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Sample records for lowers oxidative damage

  1. Mitochondria from females exhibit higher antioxidant gene expression and lower oxidative damage than males.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Consuelo; Sastre, Juan; García-Sala, David; Lloret, Ana; Pallardó, Federico V; Viña, José

    2003-03-01

    We have investigated the differential mitochondrial oxidative stress between males and females to understand the molecular mechanisms enabling females to live longer than males. Mitochondria are a major source of free radicals in cells. Those from female rats generate half the amount of peroxides than those of males. This does not occur in ovariectomized animals. Estrogen replacement therapy prevents the effect of ovariectomy. Mitochondria from females have higher levels of reduced glutathione than those from males. Those from ovariectomized rats have similar levels to males, and estrogen therapy prevents the fall in glutathione levels that occurs in ovariectomized animals. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in males is 4-fold higher than that in females. This is due to higher expression and activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase and of glutathione peroxidase in females, which behave as double transgenics overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, conferring protection against free-radical-mediated damage in aging. Moreover, 16S rRNA expression, which decreases significantly with aging, is four times higher in mitochondria from females than in those from males of the same chronological age. The facts reported here provide molecular evidence to explain the different life span in males and females.

  2. Carotenoid consumption is related to lower lipid oxidation and DNA damage in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, P G; Natali, A J; Alfenas, R C G; de Oliveira, A; dos Santos, E C; Hermsdorff, H H M

    2015-07-01

    The present cross-sectional study assessed the potential relationships of carotenoid intake with lipid and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men. A total of 296 apparently healthy middle-aged men (mean age 50.5 (SD 5.0) years, BMI 25.8 (SD 3.5) kg/m(2)) were recruited to participate in the study. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features, blood and urine biomarkers were assessed using validated procedures. The lipid markers included NEFA, Castelli index, and TAG:HDL ratio; oxidative stress markers included urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-PGF2α and plasma oxidised-LDL (ox-LDL). We observed a significant inverse association (P < 0.05) between NEFA concentrations and consumption of lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene, α-carotene and total carotenoid, while Castelli index was negatively associated with daily intake of lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids. Regarding oxidative stress biomarkers, urinary 8-OHdG and ox-LDL concentrations were also inversely associated (P < 0.05) with consumption of lycopene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene, α-carotene and total carotenoids, regardless of confounding variables. Moreover, there was a negative association of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α concentration with dietary lutein plus zeaxanthin (β - 0.135, 95% CI - 0.268, - 0.001), β-carotene (β - 0.156, 95% CI - 0.277, - 0.034) and with the sum of all carotenoids (β - 0.189, 95% CI - 0.333, - 0.046). In conclusion, total daily carotenoid intake based on five investigated carotenoid types (β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene and α-carotene) was inversely associated with relevant lipid and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men, with emphasis on β-carotene that was negatively associated with five of the six lipid and oxidative stress markers evaluated in the present study.

  3. Lower oxidative DNA damage despite greater ROS production in muscles from rats selectively bred for high running capacity.

    PubMed

    Tweedie, Constance; Romestaing, Caroline; Burelle, Yan; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Seadon, Scott; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Hepple, Russell T

    2011-03-01

    Artificial selection in rat has yielded high-capacity runners (HCR) and low-capacity runners (LCR) that differ in intrinsic (untrained) aerobic exercise ability and metabolic disease risk. To gain insight into how oxygen metabolism may have been affected by selection, we compared mitochondrial function, oxidative DNA damage (8-dihydroxy-guanosine; 8dOHG), and antioxidant enzyme activities in soleus muscle (Sol) and gastrocnemius muscle (Gas) of adult and aged LCR vs. HCR rats. In Sol of adult HCR rats, maximal ADP-stimulated respiration was 37% greater, whereas in Gas of adult HCR rats, there was a 23% greater complex IV-driven respiratory capacity and 54% greater leak as a fraction of electron transport capacity (suggesting looser mitochondrial coupling) vs. LCR rats. H(2)O(2) emission per gram of muscle was 24-26% greater for both muscles in adult HCR rats vs. LCR, although H(2)O(2) emission in Gas was 17% lower in HCR, after normalizing for citrate synthase activity (marker of mitochondrial content). Despite greater H(2)O(2) emission, 8dOHG levels were 62-78% lower in HCR rats due to 62-96% higher superoxide dismutase activity in both muscles and 47% higher catalase activity in Sol muscle in adult HCR rats, with no evidence for higher 8 oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1; DNA repair enzyme) protein expression. We conclude that genetic segregation for high running capacity has generated a molecular network of cellular adaptations, facilitating a superior response to oxidative stress.

  4. Resveratrol lowers synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory markers and oxidative damage in an acute antigen-induced arthritis model.

    PubMed

    Riveiro-Naveira, Romina R; Valcárcel-Ares, Marta N; Almonte-Becerril, Maylin; Vaamonde-García, Carlos; Loureiro, Jesús; Hermida-Carballo, Laura; López-Peláez, Eduardo; Blanco, Francisco J; López-Armada, María J

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protective effects of dietary supplementation with resveratrol (RSV) in an acute antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, AIA and RSV-treated AIA group. RSV (12.5 mg/kg/day) was given orally for 8 weeks before induction of AIA and until the end of the experiment (48 h after intra-articular injection). The control and AIA animals were administered 100 μl of water. Results were evaluated by macroscopic observation, histopathology and immunohistochemistry for anti-PCNA, macrophages (CD68), T lymphocytes (CD3), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine (a marker of DNA damage). Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 in serum and peroxidase activity in synovial tissue were measured using commercial kits. At the end of the study, RSV significantly reduced knee swelling. Likewise, the histological score of synovial tissue also reduced significantly. The arthritis-protective effects were associated with a significant decrease in PCNA, CD68, CD3 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 staining, as well as a reduction in serum concentrations of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1. RSV treatment also decreased the level of the marker of DNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine. Accordingly, peroxidase activity in the synovial tissue was up-regulated. Dietary supplementation with RSV lowers the main pathological hallmarks of RA disease in an acute model of AIA. RSV may represent a promising strategy in controlling the severity of RA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Oxidative damage in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Seet, Raymond C S; Lee, Chung-Yung J; Lim, Erle C H; Quek, Amy M L; Yeo, Leonard L L; Huang, Shan-Hong; Halliwell, Barry

    2009-08-15

    Oxidative stress may be important in the pathogenesis of dengue infection. Using accurate markers of oxidative damage, we assessed the extent of oxidative damage in dengue patients. The levels of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs), F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs), and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were measured in 28 adult dengue patients and 28 age-matched study controls during the febrile, defervescent, and convalescent stages of infection. We compared the absolute and the percentage change in these markers in relation to key clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. The levels of total HETEs and total HETEs/arachidonate, total F(2)-IsoPs/arachidonate, and COPs/cholesterol were higher during the febrile compared to the convalescent level. Total HETEs correlated positively with admission systolic blood pressure (r=0.52, p<0.05), whereas an inverse relationship was found between 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.61 and -0.59, respectively, p<0.01). The urinary F(2)-IsoP level was higher in urine during the febrile stage compared to the convalescent level. Despite lower total cholesterol levels during the febrile stage compared to convalescent levels, a higher percentage of cholesterol was found as COPs (7beta-, 24-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol). The levels of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher during the febrile stage compared to their convalescent levels (p<0.01). Markers of oxidative damage are altered during the various stages of dengue infection.

  6. Lung Oxidative Damage by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, O. F.; Tuesta, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described. PMID:22966417

  7. Lung oxidative damage by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Tuesta, M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described.

  8. Tissue damage and oxidant/antioxidant balance.

    PubMed

    Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Borekci, Bunyamin; Yapca, O Erkan; Bilen, Habib; Suleyman, Halis

    2013-02-01

    The oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy tissues is maintained with a predominance of antioxidants. Various factors that can lead to tissue damage disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. In this study, disruptions of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants were found to be a consequence of the over-consumption of antioxidants. For this reason, antioxidants are considered to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of various types of tissue damage that are aggravated by stress.

  9. Oxidative DNA damage & repair: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2017-06-01

    This introductory article should be viewed as a prologue to the Free Radical Biology & Medicine Special Issue devoted to the important topic of Oxidatively Damaged DNA and its Repair. This special issue is dedicated to Professor Tomas Lindahl, co-winner of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his seminal discoveries in the area repair of oxidatively damaged DNA. In the past several years it has become abundantly clear that DNA oxidation is a major consequence of life in an oxygen-rich environment. Concomitantly, survival in the presence of oxygen, with the constant threat of deleterious DNA mutations and deletions, has largely been made possible through the evolution of a vast array of DNA repair enzymes. The articles in this Oxidatively Damaged DNA & Repair special issue detail the reactions by which intracellular DNA is oxidatively damaged, and the enzymatic reactions and pathways by which living organisms survive such assaults by repair processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower operating temperatures oxidize VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.

    1996-12-01

    Regenerative catalytic oxidation (RCO) is a new volatile organic compound (VOC) abatement technology that is gaining acceptance in plants where energy costs are high and hours of operation are long. By combining the features of thermal and catalytic oxidation, RCO technology provides an efficient and cost-effective solution to air pollution problems in a variety of industries where hours of operation reach 4,000 annually, and the challenge is growing to reduce energy and operating costs, yet comply with increasingly stringent VOC control regulations. These may include: printed circuit board fabrication (laminate manufacturing), printing (lithography and flexography), coating (cans, coils and fabrics), forest products (production of woods ranging from plywood to medium- and high-density fiberboard) and automotive OEM (spray-paint booths) and component manufacturing (parts spray-painting, resin components, adhesive components, miscellaneous metalworking applications).

  11. Immunochemical detection of oxidatively damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J

    2012-04-01

    Oxidatively damaged DNA is implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases as well as aging. Several methods have been developed to detect oxidatively damaged DNA. They include chromatographic techniques, the Comet assay, (32)P-postlabelling and immunochemical methods that use antibodies to detect oxidized lesions. In this review, we discuss the detection of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-29-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), the most abundant oxidized nucleoside. This lesion is frequently used as a marker of exposure to oxidants, including environmental pollutants, as well as a potential marker of disease progression. We concentrate on studies published between the years 2000 and 2011 that used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry to detect 8-oxodG in humans, laboratory animals and in cell lines. Oxidative damage observed in these organisms resulted from disease, exposure to environmental pollutants or from in vitro treatment with various chemical and physical factors.

  12. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Klaunig, James E. Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

    2011-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

  13. Increased oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in non-remission schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Sertan Copoglu, U; Virit, Osman; Hanifi Kokacya, M; Orkmez, Mustafa; Bulbul, Feridun; Binnur Erbagci, A; Semiz, Murat; Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Ari, Mustafa; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-09-30

    Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. But there is not any study which examines the effects of oxidative stress on DNA in schizophrenia patients. Therefore we aimed to assess the oxidative stress levels and oxidative DNA damage in schizophrenia patients with and without symptomatic remission. A total of 64 schizophrenia patients (38 with symptomatic remission and 26 without symptomatic remission) and 80 healthy volunteers were included in the study. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in plasma. TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI) and 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in non-remission schizophrenic (Non-R-Sch) patients than in the controls. TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in remission schizophrenic (R-Sch) patients than in the controls. TAS level were significantly lower and TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in R-Sch patients than in Non-R-Sch patients. Despite the ongoing oxidative stress in patients with both R-Sch and Non-R-Sch, oxidative DNA damage was higher in only Non-R-Sch patients compared to controls. It is suggested that oxidative stress can cause the disease via DNA damage, and oxidative stress plays a role in schizophrenia through oxidative DNA damage.

  14. Electron beam damage in oxides: a review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes a variety of beam damage phenomena relating to oxides in (scanning) transmission electron microscopes, and underlines the shortcomings of currently popular mechanisms. These phenomena include mass loss, valence state reduction, phase decomposition, precipitation, gas bubble formation, phase transformation, amorphization and crystallization. Moreover, beam damage is also dependent on specimen thickness, specimen orientation, beam voltage, beam current density and beam size. This article incorporates all of these damage phenomena and experimental dependences into a general description, interpreted by a unified mechanism of damage by induced electric field. The induced electric field is produced by positive charges, which are generated from excitation and ionization. The distribution of the induced electric fields inside a specimen is beam-illumination- and specimen-shape- dependent, and associated with the experimental dependence of beam damage. Broadly speaking, the mechanism operates differently in two types of material. In type I, damage increases the resistivity of the irradiated materials, and is thus divergent, resulting in phase separation. In type II, damage reduces the resistivity of the irradiated materials, and is thus convergent, resulting in phase transformation. Damage by this mechanism is dependent on electron-beam current density. The two experimental thresholds are current density and irradiation time. The mechanism comes into effect when these thresholds are exceeded, below which the conventional mechanisms of knock-on and radiolysis still dominate.

  15. DNA damage and oxidative status in PFAPA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tuğrul, Selahattin; Doğan, Remzi; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Torun, Emel; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2015-10-01

    PFAPA syndrome is a clinical entity of unknown etiology which presents with periodic episodes of fever, aphthous stomatitis, tonsillitis or pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. In this study we investigated DNA damage and the oxidative stress parameters in patients diagnosed with PFAPA, to elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of this syndrome. Thirty-one patients diagnosed with PFAPA (Group 1), 22 patients diagnosed with normal tonsillitis or pharyngitis (Group 2), and 20 healthy volunteers (Group 3) were included in our study. Heparinized peripheral blood samples were drawn from all patients and volunteers. DNA damage was assessed by single cell alkaline electrophoresis assay in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. Plasma levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidative status (TOS) were determined by using a novel automated measurement method, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. DNA damage in the mononuclear leukocytes of Group 1 was significantly higher than that of Group 2 and Group 3. The oxidative stress parameters revealed that the TOS and OSI values of Group 1 were significantly higher than those of Group 2 and Group 3. TAS values of Group 1 were significantly lower than those of Group 2 and Group 3. Correlation analysis of Group 1 demonstrated a significant correlation between TOS, one of the oxidative stress parameters, and DNA damage. Correlations between DNA damage and C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values were also significant. Our study indicated that both the inflammatory and the oxidative stress parameters were significantly increased in patients with PFAPA syndrome, accompanied by a significant positive correlation between DNA damage and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The oxidative damage initiation hypothesis for meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hörandl, Elvira; Hadacek, Franz

    2013-12-01

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is still a major enigma in evolutionary biology. Meiosis represents the only common feature of sex in all eukaryotic kingdoms, and thus, we regard it a key issue for discussing its function. Almost all asexuality modes maintain meiosis either in a modified form or as an alternative pathway, and facultatively apomictic plants increase frequencies of sexuality relative to apomixis after abiotic stress. On the physiological level, abiotic stress causes oxidative stress. We hypothesize that repair of oxidative damage on nuclear DNA could be a major driving force in the evolution of meiosis. We present a hypothetical model for the possible redox chemistry that underlies the binding of the meiosis-specific protein Spo11 to DNA. During prophase of meiosis I, oxidized sites at the DNA molecule are being targeted by the catalytic tyrosine moieties of Spo11 protein, which acts like an antioxidant reducing the oxidized target. The oxidized tyrosine residues, tyrosyl radicals, attack the phosphodiester bonds of the DNA backbone causing DNA double strand breaks that can be repaired by various mechanisms. Polyploidy in apomictic plants could mitigate oxidative DNA damage and decrease Spo11 activation. Our hypothesis may contribute to explaining various enigmatic phenomena: first, DSB formation outnumbers crossovers and, thus, effective recombination events by far because the target of meiosis may be the removal of oxidative lesions; second, it offers an argument for why expression of sexuality is responsive to stress in many eukaryotes; and third, repair of oxidative DNA damage turns meiosis into an essential characteristic of eukaryotic reproduction.

  17. DNA damage, oxidative mutagen sensitivity, and repair of oxidative DNA damage in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bendesky, Andrés; Michel, Alejandra; Sordo, Monserrat; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Salazar, Ana M; Podoswa, Nancy; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2006-08-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequent type of cancer in humans. Exposure to UV radiation is a major risk factor for NMSC, and oxidative DNA damage, caused either by UV radiation itself or by other agents, may be involved in its induction. Increased sensitivity to oxidative damage and an altered DNA repair capacity (DRC) increase the risk of many types of cancer; however, sensitivity to oxidizing agents has not been evaluated for NMSC, and results regarding DRC in NMSC are inconclusive. In the present study, we evaluated DNA damage and repair in leukocytes from 41 NMSC patients and 45 controls. The Comet assay was used to measure basal and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, as well as the DRC, while the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to measure the basal level of chromosome damage. Although basal DNA damage was higher for the controls than for the patients, this finding was mainly due to sampling more controls in the summer, which was associated with longer comet tails. In contrast, H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage was significantly higher in cases than in controls, and this parameter was not influenced by the season of the year. The DRC for the H(2)O(2)-induced damage was similar for cases and controls and unrelated to seasonality. Finally, the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei was similar for cases and controls. The results of this study indicate that NMSC patients are distinguished from controls by an increased sensitivity to oxidative DNA damage.

  18. Anti- and pro-oxidant effects of (+)-catechin on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Chen, Puqing; Yang, Qin; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    Evidence to support the role of heme proteins as major inducers of oxidative damage is increasingly present. Flavonoids have been widely used to ameliorate oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action was usually dependent on their anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of (+)-catechin, a polyphenol identified in tea, cocoa, and red wine, on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage. It was found that (+)-catechin had the capacities to act as a free radical scavenger and reducing agent to remove cytotoxic ferryl hemoglobin, demonstrating apparent anti-oxidant activities. However, the presence of (+)-catechin surprisingly promoted hemoglobin-induced protein oxidation, which was probably due to the ability of this anti-oxidant to rapidly trigger the oxidative degradation of normal hemoglobin. In addition, hemoglobin-H2O2-induced protein carbonyl formation was significantly enhanced by (+)-catechin at lower concentrations, while it was efficiently inhibited when higher concentrations were used. These novel results showed that the dietary intake and therapeutic use of catechins might possess pro-oxidant activity through aggravating hemoglobin-related oxidative damage. The dual effects on hemoglobin redox reactions may provide new insights into the physiological implications of tea extract and wine (catechins) with cellular heme proteins.

  19. Understanding and preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative damage has long been known to contribute to damage in conditions such as ischaemia–reperfusion (IR) injury in heart attack. Over the past years, we have developed a series of mitochondria-targeted compounds designed to ameliorate or determine how this damage occurs. I will outline some of this work, from MitoQ to the mitochondria-targeted S-nitrosating agent, called MitoSNO, that we showed was effective in preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in IR injury with therapeutic implications. In addition, the protection by this compound suggested that ROS production in IR injury was mainly coming from complex I. This led us to investigate the mechanism of the ROS production and using a metabolomic approach, we found that the ROS production in IR injury came from the accumulation of succinate during ischaemia that then drove mitochondrial ROS production by reverse electron transport at complex I during reperfusion. This surprising mechanism led us to develop further new therapeutic approaches to have an impact on the damage that mitochondrial ROS do in pathology and also to explore how mitochondrial ROS can act as redox signals. I will discuss how these approaches have led to a better understanding of mitochondrial oxidative damage in pathology and also to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27911703

  20. Coccidian Infection Causes Oxidative Damage in Greenfinches

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Blount, Jonathan D.; Sild, Elin; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2012-01-01

    The main tenet of immunoecology is that individual variation in immune responsiveness is caused by the costs of immune responses to the hosts. Oxidative damage resulting from the excessive production of reactive oxygen species during immune response is hypothesized to form one of such costs. We tested this hypothesis in experimental coccidian infection model in greenfinches Carduelis chloris. Administration of isosporan coccidians to experimental birds did not affect indices of antioxidant protection (TAC and OXY), plasma triglyceride and carotenoid levels or body mass, indicating that pathological consequences of infection were generally mild. Infected birds had on average 8% higher levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic end-product of lipid peroxidation) than un-infected birds. The birds that had highest MDA levels subsequent to experimental infection experienced the highest decrease in infection intensity. This observation is consistent with the idea that oxidative stress is a causative agent in the control of coccidiosis and supports the concept of oxidative costs of immune responses and parasite resistance. The finding that oxidative damage accompanies even the mild infection with a common parasite highlights the relevance of oxidative stress biology for the immunoecological research. PMID:22615772

  1. Oxidative Damage in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    of Parkinson’s Disease and the MPTP model of Parkinsonism. In the past year, we have developed a novel column switching assay for measurement of...oxidative damage to DNA in human body fluids. We have applied to this plasma samples of Parkinson’s Disease patients. We have also developed a novel...methodology. We have found a relatively high mutation rate and control samples and intend to apply this to Parkinson’s Disease . We have continued our

  2. Oxidative DNA damage during night shift work.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported that compared with night sleep, day sleep among shift workers was associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), potentially reflecting a reduced ability to repair 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA. We identified the absence of melatonin during day sleep as the likely causative factor. We now investigate whether night work is also associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. For this cross-sectional study, 50 shift workers with the largest negative differences in night work versus night sleep circulating melatonin levels (measured as 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine) were selected from among the 223 shift workers included in our previous study. 8-OH-dG concentrations were measured in stored urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Mixed effects models were used to compare night work versus night sleep 8-OH-dG levels. Circulating melatonin levels during night work (mean=17.1 ng/mg creatinine/mg creatinine) were much lower than during night sleep (mean=51.7 ng/mg creatinine). In adjusted analyses, average urinary 8-OH-dG levels during the night work period were only 20% of those observed during the night sleep period (95% CI 10% to 30%; p<0.001). This study suggests that night work, relative to night sleep, is associated with reduced repair of 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA and that the effect is likely driven by melatonin suppression occurring during night work relative to night sleep. If confirmed, future studies should evaluate melatonin supplementation as a means to restore oxidative DNA damage repair capacity among shift workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Inflammation, oxidative DNA damage, and carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.G.; Adams, D.O.

    1987-12-01

    Inflammation has long been associated with carcinogenesis, especially in the promotion phase. The mechanism of action of the potent inflammatory agent and skin promoter 12-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is unknown. It is though that TPA selectively enhances the growth of initiated cells, and during this process, initiated cells progress to the preneoplastic state and eventually to the malignant phenotype. The authors and others have proposed that TPA may work, in part, by inciting inflammation and stimulating inflammatory cells to release powerful oxidants which then induce DNA damage in epidermal cells. Macrophages cocultured with target cells and TPA induce oxidized thymine bases in the target cells. This process is inhibited by both catalase and inhibitors of lipoxygenases, suggesting the involvement of both H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and oxidized lipid products. In vivo studies demonstrated that SENCAR mice, which are sensitive to promotion by TPA, have a more intense inflammatory reaction in skin that C57LB/6 mice, which are resistant to promotion by TPA. In addition, macrophages from SENCAR mice release more H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and metabolites of AA, and induce more oxidative DNA damage in cocultured cells than macrophages from C57LB/6 mice. These data support the hypothesis that inflammation and the release of genotoxic oxidants may be one mechanism whereby initiated cells receive further genetic insults. They also further complicate risk assessment by suggesting that some environmental agents may work indirectly by subverting host systems to induce damage rather than maintaining homeostasis.

  4. Inflammation, oxidative DNA damage, and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J G; Adams, D O

    1987-01-01

    Inflammation has long been associated with carcinogenesis, especially in the promotion phase. The mechanism of action of the potent inflammatory agent and skin promoter 12-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is unknown. It is thought that TPA selectively enhances the growth of initiated cells, and during this process, initiated cells progress to the preneoplastic state and eventually to the malignant phenotype. Many studies support the multistep nature of carcinogenesis, and a significant amount of evidence indicates that more than one genetic event is necessary for neoplastic transformation. Selective growth stimulation of initiated cells by TPA does not explain how further genetic events may occur by chronic exposure to this nongenotoxic agent. We and others have proposed that TPA may work, in part, by inciting inflammation and stimulating inflammatory cells to release powerful oxidants which then induce DNA damage in epidermal cells. Macrophages cocultured with target cells and TPA induce oxidized thymine bases in the target cells. This process is inhibited by both catalase and inhibitors of lipoxygenases, suggesting the involvement of both H2O2 and oxidized lipid products. Furthermore, macrophage populations that release both H2O2 and metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) are more efficient at inducing oxidative DNA damage in surrounding cells than populations which only release H2O2 or metabolites of AA. In vivo studies demonstrated that SENCAR mice, which are sensitive to promotion by TPA, have a more intense inflammatory reaction in skin than C57LB/6 mice, which are resistant to promotion by TPA. In addition, macrophages from SENCAR mice release more H2O2 and metabolites of AA, and induce more oxidative DNA damage in cocultured cells than macrophages from C57LB/6 mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images FIGURE 8. A FIGURE 8. B PMID:3129286

  5. Oxidant damage during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Leskiw, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess oxidant damage during and after spaceflight and to compare the results against bed rest with 6 degrees head-down tilt. We measured the urinary excretion of the F(2) isoprostane, 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OH DG) before, during, and after long-duration spaceflight (4-9 mo) on the Russian space station MIR, short-duration spaceflight on the shuttle, and 17 days of bed rest. Sample collections on MIR were obtained between 88 and 186 days in orbit. 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and 8-OH DG are markers for oxidative damage to membrane lipids and DNA, respectively. Data are mean +/- SE. On MIR, isoprostane levels were decreased inflight (96. 9 +/- 11.6 vs. 76.7 +/- 14.9 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05, n = 6) due to decreased dietary intake secondary to impaired thermoregulation. Isoprostane excretion was increased postflight (245.7 +/- 55.8 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.01). 8-OH DG excretion was unchanged with spaceflight and increased postflight (269 +/- 84 vs 442 +/- 180 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). On the shuttle, 8-OH DG excretion was unchanged in- and postflight, but 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) excretion was decreased inflight (15.6 +/- 4.3 vs 8.0 +/- 2.7 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). No changes were found with bed rest, but 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) was increased during the recovery phase (48.9 +/- 23.0 vs 65.4 +/- 28.3 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). The changes in isoprostane production were attributed to decreased production of oxygen radicals from the electron transport chain due to the reduced energy intake inflight. The postflight increases in the excretion of the products of oxidative damage were attributed to a combination of an increase in metabolic activity and the loss of some host antioxidant defenses inflight. We conclude that 1) oxidative damage was decreased inflight, and 2) oxidative damage was increased postflight.

  6. Oxidant damage during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Leskiw, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess oxidant damage during and after spaceflight and to compare the results against bed rest with 6 degrees head-down tilt. We measured the urinary excretion of the F(2) isoprostane, 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OH DG) before, during, and after long-duration spaceflight (4-9 mo) on the Russian space station MIR, short-duration spaceflight on the shuttle, and 17 days of bed rest. Sample collections on MIR were obtained between 88 and 186 days in orbit. 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and 8-OH DG are markers for oxidative damage to membrane lipids and DNA, respectively. Data are mean +/- SE. On MIR, isoprostane levels were decreased inflight (96. 9 +/- 11.6 vs. 76.7 +/- 14.9 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05, n = 6) due to decreased dietary intake secondary to impaired thermoregulation. Isoprostane excretion was increased postflight (245.7 +/- 55.8 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.01). 8-OH DG excretion was unchanged with spaceflight and increased postflight (269 +/- 84 vs 442 +/- 180 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). On the shuttle, 8-OH DG excretion was unchanged in- and postflight, but 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) excretion was decreased inflight (15.6 +/- 4.3 vs 8.0 +/- 2.7 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). No changes were found with bed rest, but 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) was increased during the recovery phase (48.9 +/- 23.0 vs 65.4 +/- 28.3 ng. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). The changes in isoprostane production were attributed to decreased production of oxygen radicals from the electron transport chain due to the reduced energy intake inflight. The postflight increases in the excretion of the products of oxidative damage were attributed to a combination of an increase in metabolic activity and the loss of some host antioxidant defenses inflight. We conclude that 1) oxidative damage was decreased inflight, and 2) oxidative damage was increased postflight.

  7. Oxidative and non-oxidative DNA damage and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Malik, Qudsia; Herbert, Karl E

    2012-04-01

    Evidence for the association of DNA damage with cardiovascular disease has been obtained from in vitro cell culture models, experimental cardiovascular disease and analysis of samples obtained from humans with disease. There is general acceptance that several factors associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease cause oxidative damage to DNA in cell culture models with both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA as targets. Moreover, evidence obtained over the past 10 years points to a possible mechanistic role for DNA damage in experimental atherosclerosis culminating in recent studies challenging the assumption that DNA damage is merely a biomarker of the disease process. This kind of mechanistic insight provides a renewed impetus for further studies in this area.

  8. Mitochondria are the main target for oxidative damage in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Carlos Guillermo; Gómez, Facundo; Martínez, Dana Ethel; Guiamet, Juan José

    2004-08-01

    Photosynthesis, respiration, and other processes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause oxidative modifications to proteins, lipids, and DNA. The production of ROS increases under stress conditions, causing oxidative damage and impairment of normal metabolism. In this work, oxidative damage to various subcellular compartments (i.e. chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes) was studied in two cultivars of wheat differing in ascorbic acid content, and growing under good irrigation or drought. In well-watered plants, mitochondria contained 9-28-fold higher concentrations of oxidatively modified proteins than chloroplasts or peroxisomes. In general, oxidative damage to proteins was more intense in the cultivar with the lower content of ascorbic acid, particularly in the chloroplast stroma. Water stress caused a marked increase in oxidative damage to proteins, particularly in mitochondria and peroxisomes. These results indicate that mitochondria are the main target for oxidative damage to proteins under well-irrigated and drought conditions.

  9. Profiling oxidative DNA damage: effects of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Box, Harold C; Patrzyc, Helen B; Budzinski, Edwin E; Dawidzik, Jean B; Freund, Harold G; Zeitouni, Nathalie C; Mahoney, Martin C

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether antioxidant usage could be correlated with changes in DNA damage levels. Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to simultaneously measure five different oxidatively-induced base modifications in the DNA of WBC. Measurements of the five modifications were made before and after an 8-week trial during which participants took the SU.VI.MAX supplement. Levels of the five DNA modifications were compared among different groupings: users versus non-users of antioxidant supplements, before versus after the supplement intervention and men versus women. The statistical significance of differences between groups was most significant for pyrimidine base modifications and the observed trends reflect trends reported in epidemiological studies of antioxidant usage. A combination of modifications derived from pyrimidine bases is suggested as a superior indicator of oxidative stress.

  10. Oxidative and alkylating damage in DNA.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Glaucia R; Loureiro, Ana Paula M; Marques, Sabrina A; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Onuki, Janice; Almeida, Eduardo A; Garcia, Camila C M; Barbosa, Lívea F; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2003-11-01

    Modification of cellular DNA upon exposure to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is the likely initial event involved in the induction of the mutagenic and lethal effects of various oxidative stress agents. Evidence has been accumulated for the significant implication of singlet oxygen (1O(2)), generated as the result of UVA activation of endogenous photosensitizers as porphyrins and flavins. 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) has been shown to be the exclusive product of the reaction of 1O(2) with the guanine moiety of cellular DNA, in contrast to the hydroxyl radical, which reacts almost indifferently with all the nucleobases and the sugar moiety of DNA. Furthermore 8-oxodGuo is also produced by other oxidants and can be used as an ubiquitous biomarker of DNA oxidation but can not be a specific marker of any particular species. The role of DNA etheno adducts in mutagenic and carcinogenic processes triggered by known occupational and environmental carcinogens has also been studied. Much interest in etheno adducts resulted from the detection of increased levels of 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine in DNA from human, rat and mouse tissues under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress. A method involving on-line HPLC with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection has been developed for the analysis of 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondGuo) in DNA. This methodology permits direct quantification of 20 fmol (7.4 adducts/10(8) dGuo) of the etheno adduct from approximately 350 microg of crude DNA hydrolysates. This method provides the first evidence of the occurrence of 1,N(2)-epsilondGuo as a basal endogenous lesion and may be utilized to better assess the biological consequences of etheno DNA damage under normal and pathological conditions. This work addresses the importance of isotope labeling associated with mass spectrometry technique for biomolecule damage studies.

  11. Ionization damage in NPN transistors caused by lower energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingji; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoming; Zhao, Zhiming; Geng, Hongbin; Lan, Mujie; Yang, Dezhuang; He, Shiyu

    2010-09-01

    Electrical degradation of two type NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) with different emitter sizes was examined under exposures of 70 and 110 keV electrons. Base and collector currents as a function of base-emitter voltage were in-situ measured during exposure. Experimental results show that both the 70 and 110 keV electrons produce an evident ionization damage to the NPN BJTs. With increasing fluence, collector currents of the NPN BJTs hardly change in the whole range of base-emitter voltage from 0 to 1.2 V, while base currents increase in a gradually mitigative trend. Base currents vary more at lower base-emitter voltages than at higher ones for a given fluence. The change in the reciprocal of current gain at a fixed base-emitter voltage of 0.65 V increases non-linearly at lower fluences and tends to be gradually saturated at higher fluences. Sensitivity to ionization damage increases for BJTs with an emitter having a larger perimeter-to-area ratio.

  12. Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Klaunig, James E

    2006-10-01

    Chronic administration of acrylonitrile results in a dose-related increase in astrocytomas in rat brain, but the mechanism of acrylonitrile carcinogenicity is not fully understood. The potential of acrylonitrile or its metabolites to induce direct DNA damage as a mechanism for acrylonitrile carcinogenicity has been questioned, and recent studies indicate that the mechanism involves the induction of oxidative stress in rat brain. The present study examined the ability of acrylonitrile to induce DNA damage in the DI TNC1 rat astrocyte cell line using the alkaline Comet assay. Oxidized DNA damage also was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase treatment in the modified Comet assay. No increase in direct DNA damage was seen in astrocytes exposed to sublethal concentrations of acrylonitrile (0-1.0 mM) for 24 hr. However, acrylonitrile treatment resulted in a concentration-related increase in oxidative DNA damage after 24 hr. Antioxidant supplementation in the culture media (alpha-tocopherol, (-)-epigallocathechin-3 gallate, or trolox) reduced acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage. Depletion of glutathione using 0.1 mM DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine increased acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage (22-46%), while cotreatment of acrylonitrile with 2.5 mM L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, a precursor for glutathione biosynthesis, significantly reduced acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage (7-47%). Cotreatment of acrylonitrile with 0.5 mM 1-aminobenzotriazole, a suicidal inhibitor of cytochrome P450, prevented the oxidative DNA damage produced by acrylonitrile. Cyanide (0.1-0.5 mM) increased oxidative DNA damage (44-160%) in astrocytes. These studies demonstrate that while acrylonitrile does not directly damage astrocyte DNA, it does increase oxidative DNA damage. The oxidative DNA damage following acrylonitrile exposure appears to arise mainly through the P450 metabolic pathway; moreover, glutathione depletion may contribute to the

  13. Modeling Nitrogen Oxides in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. Randy; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This talk will focus on the status of current understanding (not a historical review) as regards modeling nitrogen oxides (NOy) in the lower stratosphere (LS). The presentation will be organized around three major areas of process understanding: 1) NOy sources, sinks, and transport to the LS, 2) NOy species partitioning, and 3) polar multiphase processes. In each area, process topics will be identified with an estimate of the degree of confidence associated with their representation in numerical models. Several exotic and/or speculative processes will also be discussed. Those topics associated with low confidence or knowledge gaps, weighted by their prospective importance in stratospheric chemical modeling, will be collected into recommendations for further study. Suggested approaches to further study will be presented for discussion.

  14. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA damage in Fabry patients: An investigation of oxidative damage and repair.

    PubMed

    Biancini, Giovana Brondani; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Manini, Paula Regina; Faverzani, Jéssica Lamberty; Netto, Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira; Deon, Marion; Giugliani, Roberto; Saffi, Jenifer; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with loss of activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. In addition to accumulation of α-galactosidase A substrates, other mechanisms may be involved in FD pathophysiology, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher levels of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in Fabry patients were previously reported. However, DNA damage by oxidative species in FD has not yet been studied. We investigated basal DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair capacity, and reactive species generation in Fabry patients and controls. To measure oxidative damage to purines and pyrimidines, the alkaline version of the comet assay was used with two endonucleases, formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). To evaluate DNA repair, a challenge assay with hydrogen peroxide was performed. Patients presented significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage and oxidative damage to purines. Oxidative DNA damage was induced in both DNA bases by H2O2 in patients. Fabry patients presented efficient DNA repair in both assays (with and without endonucleases) as well as significantly higher levels of oxidative species (measured by dichlorofluorescein content). Even if DNA repair be induced in Fabry patients (as a consequence of continuous exposure to oxidative species), the repair is not sufficient to reduce DNA damage to control levels.

  16. Oxidative damage involves in the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on spore germination of Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tongfei; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on spore germination of Penicillium expansum were investigated and a possible mechanism was evaluated. The results indicated that NO released by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly suppressed fungal growth. With the use of an oxidant sensitive probe and Western blot analysis, an increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhanced carbonylation damage were detected in spores of P. expansum under NO stress. Exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbic acid (Vc) could increase the resistance of the spore to the inhibitory effect of NO. The activities of SOD and catalase (CAT), as well as ATP content in spores under NO stress were also lower than those in the control. We suggest that NO in high concentration induces the generation of ROS which subsequently causes severe oxidative damage to proteins crucial to the process of spore germination of P. expansum.

  17. Type-dependent oxidative damage in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: cortical astrocytes are targets of oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Anna; Carmona, Margarita; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Naudí, Alba; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidre

    2008-12-01

    Oxidative injury and stress responses are common features of many neurodegenerative diseases. To assess oxidative stress responses in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), we identified increased 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts using gel electrophoresis and Western blotting in frontal cortex samples in 6 of 6 cases of FTLD with the P301L mutation in the tau gene (FTLD-tau), in 3 of 10 cases with tau-negative ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions, and in 2 of 3 cases associated with motor neuron disease. Selectively increased lipoxidation-derived protein damage associated with altered membrane unsaturation and fatty acid profiles was verified by mass spectrometry in FTLD-tau and FTLD associated with motor neuron disease. All FTLD-tau and most cases with increased HNE-positive bands had marked astrocytosis as determined by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry and increased GFAP expression on Western blotting; 2 FTLD cases with tau-negative ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions and with increased GFAP expression did not have increased HNE adducts. Bidimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, in-gel digestion, and mass spectrometry identified GFAP as a major target of lipoxidation in all positive cases; confocal microscopy revealed colocalization of HNE and GFAP in cortical astrocytes, superoxide dismutase 1 in astrocytes, and superoxide dismutase 2 in astrocytes and neurons in all FTLD types. Thus, in FTLD, there is variable disease-dependent oxidative damage that is prominent in FTLD-tau, astrocytes are targets of oxidative damage, and GFAP is a target of lipoxidation. Astrocytes are, therefore, crucial elements of oxidative stress responses in FTLD.

  18. Oxidative damage in young alcohol drinkers: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Cortés-Couto, Miriam; Martínez-Rizo, Abril Bernardette; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Velázquez-Fernández, Jesús Bernardino

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative damage (OD) biomarkers have been used to evaluate metabolic stress undergone by alcoholic individuals. In alcoholic patients, these biomarkers are usually measured at late stages, i.e., when the alcoholic patients are showing clear signs of impaired hepatic function. OD biomarkers are sensitive indicators of impaired metabolic function, and might be useful in early stages of alcohol consumption to identify individuals who are at greater risk of damage in later stages of alcohol consumption. The aim of the present work was to evaluate some OD biomarkers in young people at early stages of alcohol consumption. The study was carried out in a group of young people (18-23 years old) who drank alcohol, Youngsters Exposed to Alcohol (YEA) with an average intake of 118 g of ethanol/week, and a control group (CG) of non-drinkers. Blood counts, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, oxidative damage to DNA, and lipid peroxidation were determined in both groups. The anthropometric and blood parameters of both groups were similar and no clinical symptoms of hepatic damage were observed. Nevertheless, ADH activity, lipid peroxidation, and percentage of damaged DNA cells were higher in the YEA group than in the control group. In contrast, GSH-Px activity was lower in the YEA group than in the control group. Alteration in OD biomarkers can be found in individuals with 4-5 years of alcohol drinking history. To our knowledge, this is the first study giving evidence of OD in individuals at early stages of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps = 0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps = 0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps = 0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on

  20. Does the oxidative stress theory of aging explain longevity differences in birds? II. Antioxidant systems and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Buttemer, William A; Hulbert, A J

    2012-03-01

    The oxidative damage hypothesis of aging posits that the accumulation of oxidative damage is a determinant of an animal species' maximum lifespan potential (MLSP). Recent findings in extremely long-living mammal species such as naked mole-rats challenge this proposition. Among birds, parrots are exceptionally long-living with an average MLSP of 25 years, and with some species living more than 70 years. By contrast, quail are among the shortest living bird species, averaging about 5-fold lower MLSP than parrots. To test if parrots have correspondingly (i) superior antioxidant protection and (ii) lower levels of oxidative damage compared to similar-sized quail, we measured (i) total antioxidant capacity, uric acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase), and (ii) markers of mitochondrial DNA damage (8-OHdG), protein damage (protein carbonyls) and lipid peroxidation (lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS) in three species of long-living parrots and compared these results to corresponding measures in two species of short-living quails (average MLSP=5.5 years). All birds were fed the same diet to exclude differences in dietary antioxidant levels. Tissue antioxidants and oxidative damage were determined both 'per mg protein' and 'per g tissue'. Only glutathione peroxidase was consistently higher in tissues of the long-living parrots and suggests higher protection against the harmful effects of hydroperoxides, which might be important for parrot longevity. The levels of oxidative damage were mostly statistically indistinguishable between parrots and quails (67%), occasionally higher (25%), but rarely lower (8%) in the parrots. Despite indications of higher protection against some aspects of oxidative stress in the parrots, the pronounced longevity of parrots appears to be independent of their antioxidant mechanisms and their accumulation of oxidative damage.

  1. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Lowe, Tracie M

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  2. Hydroxytyrosol protects against oxidative DNA damage in human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Warleta, Fernando; Quesada, Cristina Sánchez; Campos, María; Allouche, Yosra; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2011-10-01

    Over recent years, several studies have related olive oil ingestion to a low incidence of several diseases, including breast cancer. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are two of the major phenols present in virgin olive oils. Despite the fact that they have been linked to cancer prevention, there is no evidence that clarifies their effect in human breast tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present work, we present hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol's effects in human breast cell lines. Our results show that hydroxytyrosol acts as a more efficient free radical scavenger than tyrosol, but both fail to affect cell proliferation rates, cell cycle profile or cell apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) or breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7). We found that hydroxytyrosol decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in MCF10A cells but not in MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells while very high amounts of tyrosol is needed to decrease the ROS level in MCF10A cells. Interestingly, hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative DNA damage in the three breast cell lines. Therefore, our data suggest that simple phenol hydroxytyrosol could contribute to a lower incidence of breast cancer in populations that consume virgin olive oil due to its antioxidant activity and its protection against oxidative DNA damage in mammary cells.

  3. Hydroxytyrosol Protects against Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Warleta, Fernando; Quesada, Cristina Sánchez; Campos, María; Allouche, Yosra; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J.

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years, several studies have related olive oil ingestion to a low incidence of several diseases, including breast cancer. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are two of the major phenols present in virgin olive oils. Despite the fact that they have been linked to cancer prevention, there is no evidence that clarifies their effect in human breast tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present work, we present hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol’s effects in human breast cell lines. Our results show that hydroxytyrosol acts as a more efficient free radical scavenger than tyrosol, but both fail to affect cell proliferation rates, cell cycle profile or cell apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) or breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7). We found that hydroxytyrosol decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in MCF10A cells but not in MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells while very high amounts of tyrosol is needed to decrease the ROS level in MCF10A cells. Interestingly, hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative DNA damage in the three breast cell lines. Therefore, our data suggest that simple phenol hydroxytyrosol could contribute to a lower incidence of breast cancer in populations that consume virgin olive oil due to its antioxidant activity and its protection against oxidative DNA damage in mammary cells. PMID:22254082

  4. Oxidative base damage in RNA detected by reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Y; Valentine, M R; Termini, J

    1995-01-01

    Oxidative base damage in DNA and metabolic defects in the recognition and removal of such damage play important roles in mutagenesis and human disease. The extent to which cellular RNA is a substrate for oxidative damage and the possible biological consequences of RNA base oxidation, however, remain largely unexplored. Since oxidatively modified RNA may contribute to the high mutability of retroviral genomic DNA, we have been interested in developing methods for the sequence specific detection of such damage. We show here that a primer extension assay using AMV reverse transcriptase (RT) can be used to reveal oxidatively damaged sites in RNA. This finding extends the currently known range of RNA modifications detectable with AMV reverse transcriptase. Analogous assays using DNA polymerases to detect base damage in DNA substrates appear to be restricted to lesions at thymine. Oxidative base damage in the absence of any detectable chain breaks was produced by dye photosensitization of RNA. Six out of 20 dyes examined were capable of producing RT detectable lesions. RT stops were seen predominantly at purines, although many pyrimidine sites were also detected. Dye specific photofootprints revealed by RT analysis suggests differential dye binding to the RNA substrate. Some of the photoreactive dyes described here may have potential utility in RNA structural analysis, particularly in the identification of stem-loop regions in complex RNAs. Images PMID:7545285

  5. Synthesis of damaged DNA containing the oxidative lesion 3'-oxothymidine.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Mel F; Li, Weiye; Gutwald, Taylor; Bryant-Friedrich, Amanda C

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative events that take place during regular oxygen metabolism can lead to the formation of organic or inorganic radicals. The interaction of these radicals with macromolecules in the organism and with DNA in particular is suspected to lead to apoptosis, DNA lesions and cell damage. Independent generation of DNA lesions resulting from oxidative damage is used to promote the study of their effects on biological systems. An efficient synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing the oxidative damage lesion 3'-oxothymidine has been accomplished via incorporation of C3'-hydroxymethyl thymidine as its corresponding 5'-phosphoramidite. Through oxidative cleavage using sodium periodate in aqueous solution, the lesion of interest is easily generated. Due to its inherent instability it cannot be directly isolated, but must be generated in situ. 3'-Oxothymidine is a demonstrated damage product formed upon generation of the C3'-thymidinyl radical in ODN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  7. Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chalissery, Jisha; Jalal, Deena; Al-Natour, Zeina; Hassan, Ahmed H

    2017-03-01

    Malfunction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species leads to oxidative attack on biomolecules including DNA and consequently activates various DNA repair pathways. The nature of DNA damage and the cell cycle stage at which DNA damage occurs determine the appropriate repair pathway to rectify the damage. Oxidized DNA bases are primarily repaired by base excision repair and nucleotide incision repair. Nucleotide excision repair acts on lesions that distort DNA helix, mismatch repair on mispaired bases, and homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining on double stranded breaks. Post-replication repair that overcomes replication blocks caused by DNA damage also plays a crucial role in protecting the cell from the deleterious effects of oxidative DNA damage. Mitochondrial DNA is also prone to oxidative damage and is efficiently repaired by the cellular DNA repair machinery. In this review, we discuss the DNA repair pathways in relation to the nature of oxidative DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  9. Electrochemical study of DNA damaged by oxidation stress.

    PubMed

    Zitka, Ondrej; Krizkova, Sona; Skalickova, Sylvie; Kopel, Pavel; Babula, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2013-02-01

    Many compounds can interact with DNA leading to changes of DNA structure as point mutation and bases excision, which could trigger some metabolic failures, which leads to the changes in DNA structure resulting in cancer. Oxidation of nucleic acid bases belongs to the one of the mostly occurred type of DNA damaging leading to the above mentioned phenomena. The investigation of processes of DNA oxidation damage is topical and electrochemical methods include a versatile and sensitive tool for these purposes. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is the most widely accepted marker of DNA damage. Oxidative damage to DNA by free radicals and exposure to ionizing radiation generate several other products within the double helix besides mentioned oxidation products of nucleic acid bases. The basic electrochemical behaviour of nucleic acids bases on various types of carbon electrodes is reviewed. Further, we address our attention on description of oxidation mechanisms and on detection of the most important products of nucleic bases oxidation. The miniaturization of detector coupled with some microfluidic devices is suggested and discussed. The main aim of this review is to report the advantages and features of the electrochemical detection of guanine oxidation product as 8-OHdG and other similarly produced molecules as markers for DNA damage.

  10. Oxidative damage in multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Haider, Lukas; Fischer, Marie T; Frischer, Josa M; Bauer, Jan; Höftberger, Romana; Botond, Gergö; Esterbauer, Harald; Binder, Christoph J; Witztum, Joseph L; Lassmann, Hans

    2011-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are currently poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Since mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, we analysed by immunocytochemistry the presence and cellular location of oxidized lipids and oxidized DNA in lesions and in normal-appearing white matter of 30 patients with multiple sclerosis and 24 control patients without neurological disease or brain lesions. As reported before in biochemical studies, oxidized lipids and DNA were highly enriched in active multiple sclerosis plaques, predominantly in areas that are defined as initial or 'prephagocytic' lesions. Oxidized DNA was mainly seen in oligodendrocyte nuclei, which in part showed signs of apoptosis. In addition, a small number of reactive astrocytes revealed nuclear expression of 8-hydroxy-d-guanosine. Similarly, lipid peroxidation-derived structures (malondialdehyde and oxidized phospholipid epitopes) were seen in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes and some astrocytes. In addition, oxidized phospholipids were massively accumulated in a fraction of axonal spheroids with disturbed fast axonal transport as well as in neurons within grey matter lesions. Neurons stained for oxidized phospholipids frequently revealed signs of degeneration with fragmentation of their dendritic processes. The extent of lipid and DNA oxidation correlated significantly with inflammation, determined by the number of CD3 positive T cells and human leucocyte antigen-D expressing macrophages and microglia in the lesions. Our data suggest profound oxidative injury of oligodendrocytes and neurons to be associated with active demyelination and axonal or neuronal injury in multiple sclerosis.

  11. Pathology of perinatal brain damage: background and oxidative stress markers.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To review historical scientific background and new perspective on the pathology of perinatal brain damage. The relationship between birth asphyxia and subsequent cerebral palsy has been extensively investigated. The role of new and promising clinical markers of oxidative stress (OS) is presented. Electronic search of PubMed-Medline/EMBASE database has been performed. Laboratory and clinical data involving case series from the research group are reported. The neuropathology of birth asphyxia and subsequent perinatal brain damage as well as the role of electronic fetal monitoring are reported following a review of the medical literature. This review focuses on OS mechanisms underlying the neonatal brain damage and provides different perspective on the most reliable OS markers during the perinatal period. In particular, prior research work on neurodevelopmental diseases, such as Rett syndrome, suggests the measurement of oxidized fatty acid molecules (i.e., F4-Neuroprostanes and F2-Dihomo-Isoprostanes) closely related to brain white and gray matter oxidative damage.

  12. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale:

    Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  13. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale:

    Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  14. Strong, damage tolerant oxide-fiber/oxide matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yahua

    cationic polyelectrolytes to have a positive surface charge and then dipped into diluted, negatively-charged AlPO4 colloidal suspension (0.05M) at pH 7.5. Amorphous AlPO4 (crystallizes to tridymite- and cristobalite-forms at 1080°C) nano particles were coated on fibers layer-by-layer using an electrostatic attraction protocol. A uniform and smooth coating was formed which allowed fiber pullout from the matrix of a Nextel 720/alumina mini-composite hot-pressed at 1250°C/20MPa. Reaction-bonded mullite (RBM), with low formation temperature and sintering shrinkage was synthesized by incorporation of mixed-rare-earth-oxide (MREO) and mullite seeds. Pure mullite formed with 7.5wt% MREO at 1300°C. Introduction of 5wt% mullite seeds gave RBM with less than 3% shrinkage and 20% porosity. AlPO4-coated Nextel 720/RBM composites were successful fabricated by EPID and pressureless sintering at 1300°C. Significant fiber pullout occurred and the 4-point bend strength was around 170MPa (with 25-30vol% fibers) at room temperature and 1100°C and a Work-of-Fracture 7KJ/m2. At 1200°C, the composite failed in shear due to the MREO-based glassy phase in the matrix. AlPO4-coated Nextel 720 fiber/aluminosilicate (no MREO) showed damage tolerance at 1200°C with a bend strength 170MPa.

  15. Oxidative Damage in the Guinea Pig Hippocampal Slice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    oxidation to the observed damage. the actions of the oxidants, chloramine -T and N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS). were studied on electrophysiological...hippocampus evoked a population postsynaptic potential (population PSP) in the dendritic layer and a population spike in the cell body layer. Chloramine -T (25...produced by free radicals but can rot account for the postsynaptic effects. Keywords- Chloramine -T. N-chlorosuccinimide. Oxidation. Free radical

  16. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  17. Oxidative DNA Damage in Blood of CVD Patients Taking Detralex

    PubMed Central

    Krzyściak, Wirginia; Cierniak, Agnieszka; Kózka, Mariusz; Kozieł, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of the work reported here was to determine the degree of oxidative/alkali-labile DNA damages in peripheral blood as well as in the blood stasis from varicose vein of (chronic venous disorder) CVD patients. Moreover, determination of the impact of Detralex usage on the level of (oxidative) DNA damages in CVD patients was evaluated as well. The degree of oxidative DNA damages was studied in a group consisted of thirty patients with diagnosed chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the 2nd and 3rd degree, according to clinical state, etiology, anatomy and pathophysiology (CEAP), and qualified to surgical procedure. The control group consisted of normal volunteers (blood donors) qualified during standard examinations at Regional Centers of Blood Donation and Blood Therapy. The comet assay was used for determination of DNA damages. Analyses of the obtained results showed increase in the level of oxidative/alkali-labile DNA damages in lymphocytes originating from antebrachial blood of CVD patients as compared to the control group (Control) (p < 0.002; ANOVA). In addition, it was demonstrated that the usage of Detralex® resulted in decrease of the level of oxidative/alkali-labile DNA damages in CVD patients as compared to patients without Detralex® treatment (p < 0.001; ANOVA). Based on findings from the study, it may be hypothesized about occurrence of significant oxidative DNA damages as the consequence of strong oxidative stress in CVD. In addition, antioxidative effectiveness of Detralexu® was observed at the recommended dose, one tablet twice daily. PMID:21912579

  18. Superoxide and the production of oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed Central

    Keyer, K; Gort, A S; Imlay, J A

    1995-01-01

    The conventional model of oxidative DNA damage posits a role for superoxide (O2-) as a reductant for iron, which subsequently generates a hydroxyl radical by transferring the electron to H2O2. The hydroxyl radical then attacks DNA. Indeed, mutants of Escherichia coli that lack superoxide dismutase (SOD) were 10-fold more vulnerable to DNA oxidation by H2O2 than were wild-type cells. Even the pace of DNA damage by endogenous oxidants was great enough that the SOD mutants could not tolerate air if enzymes that repair oxidative DNA lesions were inactive. However, DNA oxidation proceeds in SOD-proficient cells without the involvement of O2-, as evidenced by the failure of SOD overproduction or anaerobiosis to suppress damage by H2O2. Furthermore, the mechanism by which excess O2- causes damage was called into question when the hypersensitivity of SOD mutants to DNA damage persisted for at least 20 min after O2- had been dispelled through the imposition of anaerobiosis. That behavior contradicted the standard model, which requires that O2- be present to rereduce cellular iron during the period of exposure to H2O2. Evidently, DNA oxidation is driven by a reductant other than O2-, which leaves the mechanism of damage promotion by O2- unsettled. One possibility is that, through its well-established ability to leach iron from iron-sulfur clusters, O2- increases the amount of free iron that is available to catalyze hydroxyl radical production. Experiments with iron transport mutants confirmed that increases in free-iron concentration have the effect of accelerating DNA oxidation. Thus, O2- may be genotoxic only in doses that exceed those found in SOD-proficient cells, and in those limited circumstances it may promote DNA damage by increasing the amount of DNA-bound iron. PMID:7592468

  19. Oxidative DNA damage in osteoarthritic porcine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antonia F.; Davies, Catrin M.; De Lin, Ming; Fermor, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species. This study investigated if increased oxidative DNA damage accumulates in OA articular cartilage compared with non-OA articular cartilage from pigs with spontaneous OA. Additionally, the ability of nitric oxide (NO) or peroxynitrite (ONOO-) induced DNA damage in non-OA chondrocytes to undergo endogenous repair was investigated. Methods Porcine femoral condyles were graded for the stage of OA, macroscopically by the Collins Scale, and histologically by the modified Mankin Grade. Levels of DNA damage were determined in non-OA and OA cartilage, using the comet assay. For calibration, DNA damage was measured by exposing non-OA chondrocytes to 0-12 Gray of x-ray irradiation. Non-OA articular chondrocytes were treated with 0-500 μM of NO donors (NOC-18 or SIN-1), and DNA damage assessed after treatment and 5 days recovery. Results A significant increase (p<0.01) in oxidative DNA damage occurred in OA chondrocytes in joints with Mankin Grades 3 or greater, compared to non-OA chondrocytes. The percentage of nuclei containing DNA damage increased significantly (p<0.001) from early to late grades of OA. An increase of approximately 0.65-1.7 breaks/1000kB of DNA occurred in OA, compared to non-OA nuclei. NOC-18 or SIN-1 caused significant DNA damage (p<0.001) in non-OA chondrocytes that did not undergo full endogenous repair after 5 days (p<0.05). Conclusion Our data suggest significant levels of oxidative DNA damage occur in OA chondrocytes that accumulates with OA progression. Additionally, DNA damage induced by NO and ONOO- in non-OA chondrocytes does not undergo full endogenous repair. PMID:18720406

  20. Viewing oxidative stress through the lens of oxidative signalling rather than damage.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Ruban, Alexander V; Noctor, Graham

    2017-03-07

    Concepts of the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals have shifted in recent years from focusing on oxidative damage effects to the current view of ROS as universal signalling metabolites. Rather than having two opposing activities, i.e. damage and signalling, the emerging concept is that all types of oxidative modification/damage are involved in signalling, not least in the induction of repair processes. Examining the multifaceted roles of ROS as crucial cellular signals, we highlight as an example the loss of photosystem II function called photoinhibition, where photoprotection has classically been conflated with oxidative damage.

  1. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in teratogenesis and neurodevelopmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G; McCallum, Gordon P; Lam, Kyla C H; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Ondovcik, Stephanie L

    2010-06-01

    Several teratogenic agents, including ionizing radiation and xenobiotics such as phenytoin, benzo[a]pyrene, thalidomide, and methamphetamine, can initiate the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules including DNA. Oxidative DNA damage, and particularly the most prevalent 8-oxoguanine lesion, may adversely affect development, likely via alterations in gene transcription rather than via a mutational mechanism. Contributions from oxidative DNA damage do not exclude roles for alternative mechanisms of initiation like receptor-mediated processes or the formation of covalent xenobiotic-macromolecular adducts, damage to other macromolecular targets like proteins and lipids, and other effects of ROS like altered signal transduction. Even in the absence of teratogen exposure, endogenous developmental oxidative stress can have embryopathic consequences in the absence of key pathways for detoxifying ROS or repairing DNA damage. Critical proteins in pathways for DNA damage detection/repair signaling, like p53 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated, and DNA repair itself, like oxoguanine glycosylase 1 and Cockayne syndrome B, can often, but not always, protect the embryo from ROS-initiating teratogens. Protection may be variably dependent upon such factors as the nature of the teratogen and its concentration within the embryo, the stage of development, the species, strain, gender, target tissue and cell type, among other factors.

  2. Acrylonitrile-Induced Oxidative Stress and Oxidative DNA Damage in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamendulis, Lisa M.; Klaunig, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in brain tumor induction in rats by acrylonitrile. The present study examined whether acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats and whether blood can serve as a valid surrogate for the biomonitoring of oxidative stress induced by acrylonitrile in the exposed population. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 3, 30, 100, and 200 ppm acrylonitrile in drinking water for 28 days. One group of rats were also coadministered N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (0.3% in diet) with acrylonitrile (200 ppm in drinking water) to examine whether antioxidant supplementation was protective against acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress. Direct DNA strand breakage in white blood cells (WBC) and brain was measured using the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (fpg)-modified comet assay and with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. No significant increase in direct DNA strand breaks was observed in brain and WBC from acrylonitrile-treated rats. However, oxidative DNA damage (fpg comet and 8′hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine) in brain and WBC was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in rats administered acrylonitrile. Dietary supplementation with NAC prevented acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in brain and WBC. A slight, but significant, decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio was seen in brain at acrylonitrile doses > 30 ppm. These results provide additional support that the mode of action for acrylonitrile-induced astrocytomas involves the induction of oxidative stress and damage. Significant associations were seen between oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain, ROS formation in plasma, and the reported tumor incidences. Since oxidative DNA damage in brain correlated with oxidative damage in WBC, these results suggest

  3. Oxidative Damage in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    supranuclear palsy brains. There were no significant alterations in 8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine in the plasma of PD patients. We found that...patients and a number of specific genes linked to oxidative stress were reduced in expression. There was increased lipid peroxidation in progressive

  4. N-Acetylcysteine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and DNA damage in children with β-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Zeynep Canan; Koc, Ahmet; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2014-01-01

    There are several reports that increased oxidative stress and DNA damage were found in β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E on total oxidative stress and DNA damage in children with β-TM. Seventy-five children with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (β-thal) were randomly chosen to receive 10 mg/kg/day of NAC or 10 IU/kg/day of vitamin E or no supplementation; 28 healthy controls were also included in the study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured, oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated, and mononuclear DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay; they were determined before treatment and after 3 months of treatment. Total oxydent status, OSI, and DNA damage levels were significantly higher and TAC levels were significantly lower in the thalassemic children than in the healthy controls (p < 0.001). In both supplemented groups, mean TOS and OSI levels were decreased; TAC and pre transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) levels were significantly increased after 3 months (p ≤ 0.002). In the NAC group, DNA damage score decreased (p = 0.001). N-Acetylcysteine and vitamin E may be effective in reducing serum oxidative stress and increase pre transfusion Hb levels in children with β-thal. N-Acetylcysteine also can reduce DNA damage.

  5. Statins lower calcium-induced oxidative stress in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Parihar, A; Parihar, M S; Zenebe, W J; Ghafourifar, P

    2012-04-01

    Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering agents that exert cholesterol-independent effects including antioxidative. The present study delineates the effects of statins, atorvastatin, and simvastatin on oxidative stress and functions of mitochondria that are the primary cellular sources of oxidative stress. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, both the statins prevented calcium-induced cytochrome c release, lipid peroxidation, and opening of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT). Both the statins decreased the activity of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS), lowered the intramitochondrial ionized calcium, and increased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Our findings suggest that statins lower intramitochondrial ionized calcium that decreases mtNOS activity, lowers oxidative stress, prevents MPT opening, and prevents the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. These results provide a novel framework for understanding the antioxidative properties of statins and their effects on mitochondrial functions.

  6. Protective effect of Pterostilbene against free radical mediated oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pterostilbene, a methoxylated analog of Resveratrol, is gradually gaining more importance as a therapeutic drug owing to its higher lipophilicity, bioavailability and biological activity than Resveratrol. This study was undertaken to characterize its ability to scavenge free radicals such as superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide and to protect bio-molecules within a cell against oxidative insult. Methods Anti-oxidant activity of Pterostilbene was evaluated extensively by employing several in vitro radical scavenging/inhibiting assays and pulse radiolysis study. In addition, its ability to protect rat liver mitochondria against tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and hydroxyl radical generated oxidative damage was determined by measuring the damage markers such as protein carbonyls, protein sulphydryls, lipid hydroperoxides, lipid peroxides and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Pterostilbene was also evaluated for its ability to inhibit •OH radical induced single strand breaks in pBR322 DNA. Result Pterostilbene exhibited strong anti-oxidant activity against various free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. Pterostilbene conferred protection to proteins, lipids and DNA in isolated mitochondrial fractions against TBHP and hydroxyl radical induced oxidative damage. It also protected pBR322 DNA against oxidative assault. Conclusions Thus, present study provides an evidence for the strong anti-oxidant property of Pterostilbene, methoxylated analog of Resveratrol, thereby potentiating its role as an anti-oxidant. PMID:24070177

  7. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  8. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  9. Maternal diabetes triggers DNA damage and DNA damage response in neurulation stage embryos through oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Daoyin; Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Fu, Noah; Villela, Natalia Arias; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR) in neurulation stage embryos under maternal diabetes conditions are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro induce DNA damage and DDR in the developing embryo through oxidative stress. In vivo experiments were conducted by mating superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) transgenic male mice with wild-type (WT) female mice with or without diabetes. Embryonic day 8.75 (E8.75) embryos were tested for the DNA damage markers, phosphorylated histone H2A.X (p-H2A.X) and DDR signaling intermediates, including phosphorylated checkpoint 1 (p-Chk1), phosphorylated checkpoint 2 (p-Chk2), and p53. Levels of the same DNA damage markers and DDR signaling intermediates were also determined in the mouse C17.2 neural stem cell line. Maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro significantly increased the levels of p-H2A.X. Levels of p-Chk1, p-Chk2, and p53, were elevated under both maternal diabetic and high glucose conditions. SOD1 overexpression blocked maternal diabetes-induced DNA damage and DDR in vivo. Tempol, a SOD1 mimetic, diminished high glucose-induced DNA damage and DDR in vitro. In conclusion, maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro induce DNA damage and activates DDR through oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated embryopathy. PMID:26427872

  10. Characterization of Oxidative Guanine Damage and Repair in Mammalian Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhilong; Rhee, David B.; Lu, Jian; Bohr, Christina T.; Zhou, Fang; Vallabhaneni, Haritha; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Liu, Yie

    2010-01-01

    8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) are among the most common oxidative DNA lesions and are substrates for 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)–initiated DNA base excision repair (BER). Mammalian telomeres consist of triple guanine repeats and are subject to oxidative guanine damage. Here, we investigated the impact of oxidative guanine damage and its repair by OGG1 on telomere integrity in mice. The mouse cells were analyzed for telomere integrity by telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomere–FISH), by chromosome orientation–FISH (CO–FISH), and by indirect immunofluorescence in combination with telomere–FISH and for oxidative base lesions by Fpg-incision/Southern blot assay. In comparison to the wild type, telomere lengthening was observed in Ogg1 null (Ogg1−/−) mouse tissues and primary embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) cultivated in hypoxia condition (3% oxygen), whereas telomere shortening was detected in Ogg1−/− mouse hematopoietic cells and primary MEFs cultivated in normoxia condition (20% oxygen) or in the presence of an oxidant. In addition, telomere length abnormalities were accompanied by altered telomere sister chromatid exchanges, increased telomere single- and double-strand breaks, and preferential telomere lagging- or G-strand losses in Ogg1−/− mouse cells. Oxidative guanine lesions were increased in telomeres in Ogg1−/− mice with aging and primary MEFs cultivated in 20% oxygen. Furthermore, oxidative guanine lesions persisted at high level in Ogg1−/− MEFs after acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide, while they rapidly returned to basal level in wild-type MEFs. These findings indicate that oxidative guanine damage can arise in telomeres where it affects length homeostasis, recombination, DNA replication, and DNA breakage repair. Our studies demonstrate that BER pathway is required in repairing oxidative guanine damage in telomeres and maintaining

  11. Effect of procyandin oligomers on oxidative hair damage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Moo

    2011-02-01

    Procyanidins are a subclass of flavonoids and consist of oligomers of catechin that naturally occur in plants and are known to exert many physiological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory effects. These possible inhibitory effects of the procyanidins were known to involve metal chelation, radical trapping, or direct enzyme binding. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of procyandin oligomers on hair damage induced by oxidative stress. In this study, several methods for evaluating oxidative damage in bleached hair are utilized to analyze the protective effect of procyandin oligomers against oxidative hair damage. It was observed that procyanidin oligomers strongly bind to keratin in hair and inhibit the breakdown of hair caused by oxidative damage in an analysis of hair using electrophoresis, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence dye. These results confirm that procyanidin oligomers can be applicable as a potential candidate to the development of hair care with protective effect on hair damage. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inducible repair of oxidative DNA damage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Demple, B; Halbrook, J

    Hydrogen peroxide is lethal to many cell types, including the bacterium Escherichia coli. Peroxides yield transient radical species that can damage DNA and cause mutations. Such partially reduced oxygen species are occasionally released during cellular respiration and are generated by lethal and mutagenic ionizing radiation. Because cells live in an environment where the threat of oxidative DNA damage is continual, cellular mechanisms may have evolved to avoid and repair this damage. Enzymes are known which evidently perform these functions. We report here that resistance to hydrogen peroxide toxicity can be induced in E. coli, that this novel induction is specific and occurs, in part, at the level of DNA repair.

  14. Microsomal oxidative damage promoted by acetaminophen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Letelier, María Eugenia; López-Valladares, Miguel; Peredo-Silva, Liliana; Rojas-Sepúlveda, Daniel; Aracena, Paula

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions of acetaminophen have been associated to oxidative stress, which may be elicited by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or production of the metabolite NAPQI. Both phenomena would arise through the activity of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system, but their contribution to this oxidative stress is yet to be clarified. A NADPH oxidase activity has been proposed in rat liver microsomes. This activity may be due to the presence of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) isoforms in liver endoplasmic reticulum. Both NOX and the CYP450 system activities can catalyze ROS generation using NADPH as a cofactor. Therefore, acetaminophen biotransformation, which requires NADPH, may promote ROS generation through either activity or both. To discriminate between these possibilities, rat liver microsomes were incubated with acetaminophen and NADPH in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors. Incubation with NADPH and acetaminophen elicited lipid peroxidation and decreased thiol content and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. The NOX inhibitors apocynin and plumbagin prevented all these phenomena but the decrease in thiol content. In contrast, this decrease was completely prevented by the specific CYP450 system inhibitor SKF-525A. These data suggest that ROS generation following incubation of microsomes with acetaminophen and NADPH appears to be mainly caused by a NOX activity. In light of these data, toxicity of acetaminophen is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative damage and cellular defense mechanisms in sea urchin models of aging.

    PubMed

    Du, Colin; Anderson, Arielle; Lortie, Mae; Parsons, Rachel; Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    The free radical, or oxidative stress, theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of species longevity. This study investigates the oxidative stress theory in a novel model for aging research, the sea urchin. Sea urchins present a unique model for the study of aging because of the existence of species with tremendously different natural life spans, including some species with extraordinary longevity and negligible senescence. Cellular oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity, and proteasome enzyme activities were measured in the tissues of three sea urchin species: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, which has an intermediate life span. Levels of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal measured in tissues (muscle, nerve, esophagus, gonad, coelomocytes, ampullae) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine measured in cell-free coelomic fluid showed no general increase with age. The fluorescent age pigment lipofuscin, measured in muscle, nerve, and esophagus, increased with age; however, it appeared to be predominantly extracellular. Antioxidant mechanisms (total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase) and proteasome enzyme activities were maintained with age. In some instances, levels of oxidative damage were lower and antioxidant activity higher in cells or tissues of the long-lived species compared to the short-lived species; however, further studies are required to determine the relationship between oxidative damage and longevity in these animals. Consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging, the results suggest that negligible senescence is accompanied by a lack of accumulation of cellular oxidative damage with age, and maintenance of antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities may be important mechanisms to mitigate damage.

  16. Oxidative Damage and Cellular Defense Mechanisms in Sea Urchin Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Du, Colin; Anderson, Arielle; Lortie, Mae; Parsons, Rachel; Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of species longevity. This study investigates the oxidative stress theory in a novel model for aging research, the sea urchin. Sea urchins present a unique model for the study of aging due to the existence of species with tremendously different natural life spans including some species with extraordinary longevity and negligible senescence. Cellular oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities were measured in the tissues of three sea urchin species: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate lifespan. Levels of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) measured in tissues (muscle, nerve, esophagus, gonad, coelomocytes, ampullae) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) measured in cell-free coelomic fluid showed no general increase with age. The fluorescent age-pigment lipofuscin measured in muscle, nerve and esophagus, increased with age however it appeared to be predominantly extracellular. Antioxidant mechanisms (total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase) and proteasome enzyme activities were maintained with age. In some instances, levels of oxidative damage were lower and antioxidant activity higher in cells or tissues of the long-lived species compared to the short-lived species, however further studies are required to determine the relationship between oxidative damage and longevity in these animals. Consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging, the results suggest that negligible senescence is accompanied by a lack of accumulation of cellular oxidative damage with age and maintenance of antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities may be important mechanisms to mitigate damage. PMID:23707327

  17. Oxidative DNA damage during sleep periods among nightshift workers.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative DNA damage may be increased among nightshift workers because of suppression of melatonin, a cellular antioxidant, and/or inflammation related to sleep disruption. However, oxidative DNA damage has received limited attention in previous studies of nightshift work. From two previous cross-sectional studies, urine samples collected during a night sleep period for 217 dayshift workers and during day and night sleep (on their first day off) periods for 223 nightshift workers were assayed for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Urinary measures of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), a marker of circulating melatonin levels, and actigraphy-based sleep quality data were also available. Nightshift workers during their day sleep periods excreted 83% (p=0.2) and 77% (p=0.03) of the 8-OH-dG that dayshift workers and they themselves, respectively, excreted during their night sleep periods. Among nightshift workers, higher aMT6s levels were associated with higher urinary 8-OH-dG levels, and an inverse U-shaped trend was observed between 8-OH-dG levels and sleep efficiency and sleep duration. Reduced excretion of 8-OH-dG among nightshift workers during day sleep may reflect reduced functioning of DNA repair machinery, which could potentially lead to increased cellular levels of oxidative DNA damage. Melatonin disruption among nightshift workers may be responsible for the observed effect, as melatonin is known to enhance repair of oxidative DNA damage. Quality of sleep may similarly impact DNA repair. Cellular levels of DNA damage will need to be evaluated in future studies to help interpret these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Induction of oxidative DNA damage by flavonoids of propolis: its mechanism and implication about antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Chih; Wang, Yi-Hsiang; Liou, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Cun; Huang, Haimei; Liu, Yin-Chang

    2012-01-13

    Propolis from beehives is commonly used as a home remedy for various purposes including as a topical antiseptic. Despite its antioxidant capacity, propolis induces oxidative DNA damage. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we found that the induction of oxidative DNA damage is attributed to the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced by propolis. The formation of H(2)O(2) can take place without the participation of cells but requires the presence of transition metal ions such as iron. Flavonoids such as galangin, chrysin, and pinocembrin that are commonly detected in propolis have the capacity to induce oxidative DNA damage, and that capacity correlates with the production of H(2)O(2), suggesting the involvement of flavonoids in propolis in this process. On the basis of these results, we propose that the flavonoids of propolis serve as temporary carriers of electrons received from transition metal ions that are relayed to oxygen molecules to subsequently generate superoxide and H(2)O(2). In addition, propolis induces oxidative DNA damage that is subject to repair, and propolis-treated cells show a lower level of DNA damage level when challenged with another oxidative agent such as amoxicillin. This is reminiscent of an adaptive response that might contribute to the beneficial effects of propolis.

  19. Preventive Effects of Poloxamer 188 on Muscle Cell Damage Mechanics Under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sing Wan; Yao, Yifei; Hong, Ye; Ma, Zhiyao; Kok, Stanton H L; Sun, Shan; Cho, Michael; Lee, Kenneth K H; Mak, Arthur F T

    2017-04-01

    High oxidative stress can occur during ischemic reperfusion and chronic inflammation. It has been hypothesized that such oxidative challenges could contribute to clinical risks such as deep tissue pressure ulcers. Skeletal muscles can be challenged by inflammation-induced or reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress reportedly can lower the compressive damage threshold of skeletal muscles cells, causing actin filament depolymerization, and reduce membrane sealing ability. Skeletal muscles thus become easier to be damaged by mechanical loading under prolonged oxidative exposure. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of poloxamer 188 (P188) on skeletal muscle cells against extrinsic oxidative challenges (H2O2). It was found that with 1 mM P188 pre-treatment for 1 h, skeletal muscle cells could maintain their compressive damage threshold. The actin polymerization dynamics largely remained stable in term of the expression of cofilin, thymosin beta 4 and profilin. Laser photoporation demonstrated that membrane sealing ability was preserved even as the cells were challenged by H2O2. These findings suggest that P188 pre-treatment can help skeletal muscle cells retain their normal mechanical integrity in oxidative environments, adding a potential clinical use of P188 against the combined challenge of mechanical-oxidative stresses. Such effect may help to prevent deep tissue ulcer development.

  20. In vivo oxidation and surface damage in retrieved ethylene oxide-sterilized total knee arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Daniel; Hanzlik, Josa; Sharkey, Peter; Parvizi, Javad; Kurtz, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Gas sterilization (eg, ethylene oxide [EtO] and gas plasma) was introduced for polyethylene to reduce oxidation due to free radicals occurring during radiation sterilization. Recently, oxidation has been observed in polyethylenes with undetectable levels of free radicals, which were expected to be oxidatively stable. It is unclear whether in vivo oxidation will occur in unirradiated inserts sterilized with EtO. We analyzed the oxidation, mechanical behavior, and surface damage mechanisms of tibial inserts of a single design sterilized using EtO. We collected 20 EtO-sterilized tibial inserts at revision surgeries. We assessed oxidative using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mechanical properties using the small punch test. Surface damage was assessed using damage scoring techniques and micro-CT. Oxidation indexes were low and uniform between the regions. The subtle changes did not affect the mechanical properties of the polymer. The dominant surface damage modes included burnishing, abrasion, and third-body wear. There was no evidence of delamination in the retrievals. The retrieved EtO-sterilized UHMWPE retrievals remained stable with respect to both oxidative and mechanical properties for up to 10 years in vivo. We did observe slight measurable amounts of oxidation in the inserts; however, it was far below levels that would be expected to compromise the strength of the polymer. Due to the stable oxidative and mechanical properties, EtO-sterilized tibial components appear to be an effective alternative to gamma-sterilized inserts, at least in short-term implantations.

  1. Contribution of Oxidative Damage to Antimicrobial Lethality▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuhong; Zhao, Xilin

    2009-01-01

    A potential pathway linking hydroxyl radicals to antimicrobial lethality was examined by using mutational and chemical perturbations of Escherichia coli. Deficiencies of sodA or sodB had no effect on norfloxacin lethality; however, the absence of both genes together reduced lethal activity, consistent with rapid conversion of excessive superoxide to hydrogen peroxide contributing to quinolone lethality. Norfloxacin was more lethal with a mutant deficient in katG than with its isogenic parent, suggesting that detoxification of peroxide to water normally reduces quinolone lethality. An iron chelator (bipyridyl) and a hydroxyl radical scavenger (thiourea) reduced the lethal activity of norfloxacin, indicating that norfloxacin-stimulated accumulation of peroxide affects lethal activity via hydroxyl radicals generated through the Fenton reaction. Ampicillin and kanamycin, antibacterials unrelated to fluoroquinolones, displayed behavior similar to that of norfloxacin except that these two agents showed hyperlethality with an ahpC (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase) mutant rather than with a katG mutant. Collectively, these data are consistent with antimicrobial stress increasing the production of superoxide, which then undergoes dismutation to peroxide, from which a highly toxic hydroxyl radical is generated. Hydroxyl radicals then enhance antimicrobial lethality, as suggested by earlier work. Such findings indicate that oxidative stress networks may provide targets for antimicrobial potentiation. PMID:19223646

  2. Obesity Exacerbates Sepsis-Induced Oxidative Damage in Organs.

    PubMed

    Petronilho, Fabricia; Giustina, Amanda Della; Nascimento, Diego Zapelini; Zarbato, Graciela Freitas; Vieira, Andriele Aparecida; Florentino, Drielly; Danielski, Lucinéia Gainski; Goldim, Mariana Pereira; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Barichello, Tatiana

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis progression is linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes. Sepsis affects multiple organs, but when associated with a chronic inflammatory disease, such as obesity, it may be exacerbated. We hypothesized that obesity could aggravate the oxidative damage to peripheral organs of rats submitted to an animal model of sepsis. Male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks received hypercaloric nutrition for 2 months to induce obesity. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure, and sham-operated rats were considered as control group. The experimental groups were divided into sham + eutrophic, sham + obese, CLP + eutrophic, and CLP + obese. Twelve and 24 h after surgery, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were evaluated in the liver, lung, kidney, and heart. The data indicate that obese rats subjected to sepsis present oxidative stress mainly in the lung and liver. This alteration reflected an oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and an imbalance of SOD and CAT levels, especially 24 h after sepsis. It follows that obesity due to its pro-inflammatory phenotype can aggravate sepsis-induced damage in peripheral organs.

  3. Enantioselective oxidative damage of chiral pesticide dichlorprop to maize.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Li, Xiuying; Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2011-04-27

    To investigate the enantioselective oxidative damage of the pesticide dichlorprop (DCPP) to maize, young seedlings were exposed to solutions of DCPP enantiomers and racemate at different concentrations. Early root development was more influenced by (R)-DCPP than racemic (rac)- and (S)-DCPP. Inhibition rates of seed germination, seedling biomass, and root and shoot elongation were all in the order of (R)-DCPP > (rac)-DCPP > (S)-DCPP treatments. The antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were significantly upregulated by exposure to lower concentrations of (R)-DCPP than (rac)- and (S)-DCPP. Direct determination of the formation of hydroxyl radical (•OH) with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicated that the •OH level in maize roots followed the order of (R)-DCPP > (rac)-DCPP > (S)-DCPP treatments. All of these results provide solicited evidence of the significant enantioselective phytotoxicity of DCPP to maize with a higher toxicity of (R)-DCPP than (S)- and (rac)-DCPP.

  4. Can graphene oxide cause damage to eyesight?

    PubMed

    Yan, Lu; Wang, Yaping; Xu, Xu; Zeng, Chao; Hou, Jiangping; Lin, Mimi; Xu, Jingzhou; Sun, Fei; Huang, Xiaojie; Dai, Liming; Lu, Fan; Liu, Yong

    2012-06-18

    As graphene becomes one of the most exciting candidates for multifunctional biomedical applications, contact between eyes and graphene-based materials is inevitable. On the other hand, eyes, as a special organ in the human body, have unique advantages to be used for testing new biomedical research and development, such as drug delivery. Intraocular biocompatible studies on graphene-related materials are thus essential. Here, we report our recent studies on intraocular biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of graphene oxide (GO) both in vitro and in vivo. The successful preparation of GO nanosheets was confirmed using atomic force microscopy, contact angle analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The influence of GO on human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in terms of the cell morphology, viability, membrane integrity, and apoptosis was investigated using various techniques, including optical micrography, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and apoptosis assay. The addition of GO had little influence on cell morphology, but the change was visible after long-time culturing. RPE cells showed higher than 60% cell viability by CCK-8 assay in GO solutions and less than 8% LDH release, although a small amount of apoptosis (1.5%) was observed. In vitro results suggested good biocompatibility of GO to RPE cells with slight adverse influence, on the cell viability and morphology in long-time periods, along with aggregation of GO. Thus, some further studies are needed to clarify the cytotoxicity mechanism of GO. GO intravitreally injected eyes showed few changes in eyeball appearance, intraocular pressure (IOP), eyesight, and histological photos. Our results suggested that GO did not cause any significant toxicity to the cell growth and proliferation. Intravitreal injection of GO into rabbits' eyes did not lead to much change in the eyeball appearance, IOP, electroretinogram, and histological examination.

  5. Acetaldehyde-induced mitochondrial dysfunction sensitizes hepatocytes to oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Farfán Labonne, Blanca Eugenia; Gutiérrez, Mario; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Flores, Oscar; Ortíz, Victor; Hernández, Elizabeth; Kershenobich, David; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción

    2009-12-01

    Acetaldehyde (Ac), the main metabolite of ethanol oxidation, is a very reactive compound involved in alcohol-induced liver damage. In the present work, we studied the effect of Ac in mitochondria functionality. Mitochondria from Wistar rats were isolated and treated with Ac. Ac decreased respiratory control by 50% which was associated with a decrease in adenosine triphosphate content (28.5%). These results suggested that Ac could be inducing changes in cell redox status. We determined protein oxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione ratio, indicating that Ac induced an enhanced oxidation of proteins and a decrease in SOD activity (90%) and glutathione/oxidized GSH ratio (36%). The data suggested that Ac-induced oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria dysfunction can lead to cell sensitization and to a second oxidative challenge. We pretreated hepatocytes with Ac followed by treatment with antimycin A, and this experiment revealed a noticeable decrease in cell viability, determined by neutral red assay, in comparison with cells treated with Ac alone. Our data demonstrate that Ac impairs mitochondria functionality generating oxidative stress that sensitizes cells to a second damaging signal contributing to the development of alcoholic liver disease.

  6. Oxidative DNA damage causes mitochondrial genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Doudican, Nicole A; Song, Binwei; Shadel, Gerald S; Doetsch, Paul W

    2005-06-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress by exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2) or utilizing mutants lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod2Delta). Experiments were conducted with strains compromised in mitochondrial base excision repair (ntg1Delta) and oxidative damage resistance (pif1Delta) in order to delineate the relationship between these pathways. We observed enhanced ROS production, resulting in a direct increase in oxidative mtDNA damage and mutagenesis. Repair-deficient mutants exposed to oxidative stress conditions exhibited profound genomic instability. Elimination of Ntg1p and Pif1p resulted in a synergistic corruption of respiratory competency upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial genomic integrity was substantially compromised in ntg1Delta pif1Delta sod2Delta strains, since these cells exhibit a total loss of mtDNA. A stable respiration-defective strain, possessing a normal complement of mtDNA damage resistance pathways, exhibited a complete loss of mtDNA upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). This loss was preventable by Sod2p overexpression. These results provide direct evidence that oxidative mtDNA damage can be a major contributor to mitochondrial genomic instability and demonstrate cooperation of Ntg1p and Pif1p to resist the introduction of lesions into the mitochondrial genome.

  7. Alternative Interventions to Prevent Oxidative Damage following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lara, Simón Quetzalcoatl; Ramírez-Lizardo, Ernesto Javier; Totsuka-Sutto, Sylvia Elena; Castillo-Romero, Araceli; García-Cobián, Teresa Arcelia

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) lesions are a phenomenon that occurs in multiple pathological states and results in a series of events that end in irreparable damage that severely affects the recovery and health of patients. The principal therapeutic approaches include preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote ischemic preconditioning, which when used separately do not have a great impact on patient mortality or prognosis. Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the damage caused by I/R; however, there are no pharmacological approaches to limit or prevent this. Here, we explain the relationship between I/R and the oxidative stress process and describe some pharmacological options that may target oxidative stress-states. PMID:28116037

  8. Models Of Lower Extremity Damage In Mice: Time Course of Organ Damage & Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Christoph L; Pfeifer, Roman; Darwiche, Sophie S; Kobbe, Philipp; Gill, Roop; Shapiro, Richard A; Loughran, Patricia; Vodovotz, Yoram; Scott, Melanie J; Zenati, Mazen S; Billiar, Timothy R; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic inflammatory changes have been identified as major causes of altered organ function and failure. Both hemorrhage and soft tissue damage induce these inflammatory changes. Exposure to heterologous bone in animal models has recently been shown to mimic this inflammatory response in a stable and reproducible fashion. This follow-up study tests the hypothesis that inflammatory responses are comparable between a novel trauma model (“pseudofracture”, PFx) and a bilateral femur fracture (BFF) model. Materials and Methods In C57BL/6 mice, markers for remote organ dysfunction and inflammatory responses were compared in 4 groups (control/sham/BFF/PFx) at the time points 2, 4, and 6 hours. Results Hepatocellular damage in BFF and PFx was highly comparable in extent and evolution, as shown by similar levels of NFκB activation and plasma ALT. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were also comparably elevated in both trauma models as early as 2h after trauma as measured by myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). Muscle damage was provoked in both BFF and PFx mice over the time course, although BFF induced significantly higher AST and CK levels. IL-6 levels were also similar with early and sustained increases over time in both trauma models. Conclusions Both BFF and PFx create similar reproducible inflammatory and remote organ responses. PFx will be a useful model to study longer term inflammatory effects that cannot be studied using BFF. PMID:21276982

  9. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on zinc-deficiency-induced changes in oxidative defense mechanisms and tissue oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Keen, C L

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary carbohydrate type on the expression of zinc (Zn) deficiency in rats with respect to tissue oxidative damage and defense mechanisms. Rats were fed diets containing adequate (+Zn) or low concentrations (-Zn) of Zn. Both fructose- and glucose-based diets were tested. Pair-fed controls were also studied to evaluate changes in the oxidative defense system which are secondary to Zn-deficiency-induced anorexia. Plasma and liver Zn concentrations and CuZn superoxide dismutase activities were lower in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats. Liver glutathione (GSH) and disulfide glutathione concentrations were higher in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats; this difference was most pronounced in the fructose groups. Liver and heart selenium glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) activities were lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in the +Zn-fructose group. Liver Se-GSH-Px activity was higher in the fructose groups than in the glucose groups. Liver GSH reductase (GSH-Red) activity was lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in its control group. Liver glutamine synthetase activity was lower in the -Zn-glucose group and in the fructose groups than in the glucose control group. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) production was similar among the groups. Collectively, these results support the concept that Zn deficiency can result in an impaired oxidant defense system. Based on the observation that pair-fed control animals also showed evidence of oxidative damage, we suggest that one factor that contributes to the effect of Zn deficiency is the reduction in caloric intake that occurs in these animals. Fructose feeding resulted in increased activities of several of the oxidant defense enzymes. Protein oxidative damage assessed by glutamine synthetase activity was increased by both Zn deficiency and fructose feeding.

  10. [The effects of oxidative damage induced by organic oxidant t-BHP on cochlear hair cells].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-mei; Guo, Xiao; Li, Xu-dong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yi-min

    2012-03-01

    To establish the oxidative damage model of cochlea hair cells using organic oxidant t-BHP in vitro. HEI-OC1 cells were exposed to t-BHP at 8 doses (30~4000 µmol/L) for 12 h. Trypan blue test was used to detected the cellular viability and MTT assay was utilized to measured the cellular proliferation. The intracellular ROS levels were determined by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The survival rates of HEI-OC1 cells started decrease significantly at the dose of 100 µmol/L t-BHP, the peak of decreased survival rates appeared at the doses of 200~800 µmol/L. The results of MTT assay demonstrated that 30 µmol/L t-BHP could promote cellular proliferation ability, when t-BHP concentrations were higher than 200 µmol/L, the cellular proliferation ability was inhibited. The results of DCFH-DA assay showed that there was no fluorescence in control group, the strong fluorescence was observed in positive control group, the weak fluorescence was observed in 30~50 µmol/L t-BHP groups, the bright fluorescence was observed in 100 µmol/L t-BHP group, still the stronger fluorescence was observed in 200~1000 µmol/L groups, but the cellular number decreased with the doses because of the lower cellular viability. The exposure to 100 µmol/L t-BHP for 12 h could simulate the oxidative damage induced by noise in cochlear hair cells.

  11. Maternal diabetes triggers DNA damage and DNA damage response in neurulation stage embryos through oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Dong, Daoyin; Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Fu, Noah; Villela, Natalia Arias; Yang, Peixin

    2015-11-13

    DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR) in neurulation stage embryos under maternal diabetes conditions are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro induce DNA damage and DDR in the developing embryo through oxidative stress. In vivo experiments were conducted by mating superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) transgenic male mice with wild-type (WT) female mice with or without diabetes. Embryonic day 8.75 (E8.75) embryos were tested for the DNA damage markers, phosphorylated histone H2A.X (p-H2A.X) and DDR signaling intermediates, including phosphorylated checkpoint 1 (p-Chk1), phosphorylated checkpoint 2 (p-Chk2), and p53. Levels of the same DNA damage markers and DDR signaling intermediates were also determined in the mouse C17.2 neural stem cell line. Maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro significantly increased the levels of p-H2A.X. Levels of p-Chk1, p-Chk2, and p53, were elevated under both maternal diabetic and high glucose conditions. SOD1 overexpression blocked maternal diabetes-induced DNA damage and DDR in vivo. Tempol, a SOD1 mimetic, diminished high glucose-induced DNA damage and DDR in vitro. In conclusion, maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro induce DNA damage and activates DDR through oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated embryopathy.

  12. Large-brained birds suffer less oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Vágási, C I; Vincze, O; Pătraş, L; Osváth, G; Marton, A; Bărbos, L; Sol, D; Pap, P L

    2016-10-01

    Large brains (relative to body size) might confer fitness benefits to animals. Although the putative costs of well-developed brains can constrain the majority of species to modest brain sizes, these costs are still poorly understood. Given that the neural tissue is energetically expensive and demands antioxidants, one potential cost of developing and maintaining large brains is increased oxidative stress ('oxidation exposure' hypothesis). Alternatively, because large-brained species exhibit slow-paced life histories, they are expected to invest more into self-maintenance such as an efficacious antioxidative defence machinery ('oxidation avoidance' hypothesis). We predict decreased antioxidant levels and/or increased oxidative damage in large-brained species in case of oxidation exposure, and the contrary in case of oxidation avoidance. We address these contrasting hypotheses for the first time by means of a phylogenetic comparative approach based on an unprecedented data set of four redox state markers from 85 European bird species. Large-brained birds suffered less oxidative damage to lipids (measured as malondialdehyde levels) and exhibited higher total nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity than small-brained birds, whereas uric acid and glutathione levels were independent of brain size. These results were not altered by potentially confounding variables and did not depend on how relative brain size was quantified. Our findings partially support the 'oxidation avoidance' hypothesis and provide a physiological explanation for the linkage of large brains with slow-paced life histories: reduced oxidative stress of large-brained birds can secure brain functionality and healthy life span, which are integral to their lifetime fitness and slow-paced life history. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Oxidative Damage in Pea Plants Exposed to Water Deficit or Paraquat1

    PubMed Central

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Escuredo, Pedro R.; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Becana, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    The application of a moderate water deficit (water potential of −1.3 MPa) to pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Lincoln) leaves led to a 75% inhibition of photosynthesis and to increases in zeaxanthin, malondialdehyde, oxidized proteins, and mitochondrial, cytosolic, and chloroplastic superoxide dismutase activities. Severe water deficit (−1.9 MPa) almost completely inhibited photosynthesis, decreased chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, and lutein, and caused further conversion of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin, suggesting damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. There were consistent decreases in antioxidants and pyridine nucleotides, and accumulation of catalytic Fe, malondialdehyde, and oxidized proteins. Paraquat (PQ) treatment led to similar major decreases in photosynthesis, water content, proteins, and most antioxidants, and induced the accumulation of zeaxanthin and damaged proteins. PQ decreased markedly ascorbate, NADPH, ascorbate peroxidase, and chloroplastic Fe-superoxide dismutase activity, and caused major increases in oxidized glutathione, NAD+, NADH, and catalytic Fe. It is concluded that, in cv Lincoln, the increase in catalytic Fe and the lowering of antioxidant protection may be involved in the oxidative damage caused by severe water deficit and PQ, but not necessarily in the incipient stress induced by moderate water deficit. Results also indicate that the tolerance to water deficit in terms of oxidative damage largely depends on the legume cultivar.

  14. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these

  15. Bee Products Prevent Agrichemical-Induced Oxidative Damage in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; Santos da Rosa, João Gabriel; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L−1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased. PMID:24098336

  16. NDE for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter s thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using NDE methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating. The results of that study are briefly reviewed in this article as well. Additionally, a short discussion on the future role of simulation to aid in these studies is provided.

  17. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1) of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased.

  18. Guarding chromosomes from oxidative DNA damage to the very end.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rong; Lan, Li

    2016-07-01

    The ends of each chromosome are capped by the telomere assembly to protect chromosomal integrity from telomere attrition and DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, DNA repair factors are enriched at damage sites by a sophisticated signaling and recruitment cascade. However, DNA damage response at telomeres is different from non-telomeric region of genomic DNA due to specialized sequences and structures of the telomeres. In the course of normal DNA replication or DNA damage repair, both the telomere shelterin protein complex and the condensed telomeric chromatin structure in mammalian cells are modified to protect telomeres from exposing free DNA ends which are subject to both telemere shortening and chromosome end fusion. Initiation of either homologous recombination or non-homologous end joint repair at telomeres requires disassembling and/or post-translational modifications of the shelterin complex and telomeric chromatin. In addition, cancer cells utilize distinct mechanisms to maintain telomere length and cell survival upon damage. In this review, we summarize current studies that focus on telomere end protection and telomere DNA repair using different methodologies to model telomere DNA damage and disruption. These include genetic ablation of sheltering proteins, targeting endonuclease to telomeres, and delivering oxidative damage directly. These different approaches, when combined, offer better understanding of the mechanistic differences in DNA damage response between telomeric and genomic DNA, which will provide new hope to identify potential cancer therapeutic targets to curtail cancer cell proliferation via induction of telomere dysfunctions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  20. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: effects of antioxidant treatments.

    PubMed

    Milei, J; Ferreira, R; Grana, D R; Boveris, A

    2001-01-01

    We examined antioxidant actions in 73 patients undergoing coronary artery surgery by assessing mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in ventricular biopsies obtained at preischemia and postreperfusion. Those patients who received antioxidant therapy benefited by less oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage.

  1. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19) in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA)]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA)]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh)]) via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA) (χ2(3) = 8.068, p < 0.045), d(PfpA) (χ2(3) = 8.477, p < 0.037), and d(Gh) (χ2(3) = 37.599, p < 0.001) lesions were seen, indicating levels of each decreased significantly after CO-confirmed smoking cessation. The d(TgpA) and d(PfpA) lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh) lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA), 64% of baseline for d(PfpA), vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh)). Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis. PMID:21569419

  2. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Moyer, E. L.; Kumar, A.; Tahimic, Candice C. G.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss can occur due to many challenges such age, radiation, microgravity, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in bone resorption by osteoclasts (Bartell et al. 2014). We hypothesize that suppression of excess ROS in skeletal cells, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, regulates skeletal growth and remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we used transgenic mCAT mice which overexpress the human anti-oxidant catalase gene targeted to the mitochondria, the main site for endogenous ROS production. mCAT mice have a longer life-span than wildtype controls and have been used to study various age-related disorders. To stimulate remodeling, 16 week old mCAT mice or wildtype mice were exposed to treatment (hindlimb-unloading and total body-irradiation) or sham treatment conditions (control). Tissues were harvested 2 weeks later for skeletal analysis (microcomputed tomography), biochemical analysis (gene expression and oxidative damage measurements), and ex vivo bone marrow derived cell culture (osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis). mCAT mice expressed the transgene and displayed elevated catalase activity in skeletal tissue and marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts grown ex vivo. In addition, when challenged with treatment, bone tissues from wildtype mice showed elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative damage) whereas mCAT mice did not. Correlation analysis revealed that increased catalase activity significantly correlated with decreased MDA levels and that increased oxidative damage correlated with decreased percent bone volume (BVTV). In addition, ex-vivo cultured osteoblast colony growth correlated with catalase activity in the osteoblasts. Thus, we showed that these transgenic mice can be used as a model to study the relationship between markers of oxidative damage and skeletal properties. mCAT mice displayed reduced BVTV and trabecular number relative to wildtype mice, as well as increased structural model index in the

  3. Calcium oxide and magnesium oxide inhibit plasma coagulation by Staphylococcus aureus cells at the lower concentration than zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Yamasaki, O; Tada, J; Arata, J

    1999-12-01

    We examined the effect of ceramic powder slurries on the coagulation of plasma by Staphylococcus aureus cells. Plasma coagulation by S. aureus strains or their cultured supernatant was inhibited in the plasma with 0.12% calcium oxide or 0.25% magnesium oxide after incubation for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Inhibition of plasma coagulation by calcium oxide and magnesium oxide was observed at the lower concentration than zinc oxide.

  4. Overloaded training increases exercise-induced oxidative stress and damage.

    PubMed

    Palazzetti, Stephane; Richard, Marie-Jeanne; Favier, Alain; Margaritis, Irene

    2003-08-01

    We hypothesized that overloaded training (OT) in triathlon would induce oxidative stress and damage on muscle and DNA. Nine male triathletes and 6 male sedentary subjects participated in this study. Before and after a 4-week OT, triathletes exercised for a duathlon. Blood ratio of reduced vs. oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), leukocyte DNA damage, creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB mass in plasma, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured before and after OT in pre- and postexercise situations. Triathletes were overloaded in response to OT. In rest conditions, OT induced plasma GSH-Px activity increase and plasma TAS decrease (both p < 0.05). In exercise conditions, OT resulted in higher exercise-induced variations of blood GSH/GSSG ratio, TBARS level (both p < 0.05), and CK-MB mass (p < 0.01) in plasma; and decreased TAS response (p < 0.05). OT could compromise the antioxidant defense mechanism with respect to exercise-induced response. The resulting increased exercise-induced oxidative stress and further cellular susceptibility to damage needs more study.

  5. Chemically defined media modifications to lower tryptophan oxidation of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hazeltine, Laurie B; Knueven, Kristine M; Zhang, Yan; Lian, Zhirui; Olson, Donald J; Ouyang, Anli

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of biopharmaceuticals is a major product quality issue with potential impacts on activity and immunogenicity. At Eli Lilly and Company, high tryptophan oxidation was observed for two biopharmaceuticals in development produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. A switch from historical hydrolysate-containing media to chemically defined media with a reformulated basal powder was thought to be responsible, so mitigation efforts focused on media modification. Shake flask studies identified that increasing tryptophan, copper, and manganese and decreasing cysteine concentrations were individual approaches to lower tryptophan oxidation. When amino acid and metal changes were combined, the modified formulation had a synergistic impact that led to substantially less tryptophan oxidation for both biopharmaceuticals. Similar results were achieved in shake flasks and benchtop bioreactors, demonstrating the potential to implement these modifications at manufacturing scale. The modified formulation did not negatively impact cell growth and viability, product titer, purity, charge variants, or glycan profile. A potential mechanism of action is presented for each amino acid or metal factor based on its role in oxidation chemistry. This work served not only to mitigate the tryptophan oxidation issue in two Lilly biopharmaceuticals in development, but also to increase our knowledge and appreciation for the impact of media components on product quality.

  6. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-07-01

    Both non-pathological psychological stress states and mental disorders are associated with molecular, cellular and epidemiological signs of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress on nucleic acids is a critical component of cellular and organismal aging, and a suggested pathogenic mechanism in several age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo, respectively). The main hypothesis was that psychological stress states are associated with increased DNA/RNA damage from oxidation. In a study of 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy controls matched for age and gender, we found that 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo excretion was increased in schizophrenia patients, providing a possible molecular link between schizophrenia and its associated signs of accelerated aging. We found no association between psychopathology, perceived stress or cortisol secretion and 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo excretion in the patients. In the controls, there were positive correlations between 8-oxodG/8-ocoGuo excretion and 9AM plasma cortisol, but no associations to perceived stress. In an animal study of experimentally induced chronic stress performed in metabolism cages, we found no increase in urinary 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo or cerebral (hippocampal and frontal cortex) levels of oxidatively generated nucleic acid damage. However, there was a trend towards an increased expression of genes involved in DNA repair, possibly reflecting a compensatory mechanism. In a study of 220 elderly, mostly healthy individuals from the Italian InChianti cohort, we found a significant association between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between

  7. Tyrosine-dependent oxidative DNA damage induced by carcinogenic tetranitromethane.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Kurimoto, Saori; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2006-10-01

    Tetranitromethane (TNM) is used as an oxidizer in rocket propellants and explosives and as an additive to increase the cetane number of diesel fuel. TNM was reported to induce pulmonary adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in mice and rats. However, the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis induced by TNM has not yet been clarified. We previously revealed that nitroTyr and nitroTyr-containing peptides caused Cu(II)-dependent DNA damage in the presence of P450 reductase, which is considered to yield nitroreduction. Since TNM is a reagent for nitration of Tyr in proteins and peptides, we have hypothesized that TNM-treated Tyr and Tyr-containing peptides induce DNA damage by the modification of Tyr. We examined DNA damage induced by TNM-treated amino acids or peptides using (32)P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene and the c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene. TNM-treated Tyr and Lys-Tyr-Lys induced DNA damage including the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. DNA damage was inhibited by catalase and bathocuproine, indicating the involvement of H(2)O(2) and Cu(I). The cytosine residue of the ACG sequence complementary to codon 273, well-known hotspots of the p53 gene, was cleaved with piperidine and Fpg treatments. On the other hand, nitroTyr and Lys-nitroTyr-Lys did not induce DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed that reactions between Lys-Tyr-Lys and TNM yielded not only Lys-nitroTyr-Lys but also Lys-nitrosoTyr-Lys. Therefore, it is speculated that the nitrosotyrosine residue can induce oxidative DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. It is concluded that Tyr-dependent DNA damage may play an important role in the carcinogenicity of TNM. TNM is a new type of carcinogen that induces DNA damage not by itself but via Tyr modification.

  8. Mitochondria DNA Change and Oxidative Damage in Clinically Stable Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Cheng-Chen; Jou, Shaw-Hwa; Lin, Ta-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare alterations of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) copy number, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and oxidative damage of mtDNA in clinically stable patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Patients met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for MDD were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic at Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan. They were clinically stable and their medications had not changed for at least the preceding two months. Exclusion criteria were substance-induced psychotic disorder, eating disorder, anxiety disorder or illicit substance abuse. Comparison subjects did not have any major psychiatric disorder and they were medically healthy. Peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed to compare copy number, SNPs and oxidative damage of mtDNA between the two groups. Results 40 MDD patients and 70 comparison subjects were collected. The median age of the subjects was 42 years and 38 years in MDD and comparison groups, respectively. Leukocyte mtDNA copy number of MDD patients was significantly lower than that of the comparison group (p = 0.037). MDD patients had significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage than the comparison group (6.44 vs. 3.90, p<0.001). After generalized linear model adjusted for age, sex, smoking, family history, and psychotropic use, mtDNA copy number was still significantly lower in the MDD group (p<0.001). MtDNA oxidative damage was positively correlated with age (p<0.001) and MDD (p<0.001). Antipsychotic use was negatively associated with mtDNA copy number (p = 0.036). Limitations The study is cross-sectional with no longitudinal follow up. The cohort is clinically stable and generalizability of our result to other cohort should be considered. Conclusions Our study suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondria may play a role in the pathophysiology of MDD. More large-scale studies are warranted to assess the interplay between oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction and MDD. PMID:25946463

  9. 17β-estradiol protects human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes against oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Bottai, G; Mancina, R; Muratori, M; Di Gennaro, P; Lotti, T

    2013-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause severe damage to extracellular matrix and to molecular structure of DNA, proteins and lipids. Accumulation of these molecular changes apparently constitutes the basis of cell ageing. 17b-estradiol (E2) has a key role in skin ageing homeostasis as evidenced by the accelerated decline in skin appearance seen in the perimenopausal years. Oestrogens improve many aspects of the skin such as skin thickness, vascularization, collagen content and quality. Despite these clinical evidences, the effects of oestrogens on skin at the cellular level need further clarification. HaCaT and human fibroblasts were cultured under various conditions with E2 and H2 O2 ; then were subjected to immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Lipoperoxidation was investigated using BODIPY. In human fibroblasts oxidative stress decreases procollagen-I synthesis, while E2 significantly increases it. Fibroblasts and HaCaT cells viability in the presence of E2 demonstrates a notably increased resistance to H2 O2 effects. Furthermore E2 is able to counteract H2 O2 -mediated lipoperoxidation and DNA oxidative damage in skin cells. In this study we highlight that the menopause-associated oestrogens decline is involved in reduced collagen production and that E2 could counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress on the dermal compartment during skin aging. Furthermore, our data show that physiological concentrations of oestrogens are able to interfere with ROS-mediated cell viability reduction and to protect human skin cells against oxidative damage to cellular membranes and nucleic acids structure. Our experimental data show that the presence of 17β-estradiol may protect skin cells against oxidative damage and that the dramatic lowering of oestrogen levels during menopause, could render skin more susceptible to oxidative damage. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology

  10. Oxidative DNA damage induced by activation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): implications for PCB-induced oxidative stress in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oakley, G G; Devanaboyina, U; Robertson, L W; Gupta, R C

    1996-12-01

    We have previously reported that mono- and dichlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be metabolized to dihydroxy compounds and further oxidized to reactive metabolites which form adducts with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles including DNA [Amaro et al. (1966) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 9, 623-629; Oakley et al. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 109-114]. The former studies also demonstrated that during the metabolism of PCBs superoxide may be produced. We have therefore examined the abilities of PCB metabolites to induce free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage using a newly developed, highly sensitive, 32P-postlabeling assay for 8-oxode-oxyguanosine (8-oxodG) [Devanaboyina, U., and Gupta, R. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 917-924]. The incubation of 3,4-dichloro-2'5'-dihydroxybiphenyl (100 microM) with calf thymus DNA (300 micrograms/microL) in the presence of the breast tissue and milk-associated enzyme, lactoperoxidase (10 mU/mL), and H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in a significant increase in free radical-induced DNA damage (253 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides) as compared to vehicle-treated DNA (118 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides). Substituting CuCl(2) (100 microM) for lactoperoxidase/H2O2, however, resulted in a substantial increase in 8-oxodG content (2669 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides). FeCl(3) was ineffective, suggesting that CuCl(2) but not FeCl(3) mediates oxidation of PCB dihydroxy metabolites, resulting in oxidative DNA damage. The addition of catalase (100 U/mL) and sodium azide (0.1 M) reduced the effect of CuCl(2) (849 and 896 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides, respectively), while superoxide dismutase (600 U/mL) moderately stimulated and glutathione (100 microM) substantially stimulated 8-oxodG formation (3014 and 4415 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides, respectively). The effect of various buffers as well as the effects of PCB structure on Cu(II)-mediated oxidative DNA damage were examined. These results demonstrate that free radicals and oxidative DNA damage are produced during oxidation of lower chlorinated

  11. Anti-oxidative effects of safranal on immobilization-induced oxidative damage in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Samini, Fariborz; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-09-01

    Safranal, a major constituent of saffron, possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties showing considerable neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of safranal against restraint stress induced oxidative damage in the rat brain. For inducing the chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 1h every day, for 21 consecutive days, then, the animals received systemic administrations of vehicle (0.1% DMSO) acted as the control group or safranal daily for 21days. Results indicated that the rats submitted to restraint stress showed an increase in the immobility time versus the non-stress rats. In addition, stress decreased number of crossing in the rats submitted to restraint stress versus the non-stress animals. Treatment with safranal (0.75mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the immobility time compared to the non-treated stress group, while, the treatment improved the number of crossing in rats submitted to restraint stress versus the vehicle-treated stress rats. In the stressed animals that received vehicle, the MDA level was significantly higher and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower than the non-stressed rats. Safranal ameliorated the changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups. The present findings indicate that safranal might be effective against depressant-like effects induced by chronic stress via modulating brain oxidative response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of oxidatively generated base damage in cellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2011-06-03

    This survey focuses on the critical evaluation of the main methods that are currently available for monitoring single and complex oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA. Among chromatographic methods, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and to a lesser extent HPLC-ECD which is restricted to a few electroactive nucleobases and nucleosides are appropriate for measuring the formation of single and clustered DNA lesions. Such methods that require optimized protocols for DNA extraction and digestion are sensitive enough for measuring base lesions formed under conditions of severe oxidative stress including exposure to ionizing radiation, UVA light and high intensity UVC laser pulses. In contrast application of GC-MS and HPLC-MS methods that are subject to major drawbacks have been shown to lead to overestimated values of DNA damage. Enzymatic methods that are based on the use of DNA repair glycosylases in order to convert oxidized bases into strand breaks are suitable, even if they are far less specific than HPLC methods, to deal with low levels of single modifications. Several other methods including immunoassays and (32)P-postlabeling methods that are still used suffer from drawbacks and therefore are not recommended. Another difficult topic is the measurement of oxidatively generated clustered DNA lesions that is currently achieved using enzymatic approaches and that would necessitate further investigations.

  13. Homologous recombination is required for recovery from oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michio; Umezu, Keiko

    2017-04-03

    We have been studying the genetic events, including chromosome loss, chromosome rearrangements and intragenic point mutations, that are responsible for the deletion of a URA3 marker in a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay in the yeast Saccharomycess cerevisiae. With this assay, we previously showed that homologous recombination plays an important role in genome maintenance in response to DNA lesions that occur spontaneously in normally growing cells. Here, to investigate DNA lesions capable of triggering homologous recombination, we examined the effects of oxidative stress, a prominent cause of endogenous DNA damage, on LOH events. Treatment of log-phase cells with H2O2 first caused growth arrest and then, during the subsequent recovery, chromosome loss and various chromosome rearrangements were induced more than 10-fold. Further analysis of the rearrangements showed that gene conversion was strongly induced, approximately 100 times more frequently than in untreated cells. Consistent with these results, two diploid strains deficient for homologous recombination, rad52Δ/rad52Δ and rad51Δ/rad51Δ, were sensitive to H2O2 treatment. In addition, chromosome DNA breaks were detected in H2O2-treated cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Altogether, these results suggest that oxidative stress induced recombinogenic lesions on chromosomes, which then triggered homologous recombination leading to chromosome rearrangements, and that this response contributed to the survival of cells afflicted by oxidative DNA damage. We therefore conclude that homologous recombination is required for the recovery of cells from oxidative stress.

  14. Choreography of oxidative damage repair in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sankar; Izumi, Tadahide; Boldogh, Istvan; Bhakat, Kishor K; Hill, Jeff W; Hazra, Tapas K

    2002-07-01

    The lesions induced by reactive oxygen species in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes include altered bases, abasic (AP) sites, and single-strand breaks, all repaired primarily via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Although the basic BER process (consisting of five sequential steps) could be reconstituted in vitro with only four enzymes, it is now evident that repair of oxidative damage, at least in mammalian cell nuclei, is more complex, and involves a number of additional proteins, including transcription- and replication-associated factors. These proteins may be required in sequential repair steps in concert with other cellular changes, starting with nuclear targeting of the early repair enzymes in response to oxidative stress, facilitation of lesion recognition, and access by chromatin unfolding via histone acetylation, and formation of metastable complexes of repair enzymes and other accessory proteins. Distinct, specific subclasses of protein complexes may be formed for repair of oxidative lesions in the nucleus in transcribed vs. nontranscribed sequences in chromatin, in quiescent vs. cycling cells, and in nascent vs. parental DNA strands in replicating cells. Characterizing the proteins for each repair subpathway, their signaling-dependent modifications and interactions in the nuclear as well as mitochondrial repair complexes, will be a major focus of future research in oxidative damage repair.

  15. Plasmalogen phospholipids protect internodal myelin from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Adrienne M; Kuo, Fonghsu; Cakici, Ozgur; Crowther, Michelle N; Denninger, Andrew R; Avila, Robin L; Brites, Pedro; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in a range of degenerative conditions, including aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurological disorders. Myelin is a lipid-rich multilamellar sheath that facilitates rapid nerve conduction in vertebrates. Given the high energetic demands and low antioxidant capacity of the cells that elaborate the sheaths, myelin is considered intrinsically vulnerable to oxidative damage, raising the question whether additional mechanisms prevent structural damage. We characterized the structural and biochemical basis of ROS-mediated myelin damage in murine tissues from both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). To determine whether ROS can cause structural damage to the internodal myelin, whole sciatic and optic nerves were incubated ex vivo with a hydroxyl radical-generating system consisting of copper (Cu), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and ortho-phenanthroline (OP). Quantitative assessment of unfixed tissue by X-ray diffraction revealed irreversible compaction of myelin membrane stacking in both sciatic and optic nerves. Incubation in the presence of the hydroxyl radical scavenger sodium formate prevented this damage, implicating hydroxyl radical species. Myelin membranes are particularly enriched in plasmalogens, a class of ether-linked phospholipids proposed to have antioxidant properties. Myelin in sciatic nerve from plasmalogen-deficient (Pex7 knockout) mice was significantly more vulnerable to Cu/OP/HP-mediated ROS-induced compaction than myelin from WT mice. Our results directly support the role of plasmalogens as endogenous antioxidants providing a defense that protects ROS-vulnerable myelin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to benzene metabolites causes oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Raj, Abhishek; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2016-06-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ) are known benzene metabolites that form reactive intermediates such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study attempts to understand the effect of benzene metabolites (HQ and BQ) on the antioxidant status, cell morphology, ROS levels and lipid alterations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a reduction in the growth pattern of wild-type cells exposed to HQ/BQ. Exposure of yeast cells to benzene metabolites increased the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase but lead to a decrease in ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Increased triglyceride level and decreased phospholipid levels were observed with exposure to HQ and BQ. These results suggest that the enzymatic antioxidants were increased and are involved in the protection against macromolecular damage during oxidative stress; presumptively, these enzymes are essential for scavenging the pro-oxidant effects of benzene metabolites.

  17. Tamoxifen inhibits mitochondrial oxidative stress damage induced by copper orthophenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Correa, Francisco; Díaz-Ruiz, Jorge Luis; Chávez, Edmundo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of tamoxifen and cyclosporin A on mitochondrial permeability transition caused by addition of the thiol-oxidizing pair Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline. The findings indicate that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A circumvent the oxidative membrane damage manifested by matrix Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial swelling, and transmembrane electrical gradient collapse. Furthermore, it was found that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A prevent the generation of TBARs promoted by Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline, as well as the inactivation of the mitochondrial enzyme aconitase and disruption of mDNA. Electrophoretic analysis was unable to demonstrate a cross-linking reaction between membrane proteins. Yet, it was found that Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline induced the generation of reactive oxygen species. It is thus plausible that membrane leakiness is due to an oxidative stress injury.

  18. Prevention of oxidative DNA damage in rats by brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, X S; Tuo, J; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1998-03-01

    The alleged cancer preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables could be related to protection from mutagenic oxidative DNA damage. We have studied the effects of Brussels sprouts, some non-cruciferous vegetables and isolated glucosinolates on spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in terms of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in groups of 6-8 male Wistar rats. Excess oxidative DNA damage was induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP 100 mg/kg). Four days oral administration of 3 g of cooked Brussels sprouts homogenate reduced the spontaneous urinary 8-oxodG excretion by 31% (p<0.05) whereas raw sprouts, beans and endive (1:1), isolated indolyl glucosinolates and breakdown products had no significant effect. An aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts (corresponding to 6.7 g vegetable per day for 4 days) decreased the spontaneous 8-oxodG excretion from 92 +/- 12 to 52 +/- 15 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). After 2-NP administration the 8-oxodG excretion was increased to 132 +/- 26 pmol/24 h (p<0.05) whereas pretreatment with the sprouts extract reduced this to 102 +/- 30 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). The spontaneous level of 8-oxodG in nuclear DNA from liver and bone marrow was not significantly affected by the sprouts extract whereas the level decreased by 27% in the kidney (p<0.05). In the liver 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels in nuclear DNA 8.7 and 3.8 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. The sprouts extract reduced this increase by 57% (p<0.05) at 6 h whereas there was no significant effect at 24 h. In the kidneys 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels 2.2 and 1.2 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. Pretreatment with the sprouts extract abolished these increases (p<0.05). Similarly, in the bone marrow the extract protected completely (p<0.05) against a 4.9-fold 2-NP induced increase (p<0.05) in the 8-oxodG level. These findings demonstrate that cooked Brussels sprouts contain bioactive substance(s) with a potential for reducing the physiological

  19. Oxidative Damage and Autophagy in the Human Trabecular Meshwork as Related with Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Pulliero, Alessandra; Seydel, Anke; Camoirano, Anna; Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Sandri, Marco; Izzotti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation process induced under stress conditions. Autophagy also plays a major role in ocular patho-physiology. Molecular aging does occur in the trabecular meshwork, the main regulator of aqueous humor outflow, and trabecular meshwork senescence is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. However, the role of autophagy in trabecular meshwork patho-physiology has not yet been examined in vivo in human ocular tissues. The purpose of the herein presented study is to evaluate autophagy occurrence in ex-vivo collected human trabecular meshwork specimens and to evaluate the relationship between autophagy, oxidative stress, and aging in this tissue. Fresh trabecular meshwork specimens were collected from 28 healthy corneal donors devoid of ocular pathologies and oxidative DNA damage, and LC3 and p62 protein expression analyzed. In a subset of 10 subjects, further to trabecular meshwork proteins, the amounts of cathepesin L and ubiquitin was analyzed by antibody microarray in aqueous humor. Obtained results demonstrate that autophagy activation, measured by LC3II/I ratio, is related with. oxidative damage occurrence during aging in human trabecular meshwork. The expression of autophagy marker p62 was lower in subjects older than 60 years as compared to younger subjects. These findings reflect the occurrence of an agedependent increase in the autophagy as occurring in the trabecular meshwork. Furthermore, we showed that aging promotes trabecular-meshwork senescence due to increased oxidative stress paralleled by autophagy increase. Indeed, both oxidative DNA damage and autophagy were more abundant in subjects older than 60 years. These findings shed new light on the role of oxidative damage and autophagy during trabecular-meshwork aging. PMID:24945152

  20. OXIDANT CONDITIONING PROTECTS CARTILAGE FROM MECHANICALLY-INDUCED DAMAGE

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Prem; Hecht, Benjamin; Pedersen, Doug; Lavery, Matthew; Maynard, Jerry; Buckwalter, Joseph; Martin, James

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis has been linked to abnormal mechanical stresses that are known to cause chondrocyte apoptosis and metabolic derangement in in vitro models. Evidence implicating oxidative damage as the immediate cause of these harmful effects suggests that the anti-oxidant defenses of chondrocytes might influence their tolerance for mechanical injury. Based on evidence that anti-oxidant defenses in many cell types are stimulated by moderate oxidant exposure, we hypothesized that oxidant pre-conditioning would reduce acute chondrocyte death and proteoglycan depletion in cartilage explants after exposure to abnormal mechanical stresses. Porcine cartilage explants were treated every 48 hours with tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide (tBHP) at non-lethal concentrations (25, 100, 250, 500 µM) for a varying number of times (1, 2 or 4) prior to a bout of unconfined axial compression (5 MPa, 1 Hz, 1800 cycles). When compared with untreated controls, tBHP had significant positive effects on post-compression viability, lactate production, and proteoglycan losses. Overall, the most effective regime was 100 µM tBHP applied 4 times. RNA analysis revealed significant effects of 100 µM tBHP on gene expression. Catalase, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), and glyceraldehyde 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were significantly increased relative to untreated controls in explants treated 4 times with 100 µM tBHP, a regime that also resulted in a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression. These findings demonstrate that repeated exposure of cartilage to sub-lethal concentrations of peroxide can moderate the acute effects of mechanical stress, a conclusion supported by evidence of peroxide-induced changes in gene expression that could render chondrocytes more resistant to oxidative damage. PMID:20058262

  1. Disinfection by-products effect on swimmers oxidative stress and respiratory damage.

    PubMed

    Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Priego Quesada, Jose Ignacio; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Lucas-Cuevas, Ángel G; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Olaso-González, Gloria; Moliner-Martinez, Yolanda; Verdú-Andres, Jorge; Campins-Falco, Pilar; Gómez-Cabrera, M Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are generated through the reaction of chlorine with organic and inorganic matter in indoor swimming pools. Different DBPs are present in indoor swimming pools. This study evaluated the effects of different chlorinated formations in oxidative stress and lung damage in 20 swimmers after 40 min of aerobic swimming in 3 indoor pools with different characteristics. Biological samples were collected to measure lung damage (serum-surfactant-associated proteins A and B), oxidative stress parameters (plasma protein carbonylation and malondialdehyde, and whole-blood glutathione oxidation), and swimming exertion values (blood lactate) before and after exercise. Free chlorine and combined chlorine in water, and chlorine in air samples were determined in all the swimming pools. Chlorination as disinfection treatment led to the formation of chloramines in water samples, mainly mono- and dichloramine. However, free chlorine was the predominate species in ultraviolet-treated swimming pool. Levels of total chlorine increased as a function of the swimming activity in chlorinated swimming pools. The lower quality of the installation resulted in a higher content of total chlorine, especially in air samples, and therefore a higher exposure of the swimmer to DBPs. However, the concentration level of chlorinated DBPs did not result in significant variation in serum-surfactant-associated proteins A and oxidative stress parameters in swimmers. In conclusion, the quality of the installation affected the DBPs concentration; however, it did not lead to lung epithelial damage and oxidative stress parameters in swimmers.

  2. Transcription-coupled homologous recombination after oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Leizhen; Levine, Arthur Samuel; Lan, Li

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative DNA damage induces genomic instability and may lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. As severe blockades to RNA polymerase II (RNA POLII) during transcription, oxidative DNA damage and the associated DNA strand breaks have a profoundly deleterious impact on cell survival. To protect the integrity of coding regions, high fidelity DNA repair at a transcriptionally active site in non-dividing somatic cells, (i.e., terminally differentiated and quiescent/G0 cells) is necessary to maintain the sequence integrity of transcribed regions. Recent studies indicate that an RNA-templated, transcription-associated recombination mechanism is important to protect coding regions from DNA damage-induced genomic instability. Here, we describe the discovery that G1/G0 cells exhibit Cockayne syndrome (CS) B (CSB)-dependent assembly of homologous recombination (HR) factors at double strand break (DSB) sites within actively transcribed regions. This discovery is a challenge to the current dogma that HR occurs only in S/G2 cells where undamaged sister chromatids are available as donor templates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prophylaxis with Bacopa monnieri attenuates acrylamide induced neurotoxicity and oxidative damage via elevated antioxidant function.

    PubMed

    Shinomol, George Kunnel; Raghunath, Narayanareddy; Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda Srinivas; Muralidhara

    2013-03-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble, vinyl monomer that has multiple chemical and industrial applications. Exposure to ACR causes neuropathy and associated neurological defects including gait abnormalities and skeletal muscle weakness, due to impaired neurotransmitter release and eventual neurodegeneration. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we examined whether oxidative events are involved in ACR-mediated neurotoxicity and whether these could be prevented by natural plant extracts. Administration (i.p.) of ACR in mice (40 mg/kg bw/ d for 5d) induced significant oxidative damage in the brain cortex and liver as evidenced by elevated lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyls. This was associated with lowered antioxidant activities including antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-s-transferase) and reduced glutathione (GSH) compared to untreated controls. Similarly, exposure of N27 neuronal cells in culture to ACR (1-5 mM) caused dose-dependent neuronal death and lowered GSH. Interestingly, dietary supplementation with the leaf powder of Bacopa monnieri (BM) (which possesses neuroprotective properties and nootropic activity) in mice for 30 days offered significant protection against ACR toxicity and oxidative damage in vivo. Similarly, pretreatment with BM protected the N27 cells against ACR-induced cell death and associated oxidative damage. Co-treatment and pre-treatment of Drosophila melanogaster with BM extract protected against ACR-induced locomotor dysfunction and GSH depletion. We infer that BM displays prophylactic effects against ACR induced oxidative damage and neurotoxicity with potential therapeutic application in human pathology associated with neuropathy.

  4. Early oxidative damage underlying neurodegeneration in X-adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fourcade, Stéphane; López-Erauskin, Jone; Galino, Jorge; Duval, Carine; Naudi, Alba; Jove, Mariona; Kemp, Stephan; Villarroya, Francesc; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Pujol, Aurora

    2008-06-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive cerebral demyelination cerebral childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD) or spinal cord neurodegeneration (adrenomyeloneuropathy, AMN), adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in tissues. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal transporter that plays a role in the import of VLCFA or VLCFA-CoA into peroxisomes. The Abcd1 knockout mice develop a spinal cord disease that mimics AMN in adult patients, with late onset at 20 months of age. The mechanisms underlying cerebral demyelination or axonal degeneration in spinal cord are unknown. Here, we present evidence by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry that malonaldehyde-lysine, a consequence of lipoxidative damage to proteins, accumulates in the spinal cord of Abcd1 knockout mice as early as 3.5 months of age. At 12 months, Abcd1- mice accumulate additional proteins modified by oxidative damage arising from metal-catalyzed oxidation and glycoxidation/lipoxidation. While we show that VLCFA excess activates enzymatic antioxidant defenses at the protein expression levels, both in neural tissue, in ex vivo organotypic spinal cord slices from Abcd1- mice, and in human ALD fibroblasts, we also demonstrate that the loss of Abcd1 gene function hampers oxidative stress homeostasis. We find that the alpha-tocopherol analog Trolox is able to reverse oxidative lesions in vitro, thus providing therapeutic hope. These results pave the way for the identification of therapeutic targets that could reverse the deregulated response to oxidative stress in X-ALD.

  5. Oxidative Damage in the Aging Heart: an Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Gustavo Lenci; Neto, Francisco Filipak; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira; Liebel, Samuel; de Fraga, Rogério; Bueno, Ronaldo da Rocha Loures

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of ‘aging’; however, the factors that affect this complex process are still poorly understood. Of these theories, the accumulation of oxidative damage over time is among the most accepted. Particularly, the heart is one of the most affected organs by oxidative stress. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate oxidative stress markers in myocardial tissue of rats at different ages. Methods: Seventy-two rats were distributed into 6 groups of 12 animals each and maintained for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and the levels of non-protein thiols, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined. Results: Superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation were reduced in the older groups of animals, when compared with the younger group. However, protein carbonylation showed an increase in the 12-month group followed by a decrease in the older groups. In addition, the levels of non-protein thiols were increased in the 12-month group and not detected in the older groups. Conclusion: Our data showed that oxidative stress is not associated with aging in the heart. However, an increase in non-protein thiols may be an important factor that compensates for the decrease of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the oldest rats, to maintain appropriate antioxidant defenses against oxidative insults. PMID:27006709

  6. Oxidative guanine base damage regulates human telomerase activity

    PubMed Central

    Fouquerel, Elise; Lormand, Justin; Bose, Arindam; Lee, Hui-Ting; Kim, Grace S.; Li, Jianfeng; Sobol, Robert W.; Freudenthal, Bret D.; Myong, Sua; Opresko, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in telomere length are associated with degenerative diseases and cancer. Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been linked to both positive and negative alterations in telomere length and integrity. Here we examined how the common oxidative lesion 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanine (8-oxoG) regulates telomere elongation by telomerase. When present in the deoxynucleoside triphosphate pool as 8-oxodGTP, telomerase utilization of the oxidized nucleotide during telomere extension is mutagenic and terminates further elongation. Depletion of the enzyme that removes oxidized dNTPs, MTH1, increases telomere dysfunction and cell death in telomerase positive cancer cells harboring shortened telomeres. In contrast, a pre-existing 8-oxoG within the telomeric DNA sequence promotes telomerase activity by destabilizing G-quadruplex structure in the DNA. We show that the mechanism by which 8-oxoG arises in the telomere, either by insertion of oxidized nucleotides or by direct reaction with free radicals, dictates whether telomerase is inhibited or stimulated and thereby, mediates the biological outcome. PMID:27820808

  7. Oxidant-induced DNA damage of target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstätter, I; Hyslop, P A; Jackson, J H; Cochrane, C G

    1988-01-01

    In this study we examined the leukocytic oxidant species that induce oxidant damage of DNA in whole cells. H2O2 added extracellularly in micromolar concentrations (10-100 microM) induced DNA strand breaks in various target cells. The sensitivity of a specific target cell was inversely correlated to its catalase content and the rate of removal of H2O2 by the target cell. Oxidant species produced by xanthine oxidase/purine or phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes induced DNA breakage of target cells in proportion to the amount of H2O2 generated. These DNA strand breaks were prevented by extracellular catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase. Cytotoxic doses of HOCl, added to target cells, did not induce DNA strand breakage, and myeloperoxidase added extracellularly in the presence of an H2O2-generating system, prevented the formation of DNA strand breaks in proportion to its H2O2 degrading capacity. The studies also indicated that H2O2 formed hydroxyl radical (.OH) intracellularly, which appeared to be the most likely free radical responsible for DNA damage: .OH was detected in cells exposed to H2O2; the DNA base, deoxyguanosine, was hydroxylated in cells exposed to H2O2; and intracellular iron was essential for induction of DNA strand breaks. PMID:2843565

  8. SOS processing of unique oxidative DNA damages in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Laspia, M F; Wallace, S S

    1989-05-05

    phi X174 replicative form (RF) I transfecting DNA containing thymine glycols (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine), urea glycosides or apurinic (AP) sites was used to study SOS processing of unique DNA damages in Escherichia coli. All three lesions can be found in DNA damaged by chemical oxidants or radiation and are representative of several common structural modifications of DNA bases. When phi X DNA containing thymine glycols was transfected into host cells that were ultraviolet-irradiated to induce the SOS response, a substantial increase in survival was observed compared to transfection into uninduced hosts. Studies with mutants demonstrated that both the activated form of RecA and UmuDC proteins were required for this reactivation. In contrast, no increase in survival was observed when DNA containing urea glycosides or AP sites was transfected into ultraviolet-induced hosts. These data suggest that SOS-induced reactivation does not reflect a generalized repair system for all replication-blocking, lethal lesions but rather that the efficiency of reactivation is damage dependent. Further, we found that a significant fraction of potentially lethal thymine glycols could be ultraviolet-reactivated in an umuC lexA recA-independent manner, suggesting the existence of an as yet uncharacterized damage-inducible SOS-independent mode of thymine glycol repair.

  9. Relationship between indium exposure and oxidative damage in workers in indium tin oxide production plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yun; Chen, Gun-Ing; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to assess the relationship between indium exposure and surfactant protein and any oxidative damage in indium tin oxide (ITO)-exposed workers. The study was conducted in two typical ITO-manufacturing plants in Taiwan. One hundred and seventy manufacturing workers and 132 administrators were recruited. The geometric mean serum indium (S-In) level in the workers of the manufacturing department was 1.26 μg/l, which was significantly higher than those in the administrative department (0.72 μg/l). The S-In levels of 49 workers were higher than 3 μg/l (49/302, 16.2%), exceeding an occupational exposure limit suggested by the Japan Society for Occupational Health. Significant positive relationships were found between S-In and surfactant protein A (SP-A), and surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels. SP-A and SP-D levels were elevated significantly in the workers with moderately high indium exposure. The present study indicates a significant elevating trend of SP-A and SP-D levels in ITO-manufacturing workers, which are sensitive markers of interstitial lung disease. Though the indium exposure is not directly linked to all indicators of oxidative DNA damage, the ITO-manufacturing workplace is suggested to be related to oxidative DNA damage for the workers in the current study. Therefore, in addition to the indium exposure, there might be other occupational hazards in the ITO workplace to cause oxidative damage.

  10. Iron Partitioning and Oxidation State in Earth's Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piet, H.; Badro, J.; Nabiei, F.; Dennenwaldt, T.; Shim, S. H. D.; Cantoni, M.; Hébert, C.; Gillet, P.

    2015-12-01

    Valence state and concentrations of iron in lower mantle phases have strong effects on their chemical and physical properties. Experimental studies have reported stark differences in iron partitioning between bridgmanite (Brg) and ferropericlase (Fp) for San Carlos olivine [1] and pyrolite [2] systems. We recently performed experiments at lower mantle conditions for an Al-rich olivine system [3] and observed an iron enrichment of the silicate phase very similar to that in pyrolite. Mössbauer studies [4] have shown that in the presence of aluminum non negligible amounts of Fe3+ could be incorporated in bridgmanite explaining the observed iron enrichment. Non negligible amounts of Fe3+ in the lower mantle could influence transport properties of the phases [5]. The evaluation of ferrous and ferric iron concentrations in lower mantle mineral assemblages is then key to a thorough understanding of geophysical observations and associated mantle dynamics. We used electron energy loss spectroscopy technique to quantify the proportions of Fe2+ and Fe3+ iron in Brg and Fp phases previously synthesized from Al-rich olivine composition [3]. The oxidation state of iron in the lower mantle will be discussed as well as ensuing implications on transport properties for relevant lower mantle compositions. References [1] Sakai et al., 2009 [2] Prescher et al., 2014 [3] Piet et al., submitted [4] McCammon et al., 1996 [5] Xu et al., 1998

  11. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovic, Dejan; Yu, Yingchun

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 {mu}M Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs and PGE{sub 2} in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single or three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.

  12. Manuka honey protects middle-aged rats from oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Jubri, Zakiah; Rahim, Noor Baitee Abdul; Aan, Goon Jo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of manuka honey on the oxidative status of middle-aged rats. METHOD: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into young (2 months) and middle-aged (9 months) groups. They were further divided into two groups each, which were either fed with plain water (control) or supplemented with 2.5 g/kg body weight of manuka honey for 30 days. The DNA damage level was determined via the comet assay, the plasma malondialdehyde level was determined using high performance liquid chromatography, and the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) were determined spectrophotometrically in the erythrocytes and liver. The antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays, and the total phenolic content of the manuka was analyzed using UV spectrophotometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. RESULTS: Supplementation with manuka honey reduced the level of DNA damage, the malondialdehyde level and the glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver of both the young and middle-aged groups. However, the glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in the erythrocytes of middle-aged rats given manuka honey supplementation. The catalase activity was reduced in the liver and erythrocytes of both young and middle-aged rats given supplementation. Manuka honey was found to have antioxidant activity and to have a high total phenolic content. These findings showed a strong correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. CONCLUSIONS: Manuka honey reduces oxidative damage in young and middle-aged rats; this effect could be mediated through the modulation of its antioxidant enzyme activities and its high total phenolic content. Manuka honey can be used as an alternative supplement at an early age to improve the oxidative status. PMID:24270958

  13. Pulmonary Functions, Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Workers of a Copper Processing Industry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Khaliq, F; Singh, S; Ahmed, R; Kumar, R; Deshmukh, P S; Banerjee, B D

    2016-04-01

    Occupational exposure to excessive level of copper results in many adverse health effects. To measure pulmonary function, oxidative stress, and extent of DNA damage in workers of a copper processing industry. 30 men working in a copper processing industry and 30 men matched for age and socioeconomic status (comparison group) were included in this study. Pulmonary function test parameters were measured for all participants. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), glutathione (GSH) content in RBCs and 8-OHdG were assayed by ELISA. Extent of DNA damage in leucocytes was assayed by comet assay. Pulmonary function parameters, FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and MVV measured in workers were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those observed in the comparison group. Compared to the comparison group, MDA was significantly (p=0.002) increased in studied workers; TAOC (p=0.017), and GSH (p=0.020) were significantly lower in workers than the comparison group. There was significant DNA damage in leucocytes in workers compared to the comparison group (difference in olive tail moment p<0.001). PEFR, FEF25-75%, and MEF50% were negatively correlated with MDA. The observed DNA damage would be due to increased oxidative stress resulting from excessive exposure to copper.

  14. Fermented goat milk improves antioxidant status and protects from oxidative damage to biomolecules during anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María Jm; Boesch, Christine; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2017-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, and it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is altered during IDA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fermented goat and cow milks on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their role in protecting from oxidative damage during anemia recovery. After feeding the fermented milks-based diets (cow or goat), a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes was found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS), and a decrease in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk-based diet. In contrast, DNA strand breaks, hydroperoxides, 15-F2t-isoprostanes and protein carbonyl groups were lower in some tissues in animals fed fermented goat milk-based diet, revealing an improvement in both systemic and cellular antioxidant activity of plasma and tissues due to fermented goat milk consumption. Fermented goat milk consumption induces a protective increase in TAS together with lower oxidative damage biomarkers, revealing that the milk protects main cell bioconstituents (lipids, protein, DNA, prostaglandins) from evoked oxidative damage during anemia recovery. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Ascorbic acid and beta-carotene reduce stress-induced oxidative organ damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Esrefoglu, M; Akinci, A; Taslidere, E; Elbe, H; Cetin, A; Ates, B

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidants are potential therapeutic agents for reducing stress-induced organ damage. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid and β-carotene on oxidative stress-induced cerebral, cerebellar, cardiac and hepatic damage using microscopy and biochemistry. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: untreated control, stressed, stressed + saline, stressed + ascorbic acid and stressed + β-carotene. The rats in the stressed groups were subjected to starvation, immobilization and cold. The histopathological damage scores for the stressed and stressed + saline groups were higher than those of the control group for all organs examined. The histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels for the groups treated with antioxidants were lower than those for the stressed and stressed + saline groups. Mean tissue superoxide dismutase activities for groups that received antioxidants were higher than those for the stressed + saline group for most organs evaluated. Ascorbic acid and β-carotene can reduce stress-induced organ damage by both inhibiting lipid oxidation and supporting the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  16. Active paraplegics are protected against exercise-induced oxidative damage through the induction of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Inglés, M; Serra-Añó, P; Gambini, J; Abu-Sharif, F; Dromant, M; Garcia-Valles, R; Pareja-Galeano, H; Garcia-Lucerga, C; Gomez-Cabrera, M C

    2016-10-01

    Experimental study. Exercise improves functional capacity in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, exhaustive exercise, especially when sporadic, is linked to the production of reactive oxygen species that may have a detrimental effect on SCI. We aimed to study the effect of a single bout of exhaustive exercise on systemic oxidative stress parameters and on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in individuals with paraplegia. The study was conducted in the Physical Therapy department and the Physical Education and Sports department of the University of Valencia. Sixteen paraplegic subjects were submitted to a graded exercise test (GET) until volitional exhaustion. They were divided into active or non-active groups. Blood samples were drawn immediately, 1 and 2 h after the GET. We determined plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonylation as markers of oxidative damage. Antioxidant gene expression (catalase and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found a significant increase in plasma MDA and protein carbonyls immediately after the GET (P<0.05). This increment correlated significantly with the lactate levels. Active paraplegics showed lower levels of exercise-induced oxidative damage (P<0.05) and higher exercise-induced catalase (P<0.01) and GPx (P<0.05) gene expression after the GET. These results suggest that exercise training may be useful in SCI patients to develop systemic antioxidant defenses that may protect them against exercise-induced oxidative damage.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative damage in HL-60 cells exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Zong, Lin; Gao, Zhen; Zhu, Shunxing; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2017-03-01

    HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120μW/cm(2) power intensity for 4h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2'-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions. The results indicated a significant increase in ROS and significant decreases in mitochondrial transcription factor A, mtDNA polymerase gamma, mtDNA transcripts and mtDNA copy number in RF-exposed cells compared with those in sham-exposed control cells. In addition, there was a significant increase in 8-OHdG and a significant decrease in ATP in RF-exposed cells. The response in positive control cells exposed to gamma radiation (GR, which is also known to induce ROS) was similar to those in RF-exposed cells. Thus, the overall data indicated that RF exposure was capable of inducing mtDNA damage mediated through ROS pathway which also induced oxidative damage. Prior-treatment of RF- and GR-exposed the cells with melatonin, a well-known free radical scavenger, reversed the effects observed in RF-exposed cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Female plumage colour influences seasonal oxidative damage and testosterone profiles in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vitousek, Maren N.; Stewart, Rosemary A.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Across diverse taxa, morphological traits mediate social interactions and mate selection. Physiological constraints on signal elaboration have been widely documented, but the potential for trait display to influence physiological state remains poorly understood. We tested for the presence of causal links between ventral plumage colour—a trait known to covary with reproductive performance—and physiological measures in female North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Naturally darker swallows have lower levels of plasma oxidative damage. Females manipulated to display darker ventral plumage during reproduction rapidly decreased oxidative damage, adopting the physiological state of naturally darker individuals. These results support the presence of a social mechanism that links static plumage traits with the physiological state of their bearer during trait advertisement, long after the completion of signal development. PMID:23966597

  19. Female plumage colour influences seasonal oxidative damage and testosterone profiles in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Stewart, Rosemary A; Safran, Rebecca J

    2013-10-23

    Across diverse taxa, morphological traits mediate social interactions and mate selection. Physiological constraints on signal elaboration have been widely documented, but the potential for trait display to influence physiological state remains poorly understood. We tested for the presence of causal links between ventral plumage colour-a trait known to covary with reproductive performance-and physiological measures in female North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Naturally darker swallows have lower levels of plasma oxidative damage. Females manipulated to display darker ventral plumage during reproduction rapidly decreased oxidative damage, adopting the physiological state of naturally darker individuals. These results support the presence of a social mechanism that links static plumage traits with the physiological state of their bearer during trait advertisement, long after the completion of signal development.

  20. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  1. G6PD protects from oxidative damage and improves healthspan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega-Pereira, Sandrina; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Brioche, Thomas; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Flores, Juana M.; Viña, Jose; Serrano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly generated by cells and ROS-derived damage contributes to ageing. Protection against oxidative damage largely relies on the reductive power of NAPDH, whose levels are mostly determined by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Here, we report a transgenic mouse model with moderate overexpression of human G6PD under its endogenous promoter. Importantly, G6PD-Tg mice have higher levels of NADPH, lower levels of ROS-derived damage, and better protection from ageing-associated functional decline, including extended median lifespan in females. The G6PD transgene has no effect on tumour development, even after combining with various tumour-prone genetic alterations. We conclude that a modest increase in G6PD activity is beneficial for healthspan through increased NADPH levels and protection from the deleterious effects of ROS. PMID:26976705

  2. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Suntres, Zacharias E.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, can be formed as normal products of aerobic metabolism and can be produced at elevated rates under pathophysiological conditions. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of ROS result in significant damage to cell structure and functions. In vitro studies showed that antioxidants, when applied directly and at relatively high concentrations to cellular systems, are effective in conferring protection against the damaging actions of ROS, but results from animal and human studies showed that several antioxidants provide only modest benefit and even possible harm. Antioxidants have yet to be rendered into reliable and safe therapies because of their poor solubility, inability to cross membrane barriers, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance from cells. There is considerable interest towards the development of drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. This paper focus on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. PMID:21876690

  3. Direct contribution of obesity to oxidative damage to macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Karbownik-Lewinska, Małgorzata; Szosland, Janusz; Kokoszko-Bilska, Agnieszka; Stępniak, Jan; Zasada, Krzysztof; Gesing, Adam; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Obesity constitutes a common modifiable risk factor for certain non-communicable diseases (NCDs) associated with enhanced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to examine serum concentrations of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA), as an index of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) concentration in peripheral blood lymphocytes, as an index of nuclear DNA damage, in overweight and obese adult patients. LPO and 8-oxodG, as well as clinical and laboratory parameters, which are frequently affected by obesity, were evaluated in 58 overweight and obese adult patients, and in 20 healthy volunteers. Both LPO and 8-oxodG levels were increased in overweight and obese patients, with further increase observed with the increasing body mass index (BMI). LPO correlated positively with body mass, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, glucose, C-reactive protein and ferritin concentrations. 8-oxodG correlated positively with body mass, BMI, hip circumference and triglyceride concentration, whereas it correlated negatively with iron concentration. Expectedly, positive correlation between LPO and 8-oxodG was also found. BMI constituted the only independent determinant (predictor) of LPO in overweight and obese patients. Consistently, LPO did constitute the only independent determinant of obesity. Overweight and obesity in adults are directly associated with increased oxidative damage to macromolecules.

  4. Reproductive Benefit of Oxidative Damage: An Oxidative Stress “Malevolence”?

    PubMed Central

    Poljsak, B.; Milisav, I.; Lampe, T.; Ostan, I.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to antioxidant defenses are considered to play a major role in diverse chronic age-related diseases and aging. Here we present an attempt to synthesize information about proximate oxidative processes in aging (relevant to free radical or oxidative damage hypotheses of aging) with an evolutionary scenario (credited here to Dawkins hypotheses) involving tradeoffs between the costs and benefits of oxidative stress to reproducing organisms. Oxidative stress may be considered a biological imperfection; therefore, the Dawkins' theory of imperfect adaptation of beings to environment was applied to the role of oxidative stress in processes like famine and infectious diseases and their consequences at the molecular level such as mutations and cell signaling. Arguments are presented that oxidative damage is not necessarily an evolutionary mistake but may be beneficial for reproduction; this may prevail over its harmfulness to health and longevity in evolution. Thus, Dawkins' principle of biological “malevolence” may be an additional biological paradigm for explaining the consequences of oxidative stress. PMID:21969876

  5. Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wachsman, Eric D; Lee, Kang Taek

    2011-11-18

    Fuel cells are uniquely capable of overcoming combustion efficiency limitations (e.g., the Carnot cycle). However, the linking of fuel cells (an energy conversion device) and hydrogen (an energy carrier) has emphasized investment in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells as part of a larger hydrogen economy and thus relegated fuel cells to a future technology. In contrast, solid oxide fuel cells are capable of operating on conventional fuels (as well as hydrogen) today. The main issue for solid oxide fuel cells is high operating temperature (about 800°C) and the resulting materials and cost limitations and operating complexities (e.g., thermal cycling). Recent solid oxide fuel cells results have demonstrated extremely high power densities of about 2 watts per square centimeter at 650°C along with flexible fueling, thus enabling higher efficiency within the current fuel infrastructure. Newly developed, high-conductivity electrolytes and nanostructured electrode designs provide a path for further performance improvement at much lower temperatures, down to ~350°C, thus providing opportunity to transform the way we convert and store energy.

  6. Oxidative damage of naphthenic acids on the Eisenia fetida earthworm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Chai, Liwei; Liao, Jingqiu; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) have been gaining recognition in recent years as potentially harmful environmental contaminants. Few studies have focused on the potential ecotoxicity of NAs to terrestrial environment. In this study, the responses of antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were investigated after exposing Eisenia fetida to soil contaminated with NAs. The results indicated that NAs induced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) in the medium and high dose treatments. An increase in malondialidehyde indicated that NAs could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of comet assay of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of NAs, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, oxidative stress caused by NAs exposure induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1337-1343, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. DNA photo-oxidative damage hazard in transfection complexes.

    PubMed

    Rudiuk, Sergii; Franceschi-Messant, Sophie; Chouini-Lalanne, Nadia; Perez, Emile; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Complexes of DNA with various cationic vectors have been largely used for nonviral transfection, and yet the photochemical stability of DNA in such complexes has never been considered. We studied, for the first time, the influence of DNA complexation by a cationic lipid and polymers on the amount of damage induced by benzophenone photosensitization. The localization of benzophenone inside the hydrophobic domains formed by a cationic lipid, DOTAP (N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride), and close to DNA, locally increases the photoinduced cleavage by the reactive oxygen species generated. The same effect was found in the case of DNA complexation with an amphiphilic polymer (polynorbornenemethyleneammonium chloride). However, a decrease in DNA damage was observed in the case of complexation with a hydrophilic polymer (polyethylenimine). The DNA protection in this case was because of the absence of benzophenone hydrophobic incorporation into the complex, and to DNA compaction which decreased the probability of radical attack. These results underline the importance of the chemical structure of the nonviral transfection vector in limiting the risks of photo-oxidative damage of the complexed DNA. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Fisetin Protects DNA Against Oxidative Damage and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Lin, Huajuan; Tu, Qian; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Xican

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper tries to assess the protective effect of fisetin against •OH-induced DNA damage, then to investigate the possible mechanism. Methods: The protective effect was evaluated based on the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The possible mechanism was analyzed using various antioxidant methods in vitro, including •OH scavenging (deoxyribose degradation), •O2- scavenging (pyrogallol autoxidation), DPPH• scavenging, ABTS•+ scavenging, and Cu2+-reducing power assays. Results: Fisetin increased dose-dependently its protective percentages against •OH-induced DNA damage (IC50 value =1535.00±29.60 µM). It also increased its radical-scavenging percentages in a dose-dependent manner in various antioxidants assays. Its IC50 values in •OH scavenging, •O2- scavenging, DPPH• scavenging, ABTS•+ scavenging, and Cu2+-reducing power assays, were 47.41±4.50 µM, 34.05±0.87 µM, 9.69±0.53 µM, 2.43±0.14 µM, and 1.49±0.16 µM, respectively. Conclusion: Fisetin can effectively protect DNA against •OH-induced oxidative damage possibly via reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging approach, which is assumed to be hydrogen atom (H•) and/or single electron (e) donation (HAT/SET) pathways. In the HAT pathway, the 3’,4’-dihydroxyl moiety in B ring of fisetin is thought to play an important role, because it can be ultimately oxidized to a stable ortho-benzoquinone form. PMID:27478791

  9. Antioxidant enzymatic defenses and oxidative damage in Dentex dentex fed on different dietary macronutrient levels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Arizcun, Marta; Abellán, Emilia; Cardenete, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of antioxidant mechanisms are present in fish maintaining an adequate "oxidative balance". When this balance tilts in favor of the oxidant agents "oxidative stress" arises with detrimental effects in molecules of great biological importance. Little has been reported about the influence of different dietary energy sources on antioxidant defenses in fish. The influence of different dietary macronutrient combinations on the key antioxidant enzyme activity, the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and the possible modifications in the SOD isoenzymatic pattern were evaluated in liver, white muscle, heart and erythrocytes of common dentex (Dentex dentex). Four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate ratios (43/16/28; 43/24/4; 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were formulated. In general, neither different dietary macronutrient levels nor the interaction among them induces substantial modifications in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. Two constitutive SOD isoforms, CuZn-SOD I and Mn-SOD, were detected in the tissues analyzed in all experimental groups, independently of diet formulation, but, a third SOD isoenzyme, CuZn-SOD II seems to be induced in white muscle by higher dietary protein levels. Densitometric analyses of western blotting membranes revealed higher CuZn-SOD expression in the heart of dentex fed on lower dietary protein levels, although these differences did not correlate with the SOD activity. Finally, a direct relation exists between the lipid or protein intake level and occurrence of oxidative damage in different tissue components.

  10. Nitric oxide ameliorates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Alka; Singh, Anumeha; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2016-11-01

    In cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120, iron deficiency leads to oxidative stress with unavoidable consequences. Nitric oxide reduces pigment damage and supported the growth of Anabaena 7120 in iron-deficient conditions. Elevation in nitric oxide accumulation and reduced superoxide radical production justified the role of nitric oxide in alleviating oxidative stress in iron deficiency. Increased activities of antioxidative enzymes and higher levels of ROS scavengers (ascorbate, glutathione and thiol) in iron deficiency were also observed in the presence of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also supported the membrane integrity of Anabaena cells and reduces protein and DNA damage caused by oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency. Results suggested that nitric oxide alleviates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

  11. Pathophysiology of Bronchoconstriction: Role of Oxidatively Damaged DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bacsi, Attila; Pan, Lang; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview on the present understanding of roles of oxidative DNA damage repair in cell signaling underlying bronchoconstriction common to, but not restricted to various forms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Recent findings Bronchoconstriction is a tightening of smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi and bronchioles with consequent wheezing and shortness of breath. Key stimuli include air pollutants, viral infections, allergens, thermal and osmotic changes, and shear stress of mucosal epithelium, triggering a wide range of cellular, vascular and neural events. Although activation of nerve fibers, the role of G-proteins, protein kinases and Ca++, and molecular interaction within contracting filaments of muscle are well defined, the overarching mechanisms by which a wide range of stimuli initiate these events are not fully understood. Many, if not all, stimuli increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are signaling and oxidatively modifying macromolecules, including DNA. The primary ROS target in DNA is guanine, and 8-oxoguanine is one of the most abundant base lesions. It is repaired by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1 (OGG1) during base excision repair processes. The product, free 8-oxoG base, is bound by OGG1 with high affinity, and the complex then functions as an activator of small GTPases, triggering pathways for inducing gene expression and contraction of intracellular filaments in mast and smooth muscle cells. Summary Oxidative DNA damage repair-mediated cell activation signaling result in gene expression that “primes” the mucosal epithelium and submucosal tissues to generate mediators of airway smooth muscle contractions. PMID:26694039

  12. Evaluation of Oxidation Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A method based on the technique of dilatometry has been established to quantitatively evaluate the interfacial damage due to the oxidation in a thermal barrier coating system. Strain isolation and adhesion coefficients have been proposed to characterize the thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance based on its thermal expansion behavior. It has been found that, for a thermal barrier coating system consisting of ZrO2-8%Y2O3/FeCrAlY/4140 steel substrate, the oxidation of the bond coat and substrate significantly reduced the ceramic coating adherence, as inferred from the dilatometry measurements. The in-situ thermal expansion measurements under 30 deg C to 700 deg C thermal cycling in air showed that the adhesion coefficient, A(sub i) decreased by 25% during the first 35 oxidation cycles. Metallography showed that delamination occurred at both the ceramic/bond coat and bond coat/substrate interfaces. In addition, the strain isolation effect has been improved by increasing the FeCrAlY bond coat thickness. The strain isolation coefficient, Si, increased from about 0.04 to 0.25, as the bond coat thickness changed from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm. It may be possible to design optimum values of strain isolation and interface adhesion coefficients to achieve the best TBC performance.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in parkin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Palacino, James J; Sagi, Dijana; Goldberg, Matthew S; Krauss, Stefan; Motz, Claudia; Wacker, Maik; Klose, Joachim; Shen, Jie

    2004-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the predominant cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We previously reported that parkin-/- mice exhibit nigrostriatal deficits in the absence of nigral degeneration. Parkin has been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Loss of parkin function, therefore, has been hypothesized to cause nigral degeneration via an aberrant accumulation of its substrates. Here we employed a proteomic approach to determine whether loss of parkin function results in alterations in abundance and/or modification of proteins in the ventral midbrain of parkin-/- mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry revealed decreased abundance of a number of proteins involved in mitochondrial function or oxidative stress. Consistent with reductions in several subunits of complexes I and IV, functional assays showed reductions in respiratory capacity of striatal mitochondria isolated from parkin-/- mice. Electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross morphological abnormalities in striatal mitochondria of parkin-/- mice. In addition, parkin-/- mice showed a delayed rate of weight gain, suggesting broader metabolic abnormalities. Accompanying these deficits in mitochondrial function, parkin-/- mice also exhibited decreased levels of proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress. Consistent with these findings, parkin-/- mice showed decreased serum antioxidant capacity and increased protein and lipid peroxidation. The combination of proteomic, genetic, and physiological analyses reveal an essential role for parkin in the regulation of mitochondrial function and provide the first direct evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the absence of nigral degeneration in a genetic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

  14. Oxidative damage and redox in Lysosomal Storage Disorders: Biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Donida, Bruna; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Diaz; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Rodrigues, Daiane Grigolo Bardemaker; Marchetti, Desirèe Padilha; Ribas, Graziela; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2017-03-01

    Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD) comprise a heterogeneous group of >50 genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes that encode lysosomal enzymes, transport proteins or other gene products essential for a functional lysosomal system. As a result, abnormal accumulation of substrates within the lysosome leads to a progressive cellular impairment and dysfunction of numerous organs and systems. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of LSD remain obscure. Previous studies proposed a relationship between oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of several inborn errors of metabolism, including LSD. Considering these points, in this paper it was reviewed oxidative stress and emerging antioxidant therapy in LSD, emphasizing studies with biological samples from patients affected by this group of conditions. These studies allow presuming that metabolites accumulated in LSD cause an increase of lysosomes' number and size, which may induce excessive production of reactive species and/or deplete the tissue antioxidant capacity, leading to damage in biomolecules. In vitro and in vivo evidence showed that cell oxidative process occurs in LSD and probably contributes to the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this context, it is possible to suggest that, in the future, antioxidants could come to be used as adjuvant therapy for LSD patients.

  15. Protective Effect of Folic Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Cui, Huan; Zhang, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Chaonan; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hui; Qiu, Wenting; Zhang, Chuanwu; Yang, Zuopeng; Chen, Zhu; Mao, Guangyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although previous reports have linked DNA damage with both transmissions across generations as well as our own survival, it is unknown how to reverse the lesion. Based on the data from a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of folic acid supplementation (FAS) on DNA oxidative damage reversal. In this randomized clinical trial (RCT), a total of 450 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive folic acid (FA) 0.4 mg/day (low-FA), 0.8 mg/day (high-FA), or placebo (control) for 8 weeks. The urinary 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and creatinine (Cr) concentration at pre- and post-FAS were measured with modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. A multivariate general linear model was applied to assess the individual effects of FAS and the joint effects between FAS and hypercholesterolemia on oxidative DNA damage improvement. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02235948. Of the 438 subjects that received FA fortification or placebo, the median (first quartile, third quartile) of urinary 8-OHdG/Cr for placebo, low-FA, and high-FA groups were 58.19 (43.90, 82.26), 53.51 (38.97, 72.74), 54.73 (39.58, 76.63) ng/mg at baseline and 57.77 (44.35, 81.33), 51.73 (38.20, 71.30), and 50.65 (37.64, 76.17) ng/mg at the 56th day, respectively. A significant decrease of urinary 8-OHdG was observed after 56 days FA fortification (P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, after adjusting for some potential confounding factors, including the baseline urinary 8-OHdG/Cr, the urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentration significantly decreased after 56 days FAS [β (95% confidence interval) = −0.88 (−1.62, −0.14) and P = 0.020 for low-FA; and β (95% confidence interval) = −2.68 (−3.42, −1.94) and P < 0.001 for high-FA] in a dose-response fashion (Ptrend

  16. Supplementation with an antioxidant cocktail containing coenzyme Q prevents plasma oxidative damage induced by soccer.

    PubMed

    Tauler, Pedro; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Pujol, Pere; Drobnic, Franchek; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of an antioxidant supplementation, which includes coenzyme Q(10), on plasma and neutrophil oxidative stress and the antioxidant response after a soccer match. Nineteen voluntary male pre-professional footballers were randomly and double-blinded treated with either a multivitamin and mineral supplement (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 11). After the 3 months of supplementation, the sportsmen played a friendly soccer match of 60 min. The 3-month supplementation induced higher plasma ascorbate and coenzyme Q levels when compared to the placebo group. Antioxidant supplementation influenced plasma oxidative stress markers because they were lower in the supplemented group than in the placebo one after the match. The football match induced decreased neutrophil vitamin E levels and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities but increased glutathione reductase activity. Antioxidant diet supplementation prevented plasma oxidative damage but did not influence the neutrophil response to a football match.

  17. The Levels of Cortisol, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage in the Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Yüksel, Tuğba; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate serum cortisol, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in children who are sexual abuse victims. The study included 38 children who sustained child sexual abuse and 38 age- and gender-matched children who did not have a history of trauma. Cortisol levels reflecting the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, natural anti-oxidant coenzyme Q, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as the indicator of DNA damage were analyzed in serum samples using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the child sexual abuse group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels decreased as the time elapsed since the sexual abuse increased. Coenzyme Q level was lower in victims who sustained multiple assaults than in the victims of a single assault. Cortisol and superoxide dismutase levels were lower in the victims of familial sexual abuse. Decreases in cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as time elapsed may be an adaptation to the toxic effects of high cortisol levels over a prolonged period of time. Child sexual abuse did not result in oxidative stress and DNA damage; however, some features of sexual abuse raised the level of oxidative stress.

  18. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and DNA Repair in Female Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Annemarie; Guggenberger, Bianca; Eichberger, Lukas; Pöppelmeyer, Christina; Gschaider, Michaela; Tosevska, Anela; Mare, George; Briskey, David; Brath, Helmut; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is associated with oxidative stress which in turn can lead to DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to analyze oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA repair in regard to hyperglycemic state and diabetes duration. Female T2DM patients (n = 146) were enrolled in the MIKRODIAB study and allocated in two groups regarding their glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (HbA1c≤7.5%, n = 74; HbA1c>7.5%, n = 72). In addition, tertiles according to diabetes duration (DD) were created (DDI = 6.94±3.1 y, n = 49; DDII = 13.35±1.1 y, n = 48; DDIII = 22.90±7.3 y, n = 49). Oxidative stress parameters, including ferric reducing ability potential, malondialdehyde, oxidized and reduced glutathione, reduced thiols, oxidized LDL and F2-Isoprostane as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Damage to DNA was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and whole blood with single cell gel electrophoresis. DNA base excision repair capacity was tested with the modified comet repair assay. Additionally, mRNA expressions of nine genes related to base excision repair were analyzed in a subset of 46 matched individuals. No significant differences in oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to DNA and base excision repair capacity, neither between a HbA1c cut off />7.5%, nor between diabetes duration was found. A significant up-regulation in mRNA expression was found for APEX1, LIG3 and XRCC1 in patients with >7.5% HbA1c. Additionally, we observed higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL/HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, Framingham risk score, systolic blood pressure, BMI and lower HDL-cholesterol in the hyperglycemic group. BMI, blood pressure and blood lipid status were worse in hyperglycemic individuals. However, no major disparities regarding oxidative stress, damage to DNA and DNA repair were present which might be due to good medical treatment

  19. Protective effect of alprazolam against sleep deprivation-induced behavior alterations and oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anant; Kumar, Anil

    2008-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is considered as a risk factor for various diseases. Sleep deprivation leads to behavioral, hormonal, neurochemical and biochemical alterations in the animals. The present study was designed to explore the possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of alprazolam against 72h sleep deprivation-induced behavior alterations and oxidative damage in mice. In the present study, sleep deprivation caused anxiety-like behavior, weight loss, impaired ambulatory movements and oxidative damage as indicated by increase in lipid peroxidation, nitrite level and depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in sleep-deprived mice brain. Treatment with alprazolam (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, ip) significantly improved behavioral alterations. Biochemically, alprazolam treatment significantly restored depleted reduced glutathione, catalase activity, reversed raised lipid peroxidation and nitrite level. Combination of flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg) and picrotoxin (0.5 mg/kg) with lower dose of alprazolam (0.25mg/kg) significantly antagonized protective effect of alprazolam. However, combination of muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) with alprazolam (0.25 mg/kg, ip) potentiated protective effect of alprazolam. On the basis of these results, it might be suggested that alprazolam might produce protective effect by involving GABAergic system against sleep deprivation-induced behavior alterations and related oxidative damage.

  20. Calculation of the stabilization energies of oxidatively damaged guanine base pairs with guanine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masayo; Kino, Katsuhito; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Takanobu; Komori, Rie; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    DNA is constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses. Damaged DNA can cause mutations, which may increase the risk of developing cancer and other diseases. G:C-C:G transversions are caused by various oxidative stresses. 2,2,4-Triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz), guanidinohydantoin (Gh)/iminoallantoin (Ia) and spiro-imino-dihydantoin (Sp) are known products of oxidative guanine damage. These damaged bases can base pair with guanine and cause G:C-C:G transversions. In this study, the stabilization energies of these bases paired with guanine were calculated in vacuo and in water. The calculated stabilization energies of the Ia:G base pairs were similar to that of the native C:G base pair, and both bases pairs have three hydrogen bonds. By contrast, the calculated stabilization energies of Gh:G, which form two hydrogen bonds, were lower than the Ia:G base pairs, suggesting that the stabilization energy depends on the number of hydrogen bonds. In addition, the Sp:G base pairs were less stable than the Ia:G base pairs. Furthermore, calculations showed that the Oz:G base pairs were less stable than the Ia:G, Gh:G and Sp:G base pairs, even though experimental results showed that incorporation of guanine opposite Oz is more efficient than that opposite Gh/Ia and Sp.

  1. Second-generation locking mechanisms and ethylene oxide sterilization reduce tibial insert backside damage in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Michael G; Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of polyethylene quality and locking mechanism on damage to the nonarticulating (backside) surface of retrieved tibial inserts in total knee arthroplasty. Inserts with peripheral capture (PC) locking mechanisms and ethylene oxide (EtO)-sterilized polyethylene were hypothesized to prevent major backside damage. A total of 156 inserts were sorted by locking mechanism and sterilization method and analyzed by damage scoring methods. Ninety-seven specimens exhibited burnishing. Significant positive linear correlations were observed between damage score and age in vivo for all combinations, but damage occurred at a significantly lower rate for second-generation PC implants with EtO sterilization. Most specimens in this group were undamaged (46/72), with others exhibiting only burnishing. Sex, body mass index, and weight did not influence backside damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The basic chemistry of exercise-induced DNA oxidation: oxidative damage, redox signaling, and their interplay.

    PubMed

    Cobley, James N; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Malone, John K

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise increases reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation. This phenomenon is associated with two major outcomes: (1) redox signaling and (2) macromolecule damage. Mechanistic knowledge of how exercise-induced redox signaling and macromolecule damage are interlinked is limited. This review focuses on the interplay between exercise-induced redox signaling and DNA damage, using hydroxyl radical ((·)OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as exemplars. It is postulated that the biological fate of H2O2 links the two processes and thus represents a bifurcation point between redox signaling and damage. Indeed, H2O2 can participate in two electron signaling reactions but its diffusion and chemical properties permit DNA oxidation following reaction with transition metals and (·)OH generation. It is also considered that the sensing of DNA oxidation by repair proteins constitutes a non-canonical redox signaling mechanism. Further layers of interaction are provided by the redox regulation of DNA repair proteins and their capacity to modulate intracellular H2O2 levels. Overall, exercise-induced redox signaling and DNA damage may be interlinked to a greater extent than was previously thought but this requires further investigation.

  3. Oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage, a possible reason for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Md Bayejid; Islam, Md Rakibul; Begum, Firoza; Kabir, Yearul; Howlader, M Zakir Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm DNA damage is an important factor in the etiology of male infertility. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage with the pathogenesis of male infertility. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 subjects, including fertile men (n=25) and infertile men (n=41) matched by age. Seminal malondialdehyde (MDA), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PHP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated by spectrophotometric and ELISA based methods and the association with the sperm parameters was assessed. Results: The percentages of motile and morphologically normal cells were significantly lower (p < 0.001, p <0.001, respectivly) in infertile men. Seminal levels of MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG were significantly higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p=0. 02, respectively) while the SOD and TAS were significantly lower (p=0. 0003, p< 0.001, respectively) in infertile men. Sperm parameters were negatively correlated with MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG while positively correlated with SOD and TAS. A positive correlation of 8-OHdG with MDA and PHP and a negative correlation with TAS and SOD were also found. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage might have a critical effect on the etiology of infertility. Therefore, evaluation of oxidative status, antioxidant defense systems and DNA damage, together with sperm parameters might be a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26568756

  4. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in horses naturally infected with Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Radakovic, M; Davitkov, D; Borozan, S; Stojanovic, S; Stevanovic, J; Krstic, V; Stanimirovic, Z

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in horses infected by Theileria equi. Initial screening of 110 horses with duplex PCR enabled the selection of 30 infected horses with T. equi and 30 free of infection (control). Specimens from the 60 horses were further analysed by determining the following oxidative stress parameters: extent of haemolysis (EH), plasma free haemoglobin (PHb), catalase (CAT), Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), paraoxonase (PON1), nitrite (NO2(-)), total nitrate and nitrite (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and free thiol groups (-SH). In addition, relative distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1-LDH5) activity and the DNA-damaging effects of T. equi infection were evaluated. Compared to control horses, horses infected with T. equi had significantly higher SOD1 activities (P <0.05) and PHb (P <0.01), NO2(-) (P <0.001), NOx (P <0.05) and MDA concentrations (P <0.001), and significantly lower EH (P <0.001), CAT (P <0.01) and PON1 (P <0.001) activities, and thiol group concentrations (P <0.05). The comet assay demonstrated significantly increased DNA damage in T. equi infected cells compared to non-infected cells (P <0.001). Infected horses had significantly increased LDH5 isoenzyme activities (P <0.05). There was higher production of ROS/RNS in T. equi-infected horses, which resulted in changes in osmotic fragility, damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, haemolysis and hepatocellular damage. Oxidative stress in horses naturally infected with T. equi could contribute to the pathogenesis of the infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of oxidative DNA damage by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: ethanethiol prevents artifactual generation of oxidized DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Jenner, A; England, T G; Aruoma, O I; Halliwell, B

    1998-04-15

    Analysis of oxidative damage to DNA bases by GC-MS enables identification of a range of base oxidation products, but requires a derivatization procedure. However, derivatization at high temperature in the presence of air can cause 'artifactual' oxidation of some undamaged bases, leading to an overestimation of their oxidation products, including 8-hydroxyguanine. Therefore derivatization conditions that could minimize this problem were investigated. Decreasing derivatization temperature to 23 degrees C lowered levels of 8-hydroxyguanine, 8-hydroxyadenine, 5-hydroxycytosine and 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil measured by GC-MS in hydrolysed calf thymus DNA. Addition of the reducing agent ethanethiol (5%, v/v) to DNA samples during trimethylsilylation at 90 degrees C also decreased levels of these four oxidized DNA bases as well as 5-hydroxyuracil. Removal of guanine from hydrolysed DNA samples by treatment with guanase, prior to derivatization, resulted in 8-hydroxyguanine levels (54-59 pmol/mg of DNA) that were significantly lower than samples not pretreated with guanase, independent of the derivatization conditions used. Only hydrolysed DNA samples that were derivatized at 23 degrees C in the presence of ethanethiol produced 8-hydroxyguanine levels (56+/-8 pmol/mg of DNA) that were as low as those of guanase-pretreated samples. Levels of other oxidized bases were similar to samples derivatized at 23 degrees C without ethanethiol, except for 5-hydroxycytosine and 5-hydroxyuracil, which were further decreased by ethanethiol. Levels of 8-hydroxyguanine, 8-hydroxyadenine and 5-hydroxycytosine measured in hydrolysed calf thymus DNA by the improved procedures described here were comparable with those reported previously by HPLC with electrochemical detection and by GC-MS with prepurification to remove undamaged base. We conclude that artifactual oxidation of DNA bases during derivatization can be prevented by decreasing the temperature to 23 degrees C, removing air from the

  6. Oxidative damage induced in Vicia faba by coke plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiang; Lv, Yongkang

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated toxic impacts of coke plant wastewater over a concentration gradient of COD( Cr) 40-640 mg/l on malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in roots and leaves of Vicia faba. MDA levels and SOD activities were significantly increased at all concentrations both in roots and leaves of Vicia faba; CAT and POD activities were significantly enhanced in roots at low concentrations and were significantly decreased at high concentrations (COD(Cr) 320 and 640 mg/l for CAT; COD( Cr) 640 mg/l for POD). In leaves, CAT and POD activities remained enhanced at all concentration and did not show significant difference at COD( Cr) 640 mg/l for CAT and COD(Cr) 40, 640 mg/l for POD. These results suggest that coke plant wastewater can cause oxidative damage in roots and leaves of Vicia faba and root enzymes seemed more sensitive to the wastewater.

  7. Low-damage direct patterning of silicon oxide mask by mechanical processing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To realize the nanofabrication of silicon surfaces using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigated the etching of mechanically processed oxide masks using potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. The dependence of the KOH solution etching rate on the load and scanning density of the mechanical pre-processing was evaluated. Particular load ranges were found to increase the etching rate, and the silicon etching rate also increased with removal of the natural oxide layer by diamond tip sliding. In contrast, the local oxide pattern formed (due to mechanochemical reaction of the silicon) by tip sliding at higher load was found to have higher etching resistance than that of unprocessed areas. The profile changes caused by the etching of the mechanically pre-processed areas with the KOH solution were also investigated. First, protuberances were processed by diamond tip sliding at lower and higher stresses than that of the shearing strength. Mechanical processing at low load and scanning density to remove the natural oxide layer was then performed. The KOH solution selectively etched the low load and scanning density processed area first and then etched the unprocessed silicon area. In contrast, the protuberances pre-processed at higher load were hardly etched. The etching resistance of plastic deformed layers was decreased, and their etching rate was increased because of surface damage induced by the pre-processing. These results show that etching depth can be controlled by controlling the etching time through natural oxide layer removal and mechanochemical oxide layer formation. These oxide layer removal and formation processes can be exploited to realize low-damage mask patterns. PMID:24948891

  8. Oxidatively induced DNA damage and its repair in cancer.

    PubMed

    Dizdaroglu, Miral

    2015-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by endogenous and exogenous reactive species. DNA lesions resulting from this type of damage are mutagenic and cytotoxic and, if not repaired, can cause genetic instability that may lead to disease processes including carcinogenesis. Living organisms possess DNA repair mechanisms that include a variety of pathways to repair multiple DNA lesions. Mutations and polymorphisms also occur in DNA repair genes adversely affecting DNA repair systems. Cancer tissues overexpress DNA repair proteins and thus develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions before they become toxic is a major mechanism for development of resistance to therapy, affecting patient survival. Accumulated evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker for patient response to therapy. Thus, knowledge of DNA protein expressions in normal and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. DNA repair proteins constitute targets for inhibitors to overcome the resistance of tumors to therapy. Inhibitors of DNA repair for combination therapy or as single agents for monotherapy may help selectively kill tumors, potentially leading to personalized therapy. Numerous inhibitors have been developed and are being tested in clinical trials. The efficacy of some inhibitors in therapy has been demonstrated in patients. Further development of inhibitors of DNA repair proteins is globally underway to help eradicate cancer.

  9. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance.

  10. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C.; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A.; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  11. Oxidative damage to rat brain in iron and copper overloads.

    PubMed

    Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Semprine, Jimena; Fuda, Julián; Torti, Horacio; Boveris, Alberto; Repetto, Marisa G

    2014-08-01

    This study reports on the acute brain toxicity of Fe and Cu in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 g) that received 0 to 60 mg kg(-1) (ip) FeCl2 or CuSO4. Brain metal contents and time-responses were determined for rat survival, in situ brain chemiluminescence and phospholipid and protein oxidation products. Metal doses hyperbolically defined brain metal content. Rat survival was 91% and 60% after Fe and Cu overloads. Brain metal content increased from 35 to 114 μg of Fe per g and from 3.6 to 34 μg of Cu per g. Brain chemiluminescence (10 cps cm(-2)) increased 3 and 2 times after Fe and Cu overloads, with half maximal responses (C50) of 38 μg of Fe per g of brain and 15 μg of Cu per g of brain, and with half time responses (t1/2) of 12 h for Fe and 20 h for Cu. Phospholipid peroxidation increased by 56% and 31% with C50 of 40 μg of Fe per g and 20 μg of Cu per g and with t1/2 of 9 h and 14 h. Protein oxidation increased by 45% for Fe with a C50 of 40 μg of Fe per g and 18% for Cu with a C50 of 10 μg of Cu per g and a t1/2 of 12 h for both metals. Fe and Cu brain toxicities are likely mediated by Haber-Weiss type HO˙ formation with subsequent oxidative damage.

  12. Poly(ADP-ribose) protects vascular smooth muscle cells from oxidative DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Luo, Tao; Cui, Shijun; Gu, Yongquan; Bian, Chunjing; Chen, Yibin; Yu, Xiaochun; Wang, Zhonggao

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo death during atherosclerosis, a widespread cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that oxidative damage occurs in VSMCs and induces atherosclerosis. Here, we analyzed oxidative damage repair in VSMCs and found that VSMCs are hypersensitive to oxidative damage. Further analysis showed that oxidative damage repair in VSMCs is suppressed by a low level of poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a key post-translational modification in oxidative damage repair. The low level of PARylation is not caused by the lack of PARP-1, the major poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activated by oxidative damage. Instead, the expression of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase, PARG, the enzyme hydrolyzing poly(ADP-ribose), is significantly higher in VSMCs than that in the control cells. Using PARG inhibitor to suppress PARG activity facilitates oxidative damage-induced PARylation as well as DNA damage repair. Thus, our study demonstrates a novel molecular mechanism for oxidative damage-induced VSMCs death. This study also identifies the use of PARG inhibitors as a potential treatment for atherosclerosis. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(6): 354-359] PMID:25748172

  13. Inhibition of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Could Enhance 1,4-Benzoquinone-Induced Oxidative Damage in K562 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Meng; Yang, Wenwen; Sun, Fengmei; Xu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is a chemical contaminant widespread in industrial and living environments. The oxidative metabolites of benzene induce toxicity involving oxidative damage. Protecting cells and cell membranes from oxidative damage, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) maintains the reduced state of glutathione (GSH). This study aims to investigate whether the downregulation of G6PD in K562 cell line can influence the oxidative toxicity induced by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ). G6PD was inhibited in K562 cell line transfected with the specific siRNA of G6PD gene. An empty vector was transfected in the control group. Results revealed that G6PD was significantly upregulated in the control cells and in the cells with inhibited G6PD after they were exposed to BQ. The NADPH/NADP and GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly lower in the cells with inhibited G6PD than in the control cells at the same BQ concentration. The relative reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and DNA oxidative damage were significantly increased in the cell line with inhibited G6PD. The apoptotic rate and G2 phase arrest were also significantly higher in the cells with inhibited G6PD and exposed to BQ than in the control cells. Our results suggested that G6PD inhibition could reduce GSH activity and alleviate oxidative damage. G6PD deficiency is also a possible susceptible risk factor of benzene exposure. PMID:27656260

  14. Protectivity of blue honeysuckle extract against oxidative human endothelial cells and rat hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Palíková, Irena; Valentová, Katerina; Oborná, Ivana; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2009-08-12

    The effect of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle) phenolic fraction (18.5% anthocyanins) on cell viability and against oxidative damage in low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), in rat microsomes and in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), was tested. The phenolic fraction was nontoxic to rat hepatocytes and HUVEC at tested concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) and time intervals up to 24 h inclusive. Phenolic fraction inhibited rat liver microsome peroxidation, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH), with IC(50) values of 160 +/- 20 microg/mL. The fraction at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL delayed LDL oxidation, induced by Cu(2+), by 130 +/- 20%, 200 +/- 30%, and 400 +/- 10%, respectively. The treatment of HUVEC with oxidatively modified LDL induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, and resulted in lower formazan formation from 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) uptake, most pronounced for 200 microg/mL (24 h oxidation) after 2 h of incubation. The protective effect of the phenolic fraction against cell damage caused by oxLDL was noted at 0.1 microg/mL for HUVEC and against tBH at 1000 microg/mL for both HUVEC and hepatocytes. The observed protective effects were probably due to the antioxidant properties of L. caerulea constituents, mainly anthocyanins. Microsome peroxidation and LDL oxidation inhibition results provide promising perspectives into the prevention of some oxidative stress-associated diseases. Other data are important in in vitro systems but seem to be accidental in vivo.

  15. The BWR lower head response during a large-break LOCA with core damage

    SciTech Connect

    Alammar, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Some of the important issues in severe accident management guidelines development deal with estimating the time to lower head vessel failure after core damage and the time window available for water injection that would prevent vessel failure. These issues are obviously scenario dependent, but bounding estimates are needed. The scenario chosen for this purpose was a design-basis accident (DBA) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) because it was one of the contributors to the Oyster Creek containment failure frequency. Oyster Creek is a 1930-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)-2. The lower head response models have improved since the Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2) vessel investigation project (VIP) results became known, specifically the addition of rapid- and slow-cooling models. These mechanisms were found to have taken place in the TMI-2 lower head during debris cooldown and were important contributors in preventing vessel failure.

  16. Aging-associated oxidized albumin promotes cellular senescence and endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos; Alique, Matilde; Navalmoral, Estefanía; Noci, Maria-Victoria; Bohorquez-Magro, Lourdes; Carracedo, Julia; Ramírez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of oxidized proteins with aging have been considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, it is unclear whether oxidized albumin, which is the most abundant serum protein, induces endothelial damage. The results of this study indicated that with aging processes, the levels of oxidized proteins as well as endothelial microparticles release increased, a novel marker of endothelial damage. Among these, oxidized albumin seems to play a principal role. Through in vitro studies, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin exhibited an increment of endothelial damage markers such as adhesion molecules and apoptosis levels. In addition, albumin oxidation increased the amount of endothelial microparticles that were released. Moreover, endothelial cells with increased oxidative stress undergo senescence. In addition, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin shown a reduction in endothelial cell migration measured by wound healing. As a result, we provide the first evidence that oxidized albumin induces endothelial injury which then contributes to the increase of cardiovascular disease in the elderly subjects.

  17. Aging-associated oxidized albumin promotes cellular senescence and endothelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Carlos; Alique, Matilde; Navalmoral, Estefanía; Noci, Maria-Victoria; Bohorquez-Magro, Lourdes; Carracedo, Julia; Ramírez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of oxidized proteins with aging have been considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, it is unclear whether oxidized albumin, which is the most abundant serum protein, induces endothelial damage. The results of this study indicated that with aging processes, the levels of oxidized proteins as well as endothelial microparticles release increased, a novel marker of endothelial damage. Among these, oxidized albumin seems to play a principal role. Through in vitro studies, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin exhibited an increment of endothelial damage markers such as adhesion molecules and apoptosis levels. In addition, albumin oxidation increased the amount of endothelial microparticles that were released. Moreover, endothelial cells with increased oxidative stress undergo senescence. In addition, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin shown a reduction in endothelial cell migration measured by wound healing. As a result, we provide the first evidence that oxidized albumin induces endothelial injury which then contributes to the increase of cardiovascular disease in the elderly subjects. PMID:27042026

  18. Association of serum bilirubin with oxidant damage of human atherosclerotic plaques and the severity of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Domenico; Ciofani, Giuliano; Pierdomenico, Sante Donato; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Ucchino, Sante; Davì, Giovanni

    2017-09-25

    Bilirubin has protective effects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases hypothetically due to its antioxidant-antilipoperoxidative properties. Thus, we investigated whether serum bilirubin is associated with oxidant damage, namely lipid peroxidation, of human atherosclerotic plaques and the severity of atherosclerosis. In this regard, we correlated the levels of serum total bilirubin (STB), direct (conjugated) bilirubin (SDB) and indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin (SIB) with those of fluorescent damage products of lipid peroxidation (FDPL) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) of 32 endarterectomy-derived carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, we compared the levels of serum bilirubin and plaque lipoperoxides between two groups of patients of the study population with different severity of atherosclerosis as judged by the carotid stenosis degree, i.e., <90% (group A, n = 23) and ≥90% (group B, n = 9). Remarkably, the levels of STB were strongly inversely correlated with those of plaque FDPL (rS = -0.70, P < 0.0001) and LOOH (rS = -0.66, P < 0.0001), as were those of SIB (FDPL: rS = -0.68, P < 0.0001; LOOH: rS = -0.63, P < 0.0001). SDB had a weaker association with plaque FDPL (rS = -0.41, P < 0.05) and LOOH (rS = -0.35, P < 0.05). Moreover, the levels of STB, SDB and SIB were lower and those of plaque lipoperoxides higher in group B than in group A, pointing to the association of serum bilirubin and plaque oxidant burden with the severity of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, lowered serum bilirubin is associated with oxidant damage of human atherosclerotic plaques and the severity of atherosclerosis.

  19. The effect of melatonin against oxidative damage during total-body irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Koc, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Emin Buyukokuroglu, M; Bakan, Nuri

    2003-08-01

    Melatonin has been reported to participate in the regulation of a number of important physiological and pathological processes. Melatonin, which is a powerful endogenous antioxidant, may play a role in the prevention of oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with melatonin (5 mg kg(-1) and 10 mg kg(-1)) on gamma-radiation-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes after total-body irradiation with a single dose of 5 Gy. Total-body irradiation resulted in a significant increase in plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels. Melatonin alone increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. Erythrocyte and plasma MDA levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with melatonin (5 or 10 mg kg(-1)) were significantly lower than those in rats that were not pretreated. There was no significant difference between the effects of 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) on plasma MDA activities and CAT activities. However, erythrocyte MDA levels showed a dose-dependent decrease, while GSH-Px activities increased with dose. Our study suggests that melatonin administered prior to irradiation may protect against the damage produced by radiation by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and by scavenging free radicals generated by ionizing radiation.

  20. Relationship between oxidative damage and colon carcinogenesis in irradiated rats: influence of dietary countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Nancy; Sanders, Lisa; Wu, Guoyao; Davidson, Laurie; Ford, John; Braby, Leslie; Carroll, Raymond; Chapkin, Robert; Lupton, Joanne

    Galactic cosmic radiation not only kills colon epithelial cells, it also generates a cellular environment that can lead to oxidative DNA damage. We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil and pectin protects against initiation of colon cancer by enhancing apoptotic removal of cells with oxidative DNA adducts (8-OHdG), and that apoptosis was highly correlated with colon cancer suppression. We hypothesized this diet combination will mitigate the oxidative damage occurring from radiation and thus reduce colon cancer. The experiment tested the effect of radiation (± 1 Gy, 1 GeV/n Fe ions) on redox balance, apoptosis, and 8-OHdG levels at initiation and colon tumor incidence. Diets contained fish oil or corn oil, and cellulose or pectin (2x2 factorial design). Rats received the diets 3 wk before irradiation (half of the rats), followed by azoxymethane (AOM) injections 10 and 17 d later (all rats). Just prior to AOM injection, irradiated fish oil/pectin rats had a more reduced redox state in colonocytes (lower GSSG, P < 0.05; higher GSH/GSSG ratio), which was not observed in irradiated corn oil/cellulose rats. A shift to a more oxidative state (lower GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, P < 0.05) occurred between 6 and 12 h after AOM in the fish oil/pectin irradiated rats. Changes in redox balance likely contributed to lower 8-OHdG levels in colonocytes from rats consuming the fish oil diets. Dietary pectin enhanced (P < 0.04) apoptosis induction 12 h after AOM injection in irradiated rats. Similar to the 8-OHdG results, colon tumor incidence was 42% higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed corn oil vs fish oil diets. In summary, fish oil/pectin diets created a more reduced colon environment in irradiated rats that was evident 10 d after irradiation. The ensuing oxidative shift in those rats after AOM injection may have enhanced apoptosis; effectively eliminating more DNA damaged cells. Thus, inclusion of fish oil and pectin in diets for long-duration space flights should help

  1. Solar Cycle comparison of Nitric Oxide in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, P. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Thurairajah, B.; Yonker, J. D.; Venkataramani, K.; Russell, J. M.; Hervig, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key minor constituent in the lower thermosphere. Of particular importance is its role in the energy balance in that altitude region. NO is produced through the reaction of excited atomic nitrogen with molecular oxygen. Thus, its production is very sensitive to those energy sources able to break the strong molecular nitrogen bond. These include solar soft X-rays and precipitating energetic particles. NO emits efficiently in the infrared and is an important cooling mechanism in the lower thermosphere. The abundance of NO is thus both a direct response to recent energy deposition as well as a key mechanism by which the upper atmosphere releases that energy. The concentration of NO should show a close relation to solar energy input. In this poster, we analyze the NO observations from the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) instrument. The SOFIE instrument was launched on-board the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite on April 25, 2007. It is currently in its sixth year of operation. SOFIE is a 16 channel differential absorption radiometer using the solar occultation technique to measure ice and environmental properties at a range of altitudes, and in particular the mesopause region. One of the constituents measured by SOFIE is NO in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere to about 130 km. The AIM orbit and the solar occultation technique confine observations to latitudes of 65 to 85 degrees in each hemisphere and varying with season. Here, we present the SOFIE observations and discuss its relationship with current levels of solar X-ray irradiance. We will further estimate the change in NO concentration (mixing ratios and densities) for the previous and current solar minimum. The statistics for this change will be presented for northern, equatorial and southern latitudes. We take the period of Jul 2008 - Jun 2009 to represent the current solar minimum between the solar cycles 23 and 24 and the period of Jan - Dec 1996 to

  2. Iron release and membrane damage in erythrocytes exposed to oxidizing agents, phenylhydrazine, divicine and isouramil.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrali, M; Signorini, C; Ciccoli, L; Comporti, M

    1992-01-01

    Mouse erythrocytes were incubated with oxidizing agents, phenylhydrazine, divicine and isouramil. With all the oxidants a rapid release of iron in a desferrioxamine (DFO)-chelatable form was seen and it was accompanied by methaemoglobin formation. If the erythrocytes were depleted of GSH by a short preincubation with diethyl maleate, the release of iron was accompanied by lipid peroxidation and, subsequently, haemolysis. GSH depletion by itself did not induce iron release, methaemoglobin formation, lipid peroxidation or haemolysis. Rather, the fate of the cell in which iron is released depended on the intracellular availability of GSH. In addition, iron release was higher in depleted cells than in native ones, suggesting a role for GSH in preventing iron release when oxidative stress is imposed by the oxidants. Iron release preceded lipid peroxidation. The latter was prevented when the erythrocytes were preloaded with DFO in such a way (preincubation with 10 mM-DFO) that the intracellular concentration was equivalent to that of the released iron, but not when the intracellular DFO was lower (preincubation with 0.1 mM-DFO). Extracellular DFO did not affect lipid peroxidation and haemolysis, suggesting again that the observed events occur intracellularly (intracellular chelation of released iron). The relevance of iron release from iron complexes in the mechanisms of cellular damage induced by oxidative stress is discussed. PMID:1637315

  3. Ferricytochrome c protects mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Erik; Fabian, Marian; Robinson, Neal C; Musatov, Andrej

    2010-11-30

    An excess of ferricytochrome c protects purified mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and bound cardiolipin from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative modification. All of the peroxide-induced changes within cytochrome c oxidase, such as oxidation of Trp(19,IV) and Trp(48,VIIc), partial dissociation of subunits VIa and VIIa, and generation of cardiolipin hydroperoxide, no longer take place in the presence of ferricytochrome c. Furthermore, ferricytochrome c suppresses the yield of H(2)O(2)-induced free radical detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy within cytochrome c oxidase. These protective effects are based on two mechanisms. The first involves the peroxidase/catalase-like activity of ferricytochrome c, which results in the decomposition of H(2)O(2), with the apparent bimolecular rate constant of 5.1±1.0M(-1)s(-1). Although this value is lower than the rate constant of a specialized peroxidase, the activity is sufficient to eliminate H(2)O(2)-induced damage to cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of an excess of ferricytochrome c. The second mechanism involves ferricytochrome c-induced quenching of free radicals generated within cytochrome c oxidase. These results suggest that ferricytochrome c may have an important role in protection of cytochrome c oxidase and consequently the mitochondrion against oxidative damage.

  4. The Benefits of Administering Folic Acid in Order to Combat the Oxidative Damage Caused by Binge Drinking in Adolescent Rats.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, M L; Rua, R M; Nogales, F; Díaz-Castro, J; Murillo, M L; Carreras, O

    2016-05-01

    An important mechanism in alcohol-induced injury is biomolecular oxidative damage. Folic acid is supplied to chronic alcoholic patients in order to prevent this situation, as this is the main vitamin deficiency that they suffer from. Acute alcohol exposure, such as binge drinking, is one of the most widespread ethanol consumption models practiced by adolescents. However, there is no evidence of folic acid body profiles after this pattern of consumption. Four groups of adolescent rats were used: control, alcohol (exposed to intraperitoneal binge drinking), control folic acid-supplemented group and alcohol folic acid-supplemented group. Folic acid levels, protein, lipid and DNA oxidative damage in serum, and liver glutathione (GSH) and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were measured. Binge-drinking rats had higher lipids and DNA oxidation levels. They also had lower hepatic GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratio. Folic acid supplementation to binge-drinking rats does not change the serum protein oxidation but decreases lipid and DNA oxidation. Finally, GSH increased to control levels with folic acid supplementation. Folic acid supplementation is an economic and efficient therapy against the oxidative damage in lipids and mainly in DNA stability caused by binge drinking during adolescence. It has also been demonstrated that folic acid increases GSH levels, improving the antioxidant status and revealing a hepatoprotective effect during binge drinking. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of DNA damage by using hairpin molecular beacon probes and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Lu, Qian; Tong, Ying; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2012-09-15

    A hairpin molecular beacon tagged with carboxyfluorescein in combination with graphene oxide as a quencher reagent was used to detect the DNA damage by chemical reagents. The fluorescence of molecular beacon was quenched sharply by graphene oxide; while in the presence of its complementary DNA the quenching efficiency decreased because their hybridization prevented the strong adsorbability of molecular beacon on graphene oxide. If the complementary DNA was damaged by a chemical reagent and could not form intact duplex structure with molecular beacon, more molecular beacon would adsorb on graphene oxide increasing the quenching efficiency. Thus, damaged DNA could be detected based on different quenching efficiencies afforded by damaged and intact complementary DNA. The damage effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl and three metabolites of styrene such as mandelieaeids, phenylglyoxylieaeids and epoxystyrene on DNA were studied as models. The method for detection of DNA damage was reliable, rapid and simple compared to the biological methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and diaphragm muscle*,**

    PubMed Central

    de Carlos, Samanta Portão; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Patricio, Patrícia Damiani; Graciano, Thaise; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; Valença, Samuel; Chiappa, Adriana Meira Guntzel; Cipriano, Gerson; de Souza, Claudio Teodoro; Chiappa, Gaspar Rogério da Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative damage (lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and carbonylation) and inflammation (expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin [p-AMPK and p-mTOR, respectively]) in the lung parenchyma and diaphragm muscles of male C57BL-6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 7, 15, 30, 45, or 60 days. METHODS: Thirty-six male C57BL-6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 6/group): a control group; and five groups exposed to CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control mice, CS-exposed mice presented lower body weights at 30 days. In CS-exposed mice (compared with control mice), the greatest differences (increases) in TBARS levels were observed on day 7 in diaphragm-muscle, compared with day 45 in lung tissue; the greatest differences (increases) in carbonyl levels were observed on day 7 in both tissue types; and sulfhydryl levels were lower, in both tissue types, at all time points. In lung tissue and diaphragm muscle, p-AMPK expression exhibited behavior similar to that of TBARS. Expression of p-mTOR was higher than the control value on days 7 and 15 in lung tissue, as it was on day 45 in diaphragm muscle. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CS exposure produces oxidative damage, not only in lung tissue but also (primarily) in muscle tissue, having an additional effect on respiratory muscle, as is frequently observed in smokers with COPD. PMID:25210964

  7. A study of pyrimidine base damage in relation to oxidative stress and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, H; Patrzyc, H B; Budzinski, E E; Freund, H G; Dawidzik, J B; Rodabaugh, K J; Box, H C

    2009-01-01

    Background: A long-standing hypothesis is that oxidative stress is a risk factor for cancer. Support for this hypothesis comes from observations of higher levels of oxidative damage in the DNA of WBC of cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Methods: Two generally overlooked types of DNA damage, the formamide modification and the thymine glycol modification, both derived from pyrimidine bases, were assayed as markers of oxidative stress. Damage levels were measured in the DNA of WBC of ovarian cancer patients and of healthy controls. Results: The levels of both modifications were higher in ovarian cancer patients than in healthy controls although in the case of the formamide modification age could not be ruled out as a factor. Conclusion: Our results in combination with other published measurements of oxidative DNA damage support the hypothesis that oxidative damage, on average, is higher in WBC of cancer patients than in healthy controls. PMID:19603029

  8. Rice protein improves oxidative stress by regulating glutathione metabolism and attenuating oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Jia-Hou; Xu, Tong; Zhou, Ai-Shen; Yang, Hong-Kun

    2012-10-05

    To evaluate the effects of rice protein (RP) on glutathione metabolism and oxidative damage. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were fed diets containing casein and RP without cholesterol for 3weeks. Plasma and liver lipid levels, hepatic accumulation of total glutathione (T-GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) were measured. In the liver, the total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), mRNA levels of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and glutamate cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM), and the activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) were also measured. T-AOC, GCLC and GCLM mRNA levels, antioxidative enzyme activities (T-SOD and CAT) and glutathione metabolism related enzyme activities (γ-GCS, GST, GR and GSHPx) were effectively stimulated by RP feeding compared to casein, and RP significantly reduced the hepatic accumulation of MDA and PCO in rats. These results indicate that lipid-lowering activity was induced by RP feeding. The present study demonstrates that RP improves oxidative stress primarily through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms, reflected by enhancing the antioxidative status and attenuating the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. These results suggest that RP can prevent hyperlipidemia in part through modifying glutathione metabolism, and sulfur amino acids may be the main modulator of this antioxidative mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Update on Oxidative Damage to Spermatozoa and Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Opuwari, Chinyerum S.; Henkel, Ralf R.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mandatory mediators for essential cellular functions including the function of germ cells (oocytes and spermatozoa) and thereby the fertilization process. However, the exposure of these cells to excessive levels of oxidative stress by too high levels of ROS or too low levels of antioxidative protection will render these cells dysfunctional thereby failing the fertilization process and causing couples to be infertile. Numerous causes are responsible for the delicate bodily redox system being out of balance and causing disease and infertility. Many of these causes are modifiable such as lifestyle factors like obesity, poor nutrition, heat stress, smoking, or alcohol abuse. Possible correctable measures include foremost lifestyle changes, but also supplementation with antioxidants to scavenge excessive ROS. However, this should only be done after careful examination of the patient and establishment of the individual bodily antioxidant needs. In addition, other corrective measures include sperm separation for assisted reproductive techniques. However, these techniques have to be carried out very carefully as they, if applied wrongly, bear risks of generating ROS damaging the germ cells and preventing fertilization. PMID:26942204

  10. Biological oxidative damage by carbon nanotubes: fingerprint or footprint?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Bello, Dhimiter; Schmidt, Daniel F; Pal, Anoop K; Rogers, Eugene J

    2012-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received much attention for performance and toxicity, but vary substantially in terms of impurity type and content, morphology, and surface activity. This study determined the decrease of antioxidant capacity, defined as biological oxidative damage (BOD), of CNTs-exposed serum. The variability in several physicochemical properties of CNTs and their links to BOD elicited in human serum were explored. Tremendous variation in transition metal type and content (104-fold), specific surface area (SSA, nine-fold), and BOD were observed. Mass specific BOD (mBOD) varied from 0.006-0.187 μmol TEU mg(-1), whereas surface area specific BOD (sBOD) varied from 0.068-0.42 μmol TEU m(-2). The sBOD increased in a stepwise fashion from ∼0.1-0.32 μmol TEU m(-2) for tubes with outer diameter less than 10 nm. The mBOD and sBOD may be useful denominators of surface activity and impurity content and assist in designing safer CNTs.

  11. Nitroxide stable radicals protect beating cardiomyocytes against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Samuni, A.; Winkelsberg, D.; Pinson, A.; Hahn, S.M.; Mitchell, J.B.; Russo, A. )

    1991-05-01

    The protective effect of stable nitroxide radicals against oxidative damage was studied using cardiomyocyte cultures obtained from newborn rats. Monolayered cardiomyocytes were exposed to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the effect on spontaneous beating and leakage of LDH was determined. Hydrogen peroxide irreversibly blocked rhythmic beating and resulted in a significant membrane injury as shown by release of LDH. The injury was prevented by catalase which removes H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and by cell-permeable, metal-chelating agents such as desferrioxamine or bipyridine. In contrast, reagents which are excluded from the cell such as superoxide dismutase or DTPA did not protect the cells against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Five- and six-membered ring, stable nitroxide radicals which have previously been shown to chemically act as low-molecular weight, membrane-permeable, SOD-mimetic compounds provided full protection. The nitroxides prevented leakage of LDH and preserved normal cardiomyocyte contractility, presumably by intercepting intracellular O{sub 2}-radicals. Alternatively, protection may result through nitroxides reacting with reduced transition metal ions or by detoxifying secondary organic radicals.

  12. Gentamicin induced nitric oxide-related oxidative damages on vestibular afferents in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Hwa; Park, Sook Kyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Ki Ryung; Kim, Myung Gu; Chung, Won-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Gentamicin is a well-known ototoxic aminoglycoside. However, the mechanism underlying this ototoxicity remains unclear. One of the mechanisms which may be responsible for this ototoxicity is excitotoxic damage to hair cells. The overstimulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors increases the production of nitric oxide (NO), which induces oxidative stress on hair cells. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this excitotoxicity, we treated guinea pigs with gentamicin by placing gentamicin (0.5 mg) pellets into a round window niche. After the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment, the numbers of hair cells in the animals were counted with a scanning electron microscope. We then performed immunostaining using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine antibodies. The number of hair cells in the animals was found to decrease significantly after 7 days. nNOS and iNOS expression levels were observed to have increased 3 days after treatment. Nitrotyrosine was expressed primarily at the calyceal afferents of the type I hair cells 3 days after treatment. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed positive hair cells 3 days after treatment. Our results suggest that inner ear treatment with gentamicin may upregulate nNOS and iNOS to induce oxidative stress in the calyceal afferents of type I hair cells, via nitric oxide overproduction.

  13. Induction of oxidative stress and oxidative damage in rat glial cells by acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Kamendulis, L M; Jiang, J; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J E

    1999-08-01

    Chronic treatment of rats with acrylonitrile (ACN) resulted in a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas). While the exact mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unresolved, non-genotoxic and possibly tumor promotion modes of action appear to be involved in the induction of glial tumors. Recent studies have shown that ACN induced oxidative stress selectively in rat brain in a dose-responsive manner. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in a rat glial cell line, a target tissue, and in cultured rat hepatocytes, a non-target tissue of ACN carcinogenicity. Glial cells and hepatocytes were treated for 1, 4 and 24 h with sublethal concentrations of ACN. ACN induced an increase in oxidative DNA damage, as evidenced by increased production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in glial cells but not in rat hepatocytes. Hydroxyl radical formation following ACN treatment was also selectively increased in glial cells. Following 1 and 4 h of ACN exposure, the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione, as well as the activities of the enzymatic antioxidants catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased in the rat glial cells. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of glutathione peroxidase were not affected by ACN treatment in rat glial cells. No changes in any of these biomarkers of oxidative stress were observed in hepatocytes treated with ACN. These data indicate that ACN selectively induced oxidative stress in rat glial cells.

  14. Nitric oxide control of lower genitourinary tract functions: a review.

    PubMed

    Burnett, A L

    1995-06-01

    It is apparent that evolving concepts of the regulatory basis for functions in the pelvis must take into account the role exerted by nitric oxide. A recently characterized messenger molecule, nitric oxide has been associated with numerous physiologic processes. Intense investigations of this molecule have extended its importance to several genitourinary functions. Penile erection, micturition, peristalsis of the male excurrent duct system, contractile properties of the prostate, and lumbosacral spinal cord neurotransmission are all functions that may transpire under some degree of control by nitric oxide. Impotence, urinary obstruction, or ejaculatory problems, in turn, may represent alterations of nitric oxide production or action. The strategic manipulation of nitric oxide or its mechanism of action, possibly by pharmacologic means, may restore or produce desired functional effects. These possibilities, therefore, suggest that the advancing knowledge of nitric oxide in the genitourinary tract may be of enormous clinical value in the future.

  15. Nitric oxide alleviates oxidative damage induced by high temperature stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Bavita, A; Shashi, B; Navtej, S B

    2012-05-01

    Effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) was examined in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, C 306 (heat tolerant) and PBW 550 (comparatively heat susceptible) to study the extent of oxidative injury and activities of antioxidant enzyme in relation to high temperature (HT) stress. HT stress resulted in a marked decrease in membrane thermostability (MTS) and 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) cell viability whereas content of lipid peroxide increased in both the cultivars. The tolerant cultivar C 306 registered less damage to cellular membranes compared to PBW 550 under HT stress. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaicol peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased with HT in both the cultivars. Following treatment with SNP, activities of all antioxidant enzymes further increased in correspondence with an increase in MTS and TTC. Apparently, lipid peroxide content was reduced by SNP more in shoots of heat tolerant cultivar C 306 indicating better protection over roots under HT stress. The up-regulation of the antioxidant system by NO possibly contributed to better tolerance against HT induced oxidative damage in wheat.

  16. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, N.B.R.; Rangel, M.P.; Martins, V.; Hage, M.; Gelain, D.P.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Grisolia, C.K.; Parra, E.R.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days) significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26200231

  17. Dose-Dependent Protective and Inductive Effects
of Xanthohumol on Oxidative DNA Damage in
Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Daniel O; Oliveira, Rui; Johansson, Björn; Guido, Luís F

    2016-03-01

    The effect of xanthohumol, a prenylflavonoid isolated from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), on Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA oxidative damage and viability was evaluated. Yeast cultures under oxidative stress, induced by H2O2, displayed stronger growth in the presence of 5 mg/L of xanthohumol than cultures with only H2O2. Likewise, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay was significantly lower in cells co-incubated with xanthohumol and H2O2. Accordingly, fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein in cells treated with H2O2 and xanthohumol was considerably lower than in cells exclusively treated with H2O2, indicative of a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism and consequent formation of oxidation products, as detected by mass spectrometry. However, at concentrations above 5 mg/L, xanthohumol elicited an opposite effect, leading to a slower growth rate and significant increase in DNA damage. A yeast yap1 deletion mutant strain sensitive to oxidative stress grew more slowly in the presence of at least 5 mg/L of xanthohumol than cultures of the wild type, suggesting that xanthohumol toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress. This evidence provides further insight into the impact of xanthohumol on yeast cells, supporting dose-dependent antioxidant/antigenotoxic and prooxidant/genotoxic effects.

  18. Dose-Dependent Protective and Inductive Effects
of Xanthohumol on Oxidative DNA Damage in
Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Daniel O.; Oliveira, Rui; Johansson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Summary The effect of xanthohumol, a prenylflavonoid isolated from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), on Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA oxidative damage and viability was evaluated. Yeast cultures under oxidative stress, induced by H2O2, displayed stronger growth in the presence of 5 mg/L of xanthohumol than cultures with only H2O2. Likewise, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay was significantly lower in cells co-incubated with xanthohumol and H2O2. Accordingly, fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein in cells treated with H2O2 and xanthohumol was considerably lower than in cells exclusively treated with H2O2, indicative of a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism and consequent formation of oxidation products, as detected by mass spectrometry. However, at concentrations above 5 mg/L, xanthohumol elicited an opposite effect, leading to a slower growth rate and significant increase in DNA damage. A yeast yap1 deletion mutant strain sensitive to oxidative stress grew more slowly in the presence of at least 5 mg/L of xanthohumol than cultures of the wild type, suggesting that xanthohumol toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress. This evidence provides further insight into the impact of xanthohumol on yeast cells, supporting dose-dependent antioxidant/antigenotoxic and prooxidant/genotoxic effects. PMID:27904394

  19. Resveratrol Protects Sepsis-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Liver and Kidney of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Sevtap; Şahin, Tevfik Tolga; Bacanlı, Merve; Taner, Gökçe; Başaran, Arif Ahmet; Aydın, Mehtap; Başaran, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Background The increases of free radicals have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, which leads to multiple-organ dysfunction syndromes. The uses of antioxidants as a complementary tool in the medical care of oxidative stress-related diseases have attracted attention of researchers. Resveratrol (RV) has suggested being antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects in various experimental models and clinical settings. Aims This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of RV on oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in the liver and kidney tissues of Wistar albino rats. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Four experimental groups consisting of eight animals for each was created using a total of thirty-two male Wistar albino rats. Sham group was given 0.5 mL of saline intra-peritoneal (ip) only following laparatomy. Sepsis group was given 0.5 mL saline ip only following the induction of sepsis. RV-treated group was given a dose of 100 mg/kg ip RV in 0.5 mL saline following laparatomy. RV-treated sepsis group was given 100 mg/kg ip RV in 0.5 mL saline following the induction of sepsis. A model of sepsis was created by cecal ligation and puncture technique. In the liver and kidney tissues, oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) and a proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)), were evaluated spectrophotometrically and DNA damage was determined by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) technique using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. Results In the RV-treated sepsis group, the levels of MDA and TNF-alpha were lower and GSH levels, SOD and GPX activities were higher than in the septic rats (p<0.05). RV treatment significantly reduced the sepsis-induced oxidative DNA damage in the liver and kidney cells (p<0.05). Conclusion It is suggested that RV treatment

  20. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  1. Polymorphic trial in oxidative damage of arsenic exposed Vietnamese

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihara, Junko; Soejima, Mikiko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Koda, Yoshiro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takeshita, Haruo

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic causes DNA damage and changes the cellular capacity for DNA repair. Genes in the base excision repair (BER) pathway influence the generation and repair of oxidative lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) Ser326Cys; apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) Asp148Glu; X-ray and repair and cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg280His and Arg399Gln in the BER genes were analyzed, and the relationship between these 4 SNPs and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations of 100 Vietnamese population exposed to arsenic was investigated. Individuals with hOGG1 326Cys/Cys showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those with 326 Ser/Cys and Ser/Ser. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, heterozygous subjects showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those homozygous for Asp/Asp. Moreover, global ethnic comparison of the allelic frequencies of the 4SNPs was performed in 10 population and previous reported data. The mutant allele frequencies of hOGG1 Ser326Cys in the Asian populations were higher than those in the African and Caucasian populations. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, Caucasians showed higher mutant frequencies than those shown by African and Asian populations. Among Asian populations, the Bangladeshi population showed relatively higher mutant allele frequencies of the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism. This study is the first to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity in a worldwide distribution of SNPs (hOGG1 Ser326Cys, APE1 Asp148Glu, XRCC1 Arg280His, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln) in the BER genes. - Highlights: > We showed that hOGG1 and APE1 are associated with urinary 8-OHdG concentrations. > We showed the existence of inter-ethnic differences in hOGG1 and APE1 polymorphism. > These polymorphisms is a genetic marker of susceptibility to oxidative stress.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a model of stimulant use, oxidative damage, and executive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Winhusen, Theresa; Walker, Jessica; Brigham, Gregory; Lewis, Daniel; Somoza, Eugene; Theobald, Jeff; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit stimulant use increases oxidative stress and oxidative stress has been found to be associated with deficits in memory, attention, and problem-solving. Objective To test a model of the association among oxidative DNA damage, a severe form of oxidative stress, and stimulant use, executive function, and stimulant-use outcomes. Methods Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained peripheral blood samples from methamphetamine-dependent (n=45) and cocaine-dependent (n=120) participants. The blood samples were submitted to a comet assay to assess oxidative DNA damage. Executive Dysfunction was assessed with the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), which is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of executive dysfunction, disinhibition, and apathy. Stimulant-use measures included self-reported stimulant use and stimulant urine drug screens (UDS). Results While more recent cocaine use (<30 days abstinence) was associated with greater oxidative DNA damage (W=2.4, p<.05, d=.36), the results did not support the hypothesized relationship between oxidative DNA damage, executive dysfunction, and stimulant-use outcomes for cocaine-dependent patients. Support for the model was found for methamphetamine-dependent patients, with oxidative DNA damage significantly greater in methamphetamine-dependent patients with executive dysfunction (W=2.2, p<.05, d=.64) and with executive dysfunction being a significant mediator of oxidative DNA damage and stimulant use during active treatment (ab=0.089, p<.05). As predicted, neither disinhibition nor apathy were significant mediators of oxidative damage and future stimulant use. Conclusion These findings provide preliminary support for a model in which oxidative damage resulting from methamphetamine use results in executive dysfunction which in turn increases vulnerability to future stimulant use. PMID:23808868

  3. Magnesium sulfate affords protection against oxidative damage during severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Abad, C; Vargas, F R; Zoltan, T; Proverbio, T; Piñero, S; Proverbio, F; Marín, R

    2015-02-01

    MgSO4 is the drug of choice to prevent seizures in preeclamptic pregnant women, but its mechanism of action at the molecular level remains an enigma. In previous works, we found that treating preeclamptic women with MgSO4 reduces the lipid peroxidation of their red blood cell membranes to normal levels and leads to a significant reduction in the osmotic fragility of the red blood cells that is increased during preeclampsia. In addition, the increase in lipid peroxidation of red cell membranes induced by the Fenton reaction does not occur when MgSO4 is present. The antioxidant protection of MgSO4 was evaluated in UV-C-treated red blood cell ghosts and syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes by measuring their level of lipid peroxidation. The interaction of MgSO4 with free radicals was assessed for its association with the galvinoxyl radical, the quenching of H2O2-induced chemiluminescence and its effect on sensitized peroxidation of linoleic acid. a) MgSO4 protected red blood cell ghosts and the syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of normotensive pregnant women against lipid peroxidation induced by UV-C irradiation. b) MgSO4 does not seem to scavenge the galvinoxyl free radical. c) The quenching of the H2O2-enhanced luminol chemiluminescence is increased by the presence of MgSO4. d) The peroxidation of linoleic acid is significantly blocked by MgSO4. MgSO4 may provide protection against oxidative damage of plasma membranes through interactions with alkyl radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exogenous nitric oxide improves salt tolerance during establishment of Jatropha curcas seedlings by ameliorating oxidative damage and toxic ion accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Cibelle Gomes; Miranda, Rafael de Souza; Alencar, Nara Lídia M; Costa, José Hélio; Prisco, José Tarquinio; Gomes-Filho, Enéas

    2017-05-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oilseed species that is considered an excellent alternative energy source for fossil-based fuels for growing in arid and semiarid regions, where salinity is becoming a stringent problem to crop production. Our working hypothesis was that nitric oxide (NO) priming enhances salt tolerance of J. curcas during early seedling development. Under NaCl stress, seedlings arising from NO-treated seeds showed lower accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) than those salinized seedlings only, which was consistent with a better growth for all analyzed time points. Also, although salinity promoted a significant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and membrane damage, the harmful effects were less aggressive in NO-primed seedlings. The lower oxidative damage in NO-primed stressed seedlings was attributed to operation of a powerful antioxidant system, including greater glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA) contents as well as catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities in both endosperm and embryo axis. Priming with NO also was found to rapidly up-regulate the JcCAT1, JcCAT2, JcGR1 and JcGR2 gene expression in embryo axis, suggesting that NO-induced salt responses include functional and transcriptional regulations. Thus, NO almost completely abolished the deleterious salinity effects on reserve mobilization and seedling growth. In conclusion, NO priming improves salt tolerance of J. curcas during seedling establishment by inducing an effective antioxidant system and limiting toxic ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The ATM cofactor ATMIN protects against oxidative stress and accumulation of DNA damage in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Kanu, Nnennaya; Penicud, Kay; Hristova, Mariya; Wong, Barnaby; Irvine, Elaine; Plattner, Florian; Raivich, Gennadij; Behrens, Axel

    2010-12-03

    Progressive accumulation of DNA damage is causally involved in cellular senescence and organismal aging. The DNA damage kinase ATM plays a central role in maintaining genomic stability. ATM mutations cause the genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia, which is primarily characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cancer susceptibility. Although the importance of ATM function to protect against oxidative DNA damage and during aging is well described, the mechanism of ATM activation by these stimuli is not known. Here we identify ATM interactor (ATMIN) as an essential component of the ATM signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress and aging. Embryos lacking ATMIN (atmin(Δ/Δ)) died in utero and showed increased numbers of cells positive for phosphorylated histone H2aX, indicative of increased DNA damage. atmin(Δ/Δ) mouse embryonic fibroblasts accumulated DNA damage and prematurely entered senescence when cultured at atmospheric oxygen levels (20%), but this defect was rescued by addition of an antioxidant and also by culturing cells at physiological oxygen levels (3%). In response to acute oxidative stress, atmin(Δ/Δ) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed slightly lower levels of ATM phosphorylation and reduced ATM substrate phosphorylation. Conditional deletion of ATMIN in the murine nervous system (atmin(ΔN)) resulted in reduced numbers of dopaminergic neurons, as does ATM deficiency. ATM activity was observed in old, but not in young, control mice, but aging-induced ATM signaling was impaired by ATMIN deficiency. Consequently, old atmin(ΔN) mice showed accumulation of DNA damage in the cortex accompanied by gliosis, resulting in increased mortality of aging mutant mice. These results suggest that ATMIN mediates ATM activation by oxidative stress, and thereby ATMIN protects the aging brain by preventing accumulation of DNA damage.

  6. Ballet dancers cardiorespiratory, oxidative and muscle damage responses to classes and rehearsals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Cunha, Giovani Dos Santos; Perin, Diana; Martins, Jocelito B; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Schaun, Maximiliano I; De Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe and compare ballet dancers' cardiorespiratory responses, muscle damage and oxidative stress levels during a ballet class (practice of isolated ballet exercises performed with barre/hand-rail support and across-the-floor movements to improve technical skills) and rehearsal (practice of ballet choreography involving technical-artistic skills to improve dancers' performance for shows). The 12 advanced female ballet dancers undertook three exercise sessions: maximum effort test, class and rehearsal. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were continuously measured. Lactate was determined before 15 min and after class and rehearsal. Blood was sampled pre, post and 48 h after class and rehearsal for creatine kinase (CK), lipid peroxides (LPO) and glutathione analysis (GSSG/GSH). Class was of lower intensity than rehearsal as shown by VO2, HR and lactate values: VO2 (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)): 14.5±2.1 vs. 19.1±1.7 (p < 0.001); HR (bpm.min(-1)): 145.7±17.9 vs. 174.5±13.8 (p < 0.001); lactate (mmol.L(-1)): 4.2±1.1 vs. 5.5±2.7 (p = 0.049). CK (IU) increased following class and rehearsal, remaining high 48 h after: class (pre = 109.3±48.5; post = 144±60; 48 h = 117.2±64.6); rehearsal (pre = 78.6±52.1; post = 122±70.7; 48 h = 104.9±89.5). LPO (µM) increased from pre-class (1.27±0.19) to post-class (1.41±0.19) and went down after 48 h (1.20±0.22). No LPO time-course changes followed the rehearsal. GSSG/GSH decreased 48 h after class and rehearsal. Greater increases in LPO post-class suggest it promotes CK release by an oxidative membrane-damage mechanism. Physiological increases of LPO and CK in class indicate it prepares the dancers for exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage during rehearsals. Ballet dancers' muscle damage and oxidative stress responses seem not to be dependent on exercise intensity based on VO2 responses.

  7. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol.

  8. Amelioration of Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Myocardium by Withania somnifera Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Ahmed, Romana; Tanvir, E. M.; Afroz, Rizwana; Paul, Sudip; Gan, Siew Hua; Alam, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective role of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLEt) on isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) administered to rats for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and serum lipid profiles, as well as the activities of some marker enzymes. In addition to these diagnostic markers, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) in the myocardium. However, oral pretreatment (100 mg/kg b.w.) with WSLEt for 4 weeks elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of cTnI, lipid profiles, and marker enzymes. The levels of LPO products were also significantly decreased. Elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes were also observed in rats pretreated with WSLEt. As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. We conclude that WSLEt confers some protection against oxidative damage in ISO-induced MI in rats. PMID:26539517

  9. Cadmium induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in the hepatopancreas of Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    Xia, Liping; Chen, Sihan; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Ying, Xueping; Peng, Xue

    2016-07-01

    Even trace amounts of cadmium (Cd), a non-essential metal, are known to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Here we investigated the relationship between cadmium ion (Cd(2+)) exposure and oxidative damage and apoptosis in the hepatopancreas of the clam Meretrix meretrix. Clams were exposed to different concentrations of Cd(2+) (0, 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 mg L(-1)) for 5 days. We monitored both antioxidant enzyme activity, including that of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GPx), and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Apoptosis of hepatopancreatic cells was detected by DNA laddering and AO/EB double fluorescent staining. The results show that the rate of apoptotis, MDA levels, and caspase-3 activity, increased with Cd(2+) concentration, whereas GPx activity and the ratio of GSH/GSSG, decreased. SOD and CAT enzyme activity first increased, then decreased, with increasing Cd(2+) concentration; peak activity of these enzymes was recorded in the 3 mg L(-1) Cd(2+)-treatment group. These results show that Cd-induced oxidative damage can both induce, and aggravate, apoptosis in the hepatopancreatic cells of clams, even at Cd(2+) concentrations far below the semi-lethal dose for adult clams. The observed changes in caspase-3 activity enhanced significantly at lower Cd(2+) concentrations, indicating that caspase-3 is a suitable biomarker for heavy metal pollution, especially cadmium pollution, in marine organisms.

  10. [Role of rotenone in mitochondrial oxidative damage and the underlying mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Lu, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Rotenone is one of the typical inhibitors of the complex I on the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Numerous studies showed when applied to live animals or cells, rotenone could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS augment, and thus oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Through exploring the process of ROS generation in mitochondria, the relationship between rotenone and mitochondrial ROS generation and the role of rotenone in DNA damage, we elucidated the mechanisms of rotenone induced-mitochondrial oxidative damage. At the same time, we attempted to explore the mtDNA damage and the mutation induced by rotenone.

  11. Modification of radiation-induced oxidative damage in liposomal and microsomal membrane by eugenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. N.; Lathika, K. M.; Mishra, K. P.

    2006-03-01

    Radiation-induced membrane oxidative damage, and their modification by eugenol, a natural antioxidant, was investigated in liposomes and microsomes. Liposomes prepared with DPH showed decrease in fluorescence after γ-irradiation, which was prevented significantly by eugenol and correlated with magnitude of oxidation of phospholipids. Presence of eugenol resulted in substantial inhibition in MDA formation in irradiated liposomes/microsomes, which was less effective when added after irradiation. Similarly, the increase in phospholipase C activity observed after irradiation in microsomes was inhibited in samples pre-treated with eugenol. Results suggest association of radio- oxidative membrane damage with alterations in signaling molecules, and eugenol significantly prevented these membrane damaging events.

  12. Influence of several sources and amounts of iron on DNA, lipid and protein oxidative damage during anaemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; García, Yenela; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Alférez, María J M; Hijano, Silvia; Ramos, Aurora; Campos, Margarita S

    2013-12-01

    The study was designed to assess the effect of several Fe amounts and sources on haematological parameters, DNA, lipid and protein oxidative damage during the course of Fe-deficiency anaemia recovery. Peripheral DNA damage was assessed using an alkaline comet assay. The brain, liver, erythrocyte and duodenal mucosa lipid peroxidation and protein damage were assessed in control and anaemic rats after Fe repletion with three different sources (FeSO4, haem Fe, and FeSO4 + haem Fe) and amounts (45, 12, and 31 mg Fe/kg diet) of Fe: F diet, H diet or C diet, respectively. After supplying the diets, the haematological parameters studied were recovered; being remarkable is the haemoglobin increase. The DNA damage was lower in rats with the H diet, as revealed by the percentage of DNA in head, tail and Olive tail moment compared in rats with the F (P < 0.001) and C (P < 0.05) diets. Lipid peroxidation was similar in all the tissues, except in the duodenal mucosa which was lower with H and C diets (P < 0.001). The animals fed with C diet showed lower oxidative protein damage in the duodenal mucosa (P < 0.001) and was also lower in the liver and erythrocytes for H and C diets (P < 0.001). No differences were found in the brain under our experimental conditions. In conclusion, Fe supplementation with low doses of haem Fe or combined forms of non-haem and haem Fe (FeSO4 + haem) are efficient in restoring the impaired haematological parameters and prevent the evoked oxidative stress associated with Fe supplements.

  13. Investigating the Variable Durability of Malta's Lower Globigerina Limestone to Soluble-Salt Damage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zammit, Tano; Cassar, JoAnn

    2014-05-01

    Investigating the Variable Durability of Malta's Lower Globigerina Limestone to Soluble-Salt Damage. Tano Zammit, JoAnn Cassar Department of the Built Heritage, Faculty for the Built Environment. University of Malta. The millenary use of Lower Globigerina Limestone (LGL) as a building stone in the Maltese Islands, and its export to other Mediterranean countries in the past, is confirmation of its validity. Notwithstanding the diminishing economic importance of this once principal resource of the local building industry, the ever growing need for conservation of Malta's rich patrimony of archaeological/historical buildings and structures built of this stone, emphasise the need for on-going research particularly that investigating its variable durability. The research under discussion here forms part of a wider research programme on the characterisation of this locally very important resource. In this investigation the durability of the LGL is considered in terms of two main climatic features, namely a temperate Mediterranean climate involving i) a salt-laden marine environment together with ii) relatively short spans of heavy precipitations alternating with longer periods of virtual drought. It is virtually impossible to all but the quarry owners to identify 'good' from 'bad' quality stone simply through the visual observation, as LGL is a fine-grained, white to yellow, homogenous limestone. On the other hand, it is empirically known that LGL is a moderately weak limestone, characterized by the predominance of the mineral calcite (86 - 99%) and by a high total porosity (up to 40%) of which, over 85%, is microporosity below 5µm. In theory, these physical properties should render such stone-type particularly susceptible to deterioration involving a) mechanisms of capillary salt-laden moisture accumulation and movement together with, b) thermodynamic changes of soluble-salts during dissolution and crystallization cycles. The adopted research methodology investigating

  14. Lower-defect graphene oxide nanoribbons from multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Amanda L; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Sinitskii, Alexander; Sun, Zhengzong; Tour, James M

    2010-04-27

    An improved method is described for the production of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) via longitudinal unzipping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The method produces GONRs with fewer defects and/or holes on the basal plane, maintains narrow ribbons <100 nm wide, and maximizes the high aspect ratio. Changes in the reaction conditions such as acid content, time, and temperature were investigated. The new, optimized method which introduces a second, weaker acid into the system, improves the selectivity of the oxidative unzipping presumably by in situ protection of the vicinal diols formed on the basal plane of graphene during the oxidation, and thereby prevents their overoxidation and subsequent hole generation. The optimized GONRs exhibit increased electrical conductivity over those chemically reduced nanoribbons produced by previously reported procedures.

  15. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Muniz, Juan F. McCauley, Linda; Scherer, J.; Lasarev, M.; Koshy, M.; Kow, Y.W.; Nazar-Stewart, Valle; Kisby, G.E.

    2008-02-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects.

  16. Involvement of oxidatively damaged DNA and repair in cancer development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Tudek, Barbara; Winczura, Alicja; Janik, Justyna; Siomek, Agnieszka; Foksinski, Marek; Oliński, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage and DNA repair may mediate several cellular processes, like replication and transcription, mutagenesis and apoptosis and thus may be important factors in the development and pathology of an organism, including cancer. DNA is constantly damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) directly and also by products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which form exocyclic adducts to DNA bases. A wide variety of oxidatively-generated DNA lesions are present in living cells. 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) is one of the best known DNA lesions due to its mutagenic properties. Among LPO-derived DNA base modifications the most intensively studied are ethenoadenine and ethenocytosine, highly miscoding DNA lesions considered as markers of oxidative stress and promutagenic DNA damage. Although at present it is impossible to directly answer the question concerning involvement of oxidatively damaged DNA in cancer etiology, it is likely that oxidatively modified DNA bases may serve as a source of mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and are involved in aging (i.e. they may be causal factors responsible for these processes). To counteract the deleterious effect of oxidatively damaged DNA, all organisms have developed several DNA repair mechanisms. The efficiency of oxidatively damaged DNA repair was frequently found to be decreased in cancer patients. The present work reviews the basis for the biological significance of DNA damage, particularly effects of 8-oxoGua and ethenoadduct occurrence in DNA in the aspect of cancer development, drawing attention to the multiplicity of proteins with repair activities. PMID:20589166

  17. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; Hao, Junran; Shen, Xiao Li; Yang, Xuan; Li, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun

    2013-04-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by

  18. Frying oils with high natural or added antioxidants content, which protect against postprandial oxidative stress, also protect against DNA oxidation damage.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol A; Haro, Carmen; Tormos, Carmen; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M; Cerdá, Concha; Sáez, Guillermo T; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Camargo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Using sunflower oil as frying oil increases postprandial oxidative stress, which is considered the main endogenous source of DNA oxidative damage. We aimed to test whether the protective effect of virgin olive oil and oil models with added antioxidants against postprandial oxidative stress may also protect against DNA oxidative damage. Twenty obese people received four breakfasts following a randomized crossover design consisting of different oils [virgin olive oil (VOO), sunflower oil (SFO), and a mixed seed oil (SFO/canola oil) with added dimethylpolysiloxane (SOX) or natural antioxidants from olives (SOP)], which were subjected to 20 heating cycles. We observed the postprandial increase in the mRNA levels of p53, OGG1, POLB, and GADD45b after the intake of the breakfast prepared with SFO and SOX, and an increase in the expression of MDM2, APEX1, and XPC after the intake of the breakfast prepared with SFO, whereas no significant changes at the postprandial state were observed after the intake of the other breakfasts (all p values <0.05). We observed lower 8-OHdG postprandial levels after the intake of the breakfast prepared with VOO and SOP than after the intake of the breakfast prepared with SFO and SOX (all p values <0.05). Our results support the beneficial effect on DNA oxidation damage of virgin olive oil and the oil models with added antioxidants, as compared to the detrimental use of sunflower oil, which induces p53-dependent DNA repair pathway activation.

  19. Sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress causes membrane damage, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and alters major metabolic pathways in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-10-01

    Nitrite salts are present as contaminants in drinking water and in the food and feed chain. In this work, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) on human erythrocytes was studied under in vitro conditions. Incubation of erythrocytes with 0.1-10.0 mM NaNO2 at 37 °C for 30 min resulted in dose dependent decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl and amino groups. It was accompanied by increase in hemoglobin oxidation and aggregation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and hydrogen peroxide levels suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Activities of all major erythrocyte antioxidant defense enzymes were decreased in NaNO2-treated erythrocytes. The activities of enzymes of glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways were also compromised. However, there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase and also AMP deaminase, a marker of erythrocyte oxidative stress. Thus, the major metabolic pathways of cell were altered. Erythrocyte membrane damage was suggested by lowered activities of membrane bound enzymes and confirmed by electron microscopic images. These results show that NaNO2-induced oxidative stress causes hemoglobin denaturation and aggregation, weakens the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism, damages the cell membrane and also perturbs normal energy metabolism in erythrocytes. This nitrite-induced damage can reduce erythrocyte life span in the blood.

  20. Oxidative stress damage-associated molecular signaling pathways differentiate spontaneous preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Eryn H; Behnia, Faranak; Boldogh, Istvan; Saade, George R; Taylor, Brandie D; Kacerovský, Marian; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-02-01

    In women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), increased oxidative stress may accelerate premature cellular senescence, senescence-associated inflammation and proteolysis, which may predispose them to rupture. We demonstrate mechanistic differences between preterm birth (PTB) and PPROM by revealing differences in fetal membrane redox status, oxidative stress-induced damage, distinct signaling pathways and senescence activation. Oxidative stress-associated fetal membrane damage and cell cycle arrest determine adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as spontaneous PTB and PPROM. Fetal membranes and amniotic fluid samples were collected from women with PTB and PPROM. Molecular, biochemical and histologic markers were used to document differences in oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme status, DNA damage, secondary signaling activation by Ras-GTPase and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and activation of senescence between membranes from the two groups. Oxidative stress was higher and antioxidant enzymes were lower in PPROM compared with PTB. PTB membranes had minimal DNA damage and showed activation of Ras-GTPase and ERK/JNK signaling pathway with minimal signs of senescence. PPROM had higher numbers of cells with DNA damage, prosenescence stress kinase (p38 MAPK) activation and signs of senescence. Samples were obtained retrospectively after delivery. The markers of senescence that we tested are specific but are not sufficient to confirm senescence as the pathology in PPROM. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and senescence are characteristics of fetal membranes from PPROM, compared with PTB with intact membranes. PTB and PPROM arise from distinct pathophysiologic pathways. Oxidative stress and oxidative stress-induced cellular damages are likely determinants of the mechanistic signaling pathways and phenotypic outcome. This study is supported by developmental funds to Dr R. Menon from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at The University of

  1. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan.

  2. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID

  3. Effects of Military activity and habitat quality on DNA damage and oxidative stress in the largest population of the Federally threatened gopher tortoise.

    PubMed

    Theodorakis, Christopher W; Adams, S Marshall; Smith, Chandra; Rotter, Jamie; Hay, Ashley; Eslick, Joy

    2017-10-03

    Department of Defense lands are essential for providing important habitat for threatened, endangered, and at-risk species (TER-S). However, there is little information on the effects of military-related contaminants on TER-S on these lands in field situations. Thus, this study examined genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) on Camp Shelby, MS-the largest known population of this species, which is listed as an "endangered species" in Mississippi and a "threatened species" by the U.S. government. Blood was collected from tortoises at 19 different sites on the base with different levels of habitat quality (high-quality and low-quality habitat) and military activity (high, low, and no military activity). Oxidative stress was quantified as lipid peroxidation and GSSG/GSH ratios, while DNA damage was determined using flow cytometry. Our results suggest that: (1) for tortoises residing in low-quality habitats, oxidative stress and DNA damage increased with increasing military activity, while in high-quality habitats, oxidative stress and DNA damage decreased with increasing military activity; (2) in the absence of military activity, tortoises in high-quality habitat had higher levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage than those in low-quality habitat, and (3) there were interactions between military activity, habitat quality, and landuse in terms of the amount of observable DNA damage and oxidative stress. In particular, on high-quality habitat, tortoises from areas with high levels of military activity had lower levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage biomarkers than on reference sites. This may represent a compensatory or hormetic response. Conversely, on low-quality habitats, the level of oxidative stress and DNA damage was lower on the reference sites. Thus, tortoises on higher-quality habitats may have a greater capacity for compensatory responses. In terms of management implications, it is suggested that low quality habitats

  4. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  5. Black tea extract supplementation decreases oxidative damage in Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    Erba, D; Riso, P; Foti, P; Frigerio, F; Criscuoli, F; Testolin, G

    2003-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of black tea (BT) extract against induced oxidative damage in Jurkat T-cell line. Cells supplemented with 10 or 25 mg/L BT were subjected to oxidation with ferrous ions. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production as marker of lipid peroxidation, DNA single strand breaks as marker of DNA damage, and modification of the antioxidant enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured. Results show the efficacy of BT polyphenols to decrease DNA oxidative damage and to affect GPX activity (P<0.05), while no effect was shown on MDA production. The succeeding investigation of the activity of caffeine and epigallocatechin gallate demonstrated their antioxidant potential with respect to the cellular markers evaluated. In conclusion, this study supports the protective effect of BT against ferrous ions induced oxidative damage to DNA and the ability of BT to affect the enzyme antioxidant system of Jurkat cells.

  6. Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Quinn E.; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.; Woods, Sarah B.; Seo, Arnold Y.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R.; Humphries, Murray M.

    2013-01-01

    A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically-based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically-demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

  7. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  8. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage.

    PubMed

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Komur, Baran; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  9. Oxidatively generated base damage to cellular DNA by hydroxyl radical and one-electron oxidants: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) and one-electron oxidants that may be endogenously formed through oxidative metabolism, phagocytosis, inflammation and pathological conditions constitute the main sources of oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA. It is worth mentioning that exposure of cells to exogenous physical agents (UV light, high intensity UV laser, ionizing radiation) and chemicals may also induce oxidatively generated damage to DNA. Emphasis is placed in this short review article on the mechanistic aspects of OH and one-electron oxidant-mediated formation of single and more complex damage (tandem lesions, intra- and interstrand cross-links, DNA-protein cross-links) in cellular DNA arising from one radical hit. This concerns DNA modifications that have been accurately measured using suitable analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Evidence is provided that OH and one-electron oxidants after generating neutral radicals and base radical cations respectively may partly induce common degradation pathways. In addition, selective oxidative reactions giving rise to specific degradation products of OH and one-electron oxidation reactions that can be used as representative biomarkers of these oxidants have been identified.

  10. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders. PMID:27382570

  11. [Resveratrol attenuates oxidant-induced mitochondrial damage in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes via inactivating GSK-3β].

    PubMed

    He, Yong-gui; Sun, Yu-jie; Xie, Yu-xi; Zheng, Huan; Zhang, Yi-dong; Guo, Jing; Xi, Jin-kun

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanism of the protective effects of resveratrol on oxidant-induced mitochondrial damage in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes. H9c2 cells, a permanent cell line derived from embryonic rat cardiac tissue, and then randomly divided into control group [PBS, cells exposed to H2O2 (600 µmol/L) for 20 min to induce mitochondrial oxidant damage], resveratrol group (0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L for 20 min at 20 min before exposing to H2O2), resveratrol plus inhibitor group (1 µmol/L KT5823 for 10 min at 10 min before 5 µmol/L resveratrol treatment) and inhibitor group (1 µmol/L KT5823 for 10 min). Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured by staining cells with tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was evaluated by measuring the decrease of TMRE fluorescence intensity. Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe GSK-3β phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of GSK-3β and VASP were determined by Western blot. To detect intracellular NO, cells were loaded with DAF-FM DA (specific fluorescent dye of NO) and imaged with confocal microscopy. Compared to the control group, resveratrol (0.01-5 µmol/L) attenuated H2O2-induced mitochondrial damage reflected by attenuating the H2O2-induced TMRE fluorescence intensity decrease in a dose-dependent manner and the efficacy of 10 and 20 µmol/L resveratrol was significantly lower than that of 5 µmol/L resveratrol. Resveratrol also significantly upregulated the protein expression of VASP and increased GSK-3β Ser(9) phosphorylation, which could lead the inactivation of GSK-3β. These effects of resveratrol could be significantly abolished by protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823, while KT5823 alone did not affect GSK-3β and VASP phosphorylation. Confocal microscopy showed that DAF-FM (specific NO indicator) was similar between resveratrol and control group, suggesting that resveratrol did not produce NO. Resveratrol could

  12. Alcoholic beverages and gastric epithelial cell viability: effect on oxidative stress-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, C; Tuccillo, C; Federico, A; Fogliano, V; Del Vecchio Blanco, C; Romano, M

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol is known to cause damage to the gastric epithelium independently of gastric acid secretion. Different alcoholic beverages exert different damaging effects in the stomach. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, it is not known whether the non-alcoholic components of alcoholic beverages also play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric epithelial cell damage. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate whether different alcoholic beverages, at a similar ethanol concentration, exerted different damaging effect in gastric epithelial cells in vitro. Moreover, we evaluated whether pre-treatment of gastric epithelial cells with alcoholic beverages prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to gastric cells. Cell damage was assessed, in MKN-28 gastric epithelial cells, by MTT assay. Oxidative stress was induced by incubating cells with xanthine and xanthine oxidase. Gastric cell viability was assessed following 30, 60, and 120 minutes incubation with ethanol 17.5-125 mg/ml(-1) or different alcoholic beverages (i.e., beer, white wine, red wine, spirits) at comparable ethanol concentration. Finally, we assessed whether pre-incubation with red wine (with or without ethanol) prevented oxidative stress-induced cell damage. Red wine caused less damage to gastric epithelial cells in vitro compared with other alcoholic beverages at comparable ethanol concentration. Pre-treatment with red wine, but not with dealcoholate red wine, significantly and time-dependently prevented oxidative stress-induced cell damage. 1) red wine is less harmful to gastric epithelial cells than other alcoholic beverages; 2) this seems related to the non-alcoholic components of red wine, because other alcoholic beverages with comparable ethanol concentration exerted more damage than red wine; 3) red wine prevents oxidative stress-induced cell damage and this seems to be related to its ethanol content.

  13. Biscoclaurine alkaloid cepharanthine protects DNA in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells from constitutive oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Halicka, H. Dorota; Ita, Masamichi; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kurose, Akira; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine (bisbenzylisoquinoline) alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, is widely used in Japan to treat variety of diseases. Among a plethora of its biological activities CEP was reported to be able to scavenge radicals and prevent lipid peroxidation. We have recently described the phenomenon of constitutive ATM activation (CAA) and histone H2AX phosphorylation (CHP), the events that report DNA damage induced by endogenously generated radicals, the product of oxidative metabolism in otherwise healthy, untreated cells. The aim of the present study was to explore whether CEP can attenuate the level of CAA and CHP, which would indicate on its ability to protect DNA against endogenous oxidants. The data show that indeed the levels of CAA and CHP in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were distinctly lowered upon treatment with CEP. Thus, exposure of cells to 8.3 μM CEP for 4 h led to a reduction of the mean level of CAA and CHP by up to 60% and 50%, respectively. At 1.7 μM CEP the reduction of CAA and CHP after 4 h was 35% and 25%, respectively. Cells exposure to CEP led to a decrease in the level of ondogenous oxidants as measured by the ability to oxidate the fluorescent probe 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate. No evidence of apoptosis was seen during the first 8 h of treatment with CEP but initiation of apoptosis (caspase-3 activation) was detected in relatively few (< 10%) cells after exposure to 8.3 μM CEP for 24 h. The data strongly suggest that the scavenging properties of CEP provide a protection of DNA from the radicals generated endogenously during oxidative metabolism. PMID:18276990

  14. Carotenoid-based coloration predicts resistance to oxidative damage during immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Mougeot, Francois; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Many animal ornaments may have evolved as signals advertising the quality of the bearer. The honesty of the information content of these signals would rely on the costs associated with their expression, these being relatively greater for low-quality than for high-quality individuals. Given the physiological functions of carotenoids, carotenoid-based ornaments could indicate individual immunocompetence, and possibly the ability to mount an immune response at a lower cost. We evaluated whether the red carotenoid-based coloration of male red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) predicts the capacity of the individual to counteract the oxidative stress generated by a cell-mediated immune response. Individuals were subcutaneously injected with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as a control. We found that eye ring pigmentation predicted the change in the amount of peroxidized lipids (TBARS) in blood after the PHA-induced inflammatory challenge. The degree of pigmentation of this carotenoid-based ornament was also negatively related to individual changes in gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), another biomarker of oxidative stress involved in antioxidant metabolism (i.e. glutathione recycling). However, changes in circulating carotenoids did not significantly explain changes in lipid peroxidation or GGT levels, suggesting that the higher resistance to oxidative stress of those individuals with more pigmented eye rings was not directly mediated by their greater circulating levels of carotenoids. Our results indicate that carotenoid-based coloration can predict not only immune responsiveness (more coloured males mount greater responses) but also an individual's ability to counter the oxidative stress generated during immune challenge (more coloured males experience less oxidative damage when mounting an immune response).

  15. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) inhibits myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidant production and biological damage at therapeutically achievable concentrations.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Maud; Mallak, Roger; Graham, Garry G; Kajer, Tracey; Milligan, Marian K; Nguyen, Ly Q; Newsham, Dawn W; Keh, Jeremy S; Kettle, Anthony J; Scott, Kieran F; Ziegler, John B; Pattison, David I; Fu, Shanlin; Hawkins, Clare L; Rees, Martin D; Davies, Michael J

    2010-04-15

    The heme peroxidase enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is released by activated neutrophils and monocytes, where it uses hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) to catalyze the production of the potent oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypobromous acid (HOBr) and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) from halide and pseudohalide (SCN(-)) ions. These oxidants have been implicated as key mediators of tissue damage in many human inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, cystic fibrosis and some cancers. It is shown here that acetaminophen (paracetamol), a phenol-based drug with analgesic and antipyretic actions, is an efficient inhibitor of HOCl and HOBr generation by isolated MPO-H(2)O(2)-halide systems. With physiological halide concentrations, acetaminophen concentrations required for 50% inhibition of oxidant formation (IC(50)) were 77+/-6microM (100mMCl(-)) and 92+/-2microM (100mMCl(-) plus 100microMBr(-)), as measured by trapping of oxidants with taurine. The IC(50) for inhibition of HOCl generation by human neutrophils was ca. 100microM. These values are lower than the maximal therapeutic plasma concentrations of acetaminophen (< or =150microM) resulting from typical dosing regimes. Acetaminophen did not diminish superoxide generation by neutrophils, as measured by lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. Inhibition of HOCl production was associated with the generation of fluorescent acetaminophen oxidation products, consistent with acetaminophen acting as a competitive substrate of MPO. Inhibition by acetaminophen was maintained in the presence of heparan sulfate and extracellular matrix, materials implicated in the sequestration of MPO at sites of inflammation in vivo. Overall, these data indicate that acetaminophen may be an important modulator of MPO activity in vivo. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytoplasmic calcium mediates oxidative damage in an excitotoxic /energetic deficit synergic model in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Konigsberg, Mina; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Herrera-Mundo, Nieves; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Morán, Julio; Fortoul-van der Goes, Teresa; Rondán-Zárate, Adrián; Maldonado, Perla D; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2008-03-01

    Excessive calcium is responsible for triggering different potentially fatal metabolic pathways during neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the role of calcium on the oxidative damage produced in an in vitro combined model of excitotoxicity/energy deficit produced by the co-administration of quinolinate and 3-nitropropionate to brain synaptosomal membranes. Synaptosomal fractions were incubated in the presence of subtoxic concentrations of these agents (21 and 166 microm, respectively). In order further to characterize possible toxic mechanisms involved in oxidative damage in this experimental paradigm, agents with different properties - dizocilpine, acetyl L-carnitine, iron porphyrinate and S-allylcysteine - were tested at increasing concentrations (10-1000 microm). Lipid peroxidation was assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. For confirmatory purposes, additional fractions were incubated in parallel in the presence of the intracellular calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Under physiological conditions of extracellular calcium availability, synaptomes exposed to both toxins displayed an increased lipoperoxidation (76% above controls), and this effect was partially attenuated by the tested agents as follows: dizocilpine = iron porphyrinate > acetyl L-carnitine > S-allylcysteine. When the incubation medium was deprived of calcium, the lipoperoxidative effect achieved in this experimental paradigm was still high (49% above the control), and the order of attenuation was: iron porphyrinate > S-allylcysteine > acetyl L-carnitine > dizocilpine. BAPTA-AM was effective in preventing the pro-oxidant action of both toxins, promoting even lower peroxidative levels than those quantified under basal conditions. Our results suggest that the lipid peroxidation induced in synaptosomal fractions by quinolinate plus 3-nitropropionate is largely dependent on the cytoplasmic

  17. Detection of Strand Cleavage And Oxidation Damage Using Model DNA Molecules Captured in a Nanoscale Pore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Solbrig, A.; DeGuzman, V.; Deamer, D.; Akeson, M.

    2003-01-01

    We use a biological nano-scale pore to distinguish among individual DNA hairpins that differ by a single site of oxidation or a nick in the sugar-phosphate backbone. In earlier work we showed that the protein ion channel alpha-hemolysin can be used as a detector to distinguish single-stranded from double-stranded DNA, single base pair and single nucleotide differences. This resolution is in part a result of sensitivity to structural changes that influence the molecular dynamics of nucleotides within DNA. The strand cleavage products we examined here included a 5-base-pair (5-bp) hairpin with a 5-prime five-nucleotide overhang, and a complementary five-nucleotide oligomer. These produced predictable shoulder-spike and rapid near-full blockade signatures, respectively. When combined, strand annealing was monitored in real time. The residual current level dropped to a lower discrete level in the shoulder-spike blockade signatures, and the duration lengthened. However, these blockade signatures had a shorter duration than the unmodified l0bp hairpin. To test the pore sensitivity to nucleotide oxidation, we examined a 9-bp hairpin with a terminal 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), or a penultimate 8-oxo-dG. Each produced blockade signatures that differed from the otherwise identical control 9bp hairpins. This study showed that DNA structure is modified sufficiently by strand cleavage or oxidation damage at a single site to alter in a predictable manner the ionic current blockade signatures produced. This technique improves the ability to assess damage to DNA, and can provide a simple means to help characterize the risks of radiation exposure. It may also provide a method to test radiation protection.

  18. Chromosome and oxidative damage biomarkers in lymphocytes of Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Migliore, L; Scarpato, R; Coppede, F; Petrozzi, L; Bonuccelli, U; Rodilla, V

    2001-10-01

    As cancer development usually results from exposure to several environmental risk factors in interaction with the genetic susceptibility of the host, it could be of interest to investigate if neurodegeneration, as occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can be attributed at least partially, to environmental risk factors. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress could play a significant role as a risk factor in the aetiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, emphasising the need for new individual and human-based approaches. The aim of our research is to explore the relation between chromosome instability and oxidative stress biomarkers in Parkinson's disease using a variety of strategies. We determined peripheral markers for oxidative damage in PD by testing for spontaneous and induced chromosomal damage, DNA strand breaks, oxidised pyrimidines and altered purines both in peripheral blood and cultured lymphocytes. We also measured glutathione S-transferase activity in the plasma of patients and controls. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients show higher frequencies of micronuclei (17.2 +/- 4.8 vs. 9.0 +/- 3.4, p < 0.001) and a significant increase in the levels of single strand breaks (SSB). Significant differences were also obtained in the distribution of oxidised purine bases between the two groups. Preliminary data obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the percentage of centromere negative micronuclei is higher than that of centromere positive micronuclei. Glutathione S-transferase activity in plasma from PD patients and controls was also measured and the enzymatic activity in PD patients was lower than in healthy controls.

  19. Cellular and molecular damage of Phanerochaete chrysosporium by the oxidation hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hongxia; Zhou, Qixing

    2012-07-01

    The toxic effect of the oxidation hair dyes on Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated by exposure of this fungus in a nitrogen-limited culture medium to various concentrations of the oxidation hair dyes. The results showed that both the size and the dry weight of the mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium could be reduced when the concentration of the oxidation hair dyes was higher than 300 mg/L. By using the AFLP analysis and the UPGMA dendrogram, the DNA damage of P. chrysosporium by the oxidation hair dyes was also detected. Comparing with that in the control, the percent polymorphism under different concentrations of the oxidation hair dyes increased. In the meantime, the DNA similarity was decreased, which meant that the DNA damage was aggravated with an increase in the concentrations of the oxidation hair dyes. Thus, as an environmental pollutant, the oxidation hair dyes have a toxic effect on P. chrysosporium at both cellular and molecular levels.

  20. Protective effects of curcumin on amyloid-β-induced neuronal oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Chang; Chang, Ping; Dai, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of curcumin against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neuronal damage. Primary rat cortical neurons were cultured with different treatments of Aβ and curcumin. Neuronal morphologies, viability and damage were assessed. Neuronal oxidative stress was assessed, including extracellular hydrogen peroxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species. The abilities of curcumin to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit Aβ aggregation and β-sheeted formation are further assessed and discussed. Curcumin preserves cell viability, which is decreased by Aβ. The results of changed morphology, released Lactate dehydrogenases and cell viability assays indicate that curcumin protects Aβ-induced neuronal damage. Curcumin depresses Aβ-induced up-regulation of neuronal oxidative stress. The treatment sequence impacts the protective effect of curcumin on Aβ-induced neuronal damage. Curcumin shows a more protective effect on neuronal oxidative damage when curcumin was added into cultured neurons not later than Aβ, especially prior to Aβ. The abilities of curcumin to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit the formation of β-sheeted aggregation are both beneficial to depress Aβ-induced oxidative damage. Curcumin prevents neurons from Aβ-induced oxidative damage, implying the therapeutic usage for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients.

  1. The interplay between inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, DNA repair and mitochondrial dysfunction in depression.

    PubMed

    Czarny, Piotr; Wigner, Paulina; Galecki, Piotr; Sliwinski, Tomasz

    2017-06-29

    A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may play a significant role in the development and progression of depression. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species - a result of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance - may lead to increased damage of biomolecules, including DNA. This was confirmed in depressed patients in a research study conducted by our team and other scientists. 8-oxoguanine - a marker of oxidative DNA damage - was found in the patients' lymphocytes, urine and serum. These results were confirmed using a comet assay on lymphocytes. Furthermore, it was shown that the patients' cells repaired peroxide-induced DNA damage less efficiently than controls' cells and that some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the genes involved in oxidative DNA damage repair may modulate the risk of depression. Lastly, less efficient DNA damage repair observed in the patients can be, at least partly, attributed to the presence of specific SNP variants, as it was revealed through a genotype-phenotype analysis. In conclusion, the available literature shows that both oxidative stress and less efficient DNA damage repair may lead to increased DNA damage in depressed patients. A similar mechanism may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, which is observed in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY STYRENE OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and simple assay to detect DNA damage to calf thymus DNA caused by styrene oxide (SO) is reported. This assay is based on changes observed in the melting and annealing behavior of the damaged DNA. The melting annealing process was monitored using a fluorescence indicat...

  3. Metal Oxide Silicon /MOS/ transistors protected from destructive damage by wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Devine, E. J.

    1966-01-01

    Loop of flexible, small diameter, nickel wire protects metal oxide silicon /MOS/ transistors from a damaging electrostatic potential. The wire is attached to a music-wire spring, slipped over the MOS transistor case, and released so the spring tensions the wire loop around all the transistor leads, shorting them together. This allows handling without danger of damage.

  4. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY STYRENE OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and simple assay to detect DNA damage to calf thymus DNA caused by styrene oxide (SO) is reported. This assay is based on changes observed in the melting and annealing behavior of the damaged DNA. The melting annealing process was monitored using a fluorescence indicat...

  5. Genetic and oxidative damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes in workers with occupational exposure to coal.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Paula; Kvitko, Kátia; da Silva, Fernanda R; Menezes, Ana Paula Simões; Porto, Carem; Sarmento, Merielen; Decker, Natália; Reyes, Juliana M; Allgayer, Mariangela da C; Furtado, Tatiane Chao; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Catia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-12-12

    Coal is an important fossil fuel used to generate energy. Coal dust is constituted primarily of hydrocarbons and metals. During coal extraction, large quantities of coal dust particles are emitted, contributing to environmental pollution. Coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust and its derivatives. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of coal and oxidative stress in individuals from Candiota who were exposed to coal as part of their occupation. The comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test were used to assess these effects. This study involved 128 male participants of whom 71 reported work that included exposure to coal (exposed group) and 57 reported working at different jobs (unexposed group). The exposed group had a significantly increased damage index and damage frequency, as assessed using the comet assay, and increased MN and nucleoplasmic bridge frequencies, as assessed using the MN assay, compared with unexposed individuals. Significant and positive correlations between MN frequencies in the lymphocytes and buccal cells of control and exposed individuals were observed. The exposed individuals presented lower average levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity (CAT), while the mean superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) levels were higher in this group. The exposed group also had higher hematocrit levels. No correlation between DNA damage and inorganic elements, as identified using PIXE, was found; however, there was a correlation between the damage index and zinc. The evidence that exposure to coal and its derivatives presents a genetic hazard demonstrates the need for protective measures and educational programs for coal miners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Juglans regia extract against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Mortazavi, Pejman; Rezazadeh, Shamsali; Olamafar, Somayeh

    2013-05-01

    Different parts of the walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] have been used in folk medicine for protection against liver injury, although its actual efficacy remains uncertain. The present study investigated the protective effect of walnut leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control, CCl4 (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.w., 50% CCl4 in olive oil), walnut extract (at dose level of 0.2 g/kg b.w.) alone, walnut extract (at dose levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg b.w.) with CCl4, and treatment was carried out accordingly. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed and blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture. Liver damage was assessed by serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and albumin), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and histopathological observation. Administration of walnut leaf extract (ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 g/kg b.w.) significantly lowered serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in CCl4-treated rats. Walnut leaf extract increased antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and catalase. Histopathological examination of livers showed that walnut leaves extract reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis in CCl4-treated rats. These results suggest that walnut extract has a protective effect over CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. These results demonstrate that walnut extract acts as a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in attenuating hepatocellular damage.

  7. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) can reduce levels of oxidative DNA damage in cells of colonic mucosa with and without fecal stream.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Caroline; Máximo, Felipe Rodrigues; Spadari, Ana Paula Pimentel; da Conceição Miranda, Daniel Duarte; Serra, Marcia Milena Pivatto; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2011-04-01

    No studies have evaluated the effectiveness of 5-ASA against oxidative DNA damage in experimental models of diversion colitis. To evaluate the effects of 5-ASA against oxidative DNA damage in an experimental model of diversion colitis. Twenty-six Wistar rats were divided into two groups corresponding to sacrifice at 2 or 4 weeks after fecal diversion of the left colon by means of proximal colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to intervention in excluded colon performed with 0.9% saline solution or 5-ASA. Level of oxidative DNA damage was determined by comet assay in cells obtained from segments with and without fecal stream before and after H2O2 challenge. For statistical analysis, was used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), adopting a 5% significance level (P<0.05). Levels of DNA damage were always higher in colon segments without fecal stream, regardless of the intervention solution employed. DNA damage in colon segments with and without fecal stream in animals irrigated with 5-ASA was lower when compared with those treated with saline solution, regardless of time of irrigation. These levels remained lower after intervention with 5-ASA, even after H2O2 challenge. Enema with 5-ASA reduces oxidative DNA damage in epithelial cells of colon segments without fecal stream, even after H2O2 challenge, confirming the effects of 5-ASA against DNA damage by oxygen free radicals.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide induces oxidative damage to RNA and DNA in a sulfide-tolerant marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Joyner-Matos, Joanna; Predmore, Benjamin L; Stein, Jenny R; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Julian, David

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide acts as an environmental toxin across a range of concentrations and as a cellular signaling molecule at very low concentrations. Despite its toxicity, many animals, including the mudflat polychaete Glycera dibranchiata, are periodically or continuously exposed to sulfide in their environment. We tested the hypothesis that a broad range of ecologically relevant sulfide concentrations induces oxidative stress and oxidative damage to RNA and DNA in G. dibranchiata. Coelomocytes exposed in vitro to sulfide (0-3 mmol L(-1) for 1 h) showed dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress (as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence) and superoxide production (as dihydroethidine fluorescence). Coelomocytes exposed in vitro to sulfide (up to 0.73 mmol L(-1) for 2 h) also acquired increased oxidative damage to RNA (detected as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine) and DNA (detected as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine). Worms exposed in vivo to sulfide (0-10 mmol L(-1) for 24 h) acquired elevated oxidative damage to RNA and DNA in both coelomocytes and body wall tissue. While the consequences of RNA and DNA oxidative damage are poorly understood, oxidatively damaged deoxyguanosine bases preferentially bind thymine, causing G-T transversions and potentially causing heritable point mutations. This suggests that sulfide can be an environmental mutagen in sulfide-tolerant invertebrates.

  9. Oxidative damage to poultry: from farm to fork.

    PubMed

    Estévez, M

    2015-06-01

    Poultry and poultry meat are particularly susceptible to oxidative reactions. Oxidation processes have been for decades the focus of animal and meat scientists owing to the negative impact of these reactions on animal growth, performance, and food quality. Lipid oxidation has been recognized a major threat to the quality of processed poultry products. The recent discoveries on the occurrence of protein oxidation in muscle foods have increased the scientific and technological interest in a topic that broadens the horizons of food biochemistry into innovative fields. Furthermore, in recent years we have witnessed a growing interest in consumers on the impact of diet and oxidation on health and aging. Hence, the general description of oxidative reactions as harmful phenomena goes beyond the actual impact on animal production and food quality and reaches the potential influence of oxidized foods on consumer health. Likewise, the current antioxidant strategies aim for the protection of the living tissues, the food systems, and a potential health benefit in the consumer upon ingestion. Along these lines, the application of phytochemicals and other microelements (Se, Cu) with antioxidant potential in the feeds or directly in the meat product are strategies of substantial significance. The present paper reviews in a concise manner the most relevant and novel aspects of the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative reactions in poultry and poultry meat, and describes current antioxidant strategies against these undesirable reactions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Oxidative Stress Induces Persistent Telomeric DNA Damage Responsible for Nuclear Morphology Change in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coluzzi, Elisa; Colamartino, Monica; Cozzi, Renata; Leone, Stefano; Meneghini, Carlo; O’Callaghan, Nathan; Sgura, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    One main function of telomeres is to maintain chromosome and genome stability. The rate of telomere shortening can be accelerated significantly by chemical and physical environmental agents. Reactive oxygen species are a source of oxidative stress and can produce modified bases (mainly 8-oxoG) and single strand breaks anywhere in the genome. The high incidence of guanine residues in telomeric DNA sequences makes the telomere a preferred target for oxidative damage. Our aim in this work is to evaluate whether chromosome instability induced by oxidative stress is related specifically to telomeric damage. We treated human primary fibroblasts (MRC-5) in vitro with hydrogen peroxide (100 and 200 µM) for 1 hr and collected data at several time points. To evaluate the persistence of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage up to 24 hrs after treatment, we analysed telomeric and genomic oxidative damage by qPCR and a modified comet assay, respectively. The results demonstrate that the genomic damage is completely repaired, while the telomeric oxidative damage persists. The analysis of telomere length reveals a significant telomere shortening 48 hrs after treatment, leading us to hypothesise that residual telomere damage could be responsible for the telomere shortening observed. Considering the influence of telomere length modulation on genomic stability, we quantified abnormal nuclear morphologies (Nucleoplasmic Bridges, Nuclear Buds and Micronuclei) and observed an increase of chromosome instability in the same time frame as telomere shortening. At subsequent times (72 and 96 hrs), we observed a restoration of telomere length and a reduction of chromosome instability, leaving us to conjecture a correlation between telomere shortening/dysfunction and chromosome instability. We can conclude that oxidative base damage leads to abnormal nuclear morphologies and that telomere dysfunction is an important contributor to this effect. PMID:25354277

  11. Specialty supplement use and biologic measures of oxidative stress and DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Owen, Robert W.; Schmezer, Peter; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Peters, Ulrike; Shen, Danny D.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and resulting cellular damage have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Identifying factors associated with reduced oxidative stress and resulting damage may guide future disease-prevention strategies. Methods In the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) biomarker-study of 209 persons living in the Seattle area, we examined the association between current use of several specialty supplements and oxidative stress, DNA damage, and DNA repair capacity. Use of glucosamine, chondroitin, fish oil, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), ginseng, ginkgo, and saw palmetto was ascertained by a supplement inventory/interview, while use of fiber supplements was ascertained by questionnaire. Supplements used by more than 30 persons (glucosamine and chondroitin) were evaluated as the trend across number of pills/week (non-use, <14 pills/week, 14+ pills/week), while less-commonly used supplements were evaluated as use/non-use. Oxidative stress was measured by urinary 8-isoprostane and PGF2α concentrations using enzyme immunoassays (EIA), while lymphocyte DNA damage and DNA repair capacity were measured using the Comet assay. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression was used to model the associations between supplement use and oxidative stress/DNA damage. Results Use of glucosamine (p-trend:0.01), chondroitin (p-trend:0.003), and fiber supplements (p:0.01) was associated with reduced PGF2α concentrations, while CoQ10 supplementation was associated with reduced baseline DNA damage (p:0.003). Conclusions Use of certain specialty supplements may be associated with reduced oxidative stress and DNA damage. Impact Further research is needed to evaluate the association between specialty supplement use and markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:23917455

  12. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities and expression and oxidative damage in patients with non-immediate reactions to drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Garcia, J A; Mayorga, C; Torres, M J; Fernandez, T D; R-Pena, R; Bravo, I; Mates, J M; Blanca, M

    2006-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions with an immunological basis (ADRIB) may involve activation of other concomitant, non-specific mechanisms, amplifying the specific response and contributing to the severity and duration. One concomitant mechanism could be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or their detoxification by anti-oxidants, including anti-oxidant enzymes. We analysed the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX), as well as certain markers of oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with non-immediate ADRIB using spectrophotometric methods and the anti-oxidant enzymes expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. SOD activity and expression were increased in all types of non-immediate reactions (urticaria, maculopapular exanthema and toxic epidermal necrolysis). Regarding oxidative damage, TBARS were increased in urticaria and maculopapular exanthema, and carbonyl groups in all types of reactions. Our observations indicate that oxidative damage occurs in non-immediate reactions. Carbonyl stress and the inadequacy of the anti-oxidant defences are probable causes. PMID:16879248

  13. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities and expression and oxidative damage in patients with non-immediate reactions to drugs.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Garcia, J A; Mayorga, C; Torres, M J; Fernandez, T D; R-Pena, R; Bravo, I; Mates, J M; Blanca, M

    2006-08-01

    Adverse drug reactions with an immunological basis (ADRIB) may involve activation of other concomitant, non-specific mechanisms, amplifying the specific response and contributing to the severity and duration. One concomitant mechanism could be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or their detoxification by anti-oxidants, including anti-oxidant enzymes. We analysed the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX), as well as certain markers of oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with non-immediate ADRIB using spectrophotometric methods and the anti-oxidant enzymes expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SOD activity and expression were increased in all types of non-immediate reactions (urticaria, maculopapular exanthema and toxic epidermal necrolysis). Regarding oxidative damage, TBARS were increased in urticaria and maculopapular exanthema, and carbonyl groups in all types of reactions. Our observations indicate that oxidative damage occurs in non-immediate reactions. Carbonyl stress and the inadequacy of the anti-oxidant defences are probable causes.

  14. Are chargemaster rates for imaging studies lower in States that cap noneconomic damages (tort reform)?

    PubMed

    Stein, Seth I; Barry, Jeffrey R; Jha, Saurabh

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether chargemaster (a list of prices for common services and procedures set by individual hospitals) rates for diagnostic imaging were lower in states that cap awards for noneconomic damages (NED) than states with unlimited awards for medical negligence. We analyzed 2011 chargemaster data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid, pertaining to 6 ambulatory patient classifications specific to imaging. The dataset includes outpatient imaging facilities and hospitals in 49 states and the District of Columbia. The association between caps on NED and chargemaster rates for imaging in a sample of 15,218 data points was analyzed using linear regression and two-sample t tests assuming unequal variances. In states that cap NED, the chargemaster rates were higher for the following modalities: Level II Echocardiogram without Contrast (mean charges: $2,015.60 versus $1,884.81, P = .0018); Level II Cardiac Imaging ($4,670.25 versus $4,398.58, P = .002); MRI & Magnetic Resonance Angiography without Contrast ($2,654.31 versus $2,526.74, P = .002); and Level III Diagnostic and Screening Ultrasound ($1,073.31 versus $1,027.32, P = .037). High charge-to-payment ratios were associated with states with the highest charges. There was a positive correlation between number of outpatient centers in the state and the average chargemaster rates for the state (mean chargemaster rate = 1727 + 0.79*Number of Outpatient Centers; R-squared = 0.23, P = .0004). Chargemaster rates for select imaging services are not lower in states that have capped NED. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of low and high temperature anneal on process-induced damage of gate oxide

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.C.; Hu, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences)

    1994-11-01

    The authors have investigated the ability of high and low temperature anneals to repair the gate oxide damage due to simulated electrical stress caused by wafer charging resulting from plasma etching, etc. Even 800 C anneal cannot restore the stability in interface trap generation. Even 900 C anneal cannot repair the deteriorated charge-to-breakdown and oxide charge trapping. As a small consolation, the ineffectiveness of anneal in repairing the process-induced damage allows them to monitor the damages even at the end of the fabrication process.

  16. LOX-1, oxidant stress, mtDNA damage, autophagy, and immune response in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zufeng; Liu, Shijie; Wang, Xianwei; Dai, Yao; Khaidakov, Magomed; Romeo, Francesco; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2014-07-01

    As a major receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is upregulated in many pathophysiological events, including endothelial cell dysfunction and smooth muscle cell growth, as well as monocyte migration and transformation into foam cells, which are present in atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases LOX-1 expression, induces mitochondrial DNA damage, and activates autophagy. Damaged mitochondrial DNA that escapes from autophagy induces an inflammatory response. This paper reviews the potential link between LOX-1, mitochondrial DNA damage, autophagy, and immune response in atherosclerosis.

  17. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees.

  18. The acute toxicity of iron and copper: biomolecule oxidation and oxidative damage in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Boveris, Alberto; Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Torti, Horacio; Massot, Francisco; Repetto, Marisa G

    2012-11-01

    The transition metals iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are needed at low levels for normal health and at higher levels they become toxic for humans and animals. The acute liver toxicity of Fe and Cu was studied in Sprague Dawley male rats (200 g) that received ip 0-60 mg/kg FeCl(2) or 0-30 mg/kg CuSO(4). Dose and time-responses were determined for spontaneous in situ liver chemiluminescence, phospholipid lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation and lipid soluble antioxidants. The doses linearly defined the tissue content of both metals. Liver chemiluminescence increased 4 times and 2 times after Fe and Cu overloads, with half maximal responses at contents (C(50%)) of 110 μgFe/g and 42 μgCu/g liver, and with half maximal time responses (t(1/2)) of 4h for both metals. Phospholipid peroxidation increased 4 and 1.8 times with C(50%) of 118 μg Fe/g and 45 μg Cu/g and with t(1/2) of 7h and 8h. Protein oxidation increased 1.6 times for Fe with C(50%) at 113 μg Fe/g and 1.2 times for Cu with 50 μg Cu/g and t(1/2) of 4h and 5h respectively. The accumulation of Fe and Cu in liver enhanced the rate of free radical reactions and produced oxidative damage. A similar free radical-mediated process, through the formation HO(•) and RO(•) by a Fenton-like homolytic scission of H(2)O(2) and ROOH, seems to operate as the chemical mechanism for the liver toxicity of both metals.

  19. Pre-fledgling oxidative damage predicts recruitment in a long-lived bird

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, José Carlos; Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence has shown that stressful conditions experienced during development may exert long-term negative effects on life-history traits. Although it has been suggested that oxidative stress has long-term effects, little is known about delayed consequences of oxidative stress experienced early in life in fitness-related traits. Here, we tested whether oxidative stress during development has long-term effects on a life-history trait directly related to fitness in three colonies of European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Our results revealed that recruitment probability decreased with oxidative damage during the nestling period; oxidative damage, in turn, was related to the level of antioxidant capacity. Our results suggest a link between oxidative stress during development and survival to adulthood, a key element of population dynamics. PMID:21865247

  20. Perinatal tobacco smoke exposure increases vascular oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, David G; Anderson, Peter G; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that events occurring during fetal and early childhood development influence disease susceptibility. Similarly, molecular studies in mice have shown that in utero exposure to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increased adult atherogenic susceptibility and mitochondrial damage; however, the molecular effects of similar exposures in primates are not yet known. To determine whether perinatal ETS exposure increased mitochondrial damage, dysfunction and oxidant stress in primates, archived tissues from the non-human primate model Macaca mulatta (M. mulatta) were utilized. M. mulatta were exposed to low levels of ETS (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulates) from gestation (day 40) to early childhood (1 year), and aortic tissues were assessed for oxidized proteins (protein carbonyls), antioxidant activity (SOD), mitochondrial function (cytochrome oxidase), and mitochondrial damage (mitochondrial DNA damage). Results revealed that perinatal ETS exposure resulted in significantly increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and damage which were accompanied by significantly decreased mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial copy number in vascular tissue. Increased mitochondrial damage was also detected in buffy coat tissues in exposed M. mulatta. These studies suggest that perinatal tobacco smoke exposure increases vascular oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in primates, potentially increasing adult disease susceptibility.

  1. Protective Effects of Gelam Honey against Oxidative Damage in Young and Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahhugi, Zulaikha; Jubri, Zakiah

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by progressive decline in physiological and body function due to increase in oxidative damage. Gelam honey has been accounted to have high phenolic and nonphenolic content to attenuate oxidative damage. This study was to determine the effect of local gelam honey on oxidative damage of aged rats. Twenty-four male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into young (2 months) and aged (19 months) groups. Each group was further divided into control (fed with plain water) and supplemented with 2.5 mg/kg body weight of gelam honey for 8 months. DNA damage level was determined by comet assay and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of blood and cardiac antioxidant enzymes was determined by spectrophotometer. The DNA damage and MDA level were reduced in both gelam honey supplemented groups. Gelam honey increases erythrocytes CAT and cardiac SOD activities in young and cardiac CAT activity in young and aged groups. The DNA damage was increased in the aged group compared to young group, but reduced at the end of the study. The decline of oxidative damage in rats supplemented with gelam honey might be through the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:25505937

  2. Protective effects of gelam honey against oxidative damage in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sahhugi, Zulaikha; Hasenan, Siti Maisarah; Jubri, Zakiah

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by progressive decline in physiological and body function due to increase in oxidative damage. Gelam honey has been accounted to have high phenolic and nonphenolic content to attenuate oxidative damage. This study was to determine the effect of local gelam honey on oxidative damage of aged rats. Twenty-four male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into young (2 months) and aged (19 months) groups. Each group was further divided into control (fed with plain water) and supplemented with 2.5 mg/kg body weight of gelam honey for 8 months. DNA damage level was determined by comet assay and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of blood and cardiac antioxidant enzymes was determined by spectrophotometer. The DNA damage and MDA level were reduced in both gelam honey supplemented groups. Gelam honey increases erythrocytes CAT and cardiac SOD activities in young and cardiac CAT activity in young and aged groups. The DNA damage was increased in the aged group compared to young group, but reduced at the end of the study. The decline of oxidative damage in rats supplemented with gelam honey might be through the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities.

  3. Therapeutic Hypothermia Reduces Oxidative Damage and Alters Antioxidant Defenses after Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Hackenhaar, Fernanda S.; Medeiros, Tássia M.; Heemann, Fernanda M.; Behling, Camile S.; Putti, Jordana S.; Mahl, Camila D.; Verona, Cleber; da Silva, Ana Carolina A.; Guerra, Maria C.; Gonçalves, Carlos A. S.; Oliveira, Vanessa M.; Riveiro, Diego F. M.; Vieira, Silvia R. R.

    2017-01-01

    After cardiac arrest, organ damage consequent to ischemia-reperfusion has been attributed to oxidative stress. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been applied to reduce this damage, and it may reduce oxidative damage as well. This study aimed to compare oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in patients treated with controlled normothermia versus mild therapeutic hypothermia during postcardiac arrest syndrome. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 h mild therapeutic hypothermia (33°C), victims of in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Parameters were assessed at 6, 12, 36, and 72 h after cardiac arrest in the central venous blood samples. Hypothermic and normothermic patients had similar S100B levels, a biomarker of brain injury. Xanthine oxidase activity is similar between hypothermic and normothermic patients; however, it decreases posthypothermia treatment. Xanthine oxidase activity is positively correlated with lactate and S100B and inversely correlated with pH, calcium, and sodium levels. Hypothermia reduces malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, markers of oxidative damage. Concomitantly, hypothermia increases the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase while decreasing the activity of serum paraoxonase-1. These findings suggest that mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces oxidative damage and alters antioxidant defenses in postcardiac arrest patients. PMID:28553435

  4. A Topical Mitochondria-Targeted Redox-Cycling Nitroxide Mitigates Oxidative Stress-Induced Skin Damage.

    PubMed

    Brand, Rhonda M; Epperly, Michael W; Stottlemyer, J Mark; Skoda, Erin M; Gao, Xiang; Li, Song; Huq, Saiful; Wipf, Peter; Kagan, Valerian E; Greenberger, Joel S; Falo, Louis D

    2017-03-01

    Skin is the largest human organ, and it provides a first line of defense that includes physical, chemical, and immune mechanisms to combat environmental stress. Radiation is a prevalent environmental stressor. Radiation-induced skin damage ranges from photoaging and cutaneous carcinogenesis caused by UV exposure, to treatment-limiting radiation dermatitis associated with radiotherapy, to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a frequently fatal consequence of exposures from nuclear accidents. The major mechanism of skin injury common to these exposures is radiation-induced oxidative stress. Efforts to prevent or mitigate radiation damage have included development of antioxidants capable of reducing reactive oxygen species. Mitochondria are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis plays a major role in radiation-induced tissue damage. We reasoned that targeting a redox cycling nitroxide to mitochondria could prevent reactive oxygen species accumulation, limiting downstream oxidative damage and preserving mitochondrial function. Here we show that in both mouse and human skin, topical application of a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant prevents and mitigates radiation-induced skin damage characterized by clinical dermatitis, loss of barrier function, inflammation, and fibrosis. Further, damage mitigation is associated with reduced apoptosis, preservation of the skin's antioxidant capacity, and reduction of irreversible DNA and protein oxidation associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative damage to the promoter region of SQSTM1/p62 is common to neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yifeng; Wooten, Michael C; Wooten, Marie W.

    2009-01-01

    Recently we reported that declined SQSTM1/p62 expression in Alzheimer disease brain was age-correlated with oxidative damage to the p62 promoter. The objective of this study was to examine whether oxidative damage to the p62 promoter is common to DNA recovered from brain of individuals with neurodegenerative disease. Increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in brain sections from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Pick’s disease compared to control subjects. In parallel, the p62 promoter exhibited elevated oxidative damage in samples from various diseases compared to normal brain, and damage was negatively correlated with p62 expression in FTD samples. Oxidative damage to the p62 promoter induced by H2O2 treatment decreased its transcriptional activity. In keeping with this observation, the transcriptional activity of a Sp-1 element deletion mutant displayed reduced stimulus-induced activity. These findings reveal that oxidative damage to the p62 promoter decreased its transcriptional activity and might therefore account for decreased expression of p62. Altogether these results suggest that pharmacological means to increase p62 expression may be beneficial in delaying the onset of neurodegeneration. PMID:19481605

  6. Oxidative damage induced by copper in mouse primary hepatocytes by single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyang; Liu, Yang; Song, Wei; Yan, Yunxing; Yan, Wenbao; Liu, Rutao

    2016-01-01

    Copper can disturb the intracellular redox balance, induce oxidative stress, and subsequently cause irreversible damage, leading to a variety of diseases. In the present study, mouse primary hepatocytes were chosen to elucidate the in vitro oxidative damage of short-term copper exposure (10-200 μM) by single-cell analysis. We evaluated the toxicity of copper by reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and oxidative DNA damage at the single-cell level. Oxidative damage induced by copper was verified by the morphological changes, persistent elevations of excessive ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), a decrease in GSH level, and the oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, the average ROS generation, GSH consumption, and the indicators in DNA damage did not significantly change at relatively low concentrations (10 or 50 μM), but we can find the alterations of parameters in some single cells clearly. Emphasis on the analysis of single cells is conducive to gain a better understanding on the toxicity of copper. This study will also complement studies on the environmental risk assessment of copper pollution.

  7. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Wound Healing in Mice in Relation to Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Rongjian; Wasser, Martin; Du, Tiehua; Ng, Wee Thong; Halliwell, Barry

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are produced in wounds and is required for optimal healing. Yet at the same time, there is evidence that excessive oxidative damage is correlated with poor-healing wounds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether topical application of H2O2 can modulate wound healing and if its effects are related to oxidative damage. Using a C57BL/6 mice excision wound model, H2O2 was found to enhance angiogenesis and wound closure at 10 mM but retarded wound closure at 166 mM. The delay in closure was also associated with decreased connective tissue formation, increased MMP-8 and persistent neutrophil infiltration. Wounding was found to increase oxidative lipid damage, as measured by F2-isoprostanes, and nitrative protein damage, as measured by 3-nitrotyrosine. However H2O2 treatment did not significantly increase oxidative and nitrative damage even at concentrations that delay wound healing. Hence the detrimental effects of H2O2 may not involve oxidative damage to the target molecules studied. PMID:23152875

  8. Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J and mtDNA oxidative damage in two different North Spain elderly populations.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Garrido, Elena; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Martín-Ruiz, Carmen; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Madero, Pilar; Tamparillas, Manuel; Montoya, Julio; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; López-Pérez, Manuel J

    2009-08-01

    This work investigates the association between longevity, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and oxidative DNA damage in an older than 85 years population. The participants, similar in genetic and cultural background as well as gender distribution, come from villages near to the Pyrenees Mountains (900-1,400 m altitude) (n = 69) and the Ebro's Valley (200-300 m altitude) (n = 69) in Spain. Our results show an accumulation of the haplogroup J in elderly individuals with an over-representation of J2 in Pyrenees group but not in the Ebro's Valley, the former associating with a diminished DNA damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that J mitochondrial variant, that induce lower mtDNA damage, could present a phenotypic survival advantage to environmental conditions and, thus, accumulate in elderly population.

  9. Lipids and Oxidative Stress Associated with Ethanol-Induced Neurological Damage.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José A; López-Sánchez, Rosa C; Rendón-Ramírez, Adela

    2016-01-01

    The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. As such, here we will review the role of lipids in the neuronal damage induced by ethanol-related oxidative stress and the role that lipids play in the related compensatory or defense mechanisms.

  10. Lipids and Oxidative Stress Associated with Ethanol-Induced Neurological Damage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. As such, here we will review the role of lipids in the neuronal damage induced by ethanol-related oxidative stress and the role that lipids play in the related compensatory or defense mechanisms. PMID:26949445

  11. A modified alkaline Comet assay for in vivo detection of oxidative DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shukla, A K; Pragya, P; Chowdhuri, D Kar

    2011-12-24

    Modifications to the alkaline Comet assay by using lesion-specific endonucleases, such as formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (ENDOIII, also known as Nth), can detect DNA bases with oxidative damage. This modified assay can be used to assess the genotoxic/carcinogenic potential of environmental chemicals. The goal of this study was to validate the ability of this modified assay to detect oxidative stress-induced genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R(+)). In this study, we used three well known chemical oxidative stress inducers: hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) and copper sulfate (CuSO(4)). Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster were fed various concentrations of the test chemicals (50-200μM) mixed with a standard Drosophila food for 24h. Alkaline Comet assays with and without the FPG and ENDOIII enzymes were performed with midgut cells that were isolated from the control and treated larvae. Our results show a concentration-dependent increase (p<0.05-0.001) in the migration of DNA from the treated larvae. ENDOIII treatment detected more oxidative DNA damage (specifically pyrimidine damage) in the H(2)O(2) exposed larvae compared to FPG or no enzyme treatment (buffer only). In contrast, FPG treatment detected more oxidative DNA damage (specifically purine damage) in CuSO(4) exposed larvae compared to ENDOIII. Although previously reported to be a potent genotoxic agent, CdCl(2) did not induce more oxidative DNA damage than the other test chemicals. Our results show that the modified alkaline Comet assay can be used to detect oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in D. melanogaster and thus may be applicable for in vivo genotoxic assessments of environmental chemicals.

  12. Effects of Obesity on Pro-Oxidative Conditions and DNA Damage in Liver of DMBA-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis Models.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Stepan; Korourian, Soheila; Levy, Joseph W; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Evans, Teresa; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-06-08

    The prevalence of the overweight and obesity is on the rise worldwide. Obesity can increase the risk of certain cancers and liver steatosis development. Previously, we reported that obesity increased liver steatosis in a mammary tumor model, but little is known about the effects of obesity in the liver in regard to global DNA methylation, DNA damage, and oxidative/nitrosative stress. Using a mammary tumor model, we investigated the effects of obesity on oxidative stress and DNA reaction. Five-week-old lean and obese female rats were used. At 50 days of age, all rats received 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) and were sacrificed 155 days later. HPLC with electrochemical and ultraviolet detection and LC-MS were used. Obesity caused higher (p < 0.0004) methionine levels, had no effect (p < 0.055) on SAM levels, caused lower (p < 0.0005) SAH levels, caused higher (p < 0.0005) SAM/SAH ratios, and increased (p < 0.02) global DNA methylation. Levels of free reduced GSH were not significantly lower (p < 0.08), but free oxidized GSSG was higher (p < 0.002) in obese rats. The GSH/GSSG ratio was lower (p < 0.0001), and oxidized guanosine was higher (p < 0.002) in DNA of obese rats compared to lean rats. Obesity caused significant oxidative/nitrosative stress, oxidative DNA damage, and change of DNA methylation pattern in the liver, and these changes may contribute to the development of liver steatosis in breast cancer models.

  13. Prenatal exposure to testosterone impairs oxidative damage repair efficiency in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Treidel, L A; Whitley, B N; Benowitz-Fredericks, Z M; Haussmann, M F

    2013-10-23

    Elevated levels of maternal androgens in avian eggs affect numerous traits, including oxidative stress. However, current studies disagree as to whether prenatal androgen exposure enhances or ameliorates oxidative stress. Here, we tested how prenatal testosterone exposure affects oxidative stress in female domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) during the known oxidative challenge of an acute stressor. Prior to incubation, eggs were either injected with an oil vehicle or 5 ng testosterone. At either 17 or 18 days post-hatch, several oxidative stress markers were assessed from blood taken before and after a 20 min acute stressor, as well as following a 25 min recovery from the stressor. We found that, regardless of yolk treatment, during both stress and recovery all individuals were in a state of oxidative stress, with elevated levels of oxidative damage markers accompanied by a reduced total antioxidant capacity. In addition, testosterone-exposed individuals exhibited poorer DNA damage repair efficiencies in comparison with control individuals. Our work suggests that while yolk androgens do not alter oxidative stress directly, they may impair mechanisms of oxidative damage repair.

  14. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam; Laskar, Aparna; Jana, Madhurya; Pramanik, Panchanan; Karmakar, Parimal

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain.

  15. Tempol protects blood proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad A; Jaradat, Ahmad Q

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is characterized by excessive production of various free radicals and reactive species among which, peroxynitrite is most frequently produced in several pathological conditions. Peroxynitrite is the product of the superoxide anion reaction with nitric oxide, which is reported to take place in the intravascular compartment. Several studies have reported that peroxynitrite targets red blood cells, platelets and plasma proteins, and induces various forms of oxidative damage. This in vitro study was designed to further characterize the types of oxidative damage induced in platelets and plasma proteins by peroxynitrite. This study also determined the ability of tempol to protect blood plasma and platelets against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage. The ability of various concentrations of tempol (25, 50, 75, and 100 µM) to antagonize peroxynitrite-induced oxidation was evaluated by measuring the levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances in experimental groups. Exposure of platelets and plasma to 100 µM peroxynitrite resulted in an increased levels of carbonyl groups and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05). Tempol significantly inhibited carbonyl group formation in plasma and platelet proteins (P < 0.05). In addition, tempol significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in both plasma and platelet samples (P < 0.05). Thus, tempol has antioxidative properties against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage in blood plasma and platelets. PMID:25107897

  16. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Akıncı, Ayşin; Eşrefoğlu, Mukaddes; Taşlıdere, Elif; Ateş, Burhan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + parsley-added diet and stress + lansoprazole (LPZ) groups. Subjects were exposed to 72 hours of fasting and later immobilized and exposed to the cold at +4 degrees for 8 hours to create a severe stress condition. Samples from the animals’ stomachs were arranged for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Results: Gastric mucosal injury was obvious in rats exposed to stress. The histopathologic damage score of the stress group (7.00±0.57) was higher than that of the control group (1.50±0.22) (p<0.05). Significant differences in histopathologic damage score were found between the stress and stress + parsley-added diet groups (p<0.05), the stress and stress + standard diet groups (p<0.05), and the stress and stress + LPZ groups (p<0.05). The mean tissue malondialdehyde levels of the stress + parsley-added group and the stress + LPZ group were lower than that of the stress group (p<0.05). Parsley supported the cellular antioxidant system by increasing the mean tissue glutathione level (53.31±9.50) and superoxide dismutase (15.18±1.05) and catalase (16.68±2.29) activities. Conclusion: Oral administration of parsley is effective in reducing stress-induced gastric injury by supporting the cellular antioxidant defence system. PMID:28251024

  17. Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sunita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Pandey, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Singh, Raghvendar

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.

  18. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Akıncı, Ayşin; Eşrefoğlu, Mukaddes; Taşlıdere, Elif; Ateş, Burhan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Animal experimentation. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + parsley-added diet and stress + lansoprazole (LPZ) groups. Subjects were exposed to 72 hours of fasting and later immobilized and exposed to the cold at +4 degrees for 8 hours to create a severe stress condition. Samples from the animals' stomachs were arranged for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Gastric mucosal injury was obvious in rats exposed to stress. The histopathologic damage score of the stress group (7.00±0.57) was higher than that of the control group (1.50±0.22) (p<0.05). Significant differences in histopathologic damage score were found between the stress and stress + parsley-added diet groups (p<0.05), the stress and stress + standard diet groups (p<0.05), and the stress and stress + LPZ groups (p<0.05). The mean tissue malondialdehyde levels of the stress + parsley-added group and the stress + LPZ group were lower than that of the stress group (p<0.05). Parsley supported the cellular antioxidant system by increasing the mean tissue glutathione level (53.31±9.50) and superoxide dismutase (15.18±1.05) and catalase (16.68±2.29) activities. Oral administration of parsley is effective in reducing stress-induced gastric injury by supporting the cellular antioxidant defence system.

  19. New Perspectives on Oxidized Genome Damage and Repair Inhibition by Pro-Oxidant Metals in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Joy; Guerrero, Erika N.; Hegde, Pavana M.; Wang, Haibo; Boldogh, Istvan; Rao, Kosagi Sharaf; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary cause(s) of neuronal death in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are still unknown. However, the association of certain etiological factors, e.g., oxidative stress, protein misfolding/aggregation, redox metal accumulation and various types of damage to the genome, to pathological changes in the affected brain region(s) have been consistently observed. While redox metal toxicity received major attention in the last decade, its potential as a therapeutic target is still at a cross-roads, mostly because of the lack of mechanistic understanding of metal dyshomeostasis in affected neurons. Furthermore, previous studies have established the role of metals in causing genome damage, both directly and via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little was known about their impact on genome repair. Our recent studies demonstrated that excess levels of iron and copper observed in neurodegenerative disease-affected brain neurons could not only induce genome damage in neurons, but also affect their repair by oxidatively inhibiting NEIL DNA glycosylases, which initiate the repair of oxidized DNA bases. The inhibitory effect was reversed by a combination of metal chelators and reducing agents, which underscore the need for elucidating the molecular basis for the neuronal toxicity of metals in order to develop effective therapeutic approaches. In this review, we have focused on the oxidative genome damage repair pathway as a potential target for reducing pro-oxidant metal toxicity in neurological diseases. PMID:25036887

  20. Oxidative DNA damage is a preliminary step during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Sandra Regina; Noguti, Juliana; Carvalho, Juliana Gonçalves; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative DNA damage during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution through their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. The alkaline Comet assay modified with lesion-specific enzymes was used to detect single and double strand breaks, labile sites (SBs), and oxidised purines and pyrimidines. Although no histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure, oxidative DNA damage was detected in the 'normal' oral epithelium. In pre-neoplastic lesions and squamous cell carcinomas induced after 12 and 20 weeks following carcinogen exposure, respectively, oxidative DNA damage was also increased (P < 0.05) when compared to negative control. In conclusion, our results suggest that oxidative DNA damage is an early event during multistep carcinogenesis assay induced by 4NQO. This kind of approach should be considered to persons with high risk of oral cancer, such as in smokers or alcohol consumers.

  1. Effects of arginine on hair damage via oxidative coloring process.

    PubMed

    Oshimura, Eiko; Ino, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the protective effects of arginine in oxidative coloring or bleaching process. Contact angle measurement, tensile measurement and amino acid analysis were employed. As the first step, it was shown that oxidative coloring or bleaching process decreases hair surface hydrophobicity and tensile strength in wet condition. Next the study has been conducted with coloring agents in which part of the ammonia was replaced with arginine, to find that arginine reduced the oxidative change in contact angle and tensile strength. These results suggest that arginine prevents the undesirable attack by hydrogen peroxide on hair proteins and hair surface lipids. Furthermore, it is also suggested from amino acid analysis that a considerable amount of arginine is deposited on, or in hair fibers from coloring agents.

  2. Facet Energy versus Enzyme-like Activities: The Unexpected Protection of Palladium Nanocrystals against Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cuicui; Fang, Ge; Shen, Xiaomei; Chong, Yu; Wamer, Wayne G; Gao, Xingfa; Chai, Zhifang; Chen, Chunying; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2016-11-22

    To develop nanomaterials as artificial enzymes, it is necessary to better understand how their physicochemical properties affect their enzyme-like activities. Although prior research has demonstrated that nanomaterials exhibit tunable enzyme-like activities depending on their size, structure, and composition, few studies have examined the effect of surface facets, which determine surface energy or surface reactivity. Here, we use electron spin-resonance spectroscopy to report that lower surface energy {111}-faceted Pd octahedrons have greater intrinsic antioxidant enzyme-like activity than higher surface energy {100}-faceted Pd nanocubes. Our in vitro experiments found that those same Pd octahedrons are more effective than Pd nanocubes at scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Those reductions in ROS preserve the homogeneity of mitochondrial membrane potential and attenuate damage to important biomolecules, thereby allowing a substantially higher number of cells to survive oxidative challenges. Our computations of molecular mechanisms for the antioxidant activities of {111}- and {100}-faceted Pd nanocrystals, as well as their activity order, agree well with experimental observations. These findings can guide the design of antioxidant-mimicking nanomaterials, which could have therapeutic or preventative potential against oxidative stress related diseases.

  3. High molecular weight hyaluronan decreases oxidative DNA damage induced by EDTA in human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, J; Wu, H; Wu, Y; Wang, C; Zhang, H; Shi, X; Yang, J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the toxic effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA), a corneal penetration enhancer in topical ophthalmic formulations, on DNA in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEs), and to investigate whether the effect induced by EDTA can be inhibited by high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA). Methods Cells were exposed to EDTA in concentrations ranging from 0.00001 to 0.01% for 60 min, or 30 min high molecular weight HA pretreatment followed by EDTA treatment. The cell viability was measured by the MTT test. Cell apoptosis was determined with annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The DNA single- and double-strand breaks of HCEs were examined by alkaline comet assay and by immunofluorescence microscope detection of the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results EDTA exhibited no adverse effect on cell viability and did not induce cell apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells at concentrations lower than 0.01%. However, a significant increase of DNA single- and double-strand breaks was observed in a dose-dependent manner with all the concentrations of EDTA tested in HCEs. In addition, EDTA treatment led to elevated ROS generation. Moreover, 30 min preincubation with high molecular weight HA significantly decreased EDTA-induced ROS generation and DNA damage. Conclusions EDTA could induce DNA damage in HCEs, probably through oxidative stress. Furthermore, high molecular weight HA was an effective protective agent that had antioxidant properties and decreased DNA damage induced by EDTA. PMID:22595911

  4. The molecular chaperone Hsp70 promotes the proteolytic removal of oxidatively damaged proteins by the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Reeg, Sandra; Jung, Tobias; Castro, José P.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Henze, Andrea; Grune, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of aging is the accumulation of protein aggregates, promoted by the unfolding of oxidized proteins. Unraveling the mechanism by which oxidized proteins are degraded may provide a basis to delay the early onset of features, such as protein aggregate formation, that contribute to the aging phenotype. In order to prevent aggregation of oxidized proteins, cells recur to the 20S proteasome, an efficient turnover proteolysis complex. It has previously been shown that upon oxidative stress the 26S proteasome, another form, dissociates into the 20S form. A critical player implicated in its dissociation is the Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70), which promotes an increase in free 20S proteasome and, therefore, an increased capability to degrade oxidized proteins. The aim of this study was to test whether or not Hsp70 is involved in cooperating with the 20S proteasome for a selective degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that Hsp70 expression is induced in HT22 cells as a result of mild oxidative stress conditions. Furthermore, Hsp70 prevents the accumulation of oxidized proteins and directly promotes their degradation by the 20S proteasome. In contrast the expression of the Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was not changed in recovery after oxidative stress and Hsc70 has no influence on the removal of oxidatively damaged proteins. We were able to demonstrate in HT22 cells, in brain homogenates from 129/SV mice and in vitro, that there is an increased interaction of Hsp70 with oxidized proteins, but also with the 20S proteasome, indicating a role of Hsp70 in mediating the interaction of oxidized proteins with the 20S proteasome. Thus, our data clearly implicate an involvement of Hsp70 oxidatively damaged protein degradation by the 20S proteasome. PMID:27498116

  5. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human visceral adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jones, D A; Prior, S L; Barry, J D; Caplin, S; Baxter, J N; Stephens, J W

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue samples from 61 subjects undergoing abdominal surgery grouped as lean, obese and obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus, were examined using 3 different markers of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation, telomere length and Comet assay as markers of oxidative DNA damage. No significant difference in MDA concentration, telomere length and DNA damage was observed between groups, although longer telomere lengths were seen in the obese with diabetes group compared to the obese group (P<0.05). Lower MDA concentration and longer telomere length were seen in subjects with diabetes compared to those without (P<0.05). DNA damage, analysed via Comet assay, was significantly lower in subjects with diabetes compared to those without (P<0.05). A paradoxical decrease in oxidative stress and DNA damage was observed in samples from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is required to investigate this further, however this phenomenon may be due to an up regulation of antioxidant defences in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Losartan reduces oxidative damage to renal DNA and conserves plasma antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Serio, Claudia; Raimondi, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels produced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin-II (AT-II) are considered among the pathogenic factors in the malignant transformation of diabetic renal cells. We aimed to investigate the potential role of AT-II in the increased cancer risk seen in diabetes; measuring oxidative damage to renal DNA and protective antioxidant defenses, including adiponectin (Adp) and plasma antioxidant capacity by the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method. In the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (55 mg/kg) diabetic rats either treated or not treated for 3 weeks with losartan, an AT-II type 1 receptor antagonist (20 mg/kg/day); we measured 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels, as an index of oxidative DNA damage, circulating Adp and FRAP. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher 8-oxodGuo levels in renal DNA (8.48 ± 0.98 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n = 11) than normoglycemic ones (1.18 ± 0.04 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM, n=7) and lower plasma Adp and FRAP levels in comparison to normoglycemics. The treatment of diabetic rats with losartan significantly (P < 0.01) reduced 8-oxodGuo levels (5.4 ± 0.58 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n=9) in renal DNA and conserved FRAP values. Moreover, an inverse correlation was found between 8-oxodGuo in kidney DNA and circulating Adp levels in normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Losartan treatment preserves FRAP levels, reduces DNA oxidative injury and thus the carcinogenesis risk. Furthermore, our results indicate that Adp plasma levels are a further marker of oxidative injury to the kidney and confirm that it is an important part of the plasma antioxidant defense.

  7. Unbalanced oxidant-induced DNA damage and repair in COPD: a link towards lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Caramori, Gaetano; Adcock, Ian M; Casolari, Paolo; Ito, Kazuhiro; Jazrawi, Elen; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Villetti, Gino; Civelli, Maurizio; Carnini, Chiara; Chung, Kian Fan; Barnes, Peter J; Papi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by oxidative stress and increased risk of lung carcinoma. Oxidative stress causes DNA damage which can be repaired by DNA-dependent protein kinase complex. To investigate DNA damage/repair balance and DNA-dependent protein kinase complex in COPD lung and in an animal model of smoking-induced lung damage and to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on Ku expression and function in human bronchial epithelial cells. Protein expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry and/or western blotting. DNA damage/repair was measured using colorimetric assays. 8-OH-dG, a marker of oxidant-induced DNA damage, was statistically significantly increased in the peripheral lung of smokers (with and without COPD) compared with non-smokers, while the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites (DNA damage and repair) was increased in smokers compared with non-smokers (p = 0.0012) and patients with COPD (p < 0.0148). Nuclear expression of Ku86, but not of DNA-PKcs, phospho-DNA-PKcs, Ku70 or γ-H2AFX, was reduced in bronchiolar epithelial cells from patients with COPD compared with normal smokers and non-smokers (p < 0.039). Loss of Ku86 expression was also observed in a smoking mouse model (p < 0.012) and prevented by antioxidants. Oxidants reduced (p < 0.0112) Ku86 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and Ku86 knock down modified AP sites in response to oxidative stress. Ineffective DNA repair rather than strand breakage per se accounts for the reduced AP sites observed in COPD and this is correlated with a selective decrease of the expression of Ku86 in the bronchiolar epithelium. DNA damage/repair imbalance may contribute to increased risk of lung carcinoma in COPD.

  8. Smoking-promoted oxidative DNA damage response is highly correlated to lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chao; Lai, Tianwen; Li, Miao; Zhou, Hongbin; Lv, Dan; Deng, Zaichun; Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Wen; Shen, Huahao

    2016-04-05

    Oxidative stress induced by tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of DNA damage and is known to be involved in various cancers. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, while the role of cigarette smoke-induced oxidative DNA damage response during lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated oxidative DNA damage response levels in smoking and nonsmoking patients with lung cancer, and evaluated the potential diagnostic value of 8-OHdG for lung cancer. We observed a higher level of 8-OHdG expression and secretion in airways of lung cancer patients than that of noncancer controls. 8-OHdG expression was associated with the TNM stages. Additionally, cigarette smoke-induced oxidative DNA damage response was observed in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. A statistical significance correlation was found between the levels of 8-OHdG and smoking index. With a cut-off value of 2.86 ng/ml, 8-OHdG showed a sensitivity and specificity of 70.0% and 73.7%, respectively, to identify a patient with lung cancer. These findings not only underscore the importance of smoking in oxidative DNA damage response of lung cancer patients, but also suggest 8-OHdG as a potential diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer.

  9. Vitamin E-coated dialysis membranes reduce the levels of oxidative genetic damage in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ribera, Lara; Corredor, Zuray; Silva, Irene; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Ballarín, José; Marcos, Ricard; Pastor, Susana; Coll, Elisabet

    2017-03-01

    End-stage renal disease patients present oxidative stress status that increases when they are submitted to hemodialysis (HD). This increase in oxidative stress can affect their genetic material, among other targets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using polysulfone membranes coated with vitamin E, during the HD sessions, on the levels of genetic damage of HD patients. Forty-six patients were followed for 6 months, of whom 29 changed from conventional HD to the use of membranes coated with vitamin E. The level of genetic damage was measured using the micronucleus and the comet assays, both before and after the follow-up period. Serum vitamin E concentration was also checked. The obtained results showed that 24% of our patients presented vitamin E deficiency, and this was normalized in those patients treated with vitamin E-coated membranes. Patients with vitamin E deficiency showed higher levels of oxidative DNA damage. After the use of vitamin E-coated membranes we detected a significant decrease in the levels of oxidative damage. Additionally, hemoglobin values increased significantly with the use of vitamin E-coated membranes. In conclusion, the use of vitamin E-coated membranes supposes a decrease on the levels of oxidative DNA damage, and improves the uremic anemia status. Furthermore, the use of this type of membrane was also effective in correcting vitamin E deficiency.

  10. MECHANISMS FOR COUNTERING OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DAMAGE IN RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Plafker, Scott M.; O’Mealey, Gary B.; Szweda, Luke I.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence supports that chronic oxidative stress is a primary contributing factor to numerous retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eyes obtained postmortem from AMD patients have extensive free radical damage to the proteins, lipids, DNA, and mitochondria of their retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In addition, several mouse models of chronic oxidative stress develop many of the pathological hallmarks of AMD. However, the extent to which oxidative stress is an etiologic component versus its involvement in disease progression remains a major unanswered question. Further, whether the primary target of oxidative stress and damage is photoreceptors or RPE cells, or both, is still unclear. In this review, we discuss the major functions of RPE cells with an emphasis on the oxidative challenges these cells encounter and the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms employed to neutralize the deleterious effects that such stresses can elicit if left unchecked. PMID:22878106

  11. Oxidative Stress in Ischemic Brain Damage: Mechanisms of Cell Death and Potential Molecular Targets for Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kim, Gab Seok; Jung, Joo Eun; Okami, Nobuya; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Maier, Carolina M.; Narasimhan, Purnima; Goeders, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significant amounts of oxygen free radicals (oxidants) are generated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and oxidative stress plays an important role in brain damage after stroke. In addition to oxidizing macromolecules, leading to cell injury, oxidants are also involved in cell death/survival signal pathways and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental data from laboratory animals that either overexpress (transgenic) or are deficient in (knock-out) antioxidant proteins, mainly superoxide dismutase, have provided strong evidence of the role of oxidative stress in ischemic brain damage. In addition to mitochondria, recent reports demonstrate that NADPH oxidase (NOX), an important pro-oxidant enzyme, is also involved in the generation of oxidants in the brain after stroke. Inhibition of NOX is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia. We propose that superoxide dismutase and NOX activity in the brain is a major determinant for ischemic damage/repair and that these major anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes are potential endogenous molecular targets for stroke therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1505–1517. PMID:20812869

  12. CUX2 protein functions as an accessory factor in the repair of oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Pal, Ranjana; Ramdzan, Zubaidah M; Kaur, Simran; Duquette, Philippe M; Marcotte, Richard; Leduy, Lam; Davoudi, Sayeh; Lamarche-Vane, Nathalie; Iulianella, Angelo; Nepveu, Alain

    2015-09-11

    CUX1 and CUX2 proteins are characterized by the presence of three highly similar regions called Cut repeats 1, 2, and 3. Although CUX1 is ubiquitously expressed, CUX2 plays an important role in the specification of neuronal cells and continues to be expressed in postmitotic neurons. Cut repeats from the CUX1 protein were recently shown to stimulate 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), an enzyme that removes oxidized purines from DNA and introduces a single strand break through its apurinic/apyrimidinic lyase activity to initiate base excision repair. Here, we investigated whether CUX2 plays a similar role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Cux2 knockdown in embryonic cortical neurons increased levels of oxidative DNA damage. In vitro, Cut repeats from CUX2 increased the binding of OGG1 to 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine-containing DNA and stimulated both the glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic lyase activities of OGG1. Genetic inactivation in mouse embryo fibroblasts or CUX2 knockdown in HCC38 cells delayed DNA repair and increased DNA damage. Conversely, ectopic expression of Cut repeats from CUX2 accelerated DNA repair and reduced levels of oxidative DNA damage. These results demonstrate that CUX2 functions as an accessory factor that stimulates the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Neurons produce a high level of reactive oxygen species because of their dependence on aerobic oxidation of glucose as their source of energy. Our results suggest that the persistent expression of CUX2 in postmitotic neurons contributes to the maintenance of genome integrity through its stimulation of oxidative DNA damage repair. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. 17β-Estradiol Alters Oxidative Stress Response Protein Expression and Oxidative Damage in the Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lisi; Dietrich, Alicia K.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) has profound effects on the uterus. However, with the E2-induced increase in uterine cell proliferation and metabolism comes increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We examined the expression of an interactive network of oxidative stress response proteins including thioredoxin (Trx), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), apurinic endonuclease (Ape1), and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). We demonstrated that treatment of ovariectomized C57BL/6J female mice with E2 increased the mRNA and protein levels of Trx, but decreased SOD1 and Ape1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, E2 treatment increased PDI protein levels but had no effect on PDI transcript levels.Interestingly, E2 treatment also increased two markers of cellular damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Our studies suggest that the decreased expression of SOD1 and Ape1 caused by E2 treatment may in the long term result in disruption of ROS regulation and play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis. PMID:24103313

  14. Mechanisms of MDMA (ecstasy)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Lee, Insong J

    2010-08-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage.

  15. Biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense capacity in Caiman latirostris blood.

    PubMed

    Poletta, Gisela L; Simoniello, María Fernanda; Mudry, Marta D

    2016-01-01

    Several xenobiotics, and among them pesticides, can produce oxidative stress, providing a mechanistic basis for their observed toxicity. Chronic oxidative stress induces deleterious modifications to DNA, lipids and proteins that are used as effective biomarkers to study pollutant-mediated oxidative stress. No previous report existed on the application of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense biomarkers in Caiman latirostris blood, while few studies reported in other crocodilians were done in organs or muscles of dead animals. The aim of this study was to characterize a new set of oxidative stress biomarkers in C. latirostris blood, through the modification of conventional techniques: 1) damage to lipids by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 2) damage to DNA by comet assay modified with the enzymes FPG and Endo III, and 3) antioxidant defenses: catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione; in order to apply them in future biomonitoring studies. We successfully adapted standard procedures for CAT, SOD, GSH and TBARS determination in C. latirostris blood. Calibration curves for FPG and Endo III showed that the three dilutions tested were appropriate to conduct the modified comet assay for the detection of oxidized bases in C. latirostris erythrocytes. One hour of incubation allowed a complete repair of the damage generated. The incorporation of these biomarkers in biomonitoring studies of caiman populations exposed to xenobiotics is highly important considering that this species has recovered from a serious endangered state through the implementation of sustainable use programs in Argentina, and represents nowadays a relevant economic resource for many human communities.

  16. Mechanisms of MDMA (Ecstasy)-Induced Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V.; Eddington, Natalie D.; Lee, Insong J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage. PMID:20420575

  17. Neutrophil-derived ROS contribute to oxidative DNA damage induction by quartz particles.

    PubMed

    van Berlo, Damien; Wessels, Anton; Boots, Agnes W; Wilhelmi, Verena; Scherbart, Agnes M; Gerloff, Kirsten; van Schooten, Frederik J; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P F

    2010-12-01

    The carcinogenicity of respirable quartz is considered to be driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in association with chronic inflammation. The contribution of phagocyte-derived ROS to inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage responses was investigated in the lungs of C57BL/6J wild-type and p47(phox-/-) mice, 24h after pharyngeal aspiration of DQ12 quartz (100 mg/kg bw). Bone-marrow-derived neutrophils from wild-type and p47(phox-/-) mice were used for parallel in vitro investigations in coculture with A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. Quartz induced a marked neutrophil influx in both wild-type and p47(phox-/-) mouse lungs. Significant increases in mRNA expression of the oxidative stress markers HO-1 and γ-GCS were observed only in quartz-treated wild-type animals. Oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue was not affected by quartz exposure and did not differ between p47(phox-/-) and WT mice. Differences in mRNA expression of the DNA repair genes OGG1, APE-1, DNA Polβ, and XRCC1 were also absent. Quartz treatment of cocultures containing wild-type neutrophils, but not p47(phox-/-) neutrophils, caused increased oxidative DNA damage in epithelial cells. Our study demonstrates that neutrophil-derived ROS significantly contribute to pulmonary oxidative stress responses after acute quartz exposure, yet their role in the associated induction of oxidative DNA damage could be shown only in vitro.

  18. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xubu; Li, Maoquan; Chen, Yang; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Guangbin; Zhong, Min

    2010-01-22

    Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved in the adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the brain. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are closely associated with various nervous system diseases and mtDNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiofrequency radiation can cause oxidative damage to mtDNA. In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain.

  19. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work w...

  20. Long-lived Indy induces reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Neretti, Nicola; Wang, Pei-Yu; Brodsky, Alexander S.; Nyguyen, Hieu H.; White, Kevin P.; Rogina, Blanka; Helfand, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Decreased Indy activity extends lifespan in D. melanogaster without significant reduction in fecundity, metabolic rate, or locomotion. To understand the underlying mechanisms leading to lifespan extension in this mutant strain, we compared the genome-wide gene expression changes in the head and thorax of adult Indy mutant with control flies over the course of their lifespan. A signature enrichment analysis of metabolic and signaling pathways revealed that expression levels of genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway are significantly lower in Indy starting at day 20. We confirmed experimentally that complexes I and III of the electron transport chain have lower enzyme activity in Indy long-lived flies by Day 20 and predicted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria could be reduced. Consistently, we found that both ROS production and protein damage are reduced in Indy with respect to control. However, we did not detect significant differences in total ATP, a phenotype that could be explained by our finding of a higher mitochondrial density in Indy mutants. Thus, one potential mechanism by which Indy mutants extend life span could be through an alteration in mitochondrial physiology leading to an increased efficiency in the ATP/ROS ratio. PMID:19164521

  1. Oxidative damage in keratinocytes exposed to cigarette smoke and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Avezov, Katia; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-06-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a significant environmental source of human exposure to chemically active saturated (acetaldehyde) and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein) inducing protein carbonylation and dysfunction. The exposure of oral tissues to environmental hazards is immense, especially in smokers. The objectives of the current study were to examine the effect of aldehydes originating from CS on intracellular proteins of oral keratinocytes and to observe the antioxidant response in these cells. Intracellular protein carbonyl modification under CS, acrolein and acetaldehyde exposure in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, representing oral keratinocytes was examined by Western blot. Possible intracellular enzymatic dysfunction under the above conditions was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Oxidative stress response was investigated, by DCF (2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein) assay and GSH (glutathione) oxidation. Intracellular protein carbonyls increased 5.2 times after CS exposure and 2.7 times after exposure to 1 μmol of acrolein. DCF assay revealed an increase of fluorescence intensity 3.2 and 3.1 times after CS and acrolein exposure, respectively. CS caused a 72.5% decrease in intracellular GSH levels compared to controls. Activity of intracellular LDH was preserved. α,β-Unsaturated aldehydes from CS are capable of intracellular protein carbonylation and have a role in intracellular oxidative stress elevation in keratinocytes, probably due to the reduction in GSH levels.

  2. Urban structure damaged by differential land level lowering in the lacustrine plain of Queretaro City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-González, Gil H.; Carreón-Freyre, Dora; Teatini, Pietro; Cerca, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    The Queretaro City, Central Mexico, is placed above a variety of volcanic and sedimentary materials filling a N-S trending graben, with a geomorphologic designation of volcanic valley. The stratigraphic sequence of the filling is mainly composed by lava flows interbedded with an almost 100 m thick pyroclastic unit that was easily eroded by fluvial processes during the Tertiary time. The near surface sequence in the plain is hence composed by alluvial deposits covered by organic silty and clay lacustrine materials. Moreover, as many cities in Mexico, the main source of water supply in Queretaro is groundwater. Groundwater withdrawal caused a 1-3 m/year lowering of the piezometric level and a significant consolidation of the granular materials. Currently, the depth to groundwater table in the lacustrine plain is approximately 120 m deep. The thickness of the granular material varies significantly depending on its location with respect to the normal faults delimiting the main structure of the regional graben. The consolidation on these variably-thick deposits caused differential displacements (e.g., land subsidence) of the ground surface, generating local stress accumulation and fractures. Fracture propagation to the ground surface affected most of the urban structure in the city. We present the correlation of the outcome of a geomechanical model (Ochoa-Gonzalez et al., 2013) with the measured groundwater withdrawal and faulting maps in order to investigate the contribution of the different factors determining the generation of ground fracturing, and to evaluate the associated risk of damage to urban structure in the lacustrine part of the metropolitan area. References G. H. Ochoa-Gonzalez, P. Teatini, D. C. Carreon-Freyre and G. Gambolati, Modeling the deformation of faulted volcano-sedimentary sequences associated to groundwater withdrawal in the Queretaro Valley, Mexico. In: MODSIM 2013 - Adapting to change: the multiple roles of modelling, J. Piantadosi et al. eds

  3. DNA damage signalling barrier, oxidative stress and treatment-relevant DNA repair factor alterations during progression of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurfurstova, Daniela; Bartkova, Jirina; Vrtel, Radek; Mickova, Alena; Burdova, Alena; Majera, Dusana; Mistrik, Martin; Kral, Milan; Santer, Frederic R; Bouchal, Jan; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    The DNA damage checkpoints provide an anti-cancer barrier in diverse tumour types, however this concept has remained unexplored in prostate cancer (CaP). Furthermore, targeting DNA repair defects by PARP1 inhibitors (PARPi) as a cancer treatment strategy is emerging yet requires suitable predictive biomarkers. To address these issues, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of multiple markers of DNA damage signalling, oxidative stress, DNA repair and cell cycle control pathways during progression of human prostate disease from benign hyperplasia, through intraepithelial neoplasia to CaP, complemented by genetic analyses of TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement and NQO1, an anti-oxidant factor and p53 protector. The DNA damage checkpoint barrier (γH2AX, pATM, p53) mechanism was activated during CaP tumorigenesis, albeit less and with delayed culmination compared to other cancers, possibly reflecting lower replication stress (slow proliferation despite cases of Rb loss and cyclin D1 overexpression) and progressive loss of ATM activator NKX3.1. Oxidative stress (8-oxoguanine lesions) and NQO1 increased during disease progression. NQO1 genotypes of 390 men did not indicate predisposition to CaP, yet loss of NQO1 in CaP suggested potential progression-opposing tumour suppressor role. TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement and PTEN loss, events sensitizing to PARPi, occurred frequently along with heterogeneous loss of DNA repair factors 53BP1, JMJD1C and Rev7 (all studied here for the first time in CaP) whose defects may cause resistance to PARPi. Overall, our results reveal an unorthodox DNA damage checkpoint barrier scenario in CaP tumorigenesis, and provide novel insights into oxidative stress and DNA repair, with implications for biomarker guidance of future targeted therapy of CaP.

  4. [Effect of astaxanthin on oxidative stress of red blood cells and peroxidation damage of membrane].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Ling; He, Lu-Jun; He, Tian-Bo; Han, Wei; Wang, Qie

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effect of astaxanthin (ASTA) on oxidative stress of intra- and extra- red blood cells during stored period and the protective function for cell membrane. The blood of volunteers was collected to prepare suspended red blood cells without leukocytes. Then the red blood cells were randomly divided into group A, group B, group C and group D. The ASTA was added into MAP preservation solution of group B, group C and group D, the final concentration of ASTA was 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L respectively. Group A was used as control group, in which only the dissolved liquid DMSO of ASTA was added. The red blood cells were stored in refrigerator at 2 °C-6 °C. On day 7, 14, 28 and day 42 of storage, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in red blood cells was detected by fluorescence microplate reader. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was detected with TBA method. The content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) outside cell was detected with spectrophotometric method. The mean corpuscular volume(MCV) was detected with blood cell analyzer. The content of free hemoglobin(FHb) was detected with chemical colorimetry. The ROS, MDA, FHb and H2O2 levels in B, C and D groups were lower than those in control group during the stored period. On day 7 and 14 of storage, among group B, group C, group D and group A, the MCV showed no difference in comparison with control group. On day 28 and 42 of storage, the MCV in B, C and D groups was lower than that in control group. The ASTA can reduce the oxidative stress level of stored red blood cells inside and outside, relieve the peroxidation damage of cell membrane.

  5. Roles of oxidative stress in synchrotron radiation X-ray-induced testicular damage of rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingxin; Nie, Hui; Sheng, Caibin; Chen, Heyu; Wang, Ban; Liu, Tengyuan; Shao, Jiaxiang; He, Xin; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Chaobo; Xia, Weiliang; Ying, Weihai

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has characteristic properties such as coherence and high photon flux, which has excellent potential for its applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, there is little information regarding the mechanisms underlying the damaging effects of SR X-ray on biological tissues. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the tissue damage induced by conventional X-ray, while the role of oxidative stress in the tissue injury induced by SR X-ray remains unknown. In this study we used the male gonads of rats as a model to study the roles of oxidative stress in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. Exposures of the testes to SR X-ray at various radiation doses did not significantly increase the lipid peroxidation of the tissues, assessed at one day after the irradiation. No significant decreases in the levels of GSH or total antioxidation capacity were found in the SR X-ray-irradiated testes. However, the SR X-ray at 40 Gy induced a marked increase in phosphorylated H2AX – a marker of double-strand DNA damage, which was significantly decreased by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). NAC also attenuated the SR X-ray-induced decreases in the cell layer number of seminiferous tubules. Collectively, our observations have provided the first characterization of SR X-ray-induced oxidative damage of biological tissues: SR X-ray at high doses can induce DNA damage and certain tissue damage during the acute phase of the irradiation, at least partially by generating oxidative stress. However, SR X-ray of various radiation doses did not increase lipid peroxidation. PMID:22837810

  6. Different Effects of CSA and CSB Deficiency on Sensitivity to Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    de Waard, Harm; de Wit, Jan; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; van Oostrom, Conny T. M.; Riis, Bente; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik E.; van Steeg, Harry; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the CSA and CSB genes cause Cockayne syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by UV sensitivity, severe neurological abnormalities, and progeriod symptoms. Both gene products function in the transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER), providing the cell with a mechanism to remove transcription-blocking lesions from the transcribed strands of actively transcribed genes. Besides a function in TCR of NER lesions, a role of CSB in (transcription-coupled) repair of oxidative DNA damage has been suggested. In this study we used mouse models to compare the effect of a CSA or a CSB defect on oxidative DNA damage sensitivity at the levels of the cell and the intact organism. In contrast to CSB−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), CSA−/− MEFs are not hypersensitive to gamma-ray or paraquat treatment. Similar results were obtained for keratinocytes. In contrast, both CSB−/− and CSA−/− embryonic stem cells show slight gamma-ray sensitivity. Finally, CSB−/− but not CSA−/− mice fed with food containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (causing elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage in the liver) show weight reduction. These findings not only uncover a clear difference in oxidative DNA damage sensitivity between CSA- and CSB-deficient cell lines and mice but also show that sensitivity to oxidative DNA damage is not a uniform characteristic of Cockayne syndrome. This difference in the DNA damage response between CSA- and CSB-deficient cells is unexpected, since until now no consistent differences between CSA and CSB patients have been reported. We suggest that the CSA and CSB proteins in part perform separate roles in different DNA damage response pathways. PMID:15340056

  7. Oxidative DNA damage correlates with cell immortalization and mir-92 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs expression has been extensively studied in hepatocellular carcinoma but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, with inflammation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), host’s repair mechanisms and cell immortalization. This study aimed at assessing the extent of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine - 8-OHdG) in different phases of the carcinogenetic process, in relation to DNA repair gene polymorphism, telomeric dysfunction and to the expression of several microRNAs, non-coding genes involved in post-transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Methods Tissue samples obtained either at surgery, [neoplastic (HCC) and adjacent non-cancerous cirrhotic tissues (NCCT)] at percutaneous or laparoscopic biopsy (patients with HCV or HBV-related hepatitis or patients undergoing cholecystectomy) were analysed for 8-OHdG (HPLC-ED), OGG1 (a DNA repair gene) polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), telomerase activity, telomere length (T/S, by RT-PCR), Taqman microRNA assay and Bad/Bax mRNA (RT-PCR). Fifty-eight samples from 29 HCC patients (obtained in both neoplastic and peritumoral tissues), 22 from chronic hepatitis (CH) and 10 controls (cholecystectomy patients - CON) were examined. Results Eight-OHdG levels were significantly higher in HCC and NCCT than in CH and CON (p=0.001). Telomerase activity was significantly higher in HCC than in the remaining subgroups (p=0.002); conversely T/S was significantly lower in HCC (p=0.05). MiR-199a-b, -195, -122, -92a and −145 were down-regulated in the majority of HCCs while miR-222 was up-regulated. A positive correlation was observed among 8-OHdG levels, disease stage, telomerase activity, OGG1 polymorphisms and ALT/GGT levels. In HCC, miR-92 expression correlated positively with telomerase activity, 8-OHdG levels and Bad/Bax mRNA. Conclusions The above findings confirm the accumulation, in the progression of chronic liver damage to HCC, of a ROS-mediated oxidative

  8. Oxidative DNA damage correlates with cell immortalization and mir-92 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Romilda; Romilda, Cardin; Piciocchi, Marika; Marika, Piciocchi; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Alessandro, Sinigaglia; Lavezzo, Enrico; Enrico, Lavezzo; Bortolami, Marina; Marina, Bortolami; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Andromachi, Kotsafti; Cillo, Umberto; Umberto, Cillo; Zanus, Giacomo; Giacomo, Zanus; Mescoli, Claudia; Claudia, Mescoli; Rugge, Massimo; Massimo, Rugge; Farinati, Fabio; Fabio, Farinati

    2012-05-15

    MicroRNAs expression has been extensively studied in hepatocellular carcinoma but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, with inflammation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), host's repair mechanisms and cell immortalization. This study aimed at assessing the extent of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine - 8-OHdG) in different phases of the carcinogenetic process, in relation to DNA repair gene polymorphism, telomeric dysfunction and to the expression of several microRNAs, non-coding genes involved in post-transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Tissue samples obtained either at surgery, [neoplastic (HCC) and adjacent non-cancerous cirrhotic tissues (NCCT)] at percutaneous or laparoscopic biopsy (patients with HCV or HBV-related hepatitis or patients undergoing cholecystectomy) were analysed for 8-OHdG (HPLC-ED), OGG1 (a DNA repair gene) polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), telomerase activity, telomere length (T/S, by RT-PCR), Taqman microRNA assay and Bad/Bax mRNA (RT-PCR). Fifty-eight samples from 29 HCC patients (obtained in both neoplastic and peritumoral tissues), 22 from chronic hepatitis (CH) and 10 controls (cholecystectomy patients - CON) were examined. Eight-OHdG levels were significantly higher in HCC and NCCT than in CH and CON (p=0.001). Telomerase activity was significantly higher in HCC than in the remaining subgroups (p=0.002); conversely T/S was significantly lower in HCC (p=0.05). MiR-199a-b, -195, -122, -92a and -145 were down-regulated in the majority of HCCs while miR-222 was up-regulated. A positive correlation was observed among 8-OHdG levels, disease stage, telomerase activity, OGG1 polymorphisms and ALT/GGT levels. In HCC, miR-92 expression correlated positively with telomerase activity, 8-OHdG levels and Bad/Bax mRNA. The above findings confirm the accumulation, in the progression of chronic liver damage to HCC, of a ROS-mediated oxidative DNA damage, and suggest that this correlates

  9. CUPRAC colorimetric and electroanalytical methods determining antioxidant activity based on prevention of oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Uzunboy, Seda; Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Eksin, Ece; Erdem, Arzum; Apak, Reşat

    2017-02-01

    An unbalanced excess of oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) can give oxidative hazard to DNA and other biomacromolecules under oxidative stress conditions. While the 'comet' assay for measuring DNA damage is neither specific nor practical, monitoring oxidative changes on individual DNA bases and other oxidation products needs highly specialized equipment and operators. Thus, we developed a modified CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) colorimetric method to determine the average total damage on DNA produced by Fenton oxidation, taking advantage of the fact that the degradation products of DNA but not the original macromolecule is CUPRAC-responsive. The DNA-protective effects of water-soluble antioxidants were used to devise a novel antioxidant activity assay, considered to be physiologically more realistic than those using artificial probes. Our method, based on the measurement of DNA oxidative products with CUPRAC colorimetry proved to be 2 orders-of-magnitude more sensitive than the widely used TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) colorimetric assay used as reference. Additionally, the DNA damage was electrochemically investigated using pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) as DNA sensor platform in combination with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The interaction of the radical species with DNA in the absence/presence of antioxidants was detected according to the changes in guanine oxidation signal.

  10. Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Felipe S.; Burton, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

  11. Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Burton, Ronald S

    2013-09-22

    Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations.

  12. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  13. Elevated levels of urinary markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Klaus; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-05-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder and its multi-system nature are unclear. Oxidatively generated damage to nucleosides has been demonstrated in metabolic disorders; however, the extent to which this occurs in bipolar disorder in vivo is unknown. We investigated oxidatively generated damage to DNA and RNA in patients with bipolar disorder and its relationship with the affective phase compared with healthy control subjects. Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, respectively, was measured in 37 rapid cycling patients with bipolar disorder and in 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Employing a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of both markers were evaluated in various affective phases in patients with bipolar disorder during a six- to 12-month period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical, metabolic, and lifestyle factors, the excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo was significantly elevated in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects, with increases of 40% (p < 0.0005) and 43% (p < 0.0005), respectively. The increased oxidatively generated nucleoside damage was present through all affective phases of the illness, with no significant difference between affective states. Our results indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleosides. The findings could suggest a role for oxidatively generated damage to DNA and RNA as a molecular mechanism contributing to the increased risk of medical disorders, shortened life expectancy, and the progressive course of illness observed in bipolar disorder. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [The therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil (Euphausia superba) supplementation on oxidative stress and DNA damages markers in cafeteria diet-overfed rats].

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Z; Agustina, M; Ramirez, M; Pena, K; Arivalo, J

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil supplementation in modulation of oxidative stress components and DNA oxidative damages marker in cafeteria diet-overfed-rats. Eighteen aging male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each and were exposed for the ensuing 8 weeks to one of the diets: control group (TS) which was submitted to standard chow (330kcal/100g), containing 24% of proteins, 5% of lipids and 70% of carbohydrates. Cafeteria standard group (TC) exposed to cafeteria diet (420kcal/100g). The last group received a cafeteria diet enriched in oral force-feeding krill oil 2% (CK). The plasma and tissues pro-oxydant status were assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxydes, and isoprostans. The determination of DNA oxidative damages was evaluated by the measurement of the major products of DNA oxidation (8-OHdG). Exposure to a cafeteria diet increases the metabolic response to the radical attack and DNA oxidative damages in both plasma and key tissues involved in antioxidant defense. Krill oil supplementation in cafeteria diet relieves oxidative stress and DNA damages by lowering several lipid peroxidation components and the main marker of DNA oxidation in obese rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Life Hormetic Treatments Decrease Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Damage, Increase Longevity, and Enhance Sexual Performance during Old Age in the Caribbean Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and

  16. Age-Dependent Oxidative DNA Damage Does Not Correlate with Reduced Proliferation of Cardiomyocytes in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Liu, Jinfen; Jiang, Chuan; Zhang, Haibo; Ye, Lincai; Zheng, Jinghao

    2017-01-01

    Background Postnatal human cardiomyocyte proliferation declines rapidly with age, which has been suggested to be correlated with increases in oxidative DNA damage in mice and plays an important role in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation. However, the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and age in humans is unclear. Methods Sixty right ventricular outflow myocardial tissue specimens were obtained from ventricular septal defect infant patients during routine congenital cardiac surgery. These specimens were divided into three groups based on age: group A (age 0–6 months), group B (age, 7–12 months), and group C (>12 months). Each tissue specimen was subjected to DNA extraction, RNA extraction, and immunofluorescence. Results Immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that DNA damage markers—mitochondrial DNA copy number, oxoguanine 8, and phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated—were highest in Group B. However immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR demonstrated that two cell proliferation markers, Ki67 and cyclin D2, were decreased with age. In addition, wheat germ agglutinin-staining indicated that the average size of cardiomyocytes increased with age. Conclusions Oxidative DNA damage of cardiomyocytes was not correlated positively with age in human beings. Oxidative DNA damage is unable to fully explain the reduced proliferation of human cardiomyocytes. PMID:28099512

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Ah; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells’ molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies. PMID:27527148

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Ah; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-08-03

    The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells' molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies.

  19. Huntingtin is a scaffolding protein in the ATM oxidative DNA damage response complex.

    PubMed

    Maiuri, Tamara; Mocle, Andrew J; Hung, Claudia L; Xia, Jianrun; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C; Truant, Ray

    2017-01-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease. DNA repair pathways have recently been implicated as the most predominant modifiers of age of onset in HD patients. We report that endogenous huntingtin protein directly participates in oxidative DNA damage repair. Using novel chromobodies to detect endogenous human huntingtin in live cells, we show that localization of huntingtin to DNA damage sites is dependent on the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Super-resolution microscopy and biochemical assays revealed that huntingtin co-localizes with and scaffolds proteins of the DNA damage response pathway in response to oxidative stress. In HD patient fibroblasts bearing typical clinical HD allele lengths, we demonstrate that there is deficient oxidative DNA damage repair. We propose that DNA damage in HD is caused by dysfunction of the mutant huntingtin protein in DNA repair, and accumulation of DNA oxidative lesions due to elevated reactive oxygen species may contribute to the onset of HD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mismatch repair proteins recruit DNA methyltransferase 1 to sites of oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ning; Bonham, Emily M; Hannon, Brooke E; Amick, Thomas R; Baylin, Stephen B; O'Hagan, Heather M

    2016-06-01

    At sites of chronic inflammation, epithelial cells are exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species and undergo cancer-associated DNA methylation changes, suggesting that inflammation may initiate epigenetic alterations. Previously, we demonstrated that oxidative damage causes epigenetic silencing proteins to become part of a large complex that is localized to GC-rich regions of the genome, including promoter CpG islands that are epigenetically silenced in cancer. However, whether these proteins were recruited directly to damaged DNA or during the DNA repair process was unknown. Here we demonstrate that the mismatch repair protein heterodimer MSH2-MSH6 participates in the oxidative damage-induced recruitment of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) to chromatin. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces the interaction of MSH2-MSH6 with DNMT1, suggesting that the recruitment is through a protein-protein interaction. Importantly, the reduction in transcription for genes with CpG island-containing promoters caused by oxidative damage is abrogated by knockdown of MSH6 and/or DNMT1. Our findings provide evidence that the role of DNMT1 at sites of oxidative damage is to reduce transcription, potentially preventing transcription from interfering with the repair process. This study uniquely brings together several factors that are known to contribute to colon cancer, namely inflammation, mismatch repair proteins, and epigenetic changes. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Quercetin protects hamster spermatogenic cells from oxidative damage induced by diethylstilboestrol.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Ma, Aituan; Shi, W; Zhong, Xiuhui

    2010-10-01

    Quercetin has been reported to be an efficient antioxidant which protects chicken spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Exposure to diethylstilboestrol (DES) could cause reproductive damage in males, which is associated with oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of quercetin on DES-induced oxidative damage in cultured hamster spermatogenic cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of DES, and their growth status was observed under inverted microscope. The viability of spermatogenic cells was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in supernatants and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cells were detected with spectrophotography. The results showed that quercetin significantly inhibited the DES-induced damage on spermatogenic cells, with the exception of the low-dose group in which no significant difference was observed. The cell survival rate increased significantly in the middle- and high-dose groups. The contents of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly elevated after medication with quercetin (P < 0.01). It can be concluded that quercetin protects spermatogenic cells against DES-induced oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Quercetin plays a very important role in ameliorating reproductive toxicity induced by environmental oestrogens.

  2. Polyphenolic apple juice extracts and their major constituents reduce oxidative damage in human colon cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sandra; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Janzowski, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Apple juice containing high amounts of antioxidative polyphenols might protect the intestine against oxidative cell damage. We investigated the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts of different origins (cider and table apples) in comparison to their major constituents in human colon cell lines (Caco-2, HT29). Parameters studied were (oxidative) DNA damage (Comet assay), glutathione level (photometric kinetic assay), cellular redox status (dichlorofluorescein assay) and antioxidant capacity. The extracts (50-250 microg/mL) modulated DNA damage and redox status in a concentration-dependent manner at 24-h incubation. The pomace extraction technology, applied for juice preparation, and the preferential selection of cider apple varieties influenced the polyphenolic pattern and increased the biological effectiveness of the extracts. The preventive potential of major juice constituents (1-100 microM, 24 h) strongly differed: rutin, epicatechin and caffeic acid clearly reduced (oxidative) DNA damage (Caco-2), chlorogenic acid efficiently decreased cellular reactive oxygen species level (HT29, Caco-2). The aglyca quercetin and phloretin exhibited the highest preventive/antioxidant capacity in all assays. The stability of the compounds inversely correlated with their preventive effectiveness and might contribute to the observed cell specific sensitivities. In conclusion, apple juice extracts distinctly reduce oxidative cell damage in human colon cell lines, an effect, which in part can be accounted for by their major constituents.

  3. Protective effect of diallyl trisulfide against naphthalene-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yongchun; Wang, Kaiming; Liu, Guangpu; Yang, Min; Zhao, Zhongxi; Li, Shanzhong; Cai, Jianhua; Cao, Jimin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) against naphthalene-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage in the livers and lungs of mice. Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels showed significant hepatic damage after the challenge with 100 mg/kg naphthalene. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) increased significantly, accompanying a decrease in the hepatic activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels after the naphthalene damage. In addition, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) increased significantly in the groups damaged with naphthalene. The main parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the lungs, including the NO, MPO, and GSH contents, were determined, and the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the lung and liver tissues were also observed. In the DATS-treated groups, all of the oxidative and inflammatory damage in the serum, liver, and lung tissues were significantly prevented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Excess processing of oxidative damaged bases causes hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and low dose rate irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Y; Yamasaki, A; Takatori, K; Suzuki, M; Kobayashi, J; Takao, M; Zhang-Akiyama, Q-M

    2015-10-01

    Ionizing radiations such as X-ray and γ-ray can directly or indirectly produce clustered or multiple damages in DNA. Previous studies have reported that overexpression of DNA glycosylases in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and human lymphoblast cells caused increased sensitivity to γ-ray and X-ray irradiation. However, the effects and the mechanisms of other radiation, such as low dose rate radiation, heavy-ion beams, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are still poorly understood. In the present study, we constructed a stable HeLaS3 cell line overexpressing human 8-oxoguanine DNA N-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) protein. We determined the survival of HeLaS3 and HeLaS3/hOGG1 cells exposed to UV, heavy-ion beams, γ-rays, and H2O2. The results showed that HeLaS3 cells overexpressing hOGG1 were more sensitive to γ-rays, OH(•), and H2O2, but not to UV or heavy-ion beams, than control HeLaS3. We further determined the levels of 8-oxoG foci and of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by detecting γ-H2AX foci formation in DNA. The results demonstrated that both γ-rays and H2O2 induced 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) foci formation in HeLaS3 cells. hOGG1-overexpressing cells had increased amounts of γ-H2AX foci and decreased amounts of 8-oxoG foci compared with HeLaS3 control cells. These results suggest that excess hOGG1 removes the oxidatively damaged 8-oxoG in DNA more efficiently and therefore generates more DSBs. Micronucleus formation also supported this conclusion. Low dose-rate γ-ray effects were also investigated. We first found that overexpression of hOGG1 also caused increased sensitivity to low dose rate γ-ray irradiation. The rate of micronucleus formation supported the notion that low dose rate irradiation increased genome instability.

  5. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  6. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system. PMID:26637174

  7. Protective effect of an aminothiazole compound against γ-radiation induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    De, Strayo; Devasagayam, Thomas P A

    2011-11-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. During radiotherapy of cancer, one of the undesirable side-effects is toxicity to normal cells. Compounds with antioxidant activities are being tried as 'prophylactic radioprotectants' to overcome this problem. We evaluated the protective effect of an aminothiazole compound, in the form of dendrodoine analogue (DA) originally derived from a marine tunicate, against γ-radiation-induced damage to lipid, protein, and DNA besides its cytotoxicity. Oxidative damage was examined by different biochemcial assays. Our studies reveal that DA gave significant protection, in fairly low concentrations, against damage induced by γ-radiation to rat liver mitochondria, plasmid pBR322 DNA, and mouse splenic lymphocytes in vitro. It also protected against oxidative damage in whole-body irradiated mice exposed to therapeutic dose of radiation (2 Gy) in vivo. Spleen, a major target organ for radiation damage, of the irradiated mice showed significant protection when treated with DA, as examined by histopathology. In conclusion, due to the possible protective effects against normal cells/tissues both in vitro and in vivo, DA shows potential to be a radioprotector for possible use during radiotherapy.

  8. Effects of drugs used in endotoxic shock on oxidative stress and organ damage markers.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Enver; Er, Ayse; Uney, Kamil; Bulbul, Aziz; Avci, Gulcan Erbil; Elmas, Muammer; Tras, Bunyamin

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of enrofloxacin (ENR), flunixin meglumine (FM) and dexamethasone (DEX) on antioxidant status and organ damage markers in experimentally-induced endotoxemia. Rats were divided into three groups. To induce endotoxemia, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into all groups, including the positive control. The two other groups received the following drugs (simultaneously with LPS): ENR + FM + low-dose DEX and ENR + FM + high-dose DEX. After the treatments, blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. Oxidative stress parameters were determined by ELISA, while serum organ damage markers were measured by autoanalyser. LSP increased (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and nitric oxide, while LPS reduced vitamin C. These changes were especially inhibited (p < 0.05) by ENR + FM + high-dose DEX. LPS increased organ damages markers. Cardiac and hepatic damage was not completely inhibited by any treatment, whereas renal damage was inhibited by two treatments. This study suggested that ENR + FM + high-dose DEX is most effective in the LPS-caused oxidative stress and organ damages.

  9. Antioxidation of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles to Several Series of Oxidative Damage Related to Type II Diabetes Mellitus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jing-hui; Wu, Yi; Wang, Xiao-ying; Cao, Yue; Xu, Kan; Xu, Li; Guo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) have intense antioxidant activity. The antioxidant property of CeNPs are widely used in different areas of research, but little is known about the oxidative damage of Cu2+ associated with Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods In our research, the function of CeNPs was tested for its protection of β-cells from the damage of Cu2+ or H2O2. We detected hydroxyl radicals using terephthalic acid assay, hydrogen peroxide using Amplex Ultra Red assay, and cell viability using MTT reduction. Results We found that CeNPs can persistently inhibit Cu2+/H2O2 evoked hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in oxidative stress of β-cells. Conclusions CeNPs will be useful in developing strategies for the prevention of T2DM. PMID:27752033

  10. Oxidative damage to RPA limits the nucleotide excision repair capacity of human cells

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Melisa; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Peacock, Matthew; Karran, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protects against sunlight-induced skin cancer. Defective NER is associated with photosensitivity and a high skin cancer incidence. Some clinical treatments that cause photosensitivity can also increase skin cancer risk. Among these, the immunosuppressant azathioprine and the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, interact with UVA radiation to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that diminish NER capacity by causing protein damage. The RPA DNA binding protein plays a pivotal role in DNA metabolism and is an essential component of NER. The relationship between protein oxidation and NER inhibition was investigated in cultured human cells expressing different levels of RPA. We show here that RPA is limiting for NER and that oxidative damage to RPA compromises NER capability. Our findings reveal that cellular RPA is surprisingly vulnerable to oxidation and we identify oxidized forms of RPA that are associated with impaired NER. The vulnerability of NER to inhibition by oxidation provides a connection between cutaneous photosensitivity, protein damage and increased skin cancer risk. Our findings emphasize that damage to DNA repair proteins, as well as to DNA itself is likely to be an important contributor to skin cancer risk. PMID:26134950

  11. Naringin protects memory impairment and mitochondrial oxidative damage against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Shur, Bhargabi; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum has been indicated in neurodegenerative disorders and naringin, a bioflavonoid has been used to reduce neurotoxic effects of aluminum against aluminum chloride-induced rats. Therefore, present study has been designed to explore the possible role of naringin against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) drug treatment were administered orally for six weeks to male wistar rats. Various behavioral performance tasks, biochemical, mitochondrial oxidative parameters, and aluminum concentration in the brain were assessed. Aluminum chloride treatment significantly caused cognitive dysfunction and mitochondria oxidative damage as compared to vehicle treated control group. Besides, aluminum chloride treatment significantly increased acetyl cholinesterase activity and aluminum concentration in the brain as compared to sham. Chronic administration of naringin significantly improved cognitive performance and attenuated mitochondria oxidative damage, acetyl cholinesterase activity, and aluminum concentration in aluminum-treated rats as compared to control rats. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of naringin against aluminum chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction and mitochondrial oxidative damage.

  12. Oxidative DNA damage from nanoparticle exposure and its application to workers' health: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Song, Se-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Yeong

    2013-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industry is increasing, bringing with it a number of adverse health effects on workers. Like other chemical carcinogens, NPs can cause cancer via oxidative DNA damage. Of all the molecules vulnerable to oxidative modification by NPs, DNA has received the greatest attention, and biomarkers of exposure and effect are nearing validation. This review concentrates on studies published between 2000 and 2012 that attempted to detect oxidative DNA damage in humans, laboratory animals, and cell lines. It is important to review these studies to improve the current understanding of the oxidative DNA damage caused by NP exposure in the workplace. In addition to examining studies on oxidative damage, this review briefly describes NPs, giving some examples of their adverse effects, and reviews occupational exposure assessments and approaches to minimizing exposure (e.g., personal protective equipment and engineering controls such as fume hoods). Current recommendations to minimize exposure are largely based on common sense, analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations.

  13. DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by acetylsalicylic acid in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; García-Medina, Sandra; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely

    2014-08-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory widely used due to its low cost and high effectiveness. This compound has been found in water bodies worldwide and is toxic to aquatic organisms; nevertheless its capacity to induce oxidative stress in bioindicators like Daphnia magna remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate toxicity in D. magna induced by acetylsalicylic acid in water, using oxidative stress and DNA damage biomarkers. An acute toxicity test was conducted in order to determine the median lethal concentration (48-h LC50) and the concentrations to be used in the subsequent subacute toxicity test in which the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation, oxidized protein content, activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and level of DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation level and oxidized protein content were significantly increased (p<0.05), and antioxidant enzymes significantly altered with respect to controls; while the DNA damage were significantly increased (p<0.05) too. In conclusion, acetylsalicylic acid induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in D. magna.

  14. Is There Excess Oxidative Stress and Damage in Eyes of Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa?

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Rupert W.; Lu, Lili; Hafiz, Gulnar; Wolfson, Yulia; Shah, Syed M.; Sophie, Raafay; Mir, Tahreem A.; Scholl, Hendrik P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of diseases in which a mutation in one of the large variety of genes causes death of rod photoreceptors. After rods die, cone photoreceptors gradually die resulting in constriction of visual fields and eventual blindness in many patients. Studies in animal models of RP have demonstrated that oxidative damage is a major contributor to cone cell death. In this study, we extended those findings to patients with RP, because compared to control patients, those with RP showed significant reduction in the reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in aqueous humor and a significant increase in aqueous protein carbonyl content. In contrast, there was no significant decrease in the serum GSH/GSSG ratio or increase in carbonyl content of serum proteins. These data indicate that patients with RP have ocular oxidative stress and damage in the absence of manifestations of systemic oxidative stress and/or damage indicating that demonstrations of oxidative damage-induced cone cell death in animal models of RP may translate to human RP. These observations lead to the hypothesis that potent antioxidants will promote cone survival and function in patients with RP and that the aqueous GSH/GSSG ratio and carbonyl content on proteins may provide useful biomarkers. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 643–648. PMID:25820114

  15. Exercise-induced muscle damage impairs insulin signaling pathway associated with IRS-1 oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Aoi, W; Naito, Y; Tokuda, H; Tanimura, Y; Oya-Ito, T; Yoshikawa, T

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces delayed-onset muscle damage including oxidative damage of cellular components. Oxidative stress to muscle cells impairs glucose uptake via disturbance of insulin signaling pathway. We investigated glucose uptake and insulin signaling in relation to oxidative protein modification in muscle after acute strenuous exercise. ICR mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Mice in the exercise group performed downhill running exercise at 30 m/min for 30 min. At 24 hr after exercise, metabolic performance and insulin-signaling proteins in muscle tissues were examined. In whole body indirect calorimetry, carbohydrate utilization was decreased in the exercised mice along with reduction of the respiratory exchange ratio compared to the rested control mice. Insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose in damaged muscle was decreased after acute exercise. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidyl-3-kinase/Akt signaling were impaired by exercise, leading to inhibition of the membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4. We also found that acute exercise caused 4-hydroxy-nonenal modification of IRS-1 along with elevation of oxidative stress in muscle tissue. Impairment of insulin-induced glucose uptake into damaged muscle after strenuous exercise would be related to disturbance of insulin signal transduction by oxidative modification of IRS-1.

  16. Exogenous oxidation of isomaltulose is lower than that of sucrose during exercise in men.

    PubMed

    Achten, Juul; Jentjens, Roy L; Brouns, Fred; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2007-05-01

    Isomaltulose (ISO) is a disaccharide that is slowly digested, resulting in a slow availability for absorption. The aim of this study was to compare the blood substrate responses and exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation rates from orally ingested sucrose (SUC) and ISO during moderate intensity exercise. We hypothesized that the oxidation of ISO is lower compared with SUC, resulting in lower plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent lower CHO and higher fat oxidation rates. Ten trained men [maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), 64 +/- 1 mL/(kg body mass.min)] cycled on 3 occasions for 150 min at 59 +/- 2% VO(2)max and consumed either water (WAT) or 1 of 2 CHO solutions providing 1.1 g/min of CHO in the form of either SUC or ISO. Peak exogenous CHO oxidation rates were higher (P < 0.05) during the SUC trial (0.92 +/- 0.03 g/min) than during the ISO trial (0.54 +/- 0.05 g/min). Total endogenous CHO oxidation over the final 90 min of exercise was lower (P < 0.05) in the SUC trial (107 +/- 10 g) than in the WAT (137 +/- 7 g) and ISO (127 +/- 9 g) trials. Fat oxidation was higher during the WAT trial than during the SUC and ISO trials. ISO resulted in a lower plasma insulin response at 30 min compared with SUC, whereas the glucose response did not differ between the 2 CHO. Oxidation of ingested ISO was significantly less than that of SUC, most likely due to the lower rate of digestion of ISO. A lower CHO delivery and a small difference in plasma insulin may have resulted in higher endogenous CHO use and higher fat oxidation during the ISO trial than during the SUC trial.

  17. Attenuation of oxidative stress & DNA damage in varicocelectomy: Implications in infertility management

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Rima; Shamsi, Monis Bilal; Venkatesh, Sunderarjan; Gupta, Naramada Prasad; Kumar, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Sperm DNA integrity is of vital importance for foetal development and birth of healthy offspring. Oxidative stress and consequent DNA damage are the major cause of decline in semen quality in men with varicocele. A preliminary study was conducted on 11 men with clinical varicocele who also had high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), to assess DNA damage in sperms and ROS levels before and after varicocelectomy. Varicocelectomy resulted in rapid (1 month) significant (P<0.001) decline in free radical levels and slow (3-6 months) significant decline in DNA damage levels. Thus men undergoing varicocelectomy should try concieving only 6 months following surgery. PMID:21245622

  18. Quality control of oxidatively damaged mitochondrial proteins is mediated by p97 and the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Hemion, Charles; Flammer, Josef; Neutzner, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Protein quality control is essential for maintaining mitochondrial fidelity. Proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species necessitate quality control to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction connected to aging and neurodegeneration. Here we report a role for the AAA ATPase p97/VCP and the proteasome in the quality control of oxidized mitochondrial proteins under low oxidative stress as well as normal conditions. Proteasomal inhibition and blocking p97-dependent protein retrotranslocation interfered with degradation of oxidized mitochondrial proteins. Thus, ubiquitin-dependent, p97-, and proteasome-mediated degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins plays a key role in maintaining mitochondrial fidelity and is likely an important defense mechanism against aging and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative stress and nerve damage: Role in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy☆

    PubMed Central

    Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Naidu, VGM; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a severe dose limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy. Ever since it was identified, the clear pathological mechanisms underlying chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remain sparse and considerable involvement of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation has been realized recently. Despite the empirical use of antioxidants in the therapy of CIPN, the oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage in peripheral neuropathy is still debatable. The current review focuses on nerve damage due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as key pathogenic mechanisms involved in CIPN. Oxidative stress as a central mediator of apoptosis, neuroinflammation, metabolic disturbances and bioenergetic failure in neurons has been highlighted in this review along with a summary of research on dietary antioxidants and other nutraceuticals which have undergone prospective controlled clinical trials in patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24494204

  20. Urea-induced oxidative damage in Elodea densa leaves.

    PubMed

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Prasad, M N V

    2015-09-01

    Urea being a fertilizer is expected to be less toxic to plants. However, it was found that urea at 100 mg L(-1) caused the oxidative stress in Elodea leaves due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation that are known to stimulate antioxidant pathway. Urea at a concentration of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1) decreased low-molecular-weight antioxidants. In this case, the antioxidant status of plants was supported by the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. A significant increase in the soluble proteins and -SH groups was observed with high concentrations of urea (30-60 % of control). Thus, the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular-weight antioxidants, and induced soluble protein thiols are implicated in plant resistance to oxidative stress imposed by urea. We found that guaiacol peroxidase plays an important role in the removal of the peroxide in Elodea leaves exposed to 1000 mg L(-1)of urea.

  1. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Drones Survive Oxidative Stress due to Increased Tolerance instead of Avoidance or Repair of Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K.; Tarpy, David R.; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. PMID:27422326

  2. Free radicals hasten head and neck cancer risk: A study of total oxidant, total antioxidant, DNA damage, and histological grade.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Pandey, P; Tewari, M; Pandey, H P; Gambhir, I S; Shukla, H S

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce oxidative stress, are the main contributors to head and neck carcinogenesis (HNC). The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the oxidant/antioxidant status and DNA damage analysis in head and neck cancer/control patients. This prospective study was conducted on 60 patients with biopsy-proven HNC and 17 patients of head and neck disease (HND). The total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined by novel automatic colorimetric methods from tissue homogenate. DNA damage analysis was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The mean age of the study cohort was 46.65 ± 14.84 years for HNC patients, while it was 49.41 ± 13.00 years for HND patients. There were no significant differences found between the two groups with respect to demographic presentation except tobacco addiction. The association between oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage analysis with study group revealed the following. (A) DNA damage - tissue homogenate TOS and OSI were significantly higher in HNC subjects than in HND (16.06 ± 1.78 AU vs 7.86 ± 5.97 AU, P < 0.001; 53.00 ± 40.61 vs 19.67 ± 21.90, P < 0.01; 7.221 ± 5.80 vs 2.40 ± 2.54, P < 0.01, respectively), while TAS was significantly decreased. (B) Aggressive histological features were identified, more commonly with higher TOS and lower TAS [probability (P) = 0.002, relative risk (RR) = 11.838, 95% confidence interval CI = 2.514-55.730 and P = 0.043, RR = 0.271, 95% CI = 0.077-0.960, respectively]. The increase in free radicals may be the event that led to the reduction of antioxidant status in HNC, thus explaining the oxidative damage of DNA and the severity of disease. Increased OSI represents a general mechanism in its pathogenesis.

  3. Permanent tetraplegia as a consequence of tetanus neonatorum. Evidence for widespread lower motor neuron damage.

    PubMed

    Gadoth, N; Dagan, R; Sandbank, U; Levy, D; Moses, S W

    1981-08-01

    It is generally believed that no permanent neurological damage is found among survivors of tetanus neonatorum. Newborns dying shortly after the onset of tetanus also lack significant neurological abnormalities. In adults a variety of neuromuscular lesions have been reported; however, a uniform pathological picture is absent. We report a case of a newborn with severe tetanus in whom striking evidence of anterior horn neuronal damage was documented, causing permanent nonprogressive tetraplegia. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for this lesion involves the retrograde axoplasmic flow of tetanus toxin reaching the spinal cord via nerve endings in the infected umbilical cord stump.

  4. Oxidative DNA Damage Response in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bae, Minkyung; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced DNA damage which may be related to gastric cancer development. The DNA damage response coordinates DNA repair, cell-cycle transition, and apoptosis through activation of DNA damage response molecules. The damaged DNA is repaired through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). In the present study, we investigated the changes of HR DNA repair proteins (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated; ATM, ATM and Rad3-related; ATR), NHEJ repair proteins (Ku70/80), cell cycle regulators (Chk1, Chk2), and apoptosis marker (p53/p-p53) were determined in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. In addition, the effect of an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on H. pylori-induced DNA damage response was determined to assess the involvement of oxidative stress on DNA damage of the animals infected with H. pylori. One week after intragastric inoculation with H. pylori, Mongolian gerbils were fed with basal diet with or without 3% NAC for 6 weeks. After 6 week, the expression levels of DNA repair proteins (Ku70/80, ATM, ATR), cell cycle regulators (Chk1, Chk2) and apoptosis marker (p-p53/p53) were increased in gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbils, which was suppressed by NAC treatment. In conclusion, oxidative stress mediates H. pylori-induced DNA damage response including NHEJ and HR repairing processes, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbils.

  5. Acetyl-L-carnitine protects neuronal function from alcohol-induced oxidative damage in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rump, Travis J; Abdul Muneer, P M; Szlachetka, Adam M; Lamb, Allyson; Haorei, Catherine; Alikunju, Saleena; Xiong, Huangui; Keblesh, James; Liu, Jianuo; Zimmerman, Matthew C; Jones, Jocelyn; Donohue, Terrence M; Persidsky, Yuri; Haorah, James

    2010-11-30

    The studies presented here demonstrate the protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) against alcohol-induced oxidative neuroinflammation, neuronal degeneration, and impaired neurotransmission. Our findings reveal the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of alcohol-induced oxidative damage in various types of brain cells. Chronic ethanol administration to mice caused an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine adduct formation in frontal cortical neurons but not in astrocytes from brains of these animals. Interestingly, alcohol administration caused a rather selective activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), which, in turn, enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 4-hydroxynonenal, but these were predominantly localized in astrocytes and microglia. Oxidative damage in glial cells was accompanied by their pronounced activation (astrogliosis) and coincident neuronal loss, suggesting that inflammation in glial cells caused neuronal degeneration. Immunohistochemistry studies indicated that alcohol consumption induced different oxidative mediators in different brain cell types. Thus, nitric oxide was mostly detected in iNOS-expressing neurons, whereas ROS were predominantly generated in NOX-expressing glial cells after alcohol ingestion. Assessment of neuronal activity in ex vivo frontal cortical brain tissue slices from ethanol-fed mice showed a reduction in long-term potentiation synaptic transmission compared with slices from controls. Coadministration of ALC with alcohol showed a significant reduction in oxidative damage and neuronal loss and a restoration of synaptic neurotransmission in this brain region, suggesting that ALC protects brain cells from ethanol-induced oxidative injury. These findings suggest the potential clinical utility of ALC as a neuroprotective agent that prevents alcohol-induced brain damage and development of neurological disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Organoselenium (Sel-Plex diet) decreases amyloid burden and RNA and DNA oxidative damage in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Lyubartseva, Ganna; Markesbery, William R

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate potential antioxidant characteristics of organic selenium (Se), double knock-in transgenic mice expressing human mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and human presenilin-1 (PS1) were provided a Se-deficient diet, a Se-enriched diet (Sel-Plex), or a control diet from 4 to 9 months of age followed by a control diet until 12 months of age. Levels of DNA, RNA, and protein oxidation as well as lipid peroxidation markers were determined in all mice and amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques were quantified. APP/PS1 mice provided Sel-Plex showed significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of Abeta plaque deposition and significantly decreased levels of DNA and RNA oxidation. Sel-Plex-treated mice showed no significant differences in levels of lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation compared to APP/PS1 mice on a control diet. To determine if diminished oxidative damage was associated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities, brain glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase activities were measured. Sel-Plex-treated mice showed a modest but significant increase in GSH-Px activity compared to mice on a normal diet (P<0.5). Overall, these data suggest that organic Se can reduce Abeta burden and minimize DNA and RNA oxidation and support a role for it as a potential therapeutic agent in neurologic disorders with increased oxidative stress.

  7. Attenuation of oxidative damage to DNA by taurine and taurine analogs.

    PubMed

    Messina, S A; Dawson, R

    2000-01-01

    Taurine has been suggested to have cytoprotective actions via a number of different mechanisms. The role of taurine in protecting DNA from oxidative damage has received only limited attention. The aim of the present studies was to test the hypothesis that taurine might act to attenuate oxidative damage to DNA caused by free radicals generated by iron-stimulated catecholamine oxidation in the presence of H2O2. Calf thymus DNA (100 microg/tube) was exposed to a reaction mixture containing: ferric chloride (60 microM), H2O2 (2.8 mM) and L-dopa (100 microM). Taurine and taurine analogs were added simultaneously to determine their effects to prevent oxidative damage to DNA. The reaction was carried out for 1 hour at 37 degrees C and terminated by rapid freezing in an ethanol/dry ice bath. The DNA was precipitated with ethanol and subsequently hydrolyzed with formic acid under vacuum. The hydroxylated bases were separated by HPLC and detected electrochemically. All experiments were replicated a minimum of 5 times. Taurine (20 mM) was found to reduce (p<0.05) damage to DNA as indexed by reductions in the formation of 5-OH-uracil (49% decrease), 8-OH adenine (37% decrease), and 8-OH guanine (21% decrease). Taurine had minimal effects to reduce the formation of 5-OH cytosine (<7% decrease). Taurine (20 mM) also increased total DNA recovery after damage 36-40% and increased total undamaged guanine approximately 32%. 5-OH Uracil formation could be reduced (p<0.05) by 1 mM taurine and 8-OH-adenine formation was reduced (p<0.05) by 5 mM taurine. Studies were conducted with various amino acid analogs and total base adduct formation was reduced by 20 mM beta-alanine (30% decrease), lysine (58% decrease) and glutathione (88% decrease). When tested at 20 mM, both hypotaurine and homotaurine provided greater protection against DNA damage than taurine, whereas isethionic acid provided a similar level of protection as taurine. Using identical conditions as the assays for base

  8. Short dysfunctional telomeres impair the repair of arsenite-induced oxidative damage in mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jennifer P A; Banerjee, Birendranath; Fang, Wanru; Poonepalli, Anuradha; Balakrishnan, Lakshmidevi; Low, Grace Kah Mun; Bhattacharjee, Rabindra N; Akira, Shizuo; Jayapal, Manikandan; Melendez, Alirio J; Baskar, Rajamanickam; Lee, Han-Woong; Hande, M Prakash

    2008-03-01

    Telomeres and telomerase appear to participate in the repair of broken DNA ends produced by oxidative damage. Arsenite is an environmental contaminant and a potent human carcinogen, which induces oxidative stress on cells via the generation of reactive oxygen species affecting cell viability and chromosome stability. It promotes telomere attrition and reduces cell survival by apoptosis. In this study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from mice lacking telomerase RNA component (mTERC(-/-) mice) with long (early passage or EP) and short (late passage or LP) telomeres to investigate the extent of oxidative damage by comparing the differences in DNA damage, chromosome instability, and cell survival at 24 and 48 h of exposure to sodium arsenite (As3+; NaAsO2). There was significantly high level of DNA damage in mTERC(-/-) cells with short telomeres as determined by alkaline comet assay. Consistent with elevated DNA damage, increased micronuclei (MN) induction reflecting gross genomic instability was also observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that increasing doses of arsenite augmented the chromosome aberrations, which contributes to genomic instability leading to possibly apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest. Microarray analysis has revealed that As3+ treatment altered the expression of 456 genes of which 20% of them have known functions in cell cycle and DNA damage signaling and response, cell growth, and/or maintenance. Results from our studies imply that short dysfunctional telomeres impair the repair of oxidative damage caused by arsenite. The results will have implications in risk estimation as well as cancer chemotherapy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Modulatory effects of Moringa oleifera extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2011-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in oxidative DNA damage. The present study examined and assessed the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-mediated DNA damage in human tumor KB cells and also assessed the ability of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts to inhibit the oxidative damage. H(2)O(2) imposed a stress on the membrane lipids which was quantified by the extent of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed. The leaf extracts caused a very significant inhibition of the extent of LPO formation and enhanced the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in KB cells. The comet assay was employed to study the DNA damage and its inhibition by the leaf extracts. H(2)O(2) caused a significant increase in the number of cells bearing comets, resulting in significant DNA damage. The leaf extracts significantly reduced the incidence of comets in the oxidant stressed cells. The extent of cytotoxicity of H(2)O(2) in the presence and the absence of leaf extracts studied in KB tumor cells by the MTT assay showed that H(2)O(2) caused a marked decrease in the viability of KB cells where as the leaf extracts effectively increased the viability of assaulted KB cells. The observed cytoprotective activity is probably due to the antioxidant properties of its constituents, mainly phenolics. Total phenolics showed higher correlation with antioxidant activity. The leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the reference compound. These results suggest that the inhibition by the leaf extracts on oxidative DNA damage could be attributed to their free radical scavenging activities and the effect evidenced in KB cells can be in part correlated to a modulation of redox-sensitive mechanisms.

  10. Apple juice concentrate prevents oxidative damage and impaired maze performance in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tchantchou, Flaubert; Chan, Amy; Kifle, Lydia; Ortiz, Daniela; Shea, Thomas B

    2005-12-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to age-related cognitive decline. In some instances, consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidant can provide superior protection than supplementation with purified antioxidants. Our prior studies have shown that supplementation with apple juice concentrate (AJC) alleviates oxidative damage and cognitive decline in a transgenic murine model compromised in endogenous antioxidant potential when challenged with a vitamin-deficient, oxidative stress-promoting diet. Herein, we demonstrate that AJC, administered in drinking water, is neuroprotective in normal, aged mice. Normal mice aged either 9-10 months or 2-2.5 years were maintained for 1 month on a complete diet or a diet lacking folate and vitamin E and containing iron as a pro-oxidant, after which oxidative damage was assayed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and cognitive decline as assayed by performance in a standard Y-maze. Mice 9-12 months of age were unaffected by the deficient diet, while older mice demonstrated statistically-increased oxidative damage and poorer performance in a Y maze test. Supplementation with AJC prevented these neurodegenerative effects. These data are consistent with normal aged individuals being susceptible to neurodegeneration following dietary compromise such as folate deficiency, and a hastened onset of neurodegeneration in those individuals harboring a genetic risk factor such as ApoE deficiency. These findings also support the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation, including consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as apples, in preventing the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies normal aging.

  11. Factors that influence telomeric oxidative base damage and repair by DNA glycosylase OGG1.

    PubMed

    Rhee, David B; Ghosh, Avik; Lu, Jian; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Liu, Yie

    2011-01-02

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and are essential in preventing chromosome termini from being recognized as broken DNA ends. Telomere shortening has been linked to cellular senescence and human aging, with oxidative stress as a major contributing factor. 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxogaunine (8-oxodG) is one of the most abundant oxidative guanine lesions, and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is involved in its removal. In this study, we examined if telomeric DNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative base damage and if telomere-specific factors affect the incision of oxidized guanines by OGG1. We demonstrated that telomeric TTAGGG repeats were more prone to oxidative base damage and repaired less efficiently than non-telomeric TG repeats in vivo. We also showed that the 8-oxodG-incision activity of OGG1 is similar in telomeric and non-telomeric double-stranded substrates. In addition, telomere repeat binding factors TRF1 and TRF2 do not impair OGG1 incision activity. Yet, 8-oxodG in some telomere structures (e.g., fork-opening, 3'-overhang, and D-loop) were less effectively excised by OGG1, depending upon its position in these substrates. Collectively, our data indicate that the sequence context of telomere repeats and certain telomere configurations may contribute to telomere vulnerability to oxidative DNA damage processing.

  12. Oxidative damage to macromolecules in human Parkinson disease and the rotenone model.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Laurie H; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is associated with selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Although the underlying mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration in PD seem to be multifactorial, mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are widely considered to be central to many forms of the disease. Whether oxidative stress is a cause or a consequence of dopaminergic death, there is substantial evidence for oxidative stress both in human PD patients and in animal models of PD, especially using rotenone, a complex I inhibitor. There are many indices of oxidative stress, but this review covers the recent evidence for oxidative damage to nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins in both the brain and the peripheral tissues in human PD and in the rotenone model. Limitations of the existing literature and future perspectives are discussed. Understanding how each particular macromolecule is damaged by oxidative stress and the interplay of secondary damage to other biomolecules may help us design better targets for the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Oxidative damage of gasoline engine exhausts to rat lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Che, Wang-Jun; Wang, Ling; Luo, Qing-Ying; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Zun-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of extracts of condensate, particulates and semivolatile organic compounds from gasoline engine exhaust on DNA damage, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) expression, and changes of ultra-structures in lungs of rats. Organic extracts of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) was intratrachealy instilled into rat lungs at 0, 5.6, 16.7, and 50.0 L/kg body weight, respectively, once a week for a month. The single DNA strand break was measured by comet assay. The OGG1 was determined using immunohistochemistry method. The ultrastructure of lung cells was observed with electronic microscope. The rates of tailed cells detected by the comet assay increased significantly when the rats were exposed to 16.7 and 50.0 L/kg of GEE compared with those exposed to solvent only (P < 0.05). However, the tail length did not differ significantly between the groups. Similarly, exposure to 16.7 and 50.0 L/kg of GEE led to increased OGG1 significantly. Significant changes of mitochondria in type I and II alveolar cells as well as respiratory bronchiole epithelial cells were observed, which included decrease of numbers, pyknosis and swelling. Gasoline engine exhausts induce single DNA strand break, increase OGG1 expression, decrease numbers of mitochondria, and destroy ultrastructures of mitochondria in various lung cells of rats.

  14. Reduced host cell reactivation of oxidatively damaged DNA in ageing human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Andrew J; Zacal, Natalie J; Leach, Derrik M

    2013-06-01

    Many reports have linked oxidative damage to DNA and the associated avoidance and/or repair processes to carcinogenesis, ageing and neurodegeneration. Cancer incidence increases with age and there is evidence that oxidative stress plays a role in human ageing and neurodegeneration. Several reports have suggested that the accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions plays a causal role in mammalian ageing. Since base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway for the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, the relationship of BER to human ageing and carcinogenesis is of considerable interest. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between donor age and increasing time of cells in tissue culture and the repair of oxidative DNA damage in primary human skin fibroblasts. Methylene blue (MB) acts as a photosensitizer and after excitation by visible light (VL) produces reactive oxygen species that result in oxidative damage to DNA. MB+VL produce predominantly 8-hydroxyguanine as well as other single base modifications in DNA that are repaired by BER. We used host cell reactivation (HCR) of a non-replicating recombinant human adenovirus, Ad5CMVlacZ, which expresses the β-galactosidase (β-gal) reporter gene, to measure BER of MB+VL-damaged DNA. HCR of β-gal activity for the MB+VL-treated reporter gene was examined in 10 fibroblast strains from normal donors of ages 2 to 82. The effect of cell passage number on HCR was also examined in human skin fibroblasts from 2 normal donors. We found a significant reduction in HCR with increasing cell passage number, indicating that BER decreases with increasing time of cells grown in tissue culture. We also found a significant correlation of donor age with HCR of the MB+VL-treated reporter gene for high passage number, but not for low passage number fibroblasts. The present study provides evidence that a decrease in BER of oxidatively damaged DNA may play a role in carcinogenesis, ageing and neurodegeneration.

  15. Effect of Oxidative Damage on the Stability and Dimerization of Superoxide Dismutase 1

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Drazen; Daura, Xavier; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    During their life cycle, proteins are subject to different modifications involving reactive oxygen species. Such oxidative damage to proteins may lead to the formation of insoluble aggregates and cytotoxicity and is associated with age-related disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a key antioxidant enzyme in human cells, is particularly susceptible to such modifications. Moreover, this homodimeric metalloenzyme has been directly linked to both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating, late-onset motor neuronal disease, with more than 150 ALS-related mutations in the SOD1 gene. Importantly, oxidatively damaged SOD1 aggregates have been observed in both familial and sporadic forms of the disease. However, the molecular mechanisms as well as potential implications of oxidative stress in SOD1-induced cytotoxicity remain elusive. In this study, we examine the effects of oxidative modification on SOD1 monomer and homodimer stability, the key molecular properties related to SOD1 aggregation. We use molecular dynamics simulations in combination with thermodynamic integration to study microscopic-level site-specific effects of oxidative “mutations” at the dimer interface, including lysine, arginine, proline and threonine carbonylation, and cysteine oxidation. Our results show that oxidative damage of even single residues at the interface may drastically destabilize the SOD1 homodimer, with several modifications exhibiting a comparable effect to that of the most drastic ALS-causing mutations known. Additionally, we show that the SOD1 monomer stability decreases upon oxidative stress, which may lead to partial local unfolding and consequently to increased aggregation propensity. Importantly, these results suggest that oxidative stress may play a key role in development of ALS, with the mutations in the SOD1 gene being an additional factor. PMID:27074676

  16. Plasma damage-free sputtering of indium tin oxide cathode layers for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, D.-G.; Lee, K.-S.; Huh, M.-S.; Jeong, S.H.; Kim, K.I.; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2005-05-02

    We report on plasma damage-free sputtering of an indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode layer, which was grown by a mirror shape target sputtering (MSTS) technique, for use in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs). It is shown that OLEDs with ITO cathodes deposited by MSTS show much lower leakage current (9.2x10{sup -5} mA/cm{sup 2}) at reverse bias of -6 V as compared to that (1x10{sup -1}-10{sup -2} mA/cm{sup 2} at -6 V) of OLEDs with ITO cathodes grown by conventional dc magnetron sputtering. Based on high-resolution electron microcopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy results, we describe a possible mechanism by which plasma damage-free ITO films are grown and their application for TOLEDs.

  17. Mfd is required for rapid recovery of transcription following UV-induced DNA damage but not oxidative DNA damage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schalow, Brandy J; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2012-05-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a cellular process by which some forms of DNA damage are repaired more rapidly from transcribed strands of active genes than from nontranscribed strands or the overall genome. In humans, the TCR coupling factor, CSB, plays a critical role in restoring transcription following both UV-induced and oxidative DNA damage. It also contributes indirectly to the global repair of some forms of oxidative DNA damage. The Escherichia coli homolog, Mfd, is similarly required for TCR of UV-induced lesions. However, its contribution to the restoration of transcription and to global repair of oxidative damage has not been examined. Here, we report the first direct study of transcriptional recovery following UV-induced and oxidative DNA damage in E. coli. We observed that mutations in mfd or uvrA reduced the rate that transcription recovered following UV-induced damage. In contrast, no difference was detected in the rate of transcription recovery in mfd, uvrA, fpg, nth, or polB dinB umuDC mutants relative to wild-type cells following oxidative damage. mfd mutants were also fully resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and removed oxidative lesions from the genome at rates comparable to wild-type cells. The results demonstrate that Mfd promotes the rapid recovery of gene expression following UV-induced damage in E. coli. In addition, these findings imply that Mfd may be functionally distinct from its human CSB homolog in that it does not detectably contribute to the recovery of gene expression or global repair following oxidative damage.

  18. Antioxidant defense and oxidative damage vary widely among high-altitude residents.

    PubMed

    Janocha, Allison J; Comhair, Suzy A A; Basnyat, Buddha; Neupane, Maniraj; Gebremedhin, Amha; Khan, Anam; Ricci, Kristin S; Zhang, Renliang; Erzurum, Serpil C; Beall, Cynthia M

    2017-07-20

    People living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants. Individuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage. High-altitude Amhara and Sherpa had the highest SOD activity, while highland Oromo and Nepalis had the lowest among high-altitude populations. High-altitude Amhara had the lowest DNA damage, Sherpa intermediate levels, and high-altitude Oromo had the highest. High-altitude residence alone does not associate with high antioxidant defenses; residence length appears to be influential. The single-generation upward migrant sample had the lowest defense and nearly the highest DNA damage. The two high-altitude resident samples with millennia of residence had higher defenses than the two with multiple or single generations of residence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prolonged fasting does not increase oxidative damage or inflammation in postweaned northern elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Crocker, Daniel E; Forman, Henry Jay; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2010-07-15

    Elephant seals are naturally adapted to survive up to three months of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). Prolonged food deprivation in terrestrial mammals increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative damage and inflammation that can be induced by an increase in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). To test the hypothesis that prolonged fasting in elephant seals is not associated with increased oxidative stress or inflammation, blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected from early (2-3 weeks post-weaning) and late (7-8 weeks post-weaning) fasted seals. Plasma levels of oxidative damage, inflammatory markers and plasma renin activity (PRA), along with muscle levels of lipid and protein oxidation, were compared between early and late fasting periods. Protein expression of angiotensin receptor 1 (AT(1)), pro-oxidant (Nox4) and antioxidant enzymes (CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) was analyzed in muscle. Fasting induced a 2.5-fold increase in PRA, a 50% increase in AT(1), a twofold increase in Nox4 and a 70% increase in NADPH oxidase activity. By contrast, neither tissue nor systemic indices of oxidative damage or inflammation increased with fasting. Furthermore, muscle antioxidant enzymes increased 40-60% with fasting in parallel with an increase in muscle and red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activities. These data suggest that, despite the observed increases in RAS and Nox4, an increase in antioxidant enzymes appears to be sufficient to suppress systemic and tissue indices of oxidative damage and inflammation in seals that have fasted for a prolonged period. The present study highlights the importance of antioxidant capacity in mammals during chronic periods of stress to help avoid deleterious systemic consequences.

  20. Proton damage measurements of rare earth oxide scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerman, W.A.; Fisher, J.H.; Shelby, G.A. ); Holland, L.R.; Jenkins, G.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports on the development of a measurement technique to determine the degradation in light output under exposure to 3 MeV protons. The rare earth oxide scintillators included Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S doped with Pr. Tb, and Eu; Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S doped with Tb and Eu; Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) doped with Ce; and ZnS doped with Ag. Four scintillator samples were painted on a rotatable water cooled turret used to measure the proton beam current with thermocouples for temperature monitoring. The data acquisition and storage system consists of an ACRO module interfaced to a Macintosh SE/30 computer running LabVIEW software. Results indicate that the YAG doped with Ce scintillator coating withstood a proton dose an order of magnitude large than that tolerated by the other phosphor compounds. This fact has significant implication for the use of this material for experimental scintillator applications.

  1. Resveratrol protects mouse oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; He, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xin; Ding, Lu; Xu, Lin; Shen, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Fei; Zhu, Mao-Bi; Xu, Bai-Hui; Qi, Zhong-Quan; Wang, Hai-Long

    2013-01-01

    Methylglyoxal, a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is mainly formed from glycolysis. Methylglyoxal can lead to the dysfunction of mitochondria, the depletion of cellular anti-oxidation enzymes and the formation of advanced glycation ends. Previous studies showed that the accumulation of methylglyoxal and advanced glycation ends can impair the oocyte maturation and reduce the oocyte quality in aged and diabetic females. In this study, we showed that resveratrol, a kind of phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes, red wine and other botanical extracts, can alleviate the adverse effects caused by methylglyoxal, such as inhibition of oocyte maturation and disruption of spindle assembly. Besides, methylglyoxal-treated oocytes displayed more DNA double strands breaks and this can also be decreased by treatment of resveratrol. Further investigation of these processes revealed that methylglyoxal may affect the oocyte quality by resulting in excessive reactive oxygen species production, aberrant mitochondrial distribution and high level lipid peroxidation, and resveratrol can block these cytotoxic changes. Collectively, our results showed that resveratrol can protect the oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and this was mainly through the correction of the abnormity of cellular reactive oxygen species metabolism.

  2. Exposure to cooking oil fumes and oxidative damages: a longitudinal study in Chinese military cooks.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes (COF) contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde, which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to COF and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient (β), β=0.06, 95% CI 0.001-0.12) and (β=0.07, 95% CI 0.001-0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  3. Microfluidic array for simultaneous detection of DNA oxidation and DNA-adduct damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Boya; Shen, Min; Jiang, Di; Malla, Spundana; Mosa, Islam M; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Rusling, James F

    2016-10-21

    Exposure to chemical pollutants and pharmaceuticals may cause health issues caused by metabolite-related toxicity. This paper reports a new microfluidic electrochemical sensor array with the ability to simultaneously detect common types of DNA damage including oxidation and nucleobase adduct formation. Sensors in the 8-electrode screen-printed carbon array were coated with thin films of metallopolymers osmium or ruthenium bipyridyl-poly(vinylpyridine) chloride (OsPVP, RuPVP) along with DNA and metabolic enzymes by layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly. After a reaction step in which test chemicals and other necessary reagents flow over the array, OsPVP selectively detects oxidized guanines on the DNA strands, and RuPVP detects DNA adduction by metabolites on nucleobases. We demonstrate array performance for test chemicals including 17β-estradiol (E2), its metabolites 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), catechol, 2-nitrosotoluene (2-NO-T), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). Results revealed DNA-adduct and oxidation damage in a single run to provide a metabolic-genotoxic chemistry screen. The array measures damage directly in unhydrolyzed DNA, and is less expensive, faster, and simpler than conventional methods to detect DNA damage. The detection limit for oxidation is 672 8-oxodG per 10(6) bases. Each sensor requires only 22 ng of DNA, so the mass detection limit is 15 pg (∼10 pmol) 8-oxodG.

  4. Oxidative DNA damage in XPC-knockout and its wild mice treated with equine estrogen.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshinori; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Kim, Sung Yeon; Suzuki, Naomi; Laxmi, Y R Santosh; Okamoto, Kanako; Liu, Xiaoping; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibutani, Shinya

    2008-05-01

    Long-term hormone replacement therapy with equine estrogens is associated with a higher risk of breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers. Reactive oxygen species generated through redox cycling of equine estrogen metabolites may damage cellular DNA. Such oxidative stress may be linked to the development of cancers in reproductive organs. Xeroderma pigmentosa complementation group C-knockout ( Xpc-KO) and wild-type mice were treated with equilenin (EN), and the formation of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) was determined as a marker of typical oxidative DNA damage, using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The level of hepatic 8-oxodG in wild-type mice treated with EN (5 or 50 mg/kg/day) was significantly increased by approximately 220% after 1 week, as compared with mice treated with vehicle. In the uterus also, the level of 8-oxodG was significantly increased by more than 150% after 2 weeks. Similar results were observed with Xpc-KO mice, indicating that Xpc does not significantly contribute to the repair of oxidative damage. Oxidative DNA damage generated by equine estrogens may be involved in equine estrogen carcinogenesis.

  5. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Reynolds, P Dominic; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jerwood, David; Anderson, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is partly caused by oxidative stress from free radicals and reduced antioxidant levels. Using hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress in vitro in peripheral lymphocytes we investigated the induction of DNA damage supplemented with ethanolic extract of Chaga mushroom as a protective antioxidant. Lymphocytes were obtained from 20 IBD patients and 20 healthy volunteers. For treatment, a constant H_{2}O_{2 } dose (50 microg/ml) was used with variable doses of Chaga extract (10-500 microg/ml). DNA damage was evaluated in 50 cells per individual and dose using the Comet assay (making 1000 observations per experimental point ensuring appropriate statistical power). Chaga supplementation resulted in a 54.9% (p < 0.001) reduction of H_{2}O_{2 } induced DNA damage within the patient group and 34.9% (p < 0.001) within the control group. Lymphocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients had a greater basic DNA damage than Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients (p < 0.001). Conclusively, Chaga extract reduces oxidative stress in lymphocytes from IBD patients and also healthy individuals when challenged in vitro. Thus, Chaga extract could be a possible and valuable supplement to inhibit oxidative stress in general.

  6. Exposure to Cooking Oil Fumes and Oxidative Damages: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Military Cooks

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient [β], β= 0.06, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.12) and (β= 0.07, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking-oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:22968348

  7. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Costello, James C.; Liesa, Marc; Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Slomovic, Shimyn; Molina, Anthony; Shirihai, Orian S.; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged antibiotic treatment can lead to detrimental side effects in patients, including ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and tendinopathy, yet the mechanisms underlying the effects of antibiotics in mammalian systems remain unclear. It has been suggested that bactericidal antibiotics induce the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria. We show that clinically relevant doses of bactericidal antibiotics—quinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams—cause mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS overproduction in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that these bactericidal antibiotic–induced effects lead to oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Mice treated with bactericidal antibiotics exhibited elevated oxidative stress markers in the blood, oxidative tissue damage, and up-regulated expression of key genes involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms, which points to the potential physiological relevance of these antibiotic effects. The deleterious effects of bactericidal antibiotics were alleviated in cell culture and in mice by the administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or prevented by preferential use of bacteriostatic antibiotics. This work highlights the role of antibiotics in the production of oxidative tissue damage in mammalian cells and presents strategies to mitigate or prevent the resulting damage, with the goal of improving the safety of antibiotic treatment in people. PMID:23825301

  8. [Occupational hazards, DNA damage, and oxidative stress on exposure to waste anesthetic gases].

    PubMed

    Lucio, Lorena M C; Braz, Mariana G; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Leandro G

    2017-06-24

    The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of oxidative damage at pyrimidine bases in {gamma}-irradiated DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Douki, T.; Delatour, T.; Paganon, F.; Cadet, J.

    1996-10-01

    The indirect effects of ionizing radiations gives rise to strand breaks and base lesions as the main classes of DNA damage. This paper reports on work on the measurement of four oxidized pyrimidine bases in isolated DNA after exposure to gamma radiation in aerated aqueous solution. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Noninvasive prediction of prostatic DNA damage by oxidative stress challenge of peripheral blood lymphocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To move closer to the goal of individualized risk prediction for prostate cancer, we used an in vivo canine model to evaluate whether genetic instability, expressed as the susceptibility of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, could identify those individuals w...

  11. Marginal zinc deficiency increases oxidative DNA damage in the prostate after chronic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Elias, Valerie; Loban, Andrei; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Ho, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 12% of Americans do not consume the recommended level of zinc and could be at risk for marginal zinc deficiency. Zinc functions in antioxidant defense and DNA repair and could be important for prostate health. We hypothesized that marginal zinc deficiency sensitizes the prostate to oxidative stress and DNA damage. Rats were fed a zinc-adequate (ZA; 30 mg Zn/kg) or marginally zinc-deficient (MZD; 5–6 mg Zn/kg) diet for 6 weeks. MZD increased p53 and PARP expression but no change in 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels was detected. To examine the susceptibility to exogenous oxidative stress, rats fed a ZA or MZD diet were assigned to exercising (EXE) or sedentary (SED) groups for 9 weeks. MZD or EXE alone did not affect oxidative DNA damage in the prostate; however, combined MZD + EXE increased DNA damage in the dorsolateral lobe. PARP and p53 expression was not further induced with MZD + EXE, suggesting that MZD interferes with DNA repair responses to stress. Finally, the addition of phytase to the MZD diet successfully restored zinc levels in the prostate and decreased DNA damage back to ZA levels. Overall, this study suggests that marginal zinc deficiency sensitizes the prostate to oxidative stress and demonstrates the importance of maintaining optimal zinc nutrition in physically active populations. PMID:19836448

  12. Bactericidal antibiotics induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kalghatgi, Sameer; Spina, Catherine S; Costello, James C; Liesa, Marc; Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Slomovic, Shimyn; Molina, Anthony; Shirihai, Orian S; Collins, James J

    2013-07-03

    Prolonged antibiotic treatment can lead to detrimental side effects in patients, including ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and tendinopathy, yet the mechanisms underlying the effects of antibiotics in mammalian systems remain unclear. It has been suggested that bactericidal antibiotics induce the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria. We show that clinically relevant doses of bactericidal antibiotics-quinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams-cause mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS overproduction in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that these bactericidal antibiotic-induced effects lead to oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Mice treated with bactericidal antibiotics exhibited elevated oxidative stress markers in the blood, oxidative tissue damage, and up-regulated expression of key genes involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms, which points to the potential physiological relevance of these antibiotic effects. The deleterious effects of bactericidal antibiotics were alleviated in cell culture and in mice by the administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine or prevented by preferential use of bacteriostatic antibiotics. This work highlights the role of antibiotics in the production of oxidative tissue damage in mammalian cells and presents strategies to mitigate or prevent the resulting damage, with the goal of improving the safety of antibiotic treatment in people.

  13. Protective Role of Endogenous Ovarian Hormones Against Learning and Memory Impairments and Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pourganji, Masoume; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Zabihi, Hoda; Hadjzadeh, Mosa Al-reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The contribution of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been widely reported. The effects of female gonadal hormones in both neuroinflammation and brain cognitive functions have also been well considered. Objectives: In the present study, the possible protective role for endogenous ovarian hormones against learning and memory impairment as well as brain tissues oxidative damage induced by lipopolysachride (LPS) was investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups: Sham-LPS, Ovariectomized (OVX)-LPS, Sham, and OVX. The animals of sham group were in proestrous phase in which the serum concentration of estradiol is high. The Sham-LPS and OVX-LPS groups were treated with LPS (250 µg/kg) before acquisition. The animals were examined using passive avoidance (PA) test. The brains were then removed and malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol groups concentrations were measured. Results: The time latency to enter the dark compartment by OVX-LPS group was shorter than that of OVX at both first and 24th hours after the shock (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001). In Sham-LPS and OVX-LPS groups, total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues were significantly lower while MDA concentrations were higher than that of Sham and OVX groups (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001). ). The hippocampal MDA concentration in OVX-LPS group was higher than Sham- LPS group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Brain tissue oxidative damage contributed in deleterious effects of LPS on learning and memory. Some protective effects for the endogenous ovarian hormones against damaging effects of LPS on learning and memory function, as well as brain tissues oxidative damage could be postulated; however, it needs more investigation. PMID:24829769

  14. High-Energy Trauma and Damage Control in the Lower Limb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    perform arterial exposure to gain proximal and distal control of the injured vessel, or harvest autologous vein from an uninjured extremity. Care should...be taken during fasciotomy to avoid injury to the greater saphenous vein when making the medial fasciotomy incision. The success of early damage...tension-free primary end-to-end anastomosis. If end-to- end repair is not feasible, interposition grafting using a saphenous vein graft from the

  15. Oxidative DNA damage is associated with inflammatory response, insulin resistance and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tatsch, Etiane; De Carvalho, José A M; Hausen, Bruna S; Bollick, Yãnaí S; Torbitz, Vanessa D; Duarte, Thiago; Scolari, Rogério; Duarte, Marta M M F; Londero, Sílvia W K; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Premaor, Melissa O; Comim, Fabio V; Moresco, Rafael N

    2015-12-01

    Urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation may be useful biomarkers in diabetes. It has been demonstrated that T2DM patients have an increased level of oxidative DNA damage; however, it is unclear whether increased DNA damage may be related to a greater degree of inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, the aim of this present study was to investigate the relation of the impact of oxidative DNA damage, assessed by urinary 8-OHdG, on the levels of inflammatory cytokines, as well as insulin resistance. In addition, we also investigated the diagnostic ability of urinary 8-OHdG in the identification of microvascular complications in T2DM.A case-control study, enrolling 22 healthy controls and 54 subjects with T2DM, was performed to evaluate the relation between oxidative DNA damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1,tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index. T2DM patients presented higher urinary 8-OHdG, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α levels and HOMA-IR, and lower IL-10 levels than control subjects. Moreover, urinary 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in the group T2DM with microvascular complications when compared to the without complications. The areas under the curve for urinary 8-OHdG and urinary albumin were, respectively, 0.836 (P<0.001) and 0.786 (P=0.002). Thus, urinary 8-OHdG has a slightly higher ability to discriminate microvascular complications in T2DM compared with urinary albumin. It was also demonstrated that T2DM patients with higher median of urinary 8-OHdG had significantly elevated levels of IL-6, TNF-α and HOMA-IR, and decreased IL-10 levels. Our findings showed that T2DM patients with higher urinary 8-OHdG levels showed a greater inflammatory degree and higher insulin resistance. It is possible to speculate that T2DM patients present a cascade of events as increasing metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and inflammatory activation, as well as increased ROS generation factors that may

  16. Oxidative damage and cell-programmed death induced in Zea mays L. by allelochemical stress.

    PubMed

    Ciniglia, Claudia; Mastrobuoni, Francesco; Scortichini, Marco; Petriccione, Milena

    2015-05-01

    The allelochemical stress on Zea mays was analyzed by using walnut husk washing waters (WHWW), a by-product of Juglans regia post-harvest process, which possesses strong allelopathic potential and phytotoxic effects. Oxidative damage and cell-programmed death were induced by WHWW in roots of maize seedlings. Treatment induced ROS burst, with excess of H2O2 content. Enzymatic activities of catalase were strongly increased during the first hours of exposure. The excess in malonildialdehyde following exposure to WHWW confirmed that oxidative stress severely damaged maize roots. Membrane alteration caused a decrease in NADPH oxidase activity along with DNA damage as confirmed by DNA laddering. The DNA instability was also assessed through sequence-related amplified polymorphism assay, thus suggesting the danger of walnut processing by-product and focusing the attention on the necessity of an efficient treatment of WHWW.

  17. Prevention of mitochondrial oxidative damage as a therapeutic strategy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Green, Katherine; Brand, Martin D; Murphy, Michael P

    2004-02-01

    Hyperglycemia causes many of the pathological consequences of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Much of this damage is suggested to be a consequence of elevated production of reactive oxygen species by the mitochondrial respiratory chain during hyperglycemia. Mitochondrial radical production associated with hyperglycemia will also disrupt glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, because pancreatic beta-cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. Therefore, mitochondrial radical production in response to hyperglycemia contributes to both the progression and pathological complications of diabetes. Consequently, strategies to decrease mitochondrial radical production and oxidative damage may have therapeutic potential. This could be achieved by the use of antioxidants or by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we outline the background to these strategies and discuss how antioxidants targeted to mitochondria, or selective mitochondrial uncoupling, may be potential therapies for diabetes.

  18. Pb-inhibited mitotic activity in onion roots involves DNA damage and disruption of oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Plant responses to abiotic stress significantly affect the development of cells, tissues and organs. However, no studies correlating Pb-induced mitotic inhibition and DNA damage and the alterations in redox homeostasis during root division per se were found in the literature. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb on mitotic activity and the associated changes in the oxidative metabolism in onion roots. The cytotoxic effect of Pb on cell division was assessed in the root meristems of Allium cepa (onion). The mitotic index (MI) was calculated and chromosomal abnormalities were sought. Pb-treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in MI in the onion root tips and caused mitotic abnormalities such as distorted metaphase, fragments, sticky chromosomes, laggards, vagrant chromosomes and bridges. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis was also performed to evaluate Pb induced genotoxicity. It was accompanied by altered oxidative metabolism in the onion root tips suggesting the interference of Pb with the redox homeostasis during cell division. There was a higher accumulation of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide, and a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases in Pb-treated onion roots, whereas catalases activity exhibited a decreasing pattern upon Pb exposure. The study concludes that Pb-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the onion roots is mediated through ROS and is also tightly linked to the cell cycle. The exposure to higher concentrations arrested cell cycle leading to cell death, whereas different repair responses are generated at lower concentrations, thereby allowing the cell to complete the cell cycle.

  19. Nrf2 is critical in defense against high glucose-induced oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Kan, Hong; Cai, Lu; Ma, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of glucose induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes that may contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy in diabetes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) controls the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene regulation in response to oxidative stress. The role of Nrf2 in defense against high glucose-induced oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes was investigated. Glucose at high concentrations induced ROS production in both primary neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes from the Nrf2 wild type (WT) mouse heart, whereas, in Nrf2 knockout (KO) cells, ROS was significantly higher under basal conditions and high glucose markedly further increased ROS production in concentration and time-dependent manners. Concomitantly, high glucose induced significantly higher levels of apoptosis at lower concentrations and in shorter time in Nrf2 KO cells than in WT cells. Primary adult cardiomyocytes from control and diabetic mice also showed dependence on Nrf2 function for isoproterenol-stimulated contraction. Additionally, cardiomyocytes from Nrf2 KO mice exhibited increased sensitivity to 3-nitropropionic acid, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, for both ROS production and apoptosis compared with Nrf2 WT cells, further emphasizing the role of Nrf2 in ROS defense in the cells. Mechanistically, Nrf2 was shown to mediate the basal expression and induction of ARE-controlled cytoprotective genes, Nqo1 and Ho1, at both mRNA and protein levels in cardiomyocytes, as both the basal and inducible expressions of the genes were lost in Nrf2 KO cells or largely reduced by Nrf2 SiRNA. The findings, for the first time, established Nrf2 as a critical regulator of defense against ROS in normal and diabetic hearts.

  20. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Protects Hepatocytes from Type I Interferon-Driven Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anannya; Hegazy, Ahmed N.; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Kosack, Lindsay; Cupovic, Jovana; Kandasamy, Richard K.; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Merkler, Doron; Kühl, Anja A.; Vilagos, Bojan; Schliehe, Christopher; Panse, Isabel; Khamina, Kseniya; Baazim, Hatoon; Arnold, Isabelle; Flatz, Lukas; Xu, Haifeng C.; Lang, Philipp A.; Aderem, Alan; Takaoka, Akinori; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Colinge, Jacques; Ludewig, Burkhard; Löhning, Max; Bergthaler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue damage caused by viral hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Using a mouse model of viral hepatitis, we identified virus-induced early transcriptional changes in the redox pathways in the liver, including downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Sod1−/− mice exhibited increased inflammation and aggravated liver damage upon viral infection, which was independent of T and NK cells and could be ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. Type I interferon (IFN-I) led to a downregulation of Sod1 and caused oxidative liver damage in Sod1−/− and wild-type mice. Genetic and pharmacological ablation of the IFN-I signaling pathway protected against virus-induced liver damage. These results delineate IFN-I mediated oxidative stress as a key mediator of virus-induced liver damage and describe a mechanism of innate-immunity-driven pathology, linking IFN-I signaling with antioxidant host defense and infection-associated tissue damage. Video Abstract PMID:26588782

  1. Chronic PARP-1 inhibition reduces carotid vessel remodeling and oxidative damage of the dorsal hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Eros, Krisztian; Magyar, Klara; Deres, Laszlo; Skazel, Arpad; Riba, Adam; Vamos, Zoltan; Kalai, Tamas; Gallyas, Ferenc; Sumegi, Balazs; Toth, Kalman

    2017-01-01

    Vascular remodeling during chronic hypertension may impair the supply of tissues with oxygen, glucose and other compounds, potentially unleashing deleterious effects. In this study, we used Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats with or without pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 by an experimental compound L-2286, to evaluate carotid artery remodeling and consequent damage of neuronal tissue during hypertension. We observed elevated oxidative stress and profound thickening of the vascular wall with fibrotic tissue accumulation induced by elevated blood pressure. 32 weeks of L-2286 treatment attenuated these processes by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 cellular levels in carotid arteries. In hypertensive animals, vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction was observed by NF-κB nuclear accumulation and impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine, respectively. Pharmacological poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition interfered in these processes and mitigated Apoptosis Inducing Factor dependent cell death events, thus improved structural and functional alterations of carotid arteries, without affecting blood pressure. Chronic poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition protected neuronal tissue against oxidative damage, assessed by nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxinonenal and 8-oxoguanosine immunohistochemistry in the area of Cornu ammonis 1 of the dorsal hippocampus in hypertensive rats. In this area, extensive pyramidal cell loss was also attenuated by treatment with lowered poly(ADP-ribose)polymer formation. It also preserved the structure of fissural arteries and attenuated perivascular white matter lesions and reactive astrogliosis in hypertensive rats. These data support the premise in which chronic poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition has beneficial effects on hypertension related tissue damage both in vascular tissue and in the hippocampus by altering signaling events, reducing oxidative

  2. Modulation of oxidative cell damage by reconstituted mixtures of phenolic apple juice extracts in human colon cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sandra; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2006-04-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower risk of tumour induction in the intestine and other sites. Apple juice with high amounts of antioxidative phenolics might protect the intestine against reactive oxygen species-mediated cell damage. We investigated to which extent the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts is governed by the amounts of five major constituents (rutin, phloridzin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and epicatechin). In human colon cell lines (Caco-2, HT29), reconstituted mixtures of these phenolics were investigated in comparison to the original juice extracts, originating from cider and table apples. Parameters studied were (oxidative) DNA damage (Comet assay), cellular redox status (dichlorofluorescein assay) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). The TEAC of the reconstituted mixtures was higher compared to the respective original extracts (4.7-7.3 mM vs. 3.6-4.2 mM Trolox). After 24 h cell incubation, menadione-induced (oxidative) DNA damage was more effectively reduced by the reconstituted mixtures (1-100 microg/mL, 24 h), as compared to the original extracts. In contrast, the cellular ROS level was reduced to a rather similar extent by original extracts and reconstituted mixtures. The results lead to the conclusion that the selected constituents in their authentic proportions substantially account for the antioxidative effectiveness of phenolic apple juice extracts.

  3. Oxidative Damage Induced by Arsenic in Mice or Rats: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Yan, Yizhong; Xu, Shangzhi; Niu, Qiang; Feng, Gangling; Wang, Yan; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2017-03-01

    In this meta-analysis, studies reporting arsenic-induced oxidative damage in mouse models were systematically evaluated to provide a scientific understanding of oxidative stress mechanisms associated with arsenic poisoning. Fifty-eight relevant peer-reviewed publications were identified through exhaustive database searching. Oxidative stress indexes assessed included superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our meta-analysis showed that arsenic exposure generally suppressed measured levels of the antioxidants, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, GST, and GR, but increased levels of the oxidants, GSSG, MDA, and ROS. Arsenic valence was important and GR and MDA levels increased to a significantly (P < 0.05) greater extent upon exposure to As(3+) than to As(5+). Other factors that contributed to a greater overall oxidative effect from arsenic exposure included intervention time, intervention method, dosage, age of animals, and the sample source from which the indexes were estimated. Our meta-analysis effectively summarized a wide range of studies and detected a positive relationship between arsenic exposure and oxidative damage. These data provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of arsenic poisoning.

  4. Oxidative damage and sensitivity to nociceptive stimulus and opioids in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Atul; Ratka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to aging and may cause alterations in pain and analgesia. Knowledge about effects of oxidative stress on the opioid system is very limited. This project was designed to determine the relationship between age-related oxidative damage and opioid antinocicpetion. Three age groups of male Fischer 344 rats were tested for pain sensitivity and responses to morphine and fentanyl using the hot plate method. Oxidative stress markers in various brain regions were measured. With advancing age, nociceptive threshold and antinociceptive effects of opioids decreased significantly. There was a significant negative correlation between morphine antinociception and protein oxidation in cortex, striatum, and midbrain (r2 = 0.73, 0.87, and 0.77, respectively), and lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum (r2 = 0.73, 0.61 and 0.71, respectively). Similar correlation was observed between oxidative stress markers and fentanyl antinociception. These findings demonstrate that the age-related increase in oxidative damage in brain is associated with a significant decrease in the antinociceptive effects of opioids. PMID:17997197

  5. Involvement of DNA polymerase beta in repairing oxidative damages induced by antitumor drug adriamycin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shukun; Wu Mei; Zhang Zunzhen

    2010-08-01

    Adriamycin (ADM) is a widely used antineoplastic drug. However, the increasing cellular resistance has become a serious limitation to ADM clinical application. The most important mechanism related to ADM-induced cell death is oxidative DNA damage mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Base excision repair (BER) is a major pathway in the repair of DNA single strand break (SSB) and oxidized base. In this study, we firstly applied the murine embryo fibroblasts wild-type (pol {beta} +/+) and homozygous pol {beta} null cell (pol {beta} -/-) as a model to investigate ADM DNA-damaging effects and the molecular basis underlying these effects. Here, cellular sensitivity to ADM was examined using colorimetric assay and colony forming assay. ADM-induced cellular ROS level and the alteration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured by commercial kits. Further, DNA strand break, chromosomal damage and gene mutation were assessed by comet assay, micronucleus test and hprt gene mutation assay, respectively. The results showed that pol {beta} -/- cells were more sensitive to ADM compared with pol {beta} +/+ cells and more severe SSB and chromosomal damage as well as higher hprt gene mutation frequency were observed in pol {beta} -/- cells. ROS level in pol {beta} -/- cells increased along with decreased activity of SOD. These results demonstrated that pol {beta} deficiency could enable ROS accumulation with SOD activity decrease, further elevate oxidative DNA damage, and subsequently result in SSB, chromosome cleavage as well as gene mutation, which may be partly responsible for the cytotoxicity of ADM and the hypersensitivity of pol {beta} -/- cells to ADM. These findings suggested that pol {beta} is vital for repairing oxidative damage induced by ADM.

  6. Arsenosugar induced blood and brain oxidative stress, DNA damage and neurobehavioral impairments.

    PubMed

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Ratan, Md; Hossen, Farhad; Hassan, Faizule; Faisal, Mohammad; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim

    2013-02-01

    The effect of Arsenosugar on motor function and contextual memory-related to place and event; the extent of DNA damage and oxidative stress in male swiss albino mice was investigated. Passive avoidance test was used for memory test; rota motor test was used for motor function. Several biochemical parameters were used for assessing oxidative stress due to arsenosugar ingestion. Decreased passive avoidance time and decreased retention time in rotating rod indicated disruption of normal neurobehavior. Significant dose-dependent DNA damage was found in mice blood and brain. Decreased super oxide dismutase, increased lipid peroxidation, decreased protein sulfohydryl content, increased protein carbonyl content in blood and hippocampal tissue; glutathione in blood and glutathione peroxidase in hippocampal tissue indicated the ability of arsenosugar to cause oxidative stress. This study concludes with evidence that arsenosugar ingestion causes higher oxidative stress, increases DNA damage in the blood and hippocampus in vivo. This might be responsible for the dysfunction of cognitive and motor functions. However, further investigation is suggested for deciphering the biomolecular mechanism.

  7. XPD localizes in mitochondria and protects the mitochondrial genome from oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Fang, Hongbo; Chi, Zhenfen; Wu, Zan; Wei, Di; Mo, Dongliang; Niu, Kaifeng; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Hei, Tom K; Nie, Linghu; Zhao, Yongliang

    2015-06-23

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD/ERCC2) encodes an ATP-dependent helicase that plays essential roles in both transcription and nucleotide excision repair of nuclear DNA, however, whether or not XPD exerts similar functions in mitochondria remains elusive. In this study, we provide the first evidence that XPD is localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria, and cells under oxidative stress showed an enhanced recruitment of XPD into mitochondrial compartment. Furthermore, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and levels of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) common deletion were significantly elevated, whereas capacity for oxidative damage repair of mtDNA was markedly reduced in both XPD-suppressed human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells and XPD-deficient human fibroblasts. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify interacting factor(s) with XPD and TUFM, a mitochondrial Tu translation elongation factor was detected to be physically interacted with XPD. Similar to the findings in XPD-deficient cells, mitochondrial common deletion and oxidative damage repair capacity in U2OS cells were found to be significantly altered after TUFM knock-down. Our findings clearly demonstrate that XPD plays crucial role(s) in protecting mitochondrial genome stability by facilitating an efficient repair of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondria.

  8. Platelet-rich plasma reduces the oxidative damage determined by a skeletal muscle contusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rodrigo Pereira; Hartmann, Diane Duarte; de Moraes, Jefferson Potiguara; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes; Puntel, Gustavo Orione

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has received increasing attention and is widely used in clinical practice in order to stimulate human tissue healing. Contusions are very common injuries observed in sports and affect the function of the musculoskeletal system. This study investigated the effects of PRP on the oxidative damage determined by a contusion induced in gastrocnemius muscle of rats. PRP was injected intramuscularly immediately after injury and every 48 h, and the biochemical analysis was performed 1, 3, 5, or 7 days after the contusion onset in order to evaluate the changes characteristics of the healing process. The contusion increased the levels of oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and oxidized dichlorofluorescein both in skeletal muscle tissue and erythrocytes preparations, and PRP treatment significantly reduced these oxidative damage markers. Furthermore, the contusion decreased the cellular viability in the site of the lesion and PRP was effective in diminishing this effect. Moreover, PRP increased the levels of enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the injured muscle, and also the non-protein thiols (-SH) group levels in erythrocytes. In conclusion PRP, in the form that was used in this study, was able to modulate the oxidative damage determined by a classical skeletal muscle injury possibly by reducing the impairment of myocytes mitochondrial function and improving their endogenous antioxidant defense systems.

  9. Genetic damage caused by methyl-parathion in mouse spermatozoa is related to oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Rojas-Garcia, A.E.; Uriostegui-Acosta, M.; Quintanilla-Vega, B. . E-mail: mquintan@cinvestav.mx

    2006-10-15

    Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are considered genotoxic mainly to somatic cells, but results are not conclusive. Few studies have reported OP alterations on sperm chromatin and DNA, and oxidative stress has been related to their toxicity. Sperm cells are very sensitive to oxidative damage which has been associated with reproductive dysfunctions. We evaluated the effects of methyl-parathion (Me-Pa; a widely used OP) on sperm DNA, exploring the sensitive stage(s) of spermatogenesis and the relationship with oxidative stress. Male mice (10-12-weeks old) were administered Me-Pa (3-20 mg/kg bw/i.p.) and euthanized at 7- or 28-days post-treatment. Mature spermatozoa were obtained and evaluated for chromatin structure through SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay; DNA Fragmentation Index parameters: Mean DFI and DFI%) and chromomycin-A{sub 3} (CMA{sub 3})-staining, for DNA damage through in situ-nick translation (NT-positive) and for oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation (LPO; malondialdehyde production). At 7-days post-treatment (mature spermatozoa when Me-Pa exposure), dose-dependent alterations in chromatin structure (Mean DFI and CMA{sub 3}-staining) were observed, as well as increased DNA damage, from 2-5-fold in DFI% and NT-positive cells. Chromatin alterations and DNA damage were also observed at 28-days post-treatment (cells at meiosis at the time of exposure); suggesting that the damage induced in spermatocytes was not repaired. Positive correlations were observed between LPO and sperm DNA-related parameters. These data suggest that oxidative stress is related to Me-Pa alterations on sperm DNA integrity and cells at meiosis (28-days post-treatment) and epididymal maturation (7-days post-treatment) are Me-Pa targets. These findings suggest a potential risk of Me-Pa to the offspring after transmission.

  10. Modulation of photo-oxidative DNA damage by cationic surfactant complexation.

    PubMed

    Rudiuk, Sergii; Franceschi-Messant, Sophie; Chouini-Lalanne, Nadia; Perez, Emile; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle

    2008-08-19

    The natural packaging of DNA in the cell by histones provides a particular environment affecting its sensitivity to oxidative damage. In this work, we used the complexation of DNA by cationic surfactants to modulate the conformation, the dynamics, and the environment of the double helix. Photo-oxidative damage initiated by benzophenone as the photosensitizer on a plasmid DNA complexed by dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride (TTAC), cetyltrimethyammonium chloride (CTAC) and bromide (CTAB) was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. By fluorescent titration in the presence of ethidium bromide (EB) and agarose gel electrophoresis, we experimentally confirmed the complexation diagrams with a critical aggregation concentration on DNA matrix (CAC DNA) delimiting two regions of complexation, according to the DNA-phosphate concentration. The study of the photo-oxidative damage shows, for the first time, a direct correlation between the DNA complexation by these surfactants and the efficiency of DNA cleavage, with a maximum corresponding to the CAC DNA for DTAC and CTAC, and to DNA neutralization for CTAC and CTAB. The localization of a photosensitizer having low water solubility, such as benzophenone, inside the hydrophobic domains formed by the surfactant aggregated on DNA, locally increases the photoinduced cleavage by the free radical oxygen species generated. The inefficiency of a water-soluble quencher of hydroxyl radicals, such as mannitol, confirmed this phenomenon. The detection of photo-oxidative damage constitutes a new tool for investigating DNA complexation by cationic surfactants. Moreover, highlighting the drastically increased sensitivity of a complexed DNA to photo-oxidative damage is of crucial importance for the biological use of surfactants as nonviral gene delivery systems.

  11. Aluminum phosphide-induced genetic and oxidative damages in rats: attenuation by Laurus nobilis leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Türkez, Hasan; Toğar, Başak

    2013-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a colorless, flammable, liquefied pesticide that is commonly used to control insects, nematodes, weeds, and pathogens in crops, forests, ornamental nurseries, and wood products. Early investigations of AlP-poisoned mammalian cells led to the proposed involvement of oxidative damage in its toxicity mechanism. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Laurus nobilis (L) leaf extract (LNE) against AlP-induced genetic and oxidative damages in rats. Selected animals were assigned to four groups (n = 6), namely, group A: control (only distilled water is injected); group B: AlP (4 mg kg(-1) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.)); group C: LNE (200 mg kg(-1) injected i.p.), and group D: AlP plus LNE, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 14 successive days. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) assay were used for monitoring genotoxic damage. In addition, biochemical parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) were examined in serum samples to determine oxidative damage. Our results indicated that AlP caused increase in CA and MN assay rates and alterations in TAC and TOS levels when compared with control group. On the contrary, LNE did not change the rates of both the analyzed cytogenetic end points and led to increase in TAC level. Moreover, we observed that LNE suppressed the genetic damage by AlP to bone marrow cells in vivo. Interestingly AlP-induced oxidative stress was also strongly reduced by LNE. The results of the present study indicated that the protective effect of LNE might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

  12. Sildenafil ameliorates oxidative stress and DNA damage in the stenotic kidneys in mice with renovascular hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been implicated in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension induced by renal artery stenosis in the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt model. Considering our previous report indicating that the chronic blockade of phosphodiesterase 5 with sildenafil (Viagra®) has marked beneficial effects on oxidative stress and DNA damage, we tested the hypothesis that sildenafil could also protect the stenotic kidneys of 2K1C hypertensive mice against oxidative stress and genotoxicity. Methods The experiments were performed with C57BL6 mice subjected to renovascular hypertension by left renal artery clipping. Two weeks after clipping, the mice were treated with sildenafil (40 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, 2K1C-sildenafil group) or the vehicle (2K1C). These mice were compared with control mice not subjected to renal artery clipping (Sham). After hemodynamic measurements, the stenotic kidneys were assessed using flow cytometry to evaluate cell viability and the comet assay to evaluate DNA damage. Measurements of intracellular superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide levels as well as nitric oxide bioavailability were also obtained. Results Sildenafil treatment significantly reduced mean arterial pressure (15%), heart rate (8%), intrarenal angiotensin II (50%) and renal atrophy (36%). In addition, it caused a remarkable decrease of reactive oxygen species production. On the other hand, sildenafil increased nitric oxide levels relative to those in the nontreated 2K1C mice. Sildenafil treatment also significantly reduced the high level of kidney DNA damage that is a characteristic of renovascular hypertensive mice. Conclusions Our data reveal that sildenafil has a protective effect on the stenotic kidneys of 2K1C mice, suggesting a new use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors for protection against the DNA damage observed in the hypoperfused kidneys of individuals with renovascular hypertension. Further translational research is

  13. SIRT3 mediates decrease of oxidative damage and prevention of ageing in porcine fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoxian; Wang, Liangliang; Zhao, Binggong; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Jiaqi

    2017-05-15

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondria-specific protein required for the deacetylation of metabolic enzymes and the action of oxidative phosphorylation by acting as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase. SIRT3 increases oxidative stress resistance and prevents mitochondrial decay associated with ageing in response to caloric restriction. However, the effects of SIRT3 on oxidative damage and ageing are not well understood. We investigated the physiological functions of porcine SIRT3 on the damage and ageing in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). Overexpression and knockdown of SIRT3 were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. All cells were treated with three different stress reagents 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), methanesulfonic acid methylester (MMS), and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), respectively, and then examined by flow cytometry following JC-1 (5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyanine iodide) staining. SIRT3 overexpression enhanced the ability of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) to reduce cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further decreased the damage to the membranes and the organelles of the cells, especially to mitochondria. It inhibited the initial decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and prevented the decrease of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and activity of Nampt. In contrast, SIRT3 knockdown reduced the ability of SOD2 to increase cellular ROS which was directly correlated with stress-induced oxidative damage and ageing in PFFs. Our findings identify one function of SIRT3 in PFFs was to dampen cytotoxicity, and, therefore, to decrease oxidative damage and attenuate ageing possibly by enhancing the activity of SOD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective Effect of Juglans regia L. Walnut Extract Against Oxidative DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; De Bellis, Roberta; Mancini, Umberto; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Stocchi, Vilberto; Potenza, Lucia

    2017-06-01

    Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are relevant components of the Mediterranean diet providing important macronutrients, micronutrients and other bioactive constituents including unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and polyphenols. Although the walnut beneficial effects in human health are widely recognized by a lot of epidemiologic studies very little is known regarding its effect on damaged DNA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Juglans regia L. ethanolic extract from kernel on the induction of DNA strand breaks by thiol/Fe(3+)/O2 mixed function oxidase, tert-butyl hydroperoxide or UVC radiations in acellular and cellular models. Plasmid DNA cleavage and fast Halo assay were used to monitor oxidative damage to DNA. Both approaches showed protection of oxidatively injured DNA. These results agree with a lot of scientific proofs which recommend walnut as dietary adjunct in health promotion and prevention as well as in treatment of lifestyle-related oxidative diseases.

  15. Bromination of deoxycytidine by eosinophil peroxidase: A mechanism for mutagenesis by oxidative damage of nucleotide precursors

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Byun, Jaeman; Williams, Michelle V.; McCormick, Michael L.; Parks, William C.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2001-01-01

    Oxidants generated by eosinophils during chronic inflammation may lead to mutagenesis in adjacent epithelial cells. Eosinophil peroxidase, a heme enzyme released by eosinophils, generates hypobromous acid that damages tissue in inflammatory conditions. We show that human eosinophils use eosinophil peroxidase to produce 5-bromodeoxycytidine. Flow cytometric, immunohistochemical, and mass spectrometric analyses all demonstrated that 5-bromodeoxycytidine generated by eosinophil peroxidase was taken up by cultured cells and incorporated into genomic DNA as 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Although previous studies have focused on oxidation of chromosomal DNA, our observations suggest another mechanism for oxidative damage of DNA. In this scenario, peroxidase-catalyzed halogenation of nucleotide precursors yields products that subsequently can be incorporated into DNA. Because the thymine analog 5-BrUra mispairs with guanine in DNA, generation of brominated pyrimidines by eosinophils might constitute a mechanism for cytotoxicity and mutagenesis at sites of inflammation. PMID:11172002

  16. Chemical and photo-oxidative hair damage studied by dye diffusion and electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, S B; Yang, B; Kamath, Y K

    2003-01-01

    Microspectrophotometric and electrophoretic methods were used to characterize and quantify the effects of primary damage to hair from chemical and photochemical oxidative processes. The diffusion of molecules proceeding from the fiber surface to the center of untreated and modified (by chemical and photochemical oxidative processes) hair fibers was mapped by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by calculating diffusion coefficients of a fluorescent molecule. In addition, an electrophoretic separation technique, namely, SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), was used not only to substantiate the results obtained in the microfluorometric study, but also to show how the main classes of proteins of unaltered hair are modified by cosmetic chemical treatments, light exposure, and combinations of these two processes. UV microspectrophotometry is an alternate analytical method to evaluate photo-oxidative damage in hair, and supports the results obtained by microfluorometry.

  17. Oxidative damage induced by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic extracts from urban air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Hanzalova, Katerina; Rossner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the role of oxidative damage in the mechanism of action of selected individual carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs: benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P; dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, DB[a,l]P), an artificial mixture of c-PAHs (c-PAHs mix) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from urban air particulate matter (PM). Two cell lines (human hepatoma cells, HepG2; human diploid lung fibroblasts, HEL) were treated for 24 and 48h with various concentrations of compounds and mixtures. A panel of oxidative stress markers included 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and protein carbonyl groups. The response of the cell lines to the test compounds was substantially different. In HepG2 cells, oxidative damage to DNA was generally not induced by individual c-PAHs and the c-PAHs mix, but EOM increased 8-oxodG levels in these cells. In HEL cells, none of the compounds induced oxidative DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation, measured as the level of 15-F(2t)-IsoP, was induced by c-PAHs in HepG2 cells only after 48h of incubation, while the effect of EOM was detected already after 24h. In HEL cells, individual c-PAHs and the c-PAH mix generally decreased 15-F(2t)-IsoP levels. This effect was even stronger for EOM treatment. Protein oxidation, assessed as carbonyl levels in cell lysates, was not induced after 24h of treatment with any compound in either cell line. Individual c-PAHs and the c-PAH mix generally induced protein oxidation in both cell lines after 48h treatment, with the exception of DB[a,l]P in HepG2 cells. Oxidative damage to proteins caused by EOM was generally increased in HepG2 cells after 48h of incubation, while in HEL cells the effect was observed for only one dose of EOM. In summary, our results demonstrate the ability of EOM to induce oxidative damage to DNA and lipids after 24h of treatment, and to proteins after 48h, in HepG2 cells, while the effect of c-PAHs was substantially less. The induction of oxidative stress by c-PAHs and EOM in HEL cells was

  18. Photoprotective Effect of Carpomitra costata Extract against Ultraviolet B-Induced Oxidative Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Hewage, S R K Madduma; Piao, Mei Jing; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Han, X; Kang, H K; Yoo, E S; Koh, Y S; Lee, N H; Ko, C S; Lee, J C; Ko, Mi Hee; Hyuna, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Natural marine products show various biological properties such as antiphotoaging, antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammation. This study evaluated the protective effects of the brown alga Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters (Sporochnaceae) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-provoked damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. C. costata extract (CCE) effectively reduced superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and UVB-stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. CCE also restored the expression and activity of UVB-suppressed antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, CCE decreased UVB-triggered oxidative damage to cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid and defended the cells against mitochondrial membrane depolarization-medicated apoptosis. The results of this study indicate that CCE can safeguard human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cellular damage via a potent antioxidant mechanism. CCE may find utility as part of a therapeutic arsenal against the damaging effects of UVB radiation on the skin.

  19. Hesperidin methyl chalcone inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-01

    Hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is a safe flavonoid used to treat chronic venous diseases, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress have never been described in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of HMC in skin oxidative stress and inflammation induced by UVB irradiation. To induce skin damage, hairless mice were exposed to an acute UVB irradiation dose of 4.14 J/cm(2), and the dorsal skin samples were collected to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The intraperitoneal treatment with HMC at the dose of 300 mg/kg inhibited UVB irradiation-induced skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. HMC also protected the skin from UVB irradiation-induced oxidative stress by maintaining ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability and antioxidant levels (reduced glutathione and catalase). Corroborating, HMC inhibited UVB irradiation-induced superoxide anion generation and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of HMC resulted in lower production of inflammatory mediators, including lipid hydroperoxides and a wide range of cytokines. Taken together, these results unveil a novel applicability of HMC in the treatment of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of pancreatic oxidative damage by stilbene derivative dihydro-resveratrol: implication for treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Wang, Juan; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-03-14

    Trans-resveratrol is a natural stilbenoid possessing multifarious pharmacological benefits; however, when orally consumed, it is rapidly metabolised by colonic microflora and converted to dihydro-resveratrol. Thus, this microbial metabolite is of great therapeutic relevance. In the present study, upon the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol (10-50 mg/kg), the severity of acute pancreatitis in the cerulein-treated rats was significantly ameliorated as evidenced by decreased α-amylase activities in the plasma and lessened oedema formation in the pancreatic parenchyma. In addition, the generation of intracellular reactive oxidative products, including malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, was accordingly reduced, so as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While inhibiting the activities of NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, the depletion of glutathione was considerably restored. Importantly, the attenuation of pancreatic oxidative damage by dihydro-resveratrol was associated with a down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-serine/threonine kinase signalling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the solubility of dihydro-resveratrol was at least 5 times higher than trans-resveratrol whilst exhibiting a much lower cytotoxicity. Collectively, the current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of dihydro-resveratrol in pancreatic oxidative damage, and advocate its therapeutic potential for the management of acute pancreatitis, particularly for patients unresponsive to trans-resveratrol due to the lack of proper microbial strains.

  1. Inhibition of pancreatic oxidative damage by stilbene derivative dihydro-resveratrol: implication for treatment of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Wang, Juan; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol is a natural stilbenoid possessing multifarious pharmacological benefits; however, when orally consumed, it is rapidly metabolised by colonic microflora and converted to dihydro-resveratrol. Thus, this microbial metabolite is of great therapeutic relevance. In the present study, upon the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol (10–50 mg/kg), the severity of acute pancreatitis in the cerulein-treated rats was significantly ameliorated as evidenced by decreased α-amylase activities in the plasma and lessened oedema formation in the pancreatic parenchyma. In addition, the generation of intracellular reactive oxidative products, including malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, was accordingly reduced, so as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While inhibiting the activities of NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, the depletion of glutathione was considerably restored. Importantly, the attenuation of pancreatic oxidative damage by dihydro-resveratrol was associated with a down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase-serine/threonine kinase signalling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the solubility of dihydro-resveratrol was at least 5 times higher than trans-resveratrol whilst exhibiting a much lower cytotoxicity. Collectively, the current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of dihydro-resveratrol in pancreatic oxidative damage, and advocate its therapeutic potential for the management of acute pancreatitis, particularly for patients unresponsive to trans-resveratrol due to the lack of proper microbial strains. PMID:26971398

  2. Oxidative Lung Damage Resulting from Repeated Exposure to Radiation and Hyperoxia Associated with Space Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Turowski, Jason B; Arguiri, Evguenia; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Solomides, Charalambos C; Thom, Stephen R; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct Extravehicular Activities (EVA) for repair, maintenance or scientific purposes. Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours (5-8 hours), and may be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health and therefore, pose a threat to the success of the mission. We have developed a murine model of combined, hyperoxia and radiation exposure (double-hit) in the context of evaluating countermeasures to oxidative lung damage associated with space flight. In the current study, our objective was to characterize the early and chronic effects of repeated single and double-hit challenge on lung tissue using a novel murine model of repeated exposure to low-level total body radiation and hyperoxia. This is the first study of its kind evaluating lung damage relevant to space exploration in a rodent model. Methods Mouse cohorts (n=5-15/group) were exposed to repeated: a) normoxia; b) >95% O2 (O2); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O2 and IR (O2+IR) given 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Lungs were evaluated for oxidative damage, active TGFβ1 levels, cell apoptosis, inflammation, injury, and fibrosis at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-initiation of exposure. Results Mouse cohorts exposed to all challenge conditions displayed decreased bodyweight compared to untreated controls at 4 and 8 weeks post-challenge initiation. Chronic oxidative lung damage to lipids (malondialdehyde levels), DNA (TUNEL, cleaved Caspase 3, cleaved PARP positivity) leading to apoptotic cell death and to proteins (nitrotyrosine levels) was elevated all treatment groups. Importantly, significant systemic oxidative stress was also noted at the late phase in mouse plasma, BAL fluid, and urine. Importantly

  3. Oxidative Lung Damage Resulting from Repeated Exposure to Radiation and Hyperoxia Associated with Space Exploration.

    PubMed

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Turowski, Jason B; Arguiri, Evguenia; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Solomides, Charalambos C; Thom, Stephen R; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-09-30

    Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct Extravehicular Activities (EVA) for repair, maintenance or scientific purposes. Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours (5-8 hours), and may be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health and therefore, pose a threat to the success of the mission. We have developed a murine model of combined, hyperoxia and radiation exposure (double-hit) in the context of evaluating countermeasures to oxidative lung damage associated with space flight. In the current study, our objective was to characterize the early and chronic effects of repeated single and double-hit challenge on lung tissue using a novel murine model of repeated exposure to low-level total body radiation and hyperoxia. This is the first study of its kind evaluating lung damage relevant to space exploration in a rodent model. Mouse cohorts (n=5-15/group) were exposed to repeated: a) normoxia; b) >95% O2 (O2); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O2 and IR (O2+IR) given 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Lungs were evaluated for oxidative damage, active TGFβ1 levels, cell apoptosis, inflammation, injury, and fibrosis at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-initiation of exposure. Mouse cohorts exposed to all challenge conditions displayed decreased bodyweight compared to untreated controls at 4 and 8 weeks post-challenge initiation. Chronic oxidative lung damage to lipids (malondialdehyde levels), DNA (TUNEL, cleaved Caspase 3, cleaved PARP positivity) leading to apoptotic cell death and to proteins (nitrotyrosine levels) was elevated all treatment groups. Importantly, significant systemic oxidative stress was also noted at the late phase in mouse plasma, BAL fluid, and urine. Importantly, however, late oxidative

  4. Oxidative DNA damage induced by benz[a]anthracene dihydrodiols in the presence of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Seike, Kazuharu; Murata, Mariko; Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Deyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2004-11-01

    Tobacco smoke and polluted air are risk factors for lung cancer and contain many kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benz[a]anthracene (BA). BA, as well as B[a]P, is assessed as probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). BA is metabolized to several dihydrodiols. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, catalyzes NAD(P)+-linked oxidation of dihydrodiols of aromatic hydrocarbons to corresponding catechols. To clarify the role of DD on PAH carcinogenesis, we examined oxidative DNA damage induced by trans-dihydrodiols of BA and B[a]P treated with DD using 32P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we investigated the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, in calf thymus DNA by using HPLC with an electrochemical detector. DD-catalyzed BA-1,2-dihydrodiol caused Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage including 8-oxodG formation in the presence of NAD+. BA-1,2-dihydrodiol induced a Fpg sensitive and piperidine labile G lesion at the 5'-ACG-3' sequence complementary to codon 273 of the human p53 tumor suppressor gene, which is known as a hotspot. DNA damage was inhibited by catalase and bathocuproine, suggesting the involvement of H2O2 and Cu(I). The observation of NADH production by UV-visible spectroscopy suggested that DD catalyzed BA-1,2-dihydrodiol most efficiently to the corresponding catechol among the PAH-dihydrodiols tested. A time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study showed that the catechol form of BA-1,2-dihydrodiol formed after DD treatment. In conclusion, BA-1,2-dihydrodiol can induce DNA damage more efficiently than B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol and other BA-dihydrodiols in the presence of DD. The reaction mechanism on oxidative DNA damage may be explained by theoretical calculations with an enthalpy change of dihydrodiols and oxidation potential of their catechol forms. DD

  5. FSH protects mouse granulosa cells from oxidative damage by repressing mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Jiang, Yi; Guan, Zhiqiang; Cao, Yan; Sun, Shao-chen; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in triggering granulosa cell (GC) death during follicular atresia. Recent studies suggested that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has a pivotal role in protecting GCs from oxidative injury, although the exact mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report that FSH promotes GC survival by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced mitophagy. The loss of GC viability caused by oxidative stress was significantly reduced after FSH treatment, which was correlated with impaired activation of mitophagy upon oxidative stress. Compared with FSH treatment, blocking mitophagy displayed approximate preventive effect on oxidative stress-induced GC death, but FSH did not further restore viability of cells pretreated with mitophagy inhibitor. Importantly, FSH suppressed the induction of serine/threonine kinase PINK1 during oxidative stress. This inhibited the mitochondrial translocation of the E3 ligase Parkin, which is required for the subsequent clearance of mitochondria, and ultimately cell death via mitophagy. In addition, knocking down PINK1 using RNAi confirmed the role of the FSH-PINK1-Parkin-mitophagy pathway in regulating GC survival under oxidative conditions. These findings introduce a novel physiological function of FSH in protecting GCs against oxidative damage by targeting PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy. PMID:27901103

  6. Goat milk supplemented with folic acid protects cell biomolecules from oxidative stress-mediated damage after anaemia recovery in comparison with cow milk.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Hijano, Silvia; Alférez, María J M; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2014-08-01

    Fe overload is a common consequence of the anaemia treatment, increasing the oxidative stress and promoting the accumulation of damaged biomolecules, with the subsequently impairment of cell functions. Oxidative stress and the role of folic acid preventing free radical damage have been extensively studied; nevertheless, no studies are available about the influence of folic acid-supplemented goat milk consumption on the oxidative stress-mediated damage. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of folic acid supplementation of goat milk- or cow milk-based diets, after Fe-overload treatment to palliate anaemia, on oxidative stress-mediated biomolecular damage in the liver, brain, erythrocytes, duodenal mucosa and plasma. Control and anaemic rats were fed goat milk- or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Fe or Fe overload (450 mg/kg), and normal folic acid (2 mg/kg) or folic acid supplemented (40 mg/kg) for 30 days. During chronic Fe repletion, background DNA damage was significantly lower in anaemic rats fed folic acid-supplemented goat milk-based diet, as revealed by tail DNA (%), and folic acid-supplemented goat milk also had a beneficial effect, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in liver, plasma, erythrocytes and especially in brain and duodenal mucosa. Furthermore, protein oxidative damage was lower in anaemic rat duodenal mucosa for all goat milk-based diets. Folic acid supplement in goat milk avoids the undesirable effects of Fe overload during anaemia recovery in all the tissues studied, especially in the liver and duodenal mucosa, which are the tissues with higher exposition to dietary Fe.

  7. Validation of the chloramine-T induced oxidation of human serum albumin as a model for oxidative damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Anraku, Makoto; Kragh-Hansen, Ulrich; Kawai, Keiichi; Maruyama, Toru; Yamasaki, Yasuomi; Takakura, Yoshinobu; Otagiri, Masaki

    2003-04-01

    The validity of using chloramine-T as a model compound for mimicing oxidative stress was examined using human serum albumin (HSA) as a model. Important sites of oxidation were studied by mild treatment with chloramine-T and by mutating 34Cys for a serine (C34S). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with fluorescence detection to confirm the validity of chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent was used. Oxidized amino acid residues were detected by reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro benzoic acid), digestion with cyanogen bromide, followed by capillary electrophoresis. Protein conformation was examined by spectroscopic techniques. From the HPLC analysis of human serum, the validity of using chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent was confirmed. At low chloramine-T concentrations (CT0.1-HSA, CT1-HSA), 34Cys and Met residues were oxidized, at medium concentrations (CT10-HSA), the tryptophan residue also appeared to be oxidized, and at the highest concentration (CT50-HSA), the net charge of Site II of HSA was found to be more negative. The two highest levels of oxidation of HSA (CT10-HSA, CT50-HSA) resulted in conformational changes with an increased exposure of hydrophobic regions, decreased high-affinity bindings of warfarin and ketoprofen and a reduced esterase-like activity. The latter protein also has a shorter plasma half-life and an increased liver clearance. We succeeded in imitating oxidative damage to HSA using chloramine-T and the findings show that Site II is more affected than Site I and 34Cys, when HSA is exposed to oxidative stress.

  8. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Lung Acutely Induce Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage in Various Organs of Mice.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Fahim, Mohamed A; Ali, Badreldin H

    2017-01-01

    CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) which are used as a diesel fuel additive are emitted in the particulate phase in the exhaust, posing a health concern. However, limited information exists regarding the in vivo acute toxicity of CeO2 NPs on multiple organs. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 h) effects of intratracheally instilled CeO2 NPs in mice (0.5 mg/kg) on oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in major organs including lung, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain. Lipid peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde production was increased in the lungs only, and reactive oxygen species were increased in the lung, heart, kidney, and brain. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the lung, liver, and kidney, whereas glutathione increased in lung but it decreased in the kidney. Total nitric oxide was increased in the lung and spleen but it decreased in the heart. Tumour necrosis factor-α increased in all organs studied. Interleukin- (IL-) 6 increased in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen. IL-1β augmented in the lung, heart, kidney, and spleen. Moreover, CeO2 NPs induced DNA damage, assessed by COMET assay, in all organs studied. Collectively, these findings indicate that pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs.

  9. Oxidative stress contributes to cobalt oxide nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Y, Al Omar Suliman; Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-01-01

    Background Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, magnetic resonance imaging, and drug delivery. However, little is known about the toxicity of Co3O4NPs in human cells. Methods We investigated the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by Co3O4NPs in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, apoptosis, and DNA damage were assessed in HepG2 cells after Co3O4NPs and Co2+ exposure. Results Co3O4NPs elicited a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in glutathione with a concomitant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, ROS generation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity after 24- and 48-hour exposure. Co3O4NPs had a mild cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells; however, it induced ROS and oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. The comet assay showed a statistically significant (P < 0.01) dose- and time-related increase in DNA damage for Co3O4NPs, whereas Co2+ induced less change than Co3O4NPs but significantly more than control. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that Co3O4NPs induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells through ROS and oxidative stress. PMID:23326189

  10. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Lung Acutely Induce Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage in Various Organs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Fahim, Mohamed A.; Ali, Badreldin H.

    2017-01-01

    CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) which are used as a diesel fuel additive are emitted in the particulate phase in the exhaust, posing a health concern. However, limited information exists regarding the in vivo acute toxicity of CeO2 NPs on multiple organs. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 h) effects of intratracheally instilled CeO2 NPs in mice (0.5 mg/kg) on oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in major organs including lung, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain. Lipid peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde production was increased in the lungs only, and reactive oxygen species were increased in the lung, heart, kidney, and brain. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the lung, liver, and kidney, whereas glutathione increased in lung but it decreased in the kidney. Total nitric oxide was increased in the lung and spleen but it decreased in the heart. Tumour necrosis factor-α increased in all organs studied. Interleukin- (IL-) 6 increased in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen. IL-1β augmented in the lung, heart, kidney, and spleen. Moreover, CeO2 NPs induced DNA damage, assessed by COMET assay, in all organs studied. Collectively, these findings indicate that pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs. PMID:28392888

  11. Age-dependent oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in Down's lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zana, Marianna . E-mail: mzana@freemail.hu; Szecsenyi, Anita; Czibula, Agnes; Bjelik, Annamaria; Juhasz, Anna; Rimanoczy, Agnes; Vetro, Agnes; Pakaski, Magdolna; Janka, Zoltan; Kalman, Janos; Szabo, Krisztina; Szucs, Peter; Varkonyi, Agnes; Boda, Krisztina; Rasko, Istvan

    2006-06-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of lymphocytes from children (n = 7) and adults (n = 18) with Down's syndrome (DS). The basal oxidative condition, the vulnerability to in vitro hydrogen peroxide exposure, and the repair capacity were measured by means of the damage-specific alkaline comet assay. Significantly and age-independently elevated numbers of single strand breaks and oxidized bases (pyrimidines and purines) were found in the nuclear DNA of the lymphocytes in the DS group in the basal condition. These results may support the role of an increased level of endogenous oxidative stress in DS and are similar to those previously demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease. In the in vitro oxidative stress-induced state, a markedly higher extent of DNA damage was observed in DS children as compared with age- and gender-matched healthy controls, suggesting that young trisomic lymphocytes are more sensitive to oxidative stress than normal ones. However, the repair ability itself was not found to be deteriorated in either DS children or DS adults.

  12. CYP2E1-dependent hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage after ethanol administration in human primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lie-Gang; Yan, Hong; Yao, Ping; Zhang, Wen; Zou, Li-Jun; Song, Fang-Fang; Li, Ke; Sun, Xiu-Fa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, in order to address if inhibition of CYP2E1 could attenuate ethanol-induced cellular damage. METHODS: The dose-dependent (25-100 mmol/L) and time-dependent (0-24 h) exposures of primary human cultured hepatocytes to ethanol were carried out. CYP2E1 activity and protein expression were detected by spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis respectively. Hepatotoxicity was investigated by determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) level in hepatocyte culture supernatants, as well as the intracellular formation of malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS: A dose-and time-dependent response between ethanol exposure and CYP2E1 activity in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Moreover, there was a time-dependent increase of CYP2E1 protein after 100 mmol/L ethanol exposure. Meanwhile, ethanol exposure of hepatocytes caused a time-dependent increase of cellular MDA level, LDH, and AST activities in supernatants. Furthermore, the inhibitor of CYP2E1, diallyl sulfide (DAS) could partly attenuate the increases of MDA, LDH, and AST in human hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: A positive relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and CYP2E1 activity was exhibited, and the inhibition of CYP2E1 could partly attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative damage. PMID:16052683

  13. Development of damage resistant sputtered oxide optical coatings for use at 248 NM

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlewicz, W.T.; Martin, P.M.; Hays, D.D.; Mann, I.B.

    1981-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a six-month effort to develop damage-resistant Kr*F laser mirrors by using and refining reactive sputter deposition techniques for the fabricaton of multilayer oxide optical coatings. Mirror performance goals included a reflectivity of 99% at 248 nm and a laser damage threshold of 5 J/cm/sup 2/ for 20 ns pulses. Oxide multilayer coating combinations selected for development were SiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2//HfO/sub 2/ and SiO/sub 2//Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Selection was based on review and compilation of the optical properties of oxide materials reported in the recent literature. Twenty-eight coatings of selected designs were fabricated on LLNL substrates for laser damage testing by LLNL. Forty other coatings were fabricated on PNL substrates for optical, microstructural and topographical characterization by PNL aimed at optimization of their performance. Specimens for damage testing consisted of single layers of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, HfO/sub 2/ and Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in thicknesses of lambda/2, 3lambda/2 and 2lambda at 248 nm plus high reflectors of the design LL (HL)/sup m/ HLL.

  14. Protective Effects of Extracts from Fructus rhodomyrti against Oxidative DNA Damage In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yuebin; Xu, Xinyun; Wu, Shuang; Huang, Juan; Misra, Hara; Li, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the potential protective effects of extracts from Fructus rhodomyrti (FR) against oxidative DNA damage using a cellular system and the antioxidant ability on potassium bromate- (KBrO3-) mediated oxidative stress in rats. Methods. The effects of FR on DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were evaluated by comet assay in primary spleen lymphocytes cultures. The effects of FR on the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx and the levels of GSH, hydroperoxides, and 8-OHdG were determined in the plasma and tissues of rats treated with KBrO3. Results. FR was shown to effectively protect against DNA damage induced by H2O2  in vitro, and the maximum protective effect was observed when FR was diluted 20 times. Endogenous antioxidant status, namely, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx and the levels of GSH were significantly decreased in the plasma, the liver, and the kidney of the KBrO3-treated rats, while the pretreatment of FR prevented the decreases of these parameters. In addition, the pretreatment of FR was also able to prevent KBrO3-induced increases in the levels of hydroperoxides and 8-OHdG in the plasma, the liver, and the kidney in rats. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that FR might act as a chemopreventive agent with antioxidant properties offering effective protection against oxidative DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089629

  15. Coal tar residues produce both DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Leadon, S A; Sumerel, J; Minton, T A; Tischler, A

    1995-12-01

    In the present study we compare the metabolic activation of coal tar, as measured by the production of both DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage, with that of a single carcinogen that is a constituent of this complex mixture in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). We find that a significant level of DNA adducts, detected by 32P-postlabeling, are formed in HMEC following exposure to coal tar residues. This treatment also results in the generation of high levels of oxidative DNA damage, as measured by the production of one type of oxidative base modification, thymine glycols. The amounts of both DNA adducts and thymine varied considerably between the various coal tar residues and did not correlate with either the total amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or the amount of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) present in the residue. Fractionating the residue from one of the sites by sequential extraction with organic solvents indicated that while the ability to produce both types of DNA damage was contained mostly in a hexane-soluble fraction, a benzene-soluble fraction produced high levels of reactive oxygens relative to the number of total DNA adducts. We find that the total amount of PAH or B[a]P present in the coal tars from the various sites was not a predictor of the level of total DNA damage formed.

  16. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Hyang Burm; Jeon, Eun-Jae; Jung, Hack Sung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2004-01-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment. Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage produced by H2O2.

  17. Spermine oxidation induced by Helicobacter pylori results in apoptosis and DNA damage: implications for gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hangxiu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Cheng, Yulan; Bussiere, Francoise I; Asim, Mohammad; Yao, Micheal D; Potosky, Darryn; Meltzer, Stephen J; Rhee, Juong G; Kim, Sung S; Moss, Steven F; Hacker, Amy; Wang, Yanlin; Casero, Robert A; Wilson, Keith T

    2004-12-01

    Oxidative stress is linked to carcinogenesis due to its ability to damage DNA. The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori exerts much of its pathogenicity by inducing apoptosis and DNA damage in host gastric epithelial cells. Polyamines are abundant in epithelial cells, and when oxidized by the inducible spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1) H(2)O(2) is generated. Here, we report that H. pylori up-regulates mRNA expression, promoter activity, and enzyme activity of SMO(PAOh1) in human gastric epithelial cells, resulting in DNA damage and apoptosis. H. pylori-induced H(2)O(2) generation and apoptosis in these cells was equally attenuated by an inhibitor of SMO(PAOh1), by catalase, and by transient transfection with small interfering RNA targeting SMO(PAOh1). Conversely, SMO(PAOh1) overexpression induced apoptosis to the same levels as caused by H. pylori. Importantly, in H. pylori-infected tissues, there was increased expression of SMO(PAOh1) in both human and mouse gastritis. Laser capture microdissection of human gastric epithelial cells demonstrated expression of SMO(PAOh1) that was significantly attenuated by H. pylori eradication. These results identify a pathway for oxidative stress-induced epithelial cell apoptosis and DNA damage due to SMO(PAOh1) activation by H. pylori that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the infection and development of gastric cancer.

  18. DNA damage in children exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke and its association with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shermatov, Kabil; Zeyrek, Dost; Yildirim, Faruk; Kilic, Mehmet; Cebi, Nazime; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2012-12-01

    To compare oxidative status, total antioxidant capacity and values of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes in children exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke with healthy controls. Analytical, Observational. 54 children without any chronic diseases, attending the healthy child monitoring polyclinic. These comprised 27 children who had been exposed to passive cigarette smoke and 27 children who had not been exposed to cigarette smoke. Urine cotinine levels by the chemiluminescent technique; DNA damage by alkaline comet assay; and total oxidant status (TOS) using a novel automated measurement method. The mean urine cotinine, TOS, Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) and DNA damage values of the group exposed to cigarette smoke were determined to be at significantly higher level compared to the group not exposed to cigarette smoke (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was determined in the TAS level between the two groups (P=0.1) The results showed that TOS levels, OSI index and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes were significantly higher in children exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke than in those not exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke.

  19. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Huaxian; Wang Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-12-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by {approx} 1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and {approx} 1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was {approx} 1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was {approx} 1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of

  20. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huaxian; Wang, Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by ~1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and ~1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was ~1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was ~1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of mutagenic oxidative DNA lesions

  1. Oxidative brain damage in Mecp2-mutant murine models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Claudio; Della Ragione, Floriana; Signorini, Cinzia; Leoncini, Silvia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Ciccoli, Lucia; Scalabrì, Francesco; Marracino, Federico; Madonna, Michele; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Ricceri, Laura; De Filippis, Bianca; Laviola, Giovanni; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Guy, Alexandre; Bultel-Poncé, Valérie; Guy, Jacky; Filosa, Stefania; Hayek, Joussef; D'Esposito, Maurizio

    2014-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting almost exclusively females, caused in the overwhelming majority of the cases by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). High circulating levels of oxidative stress (OS) markers in patients suggest the involvement of OS in the RTT pathogenesis. To investigate the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in Mecp2 mutant mouse models, several OS markers were evaluated in whole brains of Mecp2-null (pre-symptomatic, symptomatic, and rescued) and Mecp2-308 mutated (pre-symptomatic and symptomatic) mice, and compared to those of wild type littermates. Selected OS markers included non-protein-bound iron, isoprostanes (F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein adducts. Our findings indicate that oxidative brain damage 1) occurs in both Mecp2-null (both -/y and stop/y) and Mecp2-308 (both 308/y males and 308/+ females) mouse models of RTT; 2) precedes the onset of symptoms in both Mecp2-null and Mecp2-308 models; and 3) is rescued by Mecp2 brain specific gene reactivation. Our data provide direct evidence of the link between Mecp2 deficiency, oxidative stress and RTT pathology, as demonstrated by the rescue of the brain oxidative homeostasis following brain-specifically Mecp2-reactivated mice. The present study indicates that oxidative brain damage is a previously unrecognized hallmark feature of murine RTT, and suggests that Mecp2 is involved in the protection of the brain from oxidative stress.

  2. Oxidative brain damage in Mecp2-mutant murine models of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, Claudio; Della Ragione, Floriana; Signorini, Cinzia; Leoncini, Silvia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Ciccoli, Lucia; Scalabrì, Francesco; Marracino, Federico; Madonna, Michele; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Ricceri, Laura; De Filippis, Bianca;