ongoing risk factors to minimize recurrence. PMID:25848327

  1. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Sista, Akhilesh K.; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26101920

  2. Lower extremity joint moments of collegiate soccer players differ between genders during a forward jump.

    PubMed

    Hart, Joseph M; Garrison, J Craig; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Kerrigan, D Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2008-05-01

    Lower extremity kinetics while performing a single-leg forward jump landing may help explain gender biased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Gender comparison of lower extremity joint angles and moments. Static groups comparison. Motion analysis laboratory. 8 male and 8 female varsity, collegiate soccer athletes. 5 single-leg landings from a 100cm forward jump. Peak and initial contact external joint moments and joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip. At initial heel contact, males exhibited a adduction moment whereas females exhibited a abduction moment at the hip. Females also had significantly less peak hip extension moment and significantly less peak hip internal rotation moment than males had. Females exhibited greater knee adduction and hip internal rotation angles than men did. When decelerating from a forward jump, gender differences exist in forces acting at the hip.

  3. Lower extremity EMG-driven modeling of walking with automated adjustment of musculoskeletal geometry

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew J.; Patten, Carolynn

    2017-01-01

    Neuromusculoskeletal disorders affecting walking ability are often difficult to manage, in part due to limited understanding of how a patient’s lower extremity muscle excitations contribute to the patient’s lower extremity joint moments. To assist in the study of these disorders, researchers have developed electromyography (EMG) driven neuromusculoskeletal models utilizing scaled generic musculoskeletal geometry. While these models can predict individual muscle contributions to lower extremity joint moments during walking, the accuracy of the predictions can be hindered by errors in the scaled geometry. This study presents a novel EMG-driven modeling method that automatically adjusts surrogate representations of the patient’s musculoskeletal geometry to improve prediction of lower extremity joint moments during walking. In addition to commonly adjusted neuromusculoskeletal model parameters, the proposed method adjusts model parameters defining muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms. We evaluated our EMG-driven modeling method using data collected from a high-functioning hemiparetic subject walking on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 m/s. EMG-driven model parameter values were calibrated to match inverse dynamic moments for five degrees of freedom in each leg while keeping musculoskeletal geometry close to that of an initial scaled musculoskeletal model. We found that our EMG-driven modeling method incorporating automated adjustment of musculoskeletal geometry predicted net joint moments during walking more accurately than did the same method without geometric adjustments. Geometric adjustments improved moment prediction errors by 25% on average and up to 52%, with the largest improvements occurring at the hip. Predicted adjustments to musculoskeletal geometry were comparable to errors reported in the literature between scaled generic geometric models and measurements made from imaging data. Our results demonstrate that

  4. Biomechanical compensations of the trunk and lower extremities during stepping tasks after unilateral transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amanda M; Gaffney, Brecca M; Davidson, Bradley S; Christiansen, Cory L

    2017-11-01

    Lower extremity movement compensations following transtibial amputation are well-documented and are likely influenced by trunk posture and movement. However, the biomechanical compensations of the trunk and lower extremities, especially during high-demand tasks such as step ascent and descent, remain unclear. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during step ascent and descent tasks for three groups of individuals: diabetic/transtibial amputation, diabetic, and healthy. An ANCOVA was used to compare peak trunk, hip and knee joint angles and moments in the sagittal and frontal planes between groups. Paired t-tests were used to compare peak joint angles and moments between amputated and intact limbs of the diabetic/transtibial amputation group. During step ascent and descent, the transtibial amputation group exhibited greater trunk forward flexion and lateral flexion compared to the other two groups (P<0.016), which resulted in greater low back moments and asymmetric loading patterns in the lower extremity joints. The diabetic group exhibited similar knee joint loading patterns compared to the amputation group (P<0.016), during step descent. This study highlights the biomechanical compensations of the trunk and lower extremities in individuals with dysvascular transtibial amputation, by identifying low back, hip, and knee joint moment patterns unique to transtibial amputation during stepping tasks. In addition, the results suggest that some movement compensations may be confounded by the presence of diabetes and precede limb amputation. The increased and asymmetrical loading patterns identified may predispose individuals with transtibial amputation to the development of secondary pain conditions, such as low back pain or osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole-body heating decreases skin vascular response to low orthostatic stress in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Nakayama, Yoshiro; Sone, Ryoko

    2006-04-01

    To elucidate the influence of heat stress on cutaneous vascular response in the lower extremities during orthostatic stress, a head-up tilt (HUT) test at angles of 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees for 4 min each was conducted under normothermic control conditions followed by whole-body heat stress produced by a hot water-perfused suit in healthy volunteers. Skin blood flows (SkBF) in the forearm, thigh, and calf were monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry throughout the experiment. Furthermore, to elucidate the effects of increased core and local skin temperatures on the local vascular response in calf skin under increasing orthostatic stress, the thigh was occluded at 20, 30, 50, 70, and 80 mmHg with a cuff in both the normothermic condition and the whole-body or local heating condition. Significant decreases in forearm SkBF during HUT were observed at an angle of 60 degrees during normothermia and at 30 degrees or more during heating. SkBF in the thigh and calf was decreased significantly by HUT at 15 degrees and above during normothermia, and there was no significant reduction of SkBF in these sites during HUT at the lower angles (15 degrees -45 degrees ) during whole-body heating. Significant decreases of calf SkBF were observed at cuff pressures of 20 mmHg and above during normothermia and of 30 mmHg and above during whole-body and local heating, respectively. These results suggest that SkBF in the lower extremities shows a marked reduction compared with the upper extremities during low orthostatic stress in normothermia, and the enhanced skin vasoconstrictor response in the lower extremities is diminished by both whole-body and local heat stress.

  6. Measurement Properties of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh P; Fulton, Allison; Quach, Cedric; Thistle, Megan; Toledo, Cesar; Evans, Neil A

    2016-03-01

    Systematic review of measurement properties. Many primary studies have examined the measurement properties, such as reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change, of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in different clinical populations. A systematic review summarizing these properties for the LEFS may provide an important resource. To locate and synthesize evidence on the measurement properties of the LEFS and to discuss the clinical implications of the evidence. A literature search was conducted in 4 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL), using predefined search terms. Two reviewers performed a critical appraisal of the included studies using a standardized assessment form. A total of 27 studies were included in the review, of which 18 achieved a very good to excellent methodological quality level. The LEFS scores demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between 0.85 and 0.99) and demonstrated the expected relationships with measures assessing similar constructs (Pearson correlation coefficient values of greater than 0.7). The responsiveness of the LEFS scores was excellent, as suggested by consistently high effect sizes (greater than 0.8) in patients with different lower extremity conditions. Minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence level (MDC90) for the LEFS scores varied between 8.1 and 15.3 across different reassessment intervals in a wide range of patient populations. The pooled estimate of the MDC90 was 6 points and the minimal clinically important difference was 9 points in patients with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions, which are indicative of true change and clinically meaningful change, respectively. The results of this review support the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the LEFS scores for assessing functional impairment in a wide array of patient groups with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions.

  7. Acute Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis: The Data, Where We Are, and How It Is Done.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Raja S; Akinwande, Olaguoke; Giardina, Joseph D; Kavali, Pavan K; Marks, Christina G

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism, including both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is estimated at 300,000-600,000 per year. Although thrombosis may occur anywhere, it is thrombosis of the deep veins of the lower extremities that is of interest as this is where thrombosis occurs most often within the venous system. This article discusses the evaluation and interventions, including endovascular catheter-direct treatments, for patients with acute deep venous thrombosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Sensory Feedback for Lower Extremity Prostheses Incorporating Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...map and characterize the sensory capabilities of lower extremity Targeted Reinnervation (TR) sites under tactile stimulation , and (2) Measure the...descent machine; developed new tactile stimulators that we expect to use in later stages of this project; and completed baseline studies to calibrate

  9. A comprehensive scoring system to evaluate patient-centred risk factors regarding lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Miller, M S; Newgent, E W; O'Connell, S M; Broadus, C

    2017-10-01

    Care of the patient with a presumed life- or limb-threatening lower extremity wound poses many challenges. The mindset regarding potential outcomes of such conditions is mostly driven by the experiences and expertise of those providing the care. This mindset generally appears as two primary actions presented to the afflicted patient: attempted resolution of the problem via medical, surgical or combination treatment, with the hope of low recurrence risk, or exacerbation and amputation-amputations at a level sufficient to, at least in the mind of the surgeon, eliminate the problem. Achieving the former outcome is dependent on a number of factors associated with both patient and caregiver. If healing is achieved, the secondary goal of prevention of recurrence may be no less arduous, with failure most likely resulting in amputation. Clearly, these considerations appear to be based more on the health professionals perception, of the patient's physical and medical status rather than on patient-centred considerations. This article will review considerations and recommendations for lower extremity amputation, and the short- and long-term implications. Based on our research, there is clear need for a set of criteria against which to weigh not just the medical issues, but also definitive patient-centred issues when considering a lower extremity amputation. We offer a set of patient-centred, easily verified and recognised criteria that we believe addresses this need. The goal of the Miller-Newgent Amputation Scale (MENACE) is to provide a decision base from which to consider and evaluate all factors in determining the need for a lower extremity amputation. This involves identification of patient-centred issues, which are likely to produce satisfactory short- and long-term physical and quality-of-life outcomes if the amputation does proceed.

  10. Shoe and Field Surface Risk Factors for Acute Lower Extremity Injuries Among Female Youth Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    OʼKane, John W; Gray, Kristen E; Levy, Marni R; Neradilek, Moni; Tencer, Allan F; Polissar, Nayak L; Schiff, Melissa A

    2016-05-01

    To describe acute lower extremity injuries and evaluate extrinsic risk factors in female youth soccer. Nested case-control study. Youth soccer clubs in Seattle, WA. Female soccer players (n = 351) ages 11 to 15 years randomly selected from 4 soccer clubs from which 83% of their players were enrolled with complete follow-up for 92% of players. Injured players were interviewed regarding injury, field surface, shoe type, and position. Uninjured controls, matched on game or practice session, were also interviewed. The association between risk factors and acute lower extremity injury using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). One hundred seventy-three acute lower extremity injuries occurred involving primarily the ankle (39.3%), knee (24.9%), and thigh (11.0%). Over half (52.9%) recovered within 1 week, whereas 30.2% lasted beyond 2 weeks. During practices, those injured were approximately 3-fold (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.49-5.31) more likely to play on grass than artificial turf and 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.03-5.96) more likely to wear cleats on grass than other shoe and surface combinations. During games, injured players were 89% (95% CI, 1.03-4.17) more likely to play defender compared with forward. Half of the acute lower extremity injuries affected the ankle or knee. Grass surface and wearing cleats on grass increased training injuries. The majority, 64%, of female youth soccer players' acute injuries involve the ankle and knee and injury prevention strategies in this age group should target these areas. When considering playing surfaces for training, communities and soccer organizations should consider the third-generation artificial turf a safe alternative to grass.

  11. Effect of Footwear on Joint Pain and Function in Older Adults With Lower Extremity Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy; Luna, Sarah

    Lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition among older adults; given the risks of surgical and pharmaceutical interventions, conservative, lower-cost management options such as footwear warrant further investigation. This systematic review investigated the effects of footwear, including shoe inserts, in reducing lower extremity joint pain and improving gait, mobility, and quality of life in older adults with OA. The CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, RECAL, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for publications from January 1990 to September 2014, using the terms "footwear," "shoes," "gait," "pain," and "older adult." Participants who were 50 years or older and those who had OA in at least one lower extremity joint narrowed the results. Outcomes of interest included measures of pain, comfort, function, gait, or quality of life. Exclusion criteria applied to participants with rheumatoid arthritis, amputation, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, use of modified footwear or custom orthotics, purely biomechanical studies, and outcomes of balance or falls only. Single-case studies, qualitative narrative descriptions, and expert opinions were also excluded. The initial search resulted in a total of 417 citations. Eleven articles met inclusion criteria. Two randomized controlled trials and 3 quasiexperimental studies reported lateral wedge insoles may have at least some pain-relieving effects and improved functional mobility in older adults at 4 weeks to 2 years' follow-up, particularly when used with subtalar and ankle strapping. Three randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes reported that lateral wedges provided no knee pain relief compared with flat insoles. Hardness of shoe soles did not significantly affect joint comfort in the foot in a quasiexperimental study. A quasiexperimental designed study investigating shock-absorbing insoles showed reduction in knee joint pain with 1 month of wear. Finally, a cross-sectional prognostic study indicated

  12. Mortality after lower extremity fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Chin, Amy S; Burns, Stephen P; Svircev, Jelena N; Hoenig, Helen; Heggeness, Michael; Bailey, Lauren; Weaver, Frances

    2014-02-01

    In the United States, there are over 200,000 men with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) who are at risk for lower limb fractures. The risk of mortality after fractures in SCI is unknown. This was a population-based, cohort study of all male veterans (mean age 54.1; range, 20.3-100.5 years) with a traumatic SCI of at least 2 years' duration enrolled in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Spinal Cord Dysfunction Registry from FY2002 to FY2010 to determine the association between lower extremity fractures and mortality. Mortality for up to 5 years was determined. The lower extremity fracture rate was 2.14 per 100 patient-years at risk for at least one fracture. In unadjusted models and in models adjusted for demographic, SCI-related factors, healthcare use, and comorbidities, there was a significant association between incident lower extremity fracture and increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.63; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.61, respectively). In complete SCI, the hazard of death after lower extremity fracture was also increased (unadjusted model: HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.89; adjusted model: HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02-1.71). In fully-adjusted models, the association of incident lower extremity fracture with increased mortality was substantially greater in older men (age ≥50 years) for the entire cohort (HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 2.75-4.25) and for those with complete SCI (HR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.19-4.45), compared to younger men (age <50 years) (entire cohort: HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.94-2.14; complete SCI: HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 0.98-3.01). Every additional point in the Charlson comorbidity index was associated with a 10% increase in the hazard of death in models involving the entire cohort (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09-1.13) and also in models limited to men with complete SCI (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15). These data support the concept that both the fracture itself and underlying comorbidities are drivers of death in men with SCI. © 2014 American Society for Bone and

  13. Somatotype of the individuals with lower extremity amputation and its association with cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Roy, Subrata K

    2008-03-01

    Anthropometric somatotyping is one of the methods to describe the shape of the human body, which shows some associations with an individual's health and disease condition, especially with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Individuals with lower extremity amputation (LEA) are known to be more vulnerable to the cardiovascular risk. The objectives of the present study are to report the somatotype of the individuals having lower extremity amputation, to study the possible variation in somatotype between two groups of amputated individuals, and to study the association between cardiovascular disease risk factor and somatotype components among individuals with locomotor disability. 102 adult male individuals with unilateral lower-extremity amputation residing in Calcutta and adjoining areas were investigated. The anthropometric data for somatotyping and data on cardiovascular risk traits (such as body mass index, blood pressure measurements, blood lipids) have been collected. The somatotyping technique of Carter & Heath (1990) has been followed. The result shows high mean values of endomorphy and mesomorphy components and a low mean value of the ectomorphy component among the amputated individuals having cardiovascular risks. The results of both discriminant analysis and logistic regression analysis show a significant relationship between somatotype components and CVD risk among the individuals with LEA. The findings of the present study support the findings of similar studies conducted on the normal population. Diagnosis of CVD risk condition through somatotyping can be utilized in prevention/treatment management for the individuals with LEA.

  14. Anthropometric and computerized tomographic measurements of lower extremity lean body mass.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D C; Kudsk, K A; Rose, B S; Fatzinger, P; Koetting, C A; Schlatter, M

    1987-02-01

    The loss of lean muscle mass is one of the hallmarks of protein-calorie malnutrition. Anthropometry is a standardized technique used to assess the response of muscle mass to nutrition therapy by quantifying the muscle and fat compartments. That technique does not accurately reflect actual limb composition, whereas computerized tomography does. Twenty lower extremities on randomly chosen men and women patients were evaluated by anthropometry and computerized tomography. Total area, muscle plus bone area, total volume, and muscle plus bone volume were correlated, using Heymsfield's equation and computerized tomography-generated areas. Anthropometrics overestimated total and muscle plus bone cross-sectional areas at almost every level. Anthropometry overestimated total area and total volume by 5% to 10% but overestimated muscle plus bone area and muscle plus bone volume by as much as 40%. Anthropometry, while easily performed and useful in large population groups for epidemiological studies, offers a poor assessment of lower extremity composition. On the other hand, computerized tomography is also easily performed and, while impractical for large population groups, does offer an accurate assessment of the lower extremity tissue compartments and is an instrument that might be used in research on lean muscle mass.

  15. Fatigue influences lower extremity angular velocities during a single-leg drop vertical jump.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Akihiro; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Shiozawa, Junya; Toda, Yuka; Yamada, Kaori

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Fatigue alters lower extremity landing strategies and decreases the ability to attenuate impact during landing. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of fatigue on dynamic alignment and joint angular velocities in the lower extremities during a single leg landing. [Subjects and Methods] The 34 female college students were randomly assigned to either the fatigue or control group. The fatigue group performed single-leg drop vertical jumps before, and after, the fatigue protocol, which was performed using a bike ergometer. Lower extremity kinematic data were acquired using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The ratio of each variable (%), for the pre-fatigue to post-fatigue protocols, were calculated to compare differences between each group. [Results] Peak hip and knee flexion angular velocities increased significantly in the fatigue group compared with the control group. Furthermore, hip flexion angular velocity increased significantly between each group at 40 milliseconds after initial ground contact. [Conclusion] Fatigue reduced the ability to attenuate impact by increasing angular velocities in the direction of hip and knee flexion during landings. These findings indicate a requirement to evaluate movement quality over time by measuring hip and knee flexion angular velocities in landings during fatigue conditions.

  16. Training Shoes do not Decrease the Negative Work of the Lower Extremity Joints.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Satoru; Murai, Akihiko; Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mitsunori; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2017-11-01

    Different types of running shoes may have different influence on the negative work of each lower extremity joint. Clarifying this influence can reduce the potential risk of muscle injury. The present study examined the difference in the negative work and associated kinetic and kinematic parameters of the lower extremity joints between training shoes and racing flats during the contact phase of running. Participants were asked to run on a runway at a speed of 3.0 m·s -1 for both training shoes and racing flats. The negative work and associated kinetic and kinematic parameters of each lower extremity joint were calculated. No difference was found in the negative work of the hip and ankle joints between the two types of running shoes. Meanwhile, the negative work of the knee joint was significantly greater for training shoes than for racing flats. This aspect was related to a longer duration of the negative power of the knee joint with the invariant amplitude of the negative power, moment, and angular velocity. These results suggest a higher potential risk of muscle injury around the knee joint for training shoes than for racing flats. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. A theoretical framework for understanding neuromuscular response to lower extremity joint injury.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; McLeod, Michelle M; Lepley, Adam S

    2012-01-01

    Neuromuscular alterations are common following lower extremity joint injury and often lead to decreased function and disability. These neuromuscular alterations manifest in inhibition or abnormal facilitation of the uninjured musculature surrounding an injured joint. Unfortunately, these neural alterations are poorly understood, which may affect clinical recognition and treatment of these injuries. Understanding how these neural alterations affect physical function may be important for proper clinical management of lower extremity joint injuries. Pertinent articles focusing on neuromuscular consequences and treatment of knee and ankle injuries were collected from peer-reviewed sources available on the Web of Science and Medline databases from 1975 through 2010. A theoretical model to illustrate potential relationships between neural alterations and clinical impairments was constructed from the current literature. Lower extremity joint injury affects upstream cortical and spinal reflexive excitability pathways as well as downstream muscle function and overall physical performance. Treatment targeting the central nervous system provides an alternate means of treating joint injury that may be effective for patients with neuromuscular alterations. Disability is common following joint injury. There is mounting evidence that alterations in the central nervous system may relate to clinical changes in biomechanics that may predispose patients to further injury, and novel clinical interventions that target neural alterations may improve therapeutic outcomes.

  18. A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Neuromuscular Response to Lower Extremity Joint Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosimone, Brian G.; McLeod, Michelle M.; Lepley, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular alterations are common following lower extremity joint injury and often lead to decreased function and disability. These neuromuscular alterations manifest in inhibition or abnormal facilitation of the uninjured musculature surrounding an injured joint. Unfortunately, these neural alterations are poorly understood, which may affect clinical recognition and treatment of these injuries. Understanding how these neural alterations affect physical function may be important for proper clinical management of lower extremity joint injuries. Methods: Pertinent articles focusing on neuromuscular consequences and treatment of knee and ankle injuries were collected from peer-reviewed sources available on the Web of Science and Medline databases from 1975 through 2010. A theoretical model to illustrate potential relationships between neural alterations and clinical impairments was constructed from the current literature. Results: Lower extremity joint injury affects upstream cortical and spinal reflexive excitability pathways as well as downstream muscle function and overall physical performance. Treatment targeting the central nervous system provides an alternate means of treating joint injury that may be effective for patients with neuromuscular alterations. Conclusions: Disability is common following joint injury. There is mounting evidence that alterations in the central nervous system may relate to clinical changes in biomechanics that may predispose patients to further injury, and novel clinical interventions that target neural alterations may improve therapeutic outcomes. PMID:23016066

  19. The relationship between lower extremity alignment and Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome among non-professional athletes

    PubMed Central

    Raissi, Golam Reza D; Cherati, Afsaneh D Safar; Mansoori, Kourosh D; Razi, Mohammad D

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between lower extremity alignment and MTSS amongst non-professional athletes Design In a prospective Study, sixty six subjects were evaluated. Bilateral navicular drop test, Q angle, Achilles angle, tibial angle, intermalleolar and intercondylar distance were measured. In addition, runner's height, body mass, history of previous running injury, running experience was recorded. Runners were followed for 17 weeks to determine occurrence of MTSS. Results The overall injury rate for MTSS was 19.7%. The MTSS injury rate in girls (22%) was not significantly different from the rate in boys (14.3%). Most MTSS injuries were induced after 60 hours of exercise, which did not differ between boys and girls. There was a significant difference in right and left navicular drop (ND) in athletes with MTSS. MTSS had no significant correlation with other variables including Quadriceps, Tibia and Achilles angles, intercondylar and intermaleolar lengths and lower extremity lengths. Limitation All measurements performed in this study were uniplanar and static. The small sample size deemed our main limitation. The accurate assessment of participants with previous history of anterior leg pain for MTSS was another limitation. Conclusion Although a significant relationship between navicular drop and MTSS was found in this study; there was not any significant relationship between lower extremity alignment and MTSS in our sample study. PMID:19519909

  20. The efficacy of electrical stimulation in lower extremity cutaneous wound healing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Mohammed; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2017-02-01

    Current gold standard lower extremity cutaneous wound management is not always effective. Cutaneous wounds generate a "current of injury" which is directly involved in wound healing processes. Application of exogenous electrical stimulation has been hypothesised to imitate the natural electric current that occurs in cutaneous wounds. The aim of this extensive review was to provide a detailed update on the variety of electrical stimulation modalities used in the management of lower extremity wounds. Several different waveforms and delivery methods of electrical stimulation have been used. Pulsed current appears superior to other electrical modalities available. The majority of studies support the beneficial effects of pulsed current over conservative management of lower extremity cutaneous wounds. Although it appears to have no benefit over causal surgical intervention, it is a treatment option which could be utilised in those patients unsuitable for surgery. Other waveforms and modalities appear promising; however, they still lack large trial data to recommend a firm conclusion with regards to their use. Current studies also vary in quantity, quality and protocol across the different modalities. The ideal electrical stimulation device needs to be non-invasive, portable and cost-effective and provides minimal interference with patients' daily life. Further studies are necessary to establish the ideal electrical stimulation modality, parameters, method of delivery and duration of treatment. The development and implementation of newer devices in the management of acute and chronic wounds provides an exciting direction in the field of electrotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of a lateral step-up exercise protocol on quadriceps and lower extremity performance.

    PubMed

    Worrell, T W; Borchert, B; Erner, K; Fritz, J; Leerar, P

    1993-12-01

    Closed kinetic chain exercises have been promoted as more functional and more appropriate than open kinetic chain exercises. Limited research exists demonstrating the effect of closed kinetic chain exercise on quadriceps and lower extremity performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a lateral step-up exercise protocol on isokinetic quadriceps peak torque and the following lower extremity activities: 1) leg press, 2) maximal step-up repetitions with body weight plus 25%, 3) hop for distance, and 4) 6-m timed hop. Twenty subjects participated in a 4-week training period, and 18 subjects served as controls. For the experimental group, a repeated measure ANOVA comparing pretest and posttest values revealed significant improvements in the leg press (p < or = .05), step-ups (p < or = .05), hop for distance (p < or = .05), and hop for time (p < or = .05) and no significant increase in isokinetic quadriceps peak torque (p > or = .05). Over the course of the training period, weight used for the step-up exercise increased (p < or = .05), repetitions decreased (p < or = .05), and step-up work did not change (p > or = .05). For the control group, no significant change (p > or = .05) occurred in any variable. The inability of the isokinetic dynamometer to detect increases in quadriceps performance is important because the isokinetic values are frequently used as criteria for return to functional activities. We conclude that closed kinetic chain testing and exercise provide additional means to assess and rehabilitate the lower extremity.

  2. Physiotherapist agreement when visually rating movement quality during lower extremity functional screening tests.

    PubMed

    Whatman, Chris; Hing, Wayne; Hume, Patria

    2012-05-01

    To investigate physiotherapist agreement in rating movement quality during lower extremity functional tests using two visual rating methods and physiotherapists with differing clinical experience. Clinical measurement. Six healthy individuals were rated by 44 physiotherapists. These raters were in three groups (inexperienced, novice, experienced). Video recordings of all six individuals performing four lower extremity functional tests were visually rated (dichotomous or ordinal scale) using two rating methods (overall or segment) on two occasions separated by 3-4 weeks. Intra and inter-rater agreement for physiotherapists was determined using overall percentage agreement (OPA) and the first order agreement coefficient (AC1). Intra-rater agreement for overall and segment methods ranged from slight to almost perfect (OPA: 29-96%, AC1: 0.01 to 0.96). AC1 agreement was better in the experienced group (84-99% likelihood) and for dichotomous rating (97-100% likelihood). Inter-rater agreement ranged from fair to good (OPA: 45-79%; AC1: 0.22-0.71). AC1 agreement was not influenced by clinical experience but was again better using dichotomous rating. Physiotherapists' visual rating of movement quality during lower extremity functional tests resulted in slight to almost perfect intra-rater agreement and fair to good inter-rater agreement. Agreement improved with increased level of clinical experience and use of dichotomous rating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of unilateral arm swing motion on lower extremity running mechanics associated with injury risk.

    PubMed

    Agresta, Cristine; Ward, Christian R; Wright, W Geoffrey; Tucker, Carole A

    2018-06-01

    Many field sports involve equipment that restricts one or both arms from moving while running. Arm swing during running has been examined from a biomechanical and physiologic perspective but not from an injury perspective. Moreover, only bilateral arm swing suppression has been studied with respect to running. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of running with one arm restrained on lower extremity mechanics associated with running or sport-related injury. Fifteen healthy participants ran at a self-selected speed with typical arm swing, with one arm restrained and with both arms restrained. Lower extremity kinematics and spatiotemporal measures were analysed for all arm swing conditions. Running with one arm restrained resulted in increased frontal plane knee and hip angles, decreased foot strike angle, and decreased centre of mass vertical displacement compared to typical arm swing or bilateral arm swing restriction. Stride length was decreased and step frequency increased when running with one or both arms restrained. Unilateral arm swing restriction induces changes in lower extremity kinematics that are not similar to running with bilateral arm swing restriction or typical arm swing motion. Running with one arm restrained increases frontal plane mechanics associated with risk of knee injury.

  4. The Influence of Lower Extremity Lean Mass on Landing Biomechanics During Prolonged Exercise.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Melissa M; Tritsch, Amanda J; Cone, John R; Schmitz, Randy J; Henson, Robert A; Shultz, Sandra J

    2017-08-01

      The extent to which lower extremity lean mass (LELM) relative to total body mass influences one's ability to maintain safe landing biomechanics during prolonged exercise when injury incidence increases is unknown.   To examine the influence of LELM on (1) pre-exercise lower extremity biomechanics and (2) changes in biomechanics during an intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) and (3) determine whether these relationships differ by sex. We hypothesized that less LELM would predict higher-risk baseline biomechanics and greater changes toward higher-risk biomechanics during the IEP.   Cohort study.   Controlled laboratory.   A total of 59 athletes (30 men: age = 20.3 ± 2.0 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, mass = 75.2 ± 7.2 kg; 29 women: age = 20.6 ± 2.3 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.08 m, mass = 61.8 ± 9.0 kg) participated.   Before completing an individualized 90-minute IEP designed to mimic a soccer match, participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry testing for LELM.   Three-dimensional lower extremity biomechanics were measured during drop-jump landings before the IEP and every 15 minutes thereafter. A previously reported principal components analysis reduced 40 biomechanical variables to 11 factors. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis then determined the extent to which sex and LELM predicted the baseline score and the change in each factor over time.   Lower extremity lean mass did not influence baseline biomechanics or the changes over time. Sex influenced the biomechanical factor representing knee loading at baseline (P = .04) and the changes in the anterior cruciate ligament-loading factor over time (P = .03). The LELM had an additional influence only on women who possessed less LELM (P = .03 and .02, respectively).   Lower extremity lean mass influenced knee loading during landing in women but not in men. The effect appeared to be stronger in women with less LELM. Continually decreasing knee loading over time may reflect a

  5. LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONAL TESTS AND RISK OF INJURY IN DIVISION III COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Manske, Robert C.; Niemuth, Paul E.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single‐leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time‐loss sports‐related low back or lower extremity injury. Methods: A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury. Results: Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time‐loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side‐to‐side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4‐fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3‐fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury. Conclusions: The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population. Clinical Relevance: The single‐leg hop for

  6. Association between foot type and lower extremity injuries: systematic literature review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jasper W K; Kong, Pui W

    2013-10-01

    Systematic literature review with meta-analysis. To investigate the association between nonneutral foot types (high arch and flatfoot) and lower extremity and low back injuries, and to identify the most appropriate methods to use for foot classification. A search of 5 electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), Google Scholar, and the reference lists of included studies was conducted to identify relevant articles. The review included comparative cross-sectional, case-control, and prospective studies that reported qualitative/quantitative associations between foot types and lower extremity and back injuries. Quality of the selected studies was evaluated, and data synthesis for the level of association between foot types and injuries was conducted. A random-effects model was used to pool odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) results for meta-analysis. Twenty-nine studies were included for meta-analysis. A significant association between nonneutral foot types and lower extremity injuries was determined (OR = 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11, 1.37; P<.001). Foot posture index (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.33, 5.02; P<.01) and visual/physical examination (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.28; P<.01) were 2 assessment methods using distinct foot-type categories that showed a significant association with lower extremity injuries. For foot-assessment methods using a continuous scale, measurements of lateral calcaneal pitch angle (SMD, 1.92; 95% CI: 1.44, 2.39; P<.00001), lateral talocalcaneal angle (SMD, 1.36; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.80; P<.00001), and navicular height (SMD, 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.52; P<.001) showed significant effect sizes in identifying high-arch foot, whereas the navicular drop test (SMD, 0.45; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.87; P<.05) and relaxed calcaneal stance position (SMD, 0.49; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.97; P<.05) displayed significant effect sizes in identifying flatfoot. Subgroup analyses revealed no significant

  7. Lower extremity functional tests and risk of injury in division iii collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Brumitt, Jason; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Manske, Robert C; Niemuth, Paul E; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2013-06-01

    Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single-leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time-loss sports-related low back or lower extremity injury. A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury. Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time-loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side-to-side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4-fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3-fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury. The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population. The single-leg hop for distance and the lower extremity functional test, when administered to Division III

  8. An analysis of the effect of lower extremity strength on impact severity during a backward fall.

    PubMed

    Sandler, R; Robinovitch, S

    2001-12-01

    At least 280 000 hip fractures occur annually in the U.S. at an estimated cost of $9 billion. While over 90 percent of these are caused by falls, only about 2 percent of all falls result in hip fracture. Evidence suggests that the most important determinants of hip fracture risk during a fall are the body's impact velocity and configuration. Accordingly, protective responses for reducing impact velocity and the likelihood for direct impact to the hip, strongly influence fracture risk. One method for reducing the body's impact velocity and kinetic energy during a fall is to absorb energy in the lower extremity muscles during descent, as occurs during sitting and squatting. In the present study, we employed a series of in verted pendulum models to determine: (a) the theoretical effect of this mechanism on impact severity during a backward fall, and (b) the effect on impact severity of age-related declines (or exercise-induced enhancements) in lower extremity strength. Compared to the case of a fall with zero energy absorption in the lower extremity joints, best-case falls (which involved 81 percent activation of ankle and hip muscles, but only 23 percent activation of knees muscles) involved 79 percent attenuation (from 352 J to 74 J) in the body's vertical kinetic energy at impact (KEv), and 48 percent attenuation (from 3.22 to 1.68 m/s) in the downward velocity of the pelvis at impact (v(v)). Among the mechanisms responsible for this were: (1) eccentric contraction of lower extremity muscles during descent, which resulted in up to 150 J of energy absorption; (2) impact with the trunk in an upright configuration, which reduced the change in potential energy associated with the fall by 100 J; and (3) knee extension during the final stage of descent, which "transferred" up to 90 J of impact energy into horizontal (as opposed to vertical) kinetic energy. Declines in joint strength reduced the effectiveness of mechanisms (1) and (3), and thereby increased impact

  9. [Risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Xu, B; Yang, C Z; Wu, S B; Zhang, D; Wang, L N; Xiao, L; Chen, Y; Wang, C R; Tong, A; Zhou, X F; Li, X H; Guan, X H

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot. Methods: The clinical data of 1 771 patients with diabetic foot at the Air Force General Hospital of PLA from November 2001 to April 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the non-amputation and amputation groups. Within the amputation group, subjects were further divided into the minor and major amputation subgroups. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between risk factors and lower extremity amputation. Results: Among 1 771 patients with diabetic foot, 323 of them (18.24%) were in the amputation group (major amputation: 41; minor amputation: 282) and 1 448 (81.76%) in the non-amputation group. Compared with non-amputation patients, those in the amputation group had a longer hospital stay and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR)levels. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reaction protein (CRP), ESR, ferritin, fibrinogen and WBC levels of the amputation group were higher, while hemoglobin albumin, transferrin, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C were lower than those of the non-amputation group (all P <0.05). The proportion of hypertension(52.48% vs 59.98%), peripheral vascular disease (PAD)(68.11% vs 25.04%), and coronary heart disease(21.33% vs 28.71%)were different between the amputation and non-amputation groups (all P <0.05). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that Wagner's grade, PAD and CRP were the independent risk factors associated with lower extremity amputation in hospitalized patients with diabetic foot. Conclusion: Wagner's grade, ischemia of lower limbs and infection are closely associated with amputation of diabetic foot patients.

  10. Attribution of extreme precipitation in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River during May 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunxiang; Tian, Qinhua; Yu, Rong; Zhou, Baiquan; Xia, Jiangjiang; Burke, Claire; Dong, Buwen; Tett, Simon F. B.; Freychet, Nicolas; Lott, Fraser; Ciavarella, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    May 2016 was the third wettest May on record since 1961 over central eastern China based on station observations, with total monthly rainfall 40% more than the climatological mean for 1961-2013. Accompanying disasters such as waterlogging, landslides and debris flow struck part of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Causal influence of anthropogenic forcings on this event is investigated using the newly updated Met Office Hadley Centre system for attribution of extreme weather and climate events. Results indicate that there is a significant increase in May 2016 rainfall in model simulations relative to the climatological period, but this increase is largely attributable to natural variability. El Niño years have been found to be correlated with extreme rainfall in the Yangtze River region in previous studies—the strong El Niño of 2015-2016 may account for the extreme precipitation event in 2016. However, on smaller spatial scales we find that anthropogenic forcing has likely played a role in increasing the risk of extreme rainfall to the north of the Yangtze and decreasing it to the south.

  11. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Laura H; Gavett, Brandon E; Volkers, Karin M; Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Scherder, Erik J; Jefferson, Angela L; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2010-04-01

    To examine differences in lower-extremity function in cognitive healthy older persons, older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and older persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Descriptive study. University Alzheimer's disease clinical and research program. Older persons (N=66) were studied (mean age, 76.7y); 22 were cognitively normal, 22 were diagnosed with probable MCI, 22 were diagnosed with probable AD. Not applicable. Lower-extremity function was assessed by the four-meter walk test (4MWT), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and sit-to-stand (STS) test. Analysis of variance, adjusting for covariates, revealed that performance on the 4MWT was significantly lower in the MCI and AD groups as compared with controls. TUG test performance was worse in the AD group compared with controls. No significant group differences were found for STS performance. These results suggest an association between cognitive impairment and lower-limb function in older persons. Walking speed could be evaluated for its possible utility in screening older persons at risk for cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PROSPECTIVE FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING AND RELATIONSHIP TO LOWER EXTREMITY INJURY INCIDENCE IN ADOLESCENT SPORTS PARTICIPANTS

    PubMed Central

    DePhillipo, Nick; Kimura, Iris; Kocher, Morgan; Hetzler, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to the high number of adolescent athletes and subsequent lower extremity injuries, improvements of injury prevention strategies with emphasis on clinic-based and practical assessments are warranted. Purpose The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate if a battery of functional performance tests (FPT) could be used as a preseason-screening tool to identify adolescent athletes at risk for sports-related acute lower extremity injury via comparison of injured and uninjured subjects. Methods One hundred adolescent volleyball, basketball and soccer athletes (female, n=62; male, n=38; mean age = 14.4 ± 1.6) participated. The FPT assessment included: triple hop for distance, star excursion balance test, double leg lowering maneuver, drop jump video test, and multi-stage fitness test. Composite scores were calculated using a derived equation. Subjects were monitored throughout their designated sport season(s), which consisted of a six-month surveillance period. The schools certified athletic trainer (ATC) recorded all injuries. Subjects were categorized into groups according to sex and injury incidence (acute lower extremity injury vs. uninjured) for analysis. Results Mean FPT composite scores were significantly lower for the injured compared to the uninjured groups in both sexes (males: 19.06 ± 3.59 vs. 21.90 ± 2.44; females: 19.48 ± 3.35 vs. 22.10 ± 3.06 injured and uninjured, respectively)(p < .05). The receiver-operator characteristic analysis determined the cut-off score at ≤ 20 for both genders (sensitivity=.71, specificity=.81, for males; sensitivity=.67, specificity=.69, for females)(p<.05) for acute noncontact lower extremity injuries. Significant positive correlations were found between the FPT composite score and the multi-stage fitness test in male subjects (r=.474, p=.003), suggesting a relationship between functional performance, aerobic capacity, and potential injury risk. Conclusion A

  13. Roy's Adaptation Model-Guided Education and Promoting the Adaptation of Veterans With Lower Extremities Amputation.

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Somayeh; Farsi, Zahra

    2015-10-01

    Any defect in extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy's adaptation model-guided education on promoting the adaptation of veterans with lower extremities amputation. In a randomized clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of veterans clinic in Tehran, Iran, were recruited with convenience method and were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups during 2013 - 2014. For data collection, Roy's adaptation model questionnaire was used. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviors were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy's adaptation model was implemented. After two months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Independent t-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups in the post-test stage in terms of the total score of adaptation (P = 0.001) as well as physiologic (P = 0.0001) and role function modes (P = 0.004). The total score of adaptation (139.43 ± 5.45 to 127.54 ± 14.55, P = 0.006) as well as the scores of physiologic (60.26 ± 5.45 to 53.73 ± 7.79, P = 0.001) and role function (20.30 ± 2.42 to 18.13 ± 3.18, P = 0.01) modes in the intervention group significantly increased, whereas the scores of self-concept (42.10 ± 4.71 to 39.40 ± 5.67, P = 0.21) and interdependence (16.76 ± 2.22 to 16.30 ± 2.57, P = 0.44) modes in the two stages did not have a significant difference. Findings of this research indicated that the Roy's adaptation model-guided education promoted the adaptation level of physiologic and role function modes in veterans with lower extremities amputation. However, this intervention could not promote adaptation in self-concept and interdependence modes. More intervention is advised based on Roy's adaptation model for improving the

  14. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  15. Dynamic balance performance and noncontact lower extremity injury in college football players: an initial study.

    PubMed

    Butler, Robert J; Lehr, Michael E; Fink, Michael L; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J

    2013-09-01

    Field expedient screening tools that can identify individuals at an elevated risk for injury are needed to minimize time loss in American football players. Previous research has suggested that poor dynamic balance may be associated with an elevated risk for injury in athletes; however, this has yet to be examined in college football players. To determine if dynamic balance deficits are associated with an elevated risk of injury in collegiate football players. It was hypothesized that football players with lower performance and increased asymmetry in dynamic balance would be at an elevated risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-nine collegiate American football players volunteered for this study. Demographic information, injury history, and dynamic balance testing performance were collected, and noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded over the course of the season. Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated based on performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), including composite score and asymmetry, to determine the population-specific risk cut-off point. Relative risk was then calculated based on these variables, as well as previous injury. A cut-off point of 89.6% composite score on the SEBT optimized the sensitivity (100%) and specificity (71.7%). A college football player who scored below 89.6% was 3.5 times more likely to get injured. Poor performance on the SEBT may be related to an increased risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury over the course of a competitive American football season. College football players should be screened preseason using the SEBT to identify those at an elevated risk for injury based upon dynamic balance performance to implement injury mitigation strategies to this specific subgroup of athletes.

  16. Cognitive Demands Influence Lower Extremity Mechanics During a Drop Vertical Jump Task in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Almonroeder, Thomas Gus; Kernozek, Thomas; Cobb, Stephen; Slavens, Brooke; Wang, Jinsung; Huddleston, Wendy

    2018-05-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The drop vertical jump task is commonly used to screen for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk; however, its predictive validity is limited. The limited predictive validity of the drop vertical jump task may be due to not imposing the cognitive demands that reflect sports participation. Objectives To investigate the influence of additional cognitive demands on lower extremity mechanics during execution of the drop vertical jump task. Methods Twenty uninjured women (age range, 18-25 years) were required to perform the standard drop vertical jump task, as well as drop vertical jumps that included additional cognitive demands. The additional cognitive demands were related to attending to an overhead goal (ball suspended overhead) and/or temporal constraints on movement selection (decision making). Three-dimensional ground reaction forces and lower extremity mechanics were compared between conditions. Results The inclusion of the overhead goal resulted in higher peak vertical ground reaction forces and lower peak knee flexion angles in comparison to the standard drop vertical jump task. In addition, participants demonstrated greater peak knee abduction angles when trials incorporated temporal constraints on decision making and/or required participants to attend to an overhead goal, in comparison to the standard drop vertical jump task. Conclusion Imposing additional cognitive demands during execution of the drop vertical jump task influenced lower extremity mechanics in a manner that suggested increased loading of the anterior cruciate ligament. Tasks utilized in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk screening may benefit from more closely reflecting the cognitive demands of the sports environment. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(5):381-387. Epub 10 Jan 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7739.

  17. Comparison of three-dimensional lower extremity running kinematics of young adult and elderly runners.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Duarte, Marcos

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the three-dimensional lower extremity running kinematics of young adult runners and elderly runners. Seventeen elderly adults (age 67-73 years) and 17 young adults (age 26-36 years) ran at 3.1 m x s(-1) on a treadmill while the movements of the lower extremity during the stance phase were recorded at 120 Hz using three-dimensional video. The three-dimensional kinematics of the lower limb segments and of the ankle and knee joints were determined, and selected variables were calculated to describe the movement. Our results suggest that elderly runners have a different movement pattern of the lower extremity from that of young adults during the stance phase of running. Compared with the young adults, the elderly runners had a substantial decrease in stride length (1.97 vs. 2.23 m; P = 0.01), an increase in stride frequency (1.58 vs. 1.37 Hz; P = 0.002), less knee flexion/extension range of motion (26 vs. 33 degrees ; P = 0.002), less tibial internal/external rotation range of motion (9 vs. 12 degrees ; P < 0.001), larger external rotation angle of the foot segment (toe-out angle) at the heel strike (-5.8 vs. -1.0 degrees ; P = 0.009), and greater asynchronies between the ankle and knee movements during running. These results may help to explain why elderly individuals could be more susceptible to running-related injuries.

  18. Prophylactic Bracing Has No Effect on Lower Extremity Alignment or Functional Performance.

    PubMed

    Hueber, Garrett A; Hall, Emily A; Sage, Brad W; Docherty, Carrie L

    2017-07-01

    Prophylactic ankle bracing is commonly used during physical activity. Understanding how bracing affects body mechanics is critically important when discussing both injury prevention and sport performance. The purpose is to determine if ankle bracing affects lower extremity mechanics during the Landing Error Scoring System test (LESS) and Sage Sway Index (SSI). Thirty physically active participants volunteered for this study. Participants completed the LESS and SSI in both a braced and unsupported conditions. Total errors were recorded for the LESS. Total errors and time (seconds) were recorded for the SSI. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was utilized to evaluate any differences between the brace conditions for each dependent variable. A priori alpha level was set at p<0.05. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test yielded no significant difference between the braced and unsupported conditions for the LESS (Z=-0.35, p=0.72), SSI time (Z=-0.36, p=0.72), or SSI Errors (Z=-0.37, p=0.71). Ankle braces had no effect on subjective clinical assessments of lower extremity alignment or postural stability. Utilization of a prophylactic support at the ankle did not substantially alter the proximal components of the lower kinetic chain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Normal axial alignment of the lower extremity and load-bearing distribution at the knee.

    PubMed

    Hsu, R W; Himeno, S; Coventry, M B; Chao, E Y

    1990-06-01

    Based on a series of 120 normal subjects of different gender and age, the geometry of the knee joint was analyzed using a full-length weight-bearing roentgenogram of the lower extremity. A special computer program based on the theory of a rigid body spring model was applied to calculate the important anatomic and biomechanical factors of the knee joint. The tibiofemoral mechanical angle was 1.2 degrees varus. Hence, it is difficult to rationalize the 3 degree varus placement of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty suggested by some authors. The distal femoral anatomic valgus (measured from the lower one-half of the femur) was 4.2 degrees in reference to its mechanical axis. This angle became 4.9 degrees when the full-length femoral anatomic axis was used. When simulating a one-legged weight-bearing stance by shifting the upper-body gravity closer to the knee joint, 75% of the knee joint load passed through the medial tibial plateau. The knee joint-line obliquity was more varus in male subjects. The female subjects had a higher peak joint pressure and a greater patello-tibial Q angle. Age had little effect on the factors relating to axial alignment of the lower extremity and load transmission through the knee joint.

  20. The Effect of the Weight of Equipment on Muscle Activity of the Lower Extremity in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint. PMID:22973179

  1. Tibiopedal access for lower extremity arterial intervention: when to use and how to perform.

    PubMed

    Wiechmann, Bret N

    2014-09-01

    Tibiopedal artery access is being used with increasing frequency as an alternative access to facilitate procedural success in lower extremity arterial intervention. This technique is usually employed in the setting of critical limb ischemia and tibial artery intervention, but it may offer potential practical advantages for popliteal artery and even superficial femoral artery intervention in unique situations. As in all cases of lower extremity arterial intervention, consideration of access is important not only for initial approach to any obstructing lesion but also for exit strategy. The dorsalis pedis artery and posterior tibial artery can be readily accessed if necessary owing to their relatively superficial position in the foot or the ankle, yet their normal diameter and the presence of significant calcification (a common finding in patients with tibial occlusive disease and critical limb ischemia) can pose difficulties as well. In addition, the peroneal artery in the lower leg can be accessed percutaneously; however, its size and depth may present additional challenges. Meticulous attention to detail is paramount in avoiding complications in what may be the only distal vessel supplying the foot. This article describes common techniques in using tibiopedal artery access as a means of alternative access for successful infrainguinal intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Concussion May Increase the Risk of Subsequent Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Injury in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Daniel; Jones, Debi; Harrison, Ashley; Moser, Michael; Tillman, Susan; Farmer, Kevin; Pass, Anthony; Clugston, Jay; Hernandez, Jorge; Chmielewski, Terese

    2016-01-01

    Background Laboratory-based studies on neuromuscular control after concussion and epidemiological studies suggest that concussion may increase the risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injury. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if athletes have an increased risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return-to-play from a concussion. Methods Injury data were collected from 2006–2013 for men’s football and women’s basketball, soccer, and lacrosse at a NCAA Division I university. Ninety cases in 73 athletes (52 Male, 21 Female) of in-season concussion with return-to-play at least 30 days prior to the end of the season were identified. A period of up to 90 days of in-season competition following return-to-play was reviewed for time-loss injury. The same period was studied in up to two control athletes who were without a concussion within the prior year and were matched on sport, starting status, and position. Results Lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a higher rate in the concussed athletes (45/90 or 50%) compared to the non-concussed athletes (30/148 or 20%) (p < 0.01). The odds of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury were 3.39 times higher in the concussed athletes (95% CI = 1.90, 6.05; p < 0.01). Overall, the number of days lost due to injury was similar between concussed and non-concussed athletes (Median = 9 vs 15, p = 0.41). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate a relationship between concussion and an increased risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return to play, and may have implications for current medical practice standards regarding the evaluation and management of concussion injuries. PMID:27544666

  3. Changes in lower extremity movement and power absorption during forefoot striking and barefoot running.

    PubMed

    Williams, D S Blaise; Green, Douglas H; Wurzinger, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Both forefoot strike shod (FFS) and barefoot (BF) running styles result in different mechanics when compared to rearfoot strike (RFS) shod running. Additionally, running mechanics of FFS and BF running are similar to one another. Comparing the mechanical changes occurring in each of these patterns is necessary to understand potential benefits and risks of these running styles. The authors hypothesized that FFS and BF conditions would result in increased sagittal plane joint angles at initial contact and that FFS and BF conditions would demonstrate a shift in sagittal plane joint power from the knee to the ankle when compared to the RFS condition. Finally, total lower extremity power absorption will be least in BF and greatest in the RFS shod condition. The study included 10 male and 10 female RFS runners who completed 3-dimensional running analysis in 3 conditions: shod with RFS, shod with FFS, and BF. Variables were the angles of plantarflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion at initial contact and peak sagittal plane joint power at the hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase. Running with a FFS pattern and BF resulted in significantly greater plantarflexion and significantly less negative knee power (absorption) when compared to shod RFS condition. FFS condition runners landed in the most plantarflexion and demonstrated the most peak ankle power absorption and lowest knee power absorption between the 3 conditions. BF and FFS conditions demonstrated decreased total lower extremity power absorption compared to the shod RFS condition but did not differ from one another. BF and FFS running result in reduced total lower extremity power, hip power and knee power and a shift of power absorption from the knee to the ankle. Alterations associated with BF running patterns are present in a FFS pattern when wearing shoes. Additionally, both patterns result in increased demand at the foot and ankle as compared to the knee.

  4. CHANGES IN LOWER EXTREMITY MOVEMENT AND POWER ABSORPTION DURING FOREFOOT STRIKING AND BAREFOOT RUNNING

    PubMed Central

    Green, Douglas H.; Wurzinger, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Both forefoot strike shod (FFS) and barefoot (BF) running styles result in different mechanics when compared to rearfoot strike (RFS) shod running. Additionally, running mechanics of FFS and BF running are similar to one another. Comparing the mechanical changes occurring in each of these patterns is necessary to understand potential benefits and risks of these running styles. The authors hypothesized that FFS and BF conditions would result in increased sagittal plane joint angles at initial contact and that FFS and BF conditions would demonstrate a shift in sagittal plane joint power from the knee to the ankle when compared to the RFS condition. Finally, total lower extremity power absorption will be least in BF and greatest in the RFS shod condition. Methods: The study included 10 male and 10 female RFS runners who completed 3‐dimensional running analysis in 3 conditions: shod with RFS, shod with FFS, and BF. Variables were the angles of plantarflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion at initial contact and peak sagittal plane joint power at the hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase. Results: Running with a FFS pattern and BF resulted in significantly greater plantarflexion and significantly less negative knee power (absorption) when compared to shod RFS condition. FFS condition runners landed in the most plantarflexion and demonstrated the most peak ankle power absorption and lowest knee power absorption between the 3 conditions. BF and FFS conditions demonstrated decreased total lower extremity power absorption compared to the shod RFS condition but did not differ from one another. Conclusions: BF and FFS running result in reduced total lower extremity power, hip power and knee power and a shift of power absorption from the knee to the ankle. Clinical Relevance: Alterations associated with BF running patterns are present in a FFS pattern when wearing shoes. Additionally, both patterns result in increased demand at the foot and ankle as

  5. Haptic biofeedback for improving compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Michael C; DeLuke, Levi; Buerba, Rafael A; Fan, Richard E; Zheng, Ying Jean; Leslie, Michael P; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-11-01

    After lower-extremity orthopedic trauma and surgery, patients are often advised to restrict weight bearing on the affected limb. Conventional training methods are not effective at enabling patients to comply with recommendations for partial weight bearing. The current study assessed a novel method of using real-time haptic (vibratory/vibrotactile) biofeedback to improve compliance with instructions for partial weight bearing. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: verbal instruction, bathroom scale training, and haptic biofeedback. Participants were instructed to restrict lower-extremity weight bearing in a walking boot with crutches to 25 lb, with an acceptable range of 15 to 35 lb. A custom weight bearing sensor and biofeedback system was attached to all participants, but only those in the haptic biofeedback group were given a vibrotactile signal if they exceeded the acceptable range. Weight bearing in all groups was measured with a separate validated commercial system. The verbal instruction group bore an average of 60.3±30.5 lb (mean±standard deviation). The bathroom scale group averaged 43.8±17.2 lb, whereas the haptic biofeedback group averaged 22.4±9.1 lb (P<.05). As a percentage of body weight, the verbal instruction group averaged 40.2±19.3%, the bathroom scale group averaged 32.5±16.9%, and the haptic biofeedback group averaged 14.5±6.3% (P<.05). In this initial evaluation of the use of haptic biofeedback to improve compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing, haptic biofeedback was superior to conventional physical therapy methods. Further studies in patients with clinical orthopedic trauma are warranted. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Male and female gluteal muscle activity and lower extremity kinematics during running.

    PubMed

    Willson, John D; Petrowitz, Isaac; Butler, Robert J; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2012-12-01

    Patellofemoral pain is one of the most common lower extremity overuse injuries in runners and is significantly more common in females. This study evaluated differences in the timing and magnitude of gluteal muscle activity as well as hip and knee joint frontal and transverse plane kinematics between male and female runners in the context of this gender bias. Twenty healthy male and 20 healthy female runners were participants. Three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics, and gluteus medius and gluteus maximus muscle activation were recorded using motion analysis and electromyography as subjects ran at 3.7 m/s (+/-5%). Comparisons of hip and knee joint kinematic and gluteus muscle activation data were made using independent t-tests (α=0.05). Females ran with 40% greater peak gluteus maximus activation level (P=0.028, effect size=0.79) and 53% greater average activation level (P=0.013, effect size=0.93) than males. Female runners also displayed greater hip adduction (P=.001, effect size=1.20) and knee abduction (P=0.011, effect size=0.87) angles at initial contact, greater hip adduction at peak vertical ground reaction force (P<0.001, effect size=1.31), and less knee internal rotation excursion than males (P=0.035, effect size=0.71). Greater gluteus maximus activation levels during running may predispose females to earlier gluteus maximus fatigue, promoting altered lower extremity running kinematics thought to be associated with the etiology of patellofemoral pain. Gender differences in transverse and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics observed in this study may also contribute to the gender bias for patellofemoral pain among females. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Test-retest and interrater reliability of the functional lower extremity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Haitz, Karyn; Shultz, Rebecca; Hodgins, Melissa; Matheson, Gordon O

    2014-12-01

    Repeated-measures clinical measurement reliability study. To establish the reliability and face validity of the Functional Lower Extremity Evaluation (FLEE). The FLEE is a 45-minute battery of 8 standardized functional performance tests that measures 3 components of lower extremity function: control, power, and endurance. The reliability and normative values for the FLEE in healthy athletes are unknown. A face validity survey for the FLEE was sent to sports medicine personnel to evaluate the level of importance and frequency of clinical usage of each test included in the FLEE. The FLEE was then administered and rated for 40 uninjured athletes. To assess test-retest reliability, each athlete was tested twice, 1 week apart, by the same rater. To assess interrater reliability, 3 raters scored each athlete during 1 of the testing sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of each of the FLEE tests. In the face validity survey, the FLEE tests were rated as highly important by 58% to 71% of respondents but frequently used by only 26% to 45% of respondents. Interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 1.00, and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.95. The FLEE tests are considered clinically important for assessing lower extremity function by sports medicine personnel but are underused. The FLEE also is a reliable assessment tool. Future studies are required to determine if use of the FLEE to make return-to-play decisions may reduce reinjury rates.

  8. High spatial resolution time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography of lower extremity tumors at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Jin, Teng; Li, Ting; Morelli, John; Li, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic value of high spatial resolution time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectory (TWIST) using Gadobutrol to Computed tomography angiography (CTA) for preoperative evaluation of lower extremity tumors. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Fifty consecutive patients (31 men, 19 women, age range 18–80 years, average age 42.7 years) with lower extremity tumors underwent TWIST magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and CTA. Digital subtraction angiography was available for 8 patients. Image quality of MRA was compared with CTA by 2 radiologists according to a 4-point Likert scale. Arterial involvement by tumor was compared using kappa test between MRA and CTA. The ability to identify feeding arteries and arterio-venous fistulae (AVF) was compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test and McNemar test, respectively. Image quality of MRA and CTA was rated without a statistically significant difference (3.88 ± 0.37 vs. 3.97 ± 0.16, P = 0.135). Intramodality agreement was high for the identification of arterial invasion (kappa = 0.806 ± 0.073 for Reader 1, kappa = 0.805 ± 0.073 for Reader 2). Readers found AVF in 27 of 50 MRA cases and 14 of 50 CTA cases (P < 0.001). Mean feeding arteries identified with MRA were significantly more than that with CTA (2.08 ± 1.72 vs. 1.62 ± 1.52, P = .02). TWIST MRA is a reliable imaging modality for the assessment of lower extremity tumors. TWIST MRA is comparable to CTA for the identification of AVF and feeding arteries. PMID:27631262

  9. Concussion May Increase the Risk of Subsequent Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Injury in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Herman, Daniel C; Jones, Debi; Harrison, Ashley; Moser, Michael; Tillman, Susan; Farmer, Kevin; Pass, Anthony; Clugston, James R; Hernandez, Jorge; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory-based studies on neuromuscular control after concussion and epidemiological studies suggest that concussion may increase the risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if athletes have an increased risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return to play from a concussion. Injury data were collected from 2006 to 2013 for men's football and for women's basketball, soccer and lacrosse at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Ninety cases of in-season concussion in 73 athletes (52 male, 21 female) with return to play at least 30 days prior to the end of the season were identified. A period of up to 90 days of in-season competition following return to play was reviewed for time-loss injury. The same period was studied in up to two control athletes who had no concussion within the prior year and were matched for sport, starting status and position. Lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a higher rate in the concussed athletes (45/90 or 50 %) than in the non-concussed athletes (30/148 or 20 %; P < 0.01). The odds of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury were 3.39 times higher in the concussed athletes (95 % confidence interval 1.90-6.05; P < 0.01). Overall, the number of days lost because of injury was similar between concussed and non-concussed athletes (median 9 versus 15; P = 0.41). The results of this study demonstrate a relationship between concussion and an increased risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return to play, and may have implications for current medical practice standards regarding evaluation and management of concussion injuries.

  10. The Effect of Social Integration on Outcomes after Major Lower Extremity Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Alexander T.; Pallangyo, Anthony J.; Herman, Ayesiga M.; Schaumeier, Maria J.; Smith, Ann D.; Hevelone, Nathanael D.; Crandell, David M.; Nguyen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Major lower extremity amputation is a common procedure that results in a profound change in a patient's life. We sought to determine the association between social support and outcomes after amputation. We hypothesized that patients with greater social support will have better post amputation outcomes. Methods From November 2011 to May 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study. Social integration was measured by the social integration subset of the Short Form (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART). Systemic social support was assessed by comparing a US and Tanzanian population. Walking function was measured using the 6MWT and quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EQ-5D. Results 102 major lower extremity amputees were recruited. 63 patients were enrolled in the US with a mean age of 58.0. Forty-two (67%) were male. Patients with low social integration were more likely to be unable to ambulate (no walk 39% vs. slow walk 23% vs. fast walk 10%; P=.01) and those with high social integration were more likely to be fast walkers (no walk 10% vs. slow walk 59% vs. fast walk 74%; P=.01). This relationship persisted in a multivariable analysis. Increasing social integration scores were also positively associated with increasing quality of life scores in a multivariable analysis (β .002; SE .0008; P = .02). In comparing the US population with the Tanzanian cohort (39 subjects), there were no significant differences between functional or quality of life outcomes in the systemic social support analysis. Conclusions In the US population, increased social integration is associated with both improved function and quality of life outcomes among major lower extremity amputees. Systemic social support, as measured by comparing the US population with a Tanzanian population, was not associated with improved function or quality of life outcomes. In the US, steps should be taken to identify and aid amputees with poor

  11. Reliability of upper and lower extremity anthropometric measurements and the effect on tissue mass predictions.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Arthurs, Katherine L; Andrews, David M

    2008-01-01

    Accurate modeling of soft tissue motion effects relative to bone during impact requires knowledge of the mass of soft and rigid tissues in living people. Holmes et al., [2005. Predicting in vivo soft tissue masses of the lower extremity using segment anthropometric measures and DXA. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 21, 371-382] developed and validated regression equations to predict the individual tissue masses of lower extremity segments of young healthy adults, based on simple anthropometric measurements. However, the reliability of these measurements and the effect on predicted tissue mass estimates from the equations has yet to be determined. In the current study, two measurers were responsible for collecting two sets of unilateral measurements (25 male and 25 female subjects) for the right upper and lower extremities. These included 6 lengths, 6 circumferences, 8 breadths, and 4 skinfold thicknesses. Significant differences were found between measurers and between sexes, but these differences were relatively small in general (75-80% of between-measurer differences were <1cm). Within-measurer measurement differences were smaller and more consistent than those between measurers in most cases. Good to excellent reliability was demonstrated for all measurement types, with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.79, 0.86, 0.85 and 0.86 for lengths, circumferences, breadth and skinfolds, respectively. Predicted tissue mass magnitudes were moderately affected by the measurement differences. The maximum mean errors between measurers ranged from 3.2% to 24.2% for bone mineral content and fat mass, for the leg and foot, and the leg segments, respectively.

  12. Total and Lower Extremity Lean Mass Percentage Positively Correlates With Jump Performance.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Mitchell L; Smith, Derek T; Heinbaugh, Erika M; Moynes, Rebecca C; Rockey, Shawn S; Thomas, Joi J; Dai, Boyi

    2015-08-01

    Strength and power have been identified as valuable components in both athletic performance and daily function. A major component of strength and power is the muscle mass, which can be assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between total body lean mass percentage (TBLM%) and lower extremity lean mass percentage (LELM%) and lower extremity force/power production during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in a general population. Researchers performed a DXA analysis on 40 younger participants aged 18-35 years, 28 middle-aged participants aged 36-55 years, and 34 older participants aged 56-75 years. Participants performed 3 CMJ on force platforms. Correlations revealed significant and strong relationships between TBLM% and LELM% compared with CMJ normalized peak vertical ground reaction force (p < 0.001, r = 0.59), normalized peak vertical power (p < 0.001, r = 0.73), and jump height (p < 0.001, r = 0.74) for the combined age groups. Most relationships were also strong within each age group, with some relationships being relatively weaker in the middle-aged and older groups. Minimal difference was found between correlation coefficients of TBLM% and LELM%. Coefficients of determination were all below 0.6 for the combined group, indicating that between-participant variability in CMJ measures cannot be completely explained by lean mass percentages. The findings have implications in including DXA-assessed lean mass percentage as a component for evaluating lower extremity strength and power. A paired DXA analysis and CMJ jump test may be useful for identifying neuromuscular deficits that limit performance.

  13. Does pediatric body mass index affect surgical outcomes of lower-extremity external fixation?

    PubMed

    Fedorak, Graham T; Cuomo, Anna V; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-06-01

    Obese patients are highly prevalent in the pediatric orthopaedic surgeon's practice and obesity is an increasing issue in the United States. Increased body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased complications in pediatric orthopaedic patients, but no study has looked specifically at external fixation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether obesity is a risk factor for increased complications in lower-extremity procedures requiring external fixation. A retrospective chart review was conducted of pediatric patients who underwent external fixation as definitive operative treatment for any condition at a tertiary care hospital over a 15-year period. Patients were grouped into normal weight, overweight, and obese based on Centers for Disease Control definitions. All orthopaedic complications were recorded. A total of 208 patients with a mean age of 11.2 years were identified. Ninety-four children were obese at the 95th percentile BMI or higher, 22 were overweight and 93 were normal weight. External fixation was applied to the tibia in 82 cases, to the femur in 77 and to both in 49. Mean duration of fixation was 160 days (range, 31 to 570 d) and patients were followed for a mean of 3.9 years (range, 1.0 to 12.0 y). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications between the 3 groups (P=0.61). In the obese group complications occurred in 68.1% versus 66.7% in the overweight group and 61.3% in normal weight. In the setting of external fixator use for lower-extremity pathology in pediatric patients, there is no association between an increase in complications and obesity as defined by BMI. Complication rates are high when external fixation is utilized for the lower extremity, however, patients and families should not be counseled that increased BMI will add to the burden of orthopaedic complications in this situation. Level II-prognostic.

  14. Complicated Outcomes After Emergent Lower Extremity Surgery in Patients With Solid Organ Transplants.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alexander T; Perdue, Aaron; Goulet, James A; Robbins, Christopher B; Pour, Aidin Eslam

    2016-11-01

    The complications of emergent or urgent surgery in solid organ transplant recipients are unclear. The goal of this nonrandomized retrospective case study, conducted at a large public university teaching hospital, was to determine the following: (1) 90-day postsurgical complications in solid organ transplant recipients who undergo fracture surgery of the lower extremities; (2) 90-day and 1-year mortality rates for this cohort; (3) correlation of particular postsurgical complications with the 90-day or 1-year mortality rate; and (4) correlation of body mass index with the 90-day or 1-year mortality rate. Subjects included 36 solid organ transplant recipients who underwent surgical treatment for 37 emergent or urgent lower extremity fractures within 72 hours of presentation to the emergency department. Patients were followed for all medical and surgical complications for 90 days and for all-cause mortality for 1 year. Within 90 days of surgery, patients had complications that included acute renal failure (15, 40.5%), deep venous thrombosis (3, 8.1%), pulmonary embolus (2, 5.4%), pneumonia (7, 18.9%), superficial surgical site infection (3, 8.1%), and nonorthopedic sepsis (4, 10.8%). In addition, 3 (8.1%) and 5 (13.9%) patients died within 90 days and 1 year, respectively. Hospital readmission correlated with a higher 1-year mortality rate (odds ratio, 14.000; P=.016). Higher body mass index correlated with higher 90-day (odds ratio, 1.425; P=.035) and 1-year (odds ratio, 1.334; P=.033) mortality rates. Solid organ transplant recipients with lower extremity fracture have high 90-day and 1-year mortality rates and may have multiple complications within 90 days of treatment. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1063-e1069.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. The effect of equalizing landing task demands on sex differences in lower extremity energy absorption.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Melissa M; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Less lean mass and strength may result in greater relative task demands on females compared to males when landing from a standardized height and could explain sex differences in energy absorption strategies. We compared the magnitude of sex differences in energy absorption when task demands were equalized relative to the amount of lower extremity lean mass available to dissipate kinetic energy upon landing. Male-female pairs (n=35) were assessed for lower extremity lean mass with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relative task demands were calculated when landing from a standardized height. Based on the difference in lower extremity lean mass within each pair, task demands were equalized by increasing the drop height for males. Joint energetics were measured while landing from the two heights. Multivariate repeated measures ANOVAs compared the magnitude of sex differences in joint energetics between conditions. The multivariate test for absolute energy absorption was significant (P<0.01). The magnitude of sex difference in energy absorption was greater at the hip and knee (both P<0.01), but not the ankle (P=0.43) during the equalized condition compared to the standardized and exaggerated conditions (all P<0.01). There was no difference in the magnitude of sex differences between equalized, standardized and exaggerated conditions for relative energy absorption (P=0.18). Equalizing task demands increased the difference in absolute hip and knee energy absorption between sexes, but had no effect on relative joint contributions to total energy absorption. Sex differences in energy absorption are likely influenced by factors other than differences in relative task demands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Free latissimus dorsi flap transfer for reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the lower extremity].

    PubMed

    Knobloch, K; Herold, C; Vogt, P M

    2012-04-01

    Sustainable and durable soft tissue coverage at the lower extremity following trauma, tumor resections, sequelae of radiation therapy or osteomyelitis using free latissimus dorsi muscle transfer is provided by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Soft tissue defects at the lower extremity following trauma, tumor resections, and sequelae of radiation therapy or osteomyelitis. Thoracotomy with incision of the latissimus dorsi muscle; a relative contraindication in wheelchair drivers as well as in overhead athletes due to potential diminished strength and shoulder proprioception following latissimus dorsi muscle transplantation. Under general anesthesia the patient is positioned laterally, and a substantial and meticulous debridement of the defect is performed, as is the identification and preparation of the target vessel, which is preferentially the posterior tibial artery at the calf, or more proximally the popliteal or femoral artery from the medial side as well as concomitant veins/the great saphenous vein. A tailored latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is harvested with subsequent microsurgical anastomosis to the target vessel with preferential end-to-side anastomosis of the artery and end-to-end anastomosis of one or two veins. A 24-h intermediate care unit, clinical flap monitoring for at least 5-7 days, dangling of the flap using an elastic bandage for an initial 3  times  5 min starting on POD 7, compression stockings for at least 6 months subsequently. From 2001-2007 75 free latissimus dorsi flaps were performed (53 ± 17 years) for soft tissue coverage at the lower extremity. In 58% the target vessel was the posterior tibial artery, in 11% the femoral artery, in 8% the anterior tibial artery and in 8% the popliteal artery. In 15% an arteriovenous (AV) loop was applied. Overall free flap survival was 95%. We encountered four total flap losses, exclusively in complex reconstructions with AV-loop situations.

  17. Perfusion Controlled Mobilization after Lower Extremity Free Flaps-Pushing the Limits of Time and Intensity.

    PubMed

    Dornseifer, Ulf; Kleeberger, Charlotte; Kargl, Lukas; Schönberger, Markus; Rohde, Daniel; Ninkovic, Milomir; Schilling, Arndt

    2017-03-01

    Background  The current standard to gradually adapt the fragile perfusion in lower extremity free flaps to an upright posture is the dangling maneuver. This type of flap training neither fits the orthostatic target load of an upright posture, nor does it assist in mobilizing the patients effectively. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed training effects of an early and full mobilization on flap perfusion. Methods  A total of 15 patients with gracilis flaps for distal lower extremity reconstruction were included. Flap training was performed daily by mobilizing the patients on a tilt table into a fully upright posture for 5 minutes between the third and fifth postop days (PODs). Changes in micro- and macrocirculation were analyzed by laser Doppler flowmetry, remission spectroscopy, and an implanted Doppler probe. Results  All flaps healed without complications. Yet, in three patients, the increased orthostatic load required an adjustment of the training duration due to a critical blood flow. The others showed an increasing compensation in the microcirculation. When tilting the patients, blood flow and oxygen saturation dropped significantly less on POD5 than on POD3. Furthermore, a significant increase of the blood flow was noted after an initial decrease during the mobilization on all days. An increasing compensation in the macrocirculation could not be determined. Conclusion  Full mobilization of patients with lower extremity free flaps can be performed safely under perfusion monitoring, already starting on POD3. Additionally, monitoring allows a consideration of the individual orthostatic competence and therefore, exploitation of the maximum mobilization potential. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction with free flap based on subscapular artery.

    PubMed

    Karşıdağ, Semra; Akçal, Arzu; Turgut, Gürsel; Uğurlu, Kemal; Baş, Lütfü

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the results of the reconstruction of the lower extremity defects with free flaps based on the subscapular artery. Between January, 1998 and December, 2008, 51 patients (mean age 26 years; 16 female and 35 male) presenting with a lower extremity defect underwent a reconstructive surgery with flaps based on the subscapular vascular system. Thirty-seven percent of the defects were located in the crus, 19% in the sole, 16% in the heel, and 14% in the dorsum of the foot. Eighty and a half percent of the patients had traffic-accident-related and 13.5% had burn-related tissue defects. Fifty-three percent of the patients presenting with lower extremity defects underwent reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flaps, 21% with free serratus muscle and/or fascia flaps, 14% with free parascapular fasciocutaneous flaps, and 12% with free combined latissimus muscle and serratus muscle and/or fascia flaps. Anastomoses of 80% of the patients were performed on their posterior tibial artery and accompanying veins and/or foot dorsal veins. End-to-end anastomosis was performed on 14 patients, while 35 patients received end-to-side anastomosis. Six patients were treated with cross free flaps, of which 4 received cross latissimus, 1 cross serratus, and 1 cross combined serratus and latissimus flaps. End-to-side anastomoses were performed on these patients on the cross-leg tibialis posterior artery. The cross-leg anastomosis was freed 4 weeks later. In the early period, venous occlusion was observed in 4 patients and arterial and venous occlusion was present in 1 patient. New anastomoses were performed in these patients. Partial necrosis was observed in 2 patients. The average follow-up period was 61 months. Pressure-related late ulcerative lesions developed in 4 patients. The lesions of these patients were repaired by debridement and primary suturing or partial thickness skin grafts. The subscapular vascular system based flaps have an optimal

  19. Poor outcome of bilateral lower extremity morel-lavallee lesions: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Sharon S; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Siskind, Eric; Kasabian, Armen K; Huang, Su-I D

    2014-03-01

    The Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed, internal degloving injury that results when a strong, shearing force is applied parallel to the plane of injury, as is common in vehicular trauma. It is an underdiagnosed entity that is often missed during the initial trauma workup as symptoms can be subtle. There are few reports of lesions occurring below the knee. Most cases affect the proximal thigh and trochanter, as these tend to be dependent areas in high velocity trauma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature report of bilateral lower extremity Morel-Lavallee lesions.

  20. LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS OF ACL-REPAIRED AND NON-INJURED FEMALES WHEN USING KNEE SAVERS®.

    PubMed

    Stone, Whitley J; Arnett, Scott W; Hoover, Donald L

    2017-10-01

    Knee Savers® (KS) are an ergonomic aid purported to lessen the risk of injuries linked to deep squats. While widely used in sports such as baseball and softball, KS have not been tested to determine their effect upon lower extremity kinematics in any population. The purpose of the study was to determine if KS influenced the lower extremity kinematics when females with previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstruction and healthy participants completed an end-range squat. A repeated measures, counter-balanced laboratory study design was used. Twenty female participants (mean (SD) - age: 21.65 (2.06) yrs, height: 175.26 (9.29) cm, weight: 64.66 (7.72) kg) with a history of ACL-repair (n=10) or non-injury (n=10) completed this study. Participants completed a standardized trial of three deep squats with and without KS. Movement was analyzed using 2D video analysis methods increasingly available in clinical environments. During the ascending phases of a squatting motion, there was significantly greater medial ( p  = .009) and lateral ( p  = .005) motion of the patella in the frontal plane for non-injured participants, when compared to the ACL-repaired group. No significant differences were found in sagittal plane lower extremity kinematics when squatting with and without KS. Ascending angular velocity was slower in ACL-repaired than non-injured females ( p  = .008) and slower with the KS than without KS for non-injured females ( p  = .007). When squatting with and without KS, the non-injured group experienced more frontal plane motion at the knee, compared to the ACL-repaired group. However, while KS are purported to influence lower extremity joint positions during the bottom phase of a deep squat, the data from the current study did not support this claim. Additionally, KS appear to slow ascending velocity for those without a history of ACL-repair. These findings may have clinically meaningful implications for athletes who use KS during sport

  1. Simulator study of young driver's instinctive response of lower extremity to a collision.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenhai; Li, Chuzhao; Hu, Hongyu; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chaoyang; Yu, Huili

    2016-05-18

    A driver's instinctive response of the lower extremity in braking movement consists of two parts, including reaction time and braking reaction behavior. It is critical to consider these two components when conducting studies concerning driver's brake movement intention and injury analysis. The purposes of this study were to investigate the driver reaction time to an oncoming collision and muscle activation of lower extremity muscles at the collision moment. The ultimate goal is to provide data that aid in both the optimization of intervention time of an active safety system and the improvement of precise protection performance of a passive safety system. A simulated collision scene was constructed in a driving simulator, and 40 young volunteers (20 male and 20 female) were recruited for tests. Vehicle control parameters and electromyography characteristics of eight muscles of the lower extremity were recorded. The driver reaction time was divided into pre-motor time (PMT) and muscle activation time (MAT). Muscle activation level (ACOL) at the collision moment was calculated and analysed. PMT was shortest for the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (243∼317 ms for male and 278∼438 ms for female). Average MAT of the TA ranged from 28-55 ms. ACOL was large (5∼31% for male and 5∼23% for female) at 50 km/h, but small (<12%) at 100 km/h. ACOL of the gluteus maximus was smallest (<3%) in the 25 and 100 km/h tests. ACOL of RF of men was significantly smaller than that of women at different speeds. Ankle dorsiflexion is firstly activated at the beginning of the emergency brake motion. Males showed stronger reaction ability than females, as suggested by male's shorter PMT. The detection of driver's brake intention is upwards of 55ms sooner after introducing the electromyography. Muscle activation of the lower extremity is an important factor for 50 km/h collision injury analysis. For higher speed collisions, this might not be a major factor. The activations of certain

  2. The clinical evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Ointment on lower extremity wounds--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2004-12-01

    Pterocarpus santalinus is described in the Ayurveda for its wide spectrum of medicinal properties including wound healing. Previously the authors reported animal studies that demonstrated that an ointment made from the bark of this tree was effective without any toxic effects. They used the same ointment in 6 cases of lower extremity wounds. Healing was observed in all wounds. The study was not controlled, the findings are presented here as case studies. Further studies are planned to develop a wound healing ointment from a locally available and inexpensive plant.

  3. Comparison of Hand-Sewn versus Coupled Venous Anastomoses in Traumatic Lower Extremity Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stranix, John T; Rifkin, William J; Lee, Z-Hye; Anzai, Lavinia; Jacoby, Adam; Ceradini, Daniel J; Thanik, Vishal; Saadeh, Pierre B; Levine, Jamie P

    2018-06-15

     Microvascular reconstruction of the lower extremity has the highest reported complication and flap failure rates of any anatomical region. Despite widespread adoption of the mechanical anastomotic venous coupler and encouraging results in other anatomical regions, there are limited reports examining its use in the lower extremity. This study compares outcomes between coupled and hand-sewn venous anastomoses in traumatic lower extremity reconstruction.  Retrospective review of our institutional flap registry from 1979 to 2016 identified soft tissue free flaps performed for the reconstruction of Gustilo type IIIB/IIIC open tibial fractures. Patient demographics, flap characteristics, use of a venous anastomotic coupler, and perioperative outcomes were examined. Analysis was performed using chi-square and Student's t -tests.  A total of 361 patients received a microvascular free flap for coverage of a Gustilo type IIIB or IIIC tibial fracture following traumatic injury. After excluding cases that lacked adequate information on coupler use, 358 free flaps were included in the study. There were 72 (20%) free flaps performed using a venous coupler and 286 (80%) performed with hand-sewn venous anastomoses. There were comparable rates of major complications (22.2 vs. 26.1%; p  = 0.522), total flap failure (6.5%, vs. 10.2%; p  = 0.362), and partial flap failure (9.7 vs. 12.2%; p  = 0.579) between venous coupler and hand-sewn anastomoses, respectively. Furthermore, use of the venous coupler was not associated with increased rates of operative take backs (22.8 vs. 23.0%; p  = 0.974). However, reconstructions performed using a venous coupler were significantly more likely to have a second venous anastomosis performed (37.5 vs. 21.3%; p  = 0.004).  Complication and flap failure rates were similar between reconstructions performed with a venous coupler and those performed with hand-sewn venous anastomoses. These findings suggest that use of the

  4. Two cases of painful gynecomastia and lower extremity pain in association with pregabalin therapy.

    PubMed

    Málaga, Ignacio; Sanmarti, Francesc X

    2006-09-01

    We report two patients with refractory epilepsy who developed unilateral painful gynecomastia and lower extremity pain (one of them localized and the other one diffuse), shortly after receiving Pregabalin (PGB). Neither of them had previous endocrinologic problems or complaints about pain on their medical history. PGB was stopped in one patient and reduced in the other one, with complete disparition of the symptoms in the following weeks in both patients. This supports the hypothesis that gynecomastia could be a drug-induced and easy to manage secondary effect of PGB, with a higher incidence than observed on previous clinical trials.

  5. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  6. Active Ankle Movements Prevent Formation of Lower-Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis After Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Guan, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Rui; Li, Bin; Ning, Bo; Su, Wei; Sun, Tao; Li, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the preventive value of active ankle movements in the formation of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT), attempting to develop a new method for rehabilitation nursing after orthopedic surgery. Material/Methods We randomly assigned 193 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the lower limbs into a case group (n=96) and a control group (n=97). The control group received routine nursing while the case group performed active ankle movements in addition to receiving routine nursing. Maximum venous outflow (MVO), maximum venous capacity (MVC), and blood rheology were measured and the incidence of DVT was recorded. Results On the 11th and 14th days of the experiment, the case group had significantly higher MVO and MVC than the control group (all P<0.05). The whole-blood viscosity at high shear rate and the plasma viscosity were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group on the 14th day (both P<0.05). During the experiment, a significantly higher overall DVT incidence was recorded in the control group (8 with asymptomatic DVT) compared with the case group (1 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.034). During follow-up, the case group presented a significantly lower DVT incidence (1 with symptomatic DVT and 4 with asymptomatic DVT) than in the control group (5 with symptomatic DVT and 10 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.031). Conclusions Through increasing MVO and MVC and reducing blood rheology, active ankle movements may prevent the formation of lower-extremity DVT after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27600467

  7. The Effect of Manipulating Subject Mass on Lower Extremity Torque Patterns During Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    During locomotion, humans adapt their motor patterns to maintain coordination despite changing conditions (Reisman et al., 2005). Bernstein (1967) proposed that in addition to the present state of a given joint, other factors, including limb inertia and velocity, must be taken into account to allow proper motion to occur. During locomotion with added mass counterbalanced using vertical suspension to maintain body weight, vertical ground reaction forces (GRF's) increase during walking but decrease during running, suggesting that adaptation may be velocity-specific (De Witt et al., 2006). It is not known, however, how lower extremity joint torques adapt to changes in inertial forces. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increasing body mass while maintaining body weight upon lower-limb joint torque during walking and running. We hypothesized that adaptations in joint torque patterns would occur with the addition of body mass.

  8. Stiffness and ultimate load of osseointegrated prosthesis fixations in the upper and lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Föller, Marie; Schwarze, Michael; Calliess, Tilman

    2013-07-11

    Techniques for the skeletal attachment of amputation-prostheses have been developed over recent decades. This type of attachment has only been performed on a small number of patients. It poses various potential advantages compared to conventional treatment with a socket, but is also associated with an increased risk of bone or implant-bone interface fracture in the case of a fall. We therefore investigated the bending stiffness and ultimate bending moment of such devices implanted in human and synthetic bones. Eight human specimens and 16 synthetic models of the proximal femora were implanted with lower extremity prostheses and eight human specimens and six synthetic humeri were implanted with upper extremity prostheses. They were dissected according to typical amputation levels and underwent loading in a material testing machine in a four-point bending setup. Bending stiffness, ultimate bending moment and fracture modes were determined in a load to failure experiment. Additionally, axial pull-out was performed on eight synthetic specimens of the lower extremity. Maximum bending moment of the synthetic femora was 160.6±27.5 Nm, the flexural rigidity of the synthetic femora was 189.0±22.6 Nm2. Maximum bending moment of the human femora was 100.4±38.5 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 137.8±29.4 Nm2. The maximum bending moment of the six synthetic humeri was 104.9±19.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 63.7±3.6 Nm2. For the human humeri the maximum bending moment was 36.7±11.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity at was 43.7±10.5 Nm2. The maximum pull-out force for the eight synthetic femora was 3571±919 N. Significant differences were found between human and synthetic specimens of the lower and upper extremity regarding maximum bending moment, bending displacement and flexural rigidity. The results of this study are relevant with respect to previous finding regarding the load at the interfaces of osseointegrated prosthesis fixation devices and are crucial for the

  9. Do small changes in rotation affect measurements of lower extremity limb alignment?

    PubMed

    Jamali, Amir A; Meehan, John P; Moroski, Nathan M; Anderson, Matthew J; Lamba, Ramit; Parise, Carol

    2017-05-22

    The alignment of the lower extremity has important implications in the development of knee arthritis. The effect of incremental rotations of the limb on common parameters of alignment has not been studied. The purpose of the study was to (1) determine the standardized neutral position measurements of alignment and (2) determine the effect of rotation on commonly used measurements of alignment. Eighty-seven full length CT angiography studies (49 males and 38 females, average age 66 years old) were included. Three-dimensional models were created using a rendering software program and placed on a virtual plane. An image of the extremity was obtained. Thirty scans were randomly selected, and those models were rotated in 3° intervals around the longitudinal axis and additional images were obtained. In the neutral position, the mechanical lateral distal femoral articular angle (mLDFA) was 85.6 ± 2.3°, medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) was 86.1 ± 2.8°, and mechanical tibiofemoral angle (mTFA) was -0.7 ± 3.1°. Females had a more valgus alignment with a mTFA of 0.5 ± 2.9° while males had a more varus alignment with a mTFA of -1.7 ± 2.9°. The anatomic tibiofemoral angle (aTFA) was 4.8 ± 2.6°, the anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA) measured 80.2 ± 2.2°, and the anatomical-mechanical angle (AMA) was 5.4 ± 0.7°. The prevalence of constitutional varus was 18%. The effect of rotation on the rotated scans led to statistically significant differences relative to the 0° measurement for all measurements. These effects may be small, and their clinical importance is unknown. This study provides new information on standardized measures of lower extremity alignment and the relationship between discreet axial rotations of the entire lower extremity and these parameters.

  10. Stiffness and ultimate load of osseointegrated prosthesis fixations in the upper and lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Techniques for the skeletal attachment of amputation-prostheses have been developed over recent decades. This type of attachment has only been performed on a small number of patients. It poses various potential advantages compared to conventional treatment with a socket, but is also associated with an increased risk of bone or implant-bone interface fracture in the case of a fall. We therefore investigated the bending stiffness and ultimate bending moment of such devices implanted in human and synthetic bones. Methods Eight human specimens and 16 synthetic models of the proximal femora were implanted with lower extremity prostheses and eight human specimens and six synthetic humeri were implanted with upper extremity prostheses. They were dissected according to typical amputation levels and underwent loading in a material testing machine in a four-point bending setup. Bending stiffness, ultimate bending moment and fracture modes were determined in a load to failure experiment. Additionally, axial pull-out was performed on eight synthetic specimens of the lower extremity. Results Maximum bending moment of the synthetic femora was 160.6±27.5 Nm, the flexural rigidity of the synthetic femora was 189.0±22.6 Nm2. Maximum bending moment of the human femora was 100.4±38.5 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 137.8±29.4 Nm2. The maximum bending moment of the six synthetic humeri was 104.9±19.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 63.7±3.6 Nm2. For the human humeri the maximum bending moment was 36.7±11.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity at was 43.7±10.5 Nm2. The maximum pull-out force for the eight synthetic femora was 3571±919 N. Conclusion Significant differences were found between human and synthetic specimens of the lower and upper extremity regarding maximum bending moment, bending displacement and flexural rigidity. The results of this study are relevant with respect to previous finding regarding the load at the interfaces of osseointegrated prosthesis

  11. Arterial imaging in patients with lower extremity ischemia and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pomposelli, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Precise, comprehensive imaging of the arterial circulation is the cornerstone of successful revascularization of the ischemic extremity in patients with diabetes mellitus. Arterial imaging is challenging in these patients because the disease is often multisegmental with a predilection for the distal tibial and peroneal arteries. Occlusive lesions and the arterial wall itself are often calcified and patients presenting with ischemic complications frequently have underlying renal insufficiency. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA), contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and more recently, computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) have been used as imaging modalities in lower extremity ischemia. Each has specific advantages and shortcomings in this patient population, which will be summarized and contrasted in this review. DSA is an invasive technique most often performed from a femoral arterial puncture and requires the injection of arterial contrast, which can occasionally cause allergic reactions. In patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency, contrast infusion can result in worsening renal failure; although usually self-limited, it may occasionally require hemodialysis, especially in patients with diabetes. However, DSA provides the highest degree of spatial resolution and image quality. It is also the only modality in which the diagnosis and treatment of arterial disease can be performed simultaneously. MRA is noninvasive, and when enhanced with gadolinium contrast injection provides arterial images of comparable quality to DSA and in some circumstances may uncover distal arterial targets not visualized on DSA. However, spatial resolution is inferior to DSA and erroneous interpretations due to acquisition artifacts are common. Specialized equipment and imaging techniques are necessary to minimize their occurrence in the distal lower extremity. In addition, due to the risk of inducing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, gadolinium

  12. Directing clinical care using lower extremity biomechanics in patients with ankle osteoarthritis and ankle arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Queen, Robin

    2017-11-01

    Ankle osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease with approximately 50,000 new cases per year leading to skeletal deformity, severe and recurrent pain, cartilage breakdown, and gait dysfunction limiting patient mobility and well-being. Although many treatments (total ankle arthroplasty [TAA], ankle fusion [arthrodesis], and ankle distraction arthroplasty) relieve pain, it is not clear that these procedures significantly improve patient mobility. The goal of the research presented here is to summarize what is presently known about lower extremity gait mechanics and outcomes and to quantify the impact of ankle osteoarthritis and TAA have on these measures using an explicitly holistic and mechanistic approach. Our recent studies have explored physical performance and energy recovery and revealed unexpected patterns and sequelae to treatment including incomplete restoration of gait function. These studies demonstrated for the first time the extreme levels and range of gait and balance dysfunction present in ankle osteoarthritis patients as well as quantifying the ways in which the affected joint alters movement and loading patterns not just in the painful joint, but throughout both the ipsilateral and contralateral lower extremity. Through this work, we determined that relieving pain alone through TAA is not enough to restore normal walking mechanics and balance due to underlying causes including limited ankle range of motion and balance deficits leading to long-term disability despite treatment. The results indicate the need to consider additional therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring balance, ankle range of motion, and movement symmetry in order to improve long-term health and function. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2345-2355, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An interval kicking progression for return to soccer following lower extremity injury.

    PubMed

    Arundale, Amelia; Silvers, Holly; Logerstedt, David; Rojas, Jaime; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    The majority of all soccer injuries affect the lower extremities. Regardless of whether the injured limb is an athlete's preferred kicking or stance leg, a lower extremity injury may affect their ability to impact the ball. Sport-specific biomechanical progressions to augment loading and gradually reintroduce a player to the demands of sport have been developed for upper extremity sports such as baseball, softball, tennis, and golf. Generalized return to soccer progressions have also been published in order to assist clinicians in safely returning athletes to sport; however, there are no specific progressions for the early stages of kicking designed to introduce stance leg loading and kicking leg impact. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary was to review the existing literature elucidating the biomechanics of kicking a soccer ball and propose a progressive kicking program to support clinicians in safely returning their soccer athletes to the demands of sport. The interval kicking program (IKP) describes clinical guidelines for readiness to begin a kicking program as well as possible readiness to return to sport measures. The program is performed on alternate days integrating therapeutic exercise and cardiovascular fitness. The IKP gradually introduces a player to the loading and impact of kicking. The progression increases kicking distance (using the markings of a soccer field as a guide), volume, and intensity and uses proposed soreness rules, effusion guidelines, and player feedback in order to assist clinicians in determining readiness for advancement though the stages. The IKP also recommends utility of specific tests and measures to determine readiness for return to sport. Gradual reintroduction to sport specific demands is essential for a safe return to soccer. This return to sport progression provides a framework integrating injury specific therapeutic exercise, cardiovascular fitness, and the return to kicking progression, to assist clinicians in

  14. Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During a Women’s Overhand Lacrosse Shot

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Brianna M.; Mercer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 22±2 years, body height 162.6±15.2 cm, body mass 63.7±23.6 kg) were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG) leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (GA). Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow) and a game speed shot (Fast). Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration). Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase) × 2 (Speed) ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p<0.05), while TA was not influenced by either Phase or Speed (p>0.05). RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05) with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05) but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076) for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA) during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements. PMID:25114727

  15. Thromboembolic Risk of Endovascular Intervention for Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Philip; Echeverria, Angela; Poi, Mun J; Matos, Jesus; Bechara, Carlos F; Cheung, Mathew; Lin, Peter H

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the risk of thromboembolism during endovascular interventions in patients with symptomatic lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) METHODS: Clinical records of all patients who underwent endovascular interventions for symptomatic lower extremity DVT from 2001 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed using a prospectively maintained database. Only patients who received an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter were included in the analysis. Trapped intrafilter thrombus was assessed for procedure-related thromboembolism. Clinical outcomes of thrombus management and thromboembolism risk were analyzed. A total 172 patients (mean age 57.4 years, 98 females) who underwent 174 endovascular DVT interventions were included in the analysis. Treatment strategies included thrombolytic therapy (64%), mechanical thrombectomy (n = 86%), pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (51%), balloon angioplasty (98%), and stent placement (28%). Thrombectomy device used included AngioJet (56%), Trellis (19%), and Aspire (11%). Trapped IVC filter thrombus was identified in 58 patients (38%) based on the IVC venogram. No patient developed clinically evident pulmonary embolism (PE). IVC filter retrieval was performed in 98 patients (56%, mean 11.8 months after implantation). Multivariate analysis showed that iliac vein occlusion (P = 0.04) was predictive for procedure-related thromboembolism. Iliac vein thrombotic occlusion is associated with an increased thromboembolic risk in DVT intervention. Retrievable IVC filter should be considered when performing percutaneous thrombectomy in patients with iliac venous occlusion to prevent PE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Osteogenesis imperfecta--operative treatment on lower extremities in children with osteogenesis imperfecta].

    PubMed

    Sułko, Jerzy; Radło, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    The group of 141 children with osteogenesis imperfecta was treated in Orthopaedic Department of the University Children Hospital in Krakow, Poland. In 77 (54.6%) children from this group, we operated on lower extremities. Prophylactic operations, that were intramedullary Rush rodding, we performed in 19 cases (14 femurs and 11 tibias). Sofield-Millar procedures we performed in 58 children. We operated 321 times - there are 4 operations on average in one child. Average follow-up period was 6.7 years. We operated 473 long bones: 234 femurs and 239 tibias. We did 479 osteotomies. First operations were done at the age of 9 years on average (1.5-21 years). Further operations, 3 in each patient on average, we performed in period 37 months from one to another on tibias and 49 months on femurs. In all operated children we achieved full axis correction and their activity after operation improved. In order to assess that, we used the Bleck scale. In general, before operation, 54 (70%) children did not walk, and, in contrast, after operations 53 (69%) started walking. Operative treatment of the lower extremities in children with osteogenesis imperfecta improves their clinical physical abilities, quality of life and allows increase in activities.

  17. Relationship between age and lower extremity fractures in frontal motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Moran, Stephan G; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse S; Alonso, Jorge E; Rue, Loring W

    2003-02-01

    Older adults (aged > or = 65 years) represent the single fastest growing segment of the United States population and will comprise one in five Americans during the third decade of this century. As this population segment rapidly expands, lower extremity fractures (LE Fx) and their associated disability will become a greater public health concern. The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk for LE Fx from motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) according to age. The 1995 to 2000 National Automotive Sampling System data files were used. Study entry was limited to front-seat occupants involved in frontal MVCs. Risk ratios for LE Fx and age were adjusted for gender, driver versus passenger, seat belt use, airbag deployment, delta-V, intrusion, and vehicle type. Beginning in the fourth decade, there was a trend of higher relative risk for LE Fx with age that reached statistical significance in the seventh decade of life. This study documented an increased risk of LE Fx in older MVC occupants. Efforts to prevent these disabling injuries and to better protect occupants' lower extremities in MVCs should include improved vehicle design and reevaluation of the existing federal motor vehicle safety standards.

  18. The collision forces and lower-extremity inter-joint coordination during running.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-I; Gu, Chin-Yi; Wang, I-Lin; Siao, Sheng-Wun; Chen, Szu-Ting

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity inter-joint coordination of different collision forces runners during running braking phase. A dynamical system approach was used to analyse the inter-joint coordination parameters. Data were collected with six infra-red cameras and two force plates. According to the impact peak of the vertical ground reaction force, twenty habitually rearfoot-strike runners were categorised into three groups: high collision forces runners (HF group, n = 8), medium collision forces runners (MF group, n = 5), and low collision forces runners (LF group, n = 7). There were no significant differences among the three groups in the ankle and knee joint angle upon landing and in the running velocity (p > 0.05). The HF group produced significantly smaller deviation phase (DP) of the hip flexion/extension-knee flexion/extension during the braking phase compared with the MF and LF groups (p < 0.05). The DP of the hip flexion/extension-knee flexion/extension during the braking phase correlated negatively with the collision force (p < 0.05). The disparities regarding the flexibility of lower extremity inter-joint coordination were found in high collision forces runners. The efforts of the inter-joint coordination and the risk of running injuries need to be clarified further.

  19. Kinematic and kinetic synergies of the lower extremities during the pull in olympic weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Kristof; Redden, Josh; Sabick, Michelle; Harris, Chad

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify multijoint lower extremity kinematic and kinetic synergies in weightlifting and compare these synergies between joints and across different external loads. Subjects completed sets of the clean exercise at loads equal to 65, 75, and 85% of their estimated 1-RM. Functional data analysis was used to extract principal component functions (PCF's) for hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and moments of force during the pull phase of the clean at all loads. The PCF scores were then compared between joints and across loads to determine how much of each PCF was present at each joint and how it differed across loads. The analyses extracted two kinematic and four kinetic PCF's. The statistical comparisons indicated that all kinematic and two of the four kinetic PCF's did not differ across load, but scaled according to joint function. The PCF's captured a set of joint- and load-specific synergies that quantified biomechanical function of the lower extremity during Olympic weightlifting and revealed important technical characteristics that should be considered in sports training and future research.

  20. Development and validation of an exercise performance support system for people with lower extremity impairment.

    PubMed

    Minor, M A; Reid, J C; Griffin, J Z; Pittman, C B; Patrick, T B; Cutts, J H

    1998-02-01

    To identify innovative strategies to support appropriate, self-directed exercise that increase physical activity levels of people with arthritis. This article reports on one interactive, multimedia exercise performance support system (PSS) for people with lower extremity impairments in strength or flexibility. An interdisciplinary team developed the PSS using self-report of lower extremity musculoskeletal impairments (flexibility and strength) to produce an individualized exercise program with video and print educational materials. Initial evaluation has investigated the validity and reliability of program assessments and recommendations. PSS self-report and professional assessments were similar, with more impairments indicated by self-report. PSS exercise recommendations were similar to those made by 3 expert physical therapists using the same exercise data base. Results of PSS impairment assessments were stable over a 1-week period. PSS exercise recommendations appear to be reliable and a valid reflection of current exercise knowledge in rheumatology. Furthermore, users were able to complete the computer-based program with minimal assistance and reported it to be enjoyable and informative.

  1. Preservation of lower extremity amputation length using muscle perforator free flaps.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    2008-06-01

    Coverage of any lower extremity amputation stump must be durable to resist external forces, well contoured, and thin enough for proper shoewear or prothesis fitting. Preservation of bone length to maximise the ability to ambulate is also of paramount importance. If local soft tissues are inadequate to fulfil these prerequisites, consideration of a microsurgical tissue transfer is a reasonable option, especially to cover bone or save a major joint. Muscle perforator free flaps, as shown in this series of eight patients using four different donor sites, are a versatile alternative for the necessary soft tissue augmentation. Multiple choices are available and often even from the involved lower extremity to minimise further morbidity. The vascular pedicles of this genré of flaps are relatively exceedingly long and of respectable calibre to facilitate reaching an appropriate recipient site. They can be sensate if desired. Of course, muscle function is by definition preserved. Complications are minimal and usually related to the reason for the amputation in the first place.

  2. Gender differences in lower extremity kinematics, kinetics and energy absorption during landing.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michael J; Torry, Michael R; Wyland, Douglas J; Sterett, William I; Richard Steadman, J

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether gender differences exist in lower extremity joint motions and energy absorption landing strategies between age and skill matched recreational athletes. Mixed factor, repeated measures design. Compared to males, females execute high demand activities in a more erect posture potentially predisposing the anterior cruciate ligament to greater loads and injury. The preferred energy absorption strategy may provide insight for this performance difference. Inverse dynamic solutions estimated lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics and energetic profiles for twelve males and nine females performing a 60 cm drop landing. Females demonstrated a more erect landing posture and utilized greater hip and ankle joint range of motions and maximum joint angular velocities compared to males. Females also exhibited greater energy absorption and peak powers from the knee extensors and ankle plantar-flexors compared to the males. Examinations of the energy absorption contributions revealed that the knee was the primary shock absorber for both genders, whereas the ankle plantar-flexors muscles was the second largest contributor to energy absorption for the females and the hip extensors muscles for the males. Females may choose to land in a more erect posture to maximize the energy absorption from the joints most proximal to ground contact. Females may be at a greater risk to anterior cruciate ligament injury during landing due to their energy absorption strategy.

  3. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome after complicated traumatic lower extremity vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Macedo, F I B; Sciarretta, J D; Otero, C A; Ruiz, G; Ebler, D J; Pizano, L R; Namias, N

    2016-04-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) can occur in trauma patients without abdominal injuries. Surgical management of patients presenting with secondary ACS after isolated traumatic lower extremity vascular injury (LEVI) continues to evolve, and associated outcomes remain unknown. From January 2006 to September 2011, 191 adult trauma patients presented to the Ryder Trauma Center, an urban level I trauma center in Miami, Florida with traumatic LEVIs. Among them 10 (5.2 %) patients were diagnosed with secondary ACS. Variables collected included age, gender, mechanism of injury, and clinical status at presentation. Surgical data included vessel injury, technical aspects of repair, associated complications, and outcomes. Mean age was 37.4 ± 18.0 years (range 16-66 years), and the majority of patients were males (8 patients, 80 %). There were 7 (70 %) penetrating injuries (5 gunshot wounds and 2 stab wounds), and 3 blunt injuries with mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) 21.9 ± 14.3 (range 9-50). Surgical management of LEVIs included ligation (4 patients, 40 %), primary repair (1 patient, 10 %), reverse saphenous vein graft (2 patients, 20 %), and PTFE interposition grafting (3 patients, 30 %). The overall mortality rate in this series was 60 %. The association between secondary ACS and lower extremity vascular injuries carries high morbidity and mortality rates. Further research efforts should focus at identifying parameters to accurately determine resuscitation goals, and therefore, prevent such a devastating condition.

  4. Risk Factor, Job Stress and Quality of Life in Workers With Lower Extremity Pain Who Use Video Display Terminals

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the general characteristics of video display terminal (VDT) workers with lower extremity pain, to identify the risk factors of work-related lower extremity pain, and to examine the relationship between work stress and health-related quality of life. Methods A questionnaire about the general characteristics of the survey group and the musculoskeletal symptom was used. A questionnaire about job stress used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale and medical outcome study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess health-related quality of life. Results There were 1,711 subjects in the lower extremity group and 2,208 subjects in the control group. Age, sex, hobbies, and feeling of loading affected lower extremity pain as determined in a crossover analysis of all variables with and without lower extremity pain. There were no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of job stress and SF-36 values of the pain and control groups. Conclusion Job stress in VDT workers was higher than average, and the quality of life decreased as the stress increased. Factors such as younger age, women, hobbies other than exercise, and feeling of loading influenced lower extremity pain of workers. Further long-term follow-up and supplementary studies are needed to identify risk factors for future lower extremity pain, taking into account ergonomic factors such as worker's posture. PMID:29560330

  5. Risk Factor, Job Stress and Quality of Life in Workers With Lower Extremity Pain Who Use Video Display Terminals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sehoon; Jang, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Si-Bog; Han, Seung Hoon

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the general characteristics of video display terminal (VDT) workers with lower extremity pain, to identify the risk factors of work-related lower extremity pain, and to examine the relationship between work stress and health-related quality of life. A questionnaire about the general characteristics of the survey group and the musculoskeletal symptom was used. A questionnaire about job stress used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale and medical outcome study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess health-related quality of life. There were 1,711 subjects in the lower extremity group and 2,208 subjects in the control group. Age, sex, hobbies, and feeling of loading affected lower extremity pain as determined in a crossover analysis of all variables with and without lower extremity pain. There were no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of job stress and SF-36 values of the pain and control groups. Job stress in VDT workers was higher than average, and the quality of life decreased as the stress increased. Factors such as younger age, women, hobbies other than exercise, and feeling of loading influenced lower extremity pain of workers. Further long-term follow-up and supplementary studies are needed to identify risk factors for future lower extremity pain, taking into account ergonomic factors such as worker's posture.

  6. Effect of Reduced Stiffness Dance Flooring on Lower Extremity Joint Angular Trajectories During a Ballet Jump.

    PubMed

    Hackney, James; Brummel, Sara; Newman, Mary; Scott, Shannon; Reinagel, Matthew; Smith, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    We carried out a study to investigate how low stiffness flooring may help prevent overuse injuries of the lower extremity in dancers. It was hypothesized that performing a ballet jump (sauté) on a reduced stiffness dance floor would decrease maximum joint flexion angles and negative angular velocities at the hips, knees, or ankles compared to performing the same jump on a harder floor. The participants were 15 young adult female dancers (age range 18 to 28, mean = 20.89 ± 2.93 years) with at least 5 years of continuous ballet experience and without history of serious lower body injury, surgery, or recent pain. They performed sautés on a (low stiffness) Harlequin ® WoodSpring Floor and on a vinyl-covered hardwood on concrete floor. Maximum joint flexion angles and negative velocities at bilateral hips, knees, and ankles were measured with the "Ariel Performance Analysis System" (APAS). Paired one-tailed t-tests yielded significant decreases in maximum knee angle (average decrease = 3.4° ± 4.2°, p = 0.026) and angular negative velocity of the ankles (average decrease = 18.7°/sec ± 27.9°/sec, p = 0.009) with low stiffness flooring. If the knee angle is less acute, then the length of the external knee flexion moment arm will also be shorter and result in a smaller external knee flexion moment, given an equal landing force. Also, high velocities of eccentric muscle contraction, which are necessary to control negative angular velocity of the ankle joint, are associated with higher risk of musculotendinous injury. Hence, our findings indicate that reduced floor stiffness may indeed help decrease the likelihood of lower extremity injuries.

  7. Improved lower extremity pedaling mechanics in individuals with stroke under maximal workloads.

    PubMed

    Linder, Susan M; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Bazyk, Andrew S; Koop, Mandy Miller; Ozinga, Sarah; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-05-01

    Background Individuals with stroke present with motor control deficits resulting in the abnormal activation and timing of agonist and antagonist muscles and inefficient movement patterns. The analysis of pedaling biomechanics provides a window into understanding motor control deficits, which vary as a function of workload. Understanding the relationship between workload and motor control is critical when considering exercise prescription during stroke rehabilitation. Objectives To characterize pedaling kinematics and motor control processes under conditions in which workload was systematically increased to an eventual patient-specific maximum. Methods A cohort study was conducted in which 18 individuals with chronic stroke underwent a maximal exertion cardiopulmonary exercise test on a stationary cycle ergometer, during which pedaling torque was continuously recorded. Measures of force production, pedaling symmetry, and pedaling smoothness were obtained. Results Mean Torque increased significantly (p < 0.05) for both legs from initial to terminal workloads. Mean torque Symmetry Index, calculated for down and upstroke portions of the pedaling action, improved from 0.37(0.29) to 0.29(0.35) during downstroke (p = 0.007), and worsened during the upstroke: -0.37(0.38) to -0.62(0.46) (p < 0.001) from initial to terminal workloads. Low Torque Duration improved from initial to terminal workloads, decreasing from 121.1(52.9) to 58.1(39.6) degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. Smoothness of pedaling improved significantly from initial to terminal workloads (p < 0.001). Conclusions Improved pedaling kinematics at terminal workloads indicate that individuals with stroke demonstrate improved motor control with respect to the timing, sequencing, and activation of hemiparetic lower extremity musculature compared to lower workloads. Therapeutic prescription involving higher resistance may be necessary to sufficiently engage and activate the paretic lower extremity.

  8. Characterization of Volitional Electromyographic Signals in the Lower Extremity After Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Heald, Elizabeth; Hart, Ronald; Kilgore, Kevin; Peckham, P Hunter

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of intact axons across a spinal cord lesion, even in those clinically diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). These axons may allow volitional motor signals to be transmitted through the injury, even in the absence of visible muscle contraction. To demonstrate the presence of volitional electromyographic (EMG) activity below the lesion in motor complete SCI and to characterize this activity to determine its value for potential use as a neuroprosthetic command source. Twenty-four subjects with complete (AIS A or B), chronic, cervical SCI were tested for the presence of volitional below-injury EMG activity. Surface electrodes recorded from 8 to 12 locations of each lower limb, while participants were asked to attempt specific movements of the lower extremity in response to visual and audio cues. EMG trials were ranked through visual inspection, and were scored using an amplitude threshold algorithm to identify channels of interest with volitional motor unit activity. Significant below-injury muscle activity was identified through visual inspection in 16 of 24 participants, and visual inspection rankings were well correlated to the algorithm scoring. The surface EMG protocol utilized here is relatively simple and noninvasive, ideal for a clinical screening tool. The majority of subjects tested were able to produce a volitional EMG signal below their injury level, and the algorithm developed allows automatic identification of signals of interest. The presence of this volitional activity in the lower extremity could provide an innovative new command signal source for implanted neuroprostheses or other assistive technology.

  9. Mid-term outcome of endovascular treatment for acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kun; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Sang, Hong-Fei; Qian, Ai-Min; Rong, Jian-Jie; Li, Cheng-Long

    2017-04-01

    Purposes of the study To evaluate the benefit of stenting the iliac vein in patients with residual iliac vein stenosis treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. Procedures In this randomized prospective study, patients with a first-time acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis that had persisted <14 days were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis. After catheter-directed thrombolysis, patients with >50% residual iliac vein stenosis were randomly divided into two groups: catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group and catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. Patients received urokinase thrombolysis and low-molecular-weight heparin/oral warfarin during the hospitalization period and were administrated oral warfarin after discharge. Cumulative deep vein patency, the Clinical Etiology Anatomic Pathophysiologic classification system, the Venous Clinical Severity Score and the Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire score were evaluated. Findings The cumulative deep vein patency rate was 74.07% in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group and 46.59% in the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. The mean postoperative Clinical Etiology Anatomic Pathophysiologic classification and Venous Clinical Severity Score was significantly lower in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group than in the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. The mean postoperative Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire score was significantly higher in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group than the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. Conclusions Placement of an iliac vein stent in patients with residual iliac vein stenosis after catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis increases iliac vein patency and improves clinical symptoms and health-related quality of life at mid-term follow-up compared to patients treated with catheter

  10. Lower extremity sagittal joint moment production during split-belt treadmill walking

    PubMed Central

    Roemmich, Ryan T.; Stegemöller, Elizabeth L.; Hass, Chris J.

    2012-01-01

    The split-belt treadmill (SBT) has recently been used to rehabilitate locomotor asymmetries in clinical populations. However, the joint mechanics produced while walking on a SBT are not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lower extremity sagittal joint moments produced by each limb during SBT walking and provide insight as to how these joint moment patterns may be useful in rehabilitating unilateral gait deficits. Thirteen healthy young volunteers walked on the SBT with the belts tied and in a “SPLIT” session in which one belt moved twice as fast as the other. Sagittal lower extremity joint moment and ground reaction force impulses were then calculated over the braking and propulsive phases of the gait cycle. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze magnitude differences between conditions (i.e. the fast and slow limbs during SPLIT vs. the same limb during tied-belt walking) and between the fast and slow limbs during SPLIT. During the SPLIT session, the fast limb produced higher ground reaction force and ankle moment impulses during the propulsive and braking phases, and lower knee moment impulses during the propulsive phase when compared to the slow limb. The knee moment impulse was also significantly higher during braking in the slow limb than in the fast limb. The mechanics of each limb during the SPLIT session also differed from the mechanics observed when the belt speeds were tied. Based on these findings, we suggest that each belt may have intrinsic value in rehabilitating specific unilateral locomotor deficits. PMID:22985473

  11. In-Hospital Outcomes of Atherectomy During Endovascular Lower Extremity Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Panaich, Sidakpal S; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Patel, Samir V; Savani, Chirag; Singh, Vikas; Jhamnani, Sunny; Sonani, Rajesh; Lahewala, Sopan; Thakkar, Badal; Patel, Achint; Dave, Abhishek; Shah, Harshil; Bhatt, Parth; Jaiswal, Radhika; Ghatak, Abhijit; Gupta, Vishal; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Kondur, Ashok; Schreiber, Theodore; Grines, Cindy; Badheka, Apurva O

    2016-02-15

    Contemporary data on clinical outcomes after utilization of atherectomy in lower extremity endovascular revascularization are sparse. The study cohort was derived from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient sample database from the year 2012. Peripheral endovascular interventions including atherectomy were identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic and procedural codes. The subjects were divided and compared in 2 groups: atherectomy versus no atherectomy. Two-level hierarchical multivariate mixed models were created. The coprimary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and amputation; secondary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and periprocedural complications. Hospitalization costs were also assessed. Atherectomy utilization (odds ratio, 95% CI, p value) was independently predictive of lower in-hospital mortality (0.46, 0.28 to 0.75, 0.002) and lower amputation rates (0.83, 0.71 to 0.97, 0.020). Atherectomy use was also predictive of significantly lower secondary composite outcome of in-hospital mortality and complications (0.79, 0.69 to 0.90, 0.001). In the propensity-matched cohort, atherectomy utilization was again associated with a lower rate of amputation (11.18% vs 12.92%, p = 0.029), in-hospital mortality (0.71% vs 1.53%, p 0.001), and any complication (13.24% vs 16.09%, p 0.001). However, atherectomy use was also associated with higher costs ($24,790 ± 397 vs $22635 ± 251, p <0.001). Atherectomy use in conjunction with angioplasty (with or without stenting) was associated with improved in-hospital outcomes in terms of lower amputation rates, mortality, and postprocedural complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Lower-extremity Vein Thrombosis in Behcet Syndrome: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Seyahi, Emire; Cakmak, Osman Serdal; Tutar, Burcin; Arslan, Caner; Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Sut, Necdet; Kantarci, Fatih; Tuzun, Hasan; Melikoglu, Melike; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-11-01

    Vascular involvement can be seen in up to 40% of patients with Behcet syndrome (BS), the lower-extremity vein thrombosis (LEVT) being the most common type. The aim of the current study was to compare venous Doppler findings and clinical features between BS patients with LEVT and control patients diagnosed as having LEVT due to other causes.All consecutive 78 patients (71 men, 7 women; mean age 38.6 ± 10.3 years) with LEVT due to BS and 50 control patients (29 men, 21 women; mean age 42.0 ± 12.5 years) who had LEVT due to other causes, or idiopathic, were studied with the help of a Doppler ultrasonography after a detailed clinical examination. Patterns of venous disease were identified by cluster analyses. Clinical features of chronic venous disease were assessed using 2 classification systems. Venous claudication was also assessed.Patients with BS were more likely to be men, had significantly earlier age of onset of thrombosis, and were treated mainly with immunosuppressives and less frequently with anticoagulants. Furthermore, they had significantly more bilateral involvement, less complete recanalization, and more frequent collateral formation. While control patients had a disorganized pattern of venous involvement, BS patients had a contiguous and symmetric pattern, involving all deep and superficial veins of the lower extremities, with less affinity for crural veins. Clinical assessment, as measured by the 2 classification systems, also indicated a more severe disease among the BS patients. In line, 51% of the BS patients suffered from severe post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and 32% from venous claudication, whereas these were present in 8% and 12%, respectively, among the controls. Among BS patients, a longer duration of thrombosis, bilateral femoral vein involvement, and using no anticoagulation along with immunosuppressive treatment when first diagnosed were found to be associated independently with severe PTS.Lower-extremity vein thrombosis

  13. Effect of a Lower Extremity Preventive Training Program on Physical Performance Scores in Military Recruits.

    PubMed

    Peck, Karen Y; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Marshall, Stephen W; Padua, Darin A; Beutler, Anthony I; de la Motte, Sarah J; Frank, Barnett S; Martinez, Jessica C; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2017-11-01

    Peck, KY, DiStefano, LJ, Marshall, SW, Padua, DA, Beutler, AI, de la Motte, SJ, Frank, BS, Martinez, JC, and Cameron, KL. Effect of a lower extremity preventive training program on physical performance scores in military recruits. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3146-3157, 2017-Exercise-based preventive training programs are designed to improve movement patterns associated with lower extremity injury risk; however, the impact of these programs on general physical fitness has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare fitness scores between participants in a preventive training program and a control group. One thousand sixty-eight freshmen from a U.S. Service Academy were cluster-randomized into either the intervention or control group during 6 weeks of summer training. The intervention group performed a preventive training program, specifically the Dynamic Integrated Movement Enhancement (DIME), which is designed to improve lower extremity movement patterns. The control group performed the Army Preparation Drill (PD), a warm-up designed to prepare soldiers for training. Main outcome measures were the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) raw and scaled (for age and sex) scores. Independent t tests were used to assess between-group differences. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to control for the influence of confounding variables. Dynamic Integrated Movement Enhancement group participants completed the APFT 2-mile run 20 seconds faster compared with the PD group (p < 0.001), which corresponded with significantly higher scaled scores (p < 0.001). Army Physical Fitness Test push-up scores were significantly higher in the DIME group (p = 0.041), but there were no significant differences in APFT sit-up scores. The DIME group had significantly higher total APFT scores compared with the PD group (p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in multivariable models after controlling for sex and body mass index (BMI). Committing time to the

  14. Risk Factors for Thirty-Day Readmissions After Lower Extremity Amputation in Patients With Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Todd R; Smith, Jamie B; Kruse, Robin L

    2018-05-29

    Understanding risk factors associated with readmission after lower extremity amputation may indicate targets for reducing readmission. This study evaluated factors associated with all-cause 30-day readmission after lower extremity amputation procedures. Retrospective cohort study. Inpatient. A total of 2480 patients who had lower extremity amputations between 2008 and 2014 were selected from national electronic medical record database, Cerner Health Facts. Univariate analysis of demographics, diagnoses, postoperative medications, and laboratory results were examined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify characteristics independently associated with readmission overall and by amputation location-above the knee (AKA) or below the knee (BKA). Readmission within 30 days of discharge. More than one half of patients (1403, 57%) underwent BKA and 1077 (43%) underwent AKA. Readmission within 30 days was 22% (24.1% BKA versus 19.4% AKA, P = .005). In multivariable logistic regression, factors associated with 30-day readmission after any amputation included BKA (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.74, P = .001), hypertension (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.33-2.16), surgical-site infections (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.04), heart failure (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.75), discharge to a skilled nursing facility (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.41-2.51), and emergency/urgent procedures (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67). At readmission, 13.3% of patients with a BKA required an AKA revision, and 21.3% had a diagnosis of surgical-site infection. Risk factors for readmission after any amputation included cardiac comorbidities, associated postoperative medications, and discharge to a skilled nursing facility. The finding that acute arterial embolism or thrombosis and a BKA during the index admission was highly associated with readmission, combined with the high rates of 30-day conversion to an AKA when readmitted, suggests these patients more often develop stump complications

  15. Clinical and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Lower-extremity Vein Thrombosis in Behcet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seyahi, Emire; Cakmak, Osman Serdal; Tutar, Burcin; Arslan, Caner; Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Sut, Necdet; Kantarci, Fatih; Tuzun, Hasan; Melikoglu, Melike; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vascular involvement can be seen in up to 40% of patients with Behcet syndrome (BS), the lower-extremity vein thrombosis (LEVT) being the most common type. The aim of the current study was to compare venous Doppler findings and clinical features between BS patients with LEVT and control patients diagnosed as having LEVT due to other causes. All consecutive 78 patients (71 men, 7 women; mean age 38.6 ± 10.3 years) with LEVT due to BS and 50 control patients (29 men, 21 women; mean age 42.0 ± 12.5 years) who had LEVT due to other causes, or idiopathic, were studied with the help of a Doppler ultrasonography after a detailed clinical examination. Patterns of venous disease were identified by cluster analyses. Clinical features of chronic venous disease were assessed using 2 classification systems. Venous claudication was also assessed. Patients with BS were more likely to be men, had significantly earlier age of onset of thrombosis, and were treated mainly with immunosuppressives and less frequently with anticoagulants. Furthermore, they had significantly more bilateral involvement, less complete recanalization, and more frequent collateral formation. While control patients had a disorganized pattern of venous involvement, BS patients had a contiguous and symmetric pattern, involving all deep and superficial veins of the lower extremities, with less affinity for crural veins. Clinical assessment, as measured by the 2 classification systems, also indicated a more severe disease among the BS patients. In line, 51% of the BS patients suffered from severe post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and 32% from venous claudication, whereas these were present in 8% and 12%, respectively, among the controls. Among BS patients, a longer duration of thrombosis, bilateral femoral vein involvement, and using no anticoagulation along with immunosuppressive treatment when first diagnosed were found to be associated independently with severe PTS. Lower-extremity vein

  16. Role for Lower Extremity Interstitial Fluid Volume Changes in the Development of Orthostasis after Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Summers, Richard L.; Martin, David S.; Meck, Janice V.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Reentry orthostasis after exposure to the conditions of spaceflight is a persistent problem among astronauts. In a previous study, a computer model systems analysis was used to examine the physiologic mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this analysis, it was determined that an augmented capacitance of lower extremity veins due to a fluid volume contracture of the surrounding interstitial spaces during spaceflight results in an increase in sequestered blood volume upon standing and appears to be the initiating mechanism responsible for reentry orthostasis. In this study, we attempt to validate the central premise of this hypothesis using a ground-based spaceflight analog. 10 healthy subjects were placed at bed rest in a 6 head down tilt position for 60 days of bed rest. The impact of adaptations in interstitial fluid volume and venous capacitance in the lower extremities were then observed during a standard tilt test protocol performed before and after the confinement period. The interstitial thickness superficial to the calcaneous immediately below the lateral malleolus was measured using ultrasound with a 17-5 MHz linear array transducer. Measurements of the changes in anterior tibial vein diameter during tilt were obtained by similar methods. The measurements were taken while the subjects were supine and then during upright tilt (80') for thirty minutes, or until the subject had signs of presyncope. Additional measurements of the superficial left tibia interstitial thickness and stroke volume by standard echocardiographic methods were also recorded. In addition, calf compliance was measured over a pressure range of 10-60 mmHg, using plethysmography, in a subset of these subjects (n = 5). There was a average of 6% diminution in the size of the lower extremity interstitial space as compared to measurements acquired prior to bed rest. This contracture of the interstitial space coincided with a subsequent relative increase in the percentage change in tibial

  17. The Lower Extremity Biomechanics of Single- and Double-Leg Stop-Jump Tasks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common occurrence in sports requiring stop-jump tasks. Single- and double-leg stop-jump techniques are frequently executed in sports. The higher risk of ACL injury in single-leg drop landing task compared to a double-leg drop landing task has been identified. However the injury bias between single- and double-leg landing techniques has not been investigated for stop-jump tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between single- and double-leg stop-jump tasks in knee kinetics that were influenced by the lower extremity kinematics during the landing phase. Ground reaction force, lower extremity kinematics, and knee kinetics data during the landing phase were obtained from 10 subjects performing single- and double-leg stop-jump tasks, using motion-capture system and force palates. Greater peak posterior and vertical ground reaction forces, and peak proximal tibia anterior and lateral shear forces (p < 0.05) during landing phase were observed of single-leg stop-jump. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited smaller hip and knee flexion angle, and knee flexion angular velocity at initial foot contact with the ground (p < 0.05). We found smaller peak hip and knee flexion angles (p < 0.05) during the landing phase of single-leg stop-jump. These results indicate that single-leg landing may have higher ACL injury risk than double-leg landing in stop-jump tasks that may be influenced by the lower extremity kinematics during the landing phase. Key points Non-contact ACL injuries are more likely to occur during the single-leg stop-jump task than during the double-leg stop-jump task. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited greater peak proximal tibia anterior and lateral shear forces, and peak posterior and vertical ground reaction forces during the landing phase than the double-leg stop-jump task. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited smaller hip flexion angle, knee flexion angle, and knee flexion angular velocity at initial foot

  18. Lower-Extremity Weakness in a Teenager Due to Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Matthew D

    2017-04-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis is the hallmark of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). TPP is a potentially deadly complication of hyperthyroidism that occurs because of rapid and dramatic intracellular shift of potassium. This transference results in severe hypokalemia and clinically manifests itself as muscle weakness or paralysis. This condition predominantly affects males of Asian descent, and its presentation can range from mild to severe, as seen in our case. We present the case of a 15-year-old Asian-American male who presented to a tertiary-care pediatric emergency department complaining of generalized weakness and flaccid paralysis of his lower extremities. The differential for such a complaint is extremely broad, and the symptoms can result from etiologies arising from the cerebral cortex, the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or even the muscles themselves. Our patient was found to have an extremely low serum potassium concentration, as well as an electrocardiogram that revealed a prolonged QT interval and right bundle branch block. The etiology of these abnormalities and the patient's symptoms was found to be undiagnosed and uncontrolled hyperthyroidism from Grave's disease, which resulted in this dramatic presentation of thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This entity is common in Asia but still somewhat rare in the United States and other Western countries. Our case illustrates that careful history taking and a focused diagnostic evaluation, in conjunction with having an awareness of this disease, can help expedite diagnosis and management, as well as avoid unnecessary and potential harmful testing in the emergency department setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of Lower Extremity Long-bone Fractures in Spinal Cord Injury Patients.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Leah M; Scully, Ryan D; Kappa, Jason E

    2017-09-01

    The AO classification system, used as a guide for modern fracture care and fixation, follows a basic philosophy of care that emphasizes early mobility and return to function. Lower extremity long-bone fractures in patients with spinal cord injury often are pathologic injuries that present unique challenges, to which the AO principles may not be entirely applicable. Optimal treatment achieves healing without affecting the functional level of the patient. These injuries often result from low-energy mechanisms in nonambulatory patients with osteopenic bone and a thin, insensate soft-tissue envelope. The complication rate can be high, and the outcomes can be catastrophic without proper care. Satisfactory results can be obtained through various methods of immobilization. Less frequently, internal fixation is applied. In certain cases, after discussion with the patient, amputation may be suitable. Prevention strategies aim to minimize bone loss and muscle atrophy.

  20. Malignant Hidradenocarcinoma in the Lower Extremity: A Case Report of a Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Kane, Brendan; Adler, Evan; Bhandari, Tarun; Rose, Michael; DiGuglielmo, Nicola; Sun, Xiu

    Malignant hidradenocarcinomas are rare soft tissue tumors of sweat gland origin. We present the case of a soft tissue, fungating tumor of 15 years' duration of the medial ankle in an 85-year-old male that exhibited malignant features clinically and radiographically. Subsequent punch biopsy revealed a diagnosis of malignant hidradenocarcinoma. Given the risk of recurrence and the poor radiation and chemotherapy options, the patient initially decided to leave the lesion untreated. However, he soon developed lower extremity cellulitis from the exposed lesion and decided to have the tumor excised, eliminating the source of the infection. In the present case study, we discuss the etiology, clinical and radiographic characteristics, and treatment options for this rare lesion. At the 18-month follow-up visit, he had had no recurrence of the lesion. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower extremity arthroplasty in patients with inflammatory arthritis: preoperative and perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Susan M; Figgie, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Spondylarthritis, which includes conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis are the most common forms of inflammatory arthritis. Joint inflammation and damage may result in the need for arthroplasty, and the surgeon must be aware of the perioperative challenges associated with these systemic diseases. In patients with inflammatory arthritis who have polyarticular disease and spinal involvement at the time of presentation for lower extremity arthroplasty, preoperative evaluation must include careful evaluation of all joints, including the cervical spine. Preoperative assessment and perioperative management must be appropriate to minimize cardiac and pulmonary complications. Finally, the perioperative management of medications used to manage inflammatory arthritis is critical because these medications may increase the risk of infection and compromise wound healing.

  2. Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Interventions for Lower-Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Julie; Bradshaw, Michelle

    Lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can have a major impact on the ability to carry out daily activities. The effectiveness of interventions must be examined to enable occupational therapy practitioners to deliver the most appropriate services. This systematic review examined the literature published between 1995 and July 2014 that investigated the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for LE MSDs. Forty-three articles met the criteria and were reviewed. Occupational therapy interventions varied on the basis of population subgroup: hip fracture, LE joint replacement, LE amputation or limb loss, and nonsurgical osteoarthritis and pain. The results indicate an overall strong role for occupational therapy in treating clients with LE MSDs. Activity pacing is an effective intervention for nonsurgical LE MSDs, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation is effective for LE joint replacement and amputation. Further research on specific occupational therapy interventions in this important area is needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. The role of atherectomy in the treatment of lower extremity peripheral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) continues to increase and associated morbidity remains high. Despite the significant development of percutaneous revascularization strategies, over the past decade, LE-PAD still represents a unique challenge for interventional cardiologists and vascular surgeons. Method Typical features of atherosclerosis that affects peripheral vascular bed (diffuse nature, poor distal runoff, critical limb ischemia, chronic total occlusion) contribute to the disappointing results of traditional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). New technologies have been developed in attempt to improve the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous revascularization. Among these, atherectomy, debulking and removing atherosclerotic plaque, offers the potential advantage of eliminating stretch on arterial walls and reducing rates of restenosis. Conclusions This review summarizes the features and the current applications of new debulking devices. PMID:23173800

  4. New Clinical and Research Trends in Lower Extremity Management for Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Diane L.; Alter, Katharine E.; Chambers, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent physical disability in childhood and includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations and levels of capability in individuals given this diagnosis. This chapter will focus on current and future intervention strategies for improving mobility and participation over the lifespan for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The provision and integration of physical therapy, medical and orthopedic surgery management focused primarily on the lower extremities will be discussed here. Some of the newer trends are: more intense and task-related exercise strategies, greater precision in tone identification and management, and a shift towards musculoskeletal surgery that focuses more on promoting dynamic bony alignment and less on releasing or lengthening tendons. Advances in basic and clinical science and technology development are changing existing paradigms and offering renewed hope for improved functioning for children with CP who are currently facing a lifelong disability with unique challenges at each stage in life. PMID:19643348

  5. Impact of an absorbent silver-eluting dressing system on lower extremity revascularization wound complications.

    PubMed

    Childress, Beverly B; Berceli, Scott A; Nelson, Peter R; Lee, W Anthony; Ozaki, C Keith

    2007-09-01

    Surgical wounds for lower extremity revascularization are prone to infection and dehiscence. Acticoat Absorbent, an antimicrobial dressing, offers sustained release of ionic silver. We hypothesized that immediate application of Acticoat as a postoperative dressing would reduce wound complications in patients undergoing leg revascularization. All infrainguinal revascularization cases involving leg incisions at a single Veterans Administration Medical Center were identified from July 1, 2002, to September 30, 2005. The control group received conventional dressings, while the treatment group received an Acticoat dressing. Wound complication rates were captured via National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Patient characteristics and procedure distributions were similar between groups. The wound complication rate fell 64% with utilization of the Acticoat-based dressing (control 14% [17/118], treatment 5% [7/130]; P = 0.016). An Acticoat-based dressing system offers a potentially useful, cost-effective adjunct to reduce open surgical leg revascularization wound complications.

  6. Free tissue transfer for complex reconstruction of the lower extremity: experience of a young microsurgeon.

    PubMed

    Wink, Jason D; Nelson, Jonas A; Fischer, John P; Cleveland, Emily C; Kovach, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    To examine the limb salvage experience of a young microsurgeon to determine risk factors for complications and demonstrate lessons learned through cases in practice. We performed a retrospective review of lower extremity (LE) reconstruction between 2007 and 2012 performed by the senior author. This analysis focused on medical comorbidities, mechanisms, indications, and perioperative complications. A total of 61 free tissue transfers were performed with a 95% LE salvage rate. The most common donor site was the anterolateral thigh (ALT) (n = 39). Infection (n = 25) and trauma (n = 25) were the most common indications for intervention. A total of 18 complications were reported, with 8 defined as major complications. Total flap loss occurred in three patients. Through increased utilization of the ALT and adherence to lessons learned over time, improvements in outcomes can occur, giving patients the best possible chance at limb salvage. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. [The laboratory evaluation of pathogenic factors under retarded consolidation of fractures of bones of lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Stogov, V M; Kireeva, E A; Karasev, A G

    2014-12-01

    The study was carried out to comparatively analyze metabolic profile and content of growth factors in blood serum of patients with retarded consolidation of fractures of bones of lower extremities. The evaluation was applied to concentration of metabolites, growth factors and enzyme activity of blood serum in 13 patients with retarded consolidation of fractures of thigh and shank bones (main group). The comparative group included 14 patients with solid fractures of thigh and shank bones. The analysis established that as compared to patients with solid fractures of bones, in patients with retarded consolidation of fractures blood serum contained reliably higher concentration of triglycerides, products of glycolysis, epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors TGF-α and TGF-β2. The content of vitamin E and insullin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was decreased The given markers can be labeled as potential markers of diagnostic and prognosis of development of retarded consolidation of fractures.

  8. Prevention of lower extremity stress fractures: a controlled trial of a shock absorbent insole.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, L I; Dziados, J E; Jones, B H; Brundage, J F; Harris, J M; Sullivan, R; Gill, P

    1988-01-01

    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to determine the usefulness of a viscoelastic polymer insole in prevention of stress fractures and stress reactions of the lower extremities. The subjects were 3,025 US Marine recruits who were followed for 12 weeks of training at Parris Island, South Carolina. Polymer and standard mesh insoles were systematically distributed in boots that were issued to members of odd and even numbered platoons. The most important finding was that an elastic polymer insole with good shock absorbency properties did not prevent stress reactions of bone during a 12-week period of vigorous physical training. To control for the confounding effects of running in running shoes, which occurred for about one and one-half hours per week for the first five weeks, we also examined the association of age of shoes and cost of shoes with injury incidence. A slight trend of increasing stress injuries by increasing age of shoes was observed. However, this trend did not account for the similarity of rates in the two insole groups. In addition, we observed a strong trend of decreasing stress injury rate by history of increasing physical activity, as well as a higher stress injury rate in White compared to Black recruits. The results of the trial were not altered after controlling for these factors. This prospective study confirms previous clinical reports of the association of stress fractures with physical activity history. The clinical application of a shock absorbing insole as a preventive for lower extremity stress reactions is not supported in these uniformly trained recruits. The findings are relevant to civilian populations. PMID:3056045

  9. Gait Training Interventions for Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Andrews, Casey R.; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Lewis, Katherine L.; Bradley, Rachel C.; Orriola, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked. PMID:28066520

  10. Pre-Kidney Transplant Lower Extremity Impairment and Post-Kidney Transplant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Nastasi, A J; McAdams-DeMarco, M A; Schrack, J; Ying, H; Olorundare, I; Warsame, F; Mountford, A; Haugen, C E; González Fernández, M; Norman, S P; Segev, D L

    2018-01-01

    Prediction models for post-kidney transplantation mortality have had limited success (C-statistics ≤0.70). Adding objective measures of potentially modifiable factors may improve prediction and, consequently, kidney transplant (KT) survival through intervention. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is an easily administered objective test of lower extremity function consisting of three parts (balance, walking speed, chair stands), each with scores of 0-4, for a composite score of 0-12, with higher scores indicating better function. SPPB performance and frailty (Fried frailty phenotype) were assessed at admission for KT in a prospective cohort of 719 KT recipients at Johns Hopkins Hospital (8/2009 to 6/2016) and University of Michigan (2/2013 to 12/2016). The independent associations between SPPB impairment (SPPB composite score ≤10) and composite score with post-KT mortality were tested using adjusted competing risks models treating graft failure as a competing risk. The 5-year posttransplantation mortality for impaired recipients was 20.6% compared to 4.5% for unimpaired recipients (p < 0.001). Impaired recipients had a 2.30-fold (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-4.74, p = 0.02) increased risk of postkidney transplantation mortality compared to unimpaired recipients. Each one-point decrease in SPPB score was independently associated with a 1.19-fold (95% CI 1.09-1.30, p < 0.001) higher risk of post-KT mortality. SPPB-derived lower extremity function is a potentially highly useful and modifiable objective measure for pre-KT risk prediction. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Digital Filtering of Three-Dimensional Lower Extremity Kinematics: an Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul John; Hobbs, Sarah Jane

    2013-01-01

    Errors in kinematic data are referred to as noise and are an undesirable portion of any waveform. Noise is typically removed using a low-pass filter which removes the high frequency components of the signal. The selection of an optimal frequency cut-off is very important when processing kinematic information and a number of techniques exists for the determination of an optimal frequency cut-off. Despite the importance of cut-off frequency to the efficacy of kinematic analyses there is currently a paucity of research examining the influence of different cut-off frequencies on the resultant 3-D kinematic waveforms and discrete parameters. Twenty participants ran at 4.0 m•s−1 as lower extremity kinematics in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system. The data were filtered at a range of cut-off frequencies and the discrete kinematic parameters were examined using repeated measures ANOVA’s. The similarity between the raw and filtered waveforms were examined using intra-class correlations. The results show that the cut-off frequency has a significant influence on the discrete kinematic measure across displacement and derivative information in all three planes of rotation. Furthermore, it was also revealed that as the cut-off frequency decreased the attenuation of the kinematic waveforms became more pronounced, particularly in the coronal and transverse planes at the second derivative. In conclusion, this investigation provides new information regarding the influence of digital filtering on lower extremity kinematics and re-emphasizes the importance of selecting the correct cut-off frequency. PMID:24511338

  12. Trunk and Lower Extremity Kinematics During Stair Descent in Women With or Without Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Schwane, Brandi G; Goerger, Benjamin M; Goto, Shiho; Blackburn, J Troy; Aguilar, Alain J; Padua, Darin A

    2015-07-01

    There is limited evidence indicating the contribution of trunk kinematics to patellofemoral pain (PFP). A better understanding of the interaction between trunk and lower extremity kinematics in this population may provide new avenues for interventions to treat PFP. To compare trunk and lower extremity kinematics between participants with PFP and healthy controls during a stair-descent task. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Twenty women with PFP (age = 22.2 ± 3.1 years, height = 164.5 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 63.5 ± 13.6 kg) and 20 healthy women (age = 21.0 ± 2.6 years, height = 164.5 ± 7.1 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 12.7 kg). Kinematics were recorded as participants performed stair descent at a controlled velocity. Three-dimensional joint displacement of the trunk, hip, and knee during the stance phase of stair descent for the affected leg was measured using a 7-camera infrared optical motion-capture system. Pretest and posttest pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale. Kinematic differences between groups were determined using independent-samples t tests. A 2 × 2 mixed-model analysis of variance (group = PFP, control; time = pretest, posttest) was used to compare knee pain. We observed greater knee internal-rotation displacement for the PFP group (12.8° ± 7.2°) as compared with the control group (8.9° ± 4.4°). No other between-groups differences were observed for the trunk, hip, or other knee variables. We observed no difference in trunk kinematics between groups but did note differences in knee internal-rotation displacement. These findings contribute to the current knowledge of altered movement in those with PFP and provide direction for exercise interventions.

  13. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bilateral Improvements in Lower Extremity Function After Unilateral Balance Training in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Sheri A.; Fergus, Andrea; Axmacher, Rachel; Kiser, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bilateral improvements in postural control have been reported among individuals with acute lateral ankle sprains and individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) when only the unstable ankle is rehabilitated. We do not know if training the stable ankle will improve function on the unstable side. Objective: To explore the effects of a unilateral balance-training program on bilateral lower extremity balance and function in individuals with CAI when only the stable limb is trained. Design: Cohort study. Setting: University clinical research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 34 volunteers (8 men, 26 women; age = 24.32 ± 4.95 years, height = 167.01 ± 9.45 cm, mass = 77.54 ± 23.76 kg) with CAI were assigned to the rehabilitation (n = 17) or control (n = 17) group. Of those, 27 (13 rehabilitation group, 14 control group) completed the study. Intervention(s): Balance training twice weekly for 4 weeks. Main Outcome Measure(s): Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI), FADI Sport (FADI-S), Star Excursion Balance Test, and Balance Error Scoring System. Results: The rehabilitation and control groups differed in changes in FADI-S and Star Excursion Balance Test scores over time. Only the rehabilitation group improved in the FADI-S and in the posteromedial and anterior reaches of the Star Excursion Balance Test. Both groups demonstrated improvements in posterolateral reach; however, the rehabilitation group demonstrated greater improvement than the control group. When the groups were combined, participants reported improvements in FADI and FADI-S scores for the unstable ankle but not the stable ankle. Conclusions: Our data suggest training the stable ankle may result in improvements in balance and lower extremity function in the unstable ankle. This further supports the existence of a centrally mediated mechanism in the development of postural-control deficits after injury, as well as improved postural control after rehabilitation. PMID

  15. Bilateral improvements in lower extremity function after unilateral balance training in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sheri A; Fergus, Andrea; Axmacher, Rachel; Kiser, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral improvements in postural control have been reported among individuals with acute lateral ankle sprains and individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) when only the unstable ankle is rehabilitated. We do not know if training the stable ankle will improve function on the unstable side. To explore the effects of a unilateral balance-training program on bilateral lower extremity balance and function in individuals with CAI when only the stable limb is trained. Cohort study. University clinical research laboratory. A total of 34 volunteers (8 men, 26 women; age = 24.32 ± 4.95 years, height = 167.01 ± 9.45 cm, mass = 77.54 ± 23.76 kg) with CAI were assigned to the rehabilitation (n = 17) or control (n = 17) group. Of those, 27 (13 rehabilitation group, 14 control group) completed the study. Balance training twice weekly for 4 weeks. Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI), FADI Sport (FADI-S), Star Excursion Balance Test, and Balance Error Scoring System. The rehabilitation and control groups differed in changes in FADI-S and Star Excursion Balance Test scores over time. Only the rehabilitation group improved in the FADI-S and in the posteromedial and anterior reaches of the Star Excursion Balance Test. Both groups demonstrated improvements in posterolateral reach; however, the rehabilitation group demonstrated greater improvement than the control group. When the groups were combined, participants reported improvements in FADI and FADI-S scores for the unstable ankle but not the stable ankle. Our data suggest training the stable ankle may result in improvements in balance and lower extremity function in the unstable ankle. This further supports the existence of a centrally mediated mechanism in the development of postural-control deficits after injury, as well as improved postural control after rehabilitation.

  16. Lower- extremity biomechanics and maintenance of vertical-jump height during prolonged intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Randy J; Cone, John C; Copple, Timothy J; Henson, Robert A; Shultz, Sandra J

    2014-11-01

    Potential biomechanical compensations allowing for maintenance of maximal explosive performance during prolonged intermittent exercise, with respect to the corresponding rise in injury rates during the later stages of exercise or competition, are relatively unknown. To identify lower-extremity countermovement-jump (CMJ) biomechanical factors using a principal-components approach and then examine how these factors changed during a 90-min intermittent-exercise protocol (IEP) while maintaining maximal jump height. Mixed-model design. Laboratory. Fifty-nine intermittent-sport athletes (30 male, 29 female) participated in experimental and control conditions. Before and after a dynamic warm-up and every 15 min during the 1st and 2nd halves of an individually prescribed 90-min IEP, participants were assessed on rating of perceived exertion, sprint/cut speed, and 3-dimensional CMJ biomechanics (experimental). On a separate day, the same measures were obtained every 15 min during 90 min of quiet rest (control). Univariate piecewise growth models analyzed progressive changes in CMJ performance and biomechanical factors extracted from a principal-components analysis of the individual biomechanical dependent variables. While CMJ height was maintained during the 1st and 2nd halves, the body descended less and knee kinetic and energetic magnitudes decreased as the IEP progressed. The results indicate that vertical-jump performance is maintained along with progressive biomechanical changes commonly associated with decreased performance. A better understanding of lower-extremity biomechanics during explosive actions in response to IEP allows us to further develop and individualize performance training programs.

  17. An early validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system.

    PubMed

    Cull, David L; Manos, Ginger; Hartley, Michael C; Taylor, Spence M; Langan, Eugene M; Eidt, John F; Johnson, Brent L

    2014-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) recently established the Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System, a staging system using Wound characteristic, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) to stratify the risk for limb amputation at 1 year. Although intuitive in nature, this new system has not been validated. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether the WIfI system is predictive of limb amputation and wound healing. Between 2007 and 2010, we prospectively obtained data related to wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of postrevascularization ischemia in 139 patients with foot wounds who presented for lower extremity revascularization (158 revascularization procedures). After adapting those data to the WIfI classifications, we analyzed the influence of wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of ischemia on time to wound healing; empirical Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared with theoretical outcomes predicted by WIfI expert consensus opinion. Of the 158 foot wounds, 125 (79%) healed. The median time to wound healing was 2.7 months (range, 1-18 months). Factors associated with wound healing included presence of diabetes mellitus (P = .013), wound location (P = .049), wound size (P = .007), wound depth (P = .004), and degree of ischemia (P < .001). The WIfI clinical stage was predictive of 1-year limb amputation (stage 1, 3%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and wound nonhealing (stage 1, 8%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and correlated with the theoretical outcome estimated by the SVS expert panel. The theoretical framework for risk stratification among patients with critical limb ischemia provided by the SVS expert panel appears valid. Further validation of the WIfI classification system with multicenter data is justified. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissemination and Implementation Strategies of Lower Extremity Preventive Training Programs in Youth: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Frank, Barnett S; Root, Hayley J; Padua, Darin A

    Neuromuscular preventive training programs effectively reduce injury and improve performance in youth athletes. However, program effectiveness is directly linked to program compliance, fidelity, and dosage. Preventive training programs are not widely adopted by youth sport coaches. One way to promote widespread dissemination and compliance is to identify implementation strategies that influence program adoption and maintenance. It is unknown how previously published programs have followed the elements of an implementation framework. The objective of this review was to evaluate how elements of the 7 steps of implementation, developed by Padua et al, have been performed in the evidence of lower extremity preventive training programs. A systematic review of the literature from 1996 through September 2016 was conducted using electronic databases. Investigations that documented implementation of a sport team-based neuromuscular preventive training program in youth athletes and measured lower extremity injury rates were included. Clinical review. Level 4. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Information regarding the completion of any of the 7 steps within the implementation framework developed by Padua et al was extracted. None of the 12 articles documented completion of all 7 steps. While each study addressed some of the 7 steps, no study addressed maintenance or an exit strategy for youth athletes. Program implementation appears limited in obtaining administrative support, utilizing an interdisciplinary implementation team, and monitoring or promoting fidelity of the intervention. Despite strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of preventive training programs in youth athletes, there is a gap between short-term improvements and long-term implementation strategies. Future interventions should include all 7 steps of the implementation framework to promote transparent dissemination of preventive training programs.

  19. The association between lower extremity energy absorption and biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A

    2010-12-01

    Greater total energy absorption by the lower extremity musculature during landing may reduce stresses placed on capsuloligamentous tissues with differences in joint contributions to energy absorption potentially affecting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. However, the relationships between energy absorption and prospectively identified biomechanical factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury have yet to be demonstrated. Sagittal plane total, hip, knee and ankle energy absorption, and peak vertical ground reaction force, anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion and knee valgus angles, and internal hip extension and knee varus moments were measured in 27 individuals (14 females, 13 males) performing double leg jump landings. Correlation coefficients assessed the relationships between energy absorption during three time intervals (initial impact phase, terminal phase, and total landing) and biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. More favorable values of biomechanical factors related to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury were associated with: 1) Lesser total (R(2)=0.178-0.558), hip (R(2)=0.229-0.651) and ankle (R(2)=0.280), but greater knee (R(2)=0.147) energy absorption during the initial impact phase; 2) Greater total (R(2)=0.170-0.845), hip (R(2)=0.599), knee (R(2)=0.236-0.834), and ankle (R(2)=0.276) energy absorption during the terminal phase of landing; and 3) Greater knee (R(2)=0.158-0.709), but lesser hip (R(2)=0.309) and ankle (R(2)=0.210-0.319) energy absorption during the total landing period. These results suggest that biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury are influenced by both the magnitude and timing of lower extremity energy absorption during landing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of ankle braces on lower extremity joint energetics in single-leg landings.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jacob K; McCaw, Steven T; Laudner, Kevin G; Smith, Peter J; Stafford, Lindsay N

    2012-06-01

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in competitive and recreational athletics. Studies have shown that the use of prophylactic ankle braces effectively reduces the frequency of ankle sprains in athletes. However, although it is generally accepted that the ankle braces are effective at reducing frontal plane motion, some researchers report that the design of the brace may also reduce ankle sagittal plane motion. The purpose of this study was to quantify lower extremity joint contributions to energy absorption during single-legged drop landings in three ankle brace conditions (no brace, boot brace, and hinged brace). Eleven physically active females experienced in landing and free of lower extremity injury (age = 22.3 ± 1.7 yr, height = 1.66 ± 0.04 m, mass = 58.43 ± 5.83 kg) performed 10 single-leg drop landings in three conditions (one unbraced, two braced) from a 0.33-m height. Measurements taken were hip, knee, and ankle joint impulse; hip, knee, ankle, and total work; and hip, knee, and ankle joint relative work. Total energy absorption remained consistent across the braced conditions (P = 0.057). Wearing the boot brace reduced relative ankle work (P = 0.04, Cohen d = 0.43) but did not change relative knee (P = 0.08, Cohen d = 0.32) or hip (P = 0.14, Cohen d = 0.20) work compared with the no-brace condition. In an ankle-braced condition, ankle, knee, and hip energetics may be altered depending on the design of the brace.

  1. Differences in lower extremity anatomical and postural characteristics in males and females between maturation groups.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandra J; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Schmitz, Randy J

    2008-03-01

    Descriptive, cross-sectional. We compared lower extremity anatomical characteristics in males and females between different maturation groups. Sex differences have been observed in lower extremity anatomical characteristics. While the reasons contributing to these sex differences in adults are unknown, there is evidence that anatomy and posture change considerably during growth and development. One hundred seventy-three young athletes (age range, 9-18 years) were assessed for stage of maturation and placed into 1 of 3 groups, according to Tanners stages 1 and 2 (MatGrp1), 3 and 4 (MatGrp2), and 5 (MatGrp3). Participants were measured for pelvic angle, hip anteversion, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, femur length, tibial length, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, navicular drop, general joint laxity, and anterior knee laxity. Data were compared by sex and maturation group. When comparing maturation groups, limb length, pelvic angle, and tibial torsion increased with maturation, and anterior knee laxity, genu recurvatum, tibiofemoral angle, and foot pronation decreased with maturation. Females had greater general joint laxity, hip anteversion, and tibiofemoral angles, and shorter femur and tibial lengths than males, regardless of maturation group. Maturational changes in knee laxity and quadriceps angles were sex dependent. We observed a general change of posture with maturation that began with greater knee valgus, knee recurvatum, and foot pronation in MatGrp1, then moved toward a relative straightening and external rotation of the knee, and supination of the foot in later maturation groups. While the majority of the measures changed similarly in males and females across maturation groups, decreases in quadriceps angles and anterior knee laxity were greater in males compared to females, and females were observed to have a more inwardly rotated hip and valgus knee posture, compared to males, particularly in later maturation groups.

  2. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  3. Hip abductor strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Matthew D; Caldwell, Wade; Schlueter, Emily L; Walters, Carly; Hassen, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Determine the association between hip abduction strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners. Systematic review. Prospective longitudinal and cross sectional studies that quantified hip abduction strength and provided diagnosis of running related injury in distance runners were included and assessed for quality. Effect size was calculated for between group differences in hip abduction strength. Of the 1841 articles returned in the initial search, 11 studies matched all inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped according to injury: iliotibial band syndrome, patellofemoral pain syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial stress fracture, and Achilles tendinopathy, and examined for strength differences between injured and non-injured groups. Meaningful differences were found in the studies examining iliotibial band syndrome. Three of five iliotibial band syndrome articles found weakness in runners with iliotibial band syndrome; two were of strong methodological rigor and both of those found a relationship between weakness and injury. Other results did not form associative or predictive relationships between weakness and injury in distance runners. Hip abduction weakness evaluated by hand held dynamometer may be associated with iliotibial band syndrome in distance runners as suggested by several cross sectional studies but is unclear as a significant factor for the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial stress fracture or Achilles tendinopathy according to the current literature. Future studies are needed with consistent methodology and inclusion of all distance running populations to determine the significance of hip abduction strength in relationship to lower extremity injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Superior-Edge-of-the-Knee Incision Method in Lymphaticovenular Anastomosis for Lower Extremity Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Kurazono, Arito; Mori, Masanori; Kato, Yoichi; Koshima, Isao

    2015-11-01

    Lymphatic vessel diameter and lymph flow are important for accurate anastomosis and effective lymph-to-venous flow in lymphaticovenular anastomosis. The authors developed a reliable method, the superioredge-of-the-knee incision method, for detecting and making the best use of high-flow lymphatic vessels in the distal medial thigh between the deep and superficial fascia, where movement of the knee, combined with compression between these fascial layers, theoretically results in upward propulsion of lymphatic fluid. Intraoperative detection of large lymphatic vessels and of venous reflux and postoperative lymphedematous volume reduction were compared between 15 patients in whom lymphaticovenular anastomoses with the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision method were undergone and 15 in whom conventional lymphaticovenular anastomoses were undergone. Lymphaticovenular anastomosis at the thigh yielded 30 anastomoses in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group and 32 anastomoses in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group. Large lymphatic vessels were more frequently found in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group than in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group (60.0 percent versus 18.8 percent; p = 0.002). Venous reflux occurred less frequently in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group than in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group (10.0 percent versus 65.6 percent; p < 0.001). Reduction of the lower extremity lymphedema index was significantly greater in the superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group than in the non-superior-edge-of-the-knee incision group (24.427 ± 12.400 versus 0.032 ± 20.535; p < 0.001). The superior-edge-of-the-knee incision method facilitates detection and use of large, high-flow lymphatic vessels in the distal medial thigh, both of which are important for optimum therapeutic effects in patients with lower extremity lymphedema. Therapeutic, III.

  5. Repeatability testing of a new Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Laura C; Ryu, Yeonsu; Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H

    2017-05-29

    Vehicle safety is improving, thus decreasing the number of life-threatening injuries and increasing the need for research in other areas of the body. The current child anthropomorphic test device (ATD) does not have the capabilities or instrumentation to measure many of the potential interactions between the lower extremity and the vehicle interior. A prototype Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity (ATD-LE) was developed and contains a tibia load cell and a more biofidelic ankle. The repeatability of the device has not yet been assessed; thus, the objective was to evaluate the repeatability of the ATD-LE. Additionally, a dynamic assessment was conducted to quantify injury threshold values. A pneumatic ram impactor was used at 2 velocities to evaluate repeatability. The ATD-LE was fixed to a table and impacted on the plantar aspect of the forefoot. Three repeated trials at 1.3 and 2.3 m/s without shoes and 2.3 m/s with shoes were conducted. The consistency of tibia force (N), bending moment (Nm), ankle range of motion (ROM, °), and stiffness (Nm/°) were quantified. A dynamic assessment using knee bolster airbag (KBA) tests was also conducted. The ATD-LE was positioned to mimic 3 worst-case scenarios: toes touching the mid-dashboard, touching the lower dashboard, and flat on the floor prior to airbag deployment. The impact responses in the femur and tibia were directly collected and compared with published injury threshold values. Ram impact testing indicated primarily excellent repeatability for the variables tested. For all 3 conditions the coefficients of variance (CV) were as follows: tibia force, 1.9-2.7%; tibia moment, 1.0-2.2%; ROM, 1.3-1.4%; ankle stiffness, 4.8-15.6%. The shoe-on condition resulted in a 25% reduction in tibia force and a 56% reduction in tibia bending moment. The KBA tests indicate that the highest injury risk may be when the toes touch the lower dashboard, due to the high bending moments recorded in the tibia at 76.2 Nm, which was

  6. Complicated Lower Extremity Wound Caused by Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Leading to Hypercoagulable State: A Team Approach for Limb Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Simman, Richard; Haluschak, John; Jackson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a complicated lower extremity wound due to hypercoagulable state caused by immune thrombocytopenic purpura. A team approach was important to limb salvage. A literature review is included. PMID:24527141

  7. Do Associations Between Perceived Environmental and Individual Characteristics and Walking Limitations Depend on Lower Extremity Performance Level?

    PubMed

    Sakari, Ritva; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Iwarsson, Susanne; Sipilä, Sarianna; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether the associations between perceived environmental and individual characteristics and perceived walking limitations in older people differ between those with intact and those with poorer lower extremity performance. Persons aged 75 to 90 ( N = 834) participated in interviews and performance tests in their homes. Standard questionnaires were used to obtain walking difficulties; environmental barriers to and, facilitators of, mobility; and perceived individual hindrances to outdoor mobility. Lower extremity performance was tested using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Among those with poorer lower extremity performance, the likelihood for advanced walking limitations was, in particular, related to perceived poor safety in the environment, and among those with intact performance to perceived social issues, such as lack of company, as well as to long distances. The environmental correlates of walking limitations seem to depend on the level of lower extremity performance.

  8. Neuro-musculoskeletal and performance adaptations to lower-extremity plyometric training.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle

    2010-10-01

    Plyometric training (PLY) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last 3 decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to lower-body PLY and its effects on human neural and musculoskeletal systems, athletic performance and injury prevention. We also considered studies that combined lower-body PLY with other popular training modalities, as well as studies that applied PLY on non-rigid surfaces. The available evidence suggests that PLY, either alone or in combination with other typical training modalities, elicits numerous positive changes in the neural and musculoskeletal systems, muscle function and athletic performance of healthy individuals. Specifically, the studies have shown that long-term PLY (i.e. 3-5 sessions a week for 5-12 months) represents an effective training method for enhancing bone mass in prepubertal/early pubertal children, young women and premenopausal women. Furthermore, short-term PLY (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 6-15 weeks) can change the stiffness of various elastic components of the muscle-tendon complex of plantar flexors in both athletes and non-athletes. Short-term PLY also improves the lower-extremity strength, power and stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle function in healthy individuals. These adaptive changes in neuromuscular function are likely the result of (i) an increased neural drive to the agonist muscles; (ii) changes in the muscle activation strategies (i.e. improved intermuscular coordination); (iii) changes in the mechanical characteristics of the muscle-tendon complex of plantar flexors; (iv) changes in muscle size and/or architecture; and (v) changes in single-fibre mechanics. Our results also show that PLY, either alone or in combination with other training modalities, has the potential to (i) enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting, agility and endurance performance) in children and

  9. Assessing functional mobility in survivors of lower-extremity sarcoma: reliability and validity of a new assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Victoria G; Rai, Shesh N; Carlson, Claire A; Hinds, Pamela S; Spearing, Elena M; Zhang, Lijun; Callaway, Lulie; Neel, Michael D; Rao, Bhaskar N; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2007-08-01

    Reliability and validity of a new tool, Functional Mobility Assessment (FMA), were examined in patients with lower-extremity sarcoma. FMA requires the patients to physically perform the functional mobility measures, unlike patient self-report or clinician administered measures. A sample of 114 subjects participated, 20 healthy volunteers and 94 patients with lower-extremity sarcoma after amputation, limb-sparing, or rotationplasty surgery. Reliability of the FMA was examined by three raters testing 20 healthy volunteers and 23 subjects with lower-extremity sarcoma. Concurrent validity was examined using data from 94 subjects with lower-extremity sarcoma who completed the FMA, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS), Short-Form 36 (SF-36v2), and Toronto Extremity Salvage Scale (TESS) scores. Construct validity was measured by the ability of the FMA to discriminate between subjects with and without functional mobility deficits. FMA demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC [2,1] >or=0.97). Moderate correlations were found between FMA and SF-36v2 (r = 0.60, P < 0.01), FMA and MSTS (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), and FMA and TESS (r = 0.62, P < 0.01). The patients with lower-extremity sarcoma scored lower on the FMA as compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01). The FMA is a reliable and valid functional outcome measure for patients with lower-extremity sarcoma. This study supports the ability of the FMA to discriminate between patients with varying functional abilities and supports the need to include measures of objective functional mobility in examination of patients with lower-extremity sarcoma.

  10. Sexual function in adolescent and young adult survivors of lower extremity bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Maru; Teall, Tanya; Barr, Ronald; Silva, Mariana; Greenberg, Mark

    2010-12-15

    Improving survival rates and new surgical options have led to increased interest regarding late effects and quality of life in adolescent and young adult survivors of bone cancers, including their sexual functioning. This study investigated sexual functioning in adolescent and young adult survivors of lower limb bone tumors, in relation to surgical treatments, gender differences, depressive symptoms, global self worth, and physical disability. Twenty-eight participants (age range 18-32 years) completed measures of gender specific sexual function, depressive symptoms, global self worth, and physical disability. For analysis, surgical intervention was grouped into limb sparing surgeries (LS; allograft fusion and endoprosthesis) and amputation or Van Nes rotationplasty (AMP). Male survivors reported significantly higher scores than females on total sexual function scores (P = 0.050), sexual drive (P = 0.002), and frequency of sexual thoughts, fantasies or erotic dreams (P = 0.021). Men also reported significantly better physical functioning scores than women (P = 0.012). LS scored significantly lower on frequency of sexual thoughts, fantasies and erotic dreams (P = 0.048) and frequency of sexual experiences (P = 0.016) compared with AMP. In addition, LS reported significantly more depressive symptoms scores (P = 0.004) and lower self worth scores (P = 0.037), than AMP. These results suggest that male survivors of lower extremity bone tumors experience better sexual functioning than women. Survivors of limb sparing surgeries struggle with sexual function, depressive symptoms, and poor self-perception compared to Van Nes rotationplasty and amputation survivors. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p < .001) and 250 Hz ( p = .002), respectively, were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. This study suggests that patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures may experience hypoesthesia in the injured leg, which contrasts with the finding of hyperesthesia previously observed in other chronic pain conditions but is in accord with patients with nerve injuries and surgeries. This is the first study to examine peripheral sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  12. Crash analysis of lower extremity injuries in children restrained in forward-facing car seats during front and rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tellen D; Kaufman, Robert; Schiff, Melissa; Mock, Charles; Quan, Linda

    2006-09-01

    The mechanism, crash characteristics, and spectrum of lower extremity injuries in children restrained in forward-facing car seats during front and rear impacts have not been described. We identified in two databases children who sustained lower extremity injuries while restrained in forward-facing car seats. To identify the mechanism, we analyzed crash reconstructions from three frontal-impact cases from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network. To further describe the crash and injury characteristics we evaluated children between 1 and 4 years of age with lower extremity injuries from front or rear impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) database. Crash reconstruction data demonstrated that the likely mechanism of lower extremity injury was contact between the legs and the front seatbacks. In the CDS database, we identified 15 children with lower extremity injuries in a forward-facing child seat, usually (13 out of 15) placed in the rear seat, incurred in frontal impacts (11 out of 15). Several (5 out of 15) children were in unbelted or improperly secured forward-facing car seats. Injury Severity Scores varied widely (5-50). Children in forward-facing car seats involved in severe front or rear crashes may incur a range of lower extremity injury from impact with the car interior component in front of them. Crash scene photography can provide useful information about anatomic sites at risk for injury and alert emergency department providers to possible subtle injury.

  13. Virtual Reality to Assess and Treat Lower Extremity Disorders in Post-stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Luque-Moreno, C; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, A; Kiper, P; Rodríguez-Blanco, C; Agostini, M; Turolla, A

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation". To identify support of a virtual reality system in the kinematic assessment and physiotherapy approach to gait disorders in individuals with stroke. We adapt Virtual Reality Rehabilitation System (VRRS), software widely used in the functional recovery of the upper limb, for its use on the lower limb of hemiplegic patients. Clinical scales have been used to relate them with the kinematic assessment provided by the system. A description of the use of reinforced feedback provided by the system on the recovery of deficits in several real cases in the field of physiotherapy is performed. Specific examples of functional tasks have been detailed, to be considered in creating intelligent health technologies to improve post-stroke gait. Both participants improved scores on the clinical scales, the kinematic parameters in leg stance on plegic lower extremity and walking speed > Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID). The use of the VRRS software attached to a motion tracking capture system showed their practical utility and safety in enriching physiotherapeutic assessment and treatment in post-stroke gait disorders.

  14. Precision and accuracy of 3D lower extremity residua measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commean, Paul K.; Smith, Kirk E.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Pilgram, Thomas K.

    1996-04-01

    Accurate and reproducible geometric measurement of lower extremity residua is required for custom prosthetic socket design. We compared spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) and 3D optical surface scanning (OSS) with caliper measurements and evaluated the precision and accuracy of each system. Spiral volumetric CT scanned surface and subsurface information was used to make external and internal measurements, and finite element models (FEMs). SXCT and OSS were used to measure lower limb residuum geometry of 13 below knee (BK) adult amputees. Six markers were placed on each subject's BK residuum and corresponding plaster casts and distance measurements were taken to determine precision and accuracy for each system. Solid models were created from spiral CT scan data sets with the prosthesis in situ under different loads using p-version finite element analysis (FEA). Tissue properties of the residuum were estimated iteratively and compared with values taken from the biomechanics literature. The OSS and SXCT measurements were precise within 1% in vivo and 0.5% on plaster casts, and accuracy was within 3.5% in vivo and 1% on plaster casts compared with caliper measures. Three-dimensional optical surface and SXCT imaging systems are feasible for capturing the comprehensive 3D surface geometry of BK residua, and provide distance measurements statistically equivalent to calipers. In addition, SXCT can readily distinguish internal soft tissue and bony structure of the residuum. FEM can be applied to determine tissue material properties interactively using inverse methods.

  15. Effectiveness of Diabetes Foot Screening in Primary Care in Preventing Lower Extremity Amputations.

    PubMed

    Ang, Gary Y; Yap, Chun Wei; Saxena, Nakul

    2017-11-01

    The risk of lower extremity amputations (LEAs) in diabetics is 20 times higher than in non-diabetics. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that all diabetics should receive an annual foot examination to identify high-risk foot conditions. Despite this recommendation, there is little evidence in the literature to show its effectiveness in preventing LEA. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of diabetes foot screening in primary care in preventing LEA and to identify LEA risk factors. This is a retrospective cohort study of diabetic patients who visited the National Healthcare Group Polyclinics for the first time from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. The intervention of interest was foot screening performed at least once during 2 years of follow-up, and the outcome of interest was LEA (major and/or minor) performed during 2 years of follow-up. Patients who did foot screening (n=8150) were compared to a propensity score matched control group (n=8150) who did not do foot screening. Logistics regression was done to identify factors associated with LEA. Among those who underwent foot screening, there were 2 (0.02%) major amputations and 15 (0.18%) minor amputations compared with 42 (0.52%) and 52 (0.64%) among those who did not ( P <0.001). Lack of diabetes foot screening, lower socioeconomic status, hip fracture, Malay ethnicity, chronic kidney disease, poorer glycaemic control, longer diabetes duration and male gender have been found to be associated with a higher risk of LEA.

  16. Blast effect on the lower extremities and its mitigation: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liqiang; Zhu, Feng; Jin, Xin; Suresh, Mahi; Jiang, Binhui; Sevagan, Gopinath; Cai, Yun; Li, Guangyao; Yang, King H

    2013-12-01

    A series of computational studies were performed to investigate the response of the lower extremities of mounted soldiers under landmine detonation. A numerical human body model newly developed at Wayne State University was used to simulate two types of experimental studies and the model predictions were validated against test data in terms of the tibia axial force as well as bone fracture pattern. Based on the validated model, the minimum axial force causing tibia facture was found. Then a series of parametric studies was conducted to determine the critical velocity (peak velocity of the floor plate) causing tibia fracture at different upper/lower leg angles. In addition, to limit the load transmission through the vehicular floor, two types of energy absorbing materials, namely IMPAXX(®) foam and aluminum alloy honeycomb, were selected for floor matting. Their performances in terms of blast effect mitigation were compared using the validated numerical model, and it has been found that honeycomb is a more efficient material for blast injury prevention under the loading conditions studied. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower extremity joint coupling variability during gait in young adults with and without chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Thomas; Herb, Christopher C; Hart, Joseph; Hertel, Jay

    2018-06-01

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition resulting from a lateral ankle sprain. Shank-rearfoot joint-coupling variability differences have been found in CAI patients; however, joint-coupling variability (VCV) of the ankle and proximal joints has not been explored. Our purpose was to analyse VCV in adults with and without CAI during gait. Four joint-coupling pairs were analysed: knee sagittal-ankle sagittal, knee sagittal-ankle frontal, hip frontal-ankle sagittal and hip frontal-ankle frontal. Twenty-seven adults participated (CAI:n = 13, Control:n = 14). Lower extremity kinematics were collected during walking (4.83 km/h) and jogging (9.66 km/h). Vector-coding was used to assess the stride-to-stride variability of four coupling pairs. During walking, CAI patients exhibited higher VCV than healthy controls for knee sagittal-ankle frontal in latter parts of stance thru mid-swing. When jogging, CAI patients demonstrated lower VCV with specific differences occurring across various intervals of gait. The increased knee sagittal-ankle frontal VCV in CAI patients during walking may indicate an adaptation to deal with the previously identified decrease in variability in transverse plane shank and frontal plane rearfoot coupling during walking; while the decreased ankle-knee and ankle-hip VCV identified in CAI patients during jogging may represent a more rigid, less adaptable sensorimotor system ambulating at a faster speed.

  18. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water.

    PubMed

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  19. Lower extremity joint kinetics and lumbar curvature during squat and stoop lifting

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Youngeun; Kim, Youngho

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity joint and the lumbar lordosis during two different symmetrical lifting techniques(squat and stoop) were examined using the three-dimensional motion analysis. Methods Twenty-six young male volunteers were selected for the subjects in this study. While they lifted boxes weighing 5, 10 and 15 kg by both squat and stoop lifting techniques, their motions were captured and analyzed using the 3D motion analysis system which was synchronized with two forceplates and the electromyographic system. Joint kinematics was determined by the forty-three reflective markers which were attached on the anatomical locations based on the VICON Plug-in-Gait marker placement protocol. Joint kinetics was analyzed by using the inverse dynamics. Paired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the differences of variables between two techniques, and among three different weights. Correlation coefficient was calculated to explain the role of lower limb joint motion in relation to the lumbar lordosis. Results There were not significant differences in maximum lumbar joint moments between two techniques. The hip and ankle contributed the most part of the support moment during squat lifting, and the knee flexion moment played an important role in stoop lifting. The hip, ankle and lumbar joints generated power and only the knee joint absorbed power in the squat lifting. The knee and ankle joints absorbed power, the hip and lumbar joints generated power in the stoop lifting. The bi-articular antagonist muscles' co-contraction around the knee joint during the squat lifting and the eccentric co-contraction of the gastrocnemius and the biceps femoris were found important for maintaining the straight leg during the stoop lifting. At the time of lordotic curvature appearance in the squat lifting, there were significant correlations in all three lower extremity joint moments with the lumbar joint. Differently, only the hip

  20. Lower extremity joint kinetics and lumbar curvature during squat and stoop lifting.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Youngeun; Kim, Youngho

    2009-02-02

    In this study, kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity joint and the lumbar lordosis during two different symmetrical lifting techniques(squat and stoop) were examined using the three-dimensional motion analysis. Twenty-six young male volunteers were selected for the subjects in this study. While they lifted boxes weighing 5, 10 and 15 kg by both squat and stoop lifting techniques, their motions were captured and analyzed using the 3D motion analysis system which was synchronized with two forceplates and the electromyographic system. Joint kinematics was determined by the forty-three reflective markers which were attached on the anatomical locations based on the VICON Plug-in-Gait marker placement protocol. Joint kinetics was analyzed by using the inverse dynamics. Paired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the differences of variables between two techniques, and among three different weights. Correlation coefficient was calculated to explain the role of lower limb joint motion in relation to the lumbar lordosis. There were not significant differences in maximum lumbar joint moments between two techniques. The hip and ankle contributed the most part of the support moment during squat lifting, and the knee flexion moment played an important role in stoop lifting. The hip, ankle and lumbar joints generated power and only the knee joint absorbed power in the squat lifting. The knee and ankle joints absorbed power, the hip and lumbar joints generated power in the stoop lifting. The bi-articular antagonist muscles' co-contraction around the knee joint during the squat lifting and the eccentric co-contraction of the gastrocnemius and the biceps femoris were found important for maintaining the straight leg during the stoop lifting. At the time of lordotic curvature appearance in the squat lifting, there were significant correlations in all three lower extremity joint moments with the lumbar joint. Differently, only the hip moment had significant

  1. Does This Older Adult With Lower Extremity Pain Have the Clinical Syndrome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Pradeep; Rainville, James; Kalichman, Leonid; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Context The clinical syndrome of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common diagnosis in older adults presenting with lower extremity pain. Objective To systematically review the accuracy of the clinical examination for the diagnosis of the clinical syndrome of LSS. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL searches of articles published from January 1966 to September 2010. Study Selection Studies were included if they contained adequate data on the accuracy of the history and physical examination for diagnosing the clinical syndrome of LSS, using a reference standard of expert opinion with radiographic or anatomic confirmation. Data Extraction Two authors independently reviewed each study to determine eligibility, extract data, and appraise levels of evidence. Data Synthesis Four studies evaluating 741 patients were identified. Among patients with lower extremity pain, the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS was increased for individuals older than 70 years (likelihood ratio [LR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.5), and was decreased for those younger than 60 years (LR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29–0.57). The most useful symptoms for increasing the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS were having no pain when seated (LR, 7.4; 95% CI, 1.9–30), improvement of symptoms when bending forward (LR, 6.4; 95% CI, 4.1–9.9), the presence of bilateral buttock or leg pain (LR, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.1–13), and neurogenic claudication (LR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9–4.8). Absence of neurogenic claudication (LR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.31) decreased the likelihood of the diagnosis. A wide-based gait (LR, 13; 95% CI, 1.9–95) and abnormal Romberg test result (LR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.4–13) increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS. A score of 7 or higher on a diagnostic support tool including history and examination findings increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS (LR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.7–4.0), while a score lower than 7 made the diagnosis much less

  2. Major amputation of lower extremity: prognostic value of positive bone biopsy cultures.

    PubMed

    Vaznaisiene, D; Beltrand, E; Laiskonis, A P; Yazdanpanah, Y; Migaud, H; Senneville, E

    2013-02-01

    To assess the correlation between culture results of section's osseous slice biopsy (SOB) and the distal infected site responsible for the amputation performed concomitantly during major amputation of lower extremity. The influence of a positive culture of SOB on the patients' outcome was also evaluated. We conducted a retrospective study of medical charts of patients who underwent SOB during major amputation of lower extremity at our institution from 2000 to 2009. Fifty-seven patients (42 males/15 females, mean age 52.16years) who undergone major limb amputation (47 below knee and ten above knee) were included. The initial medical conditions of the investigated patients were: trauma (n=32), infection (n=13), trophic disorders (n=10) and tumor (n=2). The major cause of amputation was an uncontrolled infection, accouting for 64.9% of the cases (37/57) (foot=5, ankle=8, leg=24), the remaining 20 patients had trophic disorders of lower limb. Twenty-one (36.8%) from 57 biopsies were sterile, 12 (21.1%) doubtful and 24 (42.1%) positive. Thirty-one (54.4%) patients had an antibiotic-free interval before limb amputation. Independently of the bacterial species, 69.6% of the microorganisms identified from SOB were found in the distal infected site. Patients with positive SOB had a significantly longer interval between the decision to amputate the patient and the surgical procedure (200.2 vs. 70.1days; P<0.03) and a shorter total duration of antibiotic therapy before amputation than patients with negative SOB (3.68 vs. 6.08months; P<0.03). The delay for complete healing was significantly higher in patients with a positive SOB compared with those with a negative SOB (3.57 vs. 2.48months; P<0.03). Our results suggest that the infection may extend from the distal site to the level of amputation in a large proportion of cases and that the delay with which the amputation is performed after the decision has been taken may play a role in this event. Study level IV

  3. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cara L.; Foch, Eric; Luko, Marc M.; Loverro, Kari L.; Khuu, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16cm and 24cm). The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003), but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030), than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029). While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001). Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51–0.98), but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21–0.96). The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a single leg task

  4. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2012-09-01

    Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance <4.0% of limb length in girls measured with the star excursion balance test (SEBT) may predict leg injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding

  5. Evaluation of disabilities and activities of daily living of war-related bilateral lower extremity amputees.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Bozorgnia, Shahram; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Long-term consequences and the activities of daily living of bilateral lower limb amputation are not well documented. The aims of our study were to identify the long-term effects of bilateral lower extremity amputations on daily activities and understand how these amputees cope with their mobility assistive devices. Cross-sectional study. A total of 291 veterans with war bilateral lower limb amputations accepted to participate in a cross-sectional study. The average of follow-up was 25.4 years. A total of 152 amputees (54%) were involved in sports averagely 6.7 h per week. Bilateral amputees walk 10 m by the average of 15 ± 33 s, and they could walk continuously with their prosthesis 315 ± 295 m. They wore their prosthesis 6.8 ± 1.7 days per week and 7.9 ± 8.1 h per day. Of these, 6.7% of bilateral lower limb amputees needed help to wear their prosthesis; 88.3% of amputees used assistant device for walking. According to this survey, 73 (42%) prostheses in right limb were appropriate, 95 (54.6%) needed to be replaced, and 6 (3.4) needed to be fixed. On the left side, it was 76 (42%), 92 (52.0%), and 9 (5.1%), respectively. A total of 203 (74.9%) amputees reported limitations in at least one domain of the activities of daily living. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs by the score of 66% of normal population. Veterans with bilateral lower limb amputations suffering from vast categories of daily problems. This study and its results confirm that bilateral lower limb amputees have major progressive disabilities in daily activities and their social performance. This should attract the attention of amputees' administrative organizations, social workers, health-care providers and caregiver providers. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  6. Reliability and validity of the Persian lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) in a heterogeneous sample of outpatients with lower limb musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Negahban, Hossein; Hessam, Masumeh; Tabatabaei, Saeid; Salehi, Reza; Sohani, Soheil Mansour; Mehravar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to culturally translate and validate the Persian lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) in a heterogeneous sample of outpatients with lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders (n = 304). This is a prospective methodological study. After a standard forward-backward translation, psychometric properties were assessed in terms of test-retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity, dimensionality, and ceiling or floor effects. The acceptable level of intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient >0.70 was obtained for the Persian LEFS. Correlations between Persian LEFS and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) subscales of Physical Health component (rs range = 0.38-0.78) were higher than correlations between Persian LEFS and SF-36 subscales of Mental Health component (rs range = 0.15-0.39). A corrected item--total correlation of >0.40 (Spearman's rho) was obtained for all items of the Persian LEFS. Horn's parallel analysis detected a total of two factors. No ceiling or floor effects were detected for the Persian LEFS. The Persian version of the LEFS is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with different musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremity. Implications for Rehabilitation The Persian lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) is a reliable, internally consistent and valid instrument, with no ceiling or floor effects, to determine functional status of heterogeneous patients with musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremity. The Persian version of the LEFS can be used in clinical and research settings to measure function in Iranian patients with different musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremity.

  7. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  8. Understanding Extreme Precipitation Behaviour in British Columbia's Lower Mainland Using Historical and Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, Christina

    In British Columbia, Pineapple Express storms can lead to flooding, slope failures and negative impacts to water quality. Mitigating the impacts of extreme weather events in a changing climate requires an understanding of how local climate responds to regional-toglobal climate forcing patterns. In this study, I use historical and proxy data to identify the distinguishing characteristics of Pineapple Express storms and to develop a tree ring oxygen isotope record (1960--1995) of local climate conditions in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. I found that high magnitude Pineapple Express storms have significantly higher precipitation and streamflow than other storms types, which result in relatively high contributions of Pineapple Express storms to the annual water budget. As well, Pineapple Express precipitation is characterized by an enriched delta18O isotopic signature when compared to precipitation originating from the North Pacific Ocean. However, differences in source water do not appear to be driving the variability in tree ring delta18O ratios. Instead, tree ring isotopic values exhibit a regional climate pattern that is strongly driven by latitudinal temperature gradients and the Rayleigh distillation effect. Therefore, future warmer conditions may decrease the temperature gradient between the equator and the poles, which can be recorded in the tree ring isotope record. The results also suggest that warmer temperatures due to climate change could result in more active Pineapple Express storm seasons, with multiple PE storms happening over a short period of time. Concurrent storms significantly increase the risk to society because the resulting antecedent saturated soil conditions can trigger precipitationinduced natural hazards. Keywords: extreme weather; stable isotopes; Pineapple Express; British Columbia; climate change; tree rings.

  9. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and landslides distributions in 2009 in Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzensteiner, H.; Bell, R.; Petschko, H.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    The prediction and forecast of widespread landsliding for a given triggering event is an open research question. Numerous studies tried to link spatial rainfall and landslide distributions. This study focuses on analysing the relationship between intensive precipitation and rainfall-triggered shallow landslides in the year 2009 in Lower Austria. Landslide distributions were gained from the building ground register, which is maintained by the Geological Survey of Lower Austria. It contains detailed information of landslides, which were registered due to damage reports. Spatially distributed rainfall estimates were extracted from INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) precipitation analysis, which is a combination of station data interpolation and radar data in a spatial resolution of 1km developed by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna, Austria. The importance of the data source is shown by comparing rainfall data based on reference gauges, spatial interpolation and INCA-analysis for a certain storm period. INCA precipitation data can detect precipitating cells that do not hit a station but might trigger a landslide, which is an advantage over the application of reference stations for the definition of rainfall thresholds. Empirical thresholds at regional scale were determined based on rainfall-intensity and duration in the year 2009 and landslide information. These thresholds are dependent on the criteria which separate the landslide triggering and non-triggering precipitation events from each other. Different approaches for defining thresholds alter the shape of the threshold as well. A temporarily threshold I=8,8263*D^(-0.672) for extreme rainfall events in summer in Lower Austria was defined. A verification of the threshold with similar events of other years as well as following analyses based on a larger landslide database are in progress.

  10. Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity with portable vascular ultrasonography can accurately detect deep venous thrombosis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jonathan G; Lovato, Luis M; Jang, Timothy B

    2010-12-01

    Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity is an established method of detecting proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis when performed by a certified operator in a vascular laboratory. Our objective is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of bedside 2-point compression ultrasonography performed in the emergency department (ED) with portable vascular ultrasonography for the detection of proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. We did this by directly comparing emergency physician-performed ultrasonography to lower extremity duplex ultrasonography performed by the Department of Radiology. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study and diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of ED patients with a suspected lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, conducted at a single-center, urban, academic ED. All physicians had a 10-minute training session before enrolling patients. ED compression ultrasonography occurred before Department of Radiology ultrasonography and involved identification of 2 specific points: the common femoral and popliteal vessels, with subsequent compression of the common femoral and popliteal veins. The study result was considered positive for proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis if either vein was incompressible or a thrombus was visualized. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with the final radiologist interpretation of the Department of Radiology ultrasonography as the criterion standard. A total of 47 physicians performed 199 2-point compression ultrasonographic examinations in the ED. Median number of examinations per physician was 2 (range 1 to 29 examinations; interquartile range 1 to 5 examinations). There were 45 proximal lower extremity deep venous thromboses observed on Department of Radiology evaluation, all correctly identified by ED 2-point compression ultrasonography. The 153 patients without proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis all had a negative ED compression

  11. Changes in Lower Extremity Biomechanics Due to a Short-Term Fatigue Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Nelson; Greska, Eric; Kollock, Roger; Ambegaonkar, Jatin; Onate, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury has been reported to occur during the later stages of a game when fatigue is most likely present. Few researchers have focused on progressive changes in lower extremity biomechanics that occur throughout fatiguing. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a sequential fatigue protocol on lower extremity biomechanics during a sidestep-cutting task (SS). Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen uninjured female collegiate soccer players (age = 19.2 ± 0.9 years, height = 1.66 ± 0.5 m, mass = 61.6 ± 5.1 kg) volunteered. Intervention(s): The independent variable was fatigue level, with 3 levels (prefatigue, 50% fatigue, and 100% fatigue). Using 3-dimensional motion capture, we assessed lower extremity biomechanics during the SS. Participants alternated between a fatigue protocol that solicited different muscle groups and mimicked actual sport situations and unanticipated SS trials. The process was repeated until fatigue was attained. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were hip- and knee-flexion and abduction angles and internal moments measured at initial contact and peak stance and defined as measures obtained between 0% and 50% of stance phase. Results: Knee-flexion angle decreased from prefatigue (−17° ± 5°) to 50% fatigue (−16° ± 6°) and to 100% fatigue (−14° ± 4°) (F2,34 = 5.112, P = .004). Knee flexion at peak stance increased from prefatigue (−52.9° ± 5.6°) to 50% fatigue (−56.1° ± 7.2°) but decreased from 50% to 100% fatigue (−50.5° ± 7.1°) (F2,34 = 8.282, P = 001). Knee-adduction moment at peak stance increased from prefatigue (0.49 ± 0.23 Nm/kgm) to 50% fatigue (0.55 ± 0.25 Nm/kgm) but decreased from 50% to 100% fatigue (0.37 ± 0.24) (F2,34 = 3.755, P = 03). Hip-flexion angle increased from prefatigue (45.4° ± 10.9°) to 50% fatigue (46.2° ± 11.2°) but decreased from 50% to 100% fatigue (40.9° ± 11.3

  12. Changes in lower extremity biomechanics due to a short-term fatigue protocol.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Nelson; Greska, Eric; Kollock, Roger; Ambegaonkar, Jatin; Onate, James A

    2013-01-01

    Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury has been reported to occur during the later stages of a game when fatigue is most likely present. Few researchers have focused on progressive changes in lower extremity biomechanics that occur throughout fatiguing. To evaluate the effects of a sequential fatigue protocol on lower extremity biomechanics during a sidestep-cutting task (SS). Controlled laboratory study. Laboratory. Eighteen uninjured female collegiate soccer players (age = 19.2 ± 0.9 years, height = 1.66 ± 0.5 m, mass = 61.6 ± 5.1 kg) volunteered. The independent variable was fatigue level, with 3 levels (prefatigue, 50% fatigue, and 100% fatigue). Using 3-dimensional motion capture, we assessed lower extremity biomechanics during the SS. Participants alternated between a fatigue protocol that solicited different muscle groups and mimicked actual sport situations and unanticipated SS trials. The process was repeated until fatigue was attained. Dependent variables were hip- and knee-flexion and abduction angles and internal moments measured at initial contact and peak stance and defined as measures obtained between 0% and 50% of stance phase. Knee-flexion angle decreased from prefatigue (-17° ± 5°) to 50% fatigue (-16° ± 6°) and to 100% fatigue (-14° ± 4°) (F2,34 = 5.112, P = .004). Knee flexion at peak stance increased from prefatigue (-52.9° ± 5.6°) to 50% fatigue (-56.1° ± 7.2°) but decreased from 50% to 100% fatigue (-50.5° ± 7.1°) (F2,34 = 8.282, P = 001). Knee-adduction moment at peak stance increased from prefatigue (0.49 ± 0.23 Nm/kgm) to 50% fatigue (0.55 ± 0.25 Nm/kgm) but decreased from 50% to 100% fatigue (0.37 ± 0.24) (F2,34 = 3.755, P = 03). Hip-flexion angle increased from prefatigue (45.4° ± 10.9°) to 50% fatigue (46.2° ± 11.2°) but decreased from 50% to 100% fatigue (40.9° ± 11.3°) (F2,34 = 6.542, P = .004). Hip flexion at peak stance increased from prefatigue (49.8° ± 9.9°) to 50% fatigue (52.9° ± 12.1

  13. High dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of lower extremity in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Karen J; Devlin, Phillip M; Madenci, Arin L; Semel, Marcus E; Gravereaux, Edwin C; Nguyen, Louis L; Belkin, Michael; Menard, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    Historically, edge stenosis and late thrombosis limited the effectiveness of adjunctive endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) for in-stent restenosis (ISR) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting. We evaluated an updated protocol of PTA and EVBT for ISR among patients with lower extremity occlusive disease. This is a retrospective, single-center review of patients treated with PTA and EVBT for ISR in the iliac and femoropopliteal segments between 2004 and 2012. A dose of 20 Gy was given at a depth of 0.5 mm beyond the radius of the largest PTA balloon using iridium 192, with at least 2-cm-long margins of radiation coverage proximal and distal to the injured area. Stents were assessed for patency by duplex ultrasound imaging at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months and then yearly. The primary end point was freedom from ≥50% restenosis in the treated segment at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Patency data were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Secondary end points were early and late thrombotic occlusion. Among 42 consecutive cases in 35 patients of EVBT for ISR in common or external iliac (9 [20.8%]) and superficial femoral or popliteal (33 [76.7%]) arteries, or both, 21 patients (50%) had claudication, asymptomatic hemodynamically significant stenoses were identified on duplex ultrasound imaging in 16 (38.1%), and 4 (9.8%) had critical limb ischemia. Mean treated length was 23.5 ± 12.3 cm over a mean duration of 16.1 ± 9.6 minutes. There was one technical failure (2.3%). Median post-EVBT follow-up time was 682 days (range, 1-2262 days). There were two (4.9%) and five (11.9%) cases of early and late thrombotic occlusions, respectively. There was one death, believed to be secondary to acute coronary syndrome. Primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency in the entire cohort was 75.2%, 89.1%, and 89.1%, respectively, at 1 year and 63.7%, 80.6%, and 85.6%, respectively, at 2 years. This contemporary protocol of PTA and adjunctive

  14. [Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters].

    PubMed

    Golubović, Zoran; Stanić, Vojkan; Trenkić, Srbobran; Stojiljković, Predrag; Stevanović, Goran; Lesić, Aleksandar; Golubović, Ivan; Milić, Dragan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Najman, Stevo

    2010-08-01

    Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they directly threaten the life of the wounded patient. Despite

  15. Lower extremity revascularization using directional atherectomy: 12-month prospective results of the DEFINITIVE LE study.

    PubMed

    McKinsey, James F; Zeller, Thomas; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Jaff, Michael R; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of directional atherectomy (DA) for endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in infrainguinal arteries in patients with claudication or critical limb ischemia. To date, no prospective, multicenter, independently-adjudicated study has evaluated the effectiveness and durability of DA in the treatment of PAD. Previous DA studies have not been prospectively powered to evaluate any differences in outcomes in patients with and without diabetes. DEFINITIVE LE (Determination of EFfectiveness of the SilverHawk(®) PerIpheral Plaque ExcisioN System (SIlverHawk Device) for the Treatment of Infrainguinal VEssels / Lower Extremities) prospectively enrolled subjects at 47 multinational centers with an infrainguinal lesion length up to 20 cm. Primary endpoints were defined as primary patency at 12 months for claudicants and freedom from major unplanned amputation for critical limb ischemia (CLI) subjects. A pre-specified statistical hypothesis evaluated noninferiority of primary patency in diabetic versus nondiabetic claudicants. Independent angiographic and sonographic core laboratories assessed outcomes, and events were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. A total of 800 subjects were enrolled. The 12-month primary patency was 78% (95% confidence interval: 74.0% to 80.6%) in claudicants, with a 77% rate in the diabetic subgroup versus 78% in the nondiabetic subgroup (noninferior, p < 0.001). The rate of freedom from major unplanned amputation of the target limb at 12 months in CLI subjects was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90.7% to 97.4%). Periprocedural adverse events included embolization (3.8%), perforation (5.3%), and abrupt closure (2.0%). The bail-out stent rate was 3.2%. The DEFINITIVE LE study demonstrated that DA is a safe and effective treatment modality at 12 months for a diverse patient population with either claudication or CLI. Furthermore, DA was shown to be noninferior for

  16. Isolated Deep Venous Thrombosis: Implications for 2-Point Compression Ultrasonography of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Srikar; Zeger, Wes; Thom, Christopher; Fields, J Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Two-point compression ultrasonography focuses on the evaluation of common femoral and popliteal veins for complete compressibility. The presence of isolated thrombi in proximal veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins should prompt modification of 2-point compression technique. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of deep venous thrombi isolated to lower-extremity veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins in emergency department (ED) patients with clinically suspected deep venous thrombosis. This was a retrospective study of all adult ED patients who received a lower-extremity venous duplex ultrasonographic examination for evaluation of deep venous thrombosis during a 6-year period. The ultrasonographic protocol included B-mode, color-flow, and spectral Doppler scanning of the common femoral, femoral, deep femoral, popliteal, and calf veins. Deep venous thrombosis was detected in 362 of 2,451 patients (14.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.3% to 16.1%). Thrombus confined to the common femoral vein alone was found in 5 of 362 cases (1.4%; 95% CI 0.2% to 2.6%). Isolated femoral vein thrombus was identified in 20 of 362 patients (5.5%; 95% CI 3.2% to 7.9%). Isolated deep femoral vein thrombus was found in 3 of 362 cases (0.8%; 95% CI -0.1% to 1.8%). Thrombus in the popliteal vein alone was identified in 53 of 362 cases (14.6%; 95% CI 11% to 18.2%). In our study, 6.3% of ED patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis had isolated thrombi in proximal veins other than common femoral and popliteal veins. Our study results support the addition of femoral and deep femoral vein evaluation to standard compression ultrasonography of the common femoral and popliteal vein, assuming that this does not have a deleterious effect on specificity. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and Significance of Unrecognized Lower Extremity Peripheral Arterial Disease in General Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    McGrae McDermott, Mary; Kerwin, Diana R; Liu, Kiang; Martin, Gary J; O'Brien, Erin; Kaplan, Heather; Greenland, Philip

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of unrecognized lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) among men and women aged 55 years and older in a general internal medicine (GIM) practice and to identify characteristics and functional performance associated with unrecognized PAD. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS We identified 143 patients with known PAD from the noninvasive vascular laboratory, and 239 men and women aged 55 and older with no prior PAD history from a GIM practice. Group 1 consisted of patients with PAD consecutively identified from the noninvasive vascular laboratory (n = 143). Group 2 included GIM practice patients found to have an ankle brachial index less than 0.90, consistent with PAD (n = 34). Group 3 consisted of GIM practice patients without PAD (n = 205). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Leg functioning was assessed with the 6-minute walk, 4-meter walking velocity, and Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Of GIM practice patients, 14% had unrecognized PAD. Only 44% of patients in Group 2 had exertional leg symptoms. Distances achieved in the 6-minute walk were 1,130, 1,362, and 1,539 feet for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, adjusting for age, gender, and race (P < .001). The degree of difficulty walking due to leg symptoms as reported on the WIQ was comparable between Groups 2 and 3 and significantly greater in Group 1 than Group 2. In multiple logistic regression analysis including Groups 2 and 3, current cigarette smoking was associated independently with unrecognized PAD (odds ratio [OR], 6.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.55 to 29.93). Aspirin therapy was nearly independently associated with absence of PAD (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.12). CONCLUSION Unrecognized PAD is common among men and women aged 55 years and older in GIM practice and is associated with impaired lower extremity functioning. Ankle brachial index screening may be necessary to diagnose unrecognized PAD in a GIM

  18. Rehabilitation Outcomes After Inpatient Rehabilitation for Lower Extremity Amputations in Patients With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Kavita; Fong, Ngan Phoon; Chan, Kin Ming; Tan, Boon Yeow; Menon, Edward; Ee, Chye Hua; Lee, Kok Keng; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2016-09-01

    To identify factors associated with functional gain, discharge destination, and long-term survival after inpatient rehabilitation in patients with lower extremity amputation and diabetes. Retrospective medical records review. All community hospitals. Patients with diabetes (N=256) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation after lower extremity amputation. Not applicable. Absolute functional gain (AFG) using the Shah-modified Barthel Index, discharge destination, and long-term survival for each patient. Length of stay (B=.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], .08-.21; P<.001) and admission functional status (B=-.09; 95% CI, -.18 to -.01; P=.032) were significantly associated with AFG. Availability of caregiver (foreign domestic worker: odds ratio [OR], 16.39; 95% CI, 4.65-57.78; P<.001; child: OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.31-11.12; P=.014; spouse: OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.07-7.46; P=.037 vs none), Charlson Comorbidity Index of 1 (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.34-13.93; P=.014 vs ≥4), and younger age (OR, .96; 95% CI, .93-.99; P=.02) were significantly associated with being discharged home. Admission functional status (hazard ratio [HR], .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P<.001), AFG (HR, .99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.00; P=.058), Charlson Comorbidity Index (1 vs ≥4: HR, .42; 95% CI, .24-.77; P=.004), ischemic heart disease (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.27-4.00; P=.006), discharge destination (other vs home: HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.23; P=.041), age (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P=.082), and ethnicity (Malay vs Chinese: HR, .37; 95% CI, .16-.87; P=.022) predicted survival postamputation. Admission functional status predicted both functional gain during rehabilitation and survival in these patients. We also found ethnic differences in outcomes, with Malays having better survival after amputation. Lastly, there appears to be greater reliance on foreign domestic workers as caregivers, with patients with foreign domestic workers as their primary caregiver having the highest odds of being discharged home. Copyright © 2016

  19. Shifting paradigms in the treatment of lower extremity vascular disease: a report of 1000 percutaneous interventions.

    PubMed

    DeRubertis, Brian G; Faries, Peter L; McKinsey, James F; Chaer, Rabih A; Pierce, Matthew; Karwowski, John; Weinberg, Alan; Nowygrod, Roman; Morrissey, Nicholas J; Bush, Harry L; Kent, K Craig

    2007-09-01

    Catheter-based revascularization has emerged as an alternative to surgical bypass for lower extremity vascular disease and is a frequently used tool in the armamentarium of the vascular surgeon. In this study we report contemporary outcomes of 1000 percutaneous infra-inguinal interventions performed by a single vascular surgery division. We evaluated a prospectively maintained database of 1000 consecutive percutaneous infra-inguinal interventions between 2001 and 2006 performed for claudication (46.3%) or limb-threatening ischemia (52.7%; rest pain in 27.7% and tissue loss in 72.3%). Treatments included angioplasty with or without stenting, laser angioplasty, and atherectomy of the femoral, popliteal, and tibial vessels. Mean age was 71.4 years and 57.3% were male; comorbidities included hypertension (84%), coronary artery disease (51%), diabetes (58%), tobacco use (52%), and chronic renal insufficiency (39%). Overall 30-day mortality was 0.5%. Two-year primary and secondary patencies and rate of amputation were 62.4%, 79.3%, and 0.5%, respectively, for patients with claudication. Two-year primary and secondary patencies and limb salvage rates were 37.4%, 55.4%, and 79.3% for patients with limb-threatening ischemia. By multivariable Cox PH modeling, limb-threat as procedural indication (P < 0.0001), diabetes (P = 0.003), hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.001), coronary artery disease (P = 0.047), and Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus D lesion complexity (P = 0.050) were independent predictors of recurrent disease. For patients that developed recurrent disease, 7.5% required no further intervention, 60.3% underwent successful percutaneous reintervention, 11.7% underwent bypass and 20.5% underwent amputation. Patency rates were identical for the initial procedure and subsequent reinterventions (P = 0.97). Percutaneous therapy for peripheral vascular disease is associated with minimal mortality and can achieve 2-year secondary patency rates of nearly 80% in patients

  20. Determining Reliability of a Dual-Task Functional Mobility Protocol for Individuals With Lower Extremity Amputation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Susan W; Frengopoulos, Courtney; Holmes, Jeff; Viana, Ricardo; Payne, Michael W

    2018-04-01

    To determine the relative and absolute reliability of a dual-task functional mobility assessment. Cross-sectional study. Academic rehabilitation hospital. Individuals (N=60) with lower extremity amputation attending an outpatient amputee clinic (mean age, 58.21±12.59y; 18, 80% male) who were stratified into 3 groups: (1) transtibial amputation of vascular etiology (n=20); (2) transtibial amputation of nonvascular etiology (n=20); and (3) transfemoral or bilateral amputation of any etiology (n=20). Not applicable. Time to complete the L Test measured functional mobility under single- and dual-task conditions. The addition of a cognitive task (serial subtractions by 3's) created dual-task conditions. Single-task performance on the cognitive task was also reported. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) measured relative reliability; SEM and minimal detectable change with a 95% confidence interval (MDC 95 ) measured absolute reliability. Bland-Altman plots measured agreement between assessments. Relative reliability results were excellent for all 3 groups. Values for the dual-task L Test for those with transtibial amputation of vascular etiology (n=20; mean age, 60.36±7.84y; 19, 90% men) were ICC=.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-.99), SEM=1.36 seconds, and MDC 95 =3.76 seconds; for those with transtibial amputation of nonvascular etiology (n=20; mean age, 55.85±14.08y; 17, 85% men), values were ICC=.93 (95% CI, .80-.98), SEM=1.34 seconds, and MDC 95 =3.71 seconds; and for those with transfemoral or bilateral amputation (n=20; mean age, 58.21±14.88y; 13, 65% men), values were ICC=.998 (95% CI, .996-.999), SEM=1.03 seconds, and MDC 95 =2.85 seconds. Bland-Altman plots indicated that assessments did not vary systematically for each group. This dual-task assessment protocol achieved approved levels of relative reliability values for the 3 groups tested. This protocol may be used clinically or in research settings to assess the interaction between cognition

  1. [RECONSTRUCTION OF LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTION OF COMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY RATS BY FIRST NEURON CONNECTION].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyong; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Jianjun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of the first neuron connection for the reconstruction of lower extremity function of complete spinal cord injury rats. Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats of 300-350 g in weight were selected to prepare the models of L₁ transverse spinal cord injury. After 2 weeks of establishing model, the rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 20) and experimental group (n = 20). In the experimental group, the right hind limb function was reconstructed directly by the first neuron; in the control group, the other treatments were the same to the experimental group except that the distal tibial nerve and the proximal femoral nerve were not sutured. The recovery of motor function of lower extremity was observed by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system on bilateral hind limbs at 7, 30, 50, and 70 days after operation. The changes of the spinal cord were observed by HE staining, neurofilament 200 immunohistochemistry staining, and the technique of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing. After establishing models, 6 rats died. The right hind limb had no obvious recovery of the motor function, with the BBB score of 0 in 2 groups; the left hind limb motor function was recovered in different degrees, and there was no significant difference in BBB score between 2 groups (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, HE staining showed that the spinal cord was reconstructed with the sciatic nerve, which was embedded in the spinal cord, and the sciatic nerve membrane was clearly identified, and there was no obvious atrophy in the connecting part of the spinal cord. In the experimental group, the expression of nerve fiber was stained with immunohistochemistry, and the axons of the spinal cord were positively by stained and the peripheral nerve was connected with the spinal cord. HRP labelled synapses were detected by HRP retrograde tracing in the experimental group, while there was no HRP labelled synapse in the control group. Direct reconstruction

  2. Associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain: results from a population-based foot study.

    PubMed

    Riskowski, Jody L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hagedorn, Thomas J; Hillstrom, Howard J; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-11-01

    Studies have implicated foot posture and foot function as risk factors for lower extremity pain. Empirical population-based evidence for this assertion is lacking; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of foot posture and foot function to lower extremity joint pain in a population-based study of adults. Participants were members of the Framingham Foot Study. Lower extremity joint pain was determined by the response to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-type question, "On most days do you have pain, aching or stiffness in your (hips, knees, ankles, or feet)?" The Modified Arch Index classified participants as having planus, rectus (referent), or cavus foot posture. The Center of Pressure Excursion Index classified participants as having overpronated, normal (referent), or oversupinated foot function. Crude and adjusted (age, sex, and body mass index) logistic regression determined associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain. Participants with planus structure had higher odds of knee (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.24-1.99) or ankle (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.06) pain, whereas those with a cavus foot structure had increased odds of ankle pain only (OR 7.56, 95% CI 1.99-28.8) and pain at 1 lower extremity site (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04-1.80). Associations between foot function and lower extremity joint pain were not statistically significant except for a reduced risk of hip pain in those with an oversupinated foot function (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.93). These findings offer a link between foot posture and lower extremity pain, highlighting the need for longitudinal or intervention studies. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Rasch analysis of the Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale: insights on dimensionality and suggestions for an improved 15-item version.

    PubMed

    Bravini, Elisabetta; Giordano, Andrea; Sartorio, Francesco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Vercelli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    To investigate dimensionality and the measurement properties of the Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale using both classical test theory and Rasch analysis methods, and to provide insights for an improved version of the questionnaire. Rasch analysis of individual patient data. Rehabilitation centre. A total of 135 patients with musculoskeletal diseases of the lower limb. Patients were assessed with the Lower Extremity Functional Scale before and after the rehabilitation. Rasch analysis showed some problems related to rating scale category functioning, items fit, and items redundancy. After an iterative process, which resulted in the reduction of rating scale categories from 5 to 4, and in the deletion of 5 items, the psychometric properties of the Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale improved. The retained 15 items with a 4-level response format fitted the Rasch model (internal construct validity), and demonstrated unidimensionality and good reliability indices (person-separation reliability 0.92; Cronbach's alpha 0.94). Then, the analysis showed differential item functioning for six of the retained items. The sensitivity to change of the Italian 15-item Lower Extremity Functional Scale was nearly equal to the one of the original version (effect size: 0.93 and 0.98; standardized response mean: 1.20 and 1.28, respectively for the 15-item and 20-item versions). The Italian Lower Extremity Functional Scale had unsatisfactory measurement properties. However, removing five items and simplifying the scoring from 5 to 4 levels resulted in a more valid measure with good reliability and sensitivity to change.

  4. Distant Migration of Multiple Siliconomas in Lower Extremities following Breast Implant Rupture: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo Hyun; Song, Seung Yong; Lew, Dae Hyun; Lee, Dong Won

    2016-10-01

    Siliconoma from ruptured breast implants has been reported in multiple body sites, including but not limited to the breast parenchyma, axillary lymph nodes, upper arm, and even lower leg. In this regard, we report a rare case of distant silicone migration to the lower extremities after traumatic breast implant rupture. A 55-year-old Asian woman who received bilateral augmentation mammoplasty 20 years ago presented with ruptured breast implants from a car accident 2 years earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed intracapsular and extracapsular rupture of the right breast implant, showing "linguine sign." We removed the bilateral breast implants and performed capsulectomy and bilateral reduction mammoplasty using inverted-T incisions. The implant was confirmed as a smooth, silicone gel-filled mammary implant of 125 cm 3 by a Japanese manufacturer, Koken. During her regular follow-up outpatient visits, physical examination revealed 2.5- × 1.5-cm ill-defined, tender, subcutaneous nodules on both knees and 8.5- × 3.0-cm inflammatory changes in the inguinal area with persistent pain. Computed tomography showed no definite mass, but rather infiltrative, nonenhancing soft-tissue densities in the subcutaneous layers of the bilateral inguinal and knee areas. Surgical excision was performed, and pathologic findings confirmed variable vacuoles with foreign body reaction and fibrosis, consistent with siliconoma. It is important to acknowledge that siliconomas can be encountered in patients with ruptured breast implants, especially those manufactured decades ago. Our patient with masses as remote as the inguinal and knee areas is a prime example of how far siliconomas can migrate.

  5. Distant Migration of Multiple Siliconomas in Lower Extremities following Breast Implant Rupture: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Joo Hyun; Song, Seung Yong; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Siliconoma from ruptured breast implants has been reported in multiple body sites, including but not limited to the breast parenchyma, axillary lymph nodes, upper arm, and even lower leg. In this regard, we report a rare case of distant silicone migration to the lower extremities after traumatic breast implant rupture. A 55-year-old Asian woman who received bilateral augmentation mammoplasty 20 years ago presented with ruptured breast implants from a car accident 2 years earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed intracapsular and extracapsular rupture of the right breast implant, showing “linguine sign.” We removed the bilateral breast implants and performed capsulectomy and bilateral reduction mammoplasty using inverted-T incisions. The implant was confirmed as a smooth, silicone gel–filled mammary implant of 125 cm3 by a Japanese manufacturer, Koken. During her regular follow-up outpatient visits, physical examination revealed 2.5- × 1.5-cm ill-defined, tender, subcutaneous nodules on both knees and 8.5- × 3.0-cm inflammatory changes in the inguinal area with persistent pain. Computed tomography showed no definite mass, but rather infiltrative, nonenhancing soft-tissue densities in the subcutaneous layers of the bilateral inguinal and knee areas. Surgical excision was performed, and pathologic findings confirmed variable vacuoles with foreign body reaction and fibrosis, consistent with siliconoma. It is important to acknowledge that siliconomas can be encountered in patients with ruptured breast implants, especially those manufactured decades ago. Our patient with masses as remote as the inguinal and knee areas is a prime example of how far siliconomas can migrate. PMID:27826457

  6. Does the anatomical localization of lower extremity venous diseases affect the quality of life?

    PubMed

    Sadikoglu, Ganime; Ozcakir, Alis; Ercan, Ilker; Yildiz, Caner; Sadikoglu, Yurtkuran

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the effects of venous diseases at different anatomical localizations on the qualities of life of patients with varicose veins. The study included 354 cases, which was referred to a private vascular and interventional radiology center in Bursa, Turkey between January 2005 to January 2006. The cases were diagnosed with visual inspection and were clinically indicative of varicose veins. Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to radiologically examine the varicose veins. All cases were accepted as class II criteria according to the Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, Pathophysiologic classification. The generic Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) was used to measure physical and mental quality of life (QOL). High scores indicated good QOL. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0 program was used for the statistical evaluation. When the life SF-36 quality parameters of cases with different anatomical localizations of the varicose veins were examined, only the mental health scores were found to differ in different groups (p<0.01). In females and males with superficial venous disease, significant differences were found in physical function, physical role and pain among the physical health scale components, and in vitality and emotional role scores among the mental state determinants. When females and males with deep vein disease were compared, significant differences were found among both physical and mental health determinants. Anatomical localization of lower extremity varicose veins can be accepted as a predictive factor in determining the life qualities of patients with varicosities in their lower limb, and should be used to regulate their therapy and follow up protocols.

  7. A Randomized, Clinical Trial of Preadmission Chlorhexidine Skin Preparation for Lower Extremity Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Elmallah, Randa K; Mont, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    Periprosthetic infections are devastating postoperative complications of total joint arthroplasty (TJA), with native skin flora commonly identified as causative organisms. We compared 2% chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths to standard-of-care antiseptic bathing in patients before TJA, to evaluate periprosthetic infection risk at 1-year follow-up. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial at a single institution of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. Chlorhexidine-treated patients (275 arthroplasties) applied 2% chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths the night before and morning of admission. The standard-of-care cohort (279 arthroplasties) bathed with soap and water preadmission. Patients were excluded according to the following: (1) unable to comply with study requirements, (2) pregnant, (3) <18 years, (4) medical history of immunosuppression or steroid use, (5) chronic hepatitis B/C infection, (6) had infection around joint requiring surgery, or (7) chose not to participate. A total of 539 patients (554 arthroplasties) were included in the final population. There were no significant differences in American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, cut time, risk scores, or diabetes and smoking prevalence between cohorts (P > .05). A lower periprosthetic infection rate was found in the chlorhexidine cohort (0.4%) when compared to standard-of-care cohorts (2.9%). The infection odds ratio was 8.15 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-65.6; P = .049) for the standard-of-care cohort compared to the chlorhexidine cohort. No differences in assessed risk factors were found between groups. No severe adverse events were observed. Preoperative chlorhexidine cloth use decreased the risk of periprosthetic infection. This may be an appropriate antiseptic protocol to implement for patients undergoing lower extremity TJA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrical stimulation of human lower extremities enhances energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Taku; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kazuwa; Moritani, Toshio

    2004-03-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that low-frequency electrical stimulation (ES) of quadriceps muscles alone significantly enhanced glucose disposal rate (GDR) during euglycemic clamp (Hamada T, Sasaki H, Hayashi T, Moritani T, and Nakao K. J Appl Physiol 94: 2107-2112, 2003). The present study is further follow-up to examine the acute metabolic effects of ES to lower extremities compared with voluntary cycle exercise (VE) at identical intensity. In eight male subjects lying in the supine position, both lower leg (tibialis anterior and triceps surae) and thigh (quadriceps and hamstrings) muscles were sequentially stimulated to cocontract in an isometric manner at 20 Hz with a 1-s on-off duty cycle for 20 min. Despite small elevation of oxygen uptake by 7.3 +/- 0.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) during ES, the blood lactate concentration was significantly increased by 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l in initial period (5 min) after the onset of the ES (P < 0.01), whereas VE showed no such changes at identical oxygen uptake (7.5 +/- 0.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). ES also induced enhanced whole body carbohydrate oxidation as shown by the significantly higher respiratory gas exchange ratio than with VE (P < 0.01). These data indicated increased anaerobic glycolysis by ES. Furthermore, whole body glucose uptake determined by GDR during euglycemic clamp demonstrated a significant increase during and after the cessation of ES for at least 90 min (P < 0.01). This post-ES effect was significantly greater than that of the post-VE period (P < 0.01). These results suggest that ES can substantially enhance energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake at low intensity of exercise. Percutaneous ES may become a therapeutic utility to enhance glucose metabolism in humans.

  9. Comparison of neuromuscular abnormalities between upper and lower extremities in hemiparetic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, M M; AliBiglou, L; Thajchayapong, M; Lilaonitkul, T; Rymer, W Z

    2006-01-01

    We studied the neuromuscular mechanical properties of the elbow and ankle joints in chronic, hemiparetic stroke patients and healthy subjects. System identification techniques were used to characterize the mechanical abnormalities of these joints and to identify the contribution of intrinsic and reflex stiffness to these abnormalities. Modulation of intrinsic and reflex stiffness with the joint angle was studied by applying PRBS perturbations to the joint at different joint angles. The experiments were performed for both spastic (stroke) and contralateral (control) sides of stroke patients and one side of healthy (normal) subjects. We found reflex stiffness gain (GR) was significantly larger in the stroke than the control side for both elbow and ankle joints. GR was also strongly position dependent in both joints. However, the modulation of GR with position was slightly different in two joints. GR was also larger in the control than the normal joints but the differences were significant only for the ankle joint. Intrinsic stiffness gain (K) was also significantly larger in the stroke than the control joint at elbow extended positions and at ankle dorsiflexed positions. Modulation of K with the ankle angle was similar for stroke, control and normal groups. In contrast, the position dependency of the elbow was different. K was larger in the control than normal ankle whereas it was lower in the control than normal elbow. However, the differences were not significant for any joint. The findings demonstrate that both reflex and intrinsic stiffness gain increase abnormally in both upper and lower extremities. However, the major contribution of intrinsic and reflex stiffness to the abnormalities is at the end of ROM and at the middle ROM, respectively. The results also demonstrate that the neuromuscular properties of the contralateral limb are not normal suggesting that it may not be used as a suitable control at least for the ankle study.

  10. Lower extremity kinematics that correlate with success in lateral load transfers over a low friction surface.

    PubMed

    Catena, Robert D; Xu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    We previously studied balance during lateral load transfers, but were left without explanation of why some individuals were successful in novel low friction conditions and others were not. Here, we retrospectively examined lower extremity kinematics between successful (SL) and unsuccessful (UL) groups to determine what characteristics may improve low friction performance. Success versus failure over a novel slippery surface was used to dichotomise 35 healthy working-age individuals into the two groups (SL and UL). Participants performed lateral load transfers over three sequential surface conditions: high friction, novel low friction, and practiced low friction. The UL group used a wide stance with rotation mostly at the hips during the high and novel low friction conditions. To successfully complete the practiced low friction task, they narrowed their stance and pivoted both feet and torso towards the direction of the load, similar to the SL group in all conditions. This successful kinematic method potentially results in reduced muscle demand throughout the task. Practitioner Summary: The reason for this paper is to retrospectively examine the different load transfer strategies that are used in a low friction lateral load transfer. We found stance width to be the major source of success, while sagittal plane motion was altered to potentially maintain balance.

  11. Evaluation, management and prevention of lower extremity youth ice hockey injuries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Charles A; Schulz, Brian M; Park, Caroline N; Bottiglieri, Thomas S; Lynch, T Sean

    2016-01-01

    Ice hockey is a fast-paced sport played by increasing numbers of children and adolescents in North America and around the world. Requiring a unique blend of skill, finesse, power and teamwork, ice hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is ongoing concern about the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury associated with participation in ice hockey. Injury rates in ice hockey are among the highest in all competitive sports. Numerous research studies have been implemented to better understand the risks of injury. As a result, rule changes were adopted by the USA Hockey and Hockey Canada to raise the minimum age at which body checking is permitted to 13-14 years (Bantam level) from 11-12 years (Pee Wee). Continuing the education of coaches, parents and players on rules of safe play, and emphasizing the standards for proper equipment use are other strategies being implemented to make the game safer to play. The objective of this article was to review the evaluation, management and prevention of common lower extremity youth hockey injuries.

  12. Lower extremity thrust and non-thrust joint mobilization for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Brad G; Simon, Corey B

    2014-05-01

    A 40-year old female presented to physical therapy with a one-year history of insidious right anteromedial and anterolateral knee pain. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple lateral ankle sprains bilaterally, the last sprain occurring on the right ankle 1 year prior to the onset of knee pain. The patient was evaluated and given a physical therapy diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), with associated talocrural and tibiofemoral joint hypomobility limiting ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension, respectively. Treatment included a high-velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation to the talocrural joint, which helped restore normal ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. The patient also received tibiofemoral joint non-thrust manual therapy to regain normal knee extension mobility prior to implementing further functional progression exercises to her home program (HEP). This case report highlights the importance of a detailed evaluation of knee and ankle joint mobility in patients presenting with anterior knee pain. Further, manual physical therapy to the lower extremity was found to be successful in restoring normal movement patterns and pain-free function in a patient with chronic anterior knee pain.

  13. Fit and Strong!: bolstering maintenance of physical activity among older adults with lower-extremity osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Susan L; Seymour, Rachel B; Campbell, Richard T; Desai, Pankaja; Huber, Gail; Chang, H Justina

    2010-01-01

    To compare the impact of negotiated vs. mainstreamed follow-up with telephone reinforcement (TR) on maintenance of physical activity (PA) after Fit and Strong! ended. A multisite comparative effectiveness trial with repeated measures. Single group random effects analyses showed significant improvements at 2, 6, 12, and 18 months on PA maintenance, lower-extremity (LE) pain and stiffness, LE function, sit-stand, 6-minute distance walk, and anxiety/depression. Analyses by follow-up condition showed persons in the negotiated with TR group maintained a 21% increase in caloric expenditures over baseline at 18 months, with lesser benefits seen in the negotiated-only, mainstreamed-with-TR, and mainstreamed-only groups. Significant benefits of telephone dose were also seen on LE joint stiffness, pain, and function as well as anxiety and anxiety/depression. The negotiated follow-up contract that Fit and Strong! uses, bolstered by TR, is associated with enhanced long-term PA maintenance and health outcomes.

  14. Reproducibility of the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during normal stair-climbing.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Kienbacher, T; Growney, E S; Johnson, M E; An, K N

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intrasubject reproducibility of the kinematic and kinetic measures of the lower extremity during normal stair-climbing. Three-dimensional video and force-plate data were collected for three trials per subject during each of three conditions: ascending, descending, and level walking. Three-dimensional angles and moments of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were calculated. The coefficient of multiple correlation was used to determine the intrasubject reproducibility of joint angles and resultant moments. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was conducted to compare the magnitudes of the coefficients between different steps, different joints, and different joint functions. The results showed that (a) generally, the kinematic and kinetic measures of normal subjects climbing stairs were reproducible; (b) the kinetic measures during the transition steps from level walking to ascending and from descending to level walking were significantly less reproducible than those during the other steps; (c) the data from the sagittal plane were more reproducible than those from the other two planes; and (d) the kinetic measures were more reproducible than the kinematic measures, especially for abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation.

  15. Lower-extremity biomechanics during forward and lateral stepping activities in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man-Ying; Flanagan, Sean; Song, Joo-Eun; Greendale, Gail A.; Salem, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the lower-extremity biomechanics associated with stepping activities in older adults. Design Repeated-measures comparison of kinematics and kinetics associated with forward step-up and lateral step-up activities. Background Biomechanical analysis may be used to assess the effectiveness of various ‘in-home activities’ in targeting appropriate muscle groups and preserving functional strength and power in elders. Methods Data were analyzed from 21 participants (mean 74.7 yr (standard deviation, 4.4 yr)) who performed the forward and lateral step-up activities while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Motion analysis equipment, inverse dynamics equations, and repeated measures anovas were used to contrast the maximum joint angles, peak net joint moments, angular impulse, work, and power associated with the activities. Results The lateral step-up resulted in greater maximum knee flexion (P < 0.001) and ankle dorsiflexion angles (P < 0.01). Peak joint moments were similar between exercises. The forward step-up generated greater peak hip power (P < 0.05) and total work (P < 0.001); whereas, the lateral step-up generated greater impulse (P < 0.05), work (P < 0.01), and power (P < 0.05) at the knee and ankle. Conclusions In older adults, the forward step-up places greater demand on the hip extensors, while lateral step-up places greater demand on the knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors. PMID:12620784

  16. Imaging of Sports-related Injuries of the Lower Extremity in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, M Cody; Jaramillo, Diego; Bancroft, Laura; Varich, Laura; Logsdon, Gregory; Servaes, Sabah

    2016-10-01

    With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports. However, some injuries that occur almost exclusively in high-level athletes (eg, athletic pubalgia) are reviewed to increase awareness and understanding of these entities among pediatric radiologists who may not be familiar with them and thus may not look for them. Injuries are described according to their location (ie, hip, knee, or foot and ankle) and pathologic process (eg, apophysitis, osteochondritis dissecans). Examples of abnormalities and normal variants of the anatomy that are often misdiagnosed are provided. The injuries reviewed represent a common and growing subset of pathologic processes about which all pediatric and musculoskeletal radiologists should be knowledgeable. Understanding physeal injury is especially important because missed diagnoses can lead to premature physeal closure and osteoarthritis. © RSNA, 2016.

  17. Lower extremity control during turns initiated with and without hip external rotation.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Flashner, Henryk; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2017-02-08

    The pirouette turn is often initiated in neutral and externally rotated hip positions by dancers. This provides an opportunity to investigate how dancers satisfy the same mechanical objectives at the whole-body level when using different leg kinematics. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity control strategies during the turn initiation phase of pirouettes performed with and without hip external rotation. Skilled dancers (n=5) performed pirouette turns with and without hip external rotation. Joint kinetics during turn initiation were determined for both legs using ground reaction forces (GRFs) and segment kinematics. Hip muscle activations were monitored using electromyography. Using probability-based statistical methods, variables were compared across turn conditions as a group and within-dancer. Despite differences in GRFs and impulse generation between turn conditions, at least 90% of each GRF was aligned with the respective leg plane. A majority of the net joint moments at the ankle, knee, and hip acted about an axis perpendicular to the leg plane. However, differences in shank alignment relative to the leg plane affected the distribution of the knee net joint moment when represented with respect to the shank versus the thigh. During the initiation of both turns, most participants used ankle plantar flexor moments, knee extensor moments, flexor and abductor moments at the push leg׳s hip, and extensor and abductor moments at the turn leg׳s hip. Representation of joint kinetics using multiple reference systems assisted in understanding control priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of defects on lower extremities with the use of matriderm and skin graft.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Young; Kim, Seong-Hun; Oh, Gwang-Jin; Roh, Si-Gyun; Lee, Nae-Ho; Yang, Kyung-Moo

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of large skin and soft tissue defects on the lower extremities is challenging. The skin graft is a simple and frequently used method for covering a skin defect. However, poor skin quality and architecture are well-known problems that lead to scar contracture. The collagen-elastin matrix, Matriderm, has been used to improve the quality of skin grafts; however, no statistical and objective review of the results has been reported. Thirty-four patients (23 male and 11 female) who previously received a skin graft and simultaneous application of Matriderm between January 2010 and June 2012 were included in this study. The quality of the skin graft was evaluated using Cutometer, occasionally accompanied by pathologic findings. All 34 patients showed good skin quality compared to a traditional skin graft and were satisfied with their results. The statistical data for the measurement of the mechanical properties of the skin were similar to those for normal skin. In addition, there was no change in the engraftment rate. The biggest problem of a traditional skin graft is scar contracture. However, the dermal matrix presents an improvement in skin quality with elastin and collagen. Therefore, a skin graft along with a simultaneous application of Matriderm is safe and effective and leads to a significantly better outcome from the perspective of skin elasticity.

  19. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Emma; Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul; Frantzis, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cm bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations. PMID:26229657

  20. The effects of age and type of carrying task on lower extremity kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Gillette, Jason C.; Stevermer, Catherine A.; Miller, Ross H.; Meardon, Stacey A.; Schwab, Charles V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age, load amount, and load symmetry on lower extremity kinematics during carrying tasks. Forty-two participants in four age groups (8-10 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, and adults) carried loads of 0%, 10%, and 20% body weight (BW) in large or small buckets unilaterally and bilaterally. Reflective markers were tracked to determine total joint ROM and maximum joint angles during the stance phase of walking. Maximum hip extension, hip adduction, and hip internal rotation angles were significantly greater for each of the child/adolescent age groups as compared to adults. In addition, maximum hip internal rotation angles significantly increased when carrying a 20% BW load. The observation that the 8-10 year old age group carried the lightest absolute loads and still displayed the highest maximum hip internal rotation angles suggests a particular necessity in setting carrying guidelines for the youngest children. PMID:20191410

  1. Cancer-Specific Mortality Relative to Engagement in Muscle-Strengthening Activities and Lower Extremity Strength.

    PubMed

    Dankel, Scott J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Skeletal muscle strength and engagement in muscle-strengthening activities are each inversely associated with all-cause mortality; however, less is known on their relationship with cancer-specific mortality. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used assessing 2773 individuals aged 50 years or older. Individuals being dichotomized at the 75th percentile for knee extensor strength, and engagement in muscle-strengthening activities was acquired through self-report with ≥2 sessions per week were classified as meeting guidelines. With respect to cancer-specific mortality, individuals in the upper quartile for muscle strength were at a 50% reduced risk (hazard ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.85; P = .01) and those meeting muscle-strengthening activities were at a nonsignificant 8% reduced risk (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.86, P = .81) of cancer-specific mortality after adjusting for covariates. Clinicians should routinely assess lower extremity strength and promote engagement in muscle-strengthening activities aimed at increasing muscle strength.

  2. Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton training: Case studies for complete spinal cord injury walking.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Smith, Andrew J; Herbert-Copley, Andrew; Sreenivasan, Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in exoskeleton technology has made lower extremity powered exoskeletons (LEPE) a viable treatment tool to restore upright walking mobility to persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Evaluate ARKE exoskeleton training within a rehabilitation centre environment. Case studies are presented for two male participants, age 41 and 30, motor complete SCI at T6 (N01) and T12 (N02), respectively, as they progress from new LEPE users to independent walking. The ARKE 2.0 LEPE (Bionik Laboratories Inc., Toronto, Canada) was used for all training (hip and knee powered, forearm crutches, control tablet). Data were collected on session times, activity metrics from ARKE system logs, and qualitative questionnaire feedback. N01 required 18, 30-minute training sessions to achieve independent walking. N01 walked independently within the 12 session target. Foot strikes were frequently before the end of the programmed swing phase, which were handled by the ARKE control system. Subjective ratings of LEPE learning, comfort, pain, fatigue, and overall experience were high for sitting-standing and moderate to high for walking. This reflected the complexity of learning to safely walk. Qualitative feedback supported the continuation of LEPE use in rehabilitation settings based on end-user desire for upright mobility.

  3. Lower Extremity Muscle Activity during Cycling in Adolescents with and without Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Richard T.; Johnston, Therese E.; Smith, Brian T.; Lee, Samuel C.K.

    2008-01-01

    Background In individuals with cerebral palsy (CP), adaptation and plasticity in the neuromuscular system can lead to detrimental changes affecting gait. Cycling may be an effective method to improve mobility. The biomechanics of cycling in adolescents with CP have been studied, but further analysis of the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signals can assist with interpretation of the cycling kinematics. Methods Data were analyzed from ten adolescents with typical development (TD) (mean = 14.9 SD = 1.4 years) and ten adolescents with CP (mean = 15.6 SD = 1.8 years) as they cycled at two different cadences. Analyses of the lower extremity EMG signals involved frequency and amplitude analysis across the cycling revolution. Findings Examination of cycling cadence revealed that adolescents with CP had altered EMG characteristics in comparison to adolescents with typical development across the entire crank revolution for all muscles. Analyses of individual muscles indicated both inappropriate muscle activation and weakness. Interpretation A more comprehensive analysis of EMG activity has the potential to provide insight into how a task is accomplished. In this study, the control of the several muscles, especially the rectus femoris, was significantly different in adolescents with cerebral palsy. This, combined with muscle weakness, may have contributed to the observed deviations in joint kinematics. Interventions that increase muscle strength with feedback to the nervous system about appropriate activation timing may be beneficial to allow individuals with CP to cycle more efficiently. PMID:18082920

  4. [Clinical analysis of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis complicated with inferior vena cava thrombus].

    PubMed

    Dong, Dian-ning; Wu, Xue-jun; Zhang, Shi-yi; Zhong, Zhen-yue; Jin, Xing

    2013-06-04

    To explore the clinical profiles of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) complicated with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus and summarize their clinical diagnostic and therapeutic experiences. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of 20 hospitalized patients with DVT complicated with inferior vena cava thrombus were analyzed retrospectively. All of them were of proximal DVT. There were phlegmasia cerulea dolens (n = 3), pulmonary embolism (n = 3) and completely occlusion of IVC (n = 5). Clinical manifestations were severe. Retrievable inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) was implanted for 17 cases. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) through ipsilateral popliteal vein was applied for 7 cases and systemic thrombolysis therapy for 8 cases. The effective rate of thrombolysis for fresh IVC thrombus was 100%. Among 5 cases with Cockett Syndrome, 3 cases underwent balloon dilatation angioplasty and endovascular stenting of iliac vein. And 17 IVCFs were retrieved successfully within 3 weeks. IVC thrombus disappeared completely in 15 cases. Systemic or local thrombolysis with protective IVCF is a safe and effective therapy for nonocclusive IVC thrombus in DVT. And CDT is recommended for symptomatic occlusive IVC thrombus.

  5. Hospital costs for patients with lower extremity cellulitis: a retrospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Challener, Douglas; Marcelin, Jasmine; Visscher, Sue; Baddour, Larry

    2017-12-01

    Hospital admissions for non-purulent lower extremity cellulitis (NLEC) are common and can be prolonged and costly. Newer treatment options and preventive strategies are expected to result in cost savings before implementation, but few studies have quantified the cost of conventional treatment. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, the incidence of NLEC in Olmsted County, MN in 2013 was 176.6 per 100,000 persons. The subset of patients who required hospitalization for NLEC in 2013 was determined. Hospital admissions were analyzed retrospectively using standardized cost analysis within several relevant categories. Thirty-four patients had an average hospital length of stay of 4.7 days. The median total inpatient cost was $7,341. The median cost per day was $2,087, with 49% due to room and board. Antibiotics administered for treatment of NLEC contributed a median cost of $75 per day of hospitalization, and laboratory and imaging test costs were $73 and $44, respectively, per day of hospitalization. Hospitalizations for NLEC can be costly and prolonged with room and board accounting for much of the cost. Therefore, newer management strategies should seek to reduce hospital length of stay and/or avoid inpatient admission to reduce cost.

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Emma, E-mail: emmafitz1390@gmail.com; Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul

    2014-09-15

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cmmore » bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations.« less

  7. Sex differences in lower extremity kinematics and patellofemoral kinetics during running.

    PubMed

    Almonroeder, Thomas G; Benson, Lauren C

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of patellofemoral pain (PFP) is 2 times greater in females compared with males of similar activity levels; however, the exact reason for this discrepancy remains unclear. Abnormal mechanics of the hip and knee in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes have been associated with an increased risk of PFP. The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanics of the lower extremity in males and females during running in order to better understand the reason(s) behind the sex discrepancy in PFP. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected as male and female participants completed overground running trials at a speed of 4.0 m · s -1 (±5%). Patellofemoral joint stress (PFJS) was estimated using a sagittal plane knee model. The kinematics of the hip and knee in the frontal and transverse planes were also analysed. Male participants demonstrated significantly greater sagittal plane peak PFJS in comparison with the female participants (P < .001, ES = 1.9). However, the female participants demonstrated 3.5° greater peak hip adduction and 3.4° greater peak hip internal rotation (IR). As a result, it appears that the sex discrepancy in PFP is more likely to be related to differences in the kinematics of the hip in the frontal and transverse planes than differences in sagittal plane PFJS.

  8. Evaluation, management and prevention of lower extremity youth ice hockey injuries

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Charles A; Schulz, Brian M; Park, Caroline N; Bottiglieri, Thomas S; Lynch, T Sean

    2016-01-01

    Ice hockey is a fast-paced sport played by increasing numbers of children and adolescents in North America and around the world. Requiring a unique blend of skill, finesse, power and teamwork, ice hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is ongoing concern about the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury associated with participation in ice hockey. Injury rates in ice hockey are among the highest in all competitive sports. Numerous research studies have been implemented to better understand the risks of injury. As a result, rule changes were adopted by the USA Hockey and Hockey Canada to raise the minimum age at which body checking is permitted to 13–14 years (Bantam level) from 11–12 years (Pee Wee). Continuing the education of coaches, parents and players on rules of safe play, and emphasizing the standards for proper equipment use are other strategies being implemented to make the game safer to play. The objective of this article was to review the evaluation, management and prevention of common lower extremity youth hockey injuries. PMID:27920584

  9. Field-expedient screening and injury risk algorithm categories as predictors of noncontact lower extremity injury.

    PubMed

    Lehr, M E; Plisky, P J; Butler, R J; Fink, M L; Kiesel, K B; Underwood, F B

    2013-08-01

    In athletics, efficient screening tools are sought to curb the rising number of noncontact injuries and associated health care costs. The authors hypothesized that an injury prediction algorithm that incorporates movement screening performance, demographic information, and injury history can accurately categorize risk of noncontact lower extremity (LE) injury. One hundred eighty-three collegiate athletes were screened during the preseason. The test scores and demographic information were entered into an injury prediction algorithm that weighted the evidence-based risk factors. Athletes were then prospectively followed for noncontact LE injury. Subsequent analysis collapsed the groupings into two risk categories: Low (normal and slight) and High (moderate and substantial). Using these groups and noncontact LE injuries, relative risk (RR), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Forty-two subjects sustained a noncontact LE injury over the course of the study. Athletes identified as High Risk (n = 63) were at a greater risk of noncontact LE injury (27/63) during the season [RR: 3.4 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 6.0]. These results suggest that an injury prediction algorithm composed of performance on efficient, low-cost, field-ready tests can help identify individuals at elevated risk of noncontact LE injury. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Validity of the lower extremity functional movement screen in patients with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of construct validity for the lower extremity functional movement screen (LE-FMS) based on hypothesis testing in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). [Subjects] The subjects were 20 healthy subjects and 20 patients with CAI who had a history of ankle sprain with pain for more than 1 day. [Methods] All participants were measured using the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and evaluated with the LE-FMS. The screen included the deep squat, the hurdle step (HS) and the in-line lunge (ILL). The symmetry ratios (RS) were accurately measured during the deep squat trial. [Results] Between the two groups, there were significant differences in scores on the LE-FMS, HS, ILL, RS, FADI, and FADI-sport. The FADI was strongly correlated with both LE-FMS score (r=0.807) and ILL score (r=0.896). There was a strong relationship (r=0.818) between LE-FMS score and FADI-sport. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the LE-FMS may be used to detect deficits related to CAI. Additionally, this instrument is reliable in detecting functional limitations in patients with CAI.

  11. Design and characterization of a magneto-rheological series elastic actuator for a lower extremity exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing; Zhao, Xuan; Ma, Hao; Qin, Ling; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an innovative actuator named magneto-rheological series elastic actuator (MRSEA) is designed for the knee joints of a lower extremity exoskeleton CUHK-EXO. MRSEA is designed to reduce the mechanical impedance of the exoskeleton and filter out unwanted collisions. It can also provide large controllable braking torque with low power, and hence improve the system energy efficiency. A description of CUHK-EXO developed to help paraplegic patients regain the mobility to stand up, sit down and walk is firstly introduced, followed by the mechanical design of MRSEA and simulation of the torsion spring pack (TSP) and magneto-rheological (MR) brake of MRSEA. Prototype of MRSEA is fabricated. Preliminary tests are performed to investigate the characteristics of the TSP and MR brake, and walking experiments with a paraplegic patient are performed to evaluate the performance of MRSEA. Experimental results of MRSEA match the modeling and simulation. As compared with the electric motor, the energy efficiency of the innovative MRSEA is improved by 52.8% during a gait cycle.

  12. The influence of knee alignment on lower extremity kinetics during squats.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lindsay V; Hart, Joseph M

    2016-12-01

    The squat is an assessment of lower extremity alignment during movement, however there is little information regarding altered joint kinetics during poorly performed squats. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in joint kinetics and power from altered knee alignment during a squat. Thirty participants completed squats while displacing the knee medially, anteriorly, and with neutral alignment (control). Sagittal and frontal plane torques at the ankle, knee, and hip were altered in the descending and ascending phase of the squat in both the medial and anterior malaligned squat compared to the control squat. Ankle and trunk power increased and hip power decreased in the medial malaligned squat compared to the control squat. Ankle, knee, and trunk power increased and hip power decreased in the anterior malaligned squat compared to the control squat. Changes in joint torques and power during malaligned squats suggest that altered knee alignment increases ankle and trunk involvement to execute the movement. Increased anterior knee excursion during squatting may also lead to persistent altered loading of the ankle and knee. Sports medicine professionals using the squat for quadriceps strengthening must consider knee alignment to reduce ankle and trunk involvement during the movement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lower extremity thrust and non-thrust joint mobilization for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Brad G; Simon, Corey B

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year old female presented to physical therapy with a one-year history of insidious right anteromedial and anterolateral knee pain. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple lateral ankle sprains bilaterally, the last sprain occurring on the right ankle 1 year prior to the onset of knee pain. The patient was evaluated and given a physical therapy diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), with associated talocrural and tibiofemoral joint hypomobility limiting ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension, respectively. Treatment included a high-velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation to the talocrural joint, which helped restore normal ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. The patient also received tibiofemoral joint non-thrust manual therapy to regain normal knee extension mobility prior to implementing further functional progression exercises to her home program (HEP). This case report highlights the importance of a detailed evaluation of knee and ankle joint mobility in patients presenting with anterior knee pain. Further, manual physical therapy to the lower extremity was found to be successful in restoring normal movement patterns and pain-free function in a patient with chronic anterior knee pain. PMID:24976753

  14. A novel bilateral lower extremity mirror therapy intervention for individuals with stroke.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lucas D; Marrocco, Stephanie; Brown, Janet; Patterson, Kara K

    2016-12-01

    Despite improvements made in stroke rehabilitation, motor impairment and gait deficits persist at discharge. New interventions are needed. Mirror therapy has promise as one element of a rehabilitation program. The primary objectives were to 1) describe a bilateral, lower extremity mirror therapy (LE-MT) device and training protocol and 2) investigate the feasibility of LE-MT. A LE-MT device was constructed to train bilateral LE movements for 30 min, 3 times/week for 4 weeks, as an adjunct to physiotherapy in three individuals post-stroke. Sessions were digitally recorded and reviewed to extract feasibility measures; repetitions, rests and session duration. Pre and post measures of gait and motor impairment were taken. Two participants completed 100% of the sessions and a third completed 83% due to a recurrence of pre-existing back pain. Repetitions increased and session duration was maintained. Number of rests decreased for two participants and increased for one participant. Participants reported fatigue and mild muscle soreness but also that the intervention was tolerable. Positive gait changes included increased velocity and decreased variability. LE motor impairment also improved. A bilateral LE-MT adjunct intervention for stroke is feasible and may have positive effects. A history of low back pain should be a precaution.

  15. Muscle injuries of the lower extremity: a comparison between young and old male elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Karnebäck, Gustav; Magounakis, Theo; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comparison between players in two age groups in an elite male soccer team regarding injury localisation within the muscle-tendon unit, injury size and muscle group in terms of muscle injuries of the lower extremity. Cohort study based on data collected from a Swedish elite male soccer team during the seasons 2007-2012. In total, 145 muscle injuries were included. Injury localisation to the tendon or muscle, the size of haematoma and the affected muscle group were assessed using ultrasound. Age comparison was made between younger players (≤23 years) and older players (>23 years). No difference regarding injury localisation to either the tendon or the muscle, or the size of haematoma between the two age groups was found. However, the older group of players suffered a significantly higher number of injuries to the triceps surae than the younger players (p = 0.012). In a Swedish team of male soccer players at elite level, there was no difference between players 23 years or younger and players older than 23 years, in terms of injury distribution to muscles or tendons. Players older than 23 years sustained more injuries to triceps surae when compared with players 23 years or younger. The clinical relevance is to pay attention to muscle function of triceps surae in older players and to screen those players who may need an injury prevention programme. II.

  16. Hospital discharge rates for nontraumatic lower extremity amputation by diabetes status--United States, 1997.

    PubMed

    2001-11-02

    Lower extremity amputation (LEA) is a costly and disabling procedure that disproportionately affects persons with diabetes. One of the national health objectives for 2000 was to reduce the LEA rate from a 1991 baseline of approximately eight per 1,000 persons with diabetes to a target of approximately five per 1,000 persons with diabetes. Review of 1996 data indicated an LEA rate of approximately 11. To estimate the national rates of hospital discharges for LEA among persons with and without diabetes and to assess the excess risk for LEA among persons with diabetes, CDC and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) analyzed data from the 1997 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the 1997 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the findings of the analysis, which indicated that the age-adjusted rates of hospital discharges among persons with LEA who had diabetes were 28 times that of those without diabetes. This higher rate underscores the need to increase efforts to prevent risk factors (e.g., peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and infection) that result in LEA among persons with diabetes.

  17. Influences of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takuya; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Ogata, Yuta; Tanimoto, Kenji; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The time-series waveforms of mechanical energy generation, absorption, and transfer through the joints indicate how movements are produced and controlled. Previous studies have used these waveforms to evaluate and describe the efficiency of human movements. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 healthy young males (mean age, 21.8 ± 1.3 years, mean height, 170.5 ± 6.8 cm, and mean weight, 60.2 ± 6.8 kg). Subjects walked at a self-selected gait speed under 2 conditions: normal gait (condition N), and gait with trunk flexion formed with a brace to simulate spinal curvature (condition TF). The data collected from initial contact to the mid-stance of gait was analyzed. [Results] There were no significant differences between the 2 conditions in the mechanical energy flow in the knee joint and negative mechanical work in the knee joint. However, the positive mechanical work of the knee joint under condition TF was significantly less than that under condition N. [Conclusion] Trunk flexion led to knee flexion in a standing posture. Thus, a strategy of moving of center of mass upward by knee extension using less mechanical energy was selected during gait in the trunk flexed posture.

  18. Lower extremity mechanics of iliotibial band syndrome during an exhaustive run.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Lowry, Jennifer L; Meardon, Stacey A; Gillette, Jason C

    2007-09-01

    Injury patterns in distance running may be related to kinematic adjustments induced by fatigue. The goal was to measure changes in lower extremity mechanics during an exhaustive run in individuals with and without a history of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). Sixteen recreational runners ran to voluntary exhaustion on a treadmill at a self-selected pace. Eight runners had a history of ITBS. Twenty-three reflective marker positions were recorded by an eight-camera 120 Hz motion capture system. Joint angles during stance phase were exported to a musculoskeletal model (SIMM) with the iliotibial band (ITB) modeled as a passive structure to estimate strain in the ITB. For ITBS runners, at the end of the run: (1) knee flexion at heel-strike was higher than control (20.6 degrees versus 15.3 degrees, p=0.01); (2) the number of knees with predicted ITB impingment upon the lateral femoral epicondyle increased from 6 to 11. Strain in the ITB was higher in the ITBS runners throughout all of stance. Maximum foot adduction in the ITBS runners was higher versus control at the start of the run (p=0.003). Maximum foot inversion (p=0.03) and maximum knee internal rotation velocity (p=0.02) were higher versus control at the end of the run. In conclusion, ITB mechanics appear to be related to changes in knee flexion at heel-strike and internal rotation of the leg. These observations may suggest kinematic discriminators for clinical assessment.

  19. Abdominal Circumference Versus Body Mass Index as Predictors of Lower Extremity Overuse Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Nye, Nathaniel S; Kafer, Drew S; Olsen, Cara; Carnahan, David H; Crawford, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal circumference (AC) is superior to body mass index (BMI) as a measure of risk for various health outcomes. Our objective was to compare AC and BMI as predictors of lower extremity overuse injury (LEOI) risk. Retrospective review of electronic medical records of 79,868 US Air Force personnel over a 7-year period (2005-2011) for incidence of new LEOI. Subjects were stratified by BMI and AC. Injury risk for BMI/AC subgroups was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve were used to compare each model's predictive value. Cox proportional-hazards regression showed significant risk association between elevated BMI, AC, and all injury types, with hazard ratios ranging 1.230-3.415 for obese versus normal BMI and 1.665-3.893 for high-risk versus low-risk AC (P < .05 for all measures). Receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve showed equivalent performance between BMI and AC for predicting all injury types. However, the combined model (AC and BMI) showed improved predictive ability over either model alone for joint injury, overall LEOI, and most strongly for osteoarthritis. Although AC and BMI alone performed similarly well, a combined approach using BMI and AC together improved risk estimation for LEOI.

  20. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures.

    PubMed

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R; Leenen, Luke P H; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback on weight bearing in individuals with lower extremity fractures in two conditions: full weight bearing and touch-down weight bearing. 11 participants with full weight bearing and 12 participants with touch-down weight bearing after lower extremity fractures have been measured with an ambulatory biofeedback system. The participants first walked 15m and the biofeedback system was only used to register the weight bearing. The same protocol was then repeated with real-time visual feedback during weight bearing. The participants could thereby adapt their loading to the desired level and improve therapy compliance. In participants with full weight bearing, real-time visual biofeedback resulted in a significant increase in loading from 50.9±7.51% bodyweight (BW) without feedback to 63.2±6.74%BW with feedback (P=0.0016). In participants with touch-down weight bearing, the exerted lower extremity load decreased from 16.7±9.77kg without feedback to 10.27±4.56kg with feedback (P=0.0718). More important, the variance between individual steps significantly decreased after feedback (P=0.018). Ambulatory monitoring weight bearing after lower extremity fractures showed that therapy compliance is low, both in full and touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback resulted in significantly higher peak loads in full weight bearing and increased accuracy of individual steps in touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback therefore results in improved therapy compliance after lower extremity fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperature extremes and infant mortality in Bangladesh: Hotter months, lower mortality.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Olufemi; Razzaque, Abdur; Bishai, David

    2018-01-01

    Our study aims to obtain estimates of the size effects of temperature extremes on infant mortality in Bangladesh using monthly time series data. Data on temperature, child and infant mortality were obtained for Matlab district of rural Bangladesh for January 1982 to December 2008 encompassing 49,426 infant deaths. To investigate the relationship between mortality and temperature, we adopted a regression with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) errors model of seasonally adjusted temperature and mortality data. The relationship between monthly mean and maximum temperature on infant mortality was tested at 0 and 1 month lags respectively. Furthermore, our analysis was stratified to determine if the results differed by gender (boys versus girls) and by age (neonates (≤ 30 days) versus post neonates (>30days and <153days)). Dickey Fuller tests were performed to test for stationarity, and since the time series were non-stationary, we conducted the regression analysis based on the first differences of mortality and temperature. Hotter months were associated with lower infant mortality in Bangladesh. Each degree Celsius increase in mean monthly temperature reduced monthly mortality by 3.672 (SE 1.544, p<0.05) points. A one degree increase in mean monthly temperature one month prior reduced mortality by 0.767 (SE 0.439, p<0.1) for boys and by -0.0764 (SE 0.366, NS) for girls. Beneficial effects of maximum monthly temperature were on the order of 0.623 to -0.712 and statistically significant for girls and boys respectively. Effect sizes of mean monthly temperature were larger for neonates at 1.126 (SE 0.499, p<0.05) than for post-neonates at 0.880 (SE 0.310, p<0.05) reductions in mortality per degree. There is no evidence that infant survival is adversely affected by monthly temperature extremes in Bangladesh. This may reflect a more heightened sensitivity of infants to hypothermia than hyperthermia in this environment.

  2. Temperature extremes and infant mortality in Bangladesh: Hotter months, lower mortality

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, Olufemi; Razzaque, Abdur

    2018-01-01

    Background Our study aims to obtain estimates of the size effects of temperature extremes on infant mortality in Bangladesh using monthly time series data. Methods Data on temperature, child and infant mortality were obtained for Matlab district of rural Bangladesh for January 1982 to December 2008 encompassing 49,426 infant deaths. To investigate the relationship between mortality and temperature, we adopted a regression with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) errors model of seasonally adjusted temperature and mortality data. The relationship between monthly mean and maximum temperature on infant mortality was tested at 0 and 1 month lags respectively. Furthermore, our analysis was stratified to determine if the results differed by gender (boys versus girls) and by age (neonates (≤ 30 days) versus post neonates (>30days and <153days)). Dickey Fuller tests were performed to test for stationarity, and since the time series were non-stationary, we conducted the regression analysis based on the first differences of mortality and temperature. Results Hotter months were associated with lower infant mortality in Bangladesh. Each degree Celsius increase in mean monthly temperature reduced monthly mortality by 3.672 (SE 1.544, p<0.05) points. A one degree increase in mean monthly temperature one month prior reduced mortality by 0.767 (SE 0.439, p<0.1) for boys and by -0.0764 (SE 0.366, NS) for girls. Beneficial effects of maximum monthly temperature were on the order of 0.623 to -0.712 and statistically significant for girls and boys respectively. Effect sizes of mean monthly temperature were larger for neonates at 1.126 (SE 0.499, p<0.05) than for post-neonates at 0.880 (SE 0.310, p<0.05) reductions in mortality per degree. Conclusion There is no evidence that infant survival is adversely affected by monthly temperature extremes in Bangladesh. This may reflect a more heightened sensitivity of infants to hypothermia than hyperthermia in this environment

  3. Driving evaluation methods for able-bodied persons and individuals with lower extremity disabilities: a review of assessment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santos, Luciana; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Tate, Denise G

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the driving abilities of individuals with disabilities is often a very challenging task because each medical condition is accompanied by physical impairments and because relative individual functional performance may vary depending on personal characteristics. We identified existing driving evaluation modalities for able-bodied and lower extremity-impaired subjects (spinal cord injury patients and amputees) and evaluated the potential relationships between driving performance and the motor component of driving. An extensive scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify driving assessment tools that are currently used for able-bodied individuals and for those with spinal cord injury or lower extremity amputation. The literature search focused on the assessment of the motor component of driving. References were electronically obtained via Medline from the PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. This article compares the current assessments of driving performance for those with lower extremity impairments with the assessments used for able-bodied persons. Very few articles were found concerning “Lower Extremity Disabilities,” thus confirming the need for further studies that can provide evidence and guidance for such assessments in the future. Little is known about the motor component of driving and its association with the other driving domains, such as vision and cognition. The available research demonstrates the need for a more evidenced-based understanding of how to best evaluate persons with lower extremity impairment. PMID:26375567

  4. Thiazide use is associated with reduced risk for incident lower extremity fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Chin, Amy S; Lee, Todd A; Burns, Stephen P; Svircev, Jelena N; Hoenig, Helen M; Bailey, Lauren; Weaver, Frances M

    2014-06-01

    To determine the association between thiazide use and lower extremity fractures in patients who are men with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Cohort study from fiscal years 2002 to 2007. Medical centers. Men (N=6969) with an SCI from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) Registry, including 1433 users of thiazides and 5536 nonusers of thiazides. Thiazide use versus nonuse. Incident lower extremity fractures. Among the men, 21% in the VA SCD Registry (fiscal years 2002-2007) included in these analyses used thiazide diuretics. There were 832 incident lower extremity fractures over the time period of this study: 110 fractures (7.7%) in 1433 thiazide users and 722 fractures (13%) in 5536 nonusers of thiazides. In unadjusted and adjusted models alike, thiazide use was associated with at least a one-quarter risk reduction in lower extremity fracture at any given point in time (unadjusted: hazard ratio (HR)=.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), .59-.94; adjusted: HR=.74; 95% CI, .58-.95). Thiazide use is common in men with SCI and is associated with a decreased likelihood for lower extremity fractures. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-02-01

    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knee and ankle strength and lower extremity power in adolescent female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Kenne, Ellinor; Unnithan, Viswanath B

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to compare the strength of four muscle groups of the lower limb (quadriceps [Q], hamstrings [H], plantar flexors [PF], and dorsiflexors [DF]) between female adolescent ballet dancers (BALs) and basketball players (BBs) over three angular velocities (30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees/sec) and two types of contraction (eccentric and concentric); and (2) to compare peak and mean power between the BALs and BBs. Eleven BALs (age: 15.8 +/- 1.2 years; stature: 163.9 +/- 6.2 cm; body mass: 56.3 +/- 5.7 kg; Tanner stage 4: N=10, stage 5: N=1) and ten BBs (age: 15.8 +/- 1.0 years; stature: 172.5 +/- 5.8 cm; body mass: 63.2 +/- 10.0 kg; Tanner stage 4: N=7, stage 5: N=3) volunteered to participate. Each participant performed one habituation session and one testing session on a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer to determine peak torque. Three angular velocities (30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees/sec) were used for each muscle group. To determine absolute and relative peak and mean power, participants performed a 30 second anaerobic Wingate test on a cycle ergometer. There were no significant differences in peak torque for Q, H, PF, and DF between the groups. Basketball players produced greater absolute peak power [569.7 +/- 82.2 vs. 454.6 +/- 79.3 W (p < .05)], relative peak power [9.1 +/- 1.3 vs. 8.1 +/- 1.0 W/kg body mass (p < .05)], absolute mean power [428.4 +/- 53.9 vs. 333.7 +/- 68.2 W (p < .05)] and relative mean power [6.83 +/- 0.7 vs. 5.9 +/- 0.7 W/kg (p < .05)] than BALs. Ballet dancers and BBs had similar isokinetically measured lower extremity muscular strength, but BALs generated lower levels of peak power and mean power compared to BBs.

  7. Comparison of tensiomyographic neuromuscular characteristics between muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity in male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Seijas, Roberto; Ballester, Jordi; Cugat, Ramon

    2016-07-01

    Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used to assess neuromuscular characteristics of muscles of the lower extremity in soccer players. However, the effects of lower extremity dominance on TMG characteristics in this population have not been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the TMG neuromuscular characteristics between the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity in male soccer players. Thirty-eight consecutive healthy male soccer players underwent resting TMG assessment of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) in both lower extremities. The maximal displacement, delay time, contraction time, sustained time, and half-relaxation time were obtained and compared between both sides. There were no significant differences in the vast majority of the TMG parameters between both lower extremities. The dominant side demonstrated higher VM contraction time (p = 0.008), RF sustained time (p = 0.009), RF half-relaxation time (p = 0.01), and BF sustained time (p = 0.04), but lower VL contraction time (p = 0.03) and VL delay time (p = 0.02) compared to the non-dominant side. In general, TMG-assessed neuromuscular characteristics of the VM, VL, RF, ST, BF, GM, and GL were not affected by lower extremity dominance in male soccer players. Therefore, there is no need to assess both sides when using TMG to monitor the response to training or muscles at risk of injury in soccer players unless there is a specific reason. Prognostic study, Level II.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in upper and lower extremity long bone fractures of emergency department trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Frouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Delirroyfard, Ali; Mazdaie, Behnaz; Bagherzadegan, Elnaz

    2017-01-01

    Background Long bone fractures are common injuries caused by trauma. Some studies have demonstrated that ultrasound has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures in traumatic patients. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 100 patients admitted to the emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran with trauma to the upper and lower extremities, from September 2014 through October 2015. In all patients, first ultrasound and then standard plain radiography for the upper and lower limb was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 to determine the specificity and sensitivity. Results The mean age of patients with upper and lower limb trauma were 31.43±12.32 years and 29.63±5.89 years, respectively. Radius fracture was the most frequent compared to other fractures (27%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value, and negative predicted value of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in the diagnosis of upper extremity long bones were 95.3%, 87.7%, 87.2% and 96.2%, respectively, and the highest accuracy was observed in left arm fractures (100%). Tibia and fibula fractures were the most frequent types compared to other fractures (89.2%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in the diagnosis of upper extremity long bone fractures were 98.6%, 83%, 65.4% and 87.1%, respectively, and the highest accuracy was observed in men, lower ages and femoral fractures. Conclusion The results of this study showed that ultrasound compared with plain radiography has a high accuracy in the diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures. PMID:28979747

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in upper and lower extremity long bone fractures of emergency department trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Frouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Delirroyfard, Ali; Mazdaie, Behnaz; Bagherzadegan, Elnaz

    2017-08-01

    Long bone fractures are common injuries caused by trauma. Some studies have demonstrated that ultrasound has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures in traumatic patients. This cross-sectional study assessed 100 patients admitted to the emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran with trauma to the upper and lower extremities, from September 2014 through October 2015. In all patients, first ultrasound and then standard plain radiography for the upper and lower limb was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 to determine the specificity and sensitivity. The mean age of patients with upper and lower limb trauma were 31.43±12.32 years and 29.63±5.89 years, respectively. Radius fracture was the most frequent compared to other fractures (27%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value, and negative predicted value of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in the diagnosis of upper extremity long bones were 95.3%, 87.7%, 87.2% and 96.2%, respectively, and the highest accuracy was observed in left arm fractures (100%). Tibia and fibula fractures were the most frequent types compared to other fractures (89.2%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ultrasound compared with plain radiography in the diagnosis of upper extremity long bone fractures were 98.6%, 83%, 65.4% and 87.1%, respectively, and the highest accuracy was observed in men, lower ages and femoral fractures. The results of this study showed that ultrasound compared with plain radiography has a high accuracy in the diagnosis of upper and lower extremity long bone fractures.

  10. Vitamin D-deficiency and post-fracture changes in lower extremity function and falls in women with hip fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, W. G.; Glowacki, J.; Yu-Yahiro, J.; Hurwitz, S.; Magaziner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and lower extremity function in women with hip fractures. Women with extremely low vitamin D levels had reduced lower extremity muscle function and increased falls 1 year later. Ensuring vitamin D sufficiency after a hip fracture may improve function and reduce falls. Introduction Hip fractures are the most devastating of fractures, commonly leading to loss of independent ambulation and living. In this retrospective analysis we determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in women with hip fractures and the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and functional impairment one year later. Methods One hundred ten community-dwelling women with hip fractures were recruited from Boston, MA (n= 30) and Baltimore, MD (n=80) before 1998 and 25(OH)D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. In a subset of women from Baltimore, a performance measure of the lower extremities using the lower extremity gain scale (LEGS) was measured at 2, 6, and 12 months. Falls, grip strength, chair rise time, walking speed, and balance were also determined. Results Vitamin D insufficiency defined as a 25(OH)D ≤32 ng/mL was present in 96% of the women with hip fractures and 38% had extremely low levels ≤9 ng/mL. At 1 year post-fracture, compared to women with a 25(OH) D >9 ng/mL, those with 25(OH)D ≤9 ng/mL had poorer LEGS performance (p<0.0001) and higher fall rates, without group differences in grip strength or balance. Conclusion Vitamin D sufficiency may have important effects on lower extremity function following hip fractures, without excessive healthcare costs. PMID:18373057

  11. Prior contralateral amputation predicts worse outcomes for lower extremity bypasses performed in the intact limb.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Goodney, Philip P; Robinson, William P; Nolan, Brian W; Stone, David H; Li, YouFu; Cronenwett, Jack L; Schanzer, Andres

    2012-08-01

    To date, history of a contralateral amputation as a potential predictor of outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) has not been studied. We sought to determine if a prior contralateral lower extremity amputation predicts worse outcomes in patients undergoing LEB in the remaining intact limb. A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for CLI between 2003 and 2010 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England was performed. Patients were stratified according to whether or not they had previously undergone a contralateral major or minor amputation before LEB. Primary end points included major amputation and graft occlusion at 1 year postoperatively. Secondary end points included in-hospital major adverse events, discharge status, and mortality at 1 year. Of 2636 LEB procedures, 228 (8.6%) were performed in the setting of a prior contralateral amputation. Patients with a prior amputation compared to those without were younger (66.5 vs 68.7; P = .034), more like to have congestive heart failure (CHF; 25% vs 16%; P = .002), hypertension (94% vs 85%; P = .015), renal insufficiency (26% vs 14%; P = .0002), and hemodialysis-dependent renal failure (14% vs 6%; P = .0002). They were also more likely to be nursing home residents (8.0% vs 3.6%; P = .036), less likely to ambulate without assistance (41% vs 80%; P < .0002), and more likely to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (20% vs 12%; P = .0005). These patients experience increased in-hospital major adverse events, including myocardial infarction (MI; 8.9% vs 4.2%; P = .002), CHF (6.1% vs 3.4%; P = .044), deterioration in renal function (9.0% vs 4.7%; P = .006), and respiratory complications (4.2% vs 2.3%; P = .034). They were less likely to be discharged home (52% vs 72%; P < .0001) and less likely to be ambulatory on discharge (25% vs 55%; P < .0001). Although patients with a prior contralateral amputation experienced increased rates of

  12. Prior contralateral amputation predicts worse outcomes for lower extremity bypasses performed in the intact limb

    PubMed Central

    Baril, Donald T.; Goodney, Philip P.; Robinson, William P.; Nolan, Brian W.; Stone, David H.; Li, YouFu; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To date, history of a contralateral amputation as a potential predictor of outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) has not been studied. We sought to determine if a prior contralateral lower extremity amputation predicts worse outcomes in patients undergoing LEB in the remaining intact limb. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for CLI between 2003 and 2010 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England was performed. Patients were stratified according to whether or not they had previously undergone a contralateral major or minor amputation before LEB. Primary end points included major amputation and graft occlusion at 1 year postoperatively. Secondary end points included in-hospital major adverse events, discharge status, and mortality at 1 year. Results Of 2636 LEB procedures, 228 (8.6%) were performed in the setting of a prior contralateral amputation. Patients with a prior amputation compared to those without were younger (66.5 vs 68.7; P = .034), more like to have congestive heart failure (CHF; 25% vs 16%; P = .002), hypertension (94% vs 85%; P = .015), renal insufficiency (26% vs 14%; P = .0002), and hemodialysis-dependent renal failure (14% vs 6%; P = .0002). They were also more likely to be nursing home residents (8.0% vs 3.6%; P = .036), less likely to ambulate without assistance (41% vs 80%; P < .0002), and more likely to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (20% vs 12%; P = .0005). These patients experience increased in-hospital major adverse events, including myocardial infarction (MI; 8.9% vs 4.2%; P = .002), CHF (6.1% vs 3.4%; P = .044), deterioration in renal function (9.0% vs 4.7%; P = .006), and respiratory complications (4.2% vs 2.3%; P = .034). They were less likely to be discharged home (52% vs 72%; P < .0001) and less likely to be ambulatory on discharge (25% vs 55%; P < .0001). Although patients with a prior contralateral amputation

  13. Ticagrelor Compared With Clopidogrel in Patients With Prior Lower Extremity Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, W Schuyler; Baumgartner, Iris; Hiatt, William R; Heizer, Gretchen; Conte, Michael S; White, Christopher J; Berger, Jeffrey S; Held, Peter; Katona, Brian G; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Norgren, Lars; Blomster, Juuso; Millegård, Marcus; Reist, Craig; Patel, Manesh R; Fowkes, F Gerry R

    2017-01-17

    In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease with a history of limb revascularization, the optimal antithrombotic regimen for long-term management is unknown. The EUCLID trial (Examining Use of Ticagrelor In PAD) randomized 13 885 patients with peripheral artery disease to treatment with ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg daily. Patients were enrolled based on an abnormal ankle-brachial index ≤0.80 or a previous lower extremity revascularization. This analysis focuses on the 7875 (57%) patients enrolled based on the previous lower extremity revascularization criterion. Patients could not be enrolled within 30 days of most recent revascularization, and patients with an indication for dual antiplatelet therapy were excluded. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary safety end point was major bleeding. Patients with a previous revascularization had a mean age of 66 years, 73% were male, and the median baseline ankle-brachial index was 0.78. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, patients enrolled based on previous revascularization had similar rates of the primary composite end point (hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.23, P=0.12) and statistically significantly higher rates of myocardial infarction (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.55, P=0.005) and acute limb ischemia (HR 4.23, 95% CI 2.86-6.25, P<0.001) when compared with patients enrolled based on ankle-brachial index criteria. No differences in ticagrelor- versus clopidogrel-treated patients were found for the primary efficacy end point (11.4% vs 11.3%; HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.88-1.15; P=0.90), all-cause mortality (9.2% vs 9.2%; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86-1.15; P=0.93), acute limb ischemia (2.5% vs 2.5%; HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78-1.36; P=0.84), or major bleeding (1.9% vs 1.8%; HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.83-1.59; P=0.41). The median duration of follow-up was ≈30 months. After adjustment for baseline

  14. A 24-year-old male with a painful and cold lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric A; Khalpey, Zain I; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-05-01

    A 24-year-old male presented to the emergency department with intense pain in his right lower extremity. He has a medical history significant for systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. He also had four prior episodes of deep venous thromboses on rivaroxaban. The patient stated that early in the morning, he started to feel intense pain that started from his knee and progressed to his calf, with associated numbness and paraesthesia. On physical examination, the limb felt cold with absent right popliteal and dorsalis pedis pulses. He was immediately taken for embolectomy after discovery of a distal common femoral artery occlusion. The patient's blood cultures remained negative. X-plane imaging on real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) of the aortic valve (figure 1A) and colour Doppler (figure 1B) are shown. What is the diagnosis and management for this patient (assuming the patient will stay anticoagulated for life)? Infective endocarditis (IE); antibiotics and valve replacementLibman-Sacks endocarditis; corticosteroidsIE; antibiotics onlyLibman-Sacks endocarditis; valve replacementLibman-Sacks endocarditis; continuing anticoagulation only heartjnl;103/10/765/HEARTJNL2016310872F1F1HEARTJNL2016310872F1Figure 1Visualisation of the aortic valve on (A) X-plane imaging on real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) and (B) colour Doppler. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. The influence of socioeconomic factors on gender disparities in lower extremity bypass.

    PubMed

    Sinnamon, Andrew J; Sonnenberg, Elizabeth M; Bartlett, Edmund K; Meise, Chelsey K; Wang, Grace J; Kelz, Rachel R

    2014-05-15

    Some contend that gender differences in outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB) for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) relate to socioeconomic factors (SEFs). Here, we evaluate these disparities with attention to clinically relevant yet understudied SEF. A retrospective cohort study of patients aged >50 y with PAD undergoing LEB was performed using data from Pennsylvania Health care and Cost Containment Council (2003-2011). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to evaluate the association between gender and outcomes with adjustment for potential confounders including SEF such as income, insurance provider, distance to hospital, and race. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for hospital clustering. Independent models were developed to examine death or serious morbidity (DSM) and failure-to-rescue (FTR). Of 4202 patients identified, 1510 (36%) were women. SEF differed by gender. DSM was more frequent in women (15.6% versus 12.2%; P = 0.002). There was no association between gender and FTR in univariate analysis (P = 0.49). SEFs were associated with DSM and FTR. After adjustment for potential confounders including SEF, women remained more likely to experience DSM (odds ratio = 1.28; P = 0.01). There remained no significant association between gender and FTR on independent modeling (odds ratio = 0.49; P = 0.11). Women undergoing LEB in the state of Pennsylvania are at increased risk of poor outcomes, which is not completely explained by SEF. Quality of postoperative care does not appear to be different between gender as there was no difference in FTR. To improve these outcomes, efforts should be made to increase awareness of PAD and promote screening among high-risk women to ensure timely diagnosis and referral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Online sparse Gaussian process based human motion intent learning for an electrically actuated lower extremity exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Long, Yi; Du, Zhi-Jiang; Chen, Chao-Feng; Dong, Wei; Wang, Wei-Dong

    2017-07-01

    The most important step for lower extremity exoskeleton is to infer human motion intent (HMI), which contributes to achieve human exoskeleton collaboration. Since the user is in the control loop, the relationship between human robot interaction (HRI) information and HMI is nonlinear and complicated, which is difficult to be modeled by using mathematical approaches. The nonlinear approximation can be learned by using machine learning approaches. Gaussian Process (GP) regression is suitable for high-dimensional and small-sample nonlinear regression problems. GP regression is restrictive for large data sets due to its computation complexity. In this paper, an online sparse GP algorithm is constructed to learn the HMI. The original training dataset is collected when the user wears the exoskeleton system with friction compensation to perform unconstrained movement as far as possible. The dataset has two kinds of data, i.e., (1) physical HRI, which is collected by torque sensors placed at the interaction cuffs for the active joints, i.e., knee joints; (2) joint angular position, which is measured by optical position sensors. To reduce the computation complexity of GP, grey relational analysis (GRA) is utilized to specify the original dataset and provide the final training dataset. Those hyper-parameters are optimized offline by maximizing marginal likelihood and will be applied into online GP regression algorithm. The HMI, i.e., angular position of human joints, will be regarded as the reference trajectory for the mechanical legs. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, experiments are performed on a subject at a natural speed. The experimental results show the HMI can be obtained in real time, which can be extended and employed in the similar exoskeleton systems.

  17. Prediction of Core and Lower Extremity Strains and Sprains in Collegiate Football Players: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Giles, Jessica L.; Seibel, Dustin K.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Poor core stability is believed to increase vulnerability to uncontrolled joint displacements throughout the kinetic chain between the foot and the lumbar spine. Objective: To assess the value of preparticipation measurements as predictors of core or lower extremity strains or sprains in collegiate football players. Design: Cohort study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. Patients or Other Participants: All team members who were present for a mandatory physical examination on the day before preseason practice sessions began (n  =  83). Main Outcome Measure(s): Preparticipation administration of surveys to assess low back, knee, and ankle function; documentation of knee and ankle injury history; determination of body mass index; 4 different assessments of core muscle endurance; and measurement of step-test recovery heart rate. All injuries were documented throughout the preseason practice period and 11-game season. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify dichotomized predictive factors that best discriminated injured from uninjured status. The 75th and 50th percentiles were evaluated as alternative cutpoints for dichotomization of injury predictors. Results: Players with ≥2 of 3 potentially modifiable risk factors related to core function had 2 times greater risk for injury than those with <2 factors (95% confidence interval  =  1.27, 4.22), and adding a high level of exposure to game conditions increased the injury risk to 3 times greater (95% confidence interval  =  1.95, 4.98). Prediction models that used the 75th and 50th percentile cutpoints yielded results that were very similar to those for the model that used receiver operating characteristic-derived cutpoints. Conclusions: Low back dysfunction and suboptimal endurance of the core musculature appear to be important modifiable football injury risk

  18. Advanced quantitative methods in correlating sarcopenic muscle degeneration with lower extremity function biometrics and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gíslason, Magnús; Sigurðsson, Sigurður; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara; Carraro, Ugo; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions. The primary aim of this study was to present a comparison of nonlinear trimodal regression analysis (NTRA) parameters of entire radiodensitometric muscle distributions against extant CT metrics and their correlation with lower extremity function (LEF) biometrics (normal/fast gait speed, timed up-and-go, and isometric leg strength) and biochemical and nutritional parameters, such as total solubilized cholesterol (SCHOL) and body mass index (BMI). Data were obtained from 3,162 subjects, aged 66–96 years, from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. 1-D k-means clustering was employed to discretize each biometric and comorbidity dataset into twelve subpopulations, in accordance with Sturges’ Formula for Class Selection. Dataset linear regressions were performed against eleven NTRA distribution parameters and standard CT analyses (fat/muscle cross-sectional area and average HU value). Parameters from NTRA and CT standards were analogously assembled by age and sex. Analysis of specific NTRA parameters with standard CT results showed linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.85, but multiple regression analysis of correlative NTRA parameters yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99 (P<0.005). These results highlight the specificities of each muscle

  19. Advanced quantitative methods in correlating sarcopenic muscle degeneration with lower extremity function biometrics and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kyle; Gíslason, Magnús; Sigurðsson, Sigurður; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara; Carraro, Ugo; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions. The primary aim of this study was to present a comparison of nonlinear trimodal regression analysis (NTRA) parameters of entire radiodensitometric muscle distributions against extant CT metrics and their correlation with lower extremity function (LEF) biometrics (normal/fast gait speed, timed up-and-go, and isometric leg strength) and biochemical and nutritional parameters, such as total solubilized cholesterol (SCHOL) and body mass index (BMI). Data were obtained from 3,162 subjects, aged 66-96 years, from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. 1-D k-means clustering was employed to discretize each biometric and comorbidity dataset into twelve subpopulations, in accordance with Sturges' Formula for Class Selection. Dataset linear regressions were performed against eleven NTRA distribution parameters and standard CT analyses (fat/muscle cross-sectional area and average HU value). Parameters from NTRA and CT standards were analogously assembled by age and sex. Analysis of specific NTRA parameters with standard CT results showed linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.85, but multiple regression analysis of correlative NTRA parameters yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99 (P<0.005). These results highlight the specificities of each muscle quality

  20. A lower-extremities kinematic comparison of deep-water running styles and treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Killgore, Garry L; Wilcox, Anthony R; Caster, Brian L; Wood, Terry M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify a deep-water running (DWR) style that most closely approximates terrestrial running, particularly relative to the lower extremities. Twenty intercollegiate distance runners (women, N = 12; men, N = 8) were videotaped from the right sagittal view while running on a treadmill (TR) and in deep water at 55-60% of their TR VO(2)max using 2 DWR styles: cross-country (CC) and high-knee (HK). Variables of interest were horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) displacement of the knee and ankle, stride rate (SR), VO(2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Multivariate omnibus tests revealed statistically significant differences for RPE (p < 0.001). The post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between TR and both DWR styles (p < 0.001). The kinematic variables multivariate omnibus tests were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001 to p < 0.019). The post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in SR (p < 0.001) between TR (1.25 +/- 0.08 Hz) and both DWR styles and also between the CC (0.81 +/- 0.08 Hz) and HK (1.14 +/- 0.10 Hz) styles of DWR. The CC style of DWR was found to be similar to TR with respect to linear ankle displacement, whereas the HK style was significantly different from TR in all comparisons made for ankle and knee displacement. The CC style of DWR is recommended as an adjunct to distance running training if the goal is to mimic the specificity of the ankle linear horizontal displacement of land-based running, but the SR will be slower at a comparable percentage of VO(2)max.

  1. Systolic blood pressure variability and lower extremity amputation in a non-elderly population with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Budiman-Mak, Elly; Epstein, Noam; Brennan, Meghan; Stuck, Rodney; Guihan, Marylou; Huo, Zhiping; Emanuele, Nicholas; Sohn, Min-Woong

    2016-04-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability is emerging as a new risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetic nephropathy, and other atherosclerotic conditions. Our objective is to examine whether it has any prognostic value for lower-extremity amputations. This is a nested case-control study of a cohort of patients with diabetes aged<60 years and treated in the US Department of Veterans Healthcare system in 2003. They were followed over five years for any above-ankle (major) amputations. For each case with a major amputation (event), we randomly selected up to five matched controls based on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and calendar time. SBP variability was computed using three or more blood pressure measures taken during the one-year period before the event. Patients were classified into quartiles according to their SBP variability. The study sample included 1038 cases and 2932 controls. Compared to Quartile 1 (lowest variability), Quartile 2 had 1.4 times (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.00-2.07) and Quartiles 3 and 4 (highest) had 2.5 times (OR for Quartile 3=2.62, 95% CI=1.85-3.72; OR for Quartile 4=2.50, 95% CI=1.74-3.59) higher risk of major amputation (P for trend<0.001). This gradient relationship held in both normotensive and hypertensive groups as well as for individuals without prior peripheral vascular disease. This is the first study to show a significant graded relationship between SBP variability and risk of major amputation among non-elderly persons with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of core and lower extremity strains and sprains in collegiate football players: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Giles, Jessica L; Seibel, Dustin K

    2012-01-01

    Poor core stability is believed to increase vulnerability to uncontrolled joint displacements throughout the kinetic chain between the foot and the lumbar spine. To assess the value of preparticipation measurements as predictors of core or lower extremity strains or sprains in collegiate football players. Cohort study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. All team members who were present for a mandatory physical examination on the day before preseason practice sessions began (n = 83). Preparticipation administration of surveys to assess low back, knee, and ankle function; documentation of knee and ankle injury history; determination of body mass index; 4 different assessments of core muscle endurance; and measurement of step-test recovery heart rate. All injuries were documented throughout the preseason practice period and 11-game season. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify dichotomized predictive factors that best discriminated injured from uninjured status. The 75th and 50th percentiles were evaluated as alternative cutpoints for dichotomization of injury predictors. Players with ≥2 of 3 potentially modifiable risk factors related to core function had 2 times greater risk for injury than those with <2 factors (95% confidence interval = 1.27, 4.22), and adding a high level of exposure to game conditions increased the injury risk to 3 times greater (95% confidence interval = 1.95, 4.98). Prediction models that used the 75th and 50th percentile cutpoints yielded results that were very similar to those for the model that used receiver operating characteristic-derived cutpoints. Low back dysfunction and suboptimal endurance of the core musculature appear to be important modifiable football injury risk factors that can be identified on preparticipation screening. These predictors need to be assessed in a prospective manner with a larger

  3. Knee dislocations with vascular injury: outcomes in the Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brendan M; Agel, Julie; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Mackenzie, Ellen J; Bosse, Michael J

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the clinical and functional results of a cohort of patients with knee dislocations associated with vascular injury. Patients with knee dislocation and associated vascular injury were prospectively assessed for outcome of severe lower extremity trauma during 2 years. The Sickness Impact Profile was used to assess the functional recovery of the patient. Surgeon and therapist assessments documented clinical metrics and treatment, including salvage or amputation, neurologic recovery, knee stability, and knee motion. Eighteen patients sustained a knee dislocation and an associated popliteal artery injury. Seven patients were found to have an additional vascular injury. All patients underwent repair of the vascular injury. At the time of final follow-up, 14 knees were successfully salvaged and four required amputation (1 below knee amputation, 2 through knee amputation, and 1 above knee amputation). Eighteen patients had at least a popliteal injury and underwent repair of the vascular injury. The patients with a limb-threatening knee dislocation that was successfully reconstructed had Sickness Impact Profile scores of 20.12 at 3 months, 13.18 at 6 months, 12.08 at 1 year, and 7.0 at 2 years after injury. Patients who sustain a limb-threatening knee dislocation have a moderate to high level of disability 2 years after injury. Nearly one in five patients who present to a Level I trauma center with a dysvascular limb associated with a knee dislocation will require amputation. Prolonged warm ischemia time was associated with a high rate of amputation. Patients who sustain vascular injuries associated with a knee dislocation need immediate transport to a trauma hospital, rapid assessment and diagnosis at presentation, and revascularization. Patients with these injuries can be effectively treated without angiography before surgery.

  4. Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease Fear Major Lower-Extremity Amputation More Than Death.

    PubMed

    Wukich, Dane K; Raspovic, Katherine M; Suder, Natalie C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most-feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), comparing those with diabetic foot pathology with those without diabetic foot pathology. We determined the frequency of patients ranking major lower-extremity amputation (LEA) as their greatest fear in comparison to blindness, death, diabetic foot infection (DFI), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. We further categorized the study group patients (N = 207) by their pathology such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot neuroarthropathy, foot infection, or acute neuropathic fractures and dislocations. The control group (N = 254) was comprised of patients with diabetes who presented with common non-diabetes-related foot pathology. A total of 461 patients were enrolled in this study and included 254 patients without diabetic foot complications and 207 patients with diabetic foot problems. When comparing patients with and without diabetic disease, no significant differences were observed with regard to their fear of blindness, DFI, or ESRD requiring dialysis. Patients with diabetic foot disease (61 of 207, 31.9%) were 136% more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.51-3.70; P = .002] to rank major LEA as their greatest fear when compared with diabetic patients without foot disease (42 of 254, 16.5%) and were 49% less likely (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34-0.79; P = .002) to rank death as their greatest fear compared with patients without diabetic foot disease. Patients with diabetic foot pathology fear major LEA more than death, foot infection, or ESRD. Variables that were associated with ranking LEA as the greatest fear were the presence of a diabetic-related foot complication, duration of DM ≥10 years, insulin use, and the presence of peripheral neuropathy. Level II: Prospective, Case controlled study.

  5. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. Aims The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. Methods 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case–control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse ‘weak’ versus ‘strong’ athletes according to the median (weakmedian vs strongmedian). Results 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weakmedian group compared with the strongmedian group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength–injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Conclusions Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes. PMID:29259807

  6. Early experimental and clinical experience with a focal implant for lower extremity post-angioplasty dissection.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter A; Giasolli, Robert; Ebner, Adrian; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F

    2015-02-01

    This study provides preliminary data on the safety and feasibility of the use of a novel focal implant for managing post-percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (post-PTA) dissection. Post-PTA dissection of the lower extremity arteries is managed with stent placement. This provides an acceptable post-intervention result but has long-term disadvantages, such as in-stent restenosis. Focal treatment of post-PTA dissection and avoidance of stents are the objectives of the Tack-It (Intact Vascular, Inc., Wayne, Pennsylvania) device. A preclinical study and first-in-human data are presented. Seven swine underwent superficial femoral artery device placement, with a self-expanding nitinol stent on 1 side and a series of 4 Tack-It devices on the other side. Specimens were harvested at 28 days. The clinical study included 15 limbs that underwent revascularization for critical limb ischemia (n = 9) or claudication (n = 6). Twenty-five lesions were treated in the superficial femoral (n = 8), popliteal (n = 7), and tibial (n = 10) arteries. The preclinical study demonstrated a reduction in stenosis with the Tack-It (16.8 ± 2.6%) compared with stents (46.4 ± 9.8%). Neointimal thickness and injury score decreased with the Tack-It. Clinically, Tack-It placement resulted in acute technical success with resolution of the post-PTA dissection in 100% of lesions. There were no device-related complications or major amputations. Eighteen of the 25 lesions were available for angiographic follow-up at 1-year, and patency was 83.3%. Preclinical data suggest that the Tack-It device causes minimal vessel injury. Clinical use of the Tack-It to manage post-PTA dissection was safe and feasible in this early study and resulted in apposition of dissection flaps without stent placement. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative blood glucose and prognosis in diabetic patients undergoing lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Raj Kumar; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse surgical outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to establish if a high peri-operative random blood sugar (RBS) concentration among patients with diabetes with non-traumatic lower-extremity amputation (LEA) is a decisive factor behind post-operative outcomes (re-amputation/mortality) within three months after the first amputation. In this retrospective cohort study, the independent sample t-test, Pearson's chi-squared test and a Cox proportional hazards model were used. A total of 270 patients underwent non-traumatic LEA of whom 105 had diabetes, whereas 81 patients were included for this study. The mean age was 71 years (standard deviation: ± 11.8). Mortality was 27% and 16% were re-amputated within three months after their first amputation.The median pre-operative RBS level was 8.6 mmol/l (range: 4.6-18.7 mmol/l) with tertile ranges as follows: Q1 4.0-7.0 mmol/l; Q2 7.1-11.0 mmol/l; Q3 > 11.0 mmol/l. For the Q3 tertile, the age-adjusted hazard ratio for re-amputation was 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-3.62) and for mortality it was 1.90 (95% CI: 0.50-7.22), with the Q1 tertile as the reference group. This study does not confirm that a high peri-operative RBS level can predict increased mortality or re-amputation among patients with diabetes who undergo non-traumatic LEA. Furthermore, based on our results, we cannot inform clinical decision-making about whether to delay or to avoid elective surgery in patients with a high RBS preoperatively. Further investigation is warranted. none. This trial was registered with the Danish Data Protection Agency (record no. 01975 HVH-2012-053).

  8. A Refined Prediction Model for Core and Lower Extremity Sprains and Strains Among Collegiate Football Players.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Colston, Marisa A

    2015-06-01

    Researchers have identified high exposure to game conditions, low back dysfunction, and poor endurance of the core musculature as strong predictors for the occurrence of sprains and strains among collegiate football players. To refine a previously developed injury-prediction model through analysis of 3 consecutive seasons of data. Cohort study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. For 3 consecutive years, all 152 team members (age = 19.7 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.84 ± 0.08 m, mass = 101.08 ± 19.28 kg) presented for a mandatory physical examination on the day before initiation of preseason practice sessions. Associations between preseason measurements and the subsequent occurrence of a core or lower extremity sprain or strain were established for 256 player-seasons of data. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify optimal cut points for dichotomous categorizations of cases as high risk or low risk. Both logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to identify a multivariable injury-prediction model with optimal discriminatory power. Exceptionally good discrimination between injured and uninjured cases was found for a 3-factor prediction model that included equal to or greater than 1 game as a starter, Oswestry Disability Index score equal to or greater than 4, and poor wall-sit-hold performance. The existence of at least 2 of the 3 risk factors demonstrated 56% sensitivity, 80% specificity, an odds ratio of 5.28 (90% confidence interval = 3.31, 8.44), and a hazard ratio of 2.97 (90% confidence interval = 2.14, 4.12). High exposure to game conditions was the dominant injury risk factor for collegiate football players, but a surprisingly mild degree of low back dysfunction and poor core-muscle endurance appeared to be important modifiable risk factors that should be identified and addressed before participation.

  9. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Palumbo, Joseph P; Hewett, Timothy E

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity movement biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements in measures of performance would be demonstrated concomitant with improved biomechanical measures related to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Forty-one female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (age, 15.3 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 64.8 +/- 9.96 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 7.21 cm) underwent 6 weeks of training that included 4 main components (plyometric and movement, core strengthening and balance, resistance training, and speed training). Twelve age-, height-, and weight-matched controls underwent the same testing protocol twice 6 weeks apart. Trained athletes demonstrated increased predicted 1 repetition maximum squat (92%) and bench press (20%). Right and left single-leg hop distance increased 10.39 cm and 8.53 cm, respectively, and vertical jump also increased from 39.9 +/- 0.9 cm to 43.2 +/- 1.1 cm with training. Speed in a 9.1-m sprint improved from 1.80 +/- 0.02 seconds to 1.73 +/- 0.01 seconds. Pre- and posttest 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated increased knee flexion-extension range of motion during the landing phase of a vertical jump (right, 71.9 +/- 1.4 degrees to 76.9 +/- 1.4 degrees ; left, 71.3 +/- 1.5 degrees to 77.3 +/- 1.4 degrees ). Training decreased knee valgus (28%) and varus (38%) torques. Control subjects did not demonstrate significant alterations during the 6-week interval. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the combination of multiple-injury prevention-training components into a comprehensive program improves measures of performance and movement biomechanics.

  10. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes.

    PubMed

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case-control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse 'weak' versus 'strong' athletes according to the median (weak median vs strong median ). 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weak median group compared with the strong median group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength-injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes.

  11. Relationships of Functional Tests Following ACL Reconstruction: Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol.

    PubMed

    DiFabio, Melissa; Slater, Lindsay V; Norte, Grant; Goetschius, John; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2018-03-01

    After ACL reconstruction (ACLR), deficits are often assessed using a variety of functional tests, which can be time consuming. It is unknown whether these tests provide redundant or unique information. To explore relationships between components of a battery of functional tests, the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol (LEAP) was created to aid in developing the most informative, concise battery of tests for evaluating ACLR patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Laboratory. 76 ACLR patients (6.86±3.07 months postoperative) and 54 healthy participants. Isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 90 and 180 degrees/second, maximal voluntary isometric contraction for knee extension and flexion, single leg balance, 4 hopping tasks (single, triple, crossover, and 6-meter timed hop), and a bilateral drop vertical jump that was scored with the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Peak torque, average torque, average power, total work, fatigue indices, center of pressure area and velocity, hop distance and time, and LESS score. A series of factor analyses were conducted to assess grouping of functional tests on the LEAP for each limb in the ACLR and healthy groups and limb symmetry indices (LSI) for both groups. Correlations were run between measures that loaded on retained factors. Isokinetic and isometric strength tests for knee flexion and extension, hopping, balance, and fatigue index were identified as unique factors for all limbs. The LESS score loaded with various factors across the different limbs. The healthy group LSI analysis produced more factors than the ACLR LSI analysis. Individual measures within each factor had moderate to strong correlations. Isokinetic and isometric strength, hopping, balance, and fatigue index provided unique information. Within each category of measures, not all tests may need to be included for a comprehensive functional assessment of ACLR patients due to the high amount of shared variance between them.

  12. Predicting sport and occupational lower extremity injury risk through movement quality screening: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  13. Lower Extremity Movement Differences Persist After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and When Returning to Sports.

    PubMed

    Butler, Robert J; Dai, Boyi; Huffman, Nikki; Garrett, William E; Queen, Robin M

    2016-09-01

    To examine how landing mechanics change in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) between 6 months and 12 months after surgery. Case-series. Laboratory. Fifteen adolescent patients after ACL-R participated. Lower extremity three-dimensional motion analysis was conducted during a bilateral stop jump task in patients at 6 and 12 months after ACL-R. Joint kinematic and kinetic data, in addition to ground reaction forces, were collected at each time point. During the stop jump landing, the peak joint moments and the initial and peak joint motion at the ankle, knee, and hip were examined. The peak vertical ground reaction force was also examined. Interactions were observed for both the peak knee (P = 0.03) and hip extension moment (P = 0.07). However, only the hip extension moment was symmetrical level at 12 months. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) side-to-side differences existed for the ankle angle at initial contact, peak plantarflexion moment, peak hip flexion angle, and peak impact vertical ground reaction force independent of time. The findings of this study suggest that sagittal plane moments at the knee and hip demonstrate an increase in symmetry between 6 months and 1 year after ACL-R surgery, however, symmetry of the knee extension moment is not established by 12 months after surgery. The lack of change in the variables across time was unexpected. As a result, it is inappropriate to expect a change in landing mechanics solely as a result of time alone after discharge from rehabilitation.

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence microlymphography for detecting lymphedema of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Keo, Hong H; Schilling, Marianne; Büchel, Roland; Gröchenig, Ernst; Engelberger, Rolf P; Willenberg, Torsten; Baumgartner, Iris; Gretener, Silvia B

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescence microlymphography (FML) is used to visualize the lymphatic capillaries. A maximum spread of the fluorescence dye of ≥ 12 mm has been suggested for the diagnosis of lymphedema. However, data on sensitivity and specificity are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of FML for diagnosing lymphedema in patients with leg swelling. Patients with lower extremity swelling were clinically assessed and separated into lymphedema and non-lymphatic edema groups. FML was studied in all affected legs and the maximum spread of lymphatic capillaries was measured. Test accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess possible threshold values that predict lymphedema. Between March 2008 and August 2011 a total of 171 patients (184 legs) with a median age of 43.5 (IQR 24, 54) years were assessed. Of those, 94 (51.1%) legs were diagnosed with lymphedema. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio and positive and negative predictive value were 87%, 64%, 2.45, 0.20, 72% and 83% for the 12-mm cut-off level and 79%, 83%, 4.72, 0.26, 83% and 79% for the 14-mm cut-off level, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.88). Sensitivity was higher in the secondary versus primary lymphedema (95.0% vs 74.3%, p = 0.045). No major adverse events were observed. In conclusion, FML is a simple and safe technique for detecting lymphedema in patients with leg swelling. A cut-off level of ≥ 14-mm maximum spread has a high sensitivity and high specificity of detecting lymphedema and should be chosen.

  15. A general model for estimating lower extremity inertial properties of individuals with transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Abbie E; Smith, Jeremy D; Heise, Gary D; Hinrichs, Richard N; Martin, Philip E

    2017-03-21

    Lower extremity joint moment magnitudes during swing are dependent on the inertial properties of the prosthesis and residual limb of individuals with transtibial amputation (TTA). Often, intact limb inertial properties (INTACT) are used for prosthetic limb values in an inverse dynamics model even though these values overestimate the amputated limb's inertial properties. The purpose of this study was to use subject-specific (SPECIFIC) measures of prosthesis inertial properties to generate a general model (GENERAL) for estimating TTA prosthesis inertial properties. Subject-specific mass, center of mass, and moment of inertia were determined for the shank and foot segments of the prosthesis (n=11) using an oscillation technique and reaction board. The GENERAL model was derived from the means of the SPECIFIC model. Mass and segment lengths are required GENERAL model inputs. Comparisons of segment inertial properties and joint moments during walking were made using three inertial models (unique sample; n=9): (1) SPECIFIC, (2) GENERAL, and (3) INTACT. Prosthetic shank inertial properties were significantly smaller with the SPECIFIC and GENERAL model than the INTACT model, but the SPECIFIC and GENERAL model did not statistically differ. Peak knee and hip joint moments during swing were significantly smaller for the SPECIFIC and GENERAL model compared with the INTACT model and were not significantly different between SPECIFIC and GENERAL models. When subject-specific measures are unavailable, using the GENERAL model produces a better estimate of prosthetic side inertial properties resulting in more accurate joint moment measurements for individuals with TTA than the INTACT model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Patellar taping, patellofemoral pain syndrome, lower extremity kinematics, and dynamic postural control.

    PubMed

    Aminaka, Naoko; Gribble, Phillip A

    2008-01-01

    Patellar taping has been a part of intervention for treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). However, research on the efficacy of patellar taping on lower extremity kinematics and dynamic postural control is limited. To evaluate the effects of patellar taping on sagittal-plane hip and knee kinematics, reach distance, and perceived pain level during the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in individuals with and without PFPS. Repeated-measures design with 2 within-subjects factors and 1 between-subjects factor. The University of Toledo Athletic Training Research Laboratory. Twenty participants with PFPS and 20 healthy participants between the ages of 18 and 29 years. The participants performed 3 reaches of the SEBT in the anterior direction under tape and no-tape conditions on both legs. The participants' hip and knee sagittal-plane kinematics were measured using the electromagnetic tracking system. Reach distance was recorded by hand and was normalized by dividing the distance by the participants' leg length (%MAXD). After each taping condition on each leg, the participants rated the perceived pain level using the 10-cm visual analog scale. The participants with PFPS had a reduction in pain level with patellar tape application compared with the no-tape condition (P = .005). Additionally, participants with PFPS demonstrated increased %MAXD under the tape condition compared with the no-tape condition, whereas the healthy participants demonstrated decreased %MAXD with tape versus no tape (P = .028). No statistically significant differences were noted in hip flexion and knee flexion angles. Although patellar taping seemed to reduce pain and improve SEBT performance of participants with PFPS, the exact mechanisms of these phenomena cannot be explained in this study. Further research is warranted to investigate the effect of patellar taping on neuromuscular control during dynamic postural control.

  17. Outcomes of Peripheral Vascular Interventions in Select Patients With Lower Extremity Acute Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Elica; Farber, Alik; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Eslami, Mohammad H; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Eberhardt, Robert T; Rybin, Denis V; Doros, Gheorghe; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2018-04-12

    Contemporary data on patients presenting with acute limb ischemia (ALI), who are selected for treatment with endovascular peripheral vascular interventions (PVI), are limited. Our study examined outcomes following endovascular PVI in patients with ALI by comparing with patients treated for chronic critical limb ischemia using a regional quality improvement registry. Of the 11 035 patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England PVI database (2010-2014), we identified 365 patients treated for lower extremity ALI who were 5:1 frequency matched (by procedure year and arterial segments treated) to 1808 patients treated for critical limb ischemia. ALI patients treated with PVI had high burden of atherosclerotic risk factors and were more likely to have had prior ipsilateral revascularizations. ALI patients were less likely to be treated with self-expanding stents and more likely to undergo thrombolysis than patients with critical limb ischemia. In multivariable analysis, ALI was associated with higher technical failure (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval, 1.1%-2.5%), increased rate of distal embolization (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval, 1.5%-4.9%), longer length of stay (means ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval, 1.4%-1.8%), and higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.3%-5.9%). ALI was not associated with risk of major amputation or mortality at 1 year. In a multicenter cohort of patients treated with PVI, we found that ALI patients selected for treatment with endovascular techniques experienced greater short-term adverse events but similar long-term outcomes as their critical limb ischemia counterparts. Further studies are needed to refine the selection of ALI patients who are best served by PVI. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Lawn mower injuries to the lower extremity: a 10-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Raspovic, Katherine M; Crim, Brandon E; Ryan, Michael T; Gruen, Gary G

    2013-04-01

    Lawn mower injuries occur frequently in the United States and oftentimes result in extensive trauma to the lower extremities. These injuries can be quite devastating and cause there to be loss of function and amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific factors that would help determine the best treatment protocol, patient outcomes, and prognosis after lawn mower injury to the foot and ankle. A retrospective review of medical records was performed on all patients treated at a university level 1 trauma center from 2000 to 2010. Only subjects 18 years or older who sustained an injury below the level of the knee were included for review. Seventy-three patients were included in this review. The results revealed that patients who developed a complication were significantly older than the group of patients without complications (P = .03). Digits were found to be injured most often but the odds of developing a complication were much higher if these injuries involved the plantar foot, dorsal foot, or ankle. Interestingly, patients on prolonged antibiotic therapy had a significantly higher risk of developing complications. The presence of comorbidities significantly increased the risk of complication (P = .008); the greatest risk factors were cardiovascular disease (P = .001) and diabetes (P = .06). The authors present the largest cohort of lawn mower injuries in the medical literature, which demonstrates that factors such as age, location of injury, and the presence of comorbidities influence the outcome and increase the risk of injury to the foot and ankle. These results may be useful in determining the best treatment plan possible for patients with these severe injuries. Therapeutic, Level IV, Retrospective case series.

  19. Timing of Lower Extremity Injuries in Competition and Practice in High School Sports.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Kyle; Johnson, Bernadette; Brou, Lina; Landman, Tyler; Sochanska, Ada; Comstock, R Dawn

    Laboratory-based experiments demonstrate that fatigue may contribute to lower extremity injury (LEI). Few studies have examined the timing of LEIs during competition and practice, specifically in high school athletes across multiple sports, to consider the possible relationship between fatigue and LEIs during sport events. The purpose of this study was to describe the timing of LEIs in high school athletes within games and practices across multiple sports, with a hypothesis that more and severe injuries occur later in games and practices. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Level 4. Using the National High School RIO (Reporting Information Online) sport injury surveillance system, LEI severity and time of occurrence data during practice and competition were extracted for 9 high school sports. During the school years 2005-2006 through 2013-2014, 16,967,702 athlete exposures and 19,676 total LEIs were examined. In all sports surveyed, there was a higher LEI rate, relative risk for LEI, and LEI requiring surgery during competition than practice. During practice, the majority of LEIs occurred over an hour into practice in all sports. In quarter-based competition, more LEIs occurred in the second (31% to 32%) and third quarters (30% to 35%) than in the first (11% to 15%) and fourth quarters (22% to 26%). In games with halves, the majority (53% to 66%) of LEIs occurred in the second half. The greater severity LEIs tended to occur earlier in games. Fatigue may play a role in the predominance of injuries in the second half of games, though various factors may be involved. Greater severity of injuries earlier in games may be because of higher energy injuries when athletes are not fatigued. These findings can help prepare sports medicine personnel and guide further related research to prevent LEIs.

  20. Lower-extremity isokinetic strength profiling in professional rugby league and rugby union.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Griffiths, Peter C; Cronin, John B

    2014-03-01

    While several studies have documented isokinetic knee strength in junior and senior rugby league players, investigations of isokinetic knee and hip strength in professional rugby union players are limited. The purpose of this study was to provide lower-extremity strength profiles and compare isokinetic knee and hip strength of professional rugby league and rugby union players. 32 professional rugby league and 25 professional rugby union players. Cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque and strength ratios of the dominant and nondominant legs during seated knee-extension/ flexion and supine hip-extension/flexion actions at 60°/s. Forwards from both codes were taller and heavier and had a higher body-mass index than the backs of each code. Rugby union forwards produced significantly (P < .05) greater peak torque during knee flexion in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.81 and 2.02) compared with rugby league forwards. Rugby league backs produced significantly greater hip-extension peak torque in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 0.83 and 0.77) compared with rugby union backs. There were no significant differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios between code, position, or leg. Rugby union forwards and backs produced significantly greater knee-flexion-to-hip-extension ratios in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.49-2.26) than rugby union players. It seems that the joint torque profiles of players from rugby league and union codes differ, which may be attributed to the different demands of each code.

  1. Predicting Sport and Occupational Lower Extremity Injury Risk through Movement Quality Screening: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L.; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. Objective To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Material and methods Five electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included: original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent authors assessed the quality [Downs and Black (DB) criteria] and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Results Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3–15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). Four studies considered interrelationships between risk factors, seven reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention program targeting individuals identified as high-risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Conclusions Future research should focus on high quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating pre-participation screening and LE injury prevention programs through high quality randomized controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based upon screening tests with validated test properties. PMID:27935483

  2. Pre-Activity Modulation of Lower Extremity Muscles Within Different Types and Heights of Deep Jump

    PubMed Central

    Mrdakovic, Vladimir; Ilic, Dusko B.; Jankovic, Nenad; Rajkovic, Zeljko; Stefanovic, Djordje

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine modulation of pre- activity related to different types and heights of deep jump. Sixteen male soccer players without experience in deep jumps training (the national competition; 15.0 ± 0.5yrs; weight 61.9 ± 6.1kg; height 1.77 ± 0.07m), who participated in the study, performed three types of deep jump (bounce landing, counter landing, and bounce drop jump) from three different heights (40cm, 60cm, and 80cm). Surface EMG device (1000Hz) was used to estimate muscle activity (maximal amplitude of EMG - AmaxEMG; integral EMG signal - iEMG) of five muscles (mm.gastrocnemii, m.soleus, m.tibialis anterior, m.vastus lateralis) within 150ms before touchdown. All the muscles, except m. gastrocnemius medialis, showed systematic increase in pre-activity when platform height was raised. For most of the lower extremity muscles, the most significant differences were between values of pre-activity obtained for 40 cm and 80 cm platforms. While the amount of muscle pre-activity in deep jumps from the heights above and beneath the optimal one did not differ significantly from that generated in deep jumps from the optimal drop height of 60 cm, the patterns of muscle pre-activity obtained for the heights above the optimal one did differ from those obtained for the optimal drop height. That suggests that deep jumps from the heights above the optimal one do not seem to be an adequate exercise for adjusting muscle activity for the impact. Muscle pre-activity in bounce drop jumps differed significantly from that in counter landing and bounce landing respectively, which should indicate that a higher amount of pre-activity generated during bounce drop jumps was used for performing take-offs. As this study included the subjects who were not familiar with deep jumps training, the prospective studies should reveal the results of athletes with previous experience. Key pointsHeight factor proved to be more relevant for the change in pre

  3. Prediction of Summer Extreme Precipitation over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Ning, L.; Liu, J.; Yan, M.; Sun, W.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Summer extreme precipitation (SEP) often causes severe landslide, debris flow and floods over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin(MLYRB), so skillful prediction of the SEP is critical to the future climate adaptions and mitigations. In this work, the characteristic region over the MLYRB (27°N-32°N,108°1-118°E) is defined by the spatial mode of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOF) of SEP over the China from 1961 to 2014. A physics-based empirical model (PEM) of SEP predictions is built with two preceding predictors with significant physical influences on the SEP over the MLYRB. The first predictor is the spring sea surface temperature (SST) over the Northern Indian Ocean (20°S-20°N,50°E-95°E), and the second predictor is the spring sea surface pressure (SLP) over the Aleutian Island (50°N-70°N,160°E-160°W). Analyses of physical mechanism show that when the spring SST over the Northern Indian Ocean is higher, the South Asian High (SAH) extends to the east and the western Pacific sub-tropical high (WPSH) extends to the west, therefore, the generated secondary circulation induces anomalous upward motions and more water vapor transportation to the MLYRB, resulting more SEP. Meanwhile, when the spring SLP over the Aleutian Island is lower, the also WPSH extends to the west, which leads to a negative omega anomaly centered the MLYRB and more water vapor transportation to the MLYRB, resulting in more SEP. The regression model is built using the data from a training period from 1961 to 1999 with correlation coefficient skill of 0.57 (p<0.01) for prediction of SEP in 1961-1999. The independent forecast of the PEM shows that it is skillful in SEP prediction with the correlation coefficient between observed SEP and model-simulated SEP over the validation period 2000-2014 is 0.51 (p<0.05). This finding shows that the preceding spring SST and SLP can provide useful information for prediction of SEP, and the methodology

  4. Superior Lower Extremity Vein Graft Bypass Patency among Married Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Lagergren, Emily; Kempe, Kelly; Craven, Timothy E; Kornegay, Susan T; Hurie, Justin B; Garg, Nitin; Velazquez-Ramirez, Gabriela; Edwards, Matthew S; Corriere, Matthew A

    2017-10-01

    Outcome disparities associated with lower extremity bypass (LEB) for peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been identified but are poorly understood. Marital status may affect outcomes through factors related to health risk behaviors, adherence, and access to care but has not been characterized as a predictor of surgical outcomes and is often omitted from administrative data sets. We evaluated associations between marital status and vein graft patency following LEB using multivariable models adjusting for established risk factors. Consecutive patients undergoing autogenous LEB for PAD were identified and analyzed. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate patency stratified by marital status (married versus single, divorced, or widow[er]) adjusting for demographic, comorbidity, and anatomic factors in multivariable models. Seventy-three participants who underwent 79 autogenous vein LEB had complete data and were analyzed. Forty-three patients (58.9%) were married, and 30 (41.1%) were unmarried. Compared with unmarried patients, married patients were older at the time of their bypass procedure (67.3 ± 10.8 years vs. 62.2 ± 10.6 years; P = 0.05). Married patients also had a lower prevalence of female gender (11.6% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.02). Diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were common among both married and unmarried patients. Minimum great saphenous vein conduit diameters were larger in married versus unmarried patients (2.82 ± 0.57 mm vs. 2.52 ± 0.65 mm; P = 0.04). Twenty-four-month primary patency was 66% for married versus 38% for unmarried patients. In a multivariable proportional hazards model adjusting for proximal and distal graft inflow/outflow, medications, gender, age, race, smoking, diabetes, and minimum vein graft diameter, married status was associated with superior primary patency (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.33; 95% confidence limits [0.11, 0.99]; P = 0.05); other predictive covariates

  5. Early Outcomes following Endovascular, Open Surgical, and Hybrid Revascularization for Lower Extremity Acute Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frank M; Albright, Jeremy; Gallagher, Katherine A; Gurm, Hitinder S; Koenig, Gerald C; Schreiber, Theodore; Grossman, P Michael; Henke, Peter K

    2018-03-05

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) of the lower extremity is a potentially devastating condition that requires urgent and definitive management. This challenging scenario is often treated with endovascular, open surgical, or hybrid revascularization (HyR) in an urgent basis, but the comparative effects of such therapies remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of endovascular, open surgical, and HyR for ALI in the contemporary era. A large statewide cardiovascular consortium of 45 hospitals was queried for patients between January 2012 and June 2015 who underwent an endovascular, open surgical, or HyR for ALI deemed at high risk of limb loss if not treated within 24 hr (Rutherford class IIA or IIB). A propensity score weighted analysis was performed controlling for demographics, medical history, and procedure type for patients. The primary outcomes were 30-day morbidity and mortality. A total of 1,480 patients underwent endovascular revascularization (ER; n = 818), open surgical revascularization (OSR; n = 195), or hybrid revascularization (HyR; n = 467) for ALI. The mean age was similar across revascularization technique with an increased predominance of male gender in open surgery cohort. Comorbidities for all groups were consistent with peripheral arterial disease. The most common endovascular procedures were angioplasty (93%) and thrombolysis (49.8%), whereas the most common surgical revascularization was femoral to popliteal bypass (32.8%), femoral to tibial bypass (28.2%), and thrombectomy (19.0%); ER as compared with OSR and HyR procedures was associated with less transfusion (OSR versus ER, odds ratio [OR] 2.7; HyR versus ER, OR 2.8; P < 0.001) and major amputation (OSR versus ER, OR 3.4; HyR versus ER, OR 4.0; P < 0.001) within 30 days of intervention. There was no difference in 30-day freedom from reintervention, myocardial infarction (MI), or mortality. Among patients requiring urgent revascularization for Rutherford

  6. Trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Pollard, Christine D; Souza, Richard B; Chen, Yu-Jen; Reischl, Stephen; Powers, Christopher M

    2008-07-01

    Experimental laboratory study. To examine how a change in trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise. Altering the position of the trunk during the forward lunge exercise is thought to affect the muscular actions of the lead lower extremity. However, no studies have compared the biomechanical differences between the traditional forward lunge and its variations. Ten healthy adults (5 males, 5 females; mean age +/- SD, 26.7 +/- 3.2 years) participated. Lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and surface electromyographic (EMG) data were obtained while subjects performed 3 lunge exercises: normal lunge with the trunk erect (NL), lunge with the trunk forward (LTF), and lunge with trunk extension (LTE). A 1-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare lower extremity kinematics, joint impulse (area under the moment-time curve), and normalized EMG (highest 1-second window of activity for selected lower extremity muscles) among the 3 lunge conditions. During the LTF condition, significant increases were noted in peak hip flexion angle, hip extensor and ankle plantar flexor impulse, as well as gluteus maximus and biceps femoris EMG (P<.015) when compared to the NL condition. During the LTE condition, a significant increase was noted in peak ankle dorsiflexion and a significant decrease was noted in peak hip flexion angle (P<.015) compared to the NL condition. Performing a lunge with the trunk forward increased the hip extensor impulse and the recruitment of the hip extensors. In contrast, performing a forward lunge with the trunk extended did not alter joint impulse or activation of the lower extremity musculature. Therapy, level 5.

  7. [Biomechanical air-vibration stimulation in the medical rehabilitation of patients with chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Zhukov, B N; Katorkin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Biomechanical pneumo-vibration stimulation of lower extremities was used in 146 patients with different forms and stages of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities during conservative treatment in preoperative preparation and the following early rehabilitation, in 106 patients with consequences of the trauma and diseases of the spinal cord as well as in 35 healthy people. The biomechanical pneumo-vibration stimulation is thought by the authors to be a promising noninvasive conservative method of medical rehabilitation. It can be recommended for clinical use with due regard for contraindications.

  8. Lower extremity mechanics during landing after a volleyball block as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, David; Jandacka, Daniel; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Hamill, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    To compare lower extremity mechanics and energy absorption during two types of landing after a successful or unsuccessful block in volleyball and assess the risks of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Cohort study. Fourteen elite male volleyball players (aged 24.5 ± 4.6 years; height 1.94 ± 0.06 m; mass 86.6 ± 7.6 kg). Subjects were required to land on force platforms using stick landing or step-back landing (with the right lower extremity stepping back away from the net) techniques after performing a standing block jump movement. Vertical ground reaction force (body weight); knee flexion (degrees); knee moments (Nm/kg); and hip, knee and ankle energy absorption (J/kg). The right lower extremity showed a greater first peak of vertical ground reaction force, a greater valgus moment, lower energy absorption by the knee, and higher energy absorption by the hip and ankle joints during step-back landing. The lower extremity may be exposed to a greater risk of ACL injury when stepping back from the net during the initial impact phase after a step-back landing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Burden Is Associated with Motor Performance of Lower and Upper Extremities in Community-Dwelling Populations

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ning; Zhai, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Li-Xin; Ni, Jun; Yao, Ming; Li, Ming-Li; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Gong, Gao-Lang; Zhang, Shu-Yang; Cui, Li-Ying; Tian, Feng; Zhu, Yi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) burden and motor performance of lower and upper extremities in community-dwelling populations. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis on 770 participants enrolled in the Shunyi study, which is a population-based cohort study. CSVD burden, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), perivascular spaces (PVS), and brain atrophy were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging. All participants underwent quantitative motor assessment of lower and upper extremities, which included 3-m walking speed, 5-repeat chair-stand time, 10-repeat pronation–supination time, and 10-repeat finger-tapping time. Data on demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, and cognitive functions were collected. General linear model analysis was performed to identify potential correlations between motor performance measures and imaging markers of CSVD after controlling for confounding factors. Results: For motor performance of the lower extremities, WMH was negatively associated with gait speed (standardized β = -0.092, p = 0.022) and positively associated with chair-stand time (standardized β = 0.153, p < 0.0001, surviving FDR correction). For motor performance of the upper extremities, pronation–supination time was positively associated with WMH (standardized β = 0.155, p < 0.0001, surviving FDR correction) and negatively with brain parenchymal fraction (BPF; standardized β = -0.125, p = 0.011, surviving FDR correction). Only BPF was found to be negatively associated with finger-tapping time (standardized β = -0.123, p = 0.012). However, lacunes, CMBs, or PVS were not found to be associated with motor performance of lower or upper extremities in multivariable analysis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that cerebral microstructural changes related to CSVD may affect motor performance of both lower and upper extremities. WMH and brain

  10. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Burden Is Associated with Motor Performance of Lower and Upper Extremities in Community-Dwelling Populations.

    PubMed

    Su, Ning; Zhai, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Li-Xin; Ni, Jun; Yao, Ming; Li, Ming-Li; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Gong, Gao-Lang; Zhang, Shu-Yang; Cui, Li-Ying; Tian, Feng; Zhu, Yi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) burden and motor performance of lower and upper extremities in community-dwelling populations. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis on 770 participants enrolled in the Shunyi study, which is a population-based cohort study. CSVD burden, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), perivascular spaces (PVS), and brain atrophy were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging. All participants underwent quantitative motor assessment of lower and upper extremities, which included 3-m walking speed, 5-repeat chair-stand time, 10-repeat pronation-supination time, and 10-repeat finger-tapping time. Data on demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, and cognitive functions were collected. General linear model analysis was performed to identify potential correlations between motor performance measures and imaging markers of CSVD after controlling for confounding factors. Results: For motor performance of the lower extremities, WMH was negatively associated with gait speed (standardized β = -0.092, p = 0.022) and positively associated with chair-stand time (standardized β = 0.153, p < 0.0001, surviving FDR correction). For motor performance of the upper extremities, pronation-supination time was positively associated with WMH (standardized β = 0.155, p < 0.0001, surviving FDR correction) and negatively with brain parenchymal fraction (BPF; standardized β = -0.125, p = 0.011, surviving FDR correction). Only BPF was found to be negatively associated with finger-tapping time (standardized β = -0.123, p = 0.012). However, lacunes, CMBs, or PVS were not found to be associated with motor performance of lower or upper extremities in multivariable analysis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that cerebral microstructural changes related to CSVD may affect motor performance of both lower and upper extremities. WMH and brain atrophy

  11. Is Knee Separation During a Drop Jump Associated With Lower Extremity Injury in Adolescent Female Soccer Players?

    PubMed

    O'Kane, John W; Tencer, Allan; Neradilek, Moni; Polissar, Nayak; Sabado, Lori; Schiff, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Knee injuries are common in older adolescent and adult female soccer players, and abnormal valgus knee appearance characterized by low normalized knee separation (NKS) is a proposed injury risk factor. What constitutes normal NKS in younger adolescents and whether low NKS is an injury risk factor are unknown. To determine the normal range of NKS using a drop-jump test in female perimenarchal youth soccer players and whether low NKS contributes to lower extremity injuries or knee injuries. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. From 2008 to 2012, a total of 351 female elite youth soccer players (age range, 11-14 years) were followed for 1 season, with complete follow-up on 92.3% of players. Baseline drop-jump testing was performed preseason. Lower extremity injuries during the season were identified using a validated, Internet-based injury surveillance system with weekly email reporting. Normalized knee separation at prelanding, landing, and takeoff was categorized 2 ways: as ≤10th percentile (most extreme valgus appearance) compared with >10th percentile and as a continuous measure of 1 SD. Poisson regression modeling with adjustment for clustering by team estimated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association between the NKS and the risk of lower extremity and knee injury, stratified by menarche. Of the study participants, 134 players experienced 173 lower extremity injuries, with 43 (24.9%) knee injuries. For postmenarchal players (n = 210), those with NKS ≤10th percentile were at 92% increased risk of lower extremity injury (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.17-3.15) and a 3.62-fold increased risk of knee injury (RR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.18-11.09) compared with NKS >10th percentile at prelanding and landing, respectively. Among postmenarchal players, there was an 80% increased risk of knee injury (RR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.01-3.23) with a decrease of 1 SD in landing NKS and a 66% increased risk of knee injury (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.04-2.64) with a decrease

  12. Landing Biomechanics in Participants With Different Static Lower Extremity Alignment Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J.; Schmitz, Randy J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Whereas static lower extremity alignment (LEA) has been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about its influence on joint motion and moments commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objective: To cluster participants according to combinations of LEA variables and compare these clusters in hip- and knee-joint kinematics and kinetics during the landing phase of a drop-jump task. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 141 participants (50 men: age = 22.2 ± 2.8 years, height = 177.9 ± 9.3 cm, weight = 80.9 ± 13.3 kg; 91 women: age = 21.2 ± 2.6 years, height = 163.9 ± 6.6 cm, weight = 61.1 ± 8.7 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Static LEA included pelvic angle, femoral anteversion, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, and navicular drop. Cluster analysis grouped participants according to their static LEA profiles, and these groups were compared on their hip- and knee-joint kinematics and external moments during the landing phase of a double-legged drop jump. Results: Three distinct clusters (C1–C3) were identified based on their static LEAs. Participants in clusters characterized with static internally rotated hip and valgus knee posture (C1) and externally rotated knee and valgus knee posture (C3) alignments demonstrated greater knee-valgus motion and smaller hip-flexion moments than the cluster with more neutral static alignment (C2). Participants in C1 also experienced greater hip internal-rotation and knee external-rotation moments than those in C2 and C3. Conclusions: Static LEA clusters that are positioned anatomically with a more rotated and valgus knee posture experienced greater dynamic valgus along with hip and knee moments during landing. Whereas static LEA contributes to differences in hip and knee rotational moments, sex may influence the differences in frontal-plane knee

  13. A Refined Prediction Model for Core and Lower Extremity Sprains and Strains Among Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Colston, Marisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Researchers have identified high exposure to game conditions, low back dysfunction, and poor endurance of the core musculature as strong predictors for the occurrence of sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective To refine a previously developed injury-prediction model through analysis of 3 consecutive seasons of data. Design Cohort study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. Patients or Other Participants For 3 consecutive years, all 152 team members (age = 19.7 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.84 ± 0.08 m, mass = 101.08 ± 19.28 kg) presented for a mandatory physical examination on the day before initiation of preseason practice sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s) Associations between preseason measurements and the subsequent occurrence of a core or lower extremity sprain or strain were established for 256 player-seasons of data. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify optimal cut points for dichotomous categorizations of cases as high risk or low risk. Both logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to identify a multivariable injury-prediction model with optimal discriminatory power. Results Exceptionally good discrimination between injured and uninjured cases was found for a 3-factor prediction model that included equal to or greater than 1 game as a starter, Oswestry Disability Index score equal to or greater than 4, and poor wall-sit–hold performance. The existence of at least 2 of the 3 risk factors demonstrated 56% sensitivity, 80% specificity, an odds ratio of 5.28 (90% confidence interval = 3.31, 8.44), and a hazard ratio of 2.97 (90% confidence interval = 2.14, 4.12). Conclusions High exposure to game conditions was the dominant injury risk factor for collegiate football players, but a surprisingly mild degree of low back dysfunction and poor core-muscle endurance appeared to be important modifiable risk factors that

  14. Extensive Corrective Fixation Surgeries for Adult Spinal Deformity Improve Posture and Lower Extremity Kinematics During Gait.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hideyuki; Yamato, Yu; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Kobayashi, Sho; Yoshida, Go; Yasuda, Tatsuya; Banno, Tomohiro; Oe, Shin; Mihara, Yuki; Togawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-10-01

    Longitudinal cohort. The present study aimed to document changes in posture and lower extremity kinematics during gait in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) after extensive corrective surgery. Standing radiographic parameters are typically used to evaluate patients with ASD. Previously, preoperative walking and standing posture discrepancy were reported in patients with ASD. We did not include comparison between before and after surgery. Therefore, we thought that pre- and postoperative evaluations for patients with ASD should include gait analysis. Thirty-nine patients with ASD (5 men, 34 women; mean age, 71.0 ± 6.1) who underwent posterior corrective fixation surgeries from the thoracic spine to the pelvis were included. A 4-m walk was recorded and analyzed. Sagittal balance while walking was calculated as the angle between the plumb line on the side and the line connecting the greater trochanter and pinna while walking (i.e., the gait-trunk tilt angle [GTA]). We measured maximum knee extension angle during one gait cycle, step length (cm), and walking speed (m/min). Radiographic parameters were also measured. The mean GTA and the mean maximum knee extension angle significantly improved from 13.4° to 6.4°, and -13.3° to -9.4°(P < 0.001 and P = 0.006), respectively. The mean step length improved from 40.4 to 43.1 cm (P = 0.049), but there was no significant change in walking speed (38.4 to 41.5 m/min, P = 0.105). Postoperative GTA, maximum knee extension angle and step length correlated with postoperative pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (r = 0.324, P = 0.044; r = -0.317, P = 0.049; r = -0.416, P = 0.008, respectively). Our results suggest that postoperative posture, maximum knee extension angle, and step length during gait in patients with ASD improved corresponding to how much correction of the sagittal spinal deformity was achieved. 3.

  15. LOWER EXTREMITY HYPERMOBILITY, BUT NOT CORE MUSCLE ENDURANCE INFLUENCES BALANCE IN FEMALE COLLEGIATE DANCERS.

    PubMed

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Shane V; Ambegaonkar, Gautam P; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Dance is a physically demanding activity, with almost 70% of all injuries in dancers occurring in the lower extremity (LE). Prior researchers report that muscle function (e.g. muscle endurance) and anatomical factors (e.g. hypermobility) affect physical performance (e.g. balance) and can subsequently influence LE injury risk. Specifically, lesser core muscle endurance, balance deficits, and greater hypermobility are related to increased LE injury risk. However, the potentials interrelationships among these factors in dancers remain unclear. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among core muscle endurance, balance, and LE hypermobility, and determine the relative contributions of core muscle endurance and LE hypermobility as predictors of balance in female collegiate dancers. Cross-sectional. Core muscle endurance was evaluated using the combined average anterior, left, and right lateral plank test time scores(s). LE hypermobility was measured using the LE-specific Beighton hypermobility measure, defining hypermobility if both legs had greater than 10 ° knee hyperextension. Balance was measured via the composite anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances (normalized to leg length) in 15 female healthy collegiate dancers (18.3 + 0.5yrs, 165.5 + 6.9cm, 63.7 + 12.1kg). Point-biserial-correlation-coefficients examined relationships and a linear regression examined whether core endurance and hypermobility predicted balance (p<.05). LE hypermobility (Yes; n = 3, No; n = 12) and balance (87.2 + 8.3% leg length) were positively correlated r(14)=.67, (p=.01). However, core endurance (103.9 + 50.6 s) and balance were not correlated r(14)=.32, (p=.26). LE hypermobility status predicted 36.9% of the variance in balance scores (p=.01). LE hypermobility, but not core muscle endurance may be related to balance in female collegiate dancers. While LE hypermobility status influenced

  16. The effect of social integration on outcomes after major lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Alexander T; Pallangyo, Anthony J; Herman, Ayesiga M; Schaumeier, Maria J; Smith, Ann D; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Crandell, David M; Nguyen, Louis L

    2016-01-01

    Major lower extremity (MLE) amputation is a common procedure that results in a profound change in a patient's life. We sought to determine the association between social support and outcomes after amputation. We hypothesized that patients with greater social support will have better post amputation outcomes. From November 2011 to May 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study. Social integration was measured by the social integration subset of the Short Form Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique. Systemic social support was assessed by comparing a United States and Tanzanian population. Walking function was measured using the 6-minute walk test and quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EuroQol-5D. We recruited 102 MLE amputees. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in the United States with a mean age of 58.0. Forty-two (67%) were male. Patients with low social integration were more likely to be unable to ambulate (no walk 39% vs slow walk 23% vs fast walk 10%; P = .01) and those with high social integration were more likely to be fast walkers (no walk 10% vs slow walk 59% vs fast walk 74%; P = .01). This relationship persisted in a multivariable analysis. Increasing social integration scores were also positively associated with increasing QoL scores in a multivariable analysis (β, .002; standard error, 0.0008; P = .02). In comparing the United States population with the Tanzanian cohort (39 subjects), there were no differences between functional or QoL outcomes in the systemic social support analysis. In the United States population, increased social integration is associated with both improved function and QoL outcomes among MLE amputees. Systemic social support, as measured by comparing the United States population with a Tanzanian population, was not associated with improved function or QoL outcomes. In the United States, steps should be taken to identify and aid amputees with poor social integration. Copyright

  17. LOWER EXTREMITY HYPERMOBILITY, BUT NOT CORE MUSCLE ENDURANCE INFLUENCES BALANCE IN FEMALE COLLEGIATE DANCERS

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Shane V.; Ambegaonkar, Gautam P.; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Dance is a physically demanding activity, with almost 70% of all injuries in dancers occurring in the lower extremity (LE). Prior researchers report that muscle function (e.g. muscle endurance) and anatomical factors (e.g. hypermobility) affect physical performance (e.g. balance) and can subsequently influence LE injury risk. Specifically, lesser core muscle endurance, balance deficits, and greater hypermobility are related to increased LE injury risk. However, the potentials interrelationships among these factors in dancers remain unclear. Purpose The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among core muscle endurance, balance, and LE hypermobility, and determine the relative contributions of core muscle endurance and LE hypermobility as predictors of balance in female collegiate dancers. Study Design Cross-sectional Methods Core muscle endurance was evaluated using the combined average anterior, left, and right lateral plank test time scores(s). LE hypermobility was measured using the LE-specific Beighton hypermobility measure, defining hypermobility if both legs had greater than 10 ° knee hyperextension. Balance was measured via the composite anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances (normalized to leg length) in 15 female healthy collegiate dancers (18.3 + 0.5yrs, 165.5 + 6.9cm, 63.7 + 12.1kg). Point-biserial-correlation-coefficients examined relationships and a linear regression examined whether core endurance and hypermobility predicted balance (p<.05). Results LE hypermobility (Yes; n = 3, No; n = 12) and balance (87.2 + 8.3% leg length) were positively correlated r(14)=.67, (p=.01). However, core endurance (103.9 + 50.6 s) and balance were not correlated r(14)=.32, (p=.26). LE hypermobility status predicted 36.9% of the variance in balance scores (p=.01). Conclusion LE hypermobility, but not core muscle endurance may be related to balance in female

  18. Functional outcomes following the prosthetic training phase of rehabilitation after dysvascular lower extremity amputation

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Cory; Fields, Thomas; Lev, Guy; Stephenson, Ryan O.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe physical function outcomes and modes of physical therapy intervention for a cohort of patients with dysvascular lower extremity amputation (LEA) during the prosthetic training phase of rehabilitation. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Physical rehabilitation clinics at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a University Hospital. Patients Forty-two patients (38 men, 4 women, age 60.2±8.4 years) who completed outpatient physical therapy rehabilitation with prosthetic training after dysvascular LEA. Methods All patients underwent a prosthetic training phase of rehabilitation, with standardized outcome measures performed at initiation and discharge. Main Outcome Measures Performance-based physical function measures included: Two-Minute Walk (2MW), Timed-Up and Go (TUG), and 5-meter gait speed. Self-report physical function measures included: the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire – Mobility Section (PEQ-MS) and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS). Rehabilitation dose was tracked as total number of clinic visits, rehabilitation duration, and specific intervention modes. Results There were significant improvements in 2MW (mean±SD) [67.5±29.9 m (initial) and 103.3±45.8 m (discharge) (p<0.001)], gait speed [0.58±0.27 m/s (initial) and 0.88±0.39 m/s (discharge) (p<0.001)], TUG [34.8±21.3 s (initial) and 18.6±13.9 s (discharge) (p<0.001)], PEQ-MS [2.2±0.9 (initial) and 2.8±0.8 (discharge) (p<0.001)], and PSFS [3.2±2.0 (initial) and 5.9±2.3 (discharge) (p<0.001)]. Performance-based (TUG) and self-report (PEQ-MS) changes in functional mobility from initial exam to discharge had low or no correlations with rehabilitation dose measures. Number of clinic visits was 12.7±13.1 and rehabilitation duration was 13.7±16.8 weeks. Conclusions Significant improvements in performance-based and self-report measures of physical function occurred during the prosthetic training phase of physical rehabilitation following dysvascular

  19. Patient Compliance with Postoperative Lower-Extremity Non-Weight-Bearing Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Christopher P; Macaulay, Alec A; Palms, David A; Smith, Jeremy T; Bluman, Eric M

    2016-09-21

    A period of non-weight-bearing is prescribed following many orthopaedic injuries and procedures. It is believed that a period of non-weight-bearing is important for proper healing and recovery. The degree to which patients are compliant with non-weight-bearing instructions is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure patient compliance with a period of prescribed non-weight-bearing. In this single-blinded study, pressure-sensitive film was embedded into short leg casts of 51 consecutive adult orthopaedic patients with unilateral lower-extremity abnormality who had been instructed to be strictly non-weight-bearing. Sensors were retrieved at the time of cast removal (mean, 24.3 days [range, 7 to 48 days]) and then were analyzed for force distribution and magnitude. Noncompliance was defined as maximum detectable pressure exerted on ≥50% of the film. Patient characteristics and the time of year that the casts were worn were also examined to determine if they correlated with weight-bearing. Fourteen (27.5%) of 51 patients were noncompliant with the non-weight-bearing restriction. Six (42.9%) of the 14 noncompliant patients compared with 11 (29.7%) of the 37 compliant patients experienced an adverse event (p = 0.51). Sex, age, language spoken, body mass index, time in the cast, and the treating surgeon did not have a significant influence on weight-bearing performance (p > 0.05). Significantly greater weight-bearing was found (p = 0.04) in warmer months (June to October) than in colder months (November to March) in the United States. The noncompliance rate with the postoperative non-weight-bearing restriction was 27.5% (95% confidence interval, 15.2% to 39.8%) in this patient group, despite explicit instructions and education about possible complications associated with weight-bearing. The only factor found to have a significant effect on weight-bearing compliance was the time of year