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Sample records for lowest singlet excitation

  1. Lowest singlet excited state and spectroscopy of α-carotene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takao

    2011-03-01

    Emission, excitation and absorption spectra of α-carotene have been measured in solvents with different polarizabilities. It is shown that in highly-polarized solvents α-carotene emits weak fluorescence from the S 1( π, π∗) state with the fluorescence origin observed at 14 800 ± 200 cm -1. The relative S 1/S 2 fluorescence intensity ratio tends to increase with increasing solvent polarizability or decreasing the S 1-S 2 energy separation. The obtained spectroscopic data include the Raman spectrum of α-carotene along with the vibrational analyses of the Raman spectrum based on the DFT calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level.

  2. Ultrafast internal conversion of excited cytosine via the lowest pipi electronic singlet state.

    PubMed

    Merchán, Manuela; Serrano-Andrés, Luis

    2003-07-09

    Computational evidence at the CASPT2 level supports that the lowest excited state pipi* contributes to the S1/S0 crossing responsible for the ultrafast decay of singlet excited cytosine. The computed radiative lifetime, 33 ns, is consistent with the experimentally derived value, 40 ns. The nOpi* state does not play a direct role in the rapid repopulation of the ground state; it is involved in a S2/S1 crossing. Alternative mechanisms through excited states pisigma* or nNpi* are not competitive in cytosine.

  3. Experimental and theoretical dipole moments of purines in their ground and lowest excited singlet states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Diabou Gaye, Mame; Párkányi, Cyril; Cho, Nam Sook; Von Szentpály, László

    1987-01-01

    The ground-state dipole moments of seven biologically important purines (purine, 6-chloropurine, 6-mercaptopurine, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and caffeine) were determined at 25°C in acetic acid (all the above compounds with the exception of purine) and in ethyl acetate (purine, theophylline and caffeine). Because of its low solubility, it was not possible to measure the dipole moment of uric acid. The first excited singlet-state dipole moments were obtained on the basis of the Bakhshiev and Chamma—Viallet equations using the variation of the Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant-refractive index term. The theoretical dipole moments for all the purines listed above and including uric acid were calculated by combining the use of the PPP (π-LCI-SCF-MO) method for the π-contribution to the overall dipole moment with the σ-contribution obtained as a vector sum of the σbond moments and group moments. The experimental and theoretical values were compared with the data available in the literature for some of the purines under study. For several purines, the calculations were carried out for different tautomeric forms. Excited singlet-state dipole moments are smaller than the ground-state values by 0.8 to 2.2 Debye units for all purines under study with the exception of 6-chloropurine. The effects of the structure upon the ground- and excited-state dipole moments of the purines are discussed.

  4. Excited state properties of peridinin: Observation of a solvent dependence of the lowest excited singlet state lifetime and spectral behavior unique among carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, J.A.; Connors, R.E.; Raju, B.B.; Hiller, R.G.; Sharples, F.P.; Gosztola, D.; Wasielewski, M.R.; Frank, H.A.

    1999-10-14

    The spectroscopic properties and dynamic behavior of peridinin in several different solvents were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and transient optical spectroscopy. The lifetime of the lowest excited singlet state of peridinin is found to be strongly dependent on solvent polarity and ranges from 7 ps in the strongly polar solvent trifluoroethanol to 172 ps in the nonpolar solvents cyclohexane and benzene. The lifetimes show no obvious correlation with solvent polarizability, and hydrogen bonding of the solvent molecules to peridinin is not an important factor in determining the dynamic behavior of the lowest excited singlet state. The wavelengths of emission maxima, the quantum yields of fluorescence, and the transient absorption spectra are also affected by the solvent environment. A model consistent with the data and supported by preliminary semiempirical calculations invokes the presence of a charge transfer state in the excited state manifold of peridinin to account for the observations. The charge transfer state most probably results from the presence of the lactone ring in the {pi}-electron conjugation of peridinin analogous to previous findings on aminocoumarins and related compounds. The behavior of peridinin reported here is highly unusual for carotenoids, which generally show little dependence of the spectral properties and lifetimes of the lowest excited singlet state on the solvent environment.

  5. Effect of hydration on the lowest singlet PiPi* excited-state geometry of guanine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, M K; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2005-09-15

    An ab-initio computational study was performed to investigate the effect of explicit hydration on the ground and lowest singlet PiPi* excited-state geometry and on the selected stretching vibrational frequencies corresponding to the different NH sites of the guanine acting as hydrogen-bond donors. The studied systems consisted of guanine interacting with one, three, five, six, and seven water molecules. Ground-state geometries were optimized at the HF level, while excited-state geometries were optimized at the CIS level. The 6-311G(d,p) basis set was used in all calculations. The nature of potential energy surfaces was ascertained via the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis; all structures were found minima at the respective potential energy surfaces. The changes in the geometry and the stretching vibrational frequencies of hydrogen-bond-donating sites of the guanine in the ground and excited state consequent to the hydration are discussed. It was found that the first solvation shell of the guanine can accommodate up to six water molecules. The addition of the another water molecule distorts the hydrogen-bonding network by displacing other neighboring water molecules away from the guanine plane.

  6. Five-membered rings as diazo components in optical data storage devices: an ab initio investigation of the lowest singlet excitation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åstrand, Per-Olof; Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P. S.; Bak, Keld L.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2000-07-01

    The two lowest singlet excitation energies of 18 azo dyes have been studied by ab initio quantum-chemical methods within the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA). Various combinations of five-membered rings (furan, thiophene, pyrrole, oxazole, thiazole, and imidazole) have been investigated as diazo components for a potential use in optical data storage materials. It is found that the diazo compounds with two heterocyclic five-membered rings have π→π ∗ excitation energies corresponding to laser wavelengths in the region 450-500 nm whereas one five-membered ring and a phenyl group as diazo components results in wavelengths in the region 400-435 nm.

  7. Photoinduced omega-bond dissociation in the higher excited singlet (S2) and lowest triplet (T1) states of a benzophenone derivative in solution.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Minoru; Inomata, Susumu; Nakajima, Satoru; Akiyama, Kimio; Tobita, Seiji; Marciniak, Bronislaw

    2005-05-05

    Photochemical properties of photoinduced omega-bond dissociation in p-benzoylbenzyl phenyl sulfide (BBPS) in solution were investigated by time-resolved EPR and laser flash photolysis techniques. BBPS was shown to undergo photoinduced omega-bond cleavage to yield the p-benzoylbenzyl radical (BBR) and phenyl thiyl radical (PTR) at room temperature. The quantum yield (phi(rad)) for the radical formation was found to depend on the excitation wavelength, i.e., on the excitation to the excited singlet states, S2 and S1 of BBPS; phi(rad)(S2) = 0.65 and phi(rad)(S1) = 1.0. Based on the CIDEP data, these radicals were found to be produced via the triplet state independent of excitation wavelength. By using triplet sensitization of xanthone, the efficiency (alpha(rad)) of the C-S bond fission in the lowest triplet state (T1) of BBPS was determined to be unity. The agreement between phi(rad)(S1) and alpha(rad) values indicates that the C-S bond dissociation occurs in the T1 state via the S1 state due to a fast intersystem crossing from the S1 to the T1 state. In contrast, the wavelength dependence of the radical yields was interpreted in terms of the C-S bond cleavage in the S2 state competing with internal conversion from the S2 to the S1 state. The smaller value of phi(rad)(S2) than that of phi(rad)(S1) was proposed to originate from the geminate recombination of singlet radical pairs produced by the bond dissociation via the S2 state. Considering the electronic character of the excited and dissociative states in BBPS showed a schematic energy diagram for the omega-bond dissociation of BBPS.

  8. Fluorescence and picosecond induced absorption from the lowest singlet excited states of quercetin in solutions and polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, S. L.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Buganov, O. V.; Knyukshto, V. N.; Raichenok, T. F.

    2017-03-01

    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of the biologically important plant antioxidant quercetin in organic solvents, polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol, and a buffer solution at pH 7.0 are studied by stationary luminescence and femtosecond laser spectroscopy at room temperature and 77 K. The large magnitude of the dipole moment of the quercetin molecule in the excited Franck-Condon state μ e FC = 52.8 C m indicates the dipolar nature of quercetin in this excited state. The transient induced absorption spectra S 1→ S n in all solvents are characterized by a short-wave band at λ abs max = 460 nm with exponential decay times in the range of 10.0-20.0 ps. In the entire spectral range at times of >100 ps, no residual induced absorption was observed that could be attributed to the triplet-triplet transitions T 1 → T k in quercetin. In polar solvents, two-band fluorescence was also recorded at room temperature, which is due to the luminescence of the initial enol form of quercetin ( 415 nm) and its keto form with a transferred proton (550 nm). The short-wave band is absent in nonpolar 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF). The spectra of fluorescence and fluorescence excitation exhibit a low dependence on the wavelength of excitation and detection, which may be related to the solvation and conformational changes in the quercetin molecule. Decreasing the temperature of a glassy-like freezing quercetin solution in ethanol and 2-MTHF to 77 K leads to a strong increase in the intensity (by a factor of 100) of both bands. The energy circuits for the proton transfer process are proposed depending on the polarity of the medium. The main channel for the exchange of electronic excitation energy in the quercetin molecule at room temperature is the internal conversion S 1 ⇝ S 0, induced by the state with a proton transfer.

  9. S1←S0 vibronic spectra and structure of cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde molecule in the S1 lowest excited singlet electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godunov, I. A.; Yakovlev, N. N.; Terentiev, R. V.; Maslov, D. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Abramenkov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The S1←S0 vibronic spectra of gas-phase absorption at room temperature and fluorescence excitation of jet-cooled cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde (CPCA, c-C3H5CHO)were obtained and analyzed. In addition, the quantum chemical calculation (CASPT2/cc-pVTZ)was carried out for CPCA in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) electronic states. As a result, it was proved that the S1←S0 electronic excitation of the CPCA conformers (syn and anti) causes (after geometrical relaxation) significant structural changes, namely, the carbonyl fragments become non-planar and the cyclopropyl groups rotate around the central C-C bond. As a consequence, the potential energy surface of CPCA in the S1 state has six minima, 1ab, 2ab, and 3ab, corresponding to three pairs of mirror symmetry conformers: a and b. It was shown that vibronic bands of experimental spectra can be assigned to the 2(S1)←syn(S0) electronic transition with the origin at 30,481 cm-1. A number of fundamental vibrational frequencies for the 2 conformer of CPCA were assigned. In addition, several inversional energy levels for the 2 conformer were found and the 2a↔2b potential function of inversion was determined. The experimental barrier to inversion and the equilibrium angle between the CH bond and the CCO plane were calculated as 570 cm-1 and 28°, respectively.

  10. Temperature dependence of the lowest excited singlet-state lifetime of all- trans -. beta. -carotene and fully deuterated all- trans -. beta. -carotene

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Johnson, D.G. ); Bradford, E.G.; Kispert, L.D. )

    1989-12-01

    A 4 ps, 450 nm laser pulse was used to electronically excite all-{ital trans}-{beta}-carotene and all-{ital trans}-{beta}-carotene-{ital d}{sub 56} in 3-methylpentane. The transient absorption spectra of these molecules were measured as a function of temperature down to 20 K. In all cases the 400--500 nm electronic absorption band of each carotene bleaches and a new absorption band near 560 nm appears immediately upon excitation. These bands recover with single exponential kinetics: {tau}=8.1{plus minus}0.5 ps for all-{ital trans}-{beta}-carotene, and {tau}=10.5{plus minus}0.6 ps for all-{ital trans}-{beta}-carotene-{ital d}{sub 56} at 294 K. These recovery times increase by about a factor of 2 in glassy 3-methylpentane, and are nearly independent of temperature from 100 to 20 K. The weak dependencies of the lowest excited single-state lifetime of all-{ital trans}-{beta}-carotene on deuteration and temperature are discussed in terms of nonradiative decay mechanisms within carotenoids.

  11. Ab Initio Calculations of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Chlorine Nitrate and Nitric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, Ana M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low-lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the ClO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied.

  12. Ab Initio Calculations of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Chlorine Nitrate and Nitric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, Ana M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low-lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the ClO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied.

  13. Conformational analysis of acetamide in the ground and lowest excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukachev, N. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Godunov, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    For acetamide molecule (CH3CONH2) in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) electronic states calculations of equilibrium geometry parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies and barriers to conformational transitions (also conformer energy differences in excited states) using following ab initio methods: MP2, CCSD(T), CASSCF, CASPT2 and MRCI were performed. One-, two- and three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) sections by different large amplitude motions (LAM) coordinates were calculated by means of MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (S0) and CASPT2/cc-pVTZ (S1, T1). As a result of electronic excitation, both CCON and CNH2 fragments become pyramidal. On 2D PES sections by torsion (CN) and inversion coordinates there are six minima forming three pairs of enantiomers. Using PES sections different anharmonic vibrational problems were solved and the frequencies of large amplitude vibrations were estimated.

  14. Phosphorescence, ODMR and ODNQR investigation of the distorted lowest excited triplet state of sym-tetrachloropyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Borczyskowski, C.

    The lowest excited triplet state of sym-tetrachloropyrazine has been investigated at 1·5 K in single crystals of sym-tetramethylbenzene (TMB) and symtetrachlorobenzene (TCB). By analysis of the chlorine and nitrogen hyperfine interaction a 3ππ* state with B2u symmetry has been identified which is contrary to the B1u symmetry of TCB. The large difference between chlorine quadrupole resonance transitions in the singlet ground and excited triplet state of 2·75 MHz (TCB) and 3·3 MHz (TMB) suggests an out-of-plane position of chlorine nuclei in the triplet state. Analysis of the vibronic structure of the phosphorescence reveals that vibronic coupling to an energetically close lying 3nπ* state is, in comparison with other pyrazines, greatly reduced.

  15. Conical intersections and diabatic potential energy surfaces for the three lowest electronic singlet states of H3 (+).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Saikat; Mukhopadhyay, Debasis; Adhikari, Satrajit

    2014-11-28

    We calculate the adiabatic Potential Energy Surfaces (PESs) and the Non-Adiabatic Coupling Terms (NACTs) for the three lowest singlet states of H3 (+) in hyperspherical coordinates as functions of hyperangles (θ and ϕ) for a grid of fixed values of hyperradius (1.5 ⩽ ρ ⩽ 20 bohrs) using the MRCI level of methodology employing ab initio quantum chemistry package (MOLPRO). The NACT between the ground and the first excited state translates along the seams on the θ - ϕ space, i.e., there are six Conical Intersections (CIs) at each θ (60° ⩽ θ ⩽ 90°) within the domain, 0 ⩽ ϕ ⩽ 2π. While transforming the adiabatic PESs to the diabatic ones, such surfaces show up six crossings along those seams. Our beyond Born-Oppenheimer approach could incorporate the effect of NACTs accurately and construct single-valued, continuous, smooth, and symmetric diabatic PESs. Since the location of CIs and the spatial amplitudes of NACTs are most prominent around ρ = 10 bohrs, generally only those results are depicted.

  16. Lowest ^{2}S Electronic Excitations of the Boron Atom.

    PubMed

    Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2017-01-27

    A theoretical ab initio approach for calculating bound states of small atoms is developed and implemented. The approach is based on finite-nuclear-mass [non-Born-Oppenheimer (non-BO)] nonrelativistic variational calculations performed with all-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and includes the leading relativistic and quantum electrodynamics energy corrections determined using the non-BO wave functions. The approach is applied to determine the total and transition energies for the lowest four ^{2}S electronic excitations of the boron atom. The transition energies agree with the available experimental values within 0.2-0.3  cm^{-1}. Previously, such accuracy was achieved for three- and four-electron systems.

  17. Lowest 2S Electronic Excitations of the Boron Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical ab initio approach for calculating bound states of small atoms is developed and implemented. The approach is based on finite-nuclear-mass [non-Born-Oppenheimer (non-BO)] nonrelativistic variational calculations performed with all-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and includes the leading relativistic and quantum electrodynamics energy corrections determined using the non-BO wave functions. The approach is applied to determine the total and transition energies for the lowest four 2S electronic excitations of the boron atom. The transition energies agree with the available experimental values within 0.2 - 0.3 cm-1 . Previously, such accuracy was achieved for three- and four-electron systems.

  18. The excitation intensity dependence of singlet fission dynamics of a rubrene microcrystal studied by femtosecond transient microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Inoue, Y; Asahi, T

    2016-10-05

    We have investigated the excitation intensity dependence of the singlet fission in a crystalline rubrene by means of femtosecond transient absorption microspectroscopy. When a rubrene microcrystal was excited to higher energy levels than that of the lowest singlet excited (S1) state with a 397 nm femtosecond laser pulse, a triplet excited state was formed through two pathways of the singlet fission, i.e. the direct fission from higher vibrational levels of the S1 state with a time constant of 2.2 ps and the thermally activated fission from the S1 state in a few tens of ps. The time constant of the thermally activated fission changed from 35 to 17 ps for increasing of the laser fluence from 0.65 to 18 mJ cm(-2) per pulse, although that of the direct fission was constant with the excitation laser intensity. On the other hand, the yield of the triplet formation was independent of the intensity. We also examined the temperature dependence of the singlet fission and demonstrated the activation energy of the thermally activated fission to be 0.21 eV. Based on the experimental results, we considered the excitation intensity dependence of the singlet fission of the rubrene crystal in terms of the effect of transient local heating on a ps time scale after femtosecond laser excitation owing to the nonradiative vibrational relaxation from the higher vibrational level to the lower one in the S1 state.

  19. Effect of the solvent environment on the spectroscopic properties and dynamics of the lowest excited states of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, H.A.; Bautista, J.A.; Josue, J.; Pendon, Z.; Hiller, R.G.; Sharples, F.P.; Gosztola, D.; Wasielewski, M.R.

    2000-05-11

    The spectroscopic properties and dynamics of the lowest excited singlet states of peridinin, fucoxanthin, neoxanthin, uriolide acetate, spheroidene, and spheroidenone in several different solvents have been studied by steady-state absorption and fast-transient optical spectroscopic techniques. Peridinin, fucoxanthin, uriolide acetate, and spheroidenone, which contain carbonyl functional groups in conjugation with the carbon-carbon {pi}-electron system, display broader absorption spectral features and are affected more by the solvent environment than neoxanthin and spheroidene, which do not contain carbonyl functional groups. The possible sources of the spectral broadening are explored by examining the absorption spectra at 77 K in glassy solvents. Also, carotenoids which contain carbonyls have complex transient absorption spectra and show a pronounced dependence of the excited singlet state lifetime on the solvent environment. It is postulated that these effects are related to the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer state strongly coupled to the S{sub 1} (2{sup 1}A{sub g}) excited singlet state. Structural variations in the series of carotenoids studied here make it possible to focus on the general molecular features that control the spectroscopic and dynamic properties of carotenoids.

  20. How much double excitation character do the lowest excited states of linear polyenes have?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starcke, Jan Hendrik; Wormit, Michael; Schirmer, Jochen; Dreuw, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Doubly excited states play important roles in the low-energy region of the optical spectra of polyenes and their investigation has been subject of theoretical and experimental studies for more than 30 years now and still is in the focus of ongoing research. In this work, we address the question why doubly excited states play a role in the low-energy region of the optical spectrum of molecular systems at all, since from a naive point of view one would expect their excitation energy approximately twice as large as the one of the corresponding single excitation. Furthermore, we show that extended-ADC(2) is well suited for the balanced calculation of the low-lying excited 21Ag-, 11Bu- and 11Bu+ states of long all- trans polyenes, which are known to possess substantial double excitation character. A careful re-investigation of the performance of TDDFT calculations for these states reveals that the previously reported good performance for the 21Ag- state relies heavily on fortuitous cancellation of errors. Finally, the title question is answered such that for short polyenes the lowest excited 21Ag- and 11Bu- states can clearly be classified as doubly excited, whereas the 11Ag- ground state is essentially represented by the (ground-state) HF determinant. For longer polyenes, in addition to increasing double excitation contributions in the 21Ag- and 11Bu- states, the ground state itself aquires substantial double excitation character (45% in C 22H 24), so that the transition from the ground state to these excited states should not be addressed as the excitation of two electrons relative to the 11Ag- ground state.

  1. Solution phase isomerization of vibrationally excited singlet nitrenes to vibrationally excited 1,2-didehydroazepine.

    PubMed

    Burdzinski, Gotard T; Middleton, Chris T; Gustafson, Terry L; Platz, Matthew S

    2006-11-22

    Photolysis of phenyl and o-biphenylyl azide (at 270 nm) releases vibrationally excited singlet nitrene which isomerizes to the corresponding hot 1,2-didehydroazepine at a rate competitive with thermal relaxation. Using ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy we observe the formation of vibrationally excited 1,2-4,6-azacycloheptatetraene (1,2-didehydroazepine) in picoseconds following photolysis of phenyl azide in chloroform and o-biphenylyl azide in acetonitrile at ambient temperature.

  2. Ab - initio non-adiabatic couplings among three lowest singlet states of H3 +: Construction of multisheeted diabatic potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Bijit; Mukherjee, Saikat; Adhikari, Satrajit

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the adiabatic potential energy surfaces and non-adiabatic interactions among the three lowest singlet states (11 A', 21 A' and 31 A') of H3 + in hyperspherical coordinates for a fixed hyperradius, ρ = 9 bohr as functions of hyperangles, θ (0 < θ < 90°) and ϕ (0 < ϕ < 360°). All ab initio calculations are performed using MRCI level of methodology implemented in quantum chemistry package, MOLPRO. The ground (11 A') and the first excited (21 A') states exhibit several conical intersections as functions of ϕ for θ > 70°. Subsequently, we carry out adiabatic to diabatic transformation (ADT) to obtain ADT angles for constructing single-valued, continuous, smooth and symmetric 3 × 3 diabatic potential energy matrix to perform accurate scattering calculations.

  3. Characterization of the singlet and triplet excited states of 3-chloro-4-methylumbelliferone.

    PubMed

    Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Cabral, Catarina; Lima, João C; Maçanita, António L

    2011-08-04

    An extensive photophysical characterization of 3-chloro-4-methylumbelliferone (3Cl4MU) in the ground-state, S(0), first excited singlet state, S(1), and lowest triplet state, T(1), was undertaken in water, neutral ethanol, acidified ethanol, and basified ethanol. Quantitative measurements of quantum yields (fluorescence, phosphorescence, intersystem crossing, internal conversion, and singlet oxygen formation) together with lifetimes were obtained at room and low temperature in water, dioxane/water mixtures, and alcohols. The different transient species were assigned and a general kinetic scheme is presented, summarizing the excited-state multiequilibria of 3Cl4MU. In water, the equilibrium is restricted to neutral (N*) and anionic (A*) species, both in the ground (pK(a) = 7.2) and first excited singlet states (pK(a)* = 0.5). In dioxane/water mixtures (pH ca. 6), substantial changes of the kinetics of the S(1) state were observed with the appearance of an additional tautomeric T* species. In low water content mixtures (mixture 9:1 v:v), only the neutral (N*) and tautomeric (T*) forms of 3Cl4MU are observed, whereas at higher water content mixtures (water mole fraction superior to 0.45), all three species N*, T*, and A* coexist in the excited state. In the triplet state, in the nonprotic and nonpolar solvent dioxane, the observed transient signals were assigned as the triplet-triplet transition of the neutral form, N*(T(1)) → N*(T(n)). In water, two transient species were observed and are assigned as the triplets of the neutral N*(T(1)) and the anionic form, A*(T(1)) (also obtained in basified ethanol). The phosphorescence spectra and decays of 3Cl4MU, in neutral, acidified, and basified solutions, demonstrate that only these two species N*(T(1)) and A*(T(1)) exist in the lowest lying triplet state, T(1). The radiative channel was found dominant for the deactivation of the anionic species, whereas with the neutral the S(1) ⇝ S(0) internal conversion competes with

  4. Origin of the Red Shift for the Lowest Singlet π → π* Charge-Transfer Absorption of p-Nitroaniline in Supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marcelo; Rivelino, Roberto; Canuto, Sylvio

    2014-04-08

    The origin of the unusual solvatochromic shift of p-nitroaniline (PNA) in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) is theoretically investigated on the basis of experimental data. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations have been employed to unveil the interaction of CO2 with this archetypical molecule. It is demonstrated that the nitro group of PNA works as an electron-donating site binding to the electron-deficient carbon atom of CO2, most probably via a Lewis acid-base interaction. Moreover, a cooperative C-H···O hydrogen bond seems to act as an additional stabilizing source during the solvation process of PNA in SCCO2. To support the influence of solute-solvent specific interactions on the lowest singlet π → π* charge-transfer excitation, we perform a sequential Monte Carlo time-dependent density functional theory simulation to evaluate the excited states of PNA in SCCO2 (T = 315 K, ρ = 0.81 g/cm(3)). A critical assessment of this simulation, compared to calculations carried out within the polarized continuum model, gives strong evidence that our proposed complexes are important in describing the solvatochromic shift of PNA in SCCO2. The calculated red shift from the gas phase accounts for 66% to 80% (depending on the degree of complexation) of the experimental data. Finally, these results also alleviate possible failures commonly attributed to long-range corrected functionals in reproducing the solvatochromism of PNA.

  5. Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Yukie; Asai, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Takako; Takaichi, Shinichi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2012-01-06

    Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation energies are correlated with conjugation length. We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as β-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by photo-excited fucoxanthin or neoxanthin was confirmed using a reporter assay for ROS production with HeLa Hyper cells, which express a fluorescent indicator protein for intracellular ROS. Fucoxanthin and neoxanthin also showed high cellular penetration and retention. Electron spin resonance spectra using 2,2,6,6-tetramethil-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trapping agent demonstrated that singlet oxygen was produced via energy transfer from photo-excited fucoxanthin to oxygen molecules. These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshii, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Yukie; Asai, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Takako; Takaichi, Shinichi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some photo-excited carotenoids have photosensitizing ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They are able to produce ROS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photo-excited fucoxanthin can produce singlet oxygen through energy transfer. -- Abstract: Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation energies are correlated with conjugation length. We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as {beta}-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by photo-excited fucoxanthin or neoxanthin was confirmed using a reporter assay for ROS production with HeLa Hyper cells, which express a fluorescent indicator protein for intracellular ROS. Fucoxanthin and neoxanthin also showed high cellular penetration and retention. Electron spin resonance spectra using 2,2,6,6-tetramethil-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trapping agent demonstrated that singlet oxygen was produced via energy transfer from photo-excited fucoxanthin to oxygen molecules. These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease.

  7. Lowest optical excitations in molecular crystals: bound excitons versus free electron-hole pairs in anthracene.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Kerstin; Puschnig, Peter; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia

    2004-04-09

    By solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole Green function for crystalline anthracene we find the lowest absorption peak generated by strongly bound excitons or by a free electron-hole pair, depending on the polarization direction being parallel to the short or the long molecular axis, respectively. Both excitations are shifted to lower energies by pressure. The physical difference of these excitations is apparent from the electron-hole wave functions. Our findings are a major contribution to solve the long-standing puzzle about the nature of the lowest optical excitations in organic materials.

  8. Nature of the lowest excited states of neutral polyenyl radicals and polyene radical cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starcke, Jan Hendrik; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    Due to the close relation of the polyenyl radicals C2n+1H2n+3• and polyene radical cations C2nH2n+2•+ to the neutral linear polyenes, one may suspect their excited states to possess substantial double excitation character, similar to the famous S1 state of neutral polyenes and thus to be equally problematic for simple excited state theories. Using the recently developed unrestricted algebraic-diagrammatic construction scheme of second order perturbation theory and the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method, the vertical excitation energies, their corresponding oscillator strengths, and the nature of the wave functions of the lowest excited electronic states of the radicals are calculated and analyzed in detail. For the polyenyl radicals two one-photon allowed states are found as D1 and D4 states, with two symmetry-forbidden D2 and D3 states in between, while in the polyene radical cations D1 and D2 are allowed and D3 is forbidden. The order of the states is conserved with increasing chain length. It is found that all low-lying excited states exhibit a significant but similar amount of doubly excited configuration in their wave functions of 15%-20%. Using extrapolation, predictions for the excitation energies of the five lowest excited states of the polyene radical cations are made for longer chain lengths.

  9. Excited singlet-state absorption in laser dyes at the XeCl wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. S.; Mihailov, S.

    1985-10-01

    The transmission properties of the laser dyes BBQ, PBD, BPBD, α-NPO, p-Quarterphenyl and PPO have been measured using a XeCl (308 nm) excimer laser. A model for the dye saturation which incorporates excited-state absorption was used to estimate the lifetime and the absorption cross section of the first excited singlet-state for each dye.

  10. Selective excitation of lowest-order transverse ring modes in a quasi-stadium laser diode.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Takehiro; Shinohara, Susumu; Sunada, Satoshi; Harayama, Takahisa; Arai, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Tokuda, Yasunori

    2013-10-15

    For a two-dimensional quasi-stadium laser diode, we demonstrate stable excitation of the lowest-order transverse ring modes by optimally designing the confocal end mirrors of the laser cavity based on extended Fox-Li mode calculations. We observe kink-free light output versus injection current characteristics and highly directional single-peak emissions corresponding to the diamond-shaped trajectory in the cavity. These results provide convincing evidence for selective excitation of the lowest-order transverse modes.

  11. Mutual Co-Assignment of the Calculated Vibrational Frequencies in the Ground and Lowest Excited Electronic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yurii N.

    2013-06-01

    The shifts of the molecular vibrational frequencies when going from the ground electronic state to the lowest excited electronic states pose some problems for the mutual co-assignment of the calculated vibrational frequencies in the different excited states. The trans-{C_2 O_2 F_2} shift of the frequency of the symmetrical ν(C=O) stretching vibration between the S_0 and T_1 is 373 wn. The feasibility of mutual co-assignments of the vibrational frequencies in these electronic states has been demonstrated for trans-{C_2 O_2 F_2}. Matrices analogous to the Duschinsky matrix were used to juxtapose the a_g vibrational frequencies of this molecule calculated at the CASPT2/cc-pVTZ level in the ground S_0 and excited triplet T_1 and singlet S_1 electronic states. The analog of the Duschinsky matrix D was obtained for this molecule using the equation D = (L_{I})^{-1} L_{II} where L_{I} and L_{II} are the matrices of the vibrational modes (normalized atomic displacements) obtained by solving the vibrational problems for the S_0 and T_1 electronic states, respectively. Choosing the dominant elements in columns of the D matrix and permuting these columns to arrange these elements along the diagonal of the transformed matrix D^* makes it possible to establish the correct mutual co-assignments of the calculated a_g vibrational frequencies of the trans-{C_2 O_2 F_2} molecule in the S_0 and T_1 electronic states. The analogous procedure was performed for the trans-{C_2 O_2 F_2} molecule in the T_1 and S_1 excited electronic states. The recent reassignments of the νb{2} and νb{3} calculated vibrational frequencies in the trans-{C_2 O_2 F_2} molecule in the ground state were also obtained for the triplet T_1 and singlet S_1 excited electronic states. The approach set forth in this text makes it possible to juxtapose the calculated vibrational frequencies of the same molecule in the different electronic states and to refine the assignments of these frequencies. This is essential

  12. Accurate ab initio potential energy curves and spectroscopic properties of the four lowest singlet states of C2

    SciTech Connect

    Boschen, Jeffery S.; Theis, Daniel; Ruedenberg, Klaus; Windus, Theresa L.

    2013-12-07

    The diatomic carbon molecule has a complex electronic structure with a large number of low-lying electronic excited states. In this work, the potential energy curves (PECs) of the four lowest lying singlet states (X-1 Sigma(+)(g), A(1)Pi(u), B-1 Delta(g), and B'(1)Sigma(+)(g)) were obtained by high-level ab initio calculations. Valence electron correlation was accounted for by the correlation energy extrapolation by intrinsic scaling (CEEIS) method. Additional corrections to the PECs included core-valence correlation and relativistic effects. Spin-orbit corrections were found to be insignificant. The impact of using dynamically weighted reference wave functions in conjunction with CEEIS was examined and found to give indistinguishable results from the even weighted method. The PECs showed multiple curve crossings due to the B-1 Delta(g) state as well as an avoided crossing between the two (1)Sigma(+)(g) states. Vibrational energy levels were computed for each of the four electronic states, as well as rotational constants and spectroscopic parameters. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results showed excellent agreement overall. Equilibrium bond distances are reproduced to within 0.05 %. The dissociation energies of the states agree with experiment to within similar to 0.5 kcal/mol, achieving "chemical accuracy." Vibrational energy levels show average deviations of similar to 20 cm(-1) or less. The B-1 Delta(g) state shows the best agreement with a mean absolute deviation of 2.41 cm(-1). Calculated rotational constants exhibit very good agreement with experiment, as do the spectroscopic constants.

  13. Singlet-to-Triplet Excitations in the Unconventional Spin-Peierls System TiOBr

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, James P; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Adams, Carl P; Granroth, Garrett E; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Sherline, Todd E; Chou, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on powder samples of the unconventional spin-Peierls compound TiOBr using the fine-resolution Fermi chopper spectrometer (SEQUOIA) at the SNS. These measurements reveal two branches of magnetic excitations within the commensurate and incommensurate spin-Peierls phases, which we associate with n = 1 and n = 2 triplet excitations out of the singlet ground state. These measurements represent the first direct measure of the singlet-triplet energy gap in TiOBr, which is found to have a value of Eg 21 meV.

  14. Singlet-Triplet Excitations in the Unconventional Spin-Peierls TiOBr Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, J. P.; Gaulin, B. D.; Adams, C. P.; Granroth, G. E.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Sherline, T. E.; Chou, F. C.

    2011-03-01

    We have performed time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on powder samples of the unconventional spin-Peierls compound TiOBr using the fine-resolution Fermi chopper spectrometer (SEQUOIA) at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These measurements reveal two branches of magnetic excitations within the commensurate and incommensurate spin-Peierls phases, which we associate with n=1 and n=2 triplet excitations out of the singlet ground state. These results represent the first direct measurement of the singlet-triplet energy gap in TiOBr, which has a value of Eg=21.2±1.0meV.

  15. Zethrene biradicals: How pro-aromaticity is expressed in the ground electronic state and in the lowest energy singlet, triplet, and ionic states

    SciTech Connect

    Zafra, José Luis; González Cano, Rafael C.; Ruiz Delgado, M. Carmen; López Navarrete, Juan T.; Casado, Juan

    2014-02-07

    A analysis of the electronic and molecular structures of new molecular materials based on zethrene is presented with particular attention to those systems having a central benzo-quinoidal core able to generate Kekulé biradicals whose stability is provided by the aromaticity recovery in this central unit. These Kekulé biradicals display singlet ground electronic states thanks to double spin polarization and have low-energy lying triplet excited states also featured by the aromaticity gain. Pro-aromatization is also the driving force for the stabilization of the ionized species. Moreover, the low energy lying singlet excited states also display a profound biradical fingerprint allowing to singlet exciton fission. These properties are discussed in the context of the size of the zethrene core and of its substitution. The work encompasses all known long zethrenes and makes use of a variety of experimental techniques, such as Raman, UV-Vis-NIR absorption, transient absorption, in situ spectroelectrochemistry and quantum chemical calculations. This study reveals how the insertion of suitable molecular modules (i.e., quinoidal) opens the door to new intriguing molecular properties exploitable in organic electronics.

  16. Zethrene biradicals: how pro-aromaticity is expressed in the ground electronic state and in the lowest energy singlet, triplet, and ionic states.

    PubMed

    Zafra, José Luis; González Cano, Rafael C; Ruiz Delgado, M Carmen; Sun, Zhe; Li, Yuan; López Navarrete, Juan T; Wu, Jishan; Casado, Juan

    2014-02-07

    A analysis of the electronic and molecular structures of new molecular materials based on zethrene is presented with particular attention to those systems having a central benzo-quinoidal core able to generate Kekulé biradicals whose stability is provided by the aromaticity recovery in this central unit. These Kekulé biradicals display singlet ground electronic states thanks to double spin polarization and have low-energy lying triplet excited states also featured by the aromaticity gain. Pro-aromatization is also the driving force for the stabilization of the ionized species. Moreover, the low energy lying singlet excited states also display a profound biradical fingerprint allowing to singlet exciton fission. These properties are discussed in the context of the size of the zethrene core and of its substitution. The work encompasses all known long zethrenes and makes use of a variety of experimental techniques, such as Raman, UV-Vis-NIR absorption, transient absorption, in situ spectroelectrochemistry and quantum chemical calculations. This study reveals how the insertion of suitable molecular modules (i.e., quinoidal) opens the door to new intriguing molecular properties exploitable in organic electronics.

  17. The lowest-lying electronic singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces for the HNO-NOH system: energetics, unimolecular rate constants, tunneling and kinetic isotope effects for the isomerization and dissociation reactions.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Uğur; Turney, Justin M; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-04-28

    The lowest-lying electronic singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PES) for the HNO-NOH system have been investigated employing high level ab initio quantum chemical methods. The reaction energies and barriers have been predicted for two isomerization and four dissociation reactions. Total energies are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit applying focal point analyses. Anharmonic zero-point vibrational energies, diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections, relativistic effects, and core correlation corrections are also taken into account. On the singlet PES, the (1)HNO → (1)NOH endothermicity including all corrections is predicted to be 42.23 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). For the barrierless decomposition of (1)HNO to H + NO, the dissociation energy is estimated to be 47.48 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). For (1)NOH → H + NO, the reaction endothermicity and barrier are 5.25 ± 0.2 and 7.88 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). On the triplet PES the reaction energy and barrier including all corrections are predicted to be 7.73 ± 0.2 and 39.31 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for the isomerization reaction (3)HNO → (3)NOH. For the triplet dissociation reaction (to H + NO) the corresponding results are 29.03 ± 0.2 and 32.41 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). Analogous results are 21.30 ± 0.2 and 33.67 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for the dissociation reaction of (3)NOH (to H + NO). Unimolecular rate constants for the isomerization and dissociation reactions were obtained utilizing kinetic modeling methods. The tunneling and kinetic isotope effects are also investigated for these reactions. The adiabatic singlet-triplet energy splittings are predicted to be 18.45 ± 0.2 and 16.05 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for HNO and NOH, respectively. Kinetic analyses based on solution of simultaneous first-order ordinary-differential rate equations demonstrate that the singlet NOH molecule will be difficult to prepare at room temperature, while the triplet NOH molecule is viable with respect to isomerization and dissociation reactions up to

  18. High resolution study of the six lowest doubly excited vibrational states of PH 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, C.; Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Onopenko, G. A.; Chudinova, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    The five lowest doubly excited deformational vibrational bands ν4 + ν6, 2 ν6, ν3 + ν4, ν3 + ν6, and 2 ν3 of PH 2D have been recorded for the first time using a Bruker 120 HR interferometer with a resolution 0.0033 cm -1 and analysed. Some transitions belonging to a very weak band 2 ν4 have been also assigned. From the fit 24 and 86, respectively, diagonal and resonance interaction parameters were obtained which reproduce 1089 upper energy levels obtained from more than 4600 assigned transitions with the rms deviation of 0.00059 cm -1.

  19. Benchmarking singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular semiconductors for singlet fission: Tuning the amount of HF exchange and adjusting local correlation to obtain accurate functionals for singlet-triplet gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Vertical and adiabatic singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular p-type semiconductors calculated with various DFT functionals and wave-function based approaches are benchmarked against MS-CASPT2/cc-pVTZ reference values. A special focus lies on the singlet-triplet gaps that are very important in the process of singlet fission. Singlet fission has the potential to boost device efficiencies of organic solar cells, but the scope of existing singlet-fission compounds is still limited. A computational prescreening of candidate molecules could enlarge it; yet it requires efficient methods accurately predicting singlet and triplet excitation energies. Different DFT formulations (Tamm-Dancoff approximation, linear response time-dependent DFT, Δ-SCF) and spin scaling schemes along with several ab initio methods (CC2, ADC(2)/MP2, CIS(D), CIS) are evaluated. While wave-function based methods yield rather reliable singlet-triplet gaps, many DFT functionals are shown to systematically underestimate triplet excitation energies. To gain insight, the impact of exact exchange and correlation is in detail addressed.

  20. Microwave Spectroscopic Study of NiF in the Electronic Ground and Lowest Excited States.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Mitsutoshi; Sakamaki, Toru; Okabayashi, Toshiaki

    2001-05-01

    The rotational spectra of NiF in the electronic ground (2)Pi state and the lowest electronically excited (2)Sigma state have been observed. The source of nickel atom was sputtering from a nickel electrode or nickel powder placed on a stainless steel electrode. The molecular constants have been determined by a least-squares analysis of the observed transition frequencies. The rapid increase in the Lambda-type splittings in the ground state reveals that the observed rotational transitions are ascribed to the spin substate (2)Pi(3/2). The rotational transitions corresponding to the other substate,(2)Pi(1/2), have not been observed. The large spin-rotation interaction constant gamma in the electronically excited (2)Sigma state is consistent with that from the electronic spectroscopy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Failures of TDDFT in describing the lowest intramolecular charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Christiansen, Ove; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Kongsted, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the failure of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with the CAM-B3LYP exchange-correlation (xc) functional coupled to the polarisable embedding (PE) scheme (PE-CAM-B3LYP) in reproducing the solvatochromic shift of the lowest intense charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroaniline (pNA) in water by comparing with results obtained with the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) model also coupled to the polarisable embedding scheme (PE-CCSD). We determine the amount of charge separation in the ground and excited charge-transfer state with both methods by calculating the electric dipole moments in the gas phase and for 100 solvent configurations. We find that CAM-B3LYP overestimates the amount of charge separation inherent in the ground state and TDDFT/CAM-B3LYP drastically underestimates this amount in the excited charge-transfer state. As the errors in the solvatochromatic shift are found to be inverse proportional to the change in dipole moment upon excitation, we conclude that the flaws in the description of the solvatochromic shift of this excitation are related to TDDFT itself and how it responds to the solvent effects modelled by the PE scheme. We recommend therefore to benchmark results of TDDFT calculations with CAM-B3LYP for intramolecular charge-transfer excitations in molecular systems similar to pNA against higher level ab initio wave function methods, like, e.g. CCSD, prior to their use. Using the calculated change in dipole moment upon excitation as a measure for charge-transfer character, we furthermore confirm that the difference between excitation energies calculated with TDDFT and with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TDDFT is indeed correlated with the charge-transfer character of a given electronic transition both in vacuo and in solution. This is supported by a corresponding correlation between the change in dipole moment and the size of the Λ index diagnostic for the investigated CT excitation.

  2. The dependence of singlet exciton relaxation on excitation density and temperature in polycrystalline tetracene thin films: kinetic evidence for a dark intermediate state and implications for singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Jonathan J; Gosztola, David; Bardeen, Christopher J

    2011-12-07

    The excited state dynamics of polycrystalline tetracene films are studied using femtosecond transient absorption in combination with picosecond fluorescence, continuing work reported in an earlier paper [J. J. Burdett, A. M. Muller, D. Gosztola, and C. J. Bardeen, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144506 (2010)]. A study of the intensity dependence of the singlet state decay is conducted to understand the origins of the discrepancy between the broadband transient absorption and fluorescence experiments seen previously. High-sensitivity single channel transient absorption experiments allow us to compare the transient absorption dynamics to the fluorescence dynamics measured at identical laser fluences. At high excitation densities, an exciton-exciton annihilation rate constant of ~1 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) leads to rapid singlet decays, but at excitation densities of 2 × 10(17) cm(-3) or less the kinetics of the transient absorption match those of the fluorescence. At these lower excitation densities, both measurements confirm that the initially excited singlet state relaxes with a decay time of 80 ± 3 ps, not 9.2 ps as claimed in the earlier paper. In order to investigate the origin of the singlet decay, the wavelength-resolved fluorescence dynamics were measured at 298 K, 77 K, and 4 K. A high-energy J-type emitting species undergo a rapid (~100 ps) decay at all temperatures, while at 77 K and 4 K additional species with H-type and J-type emission lineshapes have much longer lifetimes. A global analysis of the wavelength-dependent decays shows that the initial ~100 ps decay occurs to a dark state and not via energy transfer to lower energy bright states. Varying the excitation wavelength from 400 nm to 510 nm had no effect on the fast decay, suggesting that there is no energy threshold for the initial singlet relaxation. The presence of different emitting species at different temperatures means that earlier interpretations of the fluorescence behavior in terms of one singlet

  3. Photophysics of singlet and triplet intraligand excited states in [ReCl(CO)3(1-(2-pyridyl)-imidazo[1,5-α]pyridine)] complexes.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Ana María; Kvapilová, Hana; Sýkora, Jan; Towrie, Michael; Nervi, Carlo; Volpi, Giorgio; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín

    2014-04-23

    Excited-state characters and dynamics of [ReCl(CO)3(3-R-1-(2-pyridyl)-imidazo[1,5-α]pyridine)] complexes (abbreviated ReGV-R, R = CH3, Ph, PhBu(t), PhCF3, PhNO2, PhNMe2) were investigated by pico- and nanosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) and excited-state DFT and TD-DFT calculations. Near UV excitation populates the lowest singlet state S1 that undergoes picosecond intersystem crossing (ISC) to the lowest triplet T1. Both states are initially formed hot and relax with ∼20 ps lifetime. TRIR together with quantum chemical calculations reveal that S1 is predominantly a ππ* state localized at the 1-(2-pyridyl)-imidazo[1,5-α]pyridine (= impy) ligand core, with impy → PhNO2 and PhNMe2 → impy intraligand charge-transfer contributions in the case of ReGV-PhNO2 and ReGV-PhNMe2, respectively. T1 is predominantly ππ*(impy) in all cases. It follows that excited singlet and corresponding triplet states have to some extent different characters and structures even if originating nominally from the same preponderant one-electron excitations. ISC occurs with a solvent-independent (CH2Cl2, MeCN) 20-30 ps lifetime, except for ReGV-PhNMe2 (10 ps in CH2Cl2, 100 ps in MeCN). ISC is 200-300 times slower than in analogous complexes with low-lying MLCT states. This difference is interpreted in terms of spin-orbit interaction and characters of orbitals involved in one-electron excitations that give rise to S1 and T1 states. ReGV-R present a unique case of octahedral heavy-metal complexes where the S1 lifetime is long enough to allow for separate spectroscopic characterization of singlet and triplet excited states. This study provides an insight into dynamics and intersystem crossing pathways of low-lying singlet and triplet excited states localized at bidentate ligands bound directly to a heavy metal atom. Rather long (1)IL lifetimes indicate the possibility of photonic applications of singlet excited states.

  4. Revisiting the photophysical properties and excited singlet-state dipole moments of several coumarin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cisse, Lamine; Djande, Abdoulaye; Capo-Chichi, Martine; Delatre, François; Saba, Adama; Tine, Alphonse; Aaron, Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    The solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of several coumarins derivatives, containing amino, N,N-dimethyl-amino, N,N-diethyl-amino, hydroxyl, methyl, carboxyl, or halogen substituents at the positions 7, 4, or 3, were investigated in eight solvents with various polarities. The first excited singlet-state dipole moments of these coumarins were determined by various solvatochromic methods, using the theoretical ground-state dipole moments which were calculated by the AM1 method. The first excited singlet-state dipole moment values were obtained by the Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, Lippert-Mataga, and Reichardt-Dimroth equations, and were compared to the ground-state dipole moments. In all cases, the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet-state than in the ground state because of the different electron densities in both states. The red-shifts of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for most compounds upon increasing the solvent polarity, indicated that the electronic transitions were of π-π* nature.

  5. Revisiting the photophysical properties and excited singlet-state dipole moments of several coumarin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisse, Lamine; Djande, Abdoulaye; Capo-Chichi, Martine; Delatre, François; Saba, Adama; Tine, Alphonse; Aaron, Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    The solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of several coumarins derivatives, containing amino, N,N-dimethyl-amino, N,N-diethyl-amino, hydroxyl, methyl, carboxyl, or halogen substituents at the positions 7, 4, or 3, were investigated in eight solvents with various polarities. The first excited singlet-state dipole moments of these coumarins were determined by various solvatochromic methods, using the theoretical ground-state dipole moments which were calculated by the AM1 method. The first excited singlet-state dipole moment values were obtained by the Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, Lippert-Mataga, and Reichardt-Dimroth equations, and were compared to the ground-state dipole moments. In all cases, the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet-state than in the ground state because of the different electron densities in both states. The red-shifts of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for most compounds upon increasing the solvent polarity, indicated that the electronic transitions were of π-π* nature.

  6. Intramolecular photoassociation and photoinduced charge transfer in bridged diaryl compounds. 7. A semiempirical MO study of intramolecular charge transfer in the excited singlet states of dinaphthylamines

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.; Sadygov, R.; Lim, E.C. )

    1994-02-24

    A semiempirical MO study of the intramolecular charge transfer (CT) in the excited singlet states of dinaphthylamines has been carried out with the program systems MOPAC and ARGUS. The excited-state energies for various conformations of the molecules were obtained, in both the absence and the presence of a polarizable medium, by adding the transition energies calculated with the INDO I/S method to the ground-state energies calculated by means of the AM1 method. The CT state corresponds to a twisted geometry in which one naphthalene moiety is conjugated with the amino bridge, while the other moiety is perpendicular to the first. The gas-phase energy of this twisted intramolecular CT (TICT) state is only slightly greater than that of the lowest excited singlet (S[sub 1]) state of smaller dipole moment. In solvent of large dielectric constant, the TICT state is therefore predicted to be the lowest excited singlet state of the module. The computed oscillator strength of the absorption to the TICT state is much smaller than that to the lowest-energy excited state of an isolated molecule, so that the increase CT character of the S[sub 1] state in polar solvents is expected to lead to a decrease in the radiative decay rate of the state. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of a large fluorescence Stokes shift, and a reduction in the S[sub 1] radiative decay rate, of the compounds in polar solvents relative to nonpolar solvents. 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Benchmark calculations on the lowest-energy singlet, triplet, and quintet states of the four-electron harmonium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, Jerzy; Strasburger, Krzysztof; Matito, Eduard

    2014-07-28

    For a wide range of confinement strengths ω, explicitly-correlated calculations afford approximate energies E(ω) of the ground and low-lying excited states of the four-electron harmonium atom that are within few μhartree of the exact values, the errors in the respective energy components being only slightly higher. This level of accuracy constitutes an improvement of several orders of magnitude over the previously published data, establishing a set of benchmarks for stringent calibration and testing of approximate electronic structure methods. Its usefulness is further enhanced by the construction of differentiable approximants that allow for accurate computation of E(ω) and its components for arbitrary values of ω. The diversity of the electronic states in question, which involve both single- and multideterminantal first-order wavefunctions, and the availability of the relevant natural spinorbitals and their occupation numbers make the present results particularly useful in research on approximate density-matrix functionals. The four-electron harmonium atom is found to possess the {sup 3}P{sub +} triplet ground state at strong confinements and the {sup 5}S{sub −} quintet ground state at the weak ones, the energy crossing occurring at ω ≈ 0.0240919.

  8. Singlet-Triplet Excitations in the Unconventional Spin-Peierls System TiOBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, J. P.; Gaulin, B. D.; Adams, C. P.; Granroth, G. E.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Sherline, T. E.; Chou, F. C.

    2011-03-01

    TiOBr belongs to a select group of quasi-one-dimensional materials which undergo a spin-Peierls (SP) phase transition and develop a dimerized singlet ground state at low temperatures. However, unlike conventional SP systems, TiOBr exhibits not one, but two successive phase transitions upon cooling: a continuous transition into an incommensurate SP state at TC 2 ~ 48 K, followed by a discontinuous transition into a commensurate SP state at TC 1 ~ 27 K. We have performed time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on powder samples of TiOBr using the fine-resolution Fermi chopper spectrometer (SEQUOIA) at the Spallation Neutron Source. These measurements reveal two branches of magnetic excitations within the commensurate and incommensurate SP phases, which we associate with n = 1 and n = 2 triplet excitations out of the singlet ground state. This study represents the first direct measure of the singlet-triplet energy gap in TiOBr, which we have determined to be Eg = 21.2 +/- 1.0 meV.

  9. Proton collisional excitation in the lowest lying 3P terms of ions in the Be and Mg isoelectronic sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landman, D. A.; Brown, T.

    1979-01-01

    Proton collisional excitation cross sections and rate constants are presented for transitions between the 3P(J) fine-structure levels of the lowest-lying sp configurations in a number of astrophysically important ions belonging to the Be and Mg isoelectronic sequences. The calculations were made by direct integration of the Schroedinger equation resulting from semiclassical Coulomb excitation theory. The cross sections and rate constants for the 3P(J) transitions in the lowest-lying P(2) configurations are expected to be similar to those for the corresponding sp configuration transitions, and this is illustrated for C III. For the high-temperature ion Ca XVII alpha particle excitation is shown to be unimportant for situations involving ordinary values of the He/H abundance ratio. A simple, but apparently accurate method for determining certain radial integrals for low-lying excited configurations is proposed.

  10. Structural relaxation in the singlet excited state of star-shaped oligofluorenes having a truxene or isotruxene as a core.

    PubMed

    Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Cho, Dae Won; Huang, Hsin-Hau; Yang, Jye-Shane; Majima, Tetsuro

    2011-11-24

    Oligofluorenes attract wide attention due to their excellent fluorescent properties. For the detailed understanding of the excited state properties, ultrafast processes have to be clarified. Here, we have investigated the structural relaxation in the singlet excited state of star-shaped oligofluorenes with a truxene or isotruxene core, to which oligofluorenes (n = 1-4) were attached. The transient absorption peak showed red-shift with time upon excitation. The fluorescence decay profiles in the picosecond domain showed the fast component in addition to the component corresponding to the singlet excited state lifetime. These ultrafast phenomena can be attributed to the structural relaxation, i.e., planarization, in the singlet excited state. The planarization process was supported by the theoretical calculation based on the time-dependent density functional theory. Furthermore, dependence of two-photon absorption cross section on the core of the star-shaped oligofluorene has been elucidated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Singlet and triplet excitation management in a bichromophoric near-infrared-phosphorescent BODIPY-benzoporphyrin platinum complex

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, M. T.; Djurovich, P. I.; Roberts, Sean T.; Durrell, A. C.; Schlenker, C. W.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-12

    Multichromophoric arrays provide one strategy for assembling molecules with intense absorptions across the visible spectrum but are generally focused on systems that efficiently produce and manipulate singlet excitations and therefore are burdened by the restrictions of (a) unidirectional energy transfer and (b) limited tunability of the lowest molecular excited state. In contrast, we present here a multichromophoric array based on four boron dipyrrins (BODIPY) bound to a platinum benzoporphyrin scaffold that exhibits intense panchromatic absorption and efficiently generates triplets. The spectral complementarity of the BODIPY and porphryin units allows the direct observation of fast bidirectional singlet and triplet energy transfer processes (kST(1BDP→1Por) = 7.8 × 1011 s-1, kTT(3Por→3BDP) = 1.0 × 1010 s-1, kTT(3BDP→3Por) = 1.6 × 1010 s-1), leading to a long-lived equilibrated [3BDP][Por]⇌[BDP][3Por] state. This equilibrated state contains approximately isoenergetic porphyrin and BODIPY triplets and exhibits efficient near-infrared phosphorescence (λem = 772 nm, Φ = 0.26). Taken together, these studies show that appropriately designed triplet-utilizing arrays may overcome fundamental limitations typically associated with core-shell chromophores by tunable redistribution of energy from the core back onto the antennae.

  12. V-T relaxation of vibrationally excited singlet oxygen molecule in the EOIL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbin, A. P.; Heaven, M. C.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    Kinetics of vibrationally-excited singlet oxygen O2(a1Δ,v) molecule have been examined using pulsed laser technique.O2(a1Δ,v) molecules were produced by the pulsed 266 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a1Δ-X3Σ transition. It has been found that the loss of O2(a1Δ,v) in the O(3P)/O3/N2 mixture is carried out both in chemical and in V-T process. We observed that the vibrational excitation of singlet oxygen molecule enhances the rate of reaction between O2(a1Δ,v) and O3 molecules. The rate constant of this process was estimated to be in the range 10-12-10-11 cm3/s. Rate constant of O2(a,v=1) quenching by CO2 was found to be (1.03±0.07)×10-14 cm3/s.

  13. Interaction between triethanolamine and singlet or triplet excited state of xanthene dyes in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Huiyu; Lu, Rong; Yu, Anchi

    2017-09-01

    Triethanolamine (TEOA) has been often used as a hole-scavenger in dye-sensitized semiconductor photocatalytic systems. However, the femtosecond time-resolved kinetics of the interaction between a sensitized dye and TEOA has not been reported in literatures. Herein, we selected four commonly used xanthene dyes, such as fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, eosin Y, and erythrosine B, and studied their ultrafast fluorescence quenching dynamics in the presence of TEOA in aqueous solution, respectively, by using both femtosecond transient absorption and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. We obtained the electron transfer rate from TEOA to each photoexcited xanthene dye in 2.0 M TEOA solution. We also obtained the intersystem crossing rate of each xanthene dye in aqueous solution with fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime measurements. Finally we found that TEOA mainly interacts with the singlet excited-state of fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, and eosin Y, and that TEOA can interact with both the singlet and triplet excited-states of erythrosine B in high concentration of TEOA aqueous solution.

  14. The holographic recording in photopolymer by excitation forbidden singlet-triplet transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovnikov, V. V.; Pen, E. F.; Russkich, V. V.; Vasiliev, E. V.; Kovalevsky, V. I.

    2006-05-01

    The possibility and features of the holographic recording by excitation of the forbidden singlet-triplet transitions are considered in the report. The experimental demonstration of the hologram recording on forbidden transition is carried out in thick photopolymer material sensitized by Erithrozine dye. The single hologram with diffraction efficiency DE=50% and 16 angle multiplexing hologram were recorded by irradiation of the low intensity He-Ne laser (632 nm) at high concentration of the sensitizing dye and at high optical density in allowed absorption band of dye. The growth of DE of transition hologram depending on the Kr+(647 nm) laser irradiation intensity of was studied. The observed linear dependence of the maximal rate of DE growth on the intensity of recording irradiation was explained by two steps-two photon excitation (T I<--S 0, T II<--T I) of the dye in the photopolymer samples.

  15. Hyper Open-Shell States: The Lowest Excited Spin States of O Atom, Fe(2+) Ion, and FeF2.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zoltan; Verma, Pragya; Truhlar, Donald G

    2017-09-13

    Excited spin states are important for reactivity, catalysis, and magnetic applications. This work examines the relative energies of the spin states of O atom, Fe(2+) ion, and FeF2 and characterizes their excited spin states. Both single-configuration and multireference methods are used to establish the character of the lowest singlet excited state of all three systems and the lowest triplet excited state of Fe(2+) and FeF2. We find that the conventional representation of the orbital occupancies is incorrect in that the states have more unpaired electrons than the minimum number required by their total electron spin quantum number. In particular, we find that, for a given spin state, an electronic configuration with more than 2S unpaired electrons is more stable than the configuration with 2S unpaired electrons (where S is the spin of the system). For instance, triplet FeF2 with four unpaired electrons is lower in energy than triplet FeF2 with two unpaired electrons. Such highly open-shell configurations are labeled as hyper open-shell electronic configurations in this work and are compared to ordinary open-shell or closed-shell electronic configurations. The hyper open-shell states considered in this work are especially interesting because, unlike typical biradicals and polyradicals, the unpaired electrons are all on the same center. This work shows that the conventional perspective on spin-state energetics that usually assumes ordinary open shells for single-centered radicals needs modification to take into account, whenever possible, hyper open-shell configurations as well.

  16. Vibrational dynamics of aniline (N2)1 clusters in their first excited singlet state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hineman, M. F.; Kim, S. K.; Bernstein, E. R.; Kelley, D. F.

    1992-04-01

    The first excited singlet state S1 vibrational dynamics of aniline(N2)1 clusters are studied and compared to previous results on aniline(CH4)1 and aniline(Ar)1. Intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and vibrational predissociation (VP) rates fall between the two extremes of the CH4 (fast IVR, slow VP) and Ar (slow IVR, fast VP) cluster results as is predicted by a serial IVR/VP model using Fermi's golden rule to describe IVR processes and a restricted Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory to describe unimolecular VP rates. The density of states is the most important factor determining the rates. Two product states, 00 and 10b1, of bare aniline and one intermediate state ˜(00) in the overall IVR/VP process are observed and time resolved measurements are obtained for the 000 and ˜(000) transitions. The results are modeled with the serial mechanism described above.

  17. Radiative lifetime of the metastable excited singlet A^1Σ^+ state of (CaNa)^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Oleg P.; Côté, R.; Michels, H.; Smith, W. W.

    2002-05-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom--ion trap under high vacuum conditions. The collisional cooling of laser pre-cooled Ca^+ ions by ultracold Na atoms is being studied. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited metastable singlet A^1Σ^+ state of the (CaNa)^+ molecular system. We present calculations for the oscillator strength values of free-bound transitions between the A^1Σ^+ and ground X^1Σ^+ states of the molecular system. The calculations were carried out using Complete Active Set Self-Consistent Field and Möller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (CASSCF/MP2) with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G(3df). These states asymptotically go to the excited (Ca^+ +Na(3s)) and ground (Na^+ +Ca) limits of the ion-atom quasimolecular system, respectively. The matrix elements between low-energy free excited states and individual vibrational levels of the ground state are calculated, and the resulting matrix elements are summed to obtain the integrated collisional radiative lifetime. We are investigating the competition between collisional cooling and heating from radiative charge transfer. Work is supported in part by NSF grant PHY-9988215.

  18. Excited-state singlet manifold and oscillatory features of a nonatetraeniminium retinal chromophore model.

    PubMed

    Cembran, Alessandro; Bernardi, Fernando; Olivucci, Massimo; Garavelli, Marco

    2003-10-15

    In this paper we use ab initio multireference Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory computations to map the first five singlet states (S(0), S(1), S(2), S(3), and S(4)) along the initial part of the photoisomerization coordinate for the isolated rhodopsin chromophore model 4-cis-gamma-methylnona-2,4,6,8-tetraeniminium cation. We show that this information not only provides an explanation for the spectral features associated to the chromophore in solution but also, subject to a tentative hypothesis on the effect of the protein cavity, may be employed to explain/assign the ultrafast near-IR excited-state absorption, stimulated emission, and transient excited-state absorption bands observed in rhodopsin proteins (e.g. rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin). We also show that the results of vibrational frequency computations reveal a general structure for the first (S(1)) excited-state energy surface of PSBs that is consistent with the existence of the coherent oscillatory motions observed both in solution and in bacteriorhodopsin.

  19. Temperature and solvent effects on the luminescence spectrum of C{sub 70}: Assignment of the lowest singlet and triplet states

    SciTech Connect

    Argentine, S.M.; Kotz, K.T.; Francis, A.H.

    1995-11-29

    The temperature, solvent, and concentration dependence of the fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of C{sub 70} in glassy solutions have been examined. Spectra have been recorded over the temperature range 4-200 K. In addition, the AC Stark field modulated phosphorescence and the phosphorescence of {sup 13}C{sub 70} have been recorded and analyzed. The lowest triplet state is identified as a {sup 3}E{sub 1}` state and the vibronic structure consists primarily of Herzberg-Teller active e{sub 2}` modes. The intensity of the electronic origin is comparable to the vibronically induced intensity and is extraordinarily solvent sensitive. The solvent sensitivity exhibited by the spectra is shown to have the same origins as that observed in benzene and pyrene, but is several times greater in magnitude. Analysis of the spectra suggests that two electronic excited states contribute to the observed phosphorescence spectrum. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Excited singlet molecular O2 (1Δg) is generated enzymatically from excited carbonyls in the dark

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Camila M.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Massari, Júlio; Ronsein, Graziella E.; Martinez, Glaucia R.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Cadet, Jean; Sies, Helmut; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Bechara, Etelvino J. H.; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian tissues, ultraweak chemiluminescence arising from biomolecule oxidation has been attributed to the radiative deactivation of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1Δg)] and electronically excited triplet carbonyl products involving dioxetane intermediates. Herein, we describe evidence of the generation of O2 (1Δg) in aqueous solution via energy transfer from excited triplet acetone. This involves thermolysis of 3,3,4,4-tetramethyl-1,2-dioxetane, a chemical source, and horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-methylpropanal, as an enzymatic source. Both sources of excited carbonyls showed characteristic light emission at 1,270 nm, directly indicative of the monomolecular decay of O2 (1Δg). Indirect analysis of O2 (1Δg) by electron paramagnetic resonance using the chemical trap 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine showed the formation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. Using [18O]-labeled triplet, ground state molecular oxygen [18O2 (3Σg-)], chemical trapping of 18O2 (1Δg) with disodium salt of anthracene-9,10-diyldiethane-2,1-diyl disulfate yielding the corresponding double-[18O]-labeled 9,10-endoperoxide, was detected through mass spectrometry. This corroborates formation of O2 (1Δg). Altogether, photoemission and chemical trapping studies clearly demonstrate that chemically and enzymatically nascent excited carbonyl generates 18O2 (1Δg) by triplet-triplet energy transfer to ground state oxygen O2 (3Σg−), and supports the long formulated hypothesis of O2 (1Δg) involvement in physiological and pathophysiological events that might take place in tissues in the absence of light. PMID:25087485

  1. Geminate recombination kinetics of solute radical ions. Singlet excited state formation in cyclohexane solutions of biphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Tabata, Y.; Kobayashi, H.

    Transient absorption spectra of the solute anion, cation and triplet state and the solute fluorescence in the pulse radiolysis of 0.1 mole 1 -1 biphenyl in cyclohexane were observed on a nanosecond timescale longer than 1 ns after a 20 ps pulse. The formation of the solute excited singlet state is mainly due to the geminate ion recombination reaction even in the high concentrated solutions. The decay of the solute ions obeys the reciprocal square root dependence on time longer than 10 ns from the end of a 10 ps pulse. The slope of this reciprocal square root plots agrees with the literature value on a longer timescale obtained by microwave absorption. The yield of free ions obtained from the intercept of the slope agrees also with the literature values obtained by the field clearing method. Ratio of the formation rate of the solute excited triplet state to the decay rate of the solute anion changes in a time range between 5 and 20 ns. It is very well correlated with a theoretical calculation of spin correlation decay of the germinate ion pairs by Brocklehurst, although the formation of the solute triplet state was observed even on a timescale shorter than 5 ns from the end of a 20 ps pulse, where loss of spin correlation is negligibly small.

  2. Theoretical description of electronically excited vinylidene up to 10 eV: first high level ab initio study of singlet valence and Rydberg states.

    PubMed

    Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques

    2014-11-07

    The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0-10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores (2)A1 and (2)B1 results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some Δl = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the (2)B1 cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the (2)A1 ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic characterization of vinylidene.

  3. Theoretical description of electronically excited vinylidene up to 10 eV: First high level ab initio study of singlet valence and Rydberg states

    SciTech Connect

    Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques

    2014-11-07

    The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0–10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 1} results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some Δl = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the {sup 2}A{sub 1} ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic

  4. Excitation of the lowest CO2 vibrational states by electrons in hypersonic boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenise, I.

    2017-07-01

    The state-to-state vibrational kinetics of a CO2/O2/CO/C/O/e- mixture in a hypersonic boundary layer under conditions compatible with the Mars re-entry is studied. The model adopted treats three CO2 modes (the two degenerated bending modes are approximated as a unique one) as not independent ones. Vibrational-translational transitions in the bending mode, inter-mode exchanges within CO2 molecule and between molecules of different chemical species as well as dissociation-recombination reactions are considered. Attention is paid to the electron-CO2 collisions that cause transitions from the ground vibrational state, CO2(0,0,0), to the first excited ones, CO2(1,0,0), CO2(0,1,0) and CO2(0,0,1). The corresponding processes rate coefficients are obtained starting from the electron energy distribution function, calculated either as an equilibrium Boltzmann distribution at the local temperature or by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results obtained either neglecting or including in the kinetic scheme the electron-CO2 collisions are compared and explained by analysing the rate coefficients of the electron-CO2 collisions.

  5. Rovibrational Interactions in the Ground and Two Lowest Excited Vibrational States of Methoxy Isocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienkina, A.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2017-06-01

    Recent detection of methyl isocyanate (CH_3NCO) in the Orion, towards Sgr B2(N) and on the surface of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko motivated us to study another isocyanate, methoxy isocyanate (CH_3ONCO) as a possible candidate molecule for searches in the interstellar clouds. Neither identification or laboratory rotational spectra of CH_3ONCO has been reported up to now. Methoxy isocyanate was synthesized by the flash vacuum pyrolysis of N-Methoxycarbonyl-O-methyl-hydroxylamine (MeOC(O)NHOMe) at a temperature of 800 K. Experimental spectrum of CH_3ONCO was recorded in situ in the millimeter-wave range (75-105 GHz and 150-330 GHz) using Lille's fast-scan fully solid-state DDS spectrometer. The recorded spectrum is strongly perturbed due to the interaction between the overall rotation and the skeletal torsion. Perturbations affect even rotational transitions with low K_a levels of the ground vibrational state, appearing in shifting frequency predictions and intensities distortions of the lines. The interactions are significant due to the relatively small vibrational energy difference (≈50 \\wn) between the states and different representations of the C_s symmetry point group for the ground (A'), ν_{18}=1 (A'') and ν_{18}=2 (A') vibrational states, thus leading to a "ladder" of multiple resonances by means of a-, and b-type Coriolis coupling. The global fit analysis of the rotational spectrum of methoxy isocyanate using Coriolis coupling terms in the ground and two lowest vibrational states (ν_{18}=1 and ν_{18}=2) will be presented. J. Cernicharo, N. Marcelino, E. Roueff et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, L43 D. T. Halfen, V. V. Ilyushin, & L. M. Ziurys, 2015, ApJ, 812, L5 F. Goesmann, H. Rosenbauer, J. H. Bredehöft et al. 2015, Science, 349.6247, aab0689 This work was funded by the French ANR under the Contract No. ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS.

  6. UV-excited transient raman spectra and the co stretching frequencies of the lowest excited triplet state of benzophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Tahei; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Tasumi, Mitsuo

    1988-11-01

    Transient resonance Raman spectra of T 1 benzophenone (BP) and its carbonyl- 18O-substituted analogue were measured with 355 nm excitation which is in resonance with a triplet-triplet (T n←T 1) transition in the ultraviolet. The intensity of the CO stretch band was greatly enhanced under this resonance condition. Reliable values of the T 1 CO stretching frequency were obtained including the solvent shifts. It is concluded that the solvent dependence of the photochemical reactivity of BP is not primarily due to the solvent-induced structural changes in the T 1 state. The character of the two different T-T transitions (T n←T 1 and T n←T 1) is discussed in relation to the observed Raman spectral changes with different resonance conditions.

  7. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degli Esposti, Claudio; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia; Kobayashi, Kaori; Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH2CH2CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80-450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  8. Theoretical characterization of the lowest triplet excited states of the tris-(1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene) ruthenium dication complex.

    PubMed

    Alary, Fabienne; Boggio-Pasqua, Martial; Heully, Jean-Louis; Marsden, Colin J; Vicendo, Patricia

    2008-06-16

    We present a theoretical study of the ground and the lowest triplet excited states of the tris-(1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene) ruthenium complex [Ru(tap)3]2+. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to obtain the relaxed geometries and emission energies (Delta-SCF), whereas time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) was used to compute the absorption spectrum. Our calculations have revealed the presence of three low-lying excited-state minima, which may be relevant in the photophysical/photochemical properties of this complex. Two minima with similar energies correspond to the MLCT 3A2 and MLCT 3B metal-to-ligand charge-transfer states, the first one corresponding to a D3 structure, whereas the second is a slightly localized C2 species. The third and lowest one corresponds to the metal-centered MC 3A state and displays a pronounced C2 distortion. We have examined for the first time the localized character of the excitation in the computed MLCT states. In particular, we have evaluated the pseudorotation barrier between the Jahn-Teller C2 MLCT 3B minima in the moat around the D3 conical intersection. We have shown that the complex should be viewed as a delocalized [Ru3+(tap(-1/3))3]2+ complex in the lowest MLCT states, in agreement with subpicosecond interligand electron transfer observed by femtosecond transient absorption anisotropy study. Upper-bound estimates of the MLCT-->MC (3 kcal/mol) and MC-->MLCT (10 kcal/mol) activation energy barriers obtained from potential energy profiles in vacuum corroborate the high photoinstability of the MLCT states of the [Ru(tap)3]2+complex.

  9. Generating Light from Upper Excited Triplet States: A Contribution to the Indirect Singlet Yield of a Polymer OLED, Helping to Exceed the 25% Singlet Exciton Limit.

    PubMed

    Jankus, Vygintas; Aydemir, Murat; Dias, Fernando B; Monkman, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which light is generated in an organic light emitting diode have slowly been elucidated over the last ten years. The role of triplet annihilation has demonstrated how the "spin statistical limit" can be surpassed, but it cannot account for all light produced in the most efficient devices. Here, a further mechanism is demonstrated by which upper excited triplet states can also contribute to indirect singlet production and delayed fluorescence. Since in a device the population of these TN states is large, this indirect radiative decay channel can contribute a sizeable fraction of the total emission measured from a device. The role of intra- and interchain charge transfer states is critical in underpinning this mechanism.

  10. Photodynamics simulations of thymine: relaxation into the first excited singlet state.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Jaroslaw J; Barbatti, Mario; Soo Hoo, Jason T; Adkins, Jaclyn A; Windus, Theresa L; Nachtigallová, Dana; Lischka, Hans

    2009-11-12

    Ab initio nonadiabatic dynamics simulations are reported for thymine with focus on the S(2) --> S(1) deactivation using the state-averaged CASSCF method. Supporting calculations have been performed on vertical excitations, S(1) and S(2) minima, and minima on the crossing seam using the MS-CASPT2, RI-CC2, MR-CIS, and MR-CISD methods. The photodynamical process starts with a fast (<100 fs) planar relaxation from the S(2) pipi* state into the pi(O)pi* minimum of the S(2) state. The calculations demonstrate that two pi-excited states (denoted pipi* and pi(O)pi*) are actually involved in this stage. The time in reaching the S(2)/S(1) intersections, through which thymine can deactivate to S(1), is delayed by both the change in character between the states as well as the flatness of the S(2) surface. This deactivation occurs in an average time of 2.6 ps at the lowest-energy region of the crossing seam. After that, thymine relaxes to the npi* minimum of the S(1) state, where it remains until the transfer to the ground state takes place. The present dynamics simulations show that not only the pi(O)pi* S(2) trapping but also the trapping in the npi* S(1) minimum contribute to the elongation of the excited-state lifetime of thymine.

  11. Dynamics of photofragmentation of dimethylnitrosamine from its first two excited singlet states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavi, R.; Rosenwaks, S.

    1988-08-01

    The photofragmentation of dimethylintrosamine (DMN) from its first two excited singlet states was studied by monitoring the scalar and vector properties of the nascent NO via one-photon laser induced fluorescence, combined with polarization and sub-Doppler spectroscopy. The DMN was fragmented following irradiation at 363.5 nm [S1←S0(π*←n)] and 250 nm [S2←S0(π*←π)]. The photofragmentation is characteristic of a direct dissociation mechanism on a repulsive potential surface for both dissociation wavelengths. The NO fragment ejects with its velocity along the bond that breaks, and its angular momentum vector tends to be perpendicular to the plane of the C2NNO frame of the parent molecule. The experiments corroborate that the transition dipole moment is perpendicular to the plane of the parent molecule for the S1←S0 transition and lies parallel to this plane, along the bond which breaks, for the S2←S0 transition. The Λ-doublet population ratio obtained for the two dissociation wavelengths is consistent with an A` symmetry for the S1 and an A' symmetry for the S2 state. Finally, a comparison between the photodissociation of tert-butyl nitrite (TBN) and DMN is presented. In particular, it is shown that in both molecules, for both states, the fragmentation is largely planar with the main forces acting approximately along the bond which breaks. On the other hand, retainment of vibrational energy in the NO fragment is observed only for TBN S1. Also, a preference of the antisymmetric Λ component in NO from TBN S2 and of the symmetric component in DMN S2 is found.

  12. Exciton delocalization, charge transfer, and electronic coupling for singlet excitation energy transfer between stacked nucleobases in DNA: An MS-CASPT2 study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancafort, Lluís; Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2014-03-01

    Exciton delocalization and singlet excitation energy transfer have been systematically studied for the complete set of 16 DNA nucleobase dimers in their ideal, single-strand stacked B-DNA conformation, at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. The extent of exciton delocalization in the two lowest (π,π*) states of the dimers is determined using the symmetrized one-electron transition density matrices between the ground and excited states, and the electronic coupling is calculated using the delocalization measure and the energy splitting between the states [see F. Plasser, A. J. A. Aquino, W. L. Hase, and H. Lischka, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11151-11160 (2012)]. The calculated couplings lie between 0.05 eV and 0.14 eV. In the B-DNA conformation, where the interchromophoric distance is 3.38 Å, our couplings deviate significantly from those calculated with the transition charges, showing the importance of orbital overlap components for the couplings in this conformation. The calculation of the couplings is based on a two-state model for exciton delocalization. However, in three stacks with a purine in the 5' position and a pyrimidine in the 3' one (AT, GC, and GT), there is an energetically favored charge transfer state that mixes with the two lowest excited states. In these dimers we have applied a three-state model that considers the two locally excited diabatic states and the charge transfer state. Using the delocalization and charge transfer descriptors, we obtain all couplings between these three states. Our results are important in the context of DNA photophysics, since the calculated couplings can be used to parametrize effective Hamiltonians to model extended DNA stacks. Our calculations also suggest that the 5'-purine-pyrimidine-3' sequence favors the formation of charge transfer excited states.

  13. Exciton delocalization, charge transfer, and electronic coupling for singlet excitation energy transfer between stacked nucleobases in DNA: An MS-CASPT2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Blancafort, Lluís; Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2014-03-07

    Exciton delocalization and singlet excitation energy transfer have been systematically studied for the complete set of 16 DNA nucleobase dimers in their ideal, single-strand stacked B-DNA conformation, at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. The extent of exciton delocalization in the two lowest (π,π{sup *}) states of the dimers is determined using the symmetrized one-electron transition density matrices between the ground and excited states, and the electronic coupling is calculated using the delocalization measure and the energy splitting between the states [see F. Plasser, A. J. A. Aquino, W. L. Hase, and H. Lischka, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11151–11160 (2012)]. The calculated couplings lie between 0.05 eV and 0.14 eV. In the B-DNA conformation, where the interchromophoric distance is 3.38 Å, our couplings deviate significantly from those calculated with the transition charges, showing the importance of orbital overlap components for the couplings in this conformation. The calculation of the couplings is based on a two-state model for exciton delocalization. However, in three stacks with a purine in the 5{sup ′} position and a pyrimidine in the 3{sup ′} one (AT, GC, and GT), there is an energetically favored charge transfer state that mixes with the two lowest excited states. In these dimers we have applied a three-state model that considers the two locally excited diabatic states and the charge transfer state. Using the delocalization and charge transfer descriptors, we obtain all couplings between these three states. Our results are important in the context of DNA photophysics, since the calculated couplings can be used to parametrize effective Hamiltonians to model extended DNA stacks. Our calculations also suggest that the 5{sup ′}-purine-pyrimidine-3{sup ′} sequence favors the formation of charge transfer excited states.

  14. Deactivation processes of the lowest excited state of [UO2(H2O)5]2+ in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Formosinho, Sebastião J; Burrows, Hugh D; da Graça Miguel, Maria; Azenha, M Emília D G; Saraiva, Isabel M; Ribeiro, A Catarina D N; Khudyakov, Igor V; Gasanov, Rashid G; Bolte, Michèle; Sarakha, Mohamed

    2003-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the photophysical behaviour of uranyl ion in aqueous solutions at room temperature is given using literature data, together with results of new experimental and theoretical studies to see whether the decay mechanism of the lowest excited state involves physical deactivation by energy transfer or a chemical process through hydrogen atom abstraction. Comparison of the radiative lifetimes determined from quantum yield and lifetime data with that obtained from the Einstein relationship strongly suggests that the emitting state is identical to that observed in the lowest energy absorption band. From study of the experimental rate and that calculated theoretically, from deuterium isotope effects and the activation energy for decay support is given to a deactivation mechanism of hydrogen abstraction involving water clusters to give uranium(v) and hydroxyl radicals. Support for hydroxyl radical formation comes from electron spin resonance spectra observed in the presence of the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide and tert-butyl-N-phenylnitrone and from literature results on photoinduced uranyl oxygen exchange and photoconductivity. It has previously been suggested that the uranyl emission above pH 1.5 may involve an exciplex between excited uranyl ion and uranium(v). Evidence against this mechanism is given on the basis of quenching of uranyl luminescence by uranium(v), together with other kinetic reasoning. No overall photochemical reaction is observed on excitation of aqueous uranyl solutions, and it is suggested that this is mainly due to reoxidation of UO2+ by hydroxyl radicals in a radical pair. An alternative process involving oxidation by molecular oxygen is analysed experimentally and theoretically, and is suggested to be too slow to be a major reoxidation pathway.

  15. Bright fission: singlet fission into a pair of emitting states.

    PubMed

    Casanova, David

    2015-06-09

    This paper reintroduces and explores the generation of two bright states from a single photon via a singlet fission mechanism in organic materials. This particular photophysical process is labeled here as bright fission (BF). The central part of the study is devoted to set the theoretical foundations of BF by discussing possible electronic mechanisms, the role of different excited states with various physical nature, the presence of competing deactivation channels, and the possible requirements for the BF viability. In a second part, some of the properties related to BF are computationally explored in anthracene. The analysis of computed high-lying excited states identifies several optical transitions as good candidates to trigger BF in anthracene. The approximation of excitonic couplings of these high energy levels to other electronic states within the same energy range suggests possible paths to populate electronic configurations potentially able to split in two independent spin singlets, i.e. singlet-singlet states. The study also explores the electronic structure of the energetically lowest singlet-singlet states in anthracene dimers and discusses the presence of charge transfer configurations and their relation to the singlet-singlet manifold. The computational results suggest fast relaxation to the lowest singlet-singlet state, from which the excitonic fission may occur. All in all, the present work aims at motivating to pursue further efforts in the study of the BF process in organic materials.

  16. Double excitations and state-to-state transition dipoles in π-π∗ excited singlet states of linear polyenes: Time-dependent density-functional theory versus multiconfigurational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Ivan A.; Tafur, Sergio; Masunov, Artëm E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of static and dynamic electron correlation on the nature of excited states and state-to-state transition dipole moments is studied with a multideterminant wave function approach on the example of all-trans linear polyenes ( C4H6 , C6H8 , and C8H10 ). Symmetry-forbidden singlet nAg states were found to separate into three groups: purely single, mostly single, and mostly double excitations. The excited-state absorption spectrum is dominated by two bright transitions: 1Bu-2Ag and 1Bu-mAg , where mAg is the state, corresponding to two-electron excitation from the highest occupied to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The richness of the excited-state absorption spectra and strong mixing of the doubly excited determinants into lower- nAg states, reported previously at the complete active space self-consistent field level of theory, were found to be an artifact of the smaller active space, limited to π orbitals. When dynamic σ-π correlation is taken into account, single- and double-excited states become relatively well separated at least at the equilibrium geometry of the ground state. This electronic structure is closely reproduced within time-dependent density-functional theory (TD DFT), where double excitations appear in a second-order coupled electronic oscillator formalism and do not mix with the single excitations obtained within the linear response. An extension of TD DFT is proposed, where the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) is invoked after the linear response equations are solved (a posteriori TDA). The numerical performance of this extension is validated against multideterminant-wave-function and quadratic-response TD DFT results. It is recommended for use with a sum-over-states approach to predict the nonlinear optical properties of conjugated molecules.

  17. Ultrafast decay of the excited singlet states of thioxanthone by internal conversion and intersystem crossing.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Gonzalo; Grilj, Jakob; Vauthey, Eric; Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Rubio-Pons, Oscar; Jacques, Patrice

    2010-02-01

    The experimental ultrafast photophysics of thioxanthone in several aprotic organic solvents at room temperature is presented, measured using femtosecond transient absorption together with high-level ab initio CASPT2 calculations of the singlet- and triplet-state manifolds in the gas phase, including computed state minima and conical intersections, transition energies, oscillator strengths, and spin-orbit coupling terms. The initially populated singlet pi pi* state is shown to decay through internal conversion and intersystem crossing processes via intermediate n pi* singlet and triplet states, respectively. Two easily accessible conical intersections explain the favorable internal conversion rates and low fluorescence quantum yields in nonpolar media. The presence of a singlet-triplet crossing near the singlet pi pi* minimum and the large spin-orbit coupling terms also rationalize the high intersystem crossing rates. A phenomenological kinetic scheme is proposed that accounts for the decrease in internal conversion and intersystem crossing (i.e. the very large experimental crescendo of the fluorescence quantum yield) with the increase of solvent polarity.

  18. Zero-field-splitting and π-electron spin densities in the lowest excited triplet state of oligothiophenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennati, M.; Németh, K.; Surján, P. R.; Mehring, M.

    1996-09-01

    The electronic properties of thiophene oligomers (nT, n=2-8) have been investigated in the lowest excited triplet state. Theoretical calculations of the zero field splitting parameters and of the π-electron spin density have been performed and compared with previous experimental EPR results. The calculations are based on a simple π-electron (one-electron-per-site) model including electron-electron interaction at the extended Hubbard level. Optimized bond lengths result from making them self-consistent to the corresponding bond orders via Coulson's relationship. The calculated D values decrease from D=0.0959 cm-1 for n=2 to D=0.0597 cm-1 for n=8, in agreement with EPR data. The measured as well as the calculated E values are rather small. Furthermore, we found that ZFS parameters are affected by the torsion angles between the thiophene rings. The chain length dependence of D can be rationalized comparing π-electron spin density calculations and computed bond length distortions. These clearly indicate that the triplet excitation reaches a finite extension over about four thiophene rings.

  19. An unusual pathway of excitation energy deactivation in carotenoids: singlet-to-triplet conversion on an ultrafast timescale in a photosynthetic antenna.

    PubMed

    Gradinaru, C C; Kennis, J T; Papagiannakis, E; van Stokkum, I H; Cogdell, R J; Fleming, G R; Niederman, R A; van Grondelle, R

    2001-02-27

    Carotenoids are important biomolecules that are ubiquitous in nature and find widespread application in medicine. In photosynthesis, they have a large role in light harvesting (LH) and photoprotection. They exert their LH function by donating their excited singlet state to nearby (bacterio)chlorophyll molecules. In photosynthetic bacteria, the efficiency of this energy transfer process can be as low as 30%. Here, we present evidence that an unusual pathway of excited state relaxation in carotenoids underlies this poor LH function, by which carotenoid triplet states are generated directly from carotenoid singlet states. This pathway, operative on a femtosecond and picosecond timescale, involves an intermediate state, which we identify as a new, hitherto uncharacterized carotenoid singlet excited state. In LH complex-bound carotenoids, this state is the precursor on the reaction pathway to the triplet state, whereas in extracted carotenoids in solution, this state returns to the singlet ground state without forming any triplets. We discuss the possible identity of this excited state and argue that fission of the singlet state into a pair of triplet states on individual carotenoid molecules constitutes the mechanism by which the triplets are generated. This is, to our knowledge, the first ever direct observation of a singlet-to-triplet conversion process on an ultrafast timescale in a photosynthetic antenna.

  20. Optothermal spectroscopy of the dissociating lowest electronic singlet states of s-tetrazine and dimethyl-s-tetrazine in a molecular beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstel, E. R. Th.; Becucci, M.; Pietraperzia, G.; Castellucci, E.

    1997-01-01

    We report the spectra of the 000 bands of s-tetrazine and dimethyl-s-tetrazine in a seeded molecular beam, using optothermal detection. The S/N of the optothermal s-tetrazine spectrum is about 1000 times higher than that of the LIF spectrum recorded with the same machine. The depletion nature of the signals unequivocally establishes that both molecules dissociate before reaching the detector (i.e., within ˜0.5 ms) following excitation to the S1 state. The s-tetrazine spectrum is fit to an asymmetric rotor Hamiltonian that includes the observed interchange of the a and b inertial axis in the excited state. The rotational constants and the homogeneous line broadening of 215(10) MHz (FWHM) observed here are in good agreement with, but more accurate than, those obtained in earlier sub-Doppler (saturation) gas-cell and free-jet spectra. The spectrum of dimethyl-s-tetrazine is analyzed for the m=0 free-rotor states only. Its rotational lines require a Lorentzian component of 34(2) MHz, corresponding to an excited state lifetime of 4.7 ns. The relative efficiency of the dissociative and radiative decay channels is evaluated. Despite the fact that we believe we have sufficient sensitivity, we failed to observe the s-tetrazine T1 state at 735 nm, which may be evidence of its nondissociative character.

  1. Vibrational spectra of the ground and the singlet excited ππ* state of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Wolfgang J; Pugliesi, Igor; Koller, Florian O; Schrader, Tobias E; Zinth, Wolfgang; Braun, Markus; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Weber, Stefan; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus

    2011-04-07

    6,7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine serves as fluorophore in lumazine proteins (LumP) of luminescent bacteria. The molecule exhibits several characteristic vibrational absorption bands between 1300 and 1750 cm(-1) in its electronic ground state. The IR-absorption pattern of the singlet excited ππ* state was monitored via ultrafast infrared spectroscopy after photoexcitation at 404 nm. The comparison of experimentally observed band shifts for a number of isotopologues allows for a clear assignment of several absorption bands--most importantly the two carbonyl bands. This assignment is confirmed by normal-mode calculations by means of either density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the ground state or the configuration interaction singles (CIS) method for the excited singlet state. A good agreement between experiment and calculation is obtained for models including explicitly a first solvation shell. The results provide a basis for further investigations of lumazine protein and demonstrate the necessity of proper accounting for explicit hydrogen bonding in case of strongly polar molecular systems.

  2. Singlet-Triplet Excitations and Long-Range Entanglement in the Spin-Orbital Liquid Candidate FeSc2S4.

    PubMed

    Laurita, N J; Deisenhofer, J; Pan, LiDong; Morris, C M; Schmidt, M; Johnsson, M; Tsurkan, V; Loidl, A; Armitage, N P

    2015-05-22

    Theoretical models of the spin-orbital liquid (SOL) FeSc2S4 have predicted it to be in close proximity to a quantum critical point separating a spin-orbital liquid phase from a long-range ordered magnetic phase. Here, we examine the magnetic excitations of FeSc2S4 through time-domain terahertz spectroscopy under an applied magnetic field. At low temperatures an excitation emerges that we attribute to a singlet-triplet excitation from the SOL ground state. A threefold splitting of this excitation is observed as a function of applied magnetic field. As singlet-triplet excitations are typically not allowed in pure spin systems, our results demonstrate the entangled spin and orbital character of singlet ground and triplet excited states. Using experimentally obtained parameters we compare to existing theoretical models to determine FeSc2S4's proximity to the quantum critical point. In the context of these models, we estimate the characteristic length of the singlet correlations to be ξ/(a/2)≈8.2 (where a/2 is the nearest neighbor lattice constant), which establishes FeSc2S4 as a SOL with long-range entanglement.

  3. DFT spin-orbit coupling between singlet and triplet excited states: A case of psoralen compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodo, Sandro G.; Russo, Nino

    2010-04-01

    We present a computational protocol in which our method is used to compute spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements on time-dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT). These SO contributions, computed employing our SO program package, MolSOC, have been expressed, in turn, in terms of weighted coefficients and SO matrix elements between singlet and triplet wave functions arising from a given one-electron transition. The protocol has been applied to study psoralen compound and its derivatives obtained from the replacement of one oxygen with sulfur or selenium. The obtained results have been compared with those reported in literature.

  4. Tuning ground states of bis(triarylamine) dications: from a closed-shell singlet to a diradicaloid with an excited triplet state.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuanting; Wang, Xingyong; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Zaichao; Song, You; Sui, Yunxia; Li, Yizhi; Wang, Xinping

    2014-03-10

    Three bis(triarylamine) dications were isolated by using weakly coordinating anions. Their electronic structures in the ground state were investigated by various experiments in conjunction with theoretical calculations. The ground-state electronic structures of these species were tunable by substituent effects, with two of them as closed-shell singlets and one of them as an open-shell singlet in the solid state. The excited state of the latter is thermally accessible, indicated by EPR and SQUID measurements. The work provides a new and stable diradicaloid structure motif with an excited triplet sate.

  5. Ultrafast decay of electronically excited singlet cytosine via a pi,pi* to n(O),pi* state switch.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nina; Blancafort, Lluís; Olivucci, Massimo; Kohler, Bern; Robb, Michael A

    2002-06-19

    Singlet fluorescence lifetimes of adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, and thymidine, determined by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy (Pecourt, J.-M. L.; Peon, J.; Kohler, B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 9348. Pecourt, J.-M. L.; Peon, J.; Kohler, B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 10370), show that the excited states produced by 263 nm light in these nucleosides decay in the subpicosecond range (290-720 fs). Ultrafast radiationless decay to the ground state greatly reduces the probability of photochemical damage. In this work we present a theoretical study of isolated cytosine, the chromophore of cytidine. The experimental lifetime of 720 fs indicates that there must be an ultrafast decay channel for this species. We have documented the possible decay channels and approximate energetics, using a valence-bond derived analysis to rationalize the structural details of the paths. The mechanism favored by our calculations and the experimental data involves (1) a two-mode decay coordinate composed of initial bond length inversion followed by internal vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) to populate a carbon pyramidalization mode, (2) a state switch between the pi,pi* and nO,pi* (excitation from oxygen lone pair) excited states, and (3) decay to the ground state through a conical intersention. A second decay path through the nN,pi* state (excitation from the nitrogen lone pair), with a higher barrier, involves out-of-plane bending of the amino substituent.

  6. Photophysics of threaded sp-carbon chains: the polyyne is a sink for singlet and triplet excitation.

    PubMed

    Movsisyan, Levon D; Peeks, Martin D; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Thompson, Amber L; Parker, Anthony W; Anderson, Harry L

    2014-12-31

    We have used single-crystal X-ray diffraction and time-resolved UV-NIR-IR absorption spectroscopy to gain insights into the structures and excited-state dynamics of a rotaxane consisting of a hexayne chain threaded through a phenanthroline macrocycle and a family of related compounds, including the rhenium(I) chlorocarbonyl complex of this rotaxane. The hexayne unit in the rhenium-rotaxane is severely nonlinear; it is bent into an arc with an angle of 155.6(1)° between the terminal C1 and C12 atoms and the centroid of the central C-C bond, with the most acute distortion at the point where the polyyne chain pushes against the Re(CO)3Cl unit. There are strong through-space excited-state interactions between the components of the rotaxanes. In the metal-free rotaxane, there is rapid singlet excitation energy transfer (EET) from the macrocycle to the hexayne (τ = 3.0 ps), whereas in the rhenium-rotaxane there is triplet EET, from the macrocycle complex (3)MLCT state to the hexayne (τ = 1.5 ns). This study revealed detailed information on the short-lived higher excited state of the hexayne (lifetime ∼1 ps) and on structural reorganization and cooling of hot polyyne chains, following internal conversion (over ∼5 ps). Comparison of the observed IR bands of the excited states of the hexayne with results from time-dependent density functional calculations (TD DFT) shows that these excited states have high cumulenic character (low bond length alternation) around the central region of the chain. These findings shed light on the complex interactions between the components of this supramolecular rotaxane and are important for the development of materials for the emerging molecular and nanoscale electronics.

  7. The spectroscopy of singlets and triplets excites electronic states, spatial and electronic structure of hydrocarbons and quantum classifications in chemmotology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate the physical foundations of the spectroscopy of the grounds states: E- and X-ray, (RR) Raman scattering the NMR 1H and 13C and IR-, EPR- absorption and the singlets and triplets electronic excited states in the multinuclear hydrocarbons in chemmotology. The parameters of UV-absorption, RR-Raman scattering of light, the fluorescence and the phosphorescence and day-lasers at the pumping laser and lamp, OLEDs and OTETs- are measurements. The spectral-energy properties are briefly studied. The quantum-chemical LCAO-MO SCF expanded-CI PPP/S and INDO/S methods in the electronic and spatial structure hidrocarbons are considered.

  8. Two-photon excitation into low-energy singlet states of anthracene in mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, A.; Leyderman, A.; Taliani, C.

    1985-08-01

    The two-photon excitation spectrum of the first excited state of anthracene in fluorene and biphenyl at 4.2 K has been measured. Intensity is induced into the origin by the static dipole moment of fluorene, and into b 1u vibrons through coupling to an A g state near 29400 cm -1; the nature of this A g state is discussed.

  9. Spin-Free CC2 Implementation of Induced Transitions between Singlet Ground and Triplet Excited States.

    PubMed

    Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Hättig, Christof; van Wüllen, Christoph

    2016-04-12

    In most organic molecules, phosphorescence has its origin in transitions from triplet exited states to the singlet ground state, which are spin-forbidden in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. A sufficiently accurate description of phosphorescence lifetimes for molecules that contain only light elements can be achieved by treating the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) with perturbation theory (PT). We present an efficient implementation of this approach for the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles model CC2 in combination with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation for the electron repulsion integrals. The induced oscillator strengths and phosphorescence lifetimes from SOC-PT are computed within the response theory framework. In contrast to previous work, we employ an explicitly spin-coupled basis for singlet and triplet operators. Thereby, a spin-orbital treatment can be entirely avoided for closed-shell molecules. For compounds containing only light elements, the phosphorescence lifetimes obtained with SOC-PT-CC2 are in good agreement with those of exact two-component (X2C) CC2, whereas the calculations are roughly 12 times faster than with X2C. Phosphorescence lifetimes computed for two thioketones with the SOC-PT-CC2 approach agree very well with reference results from experiment and are similar to those obtained with multireference spin-orbit configuration interaction and with X2C-CC2. An application to phosphorescent emitters for metal-free organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with almost 60 atoms and more than 1800 basis functions demonstrates how the approach extends the applicability of coupled cluster methods for studying phosphorescence. The results indicate that other decay channels like vibrational relaxation may become important in such systems if lifetimes are large.

  10. Difluorodiazirine (CF2N2): A comparative quantum mechanical study of the first triplet and first singlet excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrabuio, Luiz Alberto; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade; Matta, Chérif F.

    2016-07-01

    3,3‧-Difluorodiazirine is a precursor of difluorocarbene radical (:CF2) which is used in organic synthesis and photo affinity labelling. This molecule possesses no dipole moment in the ground electronic state (S0) but has a significant dipole moment (of magnitude ~0.97 D) in both its first (triplet, T1) and second (singlet S1) excited states. These equal dipole moments are shown to originate from widely differing atomic polarization and inter-atomic charge transfer terms (defined by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM)). The calculated vertical/adiabatic excitation energies for the T1 and S1 states are 2.81/2.63 and 3.99/3.78 eV, respectively. Geometries, vibrational frequencies, atomic charges and spin populations, and the localization-delocalization matrices (LDMs) (Matta, J. Comput. Chem. 35 (2014) 1165) of the excited states are compared with those of the ground state. All calculations have been conducted at the (U)QCISD/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory.

  11. Excited singlet (S1) state interactions of calixarenes with chloroalkanes: A combination of concerted and stepwise dissociative electron transfer mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, J.; Pal, H.; Nayak, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sapre, A. V.

    2002-12-01

    Both steady-state and time-resolved studies in acetonitrile (ACN) solutions show that the excited singlet (S1) states of calixarenes (CX) undergo quenching by chloroalkanes (CA). It has been revealed by characterizing the Cl ions in the photolyzed CX-CA systems in ACN solutions that the quenching occurs due to dissociative electron transfer (DET) mechanism, whereby a C-Cl bond of the CAs undergoes dissociation on acceptance of an electron from excited CX. The bimolecular quenching constants (kq) in the present systems were correlated with the free energy changes for the concerted DET reactions based on a suitable DET theory. Such a correlation results in the recovery of an intramolecular reorganization energy, which is substantially lower to account for the C-Cl bond dissociation energy of the CAs. Comparing present results with those of an another donor-acceptor system (e.g., biphenyldiol-CA systems) where a concerted DET mechanism is applicable, it is inferred that in CX-CA systems both concerted and stepwise DET mechanisms operate simultaneously. It is proposed that the interaction of excited CXs with encaged CAs follows the stepwise mechanism whereas that with the out of cage CAs follows the concerted mechanism.

  12. Estimation of first excited singlet-state dipole moments of aminoanthraquinones by solvatochromic method.

    PubMed

    Siddlingeshwar, B; Hanagodimath, S M

    2009-04-01

    The ground state (micro(g)) and the excited state (micro(e)) dipole moments of three substituted anthraquinones, namely 1-aminoanthracene-9,10-dione (AAQ), 1-(methylamino)anthracence-9,10-dione (MAQ) and 1,5-diaminoanthracene-9,10-dione (DAQ) were estimated in various solvents. The dipole moments (micro(g) and micro(e)) were estimated from Lippert, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae and Suppan equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant and refractive index. The excited state dipole moments were also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with microscopic solvent polarity parameter (Epsilon(T)(N)). It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states (micro(e)) were higher than corresponding ground state values (micro(g)), indicating a substantial redistribution of the pi-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the molecules investigated.

  13. Estimation of first excited singlet-state dipole moments of aminoanthraquinones by solvatochromic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddlingeshwar, B.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    The ground state ( μg) and the excited state ( μe) dipole moments of three substituted anthraquinones, namely 1-aminoanthracene-9,10-dione (AAQ), 1-(methylamino)anthracence-9,10-dione (MAQ) and 1,5-diaminoanthracene-9,10-dione (DAQ) were estimated in various solvents. The dipole moments ( μg and μe) were estimated from Lippert, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae and Suppan equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant and refractive index. The excited state dipole moments were also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with microscopic solvent polarity parameter ( ETN). It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states ( μe) were higher than corresponding ground state values ( μg), indicating a substantial redistribution of the π-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the molecules investigated.

  14. Vertical Singlet Excitations on Adenine Dimer: A Time Dependent Density Functional Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.; Marai, Christopher N. J.

    2007-12-01

    The condense phase, excited state dynamics of the adenylyl(3'→5')adenine (ApA) dinucleotide has been previously studied using transient absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution (Crespo-Hernández et al. Chem. Rev. 104, 1977-2019 (2004)). An ultrafast and a long-lived component were observed with time constants of <1 ps and 60±16 ps, respectively. Comparison of the time constants measured for the dinucleotide with that for the adenine nucleotide suggested that the fast component observed in ApA could be assigned to monomer dynamics. The long-lived component observed in ApA was assigned to an excimer state that originates from a fraction of base stacked conformations present at the time of excitation. In this contribution, supermolecule calculations using the time dependent implementation of density functional theory is used to provide more insights on the origin of the initial Franck-Condon excitations. Monomer-like, localized excitations are observed for conformations having negligible base stacking interactions, whereas delocalized excitations are predicted for conformations with significant vertical base-base overlap.

  15. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER TECHNOLOGY: Influence of transitions between excited singlet and triplet states on the phase response of dye solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, V. V.; Rubanov, A. S.; Tolstik, A. L.

    1988-08-01

    An investigation is made of the transitions between excited singlet and triplet states, and of the effects of stereoisomerism molecules on the light-induced change in the refractive index of a dye solution. It is shown that the contribution of the ground and excited channels to the total phase response varies within a wide range depending on the spectroscopic characteristics of the medium and the parameters of the exciting radiation. An estimate is obtained of the ratio of the contributions of the resonant and thermal nonlinearities to the total change in the refractive index.

  16. From Model Hamiltonians to ab Initio Hamiltonians and Back Again: Using Single Excitation Quantum Chemistry Methods To Find Multiexciton States in Singlet Fission Materials.

    PubMed

    Mayhall, Nicholas J

    2016-09-13

    Due to the promise of significantly enhanced photovoltaic efficiencies, significant effort has been directed toward understanding and controlling the singlet fission mechanism. Although accurate quantum chemical calculations would provide a detail-rich view of the singlet fission mechanism, this is complicated by the multiexcitonic nature of one of the key intermediates, the (1)(TT) state. Being described as two simultaneous and singlet-coupled triplet excitations on a pair of nearest neighbor monomers, the (1)(TT) state is inherently a multielectronic excitation. This fact renders most single-reference ab initio quantum chemical methods incapable of providing accurate results. This paper serves two purposes: (1) to demonstrate that the multiexciton states in singlet fission materials can be described using a spin-only Hamiltonian and with each monomer treated as a biradical and (2) to propose a very simple procedure for extracting the values for this Hamiltonian from single-reference calculations. Numerical examples are included for a number of different systems, including dimers, trimers, tetramers, and a cluster comprised of seven chromophores.

  17. Quantitative treatment of the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of acridines and phenazines. The ground and first excited singlet-state dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jean Jacques; Maafi, Mounir; Párkányi, Cyril; Boniface, Christian

    1995-04-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of four acridines (acridine, Acridine Yellow, 9-aminoacridine and proflavine) and three phenazines (phenazine, neutral Red and safranine) are determined at room temperature (298 K) in several solvents of various polarities (dioxane, chloroform, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide). The effect of the solvent upon the spectral characteristics of the above compounds, is studied. In combination with the ground-state dipole moments of these compounds, the spectral data are used to evaluate their first excited singlet-state dipole moments by means of the solvatochromic shift method (Bakhshiev's and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's correlations). The theoretical ground and excited singlet-state dipole moments for acridines and phenazines are also calculated as a vector sum of the π-component (obtained by the PPP method) and the σ-component (obtained from σ-bond moments). For most acridines and phenazines under study, the experimental excited singlet-state dipole moments are found to be higher than their ground state counterpart. The application of the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft solvatochromic parameters to the solvent effect on spectral properties of acridine and phenazine derivatives is discussed.

  18. The effects of detergents DDM and beta-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, XiaoBo; Zhao, XiaoHui; Zhang, JianPing; Li, LiangBi; Kuang, TingYun

    2007-08-01

    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) in cytochrome b(6)f (Cyt b(6)f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b(6)f complexes from different sources ( approximately 200 and approximately 600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singlet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b(6)f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b(6)f dissolved in beta-OG, the Cyt b(6)f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, approximately 200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b(6)f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  19. Quantitative treatment of the effect of solvent on the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins: Evaluation of the first excited singlet-state dipole moments.

    PubMed

    Aaron, J J; Buna, M; Parkanyi, C; Antonious, M S; Tine, A; Cisse, L

    1995-12-01

    The electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of coumarin and 11 substituted coumarins were measured in several solvents (dioxane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide). Ground-state dipole moments were determined in dioxane at 298 K. The results were used to obtain the first excited singlet-state dipole moments of the coumarins under study by the solvatochromic shift method (Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae, and Suppan correlations). Also, the ground- and the first excited singlet-state dipole moments were calculated using a combination of the PPP method (π-contribution) and the vector sum of the σ-bond and group moments (σ-contribution). In general, the first excited singlet-state dipole moments of the coumarins are noticeably higher than the corresponding ground-state values, indicating a substantial redistribution of theπ-electron densities resulting in a more polar excited state. There is a reasonably good agreement between the calculated and the experimental dipole moments.

  20. Role of excited singlet state in the photooxidation of carotenoids: A time-resolved Q-band EPR study

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.; Avdievich, N.I.; Forbes, M.D.E.

    1996-01-11

    Spin-polarized 35 GHz time-resolved EPR (TREPR) spectra were obtained for the first time of the cation radicals of {beta}-carotene (I), 15,15`-didehydro-{beta}-carotene (II), 7`,7`-dicyano-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (III), and 7`-cyano-7`- ethoxycarbonyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (IV) and the anion radical of the solvent which were formed by 308 nm photoexcitation of the carotenoids in carbon tetrachloride solution. Although the EPR spectra are weak in intensity due to the small dimensions of the 35 GHz quartz flat cell and have very broad line widths, it was possible to positively determine from the polarization pattern that the electron transfer to the solvent occurs from the excited singlet state of the carotenoids. The 35 GHz EPR spectra consist of two resolved EPR lines (one absorption and one emission) from which it has been possible to measure the g factor and {Delta}H{sub pp} of the solvent-separated radical ion pair that was formed; measurements were not possible at 9 GHz. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Multiple Decay Mechanisms and 2D‐UV Spectroscopic Fingerprints of Singlet Excited Solvated Adenine‐Uracil Monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quansong; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra‐Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Rivalta, Ivan; Voityuk, Alexander A.; Mukamel, Shaul; Roca‐Sanjuán, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The decay channels of singlet excited adenine uracil monophosphate (ApU) in water are studied with CASPT2//CASSCF:MM potential energy calculations and simulation of the 2D‐UV spectroscopic fingerprints with the aim of elucidating the role of the different electronic states of the stacked conformer in the excited state dynamics. The adenine 1La state can decay without a barrier to a conical intersection with the ground state. In contrast, the adenine 1Lb and uracil S(U) states have minima that are separated from the intersections by sizeable barriers. Depending on the backbone conformation, the CT state can undergo inter‐base hydrogen transfer and decay to the ground state through a conical intersection, or it can yield a long‐lived minimum stabilized by a hydrogen bond between the two ribose rings. This suggests that the 1Lb, S(U) and CT states of the stacked conformer may all contribute to the experimental lifetimes of 18 and 240 ps. We have also simulated the time evolution of the 2D‐UV spectra and provide the specific fingerprint of each species in a recommended probe window between 25 000 and 38 000 cm−1 in which decongested, clearly distinguishable spectra can be obtained. This is expected to allow the mechanistic scenarios to be discerned in the near future with the help of the corresponding experiments. Our results reveal the complexity of the photophysics of the relatively small ApU system, and the potential of 2D‐UV spectroscopy to disentangle the photophysics of multichromophoric systems. PMID:27113273

  2. Sensitization of singlet oxygen via encounter complexes and via exciplexes of pipi* triplet excited sensitizers and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Zahra; Noll, Astrid; Grabner, Erich-Walter; Schmidt, Reinhard

    2002-04-01

    Both excited singlet states, 1sigma(g)+ and 1delta(g), and the triplet ground state, 3sigma(g)-, of molecular oxygen are competitively formed during the quenching by O2 of triplet (T1) excited sensitizers of sufficient energy. The corresponding overall rate constants kT(1sigma), kT(1delta), and kT(3sigma) as well as the T1 state energies E(T) and the oxidation potentials E(ox), have been determined for a series of six fluorene derivatives. Graduated and in part strong charge transfer (CT) effects on kT(1sigma), kT(1delta), and kT(3sigma) are observed. These and literature data strongly indicate that quenching occurs in two different channels each capable of producing O2(1sigma(g)-), O2(1delta(g)), and O2(3sigma(g)-). One proceeds via internal conversion (IC) of excited 1,3(T1 x 3sigma) complexes with no CT character (nCT), which cannot be distinguished from encounter complexes, the other via IC of 1,3(T1 x 3sigma) exciplexes with partial CT character (pCT). The contributions of nCT and pCT deactivation channels to the overall formation of O2(1sigma(g)+), O2(1delta(g)). and O2(3sigma(g)-) depend on E(T) and E(ox). The rate constants of the nCT channel are controlled by the excess energies of the respective IC processes by an energy gap law. The rate constants of the pCT channel depend on the change of free energy deltaG(CET) for complete electron transfer from T1 excited sensitizer to O2. Equations are presented which show the functional form of the dependence of the oxygen quenching rate constants on E(T) and E(ox). Particular emphasis is laid on the question of whether these relations could generally be valid for pipi* triplet sensitizers.

  3. Extensive TD-DFT Benchmark: Singlet-Excited States of Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Wathelet, Valérie; Perpète, Eric A; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-09-08

    Extensive Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) calculations have been carried out in order to obtain a statistically meaningful analysis of the merits of a large number of functionals. To reach this goal, a very extended set of molecules (∼500 compounds, >700 excited states) covering a broad range of (bio)organic molecules and dyes have been investigated. Likewise, 29 functionals including LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, global hybrids, and long-range-corrected hybrids have been considered. Comparisons with both theoretical references and experimental measurements have been carried out. On average, the functionals providing the best match with reference data are, one the one hand, global hybrids containing between 22% and 25% of exact exchange (X3LYP, B98, PBE0, and mPW1PW91) and, on the other hand, a long-range-corrected hybrid with a less-rapidly increasing HF ratio, namely LC-ωPBE(20). Pure functionals tend to be less consistent, whereas functionals incorporating a larger fraction of exact exchange tend to underestimate significantly the transition energies. For most treated cases, the M05 and CAM-B3LYP schemes deliver fairly small deviations but do not outperform standard hybrids such as X3LYP or PBE0, at least within the vertical approximation. With the optimal functionals, one obtains mean absolute deviations smaller than 0.25 eV, though the errors significantly depend on the subset of molecules or states considered. As an illustration, PBE0 and LC-ωPBE(20) provide a mean absolute error of only 0.14 eV for the 228 states related to neutral organic dyes but are completely off target for cyanine-like derivatives. On the basis of comparisons with theoretical estimates, it also turned out that CC2 and TD-DFT errors are of the same order of magnitude, once the above-mentioned hybrids are selected.

  4. The spectroscopy of AgF: CASSCF+CASPT2 calculations on the lowest 3Σ+, 1Σ+, 3Π, 1Π, 3Δ, and 1Δ excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Solís, A.; Daudey, J. P.

    2000-11-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the three lowest-lying (X,2 and 3)1Σ+, the first 3Σ+, the two lowest-lying (1 and 2)3Π, the first 1Π, and the 3,1Δ states of the AgF molecule have been studied through extensive CASSCF (complete active space self-consistent field)+CASPT2 (complete active space second-order perturbational) calculations, using a 19-active-electron relativistic effective core potential for Ag and large Gaussian basis sets for both atoms. Strong mixtures of the Ag+(4d95s1)F-(2s22p6) ionic and Ag(4d95s2)F(2s22p5) or Ag(4d105s1)F(2s22p5) neutral configurations were found for the 3Σ+, 2 1Σ+, and 1 3Π states between 4.0 and 4.4 a.u., while for the higher lying states no evident neutral-ionic crossings were found. This leads to curves that present local maxima at 4.3 a.u. for the 2 1Σ+ and 3Σ+ states as well as for the 1 3Π state at 4.0 a.u. The 2 3Π excited state shows the lowest ionic character of all the states. The calculated spectroscopic constants for all the studied states are reported and found in good accordance with available experimental data. The question of the nature of the electronic parent state of the observed B0+ state, responsible for the most intense transition and which is the shortest lived excited state of AgF, is thoroughly addressed in the light of the present results. They clearly indicate that the B0+ state is not correlated with the Rydberg Ag+(4d95p1)+F-(2s22p6) ionic structure, as previously proposed [J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4482 (1995)]. Since the 2 1Σ+ state has been shown to be the ΛSΣ electronic parent state of the fine-structure A0+ state (these results confirm this idea), and given the difference between the calculated Te (1513 cm-1) of the 2 1Σ+ and 1 3Π states, these calculations point to this latter state as the ΛSΣ parent of the experimental B0+ state. At this level of calculation, the next higher lying state that could contribute (3 1Σ+) through spin-orbit couplings to this B0+ state lies more than 8000

  5. Transient resonance Raman spectra of benzophenone and its four isotopic analogues in the lowest excited triplet state

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, T.; Hamaguchi, H.; Tasumi, M.

    1987-11-05

    Transient resonance Raman spectra of T/sub 1/ benzophenone (T/sub 1/BP) and its four isotopic analogues in carbon tetrachloride solutions were measured. Vibrational assignments of eight T/sub 1/ bands have been made on the basis of the observed isotopic frequency shifts. The assignments clarified the following three points concerning the structure of T/sub 1/ BP in solution. (1) The CO bond order in T/sub 1/ BP is much lower than that in the ground-state benzophenone (S/sub 0/ BP). The CO stretching frequency in T/sub 1/ is found to be 1222 cm/sup -1/, whereas the corresponding value in S/sub 0/ is 1665 cm/sup -1/. The former frequency indicates a single-bond-like character of the CO bonding in the T/sub 1/ state. (2) Vibrational frequencies of several ring modes show marked downshifts in going from S/sub 0/ to T/sub 1/. This suggests the delocalization of the ..pi..* electron into the ring part. (3) The assignment (1302 cm/sup -1/) of the symmetric C-phenyl stretch mode in the T/sub 1/ withdraws S/sub 0/ absorption spectrum is questioned. According to the present assignment, the frequency of this mode (approx. 1100 cm/sup -1/) is slightly lower than that in the ground state (1150 cm/sup -1/). The simple quantum chemical picture of T/sub 1/ BP, which predicted the increase of the C-phenyl bond order with the ..pi..* withdraws n excitation, should therefore be reconsidered.

  6. Lowest excited states and optical absorption spectra of donor-acceptor copolymers for organic photovoltaics: a new picture emerging from tuned long-range corrected density functionals.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Laxman; Doiron, Curtis; Sears, John S; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2012-11-07

    Polymers with low optical gaps are of importance to the organic photovoltaics community due to their potential for harnessing a large portion of the solar energy spectrum. The combination along their backbones of electron-rich and electron-deficient fragments contributes to the presence of low-lying excited states that are expected to display significant charge-transfer character. While conventional hybrid functionals are known to provide unsatisfactory results for charge-transfer excitations at the time-dependent DFT level, long-range corrected (LRC) functionals have been reported to give improved descriptions in a number of systems. Here, we use such LRC functionals, considering both tuned and default range-separation parameters, to characterize the absorption spectra of low-optical-gap systems of interest. Our results indicate that tuned LRC functionals lead to simulated optical-absorption properties in good agreement with experimental data. Importantly, the lowest-lying excited states (excitons) are shown to present a much more localized nature than initially anticipated.

  7. Excited singlet states of covalently bound, cofacial dimers and trimers of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide)s.

    PubMed

    Giaimo, Jovan M; Lockard, Jenny V; Sinks, Louise E; Scott, Amy M; Wilson, Thea M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2008-03-20

    Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) and its derivatives are robust organic dyes that strongly absorb visible light and display a strong tendency to self-assemble into ordered aggregates, having significant interest as photoactive materials in a wide variety of organic electronics. To better understand the nature of the electronics states produced by photoexcitation of such aggregates, the photophysics of a series of covalent, cofacially oriented, pi-stacked dimers and trimers of PDI and 1,7-bis(3',5'-di-t-butylphenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PPDI) were characterized using both time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The covalent linkage between the chromophores was accomplished using 9,9-dimethylxanthene spacers. Placing n-octyl groups on the imide nitrogen atoms at the end of the PDI chromophores not attached to the xanthene spacer results in PDI dimers having near optimal pi-stacking, leading to formation of a low-energy excimer-like state, while substituting the more sterically demanding 12-tricosanyl group on the imides causes deviations from the optimum that result in slower formation of an excimer-like excited state having somewhat higher energy. By comparison, PPDI dimers having terminal n-octyl imide groups have two isomers, whose photophysical properties depend on the ability of the phenoxy groups at the 1,7-positions to modify the pi stacking of the PPDI molecules. In general, disruption of optimal pi-stacking by steric interactions of the phenoxy side groups results in excimer-like states that are higher in energy. The corresponding lowest excited singlet states of the PDI and PPDI trimers are dimer-like in nature and suggest that structural distortions that accompany formation of the trimers are sufficient to confine the electronic interaction on two chromophores within these systems. This further suggests that it may be useful to build into oligomeric PDI and PPDI systems some degree of flexibility that allows the

  8. Molecular beam studies of weak interactions for open-shell systems: The ground and lowest excited states of ArF, KrF, and XeF

    SciTech Connect

    Aquilanti, V.; Luzzatti, E.; Pirani, F.; Volpi, G.G.

    1988-11-15

    Absolute integral cross sections for scattering of ground state fluorine atoms by argon, krypton, and xenon have been measured in the thermal velocity range. Information has been obtained on the long range interaction and using a technique for magnetic analysis of substates of F atoms, a characterization is given for the bonding in the ground and the two lowest excited states of these rare gas fluorides. The potentials are represented as a spherical part and an anisotropic component, which have been obtained in an adiabatic decoupling treatment, including also information from other scattering data. Nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements and other general features of these interactions are also presented.

  9. Reverse intersystem crossing from upper triplet levels to excited singlet: a ‘hot excition’ path for organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dehua; Yao, Liang; Yang, Bing; Ma, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Since researches on the fate of highly excited triplet states demonstrated the existence of reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) from upper triplet levels to singlet manifold in naphthalene, quinoline, isoquinoline, etc. in the 1960s, this unique photophysical process was then found and identified in some other aromatic materials. However, the early investigations mainly focus on exploring the mechanism of this photophysical process; no incorporation of specific application was implemented. Until recently, our group innovatively used this ‘sleeping’ photophysical process to enhance the efficiency of fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by simultaneously harvesting singlet and triplet excitons. Efforts are devoted to developing materials with high photoluminescence efficiency and effective RISC through appropriate molecular design in a series of donor–acceptor material systems. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that these materials exhibit hybridized local and charge-transfer excited state, which achieve a combination of the high radiation from local excited state and the high Tm→Sn (m≥2, n≥1) conversion along charge-transfer excited state. As expected, the devices exhibited favourable external quantum efficiency and low roll-off, and especially an exciton utilization efficiency exceeding the limit of 25%. Considering the significant progress made in organic light-emitting diodes with this photophysical process, we review the relevant mechanism and material systems, as well as our design principle in materials and device application. PMID:25987570

  10. Estimation of Ground-State and Singlet Excited-State Dipole Moments of Substituted Schiff Bases Containing Oxazolidin-2-one Moiety through Solvatochromic Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rekha; Varghese, Anitha; George, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence studies on novel Schiff bases (E)-4-(4-(4-nitro benzylideneamino)benzyl)oxazolidin-2-one (NBOA) and (E)-4-(4-(4-chlorobenzylidene amino)benzyl)oxazolidin-2-one (CBOA) were recorded in a series of twelve solvents upon increasing polarity at room temperature. Large Stokes shift indicates bathochromic fluorescence band for both the molecules. The photoluminescence properties of Schiff bases containing electron withdrawing and donating substituents were analyzed. Intramolecular charge transfer behavior can be studied based on the influence of different substituents in Schiff bases. Changes in position and intensity of absorption and fluorescence spectra are responsible for the stabilization of singlet excited-states of Schiff base molecules with different substituents, in polar solvents. This is attributed to the Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism. In case of electron donating (-Cl) substituent, ICT contributes largely to positive solvatochromism when compared to electron withdrawing (-NO2) substituent. Ground-state and singlet excited-state dipole moments of NBOA and CBOA were calculated experimentally using solvent polarity function approaches given by Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev, Kawskii-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt. Due to considerable π- electron density redistribution, singlet excited-state dipole moment was found to be greater than ground-state dipole moment. Ground-state dipole moment value which was determined by quantum chemical method was used to estimate excited-state dipole moment using solvatochromic correlations. Kamlet-Abboud-Taft and Catalan multiple linear regression approaches were used to study non-specific solute-solvent interaction and hydrogen bonding interactions in detail. Optimized geometry and HOMO-LUMO energies of NBOA and CBOA have been determined by DFT and TD-DFT/PCM (B3LYP/6-311G (d, p)). Mulliken charges and molecular electrostatic potential have also been evaluated from DFT calculations.

  11. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of a dinuclear Pt(II) complex: Tunneling autodetachment from both singlet and triplet excited states of a molecular dianion

    SciTech Connect

    Winghart, Marc-Oliver Unterreiner, Andreas-Neil; Yang, Ji-Ping; Vonderach, Matthias; Huang, Dao-Ling; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Kruppa, Sebastian; Riehn, Christoph; Kappes, Manfred M.

    2016-02-07

    Time-resolved pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study the relaxation dynamics of gaseous [Pt{sub 2}(μ-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 2}){sub 4} + 2H]{sup 2−} after population of its first singlet excited state by 388 nm femtosecond laser irradiation. In contrast to the fluorescence and phosphorescence observed in condensed phase, a significant fraction of the photoexcited isolated dianions decays by electron loss to form the corresponding monoanions. Our transient photoelectron data reveal an ultrafast decay of the initially excited singlet {sup 1}A{sub 2u} state and concomitant rise in population of the triplet {sup 3}A{sub 2u} state, via sub-picosecond intersystem crossing (ISC). We find that both of the electronically excited states are metastably bound behind a repulsive Coulomb barrier and can decay via delayed autodetachment to yield electrons with characteristic kinetic energies. While excited state tunneling detachment (ESETD) from the singlet {sup 1}A{sub 2u} state takes only a few picoseconds, ESETD from the triplet {sup 3}A{sub 2u} state is much slower and proceeds on a time scale of hundreds of nanoseconds. The ISC rate in the gas phase is significantly higher than in solution, which can be rationalized in terms of changes to the energy dissipation mechanism in the absence of solvent molecules. [Pt{sub 2}(μ-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}H{sub 2}){sub 4} + 2H]{sup 2−} is the first example of a photoexcited multianion for which ESETD has been observed following ISC.

  12. Photoconversion of β-Lapachone to α-Lapachone via a Protonation-Assisted Singlet Excited State Pathway in Aqueous Solution: A Time-Resolved Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Du, Lili; Li, Ming-De; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xue, Jiadan; Zhang, Xiting; Zhu, Ruixue; Cheng, Shun Cheung; Li, Xuechen; Phillips, David Lee

    2015-08-07

    The photophysical and photochemical reactions of β-lapachone were studied using femtosecond transient absorption, nanosecond transient absorption, and nanosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy techniques and density functional theory calculations. In acetonitrile, β-lapachone underwent an efficient intersystem crossing to form the triplet state of β-lapachone. However, in water-rich solutions, the singlet state of β-lapachone was predominantly quenched by the photoinduced protonation of the carbonyl group at the β position (O9). After protonation, a series of fast reaction steps occurred to eventually generate the triplet state α-lapachone intermediate. This triplet state of α-lapachone then underwent intersystem crossing to produce the ground singlet state of α-lapachone as the final product. 1,2-Naphthoquinone is examined in acetonitrile and water solutions in order to elucidate the important roles that water and the pyran ring play during the photoconversion from β-lapachone to α-lapachone. β-Lapachone can also be converted to α-lapachone in the ground state when a strong acid is added to an aqueous solution. Our investigation indicates that β-lapachone can be converted to α-lapachone by photoconversion in aqueous solutions by a protonation-assisted singlet excited state reaction or by an acid-assisted ground state reaction.

  13. Measurement of the 14N nuclear quadrupole couplings in the lowest (nπ *) excited triplet state of pyrazine by ODMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhling, W.; Winscom, C. J.; Möbius, K.

    1983-03-01

    High-resolution optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) and optically detected electron—electron double resonance (ODEEDOR) have been performed on the lowest excited triplet states of pyrazine- h4 and pyrazine- d4, as dilute guests in polycrystalline benzene and cyclohexane host matrices. Computer simulated spectra have been fitted to those experimentally observed, using a spin hamiltonian which takes into account the 14N and 1H (or 2D) nuclei of the pyrazine guest molecule. Good agreement is obtained when one 14N nuclear quadrupole energy difference, |ɛ yN - ɛ zN| ⩽ 1.3 MHz, and the remaining component, |ɛ xN| = 0.6 ± 0.2 MHz for pyrazine- d4 in benzene- d6.

  14. Temperature and oxygen-concentration dependence of singlet oxygen production by RuPhen as induced by quasi-continuous excitation.

    PubMed

    Varchola, Jaroslav; Huntosova, Veronika; Jancura, Daniel; Wagnières, Georges; Miskovsky, Pavol; Bánó, Gregor

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) by luminescence lifetime measurements of ruthenium coordination complexes has been studied intensively during the last few decades. RuPhen (dichlorotris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(ii) hydrate) is a water soluble molecule that has been tested previously for in vivo pO2 detection. In this work we intended to shed light on the production of singlet oxygen by RuPhen. The quantum yield of singlet oxygen production by RuPhen dissolved in 0.9% aqueous NaCl solution (pH = 6) was measured at physiological temperatures (285-310 K) and various concentrations of molecular oxygen. In order to minimize the bleaching of RuPhen, the samples were excited with low power (<2 mW) laser pulses (20 μs long), created by pulsing a cw laser beam with an acousto-optical modulator. We show that, whereas the RuPhen phosphorescence lifetime decreases rapidly with an increase of temperature (keeping the oxygenation level constant), the quantum yield of singlet oxygen production by RuPhen is almost identical in the temperature range of 285-310 K. For air-saturated conditions at 310 K the measured quantum yield is about 0.25. The depopulation rate constants of the RuPhen (3)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge-transfer) state are determined in the absence and in the presence of oxygen. We determined that the excitation energy for the RuPhen (3)MLCT→d-d transition is 49 kJ mol(-1) in the 0.9% NaCl solution (pH = 6).

  15. Quantum chemical study on the population of the lowest triplet state of psoralen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Pérez, Juan José; Merchán, Manuela; Serrano-Andrés, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The efficient population of the low-lying triplet ππ * state of psoralen is studied with the quantum chemical CASPT2 method. Minima, singlet-triplet crossings, conical intersections, and reaction paths on the low-lying singlet and triplet states hypersurfaces of the system have been computed together with electronic energy gaps and spin-orbit coupling terms. A mechanism is proposed, favorable in the gas phase, for efficient deactivation of the initially populated singlet excited ππ * state, starting with an intersystem crossing with an nπ * triplet state and evolving via a conical intersection toward the final lowest-lying ππ * triplet state, protagonist of the reactivity of psoralen.

  16. Effect of a triplet to singlet state interaction on photofragmentation dynamics: highly excited states of HBr probed by VMI and REMPI as a case study.

    PubMed

    Glodic, Pavle; Zaouris, Dimitris; Samartzis, Peter C; Hafliðason, Arnar; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2016-09-21

    Analysis of mass resolved spectra as well as velocity map images derived from resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of HBr via resonance excitations to mixed Rydberg (6pπ (3)Σ(-)(v' = 0)) and valence (ion-pair) (V (1)Σ(+)(v' = m + 17)) states allows characterization of the effect of a triplet-to-singlet state interaction on further photoexcitation and photoionization processes. The analysis makes use of rotational spectra line shifts, line intensity alterations, kinetic energy release spectra as well as angular distributions. Energy-level-dependent state mixing of the resonance excited states is quantified and photoexcitation processes, leading to H(+) formation, are characterized in terms of the states and fragmentation processes involved, depending on the state mixing.

  17. Density functional theory calculations on rhodamine B and pinacyanol chloride. Optimized ground state, dipole moment, vertical ionization potential, adiabatic electron affinity and lowest excited triplet state.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Juan C; Selsby, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    The ground state configuration of the gas phase cationic dyes pinacyanol chloride and rhodamine B are optimized with HF/6-311 + G(2d,2p) method and basis set. B3PW91/6-311 + G(2df,2p) functional and basis set is used to calculate the Mulliken atom charge distribution, total molecular energy, the dipole moment, the vertical ionization potential, the adiabatic electron affinity and the lowest excited triplet state, the last three as an energy difference between separately calculated open shell and ground states. The triplet and extra electron states are optimized to find the relaxation energy. In the ground state optimization of both dyes the chloride anion migrates to a position near the center of the chromophore. For rhodamine B the benzoidal group turns perpendicular to the chromophore plane. For both dyes, the LUMO is mostly of π character associated with the aromatic part of the molecule containing the chromophore. The highest occupied MOs consist of three almost degenerate eigenvectors involving the chloride anion coordinated with σ electrons in the molecular framework. The fourth highest MO is of π character. For both molecules in the gas phase ionization process the chloride anion loses the significant fraction of electric charge. In electron capture, the excess charge goes mainly on the dye cation.

  18. Singlet-triplet splittings and electron affinities of selected cyanocarbenes, XCCN (X = H, F, Cl, C 2H, CN): carbenes with a stable excited negative ion state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcher, Josef

    2005-02-01

    The title compounds have been investigated using the ROHF-ACPF and CAS(2,2)-ACPF method in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. All cyanocarbenes have triplet ground states except FCCN and ClCCN, which conform to the halocarbenes in having singlet ground states. The ground state electron affinities are found to be rather high, i.e., 1.972, 2.061, 2.474, 3.359, 2.301 eV for HCCN, FCCN, ClCCN, C(CN) 2 and (HC 2)CCN, respectively. The existence of bound excited negative ion states has been discovered for the first time within the carbenes.

  19. Electron-impact excitation of the singlet states of N2. I - The Birge-Hopfield system /b 1 pi u - X 1 Sigma g +/. [in auroral zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, E. C.; Gorman, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the electron-impact excitation of the b 1 pi u state of N2, one of the singlet states thought to be excited by precipitating electrons in the auroral zones, and of its predissociation and radiative relaxation through the emission of the Birge-Hopfield band system (b 1 pi u - X 1 Sigma g +) are presented. A collimated electron beam was passed through N2 gas producing a variety of atomic states through dissociative excitation, and the radiation resulting from relaxation of these states was observed by VUV and visible-IR monochromators. Absolute emission cross sections for 11 Birge-Hopfield bands are obtained for energies from threshold to 500 eV, and used to calculate the absolute transition probabilities for BH(1, v-prime) bands and the variation of the electric dipole moment with internuclear distance. With the exception of the v-prime equals 1, 5 and 6 vibrational levels, all b 1 pi u levels are found to predissociate with a specific predissociation branching ratio greater than 0.99, representing a major source of nitrogen atoms.

  20. Excited state calculations using phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo: Potential energy curves of low-lying C(2) singlet states.

    PubMed

    Purwanto, Wirawan; Zhang, Shiwei; Krakauer, Henry

    2009-03-07

    We show that the recently developed phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method can be used to study excited states, providing an alternative to standard quantum chemistry methods. The phaseless AFQMC approach, whose computational cost scales as M(3)-M(4) with system size M, has been shown to be among the most accurate many-body methods in ground state calculations. For excited states, prevention of collapse into the ground state and control of the Fermion sign/phase problem are accomplished by the approximate phaseless constraint with a trial wave function. Using the challenging C(2) molecule as a test case, we calculate the potential energy curves of the ground and two low-lying singlet excited states. The trial wave function is obtained by truncating complete active space wave functions, with no further optimization. The phaseless AFQMC results using a small basis set are in good agreement with exact full configuration-interaction calculations, while those using large basis sets are in good agreement with experimental spectroscopic constants.

  1. Existence of a new emitting singlet state of proflavine: femtosecond dynamics of the excited state processes and quantum chemical studies in different solvents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Karuppannan Senthil; Selvaraju, Chellappan; Malar, Ezekiel Joy Padma; Natarajan, Paramasivam

    2012-01-12

    Proflavine (3,6-diaminoacridine) shows fluorescence emission with lifetime, 4.6 ± 0.2 ns, in all the solvents irrespective of the solvent polarity. To understand this unusual photophysical property, investigations were carried out using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in the pico- and femtosecond time domain. Molecular geometries in the ground and low-lying excited states of proflavine were examined by complete structural optimization using ab initio quantum chemical computations at HF/6-311++G** and CIS/6-311++G** levels. Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations were performed to study the excitation energies in the low-lying excited states. The steady state absorption and emission spectral details of proflavine are found to be influenced by solvents. The femtosecond fluorescence decay of the proflavine in all the solvents follows triexponential function with two ultrafast decay components (τ(1) and τ(2)) in addition to the nanosecond component. The ultrafast decay component, τ(1), is attributed to the solvation dynamics of the particular solvent used. The second ultrafast decay component, τ(2), is found to vary from 50 to 215 ps depending upon the solvent. The amplitudes of the ultrafast decay components vary with the wavelength and show time dependent spectral shift in the emission maximum. The observation is interpreted that the time dependent spectral shift is not only due to solvation dynamics but also due to the existence of more than one emitting state of proflavine in the solvent used. Time resolved area normalized emission spectral (TRANES) analysis shows an isoemissive point, indicating the presence of two emitting states in homogeneous solution. Detailed femtosecond fluorescence decay analysis allows us to isolate the two independent emitting components of the close lying singlet states. The CIS and TDDFT calculations also support the existence of the close lying emitting states. The near constant

  2. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Quantum efficiency of the laser-excited singlet-oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence of the zinc complex of tetra(4-tert-butyl)phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashtanov, M. E.; Drozdova, N. N.; Krasnovskii, A. A.

    1999-12-01

    An investigation was made of the ratios of the intensity Idf of the singlet-oxygen(1O2)-sensitised delayed fluorescence of the zinc complex of tetra(4-tert-butyl)phthalocyanine (ZnTBPc), with the maximum at λ = 685 nm, to the intensity I1270 of the photosensitised phosphorescence of 1O2 with the maximum at λ = 1270 nm in deuterated benzene when excited with λ = 337 nm nitrogen-laser pulses. Depending on the energy density of the laser radiation (0.25 — 0.7 mJ cm-2) and on the concentration of ZnTBPc (0.06 — 3.4 μM), the ratio of the zero-time intensities of the delayed fluorescence of ZnTBPc and of the singlet-oxygen phosphorescence Idf0/I12700 varied from 0.01 to 0.2 in air-saturated solutions of ZnTBPc. The intensity Idf0 decreased fivefold as a result of saturation with oxygen of air-saturated solutions. The quantum efficiency of the delayed fluorescence was represented by the coefficient α =(Idf0/I12700)kr/(γf[1O2]0[ZnTBPc]), where [1O2]0 is the zero-time concentration of 1O2 after a laser shot; kr is the rate constant of radiative deactivation of 1O2 in the investigated solvent; γf is the quantum yield of the ZnTBPc fluorescence. It was established that in the case of air-saturated solutions of ZnTBPc this coefficient was approximately 200 times less than for metal-free tetra(4-tert-butyl)phthalocyanine and its absolute value was ~2 × 1011 M-2 s-1.

  3. Two-Photon Study on the Electronic Interactions between the First Excited Singlet States in Carotenoid-Tetrapyrrole Dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Pillai, Smitha; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Walla, Peter J.

    2011-03-22

    Electronic interactions between the first excited states (S1) of carotenoids (Car) of different conjugation lengths (8-11 double bonds) and phthalocyanines (Pc) in different Car-Pc dyad molecules were investigated by two-photon spectroscopy and compared with Car S1-chlorophyll (Chl) interactions in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The observation of Chl/Pc fluorescence after selective two-photon excitation of the Car S1 state allowed sensitive monitoring of the flow of energy between Car S1 and Pc or Chl. It is found that two-photon excitation excites to about 80% to 100% exclusively the carotenoid state Car S1 and that only a small fraction of direct tetrapyrrole two-photon excitation occurs. Amide-linked Car-Pc dyads in tetrahydrofuran demonstrate a molecular gear shift mechanism in that effective Car S1 → Pc energy transfer is observed in a dyad with 9 double bonds in the carotenoid, whereas in similar dyads with 11 double bonds in the carotenoid, the Pc fluorescence is strongly quenched by Pc → Car S1 energy transfer. In phenylamino-linked Car-Pc dyads in toluene extremely large electronic interactions between the Car S1 state and Pc were observed, particularly in the case of a dyad in which the carotenoid contained 10 double bonds. This observation together with previous findings in the same system provides strong evidence for excitonic Car S1-Pc Qy interactions. Very similar results were observed with photosynthetic LHC II complexes in the past, supporting an important role of such interactions in photosynthetic down-regulation.

  4. Coherent singlet fission activated by symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Kurashige, Yuki; Watanabe, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Takahashi, Shota; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Takeya, Jun; Yanai, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2017-10-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet exciton is converted to two triplet excitons, is a process that could be beneficial in photovoltaic applications. A full understanding of the dynamics of singlet fission in molecular systems requires detailed knowledge of the relevant potential energy surfaces and their (conical) intersections. However, obtaining such information is a nontrivial task, particularly for molecular aggregates. Here we investigate singlet fission in rubrene crystals using transient absorption spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum chemical calculations. We observe a coherent and ultrafast singlet-fission channel as well as the well-known and conventional thermally assisted incoherent channel. This coherent channel is accessible because the conical intersection for singlet fission on the excited-state potential energy surface is located very close to the equilibrium position of the ground-state potential energy surface and also because of the excitation of an intermolecular symmetry-breaking mode, which activates the electronic coupling necessary for singlet fission.

  5. π-Conjugated Organometallic Isoindigo Oligomer and Polymer Chromophores: Singlet and Triplet Excited State Dynamics and Application in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Subhadip; Gish, Melissa K; Wang, Jiliang; Winkel, Russell W; Papanikolas, John M; Schanze, Kirk S

    2015-12-09

    An isoindigo based π-conjugated oligomer and polymer that contain cyclometalated platinum(II) "auxochrome" units were subjected to photophysical characterization, and application of the polymer in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with PCBM acceptor was examined. The objective of the study was to explore the effect of the heavy metal centers on the excited state properties, in particular, intersystem crossing to a triplet (exciton) state, and further how this would influence the performance of the organometallic polymer in solar cells. The materials were characterized by electrochemistry, ground state absorption, emission, and picosecond-nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the cyclometalated units have a significant impact on the HOMO energy level of the chromophores, but little effect on the LUMO, which is consistent with localization of the LUMO on the isoindigo acceptor unit. Picosecond-nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy reveals a transient with ∼100 ns lifetime that is assigned to a triplet excited state that is produced by intersystem crossing from a singlet state on a time scale of ∼130 ps. This is the first time that a triplet state has been observed for isoindigo π-conjugated chromophores. The performance of the polymer in bulk heterojunction solar cells was explored with PC61BM as an acceptor. The performance of the cells was optimum at a relatively high PCBM loading (1:6, polymer:PCBM), but the overall efficiency was relatively low with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.22%. Atomic force microscopy of blend films reveals that the length scale of the phase separation decreases with increasing PCBM content, suggesting a reason for the increase in PCE with acceptor loading. Energetic considerations show that the triplet state in the polymer is too low in energy to undergo charge separation with PCBM. Further, due to the relatively low LUMO energy of the polymer, charge transfer

  6. Electronic Structure Study of Singlet Fission in Tetracene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Casanova, David

    2014-01-14

    A detailed theoretical study of the singlet fission process in tetracene and two of its derivatives, that is 5,12-diphenyltetracene (DPT) and rubrene, is presented. This work aims to unravel the intricacies and the differences of their singlet fission mechanism by means of electronic structure calculations using molecular and cluster models and a variety of computational tools. Although the electronic structure at the molecular level is very similar for the three compounds, their different crystal packing has important consequences in their ability to produce two triplet states from a single exciton. The results obtained indicate that the lowest singlet is found to delocalize at least over seven molecules. Computed relative energies rule out the presence of charge transfer (CT) states as intermediates in a two-step mechanism in all cases. On the other hand, CT states do play a role as mediators, specially in tetracene. They decisively participate in the coupling between single and multiexcitonic states through second-order contributions. Finally, the present study pinpoints that the transition from the optically allowed exciton to the dark multiexciton state might be facilitated by intramolecular motion toward the lowest excited singlet geometry.

  7. Search for Singlet Fission Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Havlas, Z.; Akdag, A.; Smith, M. B.; Dron, P.; Johnson, J. C.; Nozik, A. J.; Michl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet excited chromophore shares its energy with a ground-state neighbor and both end up in their triplet states, is of potential interest for solar cells. Only a handful of compounds, mostly alternant hydrocarbons, are known to perform efficiently. In view of the large number of conditions that a successful candidate for a practical cell has to meet, it appears desirable to extend the present list of high performers to additional classes of compounds. We have (i) identified design rules for new singlet fission chromophores and for their coupling to covalent dimers, (ii) synthesized them, and (iii) evaluated their performance as neat solids or covalent dimers.

  8. Excitation Localization/Delocalization Isomerism in a Strongly Coupled Covalent Dimer of 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Schrauben, Joel N.; Akdag, Akin; Wen, Jin; Havlas, Zdenek; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Smith, Millie B.; Michl, Josef; Johnson, Justin C.

    2016-05-26

    Two isomers of both the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of the directly para, para'-connected covalent dimer of the singlet-fission chromophore 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran have been observed. In one isomer, excitation is delocalized over both halves of the dimer, and in the other, it is localized on one or the other half. For a covalent dimer in solution, such 'excitation isomerism' is extremely rare. The vibrationally relaxed isomers do not interconvert, and their photophysical properties, including singlet fission, differ significantly.

  9. Quenching Enhancement of the Singlet Excited State of Pheophorbide-a by DNA in the Presence of the Quinone Carboquone

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Espinosa, Yisaira; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.; Alegría, Antonio E.; García, Carmelo; Arce, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the emission fluorescence intensity of pheophorbide-a (PHEO) in the presence of carboquone (CARBOQ) were used to obtain the association constant, the number of CARBOQ molecules interacting with PHEO, and the fluorescence quantum yield of the complex. Excitation spectra of mixtures of PHEO and CARBOQ in ethanol (EtOH) show an unresolved doublet in the red-most excitation band of PHEO, indicating the formation of a loose ground-state complex. The 1:1 CARBOQ–PHEO complex shows a higher fluorescence quantum yield in EtOH (0.41 ± 0.02) than in buffer solution (0.089 ± 0.002), which is also higher than that of the PHEO monomer (0.28). Quenching of the PHEO fluorescence by DNA nucleosides and double-stranded oligonucleotides was also observed and the bimolecular quenching rate constants were determined. The quenching rate constant increase as the oxidation potential of the DNA nucleoside increases. Larger quenching constants were obtained in the presence of CARBOQ suggesting that CARBOQ enhances DNA photo-oxidation, presumably by inhibiting the back–electron-transfer reaction from the photoreduced PHEO to the oxidized base. Thus, the enhanced DNA-base photosensitized oxidation by PHEO in the presence of CARBOQ may be related to the large extent by which this quinone covalently binds to DNA, as previously reported. PMID:21138440

  10. A quantitative study of the effect of solvent on the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted phenothiazines: evaluation of their ground and excited singlet-state dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Párkányi, C.; Boniface, C.; Aaron, J. J.; Maafi, M.

    1993-11-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of five phenothiazines (phenothiazine, promethazine, thionine, methylene blue and Azure A) were determined at room temperature (293 K) in several solvents of various polarities (cyclohexane, dioxane, ethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide). The effect of the solvents upon the spectral characteristics was studied. In combination with the ground state dipole moments of these phenothiazines, the spectral data were used to evaluate their first excited singlet-state dipole moments by means of the solvatochromic shift method (Bakhshiev's and Kawski—Chamma—Viallet correlations). The theoretical ground and excited singlet-state dipole moments for phenothiazines were calculated as a vector sum of the π component (obtained by the Pariser—Parr—Pople method) and the σ component (obtained from σ-bond moments). A reasonable agreement was found with the experimental values. For most phenothiazines under study, excited singlet-state dipole moments were found to be significantly higher than their ground-state counterparts. The application of the Kamlet—Abboud—Taft solvatochromic parameters to the solvent effect on spectral properties of phenothiazines is discussed.

  11. Water-soluble naphthalene diimides as singlet oxygen sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Doria, Filippo; Manet, Ilse; Grande, Vincenzo; Monti, Sandra; Freccero, Mauro

    2013-08-16

    Bromo- and/or alkylamino-substituted and hydrosoluble naphthalene diimides (NDIs) were synthesized to study their multimodal photophysical and photochemical properties. Bromine-containing NDIs (i.e., 11) behaved as both singlet oxygen ((1)O2) photosensitizers and fluorescent molecules upon irradiation at 532 nm. Among the NDIs not containing Br, only 12 exhibited photophysical properties similar to those of Br-NDIs, by irradiation above 610 nm, suggesting that for these NDIs both singlet and triplet excited-state properties are strongly affected by length, structure of the solubilizing moieties, and pH of the solution. Laser flash photolysis confirmed that the NDI lowest triplet excited state was efficiently populated, upon excitation at both 355 and 532 nm, and that free amine moieties quenched both the singlet and triplet excited states by intramolecular electron transfer, with generation of detectable radical anions. Time-resolved experiments, monitoring the 1270 nm (1)O2 phosphorescence decay generated upon laser irradiation at 532 nm, allowed a ranking of the NDIs as sensitizers, based on their (1)O2 quantum yields (ΦΔ). The tetrafunctionalized 12, exhibiting a long-lived triplet state (τ ~ 32 μs) and the most promising absorptivity for photodynamic therapy application, was tested as efficient photosensitizers in the photo-oxidations of 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene and 9,10-anthracenedipropionic acid in acetonitrile and water.

  12. Degradation of organic pollutants in/on snow and ice by singlet molecular oxygen (¹O₂*) and an organic triplet excited state.

    PubMed

    Bower, Jonathan P; Anastasio, Cort

    2014-04-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen (¹O₂*) can be a significant sink for a variety of electron-rich pollutants in surface waters and atmospheric drops. We recently found that ¹O₂* concentrations are enhanced by up to a factor of 10(4) on illuminated ice compared to in the equivalent liquid solution, suggesting that ¹O₂* could be an important oxidant for pollutants in snow. To examine this, here we study the degradation of three model organic pollutants: furfuryl alcohol (to represent furans), tryptophan (for aromatic amino acids), and bisphenol A (for phenols). Each compound was studied in illuminated aqueous solution and ice containing Rose Bengal (RB, a sensitizer for ¹O₂*) and sodium chloride (to adjust the concentration of total solutes). The RB-mediated loss of each organic compound is enhanced on illuminated ice compared to in solution, by factors of 6400 for furfuryl alcohol, 8300 for tryptophan, and 50 for bisphenol A for ice containing 0.065 mM total solutes. Rates of loss of furfuryl alcohol and tryptophan decrease at a higher total solute concentration, in qualitative agreement with predictions from freezing-point depression. In contrast, the loss of bisphenol A on ice is independent of total solute concentration. Relative to liquid tests, the enhanced loss of tryptophan on ice during control experiments made with deoxygenated solutions and solutions in D₂O show that the triplet excited state of Rose Bengal may also contribute to loss of pollutants on ice.

  13. Depopulation of highly excited singlet states of DNA model compounds: quantum yields of 193 and 245 nm photoproducts of pyrimidine monomers and dinucleoside monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Gurzadyan, G G; Görner, H

    1996-02-01

    Formation of uracil and orotic acid photodimers, uridine and 5'-UMP photohydrates, TpT photodimers and (6-4)photoproducts, dCpT photohydrates and (6-4)photoproducts and UpU, CpC and CpU photohydrates were studied in neutral deoxygenated aqueous solution at room temperature upon irradiation at either 193 or 254 nm. The photoproducts were identified and quantified and the contribution from photoionization to substrate decomposition, using lambda irr = 193 nm, was separated. The ratio of the quantum yields of respective stable products, eta = phi 193/phi 254, is indicative of the yield of internal conversion from the second to the first excited singlet state, S2-->S1. For the observed photodimers eta decreases from 0.94 for uracil to 0.7 for TpT and further to 0.55 for orotic acid. For the (6-4)photoproducts of TpT and dCpT eta = 0.5-0.8 and for the photohydrates in the cases of UpU, CpC, CpU and dCpT eta ranges from 0.55 to 1.

  14. The effect of caffeine on the reactions of the excited singlet state of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Thomas, J. Kerry

    1984-08-01

    The effect of caffeine on a few photo-induced reactions of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) has been studied. In these systems caffeine complexes with the pyrene (K asso = 85 ± 10 M -1 and also with the other reactants, e.g. Cu 2+ or TI +. The efficiencies of reactions which involve contact, i.e. pyrene excimer formation, and quenching by TI + ions to give the triplet state of pyrene, are significantly reduced in the presence of caffeine, due to geometric inhibitions formed by the complexation processes. The kinetics of photo-induced electron transfer, e.g. between excited pyrene and Cu 2+, are not affected. However, the subsequent reactions of the products are modified and the yield of ionic products is markedly increased.

  15. Exact wave packet dynamics of singlet fission in unsubstituted and substituted polyene chains within long-range interacting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S.

    2017-08-01

    Singlet fission (SF) is a potential pathway for significant enhancement of efficiency in organic solar cells (OSC). In this paper, we study singlet fission in a pair of polyene molecules in two different stacking arrangements employing exact many-body wave packet dynamics. In the noninteracting model, the SF yield is absent. The individual molecules are treated within Hubbard and Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models and the interaction between them involves transfer terms, intersite electron repulsions, and site-charge-bond-charge repulsion terms. Initial wave packet is constructed from excited singlet state of one molecule and ground state of the other. Time development of this wave packet under the influence of intermolecular interactions is followed within the Schrödinger picture by an efficient predictor-corrector scheme. In unsubstituted Hubbard and PPP chains, 2 1A excited singlet state leads to significant SF yield while the 1 1B state gives negligible fission yield. On substitution by donor-acceptor groups of moderate strength, the lowest excited state will have sufficient 2 1A character and hence results in significant SF yield. Because of rapid internal conversion, the nature of the lowest excited singlet will determine the SF contribution to OSC efficiency. Furthermore, we find the fission yield depends considerably on the stacking arrangement of the polyene molecules.

  16. Pigment-pigment interactions in thylakoids and LHCII of chlorophyll a/ c containing alga Pleurochloris meiringensis: analysis of fluorescence-excitation and triplet-minus-singlet spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchel, C.; Razi Naqvi, K.; Melø, T. B.

    1998-05-01

    Time-resolved triplet-minus-singlet (TmS) difference spectra, Δ A( λ; t), fluorescence excitation spectra, X( λ), and absorption spectra, A( λ), are used for probing pigment-pigment interactions in the thylakoids (Chl a/ c-Thyl) and isolated light-harvesting complexes associated with photosystem II (Chl a/ c-LHCII) of the alga Pleurochloris meiringensis, whose chromophores comprise chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll c (Chl c), and several carotenoids. The data provide information about interactions between Car*-and-Chl a0, Chl a†-and-Car 0, Car †-and-Chl a0 (where the abbreviation Car stands for carotenoid, an asterisk and a dagger denote singlet and triplet excitation, respectively, and the superscript 0 denotes a molecule in the ground state). In Chl a/c-Thyl, the efficiency of Car*→Chl a* transfer ( φLH), determined by comparing A( λ) and X( λ), is slightly less than unity (ca. 0.85), whereas the efficiency of Chl a†→Car † transfer of triplet energy ( φTT) must be much closer to unity, since no long-lived Chl a† could be detected; an interaction between Car † and Chl a0, already familiar from investigations concerning the TmS spectra of the trimers and aggregates of Chl a/ b-LHCII (the light-harvesting complex associated with the photosystem II of higher plants), which manifests itself through a depletion signal (in the Qy region of Chl a) decaying at the same rate as the Car TmS signal, is observed, and explained likewise. In Chl a/ c-LHCII, both efficiencies are found to be much lower; the drastic reduction in the two yields is attributed to the perturbation of the native molecular architecture of the complex by the detergent used in the isolation procedure. The overall TmS signal from Chl a/ c-LHCII can be decomposed into two contributions, Δ A( λ; t)=Δ 1A( λ; t)+Δ 2A( λ; t), where Δ 1A( λ; t) with a lifetime of about 8 μs; Δ 2A( λ; t), which persists for several hundred microseconds, is contributed by those Chl a

  17. Ground and lowest-lying electronic states of CoN. A multiconfigurational study.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos

    2006-12-28

    The lowest-lying X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II electronic states of CoN have been investigated at the ab initio MRCI and MS-CASPT2 levels, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the singlet states, the A1Phi and B1II states have been described for the first time. Potential energy curves, excitation energies, spectroscopic constants, and bonding character for all states are reported. Comparison with other early transition-metal nitrides (ScN, TiN, VN, and CrN), isoelectronic (NiC) and isovalent (RhN and IrN) species has been made, besides analyzing the B1II <=> X1+ electronic transition in terms of Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes. At both levels of theory, the following energetic order has been obtained: X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II, with good agreement with experimental results. In contrast, previous DFT and MRCI calculations predicted the ground state to be the 5Delta state.

  18. Singlet and triplet instability theorems

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So

    2015-09-21

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  19. Singlet and triplet instability theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So

    2015-09-01

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree-Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree-Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund's rule, a singlet instability in Jahn-Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  20. Singlet and triplet instability theorems.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So

    2015-09-21

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree-Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree-Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund's rule, a singlet instability in Jahn-Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  1. Lowest eigenvalues of random Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J. J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2008-05-15

    In this article we study the lowest eigenvalues of random Hamiltonians for both fermion and boson systems. We show that an empirical formula of evaluating the lowest eigenvalues of random Hamiltonians in terms of energy centroids and widths of eigenvalues is applicable to many different systems. We improve the accuracy of the formula by considering the third central moment. We show that these formulas are applicable not only to the evaluation of the lowest energy but also to the evaluation of excited energies of systems under random two-body interactions.

  2. Molecular beam studies of weak interactions for open-shell systems: The ground and lowest excited states of rare gas oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Aquilanti, V.; Candori, R.; Pirani, F.

    1988-11-15

    Integral cross sections as a function of velocity for scattering of ground state oxygen atoms by the rare gases have been measured at thermal energy. Analysis of atomic sublevels by a Stern--Gerlach magnet allows a control of the relative contribution from different fine structure scattering channels. The results are analyzed using an adiabatic decoupling scheme to derive the interaction as a spherical part and an anisotropic component, from which information is obtained on the six lowest states of the rare gas oxides and on nonadiabatic coupling terms.

  3. Confinement sensitivity in quantum dot singlet-triplet relaxation.

    PubMed

    Wesslen, Carl; Lindroth, Eva

    2017-09-08

    Spin-orbit mediated phonon relaxation in a two-dimensional quantum dot is investigated using different confining potentials. Elliptical harmonic oscillator and cylindrical well results are compared to each other in the case of a two-electron GaAs quantum dot subjected to a tilted magnetic field. The lowest energy set of two-body singlet and triplet states are calculated including spin-orbit and magnetic effects. These are used to calculate the phonon induced transition rate from the excited triplet to the ground state singlet for magnetic fields up to where the states cross. The roll of the cubic Dresselhaus effect, which is found to be much more important than previously assumed, and the positioning of "spin hot-spots" are discussed and relaxation rates for a few different systems are exhibited. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. A theoretical study of the ground state and lowest excited states of PuO0/+/+2 and PuO20/+/+2

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K.; La Macchia, Giovanni; Infante, Ivan; Gagliardi, Laura; Raab, Juraj

    2008-12-08

    The ground and excited states of neutral and cationic PuO and PuO2 have been studied with multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods followed by second order perturbation theory, the CASSCF/CASPT2 method. Scalar relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling have been included in the treatment. As literature values for the ionization energy of PuO2 are in the wide range of ~;;6.6 eV to ~;;10.1 eV, a central goal of the computations was to resolve these discrepancies; the theoretical results indicate that the ionization energy is near the lower end of this range. The calculated ionization energies for PuO, PuO+ and PuO2+ are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  5. Low-lying excited states in armchair polyacene within Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A density matrix renormalization group study

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mousumi

    2014-03-28

    We studied the nature of the ground state and low-lying excited states of armchair polyacene oligomers (Polyphenanthrene) within long-range Pariser-Parr-Pople model Hamiltonian with up to 14 monomers using symmetrized density matrix renormalization group technique. The ground state of all armchair polyacenes studied is found to be singlet. The results show that lowest singlet dipole allowed excited state has higher energy for armchair polyacenes as compared to linear fused polyacenes. Moreover, unlike linear fused polyacenes, the lowest singlet excited state of these oligomers is always found to lie below the lowest dipole forbidden two-photon state indicating that these armchair polyacene oligomers strongly fluoresce. The calculations of low-lying excitations on singly and triply electron doped armchair polyacene oligomers show a low energy band with strong transition dipole moment that coupled to charge conductivity. This implies armchair polyacene posses novel field-effect transistor properties.

  6. Singlet oxygen generation in PUVA therapy studied using electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Pérez, Juan José; Olaso-González, Gloria; Merchán, Manuela; Serrano-Andrés, Luis

    2009-06-01

    The ability of furocoumarins to participate in the PUVA (Psoralen + UV-A) therapy against skin disorders and some types of cancer, is analyzed on quantum chemical grounds. The efficiency of the process relies on its capability to populate its lowest triplet excited state, and then either form adducts with thymine which interfere DNA replication or transfer its energy, generating singlet molecular oxygen damaging the cell membrane in photoactivated tissues. By determining the spin-orbit couplings, shown to be the key property, in the intersystem crossing yielding the triplet state of the furocoumarin, the electronic couplings in the triplet-triplet energy transfer process producing the singlet oxygen, and the reaction rates and lifetimes, the efficiency in the phototherapeutic action of the furocoumarin family is predicted as: khellin < 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) < 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) < psoralen < 4,5‧,8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) < 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPS), the latter being the most efficient photosensitizer and singlet oxygen generator.

  7. Up-Conversion Intersystem Crossing Rates in Organic Emitters for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence: Impact of the Nature of Singlet vs Triplet Excited States.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pralok K; Kim, Dongwook; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2017-03-22

    The rates for up-conversion intersystem crossing (UISC) from the T1 state to the S1 state are calculated for a series of organic emitters with an emphasis on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials. Both the spin-orbit coupling and the energy difference between the S1 and T1 states (ΔEST) are evaluated, at the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT levels. The calculated UISC rates and ΔEST values are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. Our results underline that small ΔEST values and sizable spin-orbit coupling matrix elements have to be simultaneously realized in order to facilitate UISC and ultimately TADF. Importantly, the spatial separation of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the emitter, a widely accepted strategy for the design of TADF molecules, does not necessarily lead to a sufficient reduction in ΔEST; in fact, either a significant charge-transfer (CT) contribution to the T1 state or a minimal energy difference between the local-excitation and charge-transfer triplet states is required to achieve a small ΔEST. Also, having S1 and T1 states of a different nature is found to strongly enhance spin-orbit coupling, which is consistent with the El-Sayed rule for ISC rates. Overall, our results indicate that having either similar energies for the local-excitation and charge-transfer triplet states or the right balance between a substantial CT contribution to T1 and somewhat different natures of the S1 and T1 states, paves the way toward UISC enhancement and thus TADF efficiency improvement.

  8. Presence of two emissive minima in the lowest excited state of a push-pull cationic dye unequivocally proved by femtosecond up-conversion spectroscopy and vibronic quantum-mechanical computations.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Enrico; Carlotti, Benedetta; Segado, Mireia; Cesaretti, Alessio; Spalletti, Anna; Elisei, Fausto; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-05-14

    The long-standing controversy about the presence of two different emissive minima in the lowest excited state of the cationic push-pull dye o-(p-dimethylamino-styryl)-methylpyridinium (DASPMI) was definitively proved through the observation of dual emission, evidenced by both experimental (femtosecond up-conversion measurements) and theoretical (density functional theory calculations) approaches. From the fluorescence up-conversion data of DASPMI in water, the time resolved area normalized spectra (TRANES) were calculated, showing one isoemissive point and therefore revealing the presence of two distinct emissive minima of the excited state potential energy hypersurface with lifetimes of 0.51 and 4.8 ps. These spectroscopic techniques combined with proper data analysis allowed us to discriminate the sub-picosecond emitting state from the occurrence of ultrafast solvation dynamics and to disentangle the overlapping fluorescence (very close in energy) of the two components. Vibronic computations based on TD-DFT potential energy surfaces fully confirm those results and provide deeper insights about the key factors playing a role in determining the overall result. The two emissive minima have different structural and electronic characteristics: on one hand, the locally excited (LE) minimum has a flat geometry and an electric dipole moment smaller than the ground state; on the other hand, the twisted-intramolecular-charge-transfer (TICT) minimum shows a rotation of the methylpyridinium moiety with respect to the rest of the structure, and has an electric dipole moment significantly larger than the ground state.

  9. An Analysis of the Torsion-Rotation-Vibration Rotational Spectrum of the Lowest In-Plane Bend and First Excited Torsional State of the C(3V) Internal Rotor C2H5CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2000-01-01

    C2H5CN (Propionitrile or ethyl cyanide) is a well known interstellar species abundantly observed in hot cores during the onset of star formation. The onset of star formation generally results in elevated temperature, which thermally populates may low lying vibrational states such as the 206/cm in-plane bend and the 212/cm first excited torsional state in C2H5CN. Unfortunately, these two states are strongly coupled through a complex series of torsion-vibration-rotation interactions, which dominate the spectrum. In order to understand the details of these interactions and develop models capable of predicting unmeasured transitions for astronomical observations in C2H5CN and similar molecules, several thousand rotational transitions in the lowest excited in-plane bend and first excited torsional state have been recorded, assigned and analyzed. The analysis reveals very strong a- and b-type Coriolis interactions and a number of other smaller interactions and has a number of important implications for other C3V torsion-rotation-vibration systems. The relative importance and the physical origins of the coupling among the rotational, vibrational and torsional motions will be presented along with a full spectroscopic analysis and supporting astronomical observations.

  10. A high-power tunable Raman fiber ring laser for the investigation of singlet oxygen production from direct laser excitation around 1270 nm.

    PubMed

    Anquez, Francois; Courtade, Emmanuel; Sivéry, Aude; Suret, Pierre; Randoux, Stéphane

    2010-10-25

    We report on the development of a tunable Raman fiber ring laser especially designed for the investigation of the 3Σ(-)(g) →1 Δg transition of molecular oxygen. Singlet oxygen (1Δg) is a reactive species of importance in the fields of biology, photochemistry, and phototherapy. Tunability of the Raman fiber ring laser is achieved without the use of an intracavity tunable bandpass filter and the laser thus achieves a slope efficiency only obtained up to now in Perot-Fabry cavities. A measurement of the action spectrum of a singlet oxygen trap is made in air-saturated ethanol and acetone to demonstrate the practical application of the tunable Raman fiber ring laser for the investigation of the 3Σ(-)(g) →1 Δg transition of molecular oxygen.

  11. Communication: Direct evidence for sequential dissociation of gas-phase Fe(CO)5 via a singlet pathway upon excitation at 266 nm.

    PubMed

    Wernet, Ph; Leitner, T; Josefsson, I; Mazza, T; Miedema, P S; Schröder, H; Beye, M; Kunnus, K; Schreck, S; Radcliffe, P; Düsterer, S; Meyer, M; Odelius, M; Föhlisch, A

    2017-06-07

    We prove the hitherto hypothesized sequential dissociation of Fe(CO)5 in the gas phase upon photoexcitation at 266 nm via a singlet pathway with time-resolved valence and core-level photoelectron spectroscopy with an x-ray free-electron laser. Valence photoelectron spectra are used to identify free CO molecules and to determine the time constants of stepwise dissociation to Fe(CO)4 within the temporal resolution of the experiment and further to Fe(CO)3 within 3 ps. Fe 3p core-level photoelectron spectra directly reflect the singlet spin state of the Fe center in Fe(CO)5, Fe(CO)4, and Fe(CO)3 showing that the dissociation exclusively occurs along a singlet pathway without triplet-state contribution. Our results are important for assessing intra- and intermolecular relaxation processes in the photodissociation dynamics of the prototypical Fe(CO)5 complex in the gas phase and in solution, and they establish time-resolved core-level photoelectron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for determining the multiplicity of transition metals in photochemical reactions of coordination complexes.

  12. Communication: Direct evidence for sequential dissociation of gas-phase Fe(CO)5 via a singlet pathway upon excitation at 266 nm

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, T.; Mazza, T.; Schröder, H.; Kunnus, K.; Schreck, S.; Radcliffe, P.; Düsterer, S.; Meyer, M.; Föhlisch, A.

    2017-01-01

    We prove the hitherto hypothesized sequential dissociation of Fe(CO)5 in the gas phase upon photoexcitation at 266 nm via a singlet pathway with time-resolved valence and core-level photoelectron spectroscopy with an x-ray free-electron laser. Valence photoelectron spectra are used to identify free CO molecules and to determine the time constants of stepwise dissociation to Fe(CO)4 within the temporal resolution of the experiment and further to Fe(CO)3 within 3 ps. Fe 3p core-level photoelectron spectra directly reflect the singlet spin state of the Fe center in Fe(CO)5, Fe(CO)4, and Fe(CO)3 showing that the dissociation exclusively occurs along a singlet pathway without triplet-state contribution. Our results are important for assessing intra- and intermolecular relaxation processes in the photodissociation dynamics of the prototypical Fe(CO)5 complex in the gas phase and in solution, and they establish time-resolved core-level photoelectron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for determining the multiplicity of transition metals in photochemical reactions of coordination complexes. PMID:28595420

  13. Communication: Direct evidence for sequential dissociation of gas-phase Fe(CO)5 via a singlet pathway upon excitation at 266 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernet, Ph.; Leitner, T.; Josefsson, I.; Mazza, T.; Miedema, P. S.; Schröder, H.; Beye, M.; Kunnus, K.; Schreck, S.; Radcliffe, P.; Düsterer, S.; Meyer, M.; Odelius, M.; Föhlisch, A.

    2017-06-01

    We prove the hitherto hypothesized sequential dissociation of Fe(CO)5 in the gas phase upon photoexcitation at 266 nm via a singlet pathway with time-resolved valence and core-level photoelectron spectroscopy with an x-ray free-electron laser. Valence photoelectron spectra are used to identify free CO molecules and to determine the time constants of stepwise dissociation to Fe(CO)4 within the temporal resolution of the experiment and further to Fe(CO)3 within 3 ps. Fe 3p core-level photoelectron spectra directly reflect the singlet spin state of the Fe center in Fe(CO)5, Fe(CO)4, and Fe(CO)3 showing that the dissociation exclusively occurs along a singlet pathway without triplet-state contribution. Our results are important for assessing intra- and intermolecular relaxation processes in the photodissociation dynamics of the prototypical Fe(CO)5 complex in the gas phase and in solution, and they establish time-resolved core-level photoelectron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for determining the multiplicity of transition metals in photochemical reactions of coordination complexes.

  14. Theoretical and experimental studies on the mechanism of norbornadiene Pauson-Khand cycloadducts photorearrangement. Is there a pathway on the excited singlet potential energy surface?

    PubMed

    Olivella, Santiago; Solé, Albert; Lledó, Agustí; Ji, Yining; Verdaguer, Xavier; Suau, Rafael; Riera, Antoni

    2008-12-17

    The intermolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR), a carbonylative cycloaddition between an alkyne and an alkene, is a convenient method to prepare cyclopentenones. Using norbornadiene as alkene, a myriad of tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]deca-4,8-dien-3-ones 1 can be easily prepared. The mechanism of the photochemical rearrangement of these adducts 1 into tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]deca-3,8-dien-10-ones 2 has been studied. The ground state (S(0)) and the three lowest excited states ((3)(pi pi*), (1)(n pi*), and (3)(n pi*)) potential energy surfaces (PESs) concerning the prototypical rearrangement of 1a (the cycloadduct of the PK carbonylative cycloaddition of norbornadiene and ethyne) to 2a have been thoroughly explored by means of CASSCF and CASPT2 calculations. From this study, two possible nonadiabatic pathways for the photochemical rearrangement arise: one starting on the (3)(pi pi*) PES and the other on the (1)(n pi*) PES. Both involve initial C-C gamma-bond cleavage of the enone, which leads to the formation of a bis-allyl or an allyl-butadienyloxyl diradical, respectively, that then decays to the S(0) PES through a (3)(pi pi*)/S(0) surface crossing or a (1)(n pi*)/S(0) conical intersection, each one lying in the vicinity of the corresponding diradical minimum. Once on the S(0) PES, the ring-closure to 2a occurs with virtually no energy barrier. The viability of both pathways was experimentally studied by means of triplet sensitization and quenching studies on the photorearrangement of the substituted Pauson-Khand cycloadduct 1b (R = TMS, R' = H) to 2b. Using high concentrations of either piperylene as a triplet quencher, or benzophenone as a triplet sensitizer, the reaction rate significantly slowed down. A Stern-Volmer type plot of product 2b concentration vs triplet quencher concentration showed an excellent linear correlation, thus indicating that only one excited state is involved in the photorearrangement. We conclude that, though there is a nonadiabatic pathway

  15. The transition from the open minimum to the ring minimum on the ground state and on the lowest excited state of like symmetry in ozone: A configuration interaction study

    DOE PAGES

    Theis, Daniel; Ivanic, Joseph; Windus, Theresa L.; ...

    2016-03-10

    The metastable ring structure of the ozone 11A1 ground state, which theoretical calculations have shown to exist, has so far eluded experimental detection. An accurate prediction for the energy difference between this isomer and the lower open structure is therefore of interest, as is a prediction for the isomerization barrier between them, which results from interactions between the lowest two 1A1 states. In the present work, valence correlated energies of the 11A1 state and the 21A1 state were calculated at the 11A1 open minimum, the 11A1 ring minimum, the transition state between these two minima, the minimum of the 21A1more » state, and the conical intersection between the two states. The geometries were determined at the full-valence multi-configuration self-consistent-field level. Configuration interaction (CI) expansions up to quadruple excitations were calculated with triple-zeta atomic basis sets. The CI expansions based on eight different reference configuration spaces were explored. To obtain some of the quadruple excitation energies, the method of CorrelationEnergy Extrapolation by Intrinsic Scaling was generalized to the simultaneous extrapolation for two states. This extrapolation method was shown to be very accurate. On the other hand, none of the CI expansions were found to have converged to millihartree (mh) accuracy at the quadruple excitation level. The data suggest that convergence to mh accuracy is probably attained at the sextuple excitation level. On the 11A1 state, the present calculations yield the estimates of (ring minimum—open minimum) ~45–50 mh and (transition state—open minimum) ~85–90 mh. For the (21A1–1A1) excitation energy, the estimate of ~130–170 mh is found at the open minimum and 270–310 mh at the ring minimum. At the transition state, the difference (21A1–1A1) is found to be between 1 and 10 mh. The geometry of the transition state on the 11A1 surface and that of the minimum on the 21A1 surface nearly coincide

  16. The transition from the open minimum to the ring minimum on the ground state and on the lowest excited state of like symmetry in ozone: A configuration interaction study.

    PubMed

    Theis, Daniel; Ivanic, Joseph; Windus, Theresa L; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2016-03-14

    The metastable ring structure of the ozone 1(1)A1 ground state, which theoretical calculations have shown to exist, has so far eluded experimental detection. An accurate prediction for the energy difference between this isomer and the lower open structure is therefore of interest, as is a prediction for the isomerization barrier between them, which results from interactions between the lowest two (1)A1 states. In the present work, valence correlated energies of the 1(1)A1 state and the 2(1)A1 state were calculated at the 1(1)A1 open minimum, the 1(1)A1 ring minimum, the transition state between these two minima, the minimum of the 2(1)A1 state, and the conical intersection between the two states. The geometries were determined at the full-valence multi-configuration self-consistent-field level. Configuration interaction (CI) expansions up to quadruple excitations were calculated with triple-zeta atomic basis sets. The CI expansions based on eight different reference configuration spaces were explored. To obtain some of the quadruple excitation energies, the method of Correlation Energy Extrapolation by Intrinsic Scaling was generalized to the simultaneous extrapolation for two states. This extrapolation method was shown to be very accurate. On the other hand, none of the CI expansions were found to have converged to millihartree (mh) accuracy at the quadruple excitation level. The data suggest that convergence to mh accuracy is probably attained at the sextuple excitation level. On the 1(1)A1 state, the present calculations yield the estimates of (ring minimum-open minimum) ∼45-50 mh and (transition state-open minimum) ∼85-90 mh. For the (2(1)A1-(1)A1) excitation energy, the estimate of ∼130-170 mh is found at the open minimum and 270-310 mh at the ring minimum. At the transition state, the difference (2(1)A1-(1)A1) is found to be between 1 and 10 mh. The geometry of the transition state on the 1(1)A1 surface and that of the minimum on the 2(1)A1 surface

  17. Singlet oxygen in photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Moan, Johan; Juzenas, Petras

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen is a ubiquitous element and a vitally important substance for life on the Earth, and especially for human life. Living organisms need oxygen for most, if not all, of their cellular functions. On the other hand, oxygen can produce metabolites that are toxic and potentially lethal to the same cells. Being reactive and chemically unstable reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the most important metabolites that initiate reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions under physiological conditions. Oxygen in its excited singlet state (1O2) is probably the most important intermediate in such reactions. Since the discovery of oxygen by Joseph Priestley in 1775 it has been recognized that oxygen can be both beneficial and harmful to life.

  18. Triplet-singlet conversion in ultracold Cs{sub 2} and production of ground-state molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bouloufa, Nadia; Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier; Pichler, Marin

    2011-02-15

    We propose a process to convert ultracold metastable Cs{sub 2} molecules in their lowest triplet state into (singlet) ground-state molecules in their lowest vibrational levels. Molecules are first pumped into an excited triplet state, and the triplet-singlet conversion is facilitated by a two-step spontaneous decay through the coupled A {sup 1{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}-b {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} states. Using spectroscopic data and accurate quantum chemistry calculations for Cs{sub 2} potential curves and transition dipole moments, we show that this process competes favorably with the single-photon decay back to the lowest triplet state. In addition, we demonstrate that this conversion process represents a loss channel for vibrational cooling of metastable triplet molecules, preventing an efficient optical pumping cycle down to low vibrational levels.

  19. Singlet molecular oxygen generated by biological hydroperoxides.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Sayuri; Martinez, Glaucia R; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-10-05

    The chemistry behind the phenomenon of ultra-weak photon emission has been subject of considerable interest for decades. Great progress has been made on the understanding of the chemical generation of electronically excited states that are involved in these processes. Proposed mechanisms implicated the production of excited carbonyl species and singlet molecular oxygen in the mechanism of generation of chemiluminescence in biological system. In particular, attention has been focused on the potential generation of singlet molecular oxygen in the recombination reaction of peroxyl radicals by the Russell mechanism. In the last ten years, our group has demonstrated the generation of singlet molecular oxygen from reactions involving the decomposition of biologically relevant hydroperoxides, especially from lipid hydroperoxides in the presence of metal ions, peroxynitrite, HOCl and cytochrome c. In this review we will discuss details on the chemical aspects related to the mechanism of singlet molecular oxygen generation from different biological hydroperoxides.

  20. Bis-cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes as efficient singlet oxygen sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruomei; Ho, David G; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias; Murphy, Drew; Djurovich, Peter I; Thompson, Mark E

    2002-12-18

    We report the singlet oxygen sensitization properties of a series of bis-cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (i.e., (bt)2Ir(acac), (bsn)2Ir(acac), and (pq)2Ir(acac); bt = 2-phenylbenzothiazole, bsn = 2-(1-naphthyl)benzothiazole, pq = 2-phenylquinoline, and acac = acetylacetonate). Complexes with acetylacetonate ancillary ligands give singlet oxygen quantum yields near unity (PhiDelta = (0.7-1.0) +/- 0.1), whether exciting the ligand-based state or the lowest energy excited state (MLCT + 3LC). The singlet oxygen quenching rates for these beta-diketonate complexes were found to be small [(5 +/- 2) x 105 to (6 +/- 0.2) x 106 M-1 s-1], roughly 3 orders of magnitude slower than the corresponding phosphorescence quenching rate. Similar complexes were prepared with glycine or pyridine tethered to the Ir(III) center (i.e., (bsn)2Ir(gly) and (bt)2Ir(py)Cl; gly = glycine and py = pyridine). The glycine and pyridine derivatives give high singlet oxygen yields (PhiDelta = (0.7-1.0) +/- 0.1).

  1. Adsorbate-induced absorption redshift in an organic-inorganic cluster conjugate: Electronic effects of surfactants and organic adsorbates on the lowest excited states of a methanethiol-CdSe conjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Christopher; Chung, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Sungyul; Weiss, Shimon; Neuhauser, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Bioconjugated CdSe quantum dots are promising reagents for bioimaging applications. Experimentally, the binding of a short peptide has been found to redshift the optical absorption of nanoclusters [J. Tsay et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1669 (2005)]. This study examines this issue by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent-DFT calculations to study the ground state and low-lying excited states of (CdSe)6[SCH3]-, a transition metal complex built by binding methanethiolate to a CdSe molecular cluster. Natural bond orbital results show that the redshift is caused by ligand-inorganic cluster orbital interaction. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of (CdSe)6 is dominated by selenium 4p orbitals; in contrast, the HOMO of (CdSe)6[SCH3]- is dominated by sulfur 3p orbitals. This difference shows that [SCH3]- binding effectively introduces filled sulfur orbitals above the selenium 4p orbitals of (CdSe)6. The resulting smaller HOMO-LUMO gap of (CdSe)6[SCH3]- indeed leads to redshifts in its excitation energies compared to (CdSe)6. In contrast, binding of multiple NH3 destabilizes cadmium 5p orbitals, which contribute significantly to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of (CdSe)6, while leaving the selenium 4p orbitals near the HOMO relatively unaffected. This has the effect of widening the HOMO-LUMO gap of (CdSe)6ṡ6NH3 compared to (CdSe)6. As expected, the excitation energies of the passivated (CdSe)6ṡ6NH3 are also blueshifted compared to (CdSe)6. As far as NH3 is a faithful representation of a surfactant, the results clearly illustrate the differences between the electronic effects of an alkylthiolate versus those of surfactant molecules. Surface passivation of (CdSe)6[SCH3]- is then simulated by coating it with multiple NH3 molecules. The results suggest that the [SCH3]- adsorption induces a redshift in the excitation energies in a surfactant environment.

  2. Adsorbate-induced absorption redshift in an organic-inorganic cluster conjugate: Electronic effects of surfactants and organic adsorbates on the lowest excited states of a methanethiol-CdSe conjugate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Christopher; Chung, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Sungyul; Weiss, Shimon; Neuhauser, Daniel

    2009-11-07

    Bioconjugated CdSe quantum dots are promising reagents for bioimaging applications. Experimentally, the binding of a short peptide has been found to redshift the optical absorption of nanoclusters [J. Tsay et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1669 (2005)]. This study examines this issue by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent-DFT calculations to study the ground state and low-lying excited states of (CdSe)(6)[SCH(3)](-), a transition metal complex built by binding methanethiolate to a CdSe molecular cluster. Natural bond orbital results show that the redshift is caused by ligand-inorganic cluster orbital interaction. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of (CdSe)(6) is dominated by selenium 4p orbitals; in contrast, the HOMO of (CdSe)(6)[SCH(3)](-) is dominated by sulfur 3p orbitals. This difference shows that [SCH(3)](-) binding effectively introduces filled sulfur orbitals above the selenium 4p orbitals of (CdSe)(6). The resulting smaller HOMO-LUMO gap of (CdSe)(6)[SCH(3)](-) indeed leads to redshifts in its excitation energies compared to (CdSe)(6). In contrast, binding of multiple NH(3) destabilizes cadmium 5p orbitals, which contribute significantly to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of (CdSe)(6), while leaving the selenium 4p orbitals near the HOMO relatively unaffected. This has the effect of widening the HOMO-LUMO gap of (CdSe)(6)6NH(3) compared to (CdSe)(6). As expected, the excitation energies of the passivated (CdSe)(6)6NH(3) are also blueshifted compared to (CdSe)(6). As far as NH(3) is a faithful representation of a surfactant, the results clearly illustrate the differences between the electronic effects of an alkylthiolate versus those of surfactant molecules. Surface passivation of (CdSe)(6)[SCH(3)](-) is then simulated by coating it with multiple NH(3) molecules. The results suggest that the [SCH(3)](-) adsorption induces a redshift in the excitation energies in a surfactant environment.

  3. The transition from the open minimum to the ring minimum on the ground state and on the lowest excited state of like symmetry in ozone: A configuration interaction study

    SciTech Connect

    Theis, Daniel; Ivanic, Joseph; Windus, Theresa L.; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2016-03-10

    The metastable ring structure of the ozone 11A1 ground state, which theoretical calculations have shown to exist, has so far eluded experimental detection. An accurate prediction for the energy difference between this isomer and the lower open structure is therefore of interest, as is a prediction for the isomerization barrier between them, which results from interactions between the lowest two 1A1 states. In the present work, valence correlated energies of the 11A1 state and the 21A1 state were calculated at the 11A1 open minimum, the 11A1 ring minimum, the transition state between these two minima, the minimum of the 21A1 state, and the conical intersection between the two states. The geometries were determined at the full-valence multi-configuration self-consistent-field level. Configuration interaction (CI) expansions up to quadruple excitations were calculated with triple-zeta atomic basis sets. The CI expansions based on eight different reference configuration spaces were explored. To obtain some of the quadruple excitation energies, the method of CorrelationEnergy Extrapolation by Intrinsic Scaling was generalized to the simultaneous extrapolation for two states. This extrapolation method was shown to be very accurate. On the other hand, none of the CI expansions were found to have converged to millihartree (mh) accuracy at the quadruple excitation level. The data suggest that convergence to mh accuracy is probably attained at the sextuple excitation level. On the 11A1 state, the present calculations yield the estimates of (ring minimum—open minimum) ~45–50 mh and (transition state—open minimum) ~85–90 mh. For the (21A11A1) excitation energy, the estimate of ~130–170 mh is found at the open minimum and 270–310 mh at the ring minimum. At the

  4. Singlet excited-state behavior of uracil and thymine in aqueous solution: a combined experimental and computational study of 11 uracil derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Bányász, Akos; Lazzarotto, Elodie; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J; Barone, Vincenzo; Improta, Roberto

    2006-01-18

    The excited-state properties of uracil, thymine, and nine other derivatives of uracil have been studied by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy. The excited-state lifetimes were measured using femtosecond fluorescence upconversion in the UV. The absorption and emission spectra of five representative compounds have been computed at the TD-DFT level, using the PBE0 exchange-correlation functional for ground- and excited-state geometry optimization and the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to simulate the aqueous solution. The calculated spectra are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Experiments show that the excited-state lifetimes of all the compounds examined are dominated by an ultrafast (<100 fs) component. Only 5-substituted compounds show more complex behavior than uracil, exhibiting longer excited-state lifetimes and biexponential fluorescence decays. The S(0)/S(1) conical intersection, located at CASSCF (8/8) level, is indeed characterized by pyramidalization and out of plane motion of the substituents on the C5 atom. A thorough analysis of the excited-state Potential Energy Surfaces, performed at the PCM/TD-DFT(PBE0) level in aqueous solution, shows that the energy barrier separating the local S(1) minimum from the conical intersection increases going from uracil through thymine to 5-fluorouracil, in agreement with the ordering of the experimental excited-state lifetime.

  5. Singlet oxygen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ankush; Ferretti, Ursula; Sedlářová, Michaela; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, singlet oxygen formation by lipid peroxidation induced by heat stress (40 °C) was studied in vivo in unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Primary and secondary oxidation products of lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, were generated under heat stress as detected using swallow-tailed perylene derivative fluorescence monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was initiated by enzymatic reaction as inhibition of lipoxygenase by catechol and caffeic acid prevented hydroperoxide formation. Ultra-weak photon emission showed formation of electronically excited species such as triplet excited carbonyl, which, upon transfer of excitation energy, leads to the formation of either singlet excited chlorophyll or singlet oxygen. Alternatively, singlet oxygen is formed by direct decomposition of hydroperoxide via Russell mechanisms. Formation of singlet oxygen was evidenced by the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy and the imaging of green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Suppression of singlet oxygen formation by lipoxygenase inhibitors indicates that singlet oxygen may be formed via enzymatic lipid peroxidation initiated by lipoxygenase. PMID:26831215

  6. Estimation of the ground and the first excited singlet-state dipole moments of 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinone dyes by the solvatochromic method.

    PubMed

    Siddlingeshwar, B; Hanagodimath, S M

    2010-04-01

    The both, ground-state (mu(g)) and the excited-state (mu(e)) dipole moments of three 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinones, namely 1,4-diaminoanthracene-9,10-dione (1,4-DAAQ), 1-amino-4-hydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (1,4-AHAQ), and 1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (1,4-DHAQ) were estimated in binary solvent mixtures (methylcyclohexane-ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate-acetonitrile). The dipole moments (mu(g) and mu(e)) were estimated from Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae, and Suppan equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent's relative permittivity and refractive index. The ground-state dipole moments were also calculated theoretically by Gaussian 03 software using B3LYP/6-31 G* level of theory. Further, the change in dipole moment values Deltamu were also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with the molecular-microscopic empirical solvent polarity parameter (E(T)(N)). The excited-state dipole moments observed are larger than their ground-state counterparts, indicating a substantial redistribution of the pi-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the molecules investigated.

  7. Estimation of the ground and the first excited singlet-state dipole moments of 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinone dyes by the solvatochromic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddlingeshwar, B.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    The both, ground-state ( μg) and the excited-state ( μe) dipole moments of three 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinones, namely 1,4-diaminoanthracene-9,10-dione (1,4-DAAQ), 1-amino-4-hydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (1,4-AHAQ), and 1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (1,4-DHAQ) were estimated in binary solvent mixtures (methylcyclohexane-ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate-acetonitrile). The dipole moments ( μg and μe) were estimated from Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae, and Suppan equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent's relative permittivity and refractive index. The ground-state dipole moments were also calculated theoretically by Gaussian 03 software using B3LYP/6-31 G* level of theory. Further, the change in dipole moment values Δ μ were also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with the molecular-microscopic empirical solvent polarity parameter (ETN). The excited-state dipole moments observed are larger than their ground-state counterparts, indicating a substantial redistribution of the π-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the molecules investigated.

  8. Singlet fission of hot excitons in π-conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yaxin; Sheng, Chuanxiang; Vardeny, Z Valy

    2015-06-28

    We used steady-state photoinduced absorption (PA), excitation dependence (EXPA(ω)) spectrum of the triplet exciton PA band, and its magneto-PA (MPA(B)) response to investigate singlet fission (SF) of hot excitons into two separated triplet excitons, in two luminescent and non-luminescent π-conjugated polymers. From the high energy step in the triplet EXPA(ω) spectrum of the luminescent polymer poly(dioctyloxy)phenylenevinylene (DOO-PPV) films, we identified a hot-exciton SF (HE-SF) process having threshold energy at E≈2E(T) (=2.8 eV, where ET is the energy of the lowest lying triplet exciton), which is about 0.8 eV above the lowest singlet exciton energy. The HE-SF process was confirmed by the triplet MPA(B) response for excitation at E>2E(T), which shows typical SF response. This process is missing in DOO-PPV solution, showing that it is predominantly interchain in nature. By contrast, the triplet EXPA(ω) spectrum in the non-luminescent polymer polydiacetylene (PDA) is flat with an onset at E=E(g) (≈2.25 eV). From this, we infer that intrachain SF that involves a triplet-triplet pair state, also known as the 'dark' 2A(g) exciton, dominates the triplet photogeneration in PDA polymer as E(g)>2E(T). The intrachain SF process was also identified from the MPA(B) response of the triplet PA band in PDA. Our work shows that the SF process in π-conjugated polymers is a much more general process than thought previously.

  9. Is Nitrate Anion Photodissociation Mediated by Singlet-Triplet Absorption?

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Slavíček, Petr

    2014-06-05

    Photolysis of the nitrate anion is involved in the oxidation processes in the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and stratosphere. While it is known that the nitrate photolysis in the long-wavelength region proceeds with a very low quantum yield, the mechanism of the photodissociation remains elusive. Here, we present the quantitative modeling of singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet absorption spectra in the atmospherically relevant region around 300 nm, and we argue that a spin-forbidden transition between the singlet ground state and the first triplet state contributes non-negligibly to the nitrate anion photolysis. We further propose that the nitrate anion excited into the first singlet excited state relaxes nonradiatively into its ground state. The full understanding of the nitrate anion photolysis can improve modeling of the asymmetric solvation in the atmospheric processes, e.g., photolysis on the surfaces of ice or snow.

  10. Trapping on demand: External regulation of excitation energy transfer in a photoswitchable smart matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Pärs, M.; Weller, T.; Thelakkat, M.; Köhler, J.

    2014-01-01

    A thin film of polystyrene has been doped with small amounts of dithienylcyclopentene (DCP) based molecular switches and perylene bisimide (PBI) chromophores to obtain a photoswitchable smart matrix. The photochromic DCP can be converted by light between two bistable conformations and thereby changes the energetic position of its lowest excited singlet state. We exploit this feature to regulate the transfer of excitation energy between PBI and DCP as a function of the externally controllable illumination conditions in such a blend.

  11. On the Electronically Excited States of Uracil

    SciTech Connect

    Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Kowalski, Karol; Fan, Peng-Dong; Valiev, Marat; Matsika, Spiridoula; Krylov, Anna

    2008-10-09

    Vertical excitation energies in uracil in the gas phase and in water solution are investigated by the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster and multi-reference configuration interaction methods. Basis set effects are found to be important for converged results. The analysis of electronic wave functions reveals that the lowest singlet states are predominantly of a singly excited character and are therefore well described by single-reference equation-of-motion methods augmented by a perturbative triples correction to account for dynamical correlation. Our best estimates for the vertical excitation energies for the lowest singlet n and are 5.0±0.1 eV and 5.3±0.1 eV, respectively. The solvent effects for these states are estimated to be +0.5 eV and ±0.1 eV, respectively. We attribute the difference between the computed vertical excitations and the maximum of the experimental absorption to strong vibronic interaction between the lowest A00 and A0 states leading to intensity borrowing by the forbidden transition.

  12. Generation of singlet oxygen on the surface of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. M.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Burchinov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    Generation of singlet oxygen on the surface of metal oxides is studied. It is shown that, under conditions of heterogeneous photo-catalysis, along with the conventional mechanism of singlet oxygen formation due to the formation of electron-hole pairs in the oxide structure, there is an additional and more efficient mechanism involving direct optical excitation of molecular oxygen adsorbed on the oxide surface. The excited adsorbate molecule then interacts with the surface or with other adsorbate molecules. It is shown that, with respect to singlet oxygen generation, yttrium oxide is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than other oxides, including titanium dioxide.

  13. Four-electron model for singlet and triplet excitation energy transfers with inclusion of coherence memory, inelastic tunneling and nuclear quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Ebina, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-08-01

    A computational scheme to describe the coherent dynamics of excitation energy transfer (EET) in molecular systems is proposed on the basis of generalized master equations with memory kernels. This formalism takes into account those physical effects in electron-bath coupling system such as the spin symmetry of excitons, the inelastic electron tunneling and the quantum features of nuclear motions, thus providing a theoretical framework to perform an ab initio description of EET through molecular simulations for evaluating the spectral density and the temporal correlation function of electronic coupling. Some test calculations have then been carried out to investigate the dependence of exciton population dynamics on coherence memory, inelastic tunneling correlation time, magnitude of electronic coupling, quantum correction to temporal correlation function, reorganization energy and energy gap.

  14. Excited State N-H Tautomer Selectivity in the Singlet Energy Transfer of a Zinc(II)-Porphyrin-Truxene-Corrole Assembly.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adam; Xu, Hai-Jun; Karsenti, Paul-Ludovic; Gros, Claude P; Harvey, Pierre D

    2017-01-27

    An original corrole-containing polyad for S1 energy transfer, in which one zinc(II)-porphyrin donor is linked to two free-base corrole acceptors by a truxene linker, is reported. This polyad exhibits a rapid zinc(II)-porphyrin*→free-base corrole transfer (4.83×10(10)  s(-1) ; 298 K), even faster than the tautomerization in the excited state processes taking advantage of the good electronic communication provided by the truxene bridge. Importantly, the energy transfer process shows approximately 3-fold selectivity for one corrole N-H tautomer over the other even at low temperature (77 K). This selectivity is due to the difference in the J-integral being effective in both the Förster and Dexter mechanisms. The data are rationalized by DFT computations.

  15. Singlet oxygen potentiates thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Stief, Thomas W

    2007-07-01

    Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) participate in physiologic thrombolysis. PMN produce large amounts of urokinase (u-PA) and oxidants of the hypochlorite/chloramine-type that generate nonradical excited singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). The u-PA/(1)O(2)-mediated thrombolysis was imitated in vitro. One hundred microliters microclots of normal human plasma were oxidized with 25 microL 0 to 5.0 micromoles of chloramine-T in physiol. NaCl in the absence or presence of 100 microL 6% bovine serum albumin or 100 microL normal plasma. Twenty-five microliters 0 to 167 IU/mL (related to 150 microL added supernatant) u-PA or 0 to 2.08 microg/mL t-PA were added. The absorbance at 405 nm was determined after 0 to 27 hours (37 degrees C). The specific clot turbidity was calculated, subtracting the 100% lysis absorbance from the respective measured absorbance. The chloramine-effective dose 50% (ED(50)) after 27 hours was determined in the presence of 2.6 IU/mL u-PA. The plasminogen activator-ED(25) was determined after 2 hours (37 degrees C), and the ET(25); i.e., the time needed to lyse a microclot by 25%, was determined for each respective clot-oxidation. The ED(25) of u-PA depends on the oxidation of the microclots: 1.25 micromoles chloramine/100 microL clot enhances thrombolysis approximately 20-fold; here, 25% of clot lysis is achieved within 50 minutes (using approximately 20 IU/mL u-PA), whereas approximately 5 hours are needed to lyse an unoxidized microclot by 25%. The present global assay technique imitates the u-PA/(1)O(2) aspects of physiologic thrombolysis by PMN.

  16. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  17. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of the lowest triplet state of thymine and thymidine

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Patrick M.; Middleton, Chris T.; Mertel, Kristin I.

    2008-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of the lowest energy triplet states of thymine and its 2’-deoxyribonucleoside, thymidine, are reported for the first time. Time-resolved infrared (TRIR) difference spectra were recorded over seven decades of time from 300 fs – 3 µs using femtosecond and nanosecond pump-probe techniques. The carbonyl stretch bands in the triplet state are seen at 1603 and ~1700 cm−1 in room-temperature acetonitrile-d3 solution. These bands and additional ones observed between 1300 and 1450 cm−1 are quenched by dissolved oxygen on a nanosecond time scale. Density-functional calculations accurately predict the difference spectrum between triplet and singlet IR absorption cross sections, confirming the peak assignments and elucidating the nature of the vibrational modes. In the triplet state, the C4=O carbonyl exhibits substantial single-bond character, explaining the large (~70 cm−1) red shift in this vibration, relative to the singlet ground state. Femtosecond TRIR measurements unambiguously demonstrate that the triplet state is fully formed within the first 10 ps after excitation, ruling out a relaxed 1nπ* state as the triplet precursor. PMID:19936322

  18. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of the lowest triplet state of thymine and thymidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Patrick M.; Middleton, Chris T.; Mertel, Kristin I.; Herbert, John M.; Kohler, Bern

    2008-05-01

    Vibrational spectra of the lowest energy triplet states of thymine and its 2'-deoxyribonucleoside, thymidine, are reported for the first time. Time-resolved infrared (TRIR) difference spectra were recorded over seven decades of time from 300 fs to 3 μs using femtosecond and nanosecond pump-probe techniques. The carbonyl stretch bands in the triplet state are seen at 1603 and ˜1700 cm -1 in room-temperature acetonitrile- d3 solution. These bands and additional ones observed between 1300 and 1450 cm -1 are quenched by dissolved oxygen on a nanosecond time scale. Density-functional calculations accurately predict the difference spectrum between triplet and singlet IR absorption cross sections, confirming the peak assignments and elucidating the nature of the vibrational modes. In the triplet state, the C4 dbnd O carbonyl exhibits substantial single-bond character, explaining the large (˜70 cm -1) red shift in this vibration, relative to the singlet ground state. Femtosecond TRIR measurements unambiguously demonstrate that the triplet state is fully formed within the first 10 ps after excitation, ruling out a relaxed 1nπ ∗ state as the triplet precursor.

  19. Biradical vs singlet oxygen photogeneration in suprofen–cholesterol systems

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Fabrizio; Bosca, Francisco; Morera, Isabel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cholesterol (Ch) is an important lipidic building block and a target for oxidative degradation, which can be induced via free radicals or singlet oxygen (1O2). Suprofen (SP) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that contains the 2-benzoylthiophene (BZT) chromophore and has a π,π* lowest triplet excited state. In the present work, dyads (S)- and (R)-SP-α-Ch (1 and 2), as well as (S)-SP-β-Ch (3) have been prepared from β- or α-Ch and SP to investigate the possible competition between photogeneration of biradicals and 1O2, the key mechanistic steps in Ch photooxidation. Steady-state irradiation of 1 and 2 was performed in dichloromethane, under nitrogen, through Pyrex, using a 400 W medium pressure mercury lamp. The spectral analysis of the separated fractions revealed formation of two photoproducts 4 and 5, respectively. By contrast, under the same conditions, 3 did not give rise to any isolable Ch-derived product. These results point to an intramolecular hydrogen abstraction in 1 and 2 from the C7 position of Ch and subsequent C–C coupling of the generated biradicals. Interestingly, 2 was significantly more photoreactive than 1 indicating a clear stereodifferentiation in the photochemical behavior. Transient absorption spectra obtained for 1–3 were very similar and matched that described for the SP triplet excited state (typical bands with maxima at ca. 350 nm and 600 nm). Direct kinetic analysis of the decay traces at 620 nm led to determination of triplet lifetimes that were ca. 4.1 μs for 1 and 2 and 5.8 μs for 3. From these data, the intramolecular quenching rate constants in 1 and 2 were determined as 0.78 × 105 s−1. The capability of dyads 1–3 to photosensitize the production of singlet oxygen was assessed by time-resolved near infrared emission studies in dichloromethane using perinaphthenone as standard. The quantum yields (ΦΔ) were 0.52 for 1 and 2 and 0.56 for 3. In conclusion, SP-α-Ch dyads are unique in the sense that they

  20. In vivo lactate editing with simultaneous detection of choline, creatine, NAA, and lipid singlets at 1.5 T using PRESS excitation with applications to the study of brain and head and neck tumors.

    PubMed

    Star-Lack, J; Spielman, D; Adalsteinsson, E; Kurhanewicz, J; Terris, D J; Vigneron, D B

    1998-08-01

    Two T2-independent J-difference lactate editing schemes for the PRESS magnetic resonance spectroscopy localization sequence are introduced. The techniques, which allow for simultaneous acquisition of the lactate doublet (1.3 ppm) and edited singlets upfield of and including choline (3.2 ppm), exploit the dependence of the in-phase intensity of the methyl doublet upon the time interval separating two inversion (BASING) pulses applied to its coupling partner after initial excitation. Editing method 1, which allows for echo times TE = n/J (n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . ), alters the BASING carrier frequency for each of two cycles so that, for one cycle, the quartet is inverted, whereas, for the other cycle, the quartet is unaffected. Method 2, which also provides water suppression, allows for editing for TE > 1/J by alternating, between cycles, the time interval separating the inversion pulses. Experimental results were obtained at 1.5 T using a Shinnar Le-Roux-designed maximum phase inversion pulse with a filter transition bandwidth of 55 Hz. Spectra were acquired from phantoms and in vivo from the human brain and neck. In a neck muscle study, the lipid suppression factor, achieved partly through the use of a novel phase regularization algorithm, was measured to be over 10(3). Spectra acquired from a primary brain and a metastatic neck tumor demonstrated the presence of lactate and choline signals consistent with abnormal spectral patterns. The advantages and limitations of the methods are analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and significance of the results is discussed.

  1. Ultrafast spectroscopy and computational study of the photochemistry of diphenylphosphoryl azide: direct spectroscopic observation of a singlet phosphorylnitrene.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shubham; Muthukrishnan, Sivaramakrishnan; Kubicki, Jacek; McCulla, Ryan D; Burdzinski, Gotard; Sliwa, Michel; Platz, Matthew S; Hadad, Christopher M

    2010-12-01

    The photochemistry of diphenylphosphoryl azide was studied by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, by chemical analysis of light-induced reaction products, and by RI-CC2/TZVP and TD-B3LYP/TZVP computational methods. Theoretical methods predicted two possible mechanisms for singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene formation from the photoexcited phosphoryl azide. (i) Energy transfer from the (π,π*) singlet excited state, localized on a phenyl ring, to the azide moiety, thereby leading to the formation of the singlet excited azide, which subsequently loses molecular nitrogen to form the singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene. (ii) Direct irradiation of the azide moiety to form an excited singlet state of the azide, which in turn loses molecular nitrogen to form the singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene. Two transient species were observed upon ultrafast photolysis (260 nm) of diphenylphosphoryl azide. The first transient absorption, centered at 430 nm (lifetime (τ) ∼ 28 ps), was assigned to a (π,π*) singlet S(1) excited state localized on a phenyl ring, and the second transient observed at 525 nm (τ ∼ 480 ps) was assigned to singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene. Experimental and computational results obtained from the study of diphenyl phosphoramidate, along with the results obtained with diphenylphosphoryl azide, supported the mechanism of energy transfer from the singlet excited phenyl ring to the azide moiety, followed by nitrogen extrusion to form the singlet phosphorylnitrene. Ultrafast time-resolved studies performed on diphenylphosphoryl azide with the singlet nitrene quencher, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, confirmed the spectroscopic assignment of singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene to the 525 nm absorption band.

  2. Excited state properties of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin in the gas phase and in solution. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, I; Trendafilova, N; Aquino, A; Lischka, H

    2005-12-29

    TDDFT/B3LYP and RI-CC2 calculations with different basis sets have been performed for vertical and adiabatic excitations and emission properties of the lowest singlet states for the neutral (enol and keto), protonated and deprotonated forms of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7H4MC) in the gas phase and in solution. The effect of 7H4MC-solvent (water) interactions on the lowest excited and fluorescence states were computed using the Polarizable Continuum Method (PCM), 7H4MC-water clusters and a combination of both approaches. The calculations revealed that in aqueous solution the pi pi* energy is the lowest one for excitation and fluorescence transitions of all forms of 7H4MC studied. The calculated excitation and fluorescence energies in aqueous solution are in good agreement with experiment. It was found that, depending on the polarity of the medium, the solvent shifts vary, leading to a change in the character of the lowest excitation and fluorescence transition. The dipole-moment and electron-density changes of the excited states relative to the ground state correlate with the solvation effect on the singlet excited states and on transition energies, respectively. The calculations show that, in contrast to the ground state, the keto form has a lower energy in the pi pi* state as compared to enol, demonstrating from this point of view the energetic possibility of proton transfer from the enol to the keto form in the excited state.

  3. Using a Spreadsheet to Solve the Schro¨dinger Equations for the Energies of the Ground Electronic State and the Two Lowest Excited States of H[subscript2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Yingbin; Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Buchanan, Jacob C.; Livingston, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We have designed an exercise suitable for a lab or project in an undergraduate physical chemistry course that creates a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to calculate the energy of the S[subscript 0] ground electronic state and the S[subscript 1] and T[subscript 1] excited states of H[subscript 2]. The spreadsheet calculations circumvent the…

  4. Using a Spreadsheet to Solve the Schro¨dinger Equations for the Energies of the Ground Electronic State and the Two Lowest Excited States of H[subscript2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Yingbin; Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Buchanan, Jacob C.; Livingston, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We have designed an exercise suitable for a lab or project in an undergraduate physical chemistry course that creates a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to calculate the energy of the S[subscript 0] ground electronic state and the S[subscript 1] and T[subscript 1] excited states of H[subscript 2]. The spreadsheet calculations circumvent the…

  5. Microscopic theory of singlet exciton fission. III. Crystalline pentacene

    SciTech Connect

    Berkelbach, Timothy C. Reichman, David R.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-08-21

    We extend our previous work on singlet exciton fission in isolated dimers to the case of crystalline materials, focusing on pentacene as a canonical and concrete example. We discuss the proper interpretation of the character of low-lying excited states of relevance to singlet fission. In particular, we consider a variety of metrics for measuring charge-transfer character, conclusively demonstrating significant charge-transfer character in the low-lying excited states. The impact of this electronic structure on the subsequent singlet fission dynamics is assessed by performing real-time master-equation calculations involving hundreds of quantum states. We make direct comparisons with experimental absorption spectra and singlet fission rates, finding good quantitative agreement in both cases, and we discuss the mechanistic distinctions that exist between small isolated aggregates and bulk systems.

  6. Singlet biradical{yields}singlet zwitterion optical transition in a twisted olefin

    SciTech Connect

    Piotrowiak, P.; Strati, G.; Smirnov, S.N.; Warman, J.M.; Schuddeboom, W.

    1996-09-18

    We report the first direct observation of the singlet biradical $YLD singlet zwitterion transition in a twisted olefin, biphenanthrenylidene. Biphenanthrenylidene (full name, bi-4H-cyclopenta[def]phenanthren-4-ylidene, abbreviated as BPH) is an analogue of tetraphenylethylene (TPE) and stilbene, both of which are the favorite models of photoisomerization reactions. The investigations have been focusing on the dynamics of the twisting motion of the double bond which leads to decoupling of the two halves of the olefin and results in the formation of the D{sub 2d} 90{degree}-twisted zwitterionic or biradical excited state. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The nature of singlet excitons in oligoacene molecular crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagata, H.; Norton, J.; Hontz, E.; Olivier, Y.; Beljonne, D.; Bredas, J. L.; Silbey, R. J.; Spano, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A theory for polarized absorption in crystalline oligoacenes is presented, which includes Frenkel exciton coupling, the coupling between Frenkel and charge-transfer (CT) excitons, and the coupling of all neutral and ionic excited states to the dominant ring-breathing vibrational mode. For tetracene, spectra calculated using all Frenkel couplings among the five lowest energy molecular singlet states predict a Davydov splitting (DS) of the lowest energy (0–0) vibronic band of only -32 cm-1, far smaller than the measured value of 631 cm-1 and of the wrong sign--a negative sign indicating that the polarizations of the lower and upper Davydov components are reversed from experiment. Inclusion of Frenkel-CT coupling dramatically improves the agreement with experiment, yielding a 0–0 DS of 601 cm-1 and a nearly quantitative reproduction of the relative spectral intensities of the 0–n vibronic components. Our analysis also shows that CT mixing increases with the size of the oligoacenes. We discuss the implications of these results on exciton dissociation and transport.

  8. The Lowest Triplet of Tetracyanoquinodimethane via UV-vis Absorption Spectroscopy with Br-Containing Solvents.

    PubMed

    Khvostenko, Olga G; Kinzyabulatov, Renat R; Khatymova, Laysan Z; Tseplin, Evgeniy E

    2017-10-05

    This study was undertaken to find the previously unknown lowest triplet of the isolated molecule of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), which is a widely used organic semiconductor. The problem is topical because the triplet excitation of this compound is involved in some processes which occur in electronic devices incorporating TCNQ and its derivatives, and information on the TCNQ triplet is needed for better understanding of these processes. The lowest triplet of TCNQ was obtained at 1.96 eV using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with Br-containing solvents. Production of the triplet band with sufficient intensity in the spectra was provided by the capacity of the Br atom to augment the triplet excitation and through using a 100 mm cuvette. The assignment of the corresponding spectral band to the triplet transition was made by observation that this band appeared only in the spectra recorded in Br-containing solvents but not in spectra recorded in other solvents. Additional support for the triplet assignment came from the overall UV-vis absorption spectra of TCNQ recorded in various solvents, using a 10 mm cuvette, in the 1.38-6.5 eV energy range. Singlet transitions of the neutral TCNQ(o) molecule and doublet transitions of the TCNQ(¯) negative ion were identified in these overall spectra and were assigned with TD B3LYP/6-31G calculations. Determination of the lowest triplet of TCNQ attained in this work may be useful for theoretical studies and practical applications of this important compound.

  9. The {ital T}{sub 1}({ital n}{pi}{asterisk}){l_arrow}{ital S}{sub 0} laser induced phosphorescence excitation spectrum of acetaldehyde in a supersonic free jet: Torsion and wagging potentials in the lowest triplet state

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Lim, E.C.; Munoz-Caro, C.; Nino, A.; Judge, R.H.; Moule, D.C.

    1996-08-01

    The laser induced {ital T}{sub 1}({ital n}{pi}{asterisk}){l_arrow}{ital S}{sub 0} phosphorescence excitation spectrum of jet-cooled acetaldehyde has been observed for the first time with a rotating slit nozzle excitation system. The vibronic origins were fitted to a set of levels that were obtained from a Hamiltonian that employed flexible torsion-wagging large amplitude coordinates. The potential surface extracted from the fitting procedure yielded barriers to torsion and inversion of 609.68 and 869.02 cm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Minima in the potential hypersurface at {theta}=61.7{degree} and {alpha}=42.2{degree} defined the equilibrium positions for the torsion and wagging coordinates. A comparison to the corresponding {ital S}{sub 1}-state parameters showed that the torsion barrier (in cm{sup {minus}1}) does not greatly change, {ital S}{sub 1}/{ital T}{sub 1}=710.8/609.7, whereas the barrier height for the wagging-inversion barrier increases dramatically, 574.4/869.0. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Theoretical Study of Tautomerization Reactions for the Ground and First Excited Electronic States of Adenine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, Latasha M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Geometrical structures and energetic properties for different tautomers of adenine are calculated in this study, using multi-configurational wave functions. Both the ground and the lowest singlet excited state potential energy surfaces are studied. Four tautomeric forms are considered, and their energetic order is found to be different on the ground and the excited state potential energy surfaces. Minimum energy reaction paths are obtained for hydrogen atom transfer (tautomerization) reactions in the ground and the lowest excited electronic states. It is found that the barrier heights and the shapes of the reaction paths are different for the ground and the excited electronic states, suggesting that the probability of such tautomerization reaction is higher on the excited state potential energy surface. This tautomerization process should become possible in the presence of water or other polar solvent molecules and should play an important role in the photochemistry of adenine.

  11. Configuration interaction study of the ground and excited states of TiO2 ring structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Whitten, Jerry L.

    2011-03-01

    Theoretical studies of the ground and lowest excited singlet and triplet states of a series of titanium dioxide ring structures, (TiO2)2n, n = 3-9, are reported. Calculations are based on many-electron configuration theory, where energies of states and geometrical structures are determined by variational energy minimization. The lowest energy excited states correspond to excitations from oxygen 2p levels to unoccupied 3d orbitals on titanium. For each ring system, two types of excited state solutions are investigated: those that maintain periodic symmetry for individual orbitals and solutions that allow the symmetry to be broken. The latter solutions which correspond to localized states or excitons are found to be significantly lower in energy than the symmetric solutions. We compare the vertical excitation energy of these well-defined geometrical structures with size effects reported in experimental studies.

  12. Singlet Oxygen Generation by Laser Irradiation of Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The formation of singlet oxygen by irradiation of gold nanoparticles in their plasmon resonance band with continuous or pulsed laser light has been investigated. Citrate-stabilized nanoparticles were found to facilitate the photogeneration of singlet oxygen, albeit with low quantum yield. The reaction caused by pulsed laser irradiation makes use of the equilibrated hot electrons that can reach temperatures of several thousand degrees during the laser pulse. Although less efficient, continuous irradiation, which acts via the short-lived directly excited primary “hot” electrons only, can produce enough singlet oxygen for photodynamic cancer therapy and has significant advantages for practical applications. However, careful design of the nanoparticles is needed, since even a moderately thick capping layer can completely inhibit singlet oxygen formation. Moreover, the efficiency of the process also depends on the nanoparticle size. PMID:27239247

  13. Ultrafast dynamics of the lowest-lying neutral states in carbon dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Travis W.; Champenois, Elio G.; Cryan, James P.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, we present a study of the ultrafast dissociation dynamics of the lowest-lying electronic excited states in CO2 by using ultraviolet (UV) and extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses from high-order harmonic generation. We observe two primary dissociation channels: a direct dissociation channel along the 1Πg electronically excited manifold, and a second channel which results from the mixing of electronic states. The direct dissociation channel is found to have a lifetime which is shorter than our experimental resolution, whereas the second channel has a significantly longer lifetime of nearly 200 fs. In this long-lived channel we observe a beating of the vibrational populationsmore » with a period of ~133 fs.« less

  14. Ultrafast dynamics of the lowest-lying neutral states in carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Travis W.; Champenois, Elio G.; Cryan, James P.; Shivaram, Niranjan; Yang, Chan-Shan; Belkacem, Ali

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the ultrafast dissociation dynamics of the lowest-lying electronic excited states in CO2 by using ultraviolet (UV) and extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses from high-order harmonic generation. We observe two primary dissociation channels: a direct dissociation channel along the Π1g electronically excited manifold, and a second channel which results from the mixing of electronic states. The direct dissociation channel is found to have a lifetime which is shorter than our experimental resolution, whereas the second channel has a significantly longer lifetime of nearly 200 fs. In this long-lived channel we observe a beating of the vibrational populations with a period of ˜133 fs.

  15. Structure of the photochemical reaction path populated via promotion of CF(2)I(2) into its first excited state.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z; Tarnovsky, Alexander N; Schapiro, Igor; Ryazantsev, Mikhail N; Olivucci, Massimo

    2009-10-08

    The photochemical reaction path following the promotion of CF(2)I(2) into its lowest-lying excited electronic singlet state has been modeled using ab initio multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations. It is found that a conical intersection drives the electronically excited CF(2)I(2)* species either to the CF(2)I + I radical pair or back to the starting CF(2)I(2) structure. The structures of the computed relaxation pathways explain the photoproduct selectivity previously observed in the gas phase. Furthermore, the results provide the basis for explaining the condensed-phase photochemistry of CF(2)I(2).

  16. Mechanism of singlet fission in thin films of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran.

    PubMed

    Schrauben, Joel N; Ryerson, Joseph L; Michl, Josef; Johnson, Justin C

    2014-05-21

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of singlet fission in thin films of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (1) we have performed ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy as a function of sample temperature and excitation fluence on polycrystalline thin films composed of two polymorphs. Our earlier investigations revealed that films enriched in a particular polymorph of 1 displayed near 200% efficiency for triplet formation at 77 K, while films composed primarily of a second polymorph had a very low triplet quantum yield. Present data confirm the triplet yield disparities in the two polymorphs and demonstrate the distinct fates of the initially prepared singlets in films of different structure. Singlet fission is inhibited in the more stable polymorph due to rapid excimer formation and trapping. The less stable polymorph undergoes highly efficient singlet fission with a dominant time constant of 10-30 ps and without strong thermal activation. Transient absorption measurements with varying excitation fluence indicate that singlet-singlet annihilation is a primary competitor of singlet fission at higher fluence and that fission from higher-lying states can also contribute to the triplet formation process. Measurements employing different excitation energies and sample temperatures reveal the role that trapping processes play in attenuating the triplet quantum yield to produce the complex temperature dependence of the singlet fission yield. The rate constants for singlet fission itself are essentially temperature independent.

  17. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran: a Model Chromophore for Singlet Fission

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Justin C.; Michl, Josef

    2017-09-11

    In this review we first provide an introductory description of the singlet fission phenomenon and then describe the ground and electronically excited states of the parent 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran chromophore (1) and about a dozen of its derivatives. A discussion of singlet fission in thin polycrystalline layers of these materials follows. The highest quantum yield of triplet formation by singlet fission, 200% at 80 K, is found in one of the two known crystal modification of the parent. In the other modification and in many derivatives, excimer formation competes successfully and triplet yields are low. A description of solution photophysics of covalentmore » dimers is described in the next section. Triplet yields are very low, but interesting phenomena are uncovered. One is an observation of a separated-charges (charge-transfer) intermediate in highly polar solvents. The other is an observation of excitation isomerism in both singlet and triplet states, where in one isomer the excitation is delocalized over both halves of the covalent dimer, whereas in the other it is localized on one of the halves. Finally, in the last section we present the operation of a simple device illustrating the use of triplets generated by singlet fission for charge separation.« less

  18. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran: a Model Chromophore for Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Michl, Josef

    2017-09-11

    In this review we first provide an introductory description of the singlet fission phenomenon and then describe the ground and electronically excited states of the parent 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran chromophore (1) and about a dozen of its derivatives. A discussion of singlet fission in thin polycrystalline layers of these materials follows. The highest quantum yield of triplet formation by singlet fission, 200% at 80 K, is found in one of the two known crystal modification of the parent. In the other modification and in many derivatives, excimer formation competes successfully and triplet yields are low. A description of solution photophysics of covalent dimers is described in the next section. Triplet yields are very low, but interesting phenomena are uncovered. One is an observation of a separated-charges (charge-transfer) intermediate in highly polar solvents. The other is an observation of excitation isomerism in both singlet and triplet states, where in one isomer the excitation is delocalized over both halves of the covalent dimer, whereas in the other it is localized on one of the halves. In the last section we present the operation of a simple device illustrating the use of triplets generated by singlet fission for charge separation.

  19. Singlet oxygen kinetics in a double microwave discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Lange, Matthew A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2004-09-01

    Chemical lasers offer the highest powers necessary for many weapons applications, but require significant logistical support in the delivery of specialized fuels to the battlefield. In the Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL), which is the weapon aboard the Airborne Laser (ABL), gaseous chlorine and liquid basic hydrogen peroxide are used to generate the singlet oxygen energy reservoir. The goal of the current multi-university research program is to demonstrate an oxygen-iodine laser with electrical discharge production of singlet oxygen. Typically, oxygen discharges are limited to about 15% yield for singlet oxygen. The electron excitation cross-sections as a function of E/N are well established. However, the kinetics for electron and singlet oxygen interactions is considerably more difficult to study. Optical diagnostics for O2(a, b), and O, have been applied to a double microwave discharge flow tube. By examining the difference in singlet oxygen kinetics between the two discharges in series, considerable information regarding the excited-state, excited-state interactions is obtained. Under certain discharge conditions, the O2(a) concentration significantly increases outside of the discharge, even after thermal effects are accounted.

  20. Photophysics of phenalenone: quantum-mechanical investigation of singlet-triplet intersystem crossing.

    PubMed

    Daza, Martha C; Doerr, Markus; Salzmann, Susanne; Marian, Christel M; Thiel, Walter

    2009-03-21

    We have examined the electronic and molecular structure of 1H-phenalen-1-one (phenalenone) in the electronic ground state and in the lowest excited states, as well as intersystem crossing. The electronic structure was calculated using a combination of density functional theory and multi-reference configuration interaction. Intersystem crossing rates were determined using Fermi's golden rule and taking direct and vibronic spin-orbit coupling into account. The required spin-orbit matrix elements were obtained applying a non-empirical spin-orbit mean-field approximation. Our calculated electronic energies are in good agreement with experimental data. We find the lowest excited singlet states to be of the npi* (S1) and pipi* (S2) type. Energetically accessible from S1 are two triplet states of the pipi* (T1) and npi* (T2) type, the latter being nearly degenerate to S1. This ordering of states is retained when the molecular structure in the electronically excited states is relaxed. We expect very efficient intersystem crossing between S1 and T1. Our calculated intersystem crossing rate is approximately 2 x 10(10) s(-1), which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 3.45 x 10(10) s(-1). Our estimated phosphorescence and fluorescence rates are many orders of magnitude smaller. Our results are in agreement with the experimentally observed behavior of phenalenone, including the high efficiency of 1O2 production.

  1. Nature of ground and electronic excited states of higher acenes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    Higher acenes have drawn much attention as promising organic semiconductors with versatile electronic properties. However, the nature of their ground state and electronic excited states is still not fully clear. Their unusual chemical reactivity and instability are the main obstacles for experimental studies, and the potentially prominent diradical character, which might require a multireference description in such large systems, hinders theoretical investigations. Here, we provide a detailed answer with the particle–particle random-phase approximation calculation. The 1Ag ground states of acenes up to decacene are on the closed-shell side of the diradical continuum, whereas the ground state of undecacene and dodecacene tilts more to the open-shell side with a growing polyradical character. The ground state of all acenes has covalent nature with respect to both short and long axes. The lowest triplet state 3B2u is always above the singlet ground state even though the energy gap could be vanishingly small in the polyacene limit. The bright singlet excited state 1B2u is a zwitterionic state to the short axis. The excited 1Ag state gradually switches from a double-excitation state to another zwitterionic state to the short axis, but always keeps its covalent nature to the long axis. An energy crossing between the 1B2u and excited 1Ag states happens between hexacene and heptacene. Further energetic consideration suggests that higher acenes are likely to undergo singlet fission with a low photovoltaic efficiency; however, the efficiency might be improved if a singlet fission into multiple triplets could be achieved. PMID:27528690

  2. Nature of ground and electronic excited states of higher acenes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Davidson, Ernest R; Yang, Weitao

    2016-08-30

    Higher acenes have drawn much attention as promising organic semiconductors with versatile electronic properties. However, the nature of their ground state and electronic excited states is still not fully clear. Their unusual chemical reactivity and instability are the main obstacles for experimental studies, and the potentially prominent diradical character, which might require a multireference description in such large systems, hinders theoretical investigations. Here, we provide a detailed answer with the particle-particle random-phase approximation calculation. The (1)Ag ground states of acenes up to decacene are on the closed-shell side of the diradical continuum, whereas the ground state of undecacene and dodecacene tilts more to the open-shell side with a growing polyradical character. The ground state of all acenes has covalent nature with respect to both short and long axes. The lowest triplet state (3)B2u is always above the singlet ground state even though the energy gap could be vanishingly small in the polyacene limit. The bright singlet excited state (1)B2u is a zwitterionic state to the short axis. The excited (1)Ag state gradually switches from a double-excitation state to another zwitterionic state to the short axis, but always keeps its covalent nature to the long axis. An energy crossing between the (1)B2u and excited (1)Ag states happens between hexacene and heptacene. Further energetic consideration suggests that higher acenes are likely to undergo singlet fission with a low photovoltaic efficiency; however, the efficiency might be improved if a singlet fission into multiple triplets could be achieved.

  3. UV-vis spectra of singlet state cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Time-dependent density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Dominikowska, Justyna Domagala, Malgorzata; Palusiak, Marcin

    2014-01-28

    A theoretical study of singlet state cations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is performed. Appropriate symmetry suitable for further calculations is chosen for each of the systems studied. The excitation states of such species are obtained by the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method. The computations are performed using both Pople and electronic response properties basis sets. The results obtained with the use of different basis sets are compared. The electronic transitions are described and the relationships for the lowest-lying transitions states of different species are found. The properties of in-plane and out-of-plane transitions are also delineated. The TD-DFT results are compared with the experimental data available.

  4. Role of the Dark 2Ag State in Donor-Acceptor Copolymers as a Pathway for Singlet Fission: A DMRG Study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiajun; Peng, Qian; Zhang, Xu; Yi, Yuanping; Shuai, Zhigang

    2017-05-18

    The mechanism of intramolecular singlet fission in donor-acceptor-type copolymers, especially the role of the dark 2Ag state, is not so clear. In this Letter, the electronic structure of the benzodithiophene (B)-thiophene-1,1-dioxide (TDO) copolymer is calculated by density matrix renormalization group theory with the Pariser-Parr-Pople model. We find that the dark 2Ag state is the lowest singlet excited state and is nearly degenerate with the 1Bu state. So, a fast internal conversion from 1Bu to 2Ag state is highly possible. The 2Ag state has a strong triplet pair character, localized on two neighboring acceptor units, which indicates that it is an intermediate state for the intramolecular singlet fission process. With the increase of the donor-acceptor push-pull strength in our model, this triplet pair character of the 2Ag state becomes more prominent, and meanwhile the binding energy of this coupled triplet pair state decreases, which favors the separation into two uncoupled triplet states. We propose a model in which the competition between the singlet fission process and the nonradiative decay process from the 2Ag state would determine the final quantum yield.

  5. Combined phosphorescence-holographic approach for singlet oxygen detection in biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Beltukova, D. M.; Petrov, N. V.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents a novel combined approach aimed to detect and monitor singlet oxygen molecules in biological specimens by means of the simultaneous recording and monitoring of their deactivation dynamics in the two complementary channels: radiative and nonradiative. The approach involves both the direct registration of phosphorescence at the wavelength of about 1270 nm caused by radiative relaxation of excited singlet oxygen molecules and holographic recording of thermal disturbances in the medium produced by their nonradiative relaxation. The data provides a complete set of information on singlet oxygen location and dynamics in the medium. The approach was validated in the case study of photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen in onion cell structures.

  6. Binding of oxygen with titanium dioxide on singlet potential energy surface: An ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanchikov, Georgii A.; Baklanov, Alexey V.

    2017-01-01

    Ab initio calculations have been carried out to investigate interaction of titanium dioxide TiO2 with oxygen O2 in ground triplet and excited singlet states. On a singlet potential energy surface (PES) formation of a stable compound of titanium peroxide TiO4 is revealed which should appear in reaction of TiO2 with singlet oxygen without activation barrier. This peroxide is lower in energy than the ground state of two individual molecules TiO2 + 3O2 by 34.6 kcal/mol. Location of conical intersection between triplet and singlet PESs of TiO2sbnd O2 is also investigated.

  7. The role of chromophore coupling in singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Nozik, Arthur J; Michl, Josef

    2013-06-18

    Certain organic materials can generate more than one electron-hole pair per absorbed photon, a property that could revolutionize the prospects for solar energy. This process, called singlet fission, is one possible "exciton multiplication" scheme that could be useful in a variety of photovoltaic device designs from dye-sensitized solar cells to solar cell bilayers to bulk heterojunctions. For such applications to be possible, however, singlet fission must occur with near perfect efficiency in compounds that also have other requisite properties such as strong visible light absorption and photostability. Many recent investigations of singlet fission have focused on crystalline polyacenes, which have been known for some time to undergo singlet fission. While these materials have promise, limitations in stability, cost, and performance may hinder practical application of polyacene solar cells, while their complex photophysics may limit our fundamental understanding of singlet fission in crystalline polyacenes. In this Account, we describe rationally designed singlet fission chromophores whose excited state dynamics should be fairly simple and whose coupling can be well controlled through the formation of covalent dimers, aggregates, or polycrystalline films. In principle, investigations of these chromophores should provide the clearest connection to theoretical concepts explaining how an excited state evolves from a singlet (S1) into two triplets (TT). Realizing the promise of efficient singlet fission rests with two tasks: (i) producing an ideal molecular energy level structure and (ii) inducing the correct type and strength of chromophore coupling. In this Account, we offer theoretical guidance for achieving (i) and consider more extensively recent results aimed at (ii). For (i), theoretical guidance suggests that, in addition to alternant hydrocarbons like tetracene and pentacene, biradicals (i.e., molecules with two independent radical centers) may also be used as

  8. Two-Photon Excitation of Conjugated Molecules in Solution: Spectroscopy and Excited-State Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elles, Christopher G.; Houk, Amanda L.; de Wergifosse, Marc; Krylov, Anna

    2017-06-01

    We examine the two-photon absorption (2PA) spectroscopy and ultrafast excited-state dynamics of several conjugated molecules in solution. By controlling the relative wavelength and polarization of the two photons, the 2PA measurements provide a more sensitive means of probing the electronic structure of a molecule compared with traditional linear absorption spectra. We compare experimental spectra of trans-stilbene, cis-stilbene, and phenanthrene in solution with the calculated spectra of the isolated molecules using EOM-EE-CCSD. The calculated spectra show good agreement with the low-energy region of the experimental spectra (below 6 eV) after suppressing transitions with strong Rydberg character and accounting for solvent and method-dependent shifts of the valence transitions. We also monitor the excited state dynamics following two-photon excitation to high-lying valence states of trans-stilbene up to 6.5 eV. The initially excited states rapidly relax to the lowest singlet excited state and then follow the same reaction path as observed following direct one-photon excitation to the lowest absorption band at 4.0 eV.

  9. Density Analysis of Intra- and Intermolecular Vibronic Couplings toward Bath Engineering for Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Ito, Soichi; Nagami, Takanori; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2015-12-17

    Vibronic coupling plays a crucial role in singlet fission whereby a singlet exciton splits into two triplet excitons. In order to reveal the physicochemical origin of the vibronic coupling associated with singlet fission as well as to clarify its relationship with chemical structure, we evaluate relevant vibronic couplings from the viewpoint of their spatial contributions described by vibronic coupling density. From the analysis using a model tetracene dimer, a typical singlet fission system, the frequency dependence of vibronic couplings in each electronic state is found to be significantly different from that of another depending on the nature of the electronic structure (intra/intermolecular excitation) and the related vibrational motion. These findings contribute not only to the fundamental understanding of the singlet fission mechanism from the viewpoint of vibronic couplings but also to opening a new path to designing highly efficient singlet fission materials through phonon-bath engineering.

  10. Gaugino mass without singlets

    SciTech Connect

    Giudice, Gian F.; Luty, Markus A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    1998-12-21

    In models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector, the gaugino masses in the observable sector have been believed to be extremely suppressed (below 1 keV), unless there is a gauge singlet in the hidden sector with specific couplings to the observable sector gauge multiplets. We point out that there is a pure supergravity contribution to gaugino masses at the quantum level arising from the superconformal anomaly. Our results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory and are related to the ''exact'' beta functions for soft terms. There is also an anomaly contribution to the A terms proportional to the beta function of the corresponding Yukawa coupling. The gaugino masses are proportional to the corresponding gauge beta functions, and so do not satisfy the usual GUT relations.

  11. Observation of Two Triplet-Pair Intermediates in Singlet Exciton Fission.

    PubMed

    Pensack, Ryan D; Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Tilley, Andrew J; Mazza, Samuel; Grieco, Christopher; Thorley, Karl J; Asbury, John B; Seferos, Dwight S; Anthony, John E; Scholes, Gregory D

    2016-07-07

    Singlet fission is an excitation multiplication process in molecular systems that can circumvent energy losses and significantly boost solar cell efficiencies; however, the nature of a critical intermediate that enables singlet fission and details of its evolution into multiple product excitations remain obscure. We resolve the initial sequence of events comprising the fission of a singlet exciton in solids of pentacene derivatives using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. We propose a three-step model of singlet fission that includes two triplet-pair intermediates and show how transient spectroscopy can distinguish initially interacting triplet pairs from those that are spatially separated and noninteracting. We find that the interconversion of these two triplet-pair intermediates is limited by the rate of triplet transfer. These results clearly highlight the classical kinetic model of singlet fission and expose subtle details that promise to aid in resolving problems associated with triplet extraction.

  12. Blue-light emission of Cu(I) complexes and singlet harvesting.

    PubMed

    Czerwieniec, Rafał; Yu, Jiangbo; Yersin, Hartmut

    2011-09-05

    Strongly luminescent neutral copper(I) complexes of the type Cu(pop)(NN), with pop = bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl)ether and NN = bis(pyrazol-1-yl)borohydrate (pz(2)BH(2)), tetrakis(pyrazol-1-yl)borate (pz(4)B), or bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-biphenyl-borate (pz(2)Bph(2)), are readily accessible in reactions of Cu(acetonitrile)(4)(+) with equimolar amounts of the pop and NN ligands at ambient temperature. All products were characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The compounds exhibit very strong blue/white luminescence with emission quantum yields of up to 90%. Investigations of spectroscopic properties and the emission decay behavior in the temperature range between 1.6 K and ambient temperature allow us to assign the emitting electronic states. Below 100 K, the emission decay times are in the order of many hundreds of microseconds. Therefore, it is concluded that the emission stems from the lowest triplet state. This state is assigned to a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state (3MLCT) involving Cu-3dand pop-π* orbitals. With temperature increase, the emission decay time is drastically reduced, e.g. to 13 μs [corrected] (Cu(pop)-(pz(2)Bph(2))), at ambient temperature. At this temperature, the complexes exhibit high emission quantum yields, as neat material or doped into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). This behavior is assigned to an efficient thermal population of a singlet state (being classified as (1)MLCT), which lies only 800 to 1300 cm(-1) above the triplet state, depending on the individual complex. Thus, the resulting emission at ambient temperature largely represents a fluorescence. For applications in OLEDs and LEECs, for example, this type of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) creates a new mechanism that allows to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons (excitations) in the lowest singlet state. This effect of singlet harvesting leads to drastically higher radiative rates than obtainable for emissions from triplet

  13. Photoinduced C—I bond homolysis of 5-iodouracil: A singlet predissociation pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaojuan; Song, Di; Liu, Kunhui; Su, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    5-Iodouracil (5-IU) can be integrated into DNA and acts as a UV sensitive chromophore suitable for probing DNA structure and DNA-protein interactions based on the photochemical reactions of 5-IU. Here, we perform joint studies of time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (TR-FTIR) spectroscopy and ab initio calculations to examine the state-specific photochemical reaction mechanisms of the 5-IU. The fact that uracil (U) is observed in TR-FTIR spectra after 266 nm irradiation of 5-IU in acetonitrile and ascribed to the product of hydrogen abstraction by the uracil-5-yl radical (U.) provides experimental evidence for the C—I bond homolysis of 5-IU. The excited state potential energy curves are calculated with the complete active space second-order perturbation//complete active space self-consistent field method, from which a singlet predissociation mechanism is elucidated. It is shown that the initially populated 1(ππ*) state crosses with the repulsive 1(πσ*) or 1(nIσ*) state, through which 5-IU undergoes dissociation to the fragments of (U.) radical and iodine atom. In addition, the possibility of intersystem crossing (ISC) is evaluated based on the calculated vertical excitation energies. Although a probable ISC from 1(ππ*) state to 3(nOπ*) and then to the lowest triplet 3(ππ*) could occur in principal, there is little possibility for the excited state populations bifurcating to triplet manifold, given that the singlet state predissociation follows repulsive potential and should occur within dozens to hundreds of femtoseconds. Such low population of triplet states means that the contribution of triplet state to photoreactions of 5-IU should be quite minor. These results demonstrate clearly a physical picture of C—I bond homolysis of 5-IU and provide mechanistic illuminations to the interesting applications of 5-IU as photoprobes and in radiotherapy of cancer.

  14. Wavelength dependence of the fluorescence and singlet oxygen quantum yields of new photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavi, Adina; Johnson, Fred M.; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    1994-12-01

    The photophysical properties of Mg and Zn tetrabenzoporphyrins and Cd-texaphyrin are presented. These sensitizers have strong absorption bands in the red and near-IR regions that make them good candidates for biological photosensitization. Singlet oxygen quantum yields which were determined in an absolute manner, in several solvents, are reported. We show an unusual behavior regarding adherence to Kasha's and Vavilov's rules: upon excitation to different electronic states, different values of singlet oxygen quantum yields were obtained. We also show an unusual wavelength dependence of singlet oxygen and fluorescence yields upon excitation to different vibrational levels within the same electronic state.

  15. Photodissociation of ozone in the Hartley band: Potential energy surfaces, nonadiabatic couplings, and singlet/triplet branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinke, R.; McBane, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    The lowest five A1' states of ozone, involved in the photodissociation with UV light, are analyzed on the basis of multireference configuration interaction electronic structure calculations with emphasis on the various avoided crossings in different regions of coordinate space. Global diabatic potential energy surfaces are constructed for the lowest four states termed X, A, B, and R. In addition, the off-diagonal potentials that couple the initially excited state B with states R and A are constructed to reflect results from additional electronic structure calculations, including the calculation of nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The A/X and A/R couplings are also considered, although in a less ambitious manner. The photodissociation dynamics are studied by means of trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations with the branching ratio between the singlet, O(D1)+O2(Δ1g), and triplet, O(P3)+O2(Σ3g-), channels being the main focus. The semiclassical branching ratio agrees well with quantum mechanical results except for wavelengths close to the threshold of the singlet channel. The calculated O(D1) quantum yield is approximately 0.90-0.95 across the main part of the Hartley band, in good agreement with experimental data. TSH calculations including all four states show that transitions B→A are relatively unimportant and subsequent transitions A→X/R to the triplet channel are negligible.

  16. Studies on Valence Fluctuation and Orbital Occupancy in an Impurity Anderson Model with f2 Local-Singlet Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Ryousuke

    2017-03-01

    An interplay of valence fluctuation and orbital occupancy is studied for a two-orbital impurity Anderson model having f2 singlet ground and triplet excited states in the localized limit. Employing the numerical renormalization group method, we identify the existence of a quantum phase transition between the local-singlet and the Kondo-singlet states in a variation of the c-f hybridization, and clarify how it depends on the f2 singlet-triplet energy splitting. It is found that the transition takes place definitely at a finite strength of the hybridization even when the singlet-triplet splitting is infinitely large. It is also found that as the splitting becomes small, the occupancies of the singlet and triplet states display a drastic change in the vicinity of the transition point. The origin of these findings is discussed in view of the features of valence fluctuation from the local many-body singlet state.

  17. Tuning the role of charge-transfer states in intramolecular singlet exciton fission through side-group engineering.

    PubMed

    Lukman, Steven; Chen, Kai; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Turban, David H P; Hine, Nicholas D M; Dong, Shaoqiang; Wu, Jishan; Greenham, Neil C; Musser, Andrew J

    2016-12-07

    Understanding the mechanism of singlet exciton fission, in which a singlet exciton separates into a pair of triplet excitons, is crucial to the development of new chromophores for efficient fission-sensitized solar cells. The challenge of controlling molecular packing and energy levels in the solid state precludes clear determination of the singlet fission pathway. Here, we circumvent this difficulty by utilizing covalent dimers of pentacene with two types of side groups. We report rapid and efficient intramolecular singlet fission in both molecules, in one case via a virtual charge-transfer state and in the other via a distinct charge-transfer intermediate. The singlet fission pathway is governed by the energy gap between singlet and charge-transfer states, which change dynamically with molecular geometry but are primarily set by the side group. These results clearly establish the role of charge-transfer states in singlet fission and highlight the importance of solubilizing groups to optimize excited-state photophysics.

  18. Tuning the role of charge-transfer states in intramolecular singlet exciton fission through side-group engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukman, Steven; Chen, Kai; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Turban, David H. P.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.; Dong, Shaoqiang; Wu, Jishan; Greenham, Neil C.; Musser, Andrew J.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of singlet exciton fission, in which a singlet exciton separates into a pair of triplet excitons, is crucial to the development of new chromophores for efficient fission-sensitized solar cells. The challenge of controlling molecular packing and energy levels in the solid state precludes clear determination of the singlet fission pathway. Here, we circumvent this difficulty by utilizing covalent dimers of pentacene with two types of side groups. We report rapid and efficient intramolecular singlet fission in both molecules, in one case via a virtual charge-transfer state and in the other via a distinct charge-transfer intermediate. The singlet fission pathway is governed by the energy gap between singlet and charge-transfer states, which change dynamically with molecular geometry but are primarily set by the side group. These results clearly establish the role of charge-transfer states in singlet fission and highlight the importance of solubilizing groups to optimize excited-state photophysics.

  19. Dynamical calculations of charge-transfer-to-solvent excited states of small I- (CH3CN)n clusters.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

    2006-06-08

    Relaxation dynamics of photoexcited charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) states for the I(-)(CH(3)CN)(n) (n = 2 and 3) clusters has been theoretically studied using electronic structure methods. First, we have calculated several lowest singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces using the multireference configuration interaction method. It was found that the character of the singlet CTTS excited-state potential surfaces is very similar to that of the triplet CTTS states. Due to a small singlet-triplet splitting, the lowest triplet potential energy surface was used as a good model to understand the dynamics of the photoexcited singlet CTTS states. We have carried out direct molecular dynamics simulations on the lowest triplet surface at the B3LYP level. When an I(-) anion is exteriorly solvated by CH(3)CN molecules, we found that the (CH(3)CN)(n)(-) anion cluster is effectively produced. In addition, when the I(-) anion is placed in the interior in I(-)(CH(3)CN)(n) clusters, photoexcitation gives an acetonitrile monomer anion plus neutral monomers. However, if the initial geometric configuration is distorted from the minimum structure, we also found that the (CH(3)CN)(2)(-) anion cluster, where an excess electron is internally trapped, is formed via I(-)(CH(3)CN)(2) + hnu --> I + (CH(3)CN)(2)(-) process.

  20. Understanding the Control of Singlet-Triplet Splitting for Organic Exciton Manipulating: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Zheng, Lei; Yuan, Jie; An, Zhongfu; Chen, Runfeng; Tao, Ye; Li, Huanhuan; Xie, Xiaoji; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Developing organic optoelectronic materials with desired photophysical properties has always been at the forefront of organic electronics. The variation of singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) can provide useful means in modulating organic excitons for diversified photophysical phenomena, but controlling ΔEST in a desired manner within a large tuning scope remains a daunting challenge. Here, we demonstrate a convenient and quantitative approach to relate ΔEST to the frontier orbital overlap and separation distance via a set of newly developed parameters using natural transition orbital analysis to consider whole pictures of electron transitions for both the lowest singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) excited states. These critical parameters revealed that both separated S1 and T1 states leads to ultralow ΔEST; separated S1 and overlapped T1 states results in small ΔEST; and both overlapped S1 and T1 states induces large ΔEST. Importantly, we realized a widely-tuned ΔEST in a range from ultralow (0.0003 eV) to extra-large (1.47 eV) via a subtle symmetric control of triazine molecules, based on time-dependent density functional theory calculations combined with experimental explorations. These findings provide keen insights into ΔEST control for feasible excited state tuning, offering valuable guidelines for the construction of molecules with desired optoelectronic properties. PMID:26161684

  1. Cell death induced by direct laser activation of singlet oxygen at 1270 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquez, F.; El Yazidi Belkoura, I.; Suret, P.; Randoux, S.; Courtade, E.

    2013-02-01

    Singlet oxygen plays a major role in many chemical and biological photo-oxidation processes. It has a high chemical reactivity, which is commonly harnessed for therapeutic issues. Indeed, singlet oxygen is recognized as the major cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. In this treatment of cancer, singlet oxygen is created, among other reactive species, by an indirect transfer of energy from light to molecular oxygen via excitation of a photosensitizer. In this paper, we show that the conventional singlet oxygen production scheme can be simplified. Production of singlet oxygen is achieved in living cells from photosensitizer-free 1270 nm laser excitation of the electronic ground state of molecular oxygen. The quantity of singlet oxygen produced in this way is sufficient to induce an oxidative stress leading to cell death. Other effects such as thermal stress are discriminated, and we conclude that cell death is only due to singlet oxygen creation. This new simplified scheme of singlet oxygen activation can be seen as a breakthrough for phototherapies of malignant diseases and/or as a non-invasive possibility to generate reactive oxygen species in a tightly controlled manner.

  2. Determination of ground and excited state dipole moments via electronic Stark spectroscopy: 5-methoxyindole.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Josefin; Wilke, Martin; Meerts, W Leo; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-01-28

    The dipole moments of the ground and lowest electronically excited singlet state of 5-methoxyindole have been determined by means of optical Stark spectroscopy in a molecular beam. The resulting spectra arise from a superposition of different field configurations, one with the static electric field almost parallel to the polarization of the exciting laser radiation, the other nearly perpendicular. Each field configuration leads to different intensities in the rovibronic spectrum. With an automated evolutionary algorithm approach, the spectra can be fit and the ratio of both field configurations can be determined. A simultaneous fit of two spectra with both field configurations improved the precision of the dipole moment determination by a factor of two. We find a reduction of the absolute dipole moment from 1.59(3) D to 1.14(6) D upon electronic excitation to the lowest electronically excited singlet state. At the same time, the dipole moment orientation rotates by 54(∘) showing the importance of the determination of the dipole moment components. The dipole moment in the electronic ground state can approximately be obtained from a vector addition of the indole and the methoxy group dipole moments. However, in the electronically excited state, vector addition completely fails to describe the observed dipole moment. Several reasons for this behavior are discussed.

  3. Determination of ground and excited state dipole moments via electronic Stark spectroscopy: 5-methoxyindole

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Josefin; Wilke, Martin; Schmitt, Michael; Meerts, W. Leo

    2016-01-28

    The dipole moments of the ground and lowest electronically excited singlet state of 5-methoxyindole have been determined by means of optical Stark spectroscopy in a molecular beam. The resulting spectra arise from a superposition of different field configurations, one with the static electric field almost parallel to the polarization of the exciting laser radiation, the other nearly perpendicular. Each field configuration leads to different intensities in the rovibronic spectrum. With an automated evolutionary algorithm approach, the spectra can be fit and the ratio of both field configurations can be determined. A simultaneous fit of two spectra with both field configurations improved the precision of the dipole moment determination by a factor of two. We find a reduction of the absolute dipole moment from 1.59(3) D to 1.14(6) D upon electronic excitation to the lowest electronically excited singlet state. At the same time, the dipole moment orientation rotates by 54{sup ∘} showing the importance of the determination of the dipole moment components. The dipole moment in the electronic ground state can approximately be obtained from a vector addition of the indole and the methoxy group dipole moments. However, in the electronically excited state, vector addition completely fails to describe the observed dipole moment. Several reasons for this behavior are discussed.

  4. Direct spectroscopic observation of closed-shell singlet, open-shell singlet, and triplet p-biphenylyloxenium ion.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-De; Hanway, Patrick J; Albright, Toshia R; Winter, Arthur H; Phillips, David Lee

    2014-09-03

    The photophysics and photochemistry of p-biphenylyl hydroxylamine hydrochloride was studied using laser flash photolysis ranging from the femtosecond to the microsecond time scale. The singlet excited state of this photoprecursor is formed within 350 fs and partitions into three different transients that are assigned to the p-biphenyloxy radical, the open-shell singlet p-biphenylyloxenium ion, and the triplet p-biphenylyloxenium ion, having lifetimes of 40 μs, 45 ps, and 1.6 ns, respectively, in CH3CN. The open-shell singlet p-biphenylyloxenium ion predominantly undergoes internal conversion to produce the closed-shell singlet p-biphenylyloxenium ion, which has a lifetime of 5-20 ns. The longer-lived radical is unambiguously assigned by nanosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (ns-TR(3)) spectroscopy, and the assignment of the short-lived singlet and triplet oxenium ion transient absorptions are supported by matching time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) predictions of the absorptions of these species, as well as by product studies that implicate the intermediacy of charged electrophilic intermediates. Product studies from photolysis give p-biphenylol as the major product and a chloride adduct as the major product when NaCl is added as a trap. Thermolysis studies give p-biphenylol as a major product, as well as water, ammonium, and chloro adducts. These studies provide a rare direct look at a discrete oxenium ion intermediate and the first detection of open-shell singlet and triplet configurations of an oxenium ion, as well as providing an intriguing example of the importance of excited state dynamics in governing the electronic state population of reactive intermediates.

  5. R-matrix study of electron impact excitation and dissociation of CH+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, K.; Dora, A.; Ghosh, R.; Choudhury, B. S.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Electron impact excitation and electron impact dissociation of CH+ ions are studied in the framework of the R-matrix method using the diatomic version of the UK molecular R-matrix codes. A configuration interaction calculation is first performed to yield the potential energy curves of the lowest eight singlet and triplet states of CH+. Scattering calculations are then performed to yield vibrationally-resolved electronic excitations to the lowest three bound states, namely the a {}3{{\\Pi }}, A {}1{{\\Pi }} and the b {}3{{{Σ }}}-. Electron impact dissociation cross sections are obtained from the assumption that all electronic excitations above the dissociation threshold result in dissociation. Bound states of CH and resonance positions and widths of Feshbach resonances in the e-CH+ system are also calculated at the CH+ equilibrium bond length 2.137 a0.

  6. The high-temperature singlet spectrum of zirconium sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, A.

    2017-07-01

    An accurate line list of spectroscopic transitions is presented for the hot ZrS molecule. The lowest-lying 11 singlet and triplet states are considered by using the methods of complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and the multireference single and double configuration interaction method (MRSDCI). Potential energy curves are constructed by using large basis sets aug-cc-pVQZ-PP with relativistic effective core potentials at the spin-free level. Dipole moments curves, used to obtain transition intensities, are computed using high levels of theory (MRSDCI). Several spectroscopic constants were calculated for the investigated states (Te, ωe, re, Be and De). This absorption line list contains over 2 million transitions between almost 14 900 energy levels. It covers the frequency range between 0 and 20 000 cm-1 and includes all transitions from energy levels within the lowest six singlet electronic states. The effect of temperature on the spectra of hot ZrS was investigated with a partition function calculated between 298 K and 2000 K. The present work should help in identifying the singlet state spectrum of hot ZrS.

  7. A correlated electron view of singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Musgrave, Charles B; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2013-06-18

    Singlet fission occurs when a single exciton splits into multiple electron-hole pairs, and could dramatically increase the efficiency of organic solar cells by converting high energy photons into multiple charge carriers. Scientists might exploit singlet fission to its full potential by first understanding the underlying mechanism of this quantum mechanical process. The pursuit of this fundamental mechanism has recently benefited from the development and application of new correlated wave function methods. These methods-called restricted active space spin flip-can capture the most important electron interactions in molecular materials, such as acene crystals, at low computational cost. It is unrealistic to use previous wave function methods due to the excessive computational cost involved in simulating realistic molecular structures at a meaningful level of electron correlation. In this Account, we describe how we use these techniques to compute single exciton and multiple exciton excited states in tetracene and pentacene crystals in order to understand how a single exciton generated from photon absorption undergoes fission to generate two triplets. Our studies indicate that an adiabatic charge transfer intermediate is unlikely to contribute significantly to the fission process because it lies too high in energy. Instead, we propose a new mechanism that involves the direct coupling of an optically allowed single exciton to an optically dark multiexciton. This coupling is facilitated by intermolecular motion of two acene monomers that drives nonadiabatic population transfer between the two states. This transfer occurs in the limit of near degeneracies between adiabatic states where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation of fixed nuclei is no longer valid. Existing theories for singlet fission have not considered this type of coupling between states and, therefore, cannot describe this mechanism. The direct mechanism through intermolecular motion describes many

  8. Discharged generator of singlet oxygen for oxygen-iodine laser. Transport kinetics of O2( a 1δg) and O2( b 1σ{g/+}) molecules and O(3 P) atoms in Ar:O2 and He:O2 flows excited by a 13.56-MHz discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braginsky, O. V.; Vasil'Eva, A. N.; Klopovsky, K. S.; Kovalev, A. S.; Lopaev, D. V.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Rakhimov, A. T.

    2006-08-01

    To understand and reveal the basic physical factors providing the possibility of scaling of a discharged singlet oxygen generator (DSOG) in an oxygen-iodine laser, the production, and transport kinetics of metastable O2( a 1δg) and O2( b 1σ{g/+}) molecules, as well as O(3 P) atoms, were investigated in Ar:O2 and He:O2 gas flows excited by a 13.56-MHz discharge in a wide range of pressures (4-40 Torr) and oxygen percentages. It is shown that the densities and transport kinetics of O2( a 1δg), O2( b 1σ{g/+}), and O(3 P) appear similar for oxygen mixtures with argon and helium in the same conditions independent of discharge mode. Compared to pure O2, the dilution of oxygen with an inert gas allows higher energy inputs per an oxygen molecule to achieved, especially under conditions of the homogeneous discharge mode (α-mode), which gives a higher efficiency of O2( a 1δg) excitation in Ar:O2 and He:O2 mixtures. But the maximum attainable yield of singlet oxygen in Ar:O2 and He:O2 at fixed partial O2 pressure is found to be comparable with the O2( a 1δg) yield in pure oxygen at the same pressure. The reason for this is the increased three-body deactivation of O2( a 1δg) by atomic oxygen in the mixtures because of the greater total pressure. The estimation of the rate constant of O2( a 1δg) three-body quenching by O(3 P) in Ar:O2 and He:O2 mixtures as (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10-32 cm6/s was carried out from the analysis of transport kinetics of singlet and atomic oxygen in the discharge afterglow at high pressures exceeding ˜10 Torr. A similar analysis for the lower pressures has revealed that losses both of metastable O2( a 1δg) and O2( b 1σ{g/+}) molecules, and of O(3 P) atoms on the surface of the discharge tube, are determined by the density of each of the components. The obtained loss probabilities of O2( a 1δg), O2( b 1σ{g/+}), and O(3 P) on the silica surface show that the surface loss probabilities of all the species can increase noticeably under the

  9. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  10. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-28

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  11. Longest-Wavelength Electronic Excitations of Linear Cyanines: The Role of Electron Delocalization and of Approximations in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Ii, Barry Moore; Autschbach, Jochen

    2013-11-12

    The lowest-energy/longest-wavelength electronic singlet excitation energies of linear cyanine dyes are examined, using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and selected wave function methods in comparison with literature data. Variations of the bond-length alternation obtained with different optimized structures produce small differences of the excitation energy in the limit of an infinite chain. Hybrid functionals with range-separated exchange are optimally 'tuned', which is shown to minimize the delocalization error (DE) in the cyanine π systems. Much unlike the case of charge-transfer excitations, small DEs are not strongly correlated with better performance. A representative cyanine is analyzed in detail. Compared with accurate benchmark data, TDDFT with 'pure' local functionals gives too high singlet excitation energies for all systems, but DFT-based ΔSCF calculations with a local functional severely underestimates the energies. TDDFT strongly overestimates the difference between singlet and triplet excitation energies. An analysis points to systematically much too small magnitudes of integrals from the DFT components of the exchange-correlation response kernel as the likely culprit. The findings support previous suggestions that the differential correlation energy between the ground and excited state is not correctly produced by TDDFT with most functionals.

  12. Singlet-singlet annihilation kinetics in aggregates and trimers of LHCII.

    PubMed Central

    Barzda, V; Gulbinas, V; Kananavicius, R; Cervinskas, V; van Amerongen, H; van Grondelle, R; Valkunas, L

    2001-01-01

    Singlet-singlet annihilation experiments have been performed on trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) using picosecond spectroscopy to study spatial equilibration times in LHCII preparations, complementing the large amount of data on spectral equilibration available in literature. The annihilation kinetics for trimers can well be described by a statistical approach, and an annihilation rate of (24 ps)(-1) is obtained. In contrast, the annihilation kinetics for aggregates can well be described by a kinetic approach over many hundreds of picoseconds, and it is shown that there is no clear distinction between inter- and intratrimer transfer of excitation energy. With this approach, an annihilation rate of (16 ps)(-1) is obtained after normalization of the annihilation rate per trimer. It is shown that the spatial equilibration in trimeric LHCII between chlorophyll a molecules occurs on a time scale that is an order of magnitude longer than in Photosystem I-core, after correcting for the different number of chlorophyll a molecules in both systems. The slow transfer in LHCII is possibly an important factor in determining excitation trapping in Photosystem II, because it contributes significantly to the overall trapping time. PMID:11325740

  13. Adapting BODIPYs to singlet oxygen production on silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Epelde-Elezcano, Nerea; Prieto-Montero, Ruth; Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; Ortiz, María J; Prieto-Castañeda, Alejandro; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo; Belmonte-Vázquez, José L; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; Brown, Ross; Lacombe, Sylvie

    2017-05-31

    A modified Stöber method is used to synthesize spherical core-shell silica nanoparticles (NPs) with an external surface functionalized by amino groups and with an average size around 50 nm. Fluorescent dyes and photosensitizers of singlet oxygen were fixed, either separately or conjointly, respectively in the core or in the shell. Rhodamines were encapsulated in the core with relatively high fluorescence quantum yields (Φfl ≥ 0.3), allowing fluorescence tracking of the particles. Various photosensitizers of singlet oxygen (PS) were covalenty coupled to the shell, allowing singlet oxygen production. The stability of NP suspensions strongly deteriorated upon grafting the PS, affecting their apparent singlet oxygen quantum yields. Agglomeration of NPs depends both on the type and on the amount of grafted photosensitizer. New, lab-made, halogenated 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacenes (BODIPY) grafted to the NPs achieved higher singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ ∼ 0.35-0.40) than Rose Bengal (RB) grafted NPs (ΦΔ ∼ 0.10-0.27). Finally, we combined both fluorescence and PS functions in the same NP, namely a rhodamine in the silica core and a BODIPY or RB grafted in the shell, achieving the performance Φfl ∼ 0.10-0.20, ΦΔ ∼ 0.16-0.25 with a single excitation wavelength. Thus, proper choice of the dyes, of their concentrations inside and on the NPs and the grafting method enables fine-tuning of singlet oxygen production and fluorescence emission.

  14. Singlet Oxygen at the Laundromat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    1995-09-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen is an interesting molecule both visually and theoretically, since its red chemiluminescence can be analyzed by the application of simple molecular orbital theory. It can be produced from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide from either chlorine gas or hypochlorite ion from household bleach. Here we demostrate how to produce it using simple laundry cleansers.

  15. Photoexcited singlet and triplet states of a UV absorber ethylhexyl methoxycrylene.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Hata, Yuki; Kumasaka, Ryo; Nanbu, Yuichi; Yagi, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    The excited states of UV absorber, ethylhexyl methoxycrylene (EHMCR) have been studied through measurements of UV absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra in ethanol. The energy levels of the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of EHMCR were determined. The energy levels of the S1 and T1 states of EHMCR are much lower than those of photolabile 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane. The energy levels of the S1 and T1 states of EHMCR are lower than those of octyl methoxycinnamate. The weak phosphorescence and EPR B(min) signals were observed and the lifetime was estimated to be 93 ms. These facts suggest that the significant proportion of the S1 molecules undergoes intersystem crossing to the T1 state, and the deactivation process from the T1 state is predominantly radiationless. The photostability of EHMCR arises from the (3)ππ* character in the T1 state. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter in the T1 state is D** = 0.113 cm(-1). © 2012 The Authors Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Low-Lying ππ* States of Heteroaromatic Molecules: A Challenge for Excited State Methods.

    PubMed

    Prlj, Antonio; Sandoval-Salinas, María Eugenia; Casanova, David; Jacquemin, Denis; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2016-06-14

    The description of low-lying ππ* states of linear acenes by standard electronic structure methods is known to be challenging. Here, we broaden the framework of this problem by considering a set of fused heteroaromatic rings and demonstrate that standard electronic structure methods do not provide a balanced description of the two (typically) lowest singlet state (La and Lb) excitations. While the Lb state is highly sensitive to correlation effects, La suffers from the same drawbacks as charge transfer excitations. We show that the comparison between CIS/CIS(D) can serve as a diagnostic for detecting the two problematic excited states. Standard TD-DFT and even its spin-flip variant lead to inaccurate excitation energies and interstate gaps, with only a double hybrid functional performing somewhat better. The complication inherent to a balanced description of these states is so important that even CC2 and ADC(2) do not necessarily match the ADC(3) reference.

  17. The excited state antiaromatic benzene ring: a molecular Mr Hyde?

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Ottosson, Henrik

    2015-09-21

    The antiaromatic character of benzene in its first ππ* excited triplet state (T1) was deduced more than four decades ago by Baird using perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) theory [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 4941], and since then it has been confirmed through a range of high-level quantum chemical calculations. With focus on benzene we now first review theoretical and computational studies that examine and confirm Baird's rule on reversal in the electron count for aromaticity and antiaromaticity of annulenes in their lowest triplet states as compared to Hückel's rule for the ground state (S0). We also note that the rule according to quantum chemical calculations can be extended to the lowest singlet excited state (S1) of benzene. Importantly, Baird, as well as Aihara [Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1978, 51, 1788], early put forth that the destabilization and excited state antiaromaticity of the benzene ring should be reflected in its photochemical reactivity, yet, today these conclusions are often overlooked. Thus, in the second part of the article we review photochemical reactions of a series of benzene derivatives that to various extents should stem from the excited state antiaromatic character of the benzene ring. We argue that benzene can be viewed as a molecular "Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" with its largely unknown excited state antiaromaticity representing its "Mr Hyde" character. The recognition of the "Jekyll and Hyde" split personality feature of the benzene ring can likely be useful in a range of different areas.

  18. The quantum coherent mechanism for singlet fission: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai-Lun; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Provorse, Makenzie R; Monahan, Nicholas R; Tritsch, John R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Reichman, David R; Gao, Jiali; Zhu, X-Y

    2013-06-18

    The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair. However, this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs. This process, where a singlet exciton transforms to two triplet excitons, can have quantum yields as high as 200%. Singlet fission may be useful to solar cell technologies to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. Through time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene, our lab has recently provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state (also called a correlated triplet pair). More importantly, we found that population of the multiexciton state rises at the same time as the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photoexcitation. This observation does not fit with the traditional view of singlet fission involving the incoherent conversion of a singlet to a triplet pair. However, it provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately after optical excitation. In this Account, we review key experimental findings from TR-2PPE experiments and present a theoretical analysis of the quantum coherent mechanism based on electronic structural and density matrix calculations for crystalline tetracene lattices. Using multistate density functional theory, we find that the direct electronic coupling between singlet and multiexciton states is too weak to explain the experimental observation. Instead, indirect coupling via charge transfer intermediate states is two orders of magnitude stronger, and dominates the dynamics for ultrafast multiexciton formation. Density matrix calculation for the crystalline

  19. Singlet Oxygen Reactions with Flavonoids. A Theoretical – Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L.; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λmax = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, kT, and the reactive reaction rate constant, kr, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of kT determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×107 M−1s−1 to 13.4×107 M−1s−1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for kr, ranging from 2.8×105 M−1s−1 to 65.7×105 M−1s−1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid. PMID:22802966

  20. Collective aspects of singlet fission in molecular crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Teichen, Paul E.; Eaves, Joel D.

    2015-07-28

    We present a model to describe collective features of singlet fission in molecular crystals and analyze it using many-body theory. The model we develop allows excitonic states to delocalize over several chromophores which is consistent with the character of the excited states in many molecular crystals, such as the acenes, where singlet fission occurs. As singlet states become more delocalized and triplet states more localized, the rate of singlet fission increases. We also determine the conditions under which the two triplets resulting from fission are correlated. Using the Bethe Ansatz and an entanglement measure for indistinguishable bipartite systems, we calculate the triplet-triplet entanglement as a function of the biexciton interaction strength. The biexciton interaction can produce bound biexciton states and provides a source of entanglement between the two triplets even when the triplets are spatially well separated. Significant entanglement between the triplet pair occurs well below the threshold for bound pair formation. Our results paint a dynamical picture that helps to explain why fission has been observed to be more efficient in molecular crystals than in their covalent dimer analogues and have consequences for photovoltaic efficiency models that assume that the two triplets can be extracted independently.

  1. Interaction of triplet sensitizers with chlorophyll: Formation of singlet chlorophyll

    SciTech Connect

    Bohne, C.; Scaiano, J.C. )

    1989-03-29

    The interaction of several triplet sensitizers with chlorophyll a (Chla) has been examined using laser techniques. For the carbonyl sensitizers (with triplet energies > 53 kcal/mol) it was possible to measure the quenching rate constants; these were systematically {>=} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. In the cases of acetone, benzophenone, and p-methoxyacetophenone the quenching process leads to the formation of the fluorescent singlet state of Chla. For benzophenone (k{sub q} = 2.4 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) approximately 3% of the quenching events lead to the formation of excited Chla. Several sensitizers (decafluorobenzophenone, benzil, and fluorenone) do not induce Chla fluorescence (or do it very inefficiently) in spite of having triplet energies above the S{sub 1} level of Chla. In light of their results the most probable mechanism involves energy transfer from the triplet sensitizer to an upper triple state of Chla ({sup 3}Chla**) which can undergo reverse intersystem crossing to the singlet manifold of Chla and thus induce fluorescence. The inefficient sensitizers are those where electron transfer between the excited singlet of Chla or {sup 3}Chla** and ground-state sensitizers is energetically favorable, leading to rapid in-cage quenching of the initially formed excited states of Chla. Formation of radical-ion pair between the triplet sensitizer and Chla followed by the generation of singlet Chla in the recombination of the radical ions could not be completely discarded.

  2. Excited-State Dynamics in Folic Acid and 6-CARBOXYPTERIN upon Uva Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huijuan; Vogt, R. Aaron; Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E.

    2013-06-01

    The excited-state dynamics of folic acid (FA) and 6-carboxypterin (6CP) are poorly understood and work is needed to uncover the relaxation pathways that ultimately lead to their oxidative damage of DNA. In our approach, broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the evolution of the excited states in FA and 6CP in basic aqueous solution upon excitation at 350 nm. In addition, quantum-chemical calculations were performed to assist in the interpretation of the experimental results and in the postulation of kinetic mechanisms. The combined experimental and computational results support a kinetic model where excitation of FA results in ultrafast charge separation (τ = 0.6 ps), which decays back to the ground state primarily by charge recombination with a lifetime of 2.2 ps. A small fraction of the charge transfer state undergoes intersystem crossing to populate the lowest-energy triplet state with a lifetime of 200 ps. On the other hand, a large fraction of the initially excited singlet state in 6CP decays by fluorescence emission with a lifetime of 100 ps, while intersystem crossing to the triplet state occurs with a lifetime of 4.4 ns. The potential implications of these results to the oxidative damage of DNA by FA and 6CP will be discussed. Funding from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged (CHE-1255084).

  3. Ultrafast Singlet Fission in a Push-Pull Low-Bandgap Polymer Film.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Yukitomo; Tamai, Yasunari; Ohkita, Hideo; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2015-12-30

    Excited-state dynamics in poly[4,6-(dodecyl-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate)-alt-2,6-(4,8-dioctoxylbenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene)] (PTB1) was studied by transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation at 400 nm, an additional transient species is promptly generated along with singlet excitons and survives up to nanoseconds, while singlet excitons disappear completely. In order to assign the long-lived species, we measured transient absorption spectra over the wide spectral range from 900 to 2500 nm. As a result, we found that the long-lived species is ascribed not to polarons but to triplet excitons, which is formed through the ultrafast singlet fission (SF). We discuss the ultrafast SF mechanism in push-pull low-bandgap polymer PTB1 films on the basis of the excited-state dynamics under various excitation wavelengths and intensities.

  4. Short-range photoassociation from the inner wall of the lowest triplet potential of 85Rb2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, R. A.; Carini, J. L.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.; Stwalley, W. C.

    2016-10-01

    Ultracold photoassociation is typically performed at large internuclear separations, where the scattering wavefunction amplitude is large and Franck-Condon overlap is maximized. Recently, work by this group and others on alkali-metal diatomics has shown that photoassociation can efficiently form molecules at short internuclear distance in both homonuclear and heteronuclear dimers. We propose that this short-range photoassociation is due to excitation near the wavefunction amplitude maximum at the inner wall of the lowest triplet potential. We show that Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) from the highest-energy bound state can almost precisely reproduce FCFs from a low-energy scattering state, and that both calculations match experimental data from the near-zero positive-energy scattering state with reasonable accuracy. We also show that the corresponding photoassociation from the inner wall of the ground-state singlet potential at much shorter internuclear distance is weaker and undetectable under our current experimental conditions. We predict from FCFs that the strongest of these weaker short-range photoassociation transitions are one order of magnitude below our current sensitivity.

  5. Merging Active-Space and Renormalized Coupled-Cluster Methods via the CC(P;Q) Formalism, with Benchmark Calculations for Singlet-Triplet Gaps in Biradical Systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-12-11

    We have recently developed a flexible form of the method of moments of coupled-cluster (CC) equations and the CC(P;Q) hierarchy, which enable one to correct the CC and equation-of-motion CC energies obtained with unconventional truncations in the cluster and excitation operators [Shen, J.; Piecuch, P. Chem. Phys.2012, 401, 180; J. Chem. Phys.2012, 136, 144104]. One of the CC(P;Q) methods is a novel hybrid scheme, abbreviated as CC(t;3), in which the results of CC calculations with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, are corrected for the triple excitations missing in CCSDt using the expressions that are reminiscent of the completely renormalized (CR) CC approach known as CR-CC(2,3). We demonstrate that the total electronic energies of the lowest singlet and triplet states, and the singlet-triplet gaps in biradical systems, including methylene, (HFH)(-), and trimethylenemethane, resulting from the CC(t;3) calculations agree with those obtained with the full CC approach with singles, doubles, and triples to within fractions of a millihartree, improving the results of the noniterative triples CCSD(T), CCSD(2)T, and CR-CC(2,3) and hybrid CCSD(T)-h calculations, and competing with the best multireference CC data.

  6. Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to proteins and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael J

    2003-06-06

    Proteins comprise approximately 68% of the dry weight of cells and tissues and are therefore potentially major targets for oxidative damage. Two major types of processes can occur during the exposure of proteins to UV or visible light. The first of these involves direct photo-oxidation arising from the absorption of UV radiation by the protein, or bound chromophore groups, thereby generating excited states (singlet or triplets) or radicals via photo-ionisation. The second major process involves indirect oxidation of the protein via the formation and subsequent reactions of singlet oxygen generated by the transfer of energy to ground state (triplet) molecular oxygen by either protein-bound, or other, chromophores. Singlet oxygen can also be generated by a range of other enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions including processes mediated by heme proteins, lipoxygenases, and activated leukocytes, as well as radical termination reactions. This paper reviews the data available on singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation and concentrates primarily on the mechanisms by which this excited state species brings about changes to both the side-chains and backbone of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Recent work on the identification of reactive peroxide intermediates formed on Tyr, His, and Trp residues is discussed. These peroxides may be important propagating species in protein oxidation as they can initiate further oxidation via both radical and non-radical reactions. Such processes can result in the transmittal of damage to other biological targets, and may play a significant role in bystander damage, or dark reactions, in systems where proteins are subjected to oxidation.

  7. Lowest matric potential in quartz: Metadynamics evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Dong, Yi; Liu, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    The lowest matric potential is an important soil property characterizing the strength of retaining water molecules and a key parameter in defining a complete soil water retention curve. However, the exact value of the lowest matric potential is still unclear and cannot be measured due to the limitation of current experimental technology. In this study, a general theoretical framework based on metadynamics was proposed to determine the lowest matric potential in quartz minerals. The matric potential was derived from partial volume free energy and can be further calculated by the difference between the adsorption free energy and self-hydration free energy. Metadynamics was employed to enhance molecular dynamics for determination of the adsorption free energy. In addition to the water-mineral interaction, the adsorptive water layer structure was identified as an important mechanism that may lower the free energy of water molecules. The lowest matric potential for quartz mineral was found as low as -2.00 GPa.

  8. Bergman kernel from the lowest Landau level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevtsov, S.

    2009-07-01

    We use path integral representation for the density matrix, projected on the lowest Landau level, to generalize the expansion of the Bergman kernel on Kähler manifold to the case of arbitrary magnetic field.

  9. Entanglement routers using macroscopic singlets.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato; Sodano, Pasquale

    2010-10-29

    We propose a mechanism where high entanglement between very distant boundary spins is generated by suddenly connecting two long Kondo spin chains. We show that this procedure provides an efficient way to route entanglement between multiple distant sites. We observe that the key features of the entanglement dynamics of the composite spin chain are well described by a simple model of two singlets, each formed by two spins. The proposed routing mechanism is a footprint of the emergence of a Kondo cloud in a Kondo system and can be engineered and observed in varied physical settings.

  10. Description of ground and excited electronic states by ensemble density functional method with extended active space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Michael; Martínez, Todd J.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2017-08-01

    An extended variant of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, the REKS(4,4) method, designed to describe the ground electronic states of strongly multireference systems is modified to enable calculation of excited states within the time-independent variational formalism. The new method, the state-interaction state-averaged REKS(4,4), i.e., SI-SA-REKS(4,4), is capable of describing several excited states of a molecule involving double bond cleavage, polyradical character, or multiple chromophoric units. We demonstrate that the new method correctly describes the ground and the lowest singlet excited states of a molecule (ethylene) undergoing double bond cleavage. The applicability of the new method for excitonic states is illustrated with π stacked ethylene and tetracene dimers. We conclude that the new method can describe a wide range of multireference phenomena.

  11. Time-resolved luminescence and singlet oxygen formation after illumination of the hypericin-low-density lipoprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Gbur, Peter; Dedic, Roman; Chorvat, Dusan; Miskovsky, Pavol; Hala, Jan; Jancura, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence and phosphorescence study of hypericin (Hyp) in complex with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) as well as the evolution of singlet oxygen formation and annihilation after illumination of Hyp/LDL complexes at room temperature are presented in this work. The observed shortening of the fluorescence lifetime of Hyp at high Hyp/LDL molar ratios (>25:1) proves the self-quenching of the excited singlet state of monomeric Hyp at these concentration ratios. The very short lifetime ( approximately 0.5 ns) of Hyp fluorescence at very high Hyp/LDL ratios (>150:1) suggests that at high local Hyp concentration inside LDL molecules fast and ultrafast nonradiative decay processes from excited singlet state of Hyp become more important. Contrary to the lifetime of the singlet excited state, the lifetime (its shorter component) of Hyp phosphorescence is not dependent on Hyp/LDL ratio in the studied concentration range. The amount of singlet oxygen produced as well as the integral intensity of Hyp phosphorescence after illumination of Hyp/LDL complexes resemble the dependence of the concentration of molecules of Hyp in monomeric state on Hyp/LDL until a concentration ratio of 60:1. This fact confirms that only monomeric Hyp is able to produce the excited triplet state of Hyp, which in aerobic conditions leads to singlet oxygen production. The value of singlet oxygen lifetime ( approximately 8 micros) after its formation from the excited triplet state of Hyp in LDL proves that molecules of singlet oxygen remain for a certain period of time inside LDL particles and are not immediately released to the aqueous surrounding. That Hyp exists in the complex with LDL in the monodeprotonated state is also demonstrated.

  12. Flavor-singlet baryons in the graded symmetry approach to partially quenched QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jonathan M. M.; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2016-11-01

    Progress in the calculation of the electromagnetic properties of baryon excitations in lattice QCD presents new challenges in the determination of sea-quark loop contributions to matrix elements. A reliable estimation of the sea-quark loop contributions represents a pressing issue in the accurate comparison of lattice QCD results with experiment. In this article, an extension of the graded symmetry approach to partially quenched QCD is presented, which builds on previous theory by explicitly including flavor-singlet baryons in its construction. The formalism takes into account the interactions among both octet and singlet baryons, octet mesons, and their ghost counterparts; the latter enables the isolation of the quark-flow disconnected sea-quark loop contributions. The introduction of flavor-singlet states enables systematic studies of the internal structure of Λ -baryon excitations in lattice QCD, including the topical Λ (1405 ).

  13. Standard Model with a real singlet scalar and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi

    2014-08-01

    We study the post-inflationary dynamics of the Standard Model Higgs and a real singlet scalar s, coupled together through a renormalizable coupling λ{sub sh}h{sup 2}s{sup 2}, in a Z{sub 2} symmetric model that may explain the observed dark matter abundance and/or the origin of baryon asymmetry. The initial values for the Higgs and s condensates are given by inflationary fluctuations, and we follow their dissipation and relaxation to the low energy vacua. We find that both the lowest order perturbative and the non-perturbative decays are blocked by thermal effects and large background fields and that the condensates decay by two-loop thermal effects. Assuming instant reheating at T=10{sup 16} GeV, the characteristic temperature for the Higgs condensate thermalization is found to be T{sub h} ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV, whereas s thermalizes typically around T{sub s} ∼ 10{sup 6} GeV. By that time, the amplitude of the singlet is driven very close to the vacuum value by the expansion of the universe, unless the portal coupling takes a value λ{sub sh}∼< 10{sup -7} and the singlet s never thermalizes. With these values of the coupling, it is possible to slowly produce a sizeable fraction of the observed dark matter abundance via singlet condensate fragmentation and thermal Higgs scattering. Physics also below the electroweak scale can therefore be affected by the non-vacuum initial conditions generated by inflation.

  14. Protolytic dissociation of cyanophenols in ground and excited states in alcohol and water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanik, Beata; Styrcz, Stanisław

    2011-08-01

    The effect of cyano substituents on acidity in ground and excited states of mono- and dicyanophenols was investigated. The equilibrium dissociation constants of 3,4-dicyanophenol in ground and lowest excited states in water solution and the change of these constants in the excited state during the transfer to the ground state for o-, m-, p-cyanophenol and 3,4-dicyanophenol in alcohol and water solutions were determined. It was shown that the cyano substitution increases the acidity of ortho-, meta- and dicyano-derivative in ground state in comparison to the phenol, which makes the anions of these derivatives appear in solutions from methanol to 1-butanol. In the excited state the acidity of investigated compounds changes significantly in comparison to the ground state. 3,4-Dicyanophenol is the strongest acid in the lowest excited singlet state, while p-cyanophenol is the weakest one in both alcohol and water solutions. The distribution of the electronic charge and dipole moments of all investigated cyanophenols in ground and excited states were determined on the basis of ab initio calculations using the GAMESS program.

  15. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells.

    PubMed

    Gomez, John A; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2016-06-28

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference.

  16. [Photosensitized luminescence of singlet oxygen in aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Krasnovskiĭ, A A

    1979-01-01

    The photoluminescence of singlet oxygen has been observed in air saturated solutions of riboflavin in D2O and mixtures of D2O and H2O. The excitation spectrum coincides with the absorption spectrum of the pigment, the emission maximum lies at 1275 nm. In D2O the quantum yield is approximately 1,2 x 10(-7). H2O quenches the luminescence. Analysis of quenching has shown that the quantum yield in H2O is less than in D2O by the factor of 20.

  17. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-04

    Singlet excitons in π-stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C(2h) symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π-stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  18. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-01

    Singlet excitons in π -stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C2 h symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π -stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  19. Exposure of vitamins to UVB and UVA radiation generates singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Knak, Alena; Regensburger, Johannes; Maisch, Tim; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Deleterious effects of UV radiation in tissue are usually attributed to different mechanisms. Absorption of UVB radiation in cell constituents like DNA causes photochemical reactions. Absorption of UVA radiation in endogenous photosensitizers like vitamins generates singlet oxygen via photosensitized reactions. We investigated two further mechanisms that might be involved in UV mediated cell tissue damage. Firstly, UVB radiation and vitamins also generate singlet oxygen. Secondly, UVB radiation may change the chemical structure of vitamins that may change the role of such endogenous photosensitizers in UVA mediated mechanisms. Vitamins were irradiated in solution using monochromatic UVB (308 nm) or UVA (330, 355, or 370 nm) radiation. Singlet oxygen was directly detected and quantified by its luminescence at 1270 nm. All investigated molecules generated singlet oxygen with a quantum yield ranging from 0.007 (vitamin D3) to 0.64 (nicotinamide) independent of the excitation wavelength. Moreover, pre-irradiation of vitamins with UVB changed their absorption in the UVB and UVA spectral range. Subsequently, molecules such as vitamin E and vitamin K1, which normally exhibit no singlet oxygen generation in the UVA, now produce singlet oxygen when exposed to UVA at 355 nm. This interplay of different UV sources is inevitable when applying serial or parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in experiments in vitro. These results should be of particular importance for parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in vivo, e.g. when exposing the skin to solar radiation.

  20. Diphotons from electroweak triplet-singlet mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Kiel; Knapen, Simon; Robinson, Dean J.

    2016-08-23

    The neutral component of a real pseudoscalar electroweak (EW) triplet can produce a diphoton excess at 750 GeV, if it is somewhat mixed with an EW singlet pseudoscalar. This triplet-singlet mixing allows for greater freedom in the diboson branching ratios than the singlet-only case, but it is still possible to probe the parameter space extensively with 300 fb-1. The charged component of the triplet is pair produced at the LHC, which results in a striking signal in the form of a pair of Wγ resonances with an irreducible rate of 0.27 fb. Other signatures include multiboson final states from cascade decays of the triplet-singlet neutral states. In conclusion, a large class of composite models feature both EW singlet and triplet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in their spectrum, with the diboson couplings generated by axial anomalies.

  1. Diphotons from electroweak triplet-singlet mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Kiel; Knapen, Simon; Robinson, Dean J.

    2016-08-23

    The neutral component of a real pseudoscalar electroweak (EW) triplet can produce a diphoton excess at 750 GeV, if it is somewhat mixed with an EW singlet pseudoscalar. This triplet-singlet mixing allows for greater freedom in the diboson branching ratios than the singlet-only case, but it is still possible to probe the parameter space extensively with 300 fb-1. The charged component of the triplet is pair produced at the LHC, which results in a striking signal in the form of a pair of Wγ resonances with an irreducible rate of 0.27 fb. Other signatures include multiboson final states from cascade decays of the triplet-singlet neutral states. In conclusion, a large class of composite models feature both EW singlet and triplet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in their spectrum, with the diboson couplings generated by axial anomalies.

  2. Diphotons from electroweak triplet-singlet mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Howe, Kiel; Knapen, Simon; Robinson, Dean J.

    2016-08-23

    The neutral component of a real pseudoscalar electroweak (EW) triplet can produce a diphoton excess at 750 GeV, if it is somewhat mixed with an EW singlet pseudoscalar. This triplet-singlet mixing allows for greater freedom in the diboson branching ratios than the singlet-only case, but it is still possible to probe the parameter space extensively with 300 fb-1. The charged component of the triplet is pair produced at the LHC, which results in a striking signal in the form of a pair of Wγ resonances with an irreducible rate of 0.27 fb. Other signatures include multiboson final states from cascade decays ofmore » the triplet-singlet neutral states. In conclusion, a large class of composite models feature both EW singlet and triplet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in their spectrum, with the diboson couplings generated by axial anomalies.« less

  3. Towards building artificial light harvesting complexes: enhanced singlet-singlet energy transfer between donor and acceptor pairs bound to albumins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Challa V; Duff, Michael R

    2008-12-01

    Specific donor and acceptor pairs have been assembled in bovine serum albumin (BSA), at neutral pH and room temperature, and these dye-protein complexes indicated efficient donor to acceptor singlet-singlet energy transfer. For example, pyrene-1-butyric acid served as the donor and Coumarin 540A served as the acceptor. Both the donor and the acceptor bind to BSA with affinity constants in excess of 2x10(5) M(-1), as measured in absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectral titrations. Simultaneous binding of both the donor and the acceptor chromophores was supported by CD spectra and one chromophore did not displace the other from the protein host, even when limited concentrations of the host were used. For example, a 1:1:1 complex between the donor, acceptor and the host can be readily formed, and spectral data clearly show that the binding sites are mutually exclusive. The ternary complexes (two different ligands bound to the same protein molecule) provided opportunities to examine singlet-singlet energy transfer between the protein-bound chromophores. Donor emission was quenched by the addition of the acceptor, in the presence of limited amounts of BSA, while no energy transfer was observed in the absence of the protein host, under the same conditions. The excitation spectra of the donor-acceptor-host complexes clearly show the sensitization of acceptor emission by the donor. Protein denaturation, as induced by the addition of urea or increasing the temperature to 360 K, inhibited energy transfer, which indicate that protein structure plays an important role. Sensitization also proceeded at low temperature (77 K) and diffusion of the donor or the acceptor is not required for energy transfer. Stern-Volmer quenching plots show that the quenching constant is (3.1+/-0.2)x10(4) M(-1), at low acceptor concentrations (<35 microM). Other albumins such as human and porcine proteins also served as good hosts for the above experiments. For the first time, non

  4. Sigma meson and lowest possible glueball candidate in an extended linear {sigma} model

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Tamal K.; Huang Mei; Yan Qishu

    2012-10-23

    We formulate an extended linear {sigma} model of a quarkonia nonet and a tetraquark nonet as well as a complex iso-singlet (glueball) field to study the low-lying scalar meson. Chiral symmetry and U{sub A}(1) symmetry and their breaking play important role to shape the scalar meson spectrum in our work. Based on our study we will comment on what may be the mass of the lowest possible scalar and pseudoscalar glueball states. We will also discuss on what may be the nature of the sigma or f{sub 0}(600) meson.

  5. Photo-assisted intersystem crossing: The predominant triplet formation mechanism in some isolated polycyclic aromatic molecules excited with pulsed lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2015-07-28

    Naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene are shown to have very long-lived triplet lifetimes when the isolated molecules are excited with nanosecond pulsed lasers resonant with the lowest singlet state. For naphthalene, triplet state populations are created only during the laser pulse, excluding the possibility of normal intersystem crossing at the one photon level, and all molecules have triplet lifetimes greater than hundreds of microseconds, similar to the behavior previously reported for phenylacetylene. Although containing 7–12 thousand cm⁻¹ of vibrational energy, the triplet molecules have ionization thresholds appropriate to vibrationless T₁ states. The laser power dependences (slopes of log-log power plots) ofmore » the excited singlet and triplet populations are about 0.7 for naphthalene and about 0.5 for anthracene. Kinetic modeling of the power dependences successfully reproduces the experimental results and suggests that the triplet formation mechanism involves an enhanced spin orbit coupling caused by sigma character in states at the 2-photon level. Symmetry Adapted Cluster-Configuration Interaction calculations produced excited state absorption spectra to provide guidance for estimating kinetic rates and the sigma character present in higher electronic states. It is concluded that higher excited state populations are significant when larger molecules are excited with pulsed lasers and need to be taken into account whenever discussing the molecular photodynamics.« less

  6. Photo-assisted intersystem crossing: The predominant triplet formation mechanism in some isolated polycyclic aromatic molecules excited with pulsed lasers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip M; Sears, Trevor J

    2015-07-28

    Naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene are shown to have very long-lived triplet lifetimes when the isolated molecules are excited with nanosecond pulsed lasers resonant with the lowest singlet state. For naphthalene, triplet state populations are created only during the laser pulse, excluding the possibility of normal intersystem crossing at the one photon level, and all molecules have triplet lifetimes greater than hundreds of microseconds, similar to the behavior previously reported for phenylacetylene. Although containing 7-12 thousand cm(-1) of vibrational energy, the triplet molecules have ionization thresholds appropriate to vibrationless T1 states. The laser power dependences (slopes of log-log power plots) of the excited singlet and triplet populations are about 0.7 for naphthalene and about 0.5 for anthracene. Kinetic modeling of the power dependences successfully reproduces the experimental results and suggests that the triplet formation mechanism involves an enhanced spin orbit coupling caused by sigma character in states at the 2-photon level. Symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculations produced excited state absorption spectra to provide guidance for estimating kinetic rates and the sigma character present in higher electronic states. It is concluded that higher excited state populations are significant when larger molecules are excited with pulsed lasers and need to be taken into account whenever discussing the molecular photodynamics.

  7. Photo-assisted intersystem crossing: The predominant triplet formation mechanism in some isolated polycyclic aromatic molecules excited with pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2015-07-28

    Naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene are shown to have very long-lived triplet lifetimes when the isolated molecules are excited with nanosecond pulsed lasers resonant with the lowest singlet state. For naphthalene, triplet state populations are created only during the laser pulse, excluding the possibility of normal intersystem crossing at the one photon level, and all molecules have triplet lifetimes greater than hundreds of microseconds, similar to the behavior previously reported for phenylacetylene. Although containing 7–12 thousand cm⁻¹ of vibrational energy, the triplet molecules have ionization thresholds appropriate to vibrationless T₁ states. The laser power dependences (slopes of log-log power plots) of the excited singlet and triplet populations are about 0.7 for naphthalene and about 0.5 for anthracene. Kinetic modeling of the power dependences successfully reproduces the experimental results and suggests that the triplet formation mechanism involves an enhanced spin orbit coupling caused by sigma character in states at the 2-photon level. Symmetry Adapted Cluster-Configuration Interaction calculations produced excited state absorption spectra to provide guidance for estimating kinetic rates and the sigma character present in higher electronic states. It is concluded that higher excited state populations are significant when larger molecules are excited with pulsed lasers and need to be taken into account whenever discussing the molecular photodynamics.

  8. Photo-assisted intersystem crossing: The predominant triplet formation mechanism in some isolated polycyclic aromatic molecules excited with pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2015-07-01

    Naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene are shown to have very long-lived triplet lifetimes when the isolated molecules are excited with nanosecond pulsed lasers resonant with the lowest singlet state. For naphthalene, triplet state populations are created only during the laser pulse, excluding the possibility of normal intersystem crossing at the one photon level, and all molecules have triplet lifetimes greater than hundreds of microseconds, similar to the behavior previously reported for phenylacetylene. Although containing 7-12 thousand cm-1 of vibrational energy, the triplet molecules have ionization thresholds appropriate to vibrationless T1 states. The laser power dependences (slopes of log-log power plots) of the excited singlet and triplet populations are about 0.7 for naphthalene and about 0.5 for anthracene. Kinetic modeling of the power dependences successfully reproduces the experimental results and suggests that the triplet formation mechanism involves an enhanced spin orbit coupling caused by sigma character in states at the 2-photon level. Symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculations produced excited state absorption spectra to provide guidance for estimating kinetic rates and the sigma character present in higher electronic states. It is concluded that higher excited state populations are significant when larger molecules are excited with pulsed lasers and need to be taken into account whenever discussing the molecular photodynamics.

  9. Photo-assisted intersystem crossing: The predominant triplet formation mechanism in some isolated polycyclic aromatic molecules excited with pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2015-07-28

    Naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene are shown to have very long-lived triplet lifetimes when the isolated molecules are excited with nanosecond pulsed lasers resonant with the lowest singlet state. For naphthalene, triplet state populations are created only during the laser pulse, excluding the possibility of normal intersystem crossing at the one photon level, and all molecules have triplet lifetimes greater than hundreds of microseconds, similar to the behavior previously reported for phenylacetylene. Although containing 7–12 thousand cm{sup −1} of vibrational energy, the triplet molecules have ionization thresholds appropriate to vibrationless T{sub 1} states. The laser power dependences (slopes of log-log power plots) of the excited singlet and triplet populations are about 0.7 for naphthalene and about 0.5 for anthracene. Kinetic modeling of the power dependences successfully reproduces the experimental results and suggests that the triplet formation mechanism involves an enhanced spin orbit coupling caused by sigma character in states at the 2-photon level. Symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculations produced excited state absorption spectra to provide guidance for estimating kinetic rates and the sigma character present in higher electronic states. It is concluded that higher excited state populations are significant when larger molecules are excited with pulsed lasers and need to be taken into account whenever discussing the molecular photodynamics.

  10. Singlet oxygen induced advanced glycation end-product photobleaching of in vivo human fingertip autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bin; Simental, Anabel; Lutz, Patrick; Shaheen, George; Chaiken, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of ubiquitous proteins in vivo leads to irreversible formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Due to their relatively long half life and low clearance rate AGEs tend to accumulate within static tissues and the circulatory system. Spectra obtained using 830 nm near-infrared (NIR) excitation suggest that the so-called "autofluorescence" from all tissues has a finite number of sources but the fact that senior and diabetic subjects produce more than other members of the general population suggests that a significant portion of the total autofluorescence from all sources originates from AGEs. Using pentosidine generated in a reaction mixture as described by Monnier as representative, an in vitro study unveiled very similar fluorescence and photobleaching pattern as observed for autofluorescence in vivo. A series of oxygen, air and argon purging experiments on the pentosidine-generating reaction mixture suggests that pentosidine is a singlet oxygen sensitizer and secondary reactions between the pentosidine itself and/or other fluorophores and the photosensitized singlet oxygen explain the observed photobleaching. Ab initio Gaussian calculations on pentosidine reveal the existence of low-lying triplet excited states required for the sensitization of ground state oxygen. A commercially available product known as singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) that specifically serves as a singlet oxygen detection reagent confirms the generation of singlet oxygen from NIR irradiated pentosidine trimixture. This study provides one definite chemical mechanism for understanding in vivo human skin autofluorescence and photobleaching.

  11. Self-Consistent Optimization of Excited States within Density-Functional Tight-Binding.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Tim; Le, Khoa; Irle, Stephan

    2016-01-12

    We present an implementation of energies and gradients for the ΔDFTB method, an analogue of Δ-self-consistent-field density functional theory (ΔSCF) within density-functional tight-binding, for the lowest singlet excited state of closed-shell molecules. Benchmarks of ΔDFTB excitation energies, optimized geometries, Stokes shifts, and vibrational frequencies reveal that ΔDFTB provides a qualitatively correct description of changes in molecular geometries and vibrational frequencies due to excited-state relaxation. The accuracy of ΔDFTB Stokes shifts is comparable to that of ΔSCF-DFT, and ΔDFTB performs similarly to ΔSCF with the PBE functional for vertical excitation energies of larger chromophores where the need for efficient excited-state methods is most urgent. We provide some justification for the use of an excited-state reference density in the DFTB expansion of the electronic energy and demonstrate that ΔDFTB preserves many of the properties of its parent ΔSCF approach. This implementation fills an important gap in the extended framework of DFTB, where access to excited states has been limited to the time-dependent linear-response approach, and affords access to rapid exploration of a valuable class of excited-state potential energy surfaces.

  12. Singlet-Doublet Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron; Tucker-Smith, David; /Williams Coll.

    2012-02-15

    In light of recent data from direct detection experiments and the Large Hadron Collider, we explore models of dark matter in which an SU(2){sub L} doublet is mixed with a Standard Model singlet. We impose a thermal history. If the new particles are fermions, this model is already constrained due to null results from XENON100. We comment on remaining regions of parameter space and assess prospects for future discovery. We do the same for the model where the new particles are scalars, which at present is less constrained. Much of the remaining parameter space for both models will be probed by the next generation of direct detection experiments. For the fermion model, DeepCore may also play an important role.

  13. Tristability arising from singlet-triplet and quartet spin states for dimeric Co(II)salen.

    PubMed

    Min, Kil Sik; Arthur, Jordan; Shum, William W; Bharathy, Muktha; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Miller, Joel S

    2009-06-01

    The magnetic behavior of N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideniminato)cobalt(II) (Co(II)Salen, 1) has been reinvestigated and reveals spin-crossover behavior above 295 K. It has a singlet ground state and a triplet excited state at 30 K (21 cm(-1); 60 cal/mol) above the ground state, and at a higher temperature spin crossover to the quartet, a second excited state occurs.

  14. Lowest Landau level diamagnetic fluctuations in niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem-Sugui, Said; Friesen, M.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Schilling, Osvaldo F.; Gandra, F. G.; Doria, M. M.

    2004-08-01

    We have performed a magnetic study of a bulk metallic sample of Nb with critical temperature Tc = 8.5 K. Magnetization measurements taken for magnetic fields greater than 1 kOe show a superconducting transition that becomes broader as the field is increased. The data are well described by lowest Landau level (LLL) fluctuation theory. A scaling analysis yields values for the superconducting transition temperature under field Tc( H) which are consistent with Hc2( T).

  15. The lowest ionization potentials of Al2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of Al2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the Al2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of Al3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an Al2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of Al2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.

  16. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen - iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Pershin, A. A.; Torbin, A. P.; Heaven, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O2(a 1Δ) + O3(ν) → 2O2 + O on the removal rate of O2(a 1Δ) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen - iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O2(a 1Δ) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O2(a 1Δ) in the discharge region of the generator.

  17. The lowest Landau level in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Endrőodi, Gergely; Giordano, Matteo; Katz, Sándor D.; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc; Wellnhofer, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in external (electro-)magnetic fields shows some unexpected features like inverse magnetic catalysis, which have been revealed mainly through lattice studies. Many effective descriptions, on the other hand, use Landau levels or approximate the system by just the lowest Landau level (LLL). Analyzing lattice configurations we ask whether such a picture is justified. We find the LLL to be separated from the rest by a spectral gap in the two-dimensional Dirac operator and analyze the corresponding LLL signature in four dimensions. We determine to what extent the quark condensate is LLL dominated at strong magnetic fields.

  18. Triplet excited states of cyclic disulfides and related compounds: electronic structures, geometries, energies, and decay.

    PubMed

    Ginagunta, Saroja; Bucher, Götz

    2011-02-03

    We have performed a computational study on the properties of a series of heterocycles bearing two adjacent heteroatoms, focusing on the structures and electronic properties of their first excited triplet states. If the heteroatoms are both heavy chalcogens (S, Se, or Te) or isoelectronic species, then the lowest excited triplet state usually has (π*, σ*) character. The triplet energies are fairly low (30-50 kcal mol(-1)). The (π*, σ*) triplet states are characterized by a significantly lengthened bond between the two heteroatoms. Thus, in 1,2-dithiolane (1b), the S-S bond length is calculated to be 2.088 Å in the singlet ground state and 2.568 Å in the first triplet excited state. The spin density is predicted to be localized almost exclusively on the sulfur atoms. Replacing one heavy chalcogen atom by an oxygen atom or an NR group results in a significant destabilization of the (π*, σ*) triplet excited state, which then no longer is lower in energy than an open-chain biradical. The size of the heterocyclic ring also contributes to the stability of the (π*, σ*) triplet state, with five-membered rings being more favorable than six-membered rings. Benzoannulation, finally, usually lowers the energy of the (π*, σ*) triplet excited states. If one of the heteroatoms is an oxygen or nitrogen atom, however, the corresponding lowest triplet states are better described as σ,π-biradicals.

  19. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O iii]/[O ii] ∼ 10–60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}ȯ )∼ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  20. An experiment on Lowest Unique Integer Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takashi; Hanaki, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally study Lowest Unique Integer Games (LUIGs) to determine if and how subjects self-organize into different behavioral classes. In a LUIG, N(≥ 3) players submit a positive integer up to M and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. LUIGs are simplified versions of real systems such as Lowest/Highest Unique Bid Auctions that have been attracting attention from scholars, yet experimental studies are scarce. Furthermore, LUIGs offer insights into choice patterns that can shed light on the alleviation of congestion problems. Here, we consider four LUIGs with N = { 3 , 4 } and M = { 3 , 4 } . We find that (a) choices made by more than 1/3 of subjects were not significantly different from what a symmetric mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) predicts; however, (b) subjects who behaved significantly differently from what the MSE predicts won the game more frequently. What distinguishes subjects was their tendencies to change their choices following losses.

  1. On the population of triplet excited states of 6-aza-2-thiothymine.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos

    2013-07-11

    The mechanisms of population of the lowest excited triplet states of 6-aza-2-thiothymine were investigated by means of CASPT2//CASSCF quantum-chemical calculations, with extensive atomic natural orbital basis sets of double-ζ quality (ANO-L-VDZP). Several key structures corresponding to equilibrium geometries, surface crossings, minimum energy paths, and linear interpolation in internal coordinates were used to explain the ability to sensitize molecular oxygen. After population of the S2(1)(ππ*) state, the system evolves to the state minimum. At this point, and along the minimum energy path of the (1)(ππ*) state, two main mechanisms related to the triplet and singlet manifolds can be visualized, leading the system to the lowest triplet state, T1(3)(ππ*).

  2. Theoretical study of K-shell excitations in formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, A. B.; Moskovskaya, T. E.; Gromov, E. V.; Köppel, H.; Schirmer, J.

    2001-08-01

    The C 1s and O 1s excitation of formaldehyde (H2CO) has been studied within an ab initio framework. The second-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction [ADC(2)] polarization propagator method has been used to calculate energies and oscillator strengths of the electronic transitions. For selected C 1s excited states also multireference configuration-interaction (MRCI) calculations were performed. The vibrational excitations accompanying the electronic transitions have been studied using a linear vibronic coupling model. The theoretical C 1s and O 1s spectra are in excellent qualitative agreement with high-resolution K-shell photoabsorption measurements. The present results support the previous assignments of the C 1s spectrum, while they revise the interpretation of the O 1s spectrum above 537 eV. In contrast to the C 1s case, the main photoabsorption intensity in the O 1s spectrum is due to nd rather than to np Rydberg excitations. For the two lowest singlet excited states, that is, the 1B1(C 1s-->π*) single excitation and the 1B2(C 1s,n-->π*2) double excitation, we find vibronic interaction with the 1A1(C 1s-->3s) and 1A2(C 1s-->3d) Rydberg states via the ν4 out-of-plane bending mode. In addition, the 1B2(C 1s,n-->π*2) and the 1A1(C 1s-->3s) states interact via the ν5 mode. The vibronic coupling leads to a complex spectral pattern in the low-energy part of the C 1s excitation spectrum, allowing one to interpret the finer details of the experiment.

  3. Stability of meoru (Vitis coignetiea) anthocyanins under photochemically produced singlet oxygen by riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonjung; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Munyhung; Choe, Eunok

    2010-09-30

    This study investigated the stability of meoru (wild vine grape) anthocyanins in the aqueous solution under singlet oxygen. Freeze-dried meoru (1 kg) contained 179.98 mg anthocyanins including delphinidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Malvidin-3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were the meoru anthocyanins at the highest and the lowest concentration, respectively. Little decrease in total anthocyanins in the aqueous solution was observed in the dark with or without riboflavin, or with light without riboflavin. Singlet oxygen degraded the meoru anthocyanins in the aqueous solution, which suggested chemical quenching of singlet oxygen by the anthocyanins. Degradation of the meoru anthocyanins was structure-dependent; diglucoside anthocyanins were more stable than monoglucoside. And malvidin glucoside was more stable than delphinidin or cyanidin glucoside, which suggested the number of hydroxy groups in the structure was partly related with the anthocyanin stability under singlet oxygen. This is the first report on anthocyanins stability affected by its structure under singlet oxygen.

  4. The Antitumor Effect of Singlet Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2016-11-01

    Tumor cells are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase and superoxide dismutase. Exogenous singlet oxygen derived from activated photosensitizers or from cold atmospheric plasma causes local inactivation of protective catalase which is followed by the generation of secondary extracellular singlet oxygen. This process is specific for tumor cells and is driven by a complex interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Secondary singlet oxygen has the potential for autoamplification of its generation, resulting in optimal inactivation of protective catalase and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. An increase in the endogenous NO concentration also causes inactivation of catalase and autoamplificatory generation of secondary singlet oxygen. This principle is essential for the antitumor activity of secondary plant products, such as cyanidins and other inhibitors of NO dioxygenase. It seems that the action of the established chemotherapeutic taxol and the recently established antitumor effect of certain azoles are based on the same principles.

  5. Solution-processable singlet fission photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Bayliss, Sam L; Böhm, Marcus L; Broch, Katharina; Greenham, Neil C; Friend, Richard H; Ehrler, Bruno

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate the successful incorporation of a solution-processable singlet fission material, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene), into photovoltaic devices. TIPS-pentacene rapidly converts high-energy singlet excitons into pairs of triplet excitons via singlet fission, potentially doubling the photocurrent from high-energy photons. Low-energy photons are captured by small-bandgap electron-accepting lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. This is the first solution-processable singlet fission system that performs with substantial efficiency with maximum power conversion efficiencies exceeding 4.8%, and external quantum efficiencies of up to 60% in the TIPS-pentacene absorption range. With PbSe nanocrystal of suitable bandgap, its internal quantum efficiency reaches 170 ± 30%.

  6. Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Oligoacene Heterodimers

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Sfeir, Matthew L.; Campos, Luis M.

    2016-02-02

    In this Communication we investigate singlet fission (SF) in heterodimers comprising a pentacene unit covalently bonded to another acene as we systematically vary the singlet and triplet pair energies. We find that these energies control the SF process, where dimers undergo SF provided that the resulting triplet pair energy is similar or lower in energy than the singlet state. In these systems the singlet energy is determined by the lower energy chromophore, and the rate of SF is found to be relatively independent of the driving force. However, triplet pair recombination in these heterodimers follows the energy gap law. The ability to tune the energies of these materials provides a key strategy to study and design new SF materials – an important process for third generation photovoltaics.

  7. Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Oligoacene Heterodimers

    DOE PAGES

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this Communication we investigate singlet fission (SF) in heterodimers comprising a pentacene unit covalently bonded to another acene as we systematically vary the singlet and triplet pair energies. We find that these energies control the SF process, where dimers undergo SF provided that the resulting triplet pair energy is similar or lower in energy than the singlet state. In these systems the singlet energy is determined by the lower energy chromophore, and the rate of SF is found to be relatively independent of the driving force. However, triplet pair recombination in these heterodimers follows the energy gap law. Themore » ability to tune the energies of these materials provides a key strategy to study and design new SF materials – an important process for third generation photovoltaics.« less

  8. Transient photocurrent in molecular junctions: singlet switching on and triplet blocking.

    PubMed

    Petrov, E G; Leonov, V O; Snitsarev, V

    2013-05-14

    The kinetic approach adapted to describe charge transmission in molecular junctions, is used for the analysis of the photocurrent under conditions of moderate light intensity of the photochromic molecule. In the framework of the HOMO-LUMO model for the single electron molecular states, the analytic expressions describing the temporary behavior of the transient and steady state sequential (hopping) as well as direct (tunnel) current components have been derived. The conditions at which the current components achieve their maximal values are indicated. It is shown that if the rates of charge transmission in the unbiased molecular diode are much lower than the intramolecular singlet-singlet excitation/de-excitation rate, and the threefold degenerated triplet excited state of the molecule behaves like a trap blocking the charge transmission, a possibility of a large peak-like transient switch-on photocurrent arises.

  9. Assessment of Functionals for TD-DFT Calculations of Singlet-Triplet Transitions.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2010-05-11

    The calculation of transition energies for electronically excited states remains a challenge in quantum chemistry, for which time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is often viewed as a balanced (computational effort/obtained accuracy) technique. In this study, we benchmark 34 DFT functionals in the specific framework of TD-DFT calculations for singlet-triplet transitions. The results are compared to accurate wave function data reported for the same set of 63 excited-states, and it turns out that, within the selected TD-DFT framework, BMK and M06-2X emerge as the most efficient hybrids. This investigation clearly illustrates that the conclusions drawn for singlet excited states do not necessarily hold for triplet states, even for similar molecular structures.

  10. Vortex distribution in the lowest Landau level

    SciTech Connect

    Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Nier, Francis

    2006-01-15

    We study the vortex distribution of the wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy for a fast rotating condensate in the lowest Landau level (LLL): we prove that the minimizer cannot have a finite number of zeroes, thus the lattice is infinite, but not uniform. This uses the explicit expression of the projector onto the LLL. We also show that any slow varying envelope function can be approximated in the LLL by distorting the lattice. This is used in particular to approximate the inverted parabola and understand the role of 'invisible' vortices: the distortion of the lattice is very small in the Thomas-Fermi region but quite large outside, where the 'invisible' vortices lie.

  11. Effects of heteroatoms of tetracene and pentacene derivatives on their stability and singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhan; Shen, Li; Li, Xiyou

    2014-07-31

    The effects of the introduction of an sp(2)-hybridized nitrogen atom (═N-) and thiophene ring on the structure geometries, frontier molecular orbital energies, and excited state energies related to singlet fission (SF) for some tetracene and pentacene derivatives were theoretically investigated by quantum chemical methods. The introduction of a nitrogen atom significantly decreases the energies of frontier molecular orbitals and hence improves their stabilities in air and light illumination. More importantly, it is helpful for reducing the energy loss of the exothermic singlet fission of pentacene derivatives. For fused benzene-thiophene structures, the (α, β) connection pattern could stabilize the frontier molecular orbitals, while the (β, β) connection pattern can promote the thermodynamic driving force of singlet fission. These facts provide a theoretical ground for rational design of SF materials.

  12. The excited-state decay mechanism of 2,4-dithiothymine in the gas phase, microsolvated surroundings, and aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Wang, Qian; Guo, Wei-Wei; Cui, Ganglong

    2017-03-15

    The photophysics of thiothymines has been extensively studied computationally in the past few years due to their significant potential as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. However, the corresponding computational studies of the photophysical mechanism of 2,4-dithiothymine are scarce. Herein we have employed the CASPT2//CASSCF and QM(CASPT2//CASSCF)/MM methods to systematically explore the excited-state decay mechanism of 2,4-dithiothymine in isolated, microsolvated, and aqueous surroundings. First, we have optimized minima and conical intersections in and between the lowest six excited singlet and triplet states i.e., , , , , and ; then, based on computed excited-state decay paths and spin-orbit couplings, we have proposed several nonadiabatic pathways that efficiently populate the lowest triplet state to explain the experimentally observed ultrahigh triplet-state quantum yield. Moreover, we have found that the excited-state decay mechanism in microsolvated and aqueous environments is more complicated than that in the gas phase. The solute-solvent interaction has significant effects on the excited-state potential energy surfaces of 2,4-dithiothymine and eventually on its excited-state decay mechanism. Finally, the present computational efforts contribute important mechanistic knowledge to the understanding of the photophysics of thiothymine-based photosensitizers.

  13. Scope and limitations of the TEMPO/EPR method for singlet oxygen detection: the misleading role of electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Giacomo; Manet, Ilse; Monti, Sandra; Miranda, Miguel A; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie

    2014-12-01

    For many biological and biomedical studies, it is essential to detect the production of (1)O2 and quantify its production yield. Among the available methods, detection of the characteristic 1270-nm phosphorescence of singlet oxygen by time-resolved near-infrared (TRNIR) emission constitutes the most direct and unambiguous approach. An alternative indirect method is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in combination with a singlet oxygen probe. This is based on the detection of the TEMPO free radical formed after oxidation of TEMP (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) by singlet oxygen. Although the TEMPO/EPR method has been widely employed, it can produce misleading data. This is demonstrated by the present study, in which the quantum yields of singlet oxygen formation obtained by TRNIR emission and by the TEMPO/EPR method are compared for a set of well-known photosensitizers. The results reveal that the TEMPO/EPR method leads to significant overestimation of singlet oxygen yield when the singlet or triplet excited state of the photosensitizer is efficiently quenched by TEMP, acting as electron donor. In such case, generation of the TEMP(+) radical cation, followed by deprotonation and reaction with molecular oxygen, gives rise to an EPR-detectable TEMPO signal that is not associated with singlet oxygen production. This knowledge is essential for an appropriate and error-free application of the TEMPO/EPR method in chemical, biological, and medical studies.

  14. Tuning the role of charge-transfer states in intramolecular singlet exciton fission through side-group engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lukman, Steven; Chen, Kai; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Turban, David H. P.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.; Dong, Shaoqiang; Wu, Jishan; Greenham, Neil C.; Musser, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of singlet exciton fission, in which a singlet exciton separates into a pair of triplet excitons, is crucial to the development of new chromophores for efficient fission-sensitized solar cells. The challenge of controlling molecular packing and energy levels in the solid state precludes clear determination of the singlet fission pathway. Here, we circumvent this difficulty by utilizing covalent dimers of pentacene with two types of side groups. We report rapid and efficient intramolecular singlet fission in both molecules, in one case via a virtual charge-transfer state and in the other via a distinct charge-transfer intermediate. The singlet fission pathway is governed by the energy gap between singlet and charge-transfer states, which change dynamically with molecular geometry but are primarily set by the side group. These results clearly establish the role of charge-transfer states in singlet fission and highlight the importance of solubilizing groups to optimize excited-state photophysics. PMID:27924819

  15. A helpful technology--the luminescence detection of singlet oxygen to investigate photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PDIB).

    PubMed

    Regensburger, Johannes; Maisch, Tim; Felgenträger, Ariane; Santarelli, Francesco; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PDIB) is considered a new approach for the struggle against multiresistant bacteria. To achieve a sufficient level of bacteria killing, the photosensitizer must attach to and/or penetrate the bacteria and generate a sufficiently high amount of singlet oxygen. To optimize PDIB, the direct detection and quantification of singlet oxygen in bacteria is a helpful tool. Singlet-oxygen luminescence is a very weak signal, in particular in living bacteria. We first performed experiments in aqueous photosensitizer solution to optimize the luminescence system. We eliminated non-singlet-oxygen photons, which is important for the quantification of singlet oxygen and its rise and decay rates. This procedure is even more important when the laser excitation beam is scattered by bacteria (diameter 1 microm). In suspensions with both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria we then clearly detected singlet oxygen by its luminescence and determined the respective rise and decay times. The decay times should provide an indication of localization of singlet oxygen and hence of the photosensitizer even in small bacteria. (c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Light-induced self-nitrosation of polycyclic phenols with nitrosamine. Excited state proton transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Y.L.; Wu, Z.Z.

    1987-08-19

    Photoexcitation of polycyclic phenols in the presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine caused the self-nitrosation of the phenols to give 1,2- or 1,4-quinone monooximes. With use of naphthols as models the key step of the photonitrosation was shown to be a dual sensitization process from the lowest singlet excited state of naphthols by proton transfer followed by energy migration within an exciplex to cause the known homolysis of the nitrosamine; it is assumed that the resulting radical species undergo nitrosation of naphtholates. The crucial requirement of the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) reaction is established by quenching of the photonitrosation by general bases, such as water and TEA, with quenching rate constants close to those of naphthol fluorescence by these bases.

  17. On large amplitude motions of simplest amides in the ground and excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukachev, N. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Godunov, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    For the formamide, acetamide, N-methylformamide and N-methylacetamide molecules in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) electronic states equilibrium geometry parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies, barriers to conformational transitions and conformer energy differences were estimated by means of MP2, CCSD(T), CASSCF, CASPT2 and MRCI ab initio methods. One-, two- and three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) sections corresponding to different large amplitude motions (LAM) were calculated by means of MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (S0) and CASPT2/cc-pVTZ (S1,T1). For these molecules, in each excited electronic state six minima were found on 2D PES sections. Using PES sections, different anharmonic vibrational problems were solved and the frequencies of large amplitude vibrations were determined.

  18. Effect of structural distortion and polarization in localization of electronic excitations in organic semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyar, Iffat; Batista, Enrique; Tretiak, Sergei; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl; Martin, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Organic polymers find varied applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, light emitting diodes and lasers. Detailed understanding of charge carrier transport by polarons and excitonic energy transfer producing singlet and triplet excitations is critical to improve their efficiency. We benchmarked the ability of current functional models to describe the spatial extent of self-trapped neutral and charged excitations for MEH-PPV owing to its superior luminescence and experimental evidence. Now we are interested in distinguishing between two distinct origins leading to localization; spatial localization of the wavefunction by itself on the undistorted geometry and localization of the wavefunction assured by distortion of the structure during its relaxation. We suggest localization is produced by electronic rearrangements and character of the functional. We also observe that different functionals place the highest occupied and lowest virtual orbitals at different positions in the energy band diagram based on their ability to predict the extent of localization of these states.

  19. Effect of structural modifications on the spectroscopic properties and dynamics of the excited states of peridinin

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Kajikawa, Takayuki; Katsumura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Hideki; Frank, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties and dynamics of the lowest excited singlet states of peridinin and two derivatives have been studied by steady-state absorption and fast-transient optical spectroscopic techniques. One derivative denoted PerOlEs, possesses a double bond and a methyl ester group instead of the r-ylid-enebutenolide of peridinin. Another derivative denoted PerAcEs, is the biosynthetic precursor of peridinin and possesses a triple bond and a methyl ester group corresponding to the r-ylidenbutenolide function. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopic experiments in the visible and near-infrared regions were performed on the molecules and reveal the energies and regarding the structural features and interactions responsible for the unusual solvent-induced changes in the steady-state and transient absorption spectra and dynamics of dynamics of the excited electronic states. The data also provide information peridinin. PMID:19000898

  20. TDDFT study on the excited-state proton transfer of 8-hydroxyquinoline: key role of the excited-state hydrogen-bond strengthening.

    PubMed

    Lan, Sheng-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Hui

    2015-03-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been employed to study the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). Infrared spectra of 8HQ in both the ground and the lowest singlet excited states have been calculated, revealing a red-shift of the hydroxyl group (-OH) stretching band in the excited state. Hence, the intramolecular hydrogen bond (O-H···N) in 8HQ would be significantly strengthened upon photo-excitation to the S1 state. As the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction occurs through hydrogen bonding, the ESIPT reaction of 8HQ is effectively facilitated by strengthening of the electronic excited-state hydrogen bond (O-H···N). As a result, the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction would occur on an ultrafast timescale with a negligible barrier in the calculated potential energy curve for the ESIPT reaction. Therefore, although the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction is not favorable in the ground state, the ESIPT process is feasible in the excited state. Finally, we have identified that radiationless deactivation via internal conversion (IC) becomes the main dissipative channel for 8HQ by analyzing the energy gaps between the S1 and S0 states for the enol and keto forms.

  1. Monitoring of the energy levels by heteroatom substitution to hexacene and controlling over singlet fission and photo-oxidative resistance.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Subhankar

    2017-06-01

    The singlet fission is a spin allowed and extremely fast internal conversion process involved in solar cell by which a photo-excited singlet exciton is splitted into two triplet ones. For effective singlet fission and to increase the efficiency of solar cell, designing of new molecules is an interesting area of research and our current interest. The silicon substituted oligocenes, commonly known as silaoligocenes, are found to be the efficient singlet fission material due to their special characteristics. We have shown the SF energy criteria satisfied by the singlet and triplet states of various silahexacene derivatives, and theoretically predicted whether such molecules exhibit fission properties or not. The fluorine atoms have been substituted to various positions of different silahexacenes to manipulate their singlet and triplet energy levels. As fluorine being the most electro-negative substituent, it is capable of lowering frontier molecular orbital energies effectively. Thus, the material can easily match SF energy criteria to compute the SF driving force or triplet-triplet annihilation possibility. The geometries, electronic structures, frontier molecular orbital energies, optimization of excited state and calculation of energies associated with fission process of the substituted hexacene are investigated with well known quantum mechanical methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Supramolecular nanoreactors for intracellular singlet-oxygen sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Subramani; Fowley, Colin; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; McCaughan, Bridgeen; Tang, Sicheng; Fraix, Aurore; Burjor, Captain; Sortino, Salvatore; Callan, John F.; Raymo, Françisco M.

    2015-08-01

    An amphiphilic polymer with multiple decyl and oligo(ethylene glycol) chains attached to a common poly(methacrylate) backbone assembles into nanoscaled particles in aqueous environments. Hydrophobic anthracene and borondipyrromethene (BODIPY) chromophores can be co-encapsulated within the self-assembling nanoparticles and transported across hydrophilic media. The reversible character of the noncovalent bonds, holding the supramolecular containers together, permits the exchange of their components with fast kinetics in aqueous solution. Incubation of cervical cancer (HeLA) cells with a mixture of two sets of nanoparticles, pre-loaded independently with anthracene or BODIPY chromophores, results in guest scrambling first and then transport of co-entrapped species to the intracellular space. Alternatively, incubation of cells with the two sets of nanocarriers in consecutive steps permits the sequential transport of the anthracene and BODIPY chromophores across the plasma membrane and only then allows their co-encapsulation within the same supramolecular containers. Both mechanisms position the two sets of chromophores with complementary spectral overlap in close proximity to enable the efficient transfer of energy intracellularly from the anthracene donors to the BODIPY acceptors. In the presence of iodine substituents on the BODIPY platform, intersystem crossing follows energy transfer. The resulting triplet state can transfer energy further to molecular oxygen with the concomitant production of singlet oxygen to induce cell mortality. Furthermore, the donor can be excited with two near-infrared photons simultaneously to permit the photoinduced generation of singlet oxygen intracellularly under illumination conditions compatible with applications in vivo. Thus, these supramolecular strategies to control the excitation dynamics of multichromophoric assemblies in the intracellular environment can evolve into valuable protocols for photodynamic therapy.An amphiphilic

  3. A Description of Vibrational Modes in Hexaphyrins: Understanding the Aromaticity Reversal in the Lowest Triplet State.

    PubMed

    Sung, Young Mo; Oh, Juwon; Naoda, Koji; Lee, Taegon; Kim, Woojae; Lim, Manho; Osuka, Atsuhiro; Kim, Dongho

    2016-09-19

    Aromaticity reversal in the lowest triplet state, or Baird's rule, has been postulated for the past few decades. Despite numerous theoretical works on aromaticity reversal, experimental study is still at a rudimentary stage. Herein, we investigate the aromaticity reversal in the lowest excited triplet state using a comparable set of [26]- and [28]hexaphyrins by femtosecond time-resolved infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Compared to the relatively simple IR spectra of [26]bis(rhodium) hexaphyrin (R26H), those of [28]bis(rhodium) hexaphyrin (R28H) show complex IR spectra the region for the stretching modes of conjugated rings. Whereas time-resolved IR spectra of R26H in the excited triplet state are dominated by excited state IR absorption peaks, while those of R28H largely show ground state IR bleaching peaks, reflecting the aromaticity reversal in the lowest triplet state. These contrasting IR spectral features serve as new experimental aromaticity indices for Baird's rule.

  4. Electronically excited states of membrane fluorescent probe 4-dimethylaminochalcone. Results of quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Alexey N; Gularyan, Samvel K; Polyak, Boris M; Sakovich, Ruslan A; Dobretsov, Gennady E; Sarkisov, Oleg M

    2011-05-28

    Quantum-chemical calculations of ground and excited states for membrane fluorescent probe 4-dimethylaminochalcone (DMAC) in vacuum were performed. Optimized geometries and dipole moments for lowest-lying singlet and triplet states were obtained. The nature of these electronic transitions and the relaxation path in the excited states were determined; changes in geometry and charge distribution were assessed. It was shown that in vacuum the lowest existed level is of (n, π*) nature, and the closest to it is the level of (π, π*) nature; the energy gap between them is narrow. This led to an effective (1)(π, π*) →(1)(n, π*) relaxation. After photoexcitation the molecule undergoes significant transformations, including changes in bond orders, pyramidalization angle of the dimethylamino group, and planarity of the molecule. Its dipole moment rises from 5.5 Debye in the ground state to 17.1 Debye in the (1)(π, π*) state, and then falls to 2 Debye in the (1)(n, π*) state. The excited (1)(n, π*) state is a short living state; it has a high probability of intersystem crossing into the (3)(π, π*) triplet state. This relaxation path explains the low quantum yield of DMAC fluorescence in non-polar media. It is possible that (3)(π, π*) is responsible for observed DMAC phosphorescence.

  5. High level ab initio studies of the low-lying excited states in the H2OṡO2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Timothy W.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2003-08-01

    The lowest energy electronic transitions in the weakly bound van der Waals complex of water and oxygen (H2OṡO2) are studied using ab initio methods. The vertical excitation energies for the two low-lying singlet states are calculated with the complete active space self-consistent field and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods, and are compared to those calculated in the oxygen molecule. The MRCI calculations predict blueshifts of about 150 and 250 cm-1 for the transition frequencies on formation of the complex. These calculated shifts can provide assistance towards the spectroscopic identification of H2OṡO2.

  6. Two-photon induced photoluminescence and singlet oxygen generation from aggregated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cuifeng; Zhao, Tingting; Yuan, Peiyan; Gao, Nengyue; Pan, Yanlin; Guan, Zhenping; Zhou, Na; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2013-06-12

    Metal nanoparticles have potential applications as bioimaging and photosensitizing agents. Aggregation effects are generally believed to be adverse to their biomedical applications. Here we have studied the aggregation effects on two-photon induced photoluminescence and singlet oxygen generation of Au nanospheres and Au nanorods of two different aspect ratios. Aggregated Au nanospheres and short Au nanorods were found to display enhanced two-photon induced photoluminescence and singlet oxygen generation capabilities compared to the unaggregated ones. The two-photon photoluminescence of Au nanospheres and short Au nanorods were enhanced by up to 15.0- and 2.0-fold upon aggregation, and the corresponding two-photon induced singlet oxygen generation capabilities were enhanced by 8.3 and 1.8-fold, respectively. The two-photon induced photoluminescence and singlet oxygen generation of the aggregated long Au nanorods were found to be lower than the unaggregated ones. These results support that the change in their two-photon induced photoluminescence and singlet oxygen generation originate from aggregation modulated two-photon excitation efficiency. This finding is expected to foster more biomedical applications of metal nanoparticles as Au nanoparticles normally exist in an aggregated form in the biological environments. Considering their excellent biocompatibility, high inertness, ready conjugation, and easy preparation, Au nanoparticles are expected to find more applications in two-photon imaging and two-photon photodynamic therapy.

  7. Microscopic time-resolved imaging of singlet oxygen by delayed fluorescence in living cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Hála, Jan

    2017-09-22

    Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive species which is involved in a number of processes, including photodynamic therapy of cancer. Its very weak near-infrared emission makes imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems a long-term challenge. We address this challenge by introducing Singlet Oxygen Feedback Delayed Fluorescence (SOFDF) as a novel modality for semi-direct microscopic time-resolved wide-field imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems. SOFDF has been investigated in individual fibroblast cells incubated with a well-known photosensitizer aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate. The SOFDF emission from the cells is several orders of magnitude stronger and much more readily detectable than the very weak near-infrared phosphorescence of singlet oxygen. Moreover, the analysis of SOFDF kinetics enables us to estimate the lifetimes of the involved excited states. Real-time SOFDF images with micrometer spatial resolution and submicrosecond temporal-resolution have been recorded. Interestingly, a steep decrease in the SOFDF intensity after the photodynamically induced release of a photosensitizer from lysosomes has been demonstrated. This effect could be potentially employed as a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy.

  8. On the singlet-triplet splitting of geminate electron-hole pairs in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Difley, Seth; Beljonne, David; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2008-03-19

    Because of their unique photophysical properties, organic semiconductors have shown great promise in both light-emitting devices (LEDs) and photovoltaic systems. In particular, the question of spin statistics looms large in these applications: the relative energetics and rates of formation for singlet versus triplet excited states can have a significant impact on device efficiency. In this Article, we study the singlet and triplet charge-transfer (CT) configurations that can be thought of as the immediate precursors to the luminescent states in organic LEDs. In particular, we find that the CT singlet-triplet energy gap (deltaE(ST)) of organic dyes and oligomers depends sensitively on both the material and the relative orientation of the donor/acceptor pair. Furthermore, in contrast with the commonly held view, we find that the singlet CT states nearly always lie energetically below the triplet CT states (deltaE(ST) < 0). This trend is attributed to two physical sources. First, the relatively close contact between the donor and acceptor leads to a strong kinetic exchange component that favors the singlet. Second, Coulombic attraction between the separated charges favors inner-sphere reorganization that brings the donor and acceptor closer together, further enhancing the kinetic exchange effect. We discuss the implications of these results on the design of organic LEDs.

  9. Asymmetry in Platinum Acetylide Complexes: Confinement of the Triplet Exciton to the Lowest Energy Ligand (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    lower energy thiophene units, but some emission is also observed from the higher energy phenyl units.4oThe study describes similar excited state...AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2007-530 ASYMMETRY IN PLATINUM ACETYLIDE COMPLEXES: CONFINEMENT OF THE TRIPLET EXCITON TO THE LOWEST ENERGY LIGAND (PREPRINT...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ASYMMETRY IN PLATINUM ACETYLIDE COMPLEXES: CONFINEMENT OF THE TRIPLET EXCITON TO THE LOWEST ENERGY LIGAND

  10. Distinct properties of the triplet pair state from singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Trinh, M Tuan; Pinkard, Andrew; Pun, Andrew B; Sanders, Samuel N; Kumarasamy, Elango; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Campos, Luis M; Roy, Xavier; Zhu, X-Y

    2017-07-01

    Singlet fission, the conversion of a singlet exciton (S1) to two triplets (2 × T1), may increase the solar energy conversion efficiency beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. This process is believed to involve the correlated triplet pair state (1)(TT). Despite extensive research, the nature of the (1)(TT) state and its spectroscopic signature remain actively debated. We use an end-connected pentacene dimer (BP0) as a model system and show evidence for a tightly bound (1)(TT) state. It is characterized in the near-infrared (IR) region (~1.0 eV) by a distinct excited-state absorption (ESA) spectral feature, which closely resembles that of the S1 state; both show vibronic progressions of the aromatic ring breathing mode. We assign these near-IR spectra to (1)(TT)→Sn and S1→Sn' transitions; Sn and Sn' likely come from the antisymmetric and symmetric linear combinations, respectively, of the S2 state localized on each pentacene unit in the dimer molecule. The (1)(TT)→Sn transition is an indicator of the intertriplet electronic coupling strength, because inserting a phenylene spacer or twisting the dihedral angle between the two pentacene chromophores decreases the intertriplet electronic coupling and diminishes this ESA peak. In addition to spectroscopic signature, the tightly bound (1)(TT) state also shows chemical reactivity that is distinctively different from that of an individual T1 state. Using an electron-accepting iron oxide molecular cluster [Fe8O4] linked to the pentacene or pentacene dimer (BP0), we show that electron transfer to the cluster occurs efficiently from an individual T1 in pentacene but not from the tightly bound (1)(TT) state. Thus, reducing intertriplet electronic coupling in (1)(TT) via molecular design might be necessary for the efficient harvesting of triplets from intramolecular singlet fission.

  11. Distinct properties of the triplet pair state from singlet fission

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, M. Tuan; Pinkard, Andrew; Pun, Andrew B.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Campos, Luis M.; Roy, Xavier; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Singlet fission, the conversion of a singlet exciton (S1) to two triplets (2 × T1), may increase the solar energy conversion efficiency beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. This process is believed to involve the correlated triplet pair state 1(TT). Despite extensive research, the nature of the 1(TT) state and its spectroscopic signature remain actively debated. We use an end-connected pentacene dimer (BP0) as a model system and show evidence for a tightly bound 1(TT) state. It is characterized in the near-infrared (IR) region (~1.0 eV) by a distinct excited-state absorption (ESA) spectral feature, which closely resembles that of the S1 state; both show vibronic progressions of the aromatic ring breathing mode. We assign these near-IR spectra to 1(TT)→Sn and S1→Sn′ transitions; Sn and Sn′ likely come from the antisymmetric and symmetric linear combinations, respectively, of the S2 state localized on each pentacene unit in the dimer molecule. The 1(TT)→Sn transition is an indicator of the intertriplet electronic coupling strength, because inserting a phenylene spacer or twisting the dihedral angle between the two pentacene chromophores decreases the intertriplet electronic coupling and diminishes this ESA peak. In addition to spectroscopic signature, the tightly bound 1(TT) state also shows chemical reactivity that is distinctively different from that of an individual T1 state. Using an electron-accepting iron oxide molecular cluster [Fe8O4] linked to the pentacene or pentacene dimer (BP0), we show that electron transfer to the cluster occurs efficiently from an individual T1 in pentacene but not from the tightly bound 1(TT) state. Thus, reducing intertriplet electronic coupling in 1(TT) via molecular design might be necessary for the efficient harvesting of triplets from intramolecular singlet fission. PMID:28740866

  12. Photophysical characterization and time-resolved spectroscopy of a anthradithiophene dimer: exploring the role of conformation in singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jacob C; Zhang, Ruomeng; Hallani, Rawad K; Pensack, Ryan D; Sanders, Samuel N; Oblinsky, Daniel G; Parkin, Sean R; Campos, Luis M; Anthony, John E; Scholes, Gregory D

    2017-08-30

    Quantitative singlet fission has been observed for a variety of acene derivatives such as tetracene and pentacene, and efforts to extend the library of singlet fission compounds is of current interest. Preliminary calculations suggest anthradithiophenes exhibit significant exothermicity between the first optically-allowed singlet state, S1, and 2 × T1 with an energy difference of >5000 cm(-1). Given the fulfillment of this ingredient for singlet fission, here we investigate the singlet fission capability of a difluorinated anthradithiophene dimer (2ADT) covalently linked by a (dimethylsilyl)ethane bridge and derivatized by triisobutylsilylethynyl (TIBS) groups. Photophysical characterization of 2ADT and the single functionalized ADT monomer were carried out in toluene and acetone solution via absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and their photo-initiated dynamics were investigated with time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. In accordance with computational predictions, two conformers of 2ADT were observed via fluorescence spectroscopy and were assigned to structures with the ADT cores trans or cis to one another about the covalent bridge. The two conformers exhibited markedly different excited state deactivation mechanisms, with the minor trans population being representative of the ADT monomer showing primarily radiative decay, while the dominant cis population underwent relaxation into an excimer geometry before internally converting to the ground state. The excimer formation kinetics were found to be solvent dependent, yielding time constants of ∼1.75 ns in toluene, and ∼600 ps in acetone. While the difference in rates elicits a role for the solvent in stabilizing the excimer structure, the rate is still decidedly long compared to most singlet fission rates of analogous dimers, suggesting that the excimer is neither a kinetic nor a thermodynamic trap, yet singlet fission was still not observed. The result

  13. Laser induced singlet-oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence of dyes in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnovskii, A A; Bashtanov, M E; Drozdova, N N; Yuzhakova, O A; Luk'yanets, Evgenii A

    2002-01-31

    It is shown that water-soluble derivatives of phthalocyanines - poly(diethoxyphosphinylmethyl)substituted aluminium phthalocyanines - emit intense singlet-oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence upon laser-induced formation of singlet oxygen in air-saturated aqueous (D{sub 2}O) solutions. The delayed fluorescence is emitted by the dye molecules which accepted energy from two molecules of singlet oxygen. The quantum efficiency of delayed fluorescence in aerated D{sub 2}O of the chloroaluminium complex of octa(diethoxyphosphinylmethyl) phthalocyanine corresponds to the rate constant of population of excited dye molecules which is equal to (5.5 {+-} 3) x 10{sup 12} mole{sup -2} L{sup 2} s{sup -1}. This value is only an order of magnitude smaller than that for tetra(4-tert.-butyl)phthalocyanine earlier studied in aerated organic solvents. It is shown that these phthalocyanine derivatives can be used as highly sensitive luminescence indicators of singlet oxygen produced in aqueous solutions of different compounds upon laser excitation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Role of the low-energy excited states in the radiolysis of aromatic liquids.

    PubMed

    Baidak, Aliaksandr; Badali, Matthew; LaVerne, Jay A

    2011-07-07

    The contribution of the low-energy excited states to the overall product formation in the radiolysis of simple aromatic liquids--benzene, pyridine, toluene, and aniline--has been examined by comparison of product yields obtained in UV-photolysis and in γ-radiolysis. In photolysis, these electronic excited states were selectively populated using UV-light excitation sources with various energies. Yields of molecular hydrogen and of "dimers" (biphenyl, bibenzyl, dipyridyl for benzene, toluene, pyridine, respectively, and of ammonia and diphenylamine for aniline) have been determined, since they are the most abundant radiolytic products. Negligibly small production of molecular hydrogen in the UV-photolysis of aromatic liquids with excitation to energies of 4.88, 5.41, 5.79, and 6.70 eV and the lack of a scavenger effect suggest that this product originates from short-lived high-energy singlet states. A significant reduction in "dimer" radiation-chemical yields in the presence of scavengers such as anthracene or naphthalene indicates that the triplet excited states are important precursors to these products. The results for toluene and aniline suggest that efficient dissociation from the lowest-energy excited triplet state leads to noticeable "dimer" production. For benzene and pyridine, the lowest-energy triplet excited states are not likely to fragment into radicals because of the relatively large energy gap between the excited state level and corresponding bond dissociation energy. The "dimer" formation in the radiolysis of benzene and pyridine is likely to involve short-lived high-energy triplet states.

  15. Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2016-05-16

    We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased, slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases.

  16. Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; ...

    2016-05-16

    We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased,more » slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases.« less

  17. Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2016-05-16

    We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased, slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases.

  18. Singlet fission in linear chains of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Francesco E-mail: A.Troisi@warwick.ac.uk; Troisi, Alessandro E-mail: A.Troisi@warwick.ac.uk

    2014-11-28

    We develop a model configuration interaction Hamiltonian to study the electronic structure of a chain of molecules undergoing singlet fission. We first consider models for dimer and trimer and then we use a matrix partitioning technique to build models of arbitrary size able to describe the relevant electronic structure for singlet fission in linear aggregates. We find that the multi-excitonic state (ME) is stabilized at short inter-monomer distance and the extent of this stabilization depends upon the size of orbital coupling between neighboring monomers. We also find that the coupling between ME states located on different molecules is extremely small leading to bandwidths in the order of ∼10 meV. This observation suggests that multi-exciton states are extremely localized by electron-phonon coupling and that singlet fission involves the transition between a relatively delocalized Frenkel exciton and a strongly localized multi-exciton state. We adopt the methodology commonly used to study non-radiative transitions to describe the singlet fission dynamics in these aggregates and we discuss the limit of validity of the approach. The results indicate that the phenomenology of singlet fission in molecular crystals is different in many important ways from what is observed in isolated dimers.

  19. Reactions and Spectroscopy of Excited Nitrenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-28

    NIT Boiling AFB, DIC 20332-0001 ELEMENT NO. No. NO. NO. 11. TITLE fi’Icludd SeCudPlY CZI4dIficatiOnt Reactions and Snectosc v ofExited Nitrenes 12...publi0 release dist ribut ion unl imited. The electronically excited singlet states of halogen nitrenes have been of interest for a number of years...excited singlet nitrenes have drawn significant interest from the basic science community, since these species are isoelectronic to the well studied

  20. Theoretical investigation of the lowest-lying electronic structure of LuI molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, J.; Taher, F.; Magnier, S.

    2014-01-01

    CASSCF/MRCI calculations using Effective Core Potential (ECP) basis sets for both Lu and I atoms, have been performed for the first 22 electronic states in the representation 2s+1Λ(±) for the LuI molecule. This investigation included the corresponding 43 molecular states in the representation Ω(±) when taking the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in consideration. Calculated potential energy curves (PECs) have been displayed. Spectroscopic constants Te, ωe, ωeχe, Be and the internuclear distance Re have been calculated for the ground state and for the low-lying electronic states situated below 40,410 cm-1 and for their corresponding components with SOC. The transition dipolar moments between states have been given at the minimum position Re = 2.75 Å of the ground state X1Σ+. The calculated set of singlet and triplet states provides a theoretical prediction for more than 19 yet unobserved electronic states.

  1. Ab initio reaction pathways for photodissociation and isomerization of nitromethane on four singlet potential energy surfaces with three roaming paths

    SciTech Connect

    Isegawa, Miho; Liu, Fengyi; Morokuma, Keiji; Maeda, Satoshi

    2014-06-28

    Photodissociation pathways of nitromethane following π → π{sup *} electronic excitation are reported. The potential energy surfaces for four lowest singlet states are explored, and structures of many intermediates, dissociation limits, transition states, and minimum energy conical intersections were determined using the automated searching algorism called the global reaction route mapping strategy. Geometries are finally optimized at CASSCF(14e,11o) level and energies are computed at CAS(14o,11e)PT2 level. The calculated preferable pathways and important products qualitatively explain experimental observations. The major photodissociation product CH{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} ({sup 2}B{sub 2}) is formed by direct dissociation from the S{sub 1} state. Important pathways involving S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} states for production of various dissociation products CH{sub 3}NO + O ({sup 1}D), CH{sub 3}O(X{sup 2}E) + NO (X{sup 2}Π), CH{sub 2}NO + OH, and CH{sub 2}O + HNO, as well as various isomerization pathways have been identified. Three roaming processes also have been identified: the O atom roaming in O dissociation from CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}, the OH radical roaming in OH dissociation from CH{sub 2}N(O)(OH), and the NO roaming in NO dissociation from CH{sub 3}ONO.

  2. A simplified relativistic time-dependent density-functional theory formalism for the calculations of excitation energies including spin-orbit coupling effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Ziegler, Tom

    2005-10-15

    In the present work we have proposed an approximate time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) formalism to deal with the influence of spin-orbit coupling effect on the excitation energies for closed-shell systems. In this formalism scalar relativistic TDDFT calculations are first performed to determine the lowest single-group excited states and the spin-orbit coupling operator is applied to these single-group excited states to obtain the excitation energies with spin-orbit coupling effects included. The computational effort of the present method is much smaller than that of the two-component TDDFT formalism and this method can be applied to medium-size systems containing heavy elements. The compositions of the double-group excited states in terms of single-group singlet and triplet excited states are obtained automatically from the calculations. The calculated excitation energies based on the present formalism show that this formalism affords reasonable excitation energies for transitions not involving 5p and 6p orbitals. For transitions involving 5p orbitals, one can still obtain acceptable results for excitations with a small truncation error, while the formalism will fail for transitions involving 6p orbitals, especially 6p1/2 spinors.

  3. Energy Dependence of the Ruthenium(II)-Bipyridine Metal-to-Ligand-Charge-Transfer Excited State Radiative Lifetimes: Effects of ππ*(bipyridine) Mixing.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ryan A; Tsai, Chia Nung; Mazumder, Shivnath; Lu, I Chen; Lord, Richard L; Schlegel, H Bernhard; Chen, Yuan Jang; Endicott, John F

    2015-06-18

    The variations in band shape with excited state energy found for the triplet metal to ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) emission spectra of ruthenium-bipyridine (Ru-bpy) chromophores at 77 K have been postulated to arise from excited state/excited state configurational mixing. This issue is more critically examined through the determination of the excited state energy dependence of the radiative rate constants (kRAD) for these emissions. Experimental values for kRAD were determined relative to known literature references for Ru-bpy complexes. When the lowest energy excited states are metal centered, kRAD can be anomalously small and such complexes have been identified using density functional theory (DFT) modeling. When such complexes are removed from the energy correlation, there is a strong (3)MLCT energy-dependent contribution to kRAD in addition to the expected classical energy cubed factor for complexes with excited state energies greater than 10 000 cm(-1). This correlates with the DFT calculations which show significant excited state electronic delocalization between a π(bpy-orbital) and a half-filled dπ*-(Ru(III)-orbital) for Ru-bpy complexes with (3)MLCT excited state energies greater than about 16 000 cm(-1). Overall, this work implicates the "stealing" of emission bandshapes as well as intensity from the higher energy, strongly allowed bpy-centered singlet ππ* excited state.

  4. Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Torbin, A. P.; Pershin, A. A.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O3(υ) formed in O + O2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O2(a1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O3(υ ⩾ 2) + O2(a1Δ) → 2O2 + O is the main O2(a1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O2(a1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. On the low lying singlet states of BeO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Lengsfield, B. H.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the ground and low-lying singlet states of BeO are performed in order to gain an understanding of the techniques needed to treat the excited states of other, more complex, ionic molecules. The MCSCF and CI calculations are based on a Gaussian basis set of slightly better than double zeta plus polarization quality for single configuration descriptions of the states. The calculated X-A and X-B state separations are found to be in agreement with experimental measurements. The 1 Sigma - and 1 Delta states are predicted to lie approximately 40,000 kaysers above the ground state and are identified as the C and D states.The 2 1 Pi state is found to be approximately 15,000 kaysers and the 3 1 Sigma + state is found to be approximately 65,000 kaysers above the ground state.

  6. Production of Singlet Oxygen within a Flow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Matthew; Pitz, Greg; Perram, Glen

    2008-10-01

    The Airborne laser program is an Air Force sponsored program to place a laser on the battle field for use as a tactical weapon. The chemical oxygen iodine laser offers the powers necessary for this weapons application, but it requires significant logistical support. The goal of this current research program is to demonstrate an oxygen-iodine laser with electrical discharge production of singlet oxygen. Optical diagnostics have been applied to microwave and radio frequency discharges within a pure oxygen flow. The O2(a) emissions within a discharge are complicated by atomic oxygen emission requiring care in determining gas concentrations from optically measured emissions. Thermal effects also complicate optical emissions. The inclusion of vibrationally excited oxygen as a quencher of the O2(a) state appears to be the limiting rate for production of O2(a) within the electric discharge conditions studied in this research.

  7. Theoretical studies on kinetics of singlet oxygen in nonthermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Mikhail P.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Kotkov, Andrei A.; Kochetov, Igor V.; Napartovich, Anatolii P.; Podmarkov, Yurii P.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitrii V.; Vagin, Nikolai P.; Yuryshev, Nikolay N.

    2004-09-01

    An idea to replace singlet delta oxygen (SDO) generator working with wet chemistry by electric discharge generator has got much attention last years. Different kinds of discharge were examined for this purpose, but without a great success. The existing theoretical models are not validated by well-characterized experimental data. To describe complicated kinetics in gas discharge with oxygen one needs to know in detail processes involving numerous electronic excited oxygen molecules and atoms. To gain new knowledge about these processes experimental studies were made on electric discharge properties in gas mixture flow with independent control of inlet SDO concentration. The theoretical model extended to include minor additives like oxygen atoms, water molecules, ozone was developed. Comparison with careful experimental measurements of electric characteristics along with gas composition allows us to verify the model and make theoretical predictions more reliable. Results of numerical simulations using this model for an electron-beam sustained discharge are reported and compared with the experimental data.

  8. Reactions of singlet oxygen with pine pollen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, B.; Laseter, J. L.; Griffin, G. W.; Politzer, I. R.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine whether viable atmospheric particles such as plant pollens and fungal spores containing unsaturated lipids can interact with singlet oxygen to give oxygenated products that are potentially toxic. The results obtained confirm that surface and near surface components of common viable particulate matter in the atmosphere may be subject to rapid oxidation by singlet oxygen, leading to products which are probably allylic hydroperoxides. In connection with increasing atmospheric pollution, it is important to note that materials toxic to mammalian lung tissue may be oxidatively produced on the surfaces of viable particulate matter.

  9. Reactions of singlet oxygen with pine pollen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, B.; Laseter, J. L.; Griffin, G. W.; Politzer, I. R.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine whether viable atmospheric particles such as plant pollens and fungal spores containing unsaturated lipids can interact with singlet oxygen to give oxygenated products that are potentially toxic. The results obtained confirm that surface and near surface components of common viable particulate matter in the atmosphere may be subject to rapid oxidation by singlet oxygen, leading to products which are probably allylic hydroperoxides. In connection with increasing atmospheric pollution, it is important to note that materials toxic to mammalian lung tissue may be oxidatively produced on the surfaces of viable particulate matter.

  10. Chimeric behavior of excited thioxanthone in protic solvents: I. Experiments.

    PubMed

    Villnow, T; Ryseck, G; Rai-Constapel, V; Marian, C M; Gilch, P

    2014-12-18

    The photophysics of thioxanthone (TX) dissolved in methanol (MeOH) and 2,2,2,-trifluoroethanol (TFE) was studied by time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The spectrally integrated stimulated emission is seen to lose amplitude within ∼5-10 ps. This is much shorter than the fluorescence lifetimes of the compound (2.7 ns for MeOH and 7.6 ns for TFE). The initial reduction in amplitude is attributed to reversible intersystem crossing between the primarily excited (1)ππ* and a triplet (3)nπ* state. The latter one is energetically slightly (∼0.02 eV) above the former one. Addition of the quencher 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) reduces the fluorescence lifetime and yields triplet excited 1-MN, giving further evidence for the equilibrium of singlet and triplet excitations. The depopulation of these two states on the nanosecond time scale results in the rise of the lowest triplet state, a (3)ππ* state. Temperature dependencies attribute this to an activated internal conversion process between the two triplet states. Kinetic and energetic parameters derived from the experimental data will be compared with quantum chemical results in the accompanying paper [Rai-Constapel , V. , Villnow , T. , Ryseck , G. , Gilch , P. , and Marian , C. M. J. Phys. Chem. A 2014 , DOI: 10.1021/jp5099415].

  11. Supramolecular nanoreactors for intracellular singlet-oxygen sensitization.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Subramani; Fowley, Colin; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; McCaughan, Bridgeen; Tang, Sicheng; Fraix, Aurore; Captain, Burjor; Sortino, Salvatore; Callan, John F; Raymo, Françisco M

    2015-09-07

    An amphiphilic polymer with multiple decyl and oligo(ethylene glycol) chains attached to a common poly(methacrylate) backbone assembles into nanoscaled particles in aqueous environments. Hydrophobic anthracene and borondipyrromethene (BODIPY) chromophores can be co-encapsulated within the self-assembling nanoparticles and transported across hydrophilic media. The reversible character of the noncovalent bonds, holding the supramolecular containers together, permits the exchange of their components with fast kinetics in aqueous solution. Incubation of cervical cancer (HeLA) cells with a mixture of two sets of nanoparticles, pre-loaded independently with anthracene or BODIPY chromophores, results in guest scrambling first and then transport of co-entrapped species to the intracellular space. Alternatively, incubation of cells with the two sets of nanocarriers in consecutive steps permits the sequential transport of the anthracene and BODIPY chromophores across the plasma membrane and only then allows their co-encapsulation within the same supramolecular containers. Both mechanisms position the two sets of chromophores with complementary spectral overlap in close proximity to enable the efficient transfer of energy intracellularly from the anthracene donors to the BODIPY acceptors. In the presence of iodine substituents on the BODIPY platform, intersystem crossing follows energy transfer. The resulting triplet state can transfer energy further to molecular oxygen with the concomitant production of singlet oxygen to induce cell mortality. Furthermore, the donor can be excited with two near-infrared photons simultaneously to permit the photoinduced generation of singlet oxygen intracellularly under illumination conditions compatible with applications in vivo. Thus, these supramolecular strategies to control the excitation dynamics of multichromophoric assemblies in the intracellular environment can evolve into valuable protocols for photodynamic therapy.

  12. De novo generation of singlet oxygen and ammine ligands by photoactivation of a platinum anticancer complex.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Farrer, Nicola J; Li, Huilin; Butler, Jennifer S; McQuitty, Ruth J; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wang, Fuyi; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-12-16

    Worth the excitement: Highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are generated by photoactivation of the anticancer platinum(IV) complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3 )2 (OH)2 (MA)(Py)] (MA=methylamine, Py=pyridine). Singlet oxygen is formed from the hydroxido ligands and not from dissolved oxygen, and ammine ligands are products from the conversion of azido ligands to nitrenes. Both processes can induce oxidation of guanine.

  13. Relaxation Process of Photoexcited meso-Naphthylporphyrins while Interacting with DNA and Singlet Oxygen Generation.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Shigetoshi

    2015-10-15

    Electron donor-connecting cationic porphyrins meso-(1-naphthyl)-tris(N-methyl-p-pyridinio)porphyrin (1-NapTMPyP) and meso-(2-naphthyl)-tris(N-methyl-p-pyridinio)porphyrin (2-NapTMPyP) were designed and synthesized. DFT calculations speculate that the photoexcited states of 1- and 2-NapTMPyPs can be deactivated via intramolecular electron transfer from the naphthyl moiety to the porphyrin moiety. However, the quenching effect through the intramolecular electron transfer is insufficient, possibly due to the orthogonal position of the electron donor and the porphyrin ring and the relatively small driving force: Gibbs energies are 0.11 and 0.07 eV for 1- and 2-NapTMPyPs, respectively. It was speculated that more than 0.3 eV of the driving force is required to realize effective electron transfer in similar electron-donor connecting porphyrin systems. These porphyrins aggregated around the DNA strand, accelerating the deactivation of their excited singlet state and decreasing their photosensitized singlet oxygen-generating activities. In the presence of a sufficiently large concentration of DNA, these porphyrins can bind to a DNA strand stably, leading to an increased fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. Singlet oxygen generation was also suppressed by the aggregation of porphyrins around DNA. Although the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation was recovered in the presence of sufficient DNA, the singlet oxygen generated by DNA-binding porphyrins was significantly smaller than that without DNA. These results suggest that DNA-binding drugs limit the generation of photosensitized singlet oxygen by quenching the DNA strand.

  14. High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using sensitizing hosts with a small singlet-triplet exchange energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Duan, Lian; Li, Chen; Li, Yilang; Li, Haoyuan; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong

    2014-08-06

    Materials with small singlet-triplet splits (ΔEST s) are introduced as sensitizing hosts to excite fluorescent dopants, breaking the trade-off between small ΔEST and high radiative decay rates. A highly efficient orange-fluorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is prepared, showing a maximum external quantum efficiency of 12.2%.

  15. The low-energy, charge-transfer excited states of 4-amino-4-prime-nitrodiphenyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Donald B.; Scott, Gary W.; Tran, Kim; Coulter, Daniel R.; Miskowski, Vincent M.; Stiegman, Albert E.; Wnek, Gary E.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption and emission spectra of 4-amino-4-prime-nitrodiphenyl sulfide in polar and nonpolar solvents were used to characterize and assign the low-energy excited states of the molecule. Fluorescence-excitation anisotropy spectra and fluorescence quantum yields were also used to characterize the photophysics of these states. The lowest-energy fluorescent singlet state was determined to be an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state involving transfer of a full electron charge from the amino to the nitro group yielding a dipole moment of about 50 D. A low-energy, intense absorption band is assigned as a transition to a different ICT state involving a partial electron charge transfer from sulfur to the nitro group.

  16. Jahn-Teller distortion in the phosphorescent excited state of three-coordinate Au(I) phosphine complexes.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Khaldoon A; Cundari, Thomas R; Omary, Mohammad A

    2003-11-26

    DFT calculations were used to optimize the phosphorescent excited state of three-coordinate [Au(PR3)3]+ complexes. The results indicate that the complexes rearrange from their singlet ground-state trigonal planar geometry to a T-shape in the lowest triplet luminescent excited state. The optimized structure of the exciton contradicts the structure predicted based on the AuP bonding properties of the ground-state HOMO and LUMO. The rearrangement to T-shape is a Jahn-Teller distortion because an electron is taken from the degenerate e' (5dxy, 5dx2-y2) orbital upon photoexcitation of the ground-state D3h complex. The calculated UV absorption and visible emission energies are consistent with the experimental data and explain the large Stokes' shifts while such correlations are not possible in optimized models that constrained the exciton to the ground-state trigonal geometry.

  17. Metal bacteriochlorins which act as dual singlet oxygen and superoxide generators.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Yihui; Pandey, Ravindra K; Zhan, Riqiang; Kadish, Karl M

    2008-03-06

    A series of stable free-base, Zn(II) and Pd(II) bacteriochlorins containing a fused six- or five-member diketo- or imide ring have been synthesized as good candidates for photodynamic therapy sensitizers, and their electrochemical, photophysical, and photochemical properties were examined. Photoexcitation of the palladium bacteriochlorin affords the triplet excited state without fluorescence emission, resulting in formation of singlet oxygen with a high quantum yield due to the heavy atom effect of palladium. Electrochemical studies revealed that the zinc bacteriochlorin has the smallest HOMO-LUMO gap of the investigated compounds, and this value is significantly lower than the triplet excited-state energy of the compound in benzonitrile. Such a small HOMO-LUMO gap of the zinc bacteriochlorin enables intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer from the triplet excited state to the ground state to produce both the radical cation and the radical anion. The radical anion thus produced can transfer an electron to molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anion which was detected by electron spin resonance. The same photosensitizer can also act as an efficient singlet oxygen generator. Thus, the same zinc bacteriochlorin can function as a sensitizer with a dual role in that it produces both singlet oxygen and superoxide anion in an aprotic solvent (benzonitrile).

  18. Time-Resolved Insight into the Photosensitized Generation of Singlet Oxygen in Endoperoxides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A synergistic approach combining high-level multiconfigurational static calculations and full-dimensional ab initio surface hopping dynamics has been employed to gain insight into the photochemistry of endoperoxides. Electronic excitation of endoperoxides triggers two competing pathways, cycloreversion and O–O homolysis, that result in the generation of singlet oxygen and oxygen diradical rearrangement products. Our results reveal that cycloreversion or the rupture of the two C–O bonds occurs via an asynchronous mechanism that can lead to the population of a ground-state intermediate showing a single C–O bond. Furthermore, singlet oxygen is directly generated in its most stable excited electronic state 1Δg. The triplet states do not intervene in this mechanism, as opposed to the O–O homolysis where the exchange of population between the singlet and triplet manifolds is remarkable. In line with recent experiments performed on the larger anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide, upon excitation to the spectroscopic ππ* electronic states, the primary photoreactive pathway that governs deactivation of endoperoxides is O–O homolysis with a quantum yield of 65%. PMID:25688180

  19. [Pt(mesBIAN)(tda)]: a near-infrared emitter and singlet oxygen sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Rachford, Aaron A; Hua, Fei; Adams, Christopher J; Castellano, Felix N

    2009-05-28

    The synthesis and subsequent photophysical investigation of [Pt(mesBIAN)(tda)], where mesBIAN is bis(mesitylimino)acenaphthene and tda is tolan-2,2'-diacetylide, reveal excited-state characteristics best described as triplet charge transfer ((3)CT) in nature upon visible light excitation. Large ground-state dipole moments are apparent as the absorption spectrum dramatically red-shifts with decreasing solvent polarity. The (3)CT excited state is significantly lower in energy than the ligand-centered (3)tda excited-state, as confirmed by steady-state and time-resolved techniques. Singlet oxygen sensitization studies demonstrate that (1)O(2) production occurs by diffusive quenching from the photo-excited (3)CT state (Phi(Delta) = 0.24, lambda(max) approximately 1270 nm) in oxygen-saturated dichloromethane.

  20. Direct Observation of Thermal Equilibrium of Excited Triplet States of 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone. A Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Venkatraman Ravi; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Ariese, Freek; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-10-08

    The photochemistry of aromatic ketones plays a key role in various physicochemical and biological processes, and solvent polarity can be used to tune their triplet state properties. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the conformational structure and the solvent polarity induced energy level reordering of the two lowest triplet states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) was carried out using nanosecond-time-resolved absorption (ns-TRA), time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy, and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies. The ns-TRA of PQ in acetonitrile displays two bands in the visible range, and these two bands decay with similar lifetime at least at longer time scales (μs). Interestingly, TR(3) spectra of these two bands indicate that the kinetics are different at shorter time scales (ns), while at longer time scales they followed the kinetics of ns-TRA spectra. Therefore, we report a real-time observation of the thermal equilibrium between the two lowest triplet excited states of PQ, assigned to nπ* and ππ* of which the ππ* triplet state is formed first through intersystem crossing. Despite the fact that these two states are energetically close and have a similar conformational structure supported by TD-DFT studies, the slow internal conversion (∼2 ns) between the T(2)(1(3)nπ*) and T(1)(1(3)ππ*) triplet states indicates a barrier. Insights from the singlet excited states of PQ in protic solvents [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 142 , 24305 ] suggest that the lowest nπ* and ππ* triplet states should undergo hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively, relative to the ground state, and these mechanisms are substantiated by TD-DFT calculations. We also hypothesize that the different hydrogen bonding mechanisms exhibited by the two lowest singlet and triplet excited states of PQ could influence its ISC mechanism.

  1. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    SciTech Connect

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; McCamey, Dane R.

    2016-10-17

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. We also combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. Finally, we compare two different pentacene–bridge–pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.

  2. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    DOE PAGES

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; ...

    2016-10-17

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. Wemore » also combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. Finally, we compare two different pentacene–bridge–pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.« less

  3. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; McCamey, Dane R.

    2016-10-01

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. We combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. We compare two different pentacene-bridge-pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.

  4. Oxygen measurements to improve singlet oxygen dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves interactions between the three main components of light fluence, photosensitizer concentration, and oxygenation. Currently, singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) has focused on the first two of these components. The macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen has previously involved a fixed initial ground state oxygen concentration. A phosphorescence-based oxygen probe was used to measure ground state oxygen concentration throughout treatments for mice bearing radioactively induced fibroscarcoma tumors. Photofrin-, BPD-, and HPPH-mediated PDT was performed on mice. Model-calculated oxygen and measured oxygen was compared to evaluate the macroscopic model as well as the photochemical parameters involved. Oxygen measurements at various depths were compared to calculated values. Furthermore, we explored the use of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measure tumor blood flow changes in response to PDT to improve the model calculation of reacted singlet oxygen. Mice were monitored after treatment to see the effect of oxygenation on long-term recurrence-free survival as well as the efficacy of using reacted singlet oxygen as a predictive measure of outcome. Measurement of oxygenation during treatment helps to improve SOED as well as confirm the photochemical parameters involved in the macroscopic model. Use of DCS in predicting oxygenation changes was also investigated.

  5. A singlet oxygen photosensitizer enables photoluminescent monitoring of singlet oxygen doses.

    PubMed

    You, Youngmin; Cho, Eun Jin; Kwon, Hyeokseon; Hwang, Jieun; Lee, Seung Eun

    2016-01-14

    A molecular dyad that can photosensitize and visualize singlet oxygen ((1)O2) was developed. The dual photofunction enables ratiometric photoluminescence monitoring of the progress of (1)O2-induced cell death.

  6. Benzonitrile: Electron affinity, excited states, and anion solvation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Andrew R; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei

    2015-10-07

    We report a negative-ion photoelectron imaging study of benzonitrile and several of its hydrated, oxygenated, and homo-molecularly solvated cluster anions. The photodetachment from the unsolvated benzonitrile anion to the X̃(1)A1 state of the neutral peaks at 58 ± 5 meV. This value is assigned as the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the valence anion and the upper bound of adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of benzonitrile. The EA of the lowest excited electronic state of benzonitrile, ã(3)A1, is determined as 3.41 ± 0.01 eV, corresponding to a 3.35 eV lower bound for the singlet-triplet splitting. The next excited state, the open-shell singlet Ã(1)A1, is found about an electron-volt above the triplet, with a VDE of 4.45 ± 0.01 eV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations for neutral benzonitrile and its valence anion but do not preclude the existence of a dipole-bound state of similar energy and geometry. The step-wise and cumulative solvation energies of benzonitrile anions by several types of species were determined, including homo-molecular solvation by benzonitrile, hydration by 1-3 waters, oxygenation by 1-3 oxygen molecules, and mixed solvation by various combinations of O2, H2O, and benzonitrile. The plausible structures of the dimer anion of benzonitrile were examined using density functional theory and compared to the experimental observations. It is predicted that the dimer anion favors a stacked geometry capitalizing on the π-π interactions between the two partially charged benzonitrile moieties.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the lowest-lying electronic state in subcritical and supercritical water

    DOE PAGES

    Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; ...

    2017-05-17

    The nature and extent of hydrogen bonding in water has been scrutinized for decades, including how it manifests in optical properties. Here we report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of subcritical and supercritical water. For subcritical water, the spectrum redshifts considerably with increasing temperature, demonstrating the gradual breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Tuning the density at 381°C gives insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in supercritical water. The known gas-phase spectrum, including its vibronic structure, is duplicated in the low-density limit. With increasing density, the spectrum blueshifts and the vibronic structure is quenched as themore » water monomer becomes electronically perturbed. Fits to the supercritical water spectra demonstrate consistency with dimer/trimer fractions calculated from the water virial equation of state and equilibrium constants. As a result, using the known water dimer interaction potential, we estimate the critical distance between molecules (ca. 4.5 Å) needed to explain the vibronic structure quenching.« less

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the lowest-lying electronic state in subcritical and supercritical water

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; Chipman, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The nature and extent of hydrogen bonding in water has been scrutinized for decades, including how it manifests in optical properties. Here we report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of subcritical and supercritical water. For subcritical water, the spectrum redshifts considerably with increasing temperature, demonstrating the gradual breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Tuning the density at 381 °C gives insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in supercritical water. The known gas-phase spectrum, including its vibronic structure, is duplicated in the low-density limit. With increasing density, the spectrum blueshifts and the vibronic structure is quenched as the water monomer becomes electronically perturbed. Fits to the supercritical water spectra demonstrate consistency with dimer/trimer fractions calculated from the water virial equation of state and equilibrium constants. Using the known water dimer interaction potential, we estimate the critical distance between molecules (ca. 4.5 Å) needed to explain the vibronic structure quenching. PMID:28513601

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the lowest-lying electronic state in subcritical and supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; Chipman, Daniel M.

    2017-05-01

    The nature and extent of hydrogen bonding in water has been scrutinized for decades, including how it manifests in optical properties. Here we report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of subcritical and supercritical water. For subcritical water, the spectrum redshifts considerably with increasing temperature, demonstrating the gradual breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Tuning the density at 381 °C gives insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in supercritical water. The known gas-phase spectrum, including its vibronic structure, is duplicated in the low-density limit. With increasing density, the spectrum blueshifts and the vibronic structure is quenched as the water monomer becomes electronically perturbed. Fits to the supercritical water spectra demonstrate consistency with dimer/trimer fractions calculated from the water virial equation of state and equilibrium constants. Using the known water dimer interaction potential, we estimate the critical distance between molecules (ca. 4.5 Å) needed to explain the vibronic structure quenching.

  10. Effect of xenon on the excited states of phototropic receptor flavin in corn seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierstra, R.D.; Poff, K.L.; Walker, E.B.; Song, P.S.

    1981-05-01

    The chemically inert, water-soluble heavy atom gas, xenon, at millimolar concentrations specifically quenches the triplet excited state of flavin in solution without quenching the flavin singlet excited state. The preferential quenching of the flavin triplet over the singlet excited state by Xe has been established by showing that the flavin triplet-sensitized photooxidation of NADH is inhibited while the fluorescence intensity and lifetime of flavin are not affected by Xe. No significant inhibition of phototropism and geotropism by Xe was observed, suggesting that a flavin singlet state is more likely involved than the triplet state in the primary photoprocess of phototropism in corn.

  11. Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtoniszak, M.; Rogińska, D.; Machaliński, B.; Drozdzik, M.; Mijowska, E.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on graphene oxide (GO). • Characterization of graphene oxide–methylene blue nanocomposite (MB–GO). • Examination of MB–GO efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (SOG). • MB–GO performs higher SOG efficiency than pristine MB. - Abstract: Due to unique electronic, mechanical, optical and structural properties, graphene has shown promising applications in many fields, including biomedicine. One of them is noninvasive anticancer therapy – photodynamic therapy (PDT), where singlet oxygen (SO), generated under the irradiation of light with appropriate wavelengths, kills cancer cells. In this study, authors report graphene oxide (GO) noncovalent functionalization with methylene blue (MB). MB molecules underwent adsorption on the surface of GO. Detailed characterization of the obtained material was carried out with UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, its performance in singlet oxygen generation (SOG) under irradiation of laser with excitation wavelengths of 785 nm was investigated. Interestingly, GO functionalized with MB (MB–GO) showed enhanced efficiency in singlet oxygen generation compared to pristine MB. The efficiency in SOG was detected by photobleaching of 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABMDMA). These results indicate the material is promising in PDT anticancer therapy and further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  12. Singlet fission/silicon solar cell exceeding 100% EQE (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Luis M.; Lee, Jumin; Kirch, Anton; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Friend, Richard H.; Ehrler, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Current matching limits the commercialization of tandem solar cells due to their instability over spectral changes, leading to the need of using solar concentrators and trackers to keep the spectrum stable. We demonstrate that voltage-matched systems show far higher performance over spectral changes; caused by clouds, dust and other variations in atmospheric conditions. Singlet fission is a process in organic semiconductors which has shown very efficient, 200%, down-conversion yield and the generated excitations are long-lived, ideal for solar cells. As a result, the number of publications has grown exponentially in the past 5 years. Yet, so far no one has achieved to combine singlet fission with most low bandgap semiconductors, including crystalline silicon, the dominating solar cell material with a 90% share of the PV Market. Here we show that singlet fission can facilitate the fabrication of voltage-matched systems, opening a simple design route for the effective implementation of down-conversion in commercially available photovoltaic technologies, with no modification of the electronic circuitry of such. The implemention of singlet fission is achieved simply by decoupling the fabrication of the individual subcells. For this demonstration we used an ITO/PEDOT/P3HT/Pentacene/C60/Ag wide-bandgap subcell, and a commercial silicon solar cell as the low-bandgap component. We show that the combination of the two leads to the first tandem silicon solar cell which exceeds 100% external quantum efficiency.

  13. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy Unmasks the Lowest Exciton State of the B850 Assembly in LH2 from Rps. acidophila

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Ralf; Timpmann, Kõu; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Freiberg, Arvi; Köhler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    We have recorded fluorescence-excitation and emission spectra from single LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) acidophila. Both types of spectra show strong temporal spectral fluctuations that can be visualized as spectral diffusion plots. Comparison of the excitation and emission spectra reveals that for most of the complexes the lowest exciton transition is not observable in the excitation spectra due to the cutoff of the detection filter characteristics. However, from the spectral diffusion plots we have the full spectral and temporal information at hand and can select those complexes for which the excitation spectra are complete. Correlating the red most spectral feature of the excitation spectrum with the blue most spectral feature of the emission spectrum allows an unambiguous assignment of the lowest exciton state. Hence, application of fluorescence-excitation and emission spectroscopy on the same individual LH2 complex allows us to decipher spectral subtleties that are usually hidden in traditional ensemble spectroscopy. PMID:24806933

  14. Response theory calculations of singlet-triplet transitions in molecular nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, Boris; Norman, Patrick; Jonsson, Dan; Ågren, Hans

    1995-01-01

    The probabilities and energetics of singlet-triplet absorption transitions in molecular nitrogen from the ground X1Σg+ state to all triplet states of ungerade symmetry in the range up to 13 eV, the A3Σu+, W3Δ u, B' 3Σu-, C3Πu, C' 3Πu, and D3Σu+ states, have been studied by multi-configuration quadratic response theory with complete account of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) perturbation. The vibrational Schrödinger equation has been solved for all states with the theoretical and RKR (where these are available) potentials, and vibrational averaged transition probabilities have been calculated and compared with experimental data for absorption from the lowest ν″ = 0 ground state to different ν' vibronic upper-state levels. The Vegard-Kaplan (A 3Σ u+-X 1Σ g+) and the Ogawa-Tanaka-Wilkinson (B' 3Σ u--X 1Σ g+) band intensities were calculated also in emission ( ν'→ ν″). Different types of correlating active spaces have been explored for the reference ground state. Although the use of single reference self-consistent field wavefunctions in the lowest level of response calculations (random phase approximation) in general is not sufficient, it is found that quite moderate complete active space (CAS) expansions of the valence orbitals lead to good transition probabilities and energies for the excited triplet states. Even the smallest active space gives a spin-averaged radiative lifetime of the Vegard-Kaplan phosphorescence band only twice as large as the experimental value (5.84 versus 2.4 s). The transition moment curves for the Vegard-Kaplan (A 3Σ u+) and for the Saum-Benesch (W 3Δu) bands are quite similar, both changing sign in the region of the ground state internuclear equilibrium distance. The B' 3Σ u--X 1Σ g+ Ogawa-Tanaka-Wilkinson system (B' ← X) is predicted to be much more intensive ( f = 1.6 × 10 -8 for the most intensive vibronic bands ( ν'=7-9)) than the A-X and W-X transitions, and the ratio of transition moments for the Ω=1 and Ω=0

  15. SINGLET OXYGEN RESISTANT 1 links reactive electrophile signaling to singlet oxygen acclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beat B; Ledford, Heidi K; Wakao, Setsuko; Huang, ShihYau Grace; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Koller, Andreas; Eggen, Rik I L; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2012-05-15

    Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells to low levels of singlet oxygen, produced either by photoreactive chemicals or high light treatment, induces a specific genetic response that strongly increases the tolerance of the algae to subsequent exposure to normally lethal singlet oxygen-producing conditions. The genetic response includes the increased expression of various oxidative stress response and detoxification genes, like the glutathione peroxidase homologous gene GPXH/GPX5 and the σ-class glutathione-S-transferase gene GSTS1. To identify components involved in the signal transduction and activation of the singlet oxygen-mediated response, a mutant selection was performed. This selection led to the isolation of the singlet oxygen resistant 1 (sor1) mutant, which is more tolerant to singlet oxygen-producing chemicals and shows a constitutively higher expression of GPXH and GSTS1. Map-based cloning revealed that the SOR1 gene encodes a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, which controls its own expression and the expression of a large number of oxidative stress response and detoxification genes. In the promoter region of many of these genes, a highly conserved 8-bp palindromic sequence element was found to be enriched. This element was essential for GSTS1 induction by increased levels of lipophilic reactive electrophile species (RES), suggesting that it functions as an electrophile response element (ERE). Furthermore, GSTS1 overexpression in sor1 requires the ERE, although it is unknown whether it occurs through direct binding of SOR1 to the ERE. RES can be formed after singlet oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation, indicating that RES-stimulated and SOR1-mediated responses of detoxification genes are part of the singlet oxygen-induced acclimation process in C. reinhardtii.

  16. Structure of excited states and properties of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klessinger, M.

    1992-03-01

    Optimized geometries and charge distributions for the ground state and the first allowed π,π* excited singlet state are reported for some polyenes, polyene aldehydes, merocyanines and cyanines, which may be considered as representatives of conjugated chain chromophores of organic dyes. The dependence of excited state properties on molecular structure is discussed in relation to spectroscopic properties of these systems.

  17. Neutrino masses and scalar singlet dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Subhaditya; Jana, Sudip; Nandi, S.

    2017-03-01

    We propose a simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) which has a viable dark matter (DM) candidate and can explain the generation of tiny neutrino masses. The DM is an electroweak (EW) singlet scalar S , odd under an imposed exact Z2 symmetry, that interacts with the SM through the "Higgs portal" coupling, while all other particles are even under Z2. The model also has an EW isospin 3 /2 scalar Δ and a pair of EW isospin vectors Σ and Σ ¯, which are responsible for generating tiny neutrino mass via the effective dimension-seven operator. Thanks to the additional interactions with Δ , the scalar singlet DM S survives a large region of parameter space by relic density constraints from WMAP/Planck and direct search bounds from updated LUX data. Constraints on the model from the LHC are also discussed.

  18. Configuration interaction with Kohn Sham orbitals and their relation to excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouř, Petr

    2001-09-01

    Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals in CH 2, formaldehyde and acetone molecules were used as reference states for configuration interaction (CI) instead of the usual Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. A little difference in overall accuracy of electronic excitation energies was found between these schemes. However, analysis of the wave functions indicated that Slater determinant with the KS orbitals is more suitable for construction of the electronic states. Typically, the main expansion coefficients for the CI/KS procedure were closer to unity than those for HF. The difference was most pronounced for the lowest-energy transitions, while the two methods provided more comparable results for the higher-energy states. Similar behaviour of singlet and triplet states was observed. The results justify the common practice of using the KS determinant as a wave function, for example in sum-over-states theories.

  19. Singlet Oxygen Photophysics in Liquid Solvents: Converging on a Unified Picture.

    PubMed

    Bregnhøj, Mikkel; Westberg, Michael; Minaev, Boris F; Ogilby, Peter R

    2017-08-15

    Singlet oxygen, O2(a(1)Δg), the lowest excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, is an omnipresent part of life on earth. It is readily formed through a variety of chemical and photochemical processes, and its unique reactions are important not just as a tool in chemical syntheses but also in processes that range from polymer degradation to signaling in biological cells. For these reasons, O2(a(1)Δg) has been the subject of intense activity in a broad distribution of scientific fields for the past ∼50 years. The characteristic reactions of O2(a(1)Δg) kinetically compete with processes that deactivate this excited state to the ground state of oxygen, O2(X(3)Σg(-)). Moreover, O2(a(1)Δg) is ideally monitored using one of these deactivation channels: O2(a(1)Δg) → O2(X(3)Σg(-)) phosphorescence at 1270 nm. Thus, there is ample justification to study and control these competing processes, including those mediated by solvents, and the chemistry community has likewise actively tackled this issue. In themselves, the solvent-mediated radiative and nonradiative transitions between the three lowest-lying electronic states of oxygen [O2(X(3)Σg(-)), O2(a(1)Δg), and O2(b(1)Σg(+))] are relevant to issues at the core of modern chemistry. In the isolated oxygen molecule, these transitions are forbidden by quantum-mechanical selection rules. However, solvent molecules perturb oxygen in such a way as to make these transitions more probable. Most interestingly, the effect of a series of solvents on the O2(X(3)Σg(-))-O2(b(1)Σg(+)) transition, for example, can be totally different from the effect of the same series of solvents on the O2(X(3)Σg(-))-O2(a(1)Δg) transition. Moreover, a given solvent that appreciably increases the probability of a radiative transition generally does not provide a correspondingly viable pathway for nonradiative energy loss, and vice versa. The ∼50 years of experimental work leading to these conclusions were not easy; spectroscopically

  20. Singlet fission: Towards efficient solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Havlas, Zdeněk; Wen, Jin; Michl, Josef

    2015-12-31

    Singlet fission (SF) offers an opportunity to improve solar cell efficiency, but its practical use is hindered by the limited number of known efficient materials, limited knowledge of SF mechanism, mainly the relation between the dimer structure and SF efficiency and diffusion of the triplet states allowing injection of electrons into the solar cell semiconductor band. Here we report on our attempt to design new classes of chromophores and to study the relation between the structure and SF efficiency.

  1. Microdischarge Sources of O2(singlet Delta)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-15

    Microdischarge Sources of O2(singlet Delta) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Leanne C Pitchford ...project entitled Microdischarge sources of O2(1∆) Project partners : Leanne Pitchford and Jean-Pierre Boeuf Centre de Physique des Plasmas...et Applications de Toulouse (CPAT) University Paul Sabatier and CNRS, Toulouse, France Vincent Puech Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des

  2. Singlet-stabilized minimal gauge mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, David; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We propose singlet-stabilized minimal gauge mediation as a simple Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih-based model of direct gauge mediation which avoids both light gauginos and Landau poles. The hidden sector is a massive s-confining supersymmetric QCD that is distinguished by a minimal SU(5) flavor group. The uplifted vacuum is stabilized by coupling the meson to an additional singlet sector with its own U(1) gauge symmetry via nonrenormalizable interactions suppressed by a higher scale {Lambda}{sub UV} in the electric theory. This generates a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the singlet meson via the inverted hierarchy mechanism, but requires tuning to a precision {approx}({Lambda}/{Lambda}{sub UV}){sup 2}, which is {approx}10{sup -4}. In the course of this analysis we also outline some simple model-building rules for stabilizing uplifted-ISS models, which lead us to conclude that meson deformations are required (or at least heavily favored) to stabilize the adjoint component of the magnetic meson.

  3. Singlet oxygen dosimetry modeling for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xing; Wang, Ken Kang-hsin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important treatment modality for cancer and other localized diseases. In addition to PDT dose, singlet oxygen (1O2) concentration is used as an explicit PDT dosimetry quantity, because 1O2 is the major cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy, and the reaction between 1O2 and tumor tissues/cells determines the treatment efficacy. 1O2 concentration can be obtained by the PDT model, which includes diffusion equation for the light transport in tissue and macroscopic kinetic equations for the generation of the singlet oxygen. This model was implemented using finite-element method (FEM) by COMSOL. In the kinetic equations, 5 photo-physiological parameters were determined explicitly to predict the generation of 1O2. The singlet oxygen concentration profile was calculated iteratively by comparing the model with the measurements based on mice experiments, to obtain the apparent reacted 1O2concentration as an explicit PDT dosimetry quantity. Two photosensitizers including Photofrin and BPD Verteporfin, were tested using this model to determine their photo-physiological parameters and the reacted 1O2 concentrations.

  4. Singlet-stabilized minimal gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We propose singlet-stabilized minimal gauge mediation as a simple Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih-based model of direct gauge mediation which avoids both light gauginos and Landau poles. The hidden sector is a massive s-confining supersymmetric QCD that is distinguished by a minimal SU(5) flavor group. The uplifted vacuum is stabilized by coupling the meson to an additional singlet sector with its own U(1) gauge symmetry via nonrenormalizable interactions suppressed by a higher scale ΛUV in the electric theory. This generates a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the singlet meson via the inverted hierarchy mechanism, but requires tuning to a precision ˜(Λ/ΛUV)2, which is ˜10-4. In the course of this analysis we also outline some simple model-building rules for stabilizing uplifted-ISS models, which lead us to conclude that meson deformations are required (or at least heavily favored) to stabilize the adjoint component of the magnetic meson.

  5. Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO{sub 2} isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Gabriel L. C. de; Brown, Alex

    2014-12-21

    We present a computational study on HIO{sub 2} molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10{sup −3})

  6. Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO2 isomers.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gabriel L C; Brown, Alex

    2014-12-21

    We present a computational study on HIO2 molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10(-3)).

  7. Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO2 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Gabriel L. C.; Brown, Alex

    2014-12-01

    We present a computational study on HIO2 molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10-3).

  8. Photopolymer material sensitized by xanthene dyes for holographic recording using forbidden singlet-triplet electronic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovnikov, Vladimir; Vasiljev, Evgeny; Russkih, Vladimlen; Berezhnaya, Viktoria

    2016-07-01

    A new holographic photopolymer material is developed. The photopolymer material is sensitized by dyes of xanthene and thioxanthene series which contain iodine and bromine heavy atoms. Holographic recording was carried out during excitation of forbidden singlet-triplet electron transitions of dyes. Thioerythrosin triethylammonium was identified as the most effective sensitizer among a number of tested dyes. The spectral absorption area of the singlet-triplet electronic transition of the dye is conveyed in the red spectral range from 600 to 700 nm. The sensitivity of the photopolymer material to radiation with 633 nm wavelength is 180 mJ cm-2. Optimization of concentration of the main components of the photopolymer compositions was carried out in order to achieve maximum efficiency of holographic recording.

  9. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen – iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) + O{sub 3}(ν) → 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen – iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  10. Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stasheuski, Alexander S; Galievsky, Victor A; Stupak, Alexander P; Dzhagarov, Boris M; Choi, Mi Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    As various fullerene derivatives have been developed, it is necessary to explore their photophysical properties for potential use in photoelectronics and medicine. Here, we address the photophysical properties of newly synthesized water-soluble fullerene-based nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene as a representative water-soluble fullerene derivative. They show broad emission band arising from a wide-range of excitation energies. It is attributed to the optical transitions from disorder-induced states, which decay in the nanosecond time range. We determine the kinetic properties of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence generated by the fullerene nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene to consider the potential as photodynamic agents. Triplet state decay of the nanoparticles was longer than 1O2 lifetime in water. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of a series of the fullerene nanoparticles is comparably higher ranging from 0.15 to 0.2 than that of polyhydroxylated fullerene, which is about 0.06. PMID:24893622

  11. Manifestation of T-exciton migration in the kinetics of singlet fission in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shushin, A. I.

    2017-06-01

    Singlet fission (SF) in organic semiconductors, i.e. spontaneous splitting of the excited singlet (S1) state into triplet (T) exciton pair, is known to be strongly influenced by back annihilation of TT -pair. We show that this influence is properly described only by taking into account diffusive exciton migration (EM) . Within the model of two states (states of interacting TT -pairs and migrating excitons) the SF is studied by analyzing the kinetics IS1 (t) of decay of fluorescence from S1 -state. Analysis shows that the EM strongly manifests itself in the kinetics resulting, in particular, in long-time dependence IS1 (t) ∼t - 3 / 2 . The model accurately describes IS1 (t) , recently observed for a number of semiconductors.

  12. Singlet exciton condensation and bond-order-wave phase in the extended Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez-Torbati, Mohsen; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2017-09-01

    The competition of interactions implies the compensation of standard mechanisms, which leads to the emergence of exotic phases between conventional phases. The extended Hubbard model (EHM) is a fundamental example for the competition of the local Hubbard interaction and the nearest-neighbor density-density interaction, which at half-filling and in one dimension leads to a bond-order wave (BOW) between a charge-density wave (CDW) and a quasi-long-range order Mott insulator. We study the full momentum-resolved excitation spectrum of the one-dimensional EHM in the CDW phase, and we clarify the relation between different elementary energy gaps. We show that the CDW-to-BOW transition is driven by the softening of a singlet exciton at momentum π . The BOW is realized as the condensate of this singlet exciton.

  13. Two-Photon Absorption in Pentacene Dimers: The Importance of the Spacer Using Upconversion as an Indirect Route to Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Garoni, Eleonora; Zirzlmeier, Johannes; Basel, Bettina S; Hetzer, Constantin; Kamada, Kenji; Guldi, Dirk M; Tykwinski, Rik R

    2017-09-27

    In this proof of concept study, we show that intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) can be initiated from a singlet excited state accessed by two-photon absorption, rather than through a traditional route of direct one-photon excitation (OPE). Thus, iSF in pentacene dimers 2 and 3 is enabled through NIR irradiation at 775 nm, a wavelength where neither dimer exhibits linear absorption of light. The adamantyl and meta-phenylene spacers 2 and 3, respectively, are designed to feature superimposable geometries, which establishes that the electronic coupling between the two pentacenes is the significant structural feature that dictates iSF efficiency.

  14. New Theoretical Developments in Exploring Electronically Excited States: Including Localized Configuration Interaction Singles and Application to Large Helium Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closser, Kristina Danielle

    superpositions of atomic states with surface states appearing close to the atomic excitation energies and interior states being blue shifted by up to ≈2 eV. The dynamics resulting from excitation of He_7 were subsequently explored using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). These simulations were performed with classical adiabatic dynamics coupled to a new state-following algorithm on CIS potential energy surfaces. Most clusters were found to completely dissociate and resulted in a single excited atomic state (90%), however, some trajectories formed bound, He*2 (3%), and a few yielded excited trimers (<0.5%). Comparisons were made with available experimental information on much larger clusters. Various applications of this state following algorithm are also presented. In addition to AIMD, these include excited-state geometry optimization and minimal energy path finding via the growing string method. When using state following we demonstrate that more physical results can be obtained with AIMD calculations. Also, the optimized geometries of three excited states of cytosine, two of which were not found without state following, and the minimal energy path between the lowest two singlet excited states of protonated formaldimine are offered as example applications. Finally, to address large clusters, a local variation of CIS was developed. This method exploits the properties of absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) to limit the total number of excitations to scaling only linearly with cluster size, which results in formal scaling with the third power of the system size. The derivation of the equations and design of the algorithm are discussed in detail, and computational timings as well as a pilot application to the size dependence of the helium cluster spectrum are presented.

  15. Lowest-order axial and ring mode lasing in confocal quasi-stadium laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Takehiro; Sunada, Satoshi; Harayama, Takahisa; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Tokuda, Yasunori

    2012-05-10

    We investigated the lasing modes of quasi-stadium laser diodes that have confocal cavity geometries, with stripe electrode contacts formed either along the cavity axis or a diamond-shaped trajectory. It was clearly demonstrated that by using narrow electrode contact patterns of 2 μm width, the lowest-order axial and ring modes were excited selectively. On the other hand, the second-lowest-order axial and ring modes were excited by using broad electrode patterns of 14 μm width. Experimentally obtained far-field patterns for lasers with broad and narrow electrode contact patterns agree very well with the simulation results obtained using an extended Fox-Li mode calculation method.

  16. Intracellular singlet oxygen photosensitizers: on the road to solving the problems of sensitizer degradation, bleaching and relocalization.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Elsa F F; Pimenta, Frederico M; Pedersen, Brian W; Blaikie, Frances H; Bosio, Gabriela N; Breitenbach, Thomas; Westberg, Michael; Bregnhøj, Mikkel; Etzerodt, Michael; Arnaut, Luis G; Ogilby, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    Selected singlet oxygen photosensitizers have been examined from the perspective of obtaining a molecule that is sufficiently stable under conditions currently employed to study singlet oxygen behavior in single mammalian cells. Reasonable predictions about intracellular sensitizer stability can be made based on solution phase experiments that approximate the intracellular environment (e.g., solutions containing proteins). Nevertheless, attempts to construct a stable sensitizer based solely on the expected reactivity of a given functional group with singlet oxygen are generally not sufficient for experiments in cells; it is difficult to construct a suitable chromophore that is impervious to all of the secondary and/or competing degradative processes that are present in the intracellular environment. On the other hand, prospects are reasonably positive when one considers the use of a sensitizer encapsulated in a specific protein; the local environment of the chromophore is controlled, degradation as a consequence of bimolecular reactions can be mitigated, and genetic engineering can be used to localize the encapsulated sensitizer in a given cellular domain. Also, the option of directly exciting oxygen in sensitizer-free experiments provides a useful complementary tool. These latter systems bode well with respect to obtaining more accurate control of the "dose" of singlet oxygen used to perturb a cell; a parameter that currently limits mechanistic studies of singlet-oxygen-mediated cell signaling.

  17. Real-time observation of multiexcitonic states in ultrafast singlet fission using coherent 2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bakulin, Artem A; Morgan, Sarah E; Kehoe, Tom B; Wilson, Mark W B; Chin, Alex W; Zigmantas, Donatas; Egorova, Dassia; Rao, Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Singlet fission is the spin-allowed conversion of a spin-singlet exciton into a pair of spin-triplet excitons residing on neighbouring molecules. To rationalize this phenomenon, a multiexcitonic spin-zero triplet-pair state has been hypothesized as an intermediate in singlet fission. However, the nature of the intermediate states and the underlying mechanism of ultrafast fission have not been elucidated experimentally. Here, we study a series of pentacene derivatives using ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy and unravel the origin of the states involved in fission. Our data reveal the crucial role of vibrational degrees of freedom coupled to electronic excitations that facilitate the mixing of multiexcitonic states with singlet excitons. The resulting manifold of vibronic states drives sub-100 fs fission with unity efficiency. Our results provide a framework for understanding singlet fission and show how the formation of vibronic manifolds with a high density of states facilitates fast and efficient electronic processes in molecular systems.

  18. Statistical equilibrium in cometary C2. III - Triplet-singlet, Phillips, Ballik-Ramsay, and Mulliken bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A new series of vibrational bands is predicted which arises from transitions between the lowest electron states of the triplet and singlet states of homonuclear C2. The predictions are useful for C2 identifications and for disentangling congested low resolution spectra that characterize new observations. Predictions are also made for Mulliken, Phillips, and Ballik-Ramsay band sequences, and all calculations are made with the assumed molecular constants and computational methods of KSO-II.

  19. Spin-orbit coupling mechanism of singlet oxygen a1Δg quenching by solvent vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, B. F.

    2017-02-01

    Degenerate character of the O2(a1Δg) state and of the charge-transfer configurations (CTCs) from solvent to the oxygen open-shell orbitals explains the enhancement of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) which is necessary to overcome spin prohibition during singlet oxygen a1Δg quenching. The former mechanism of non-radiative transition O2(a1Δg) → O2(X3 Σg-) based on electronic energy transfer to the solvent vibrational levels (e-v mechanism) is supplemented here by explicit analysis of SOC effects mediated by solvent and O2 vibrations. The SOC matrix element between one component of the initial electronic excited singlet a1Δg state and the final ground triplet X3 Σg- state in the oxygen moiety is not equal to zero (as in free O2) in the collision complex with solvent molecule (M) when all possible CTCs of the type O2- …M+ are accounted for. Intermolecular configuration interaction between CTC and locally excited states obeys a simple symmetry selection rule which provides finally the SOC matrix element with a guarantee of large orbital rotation around the molecular oxygen axis creating a torque. The CTCs admixtures into the singlet and triplet wave functions in the collision complex O2…M ensure the SOC enhancement inside the O2 moiety and let the spin-prohibited singlet oxygen a1Δg quenching to become effectively allowed in terms of e-v mechanism. In the new model the solvent is not only a passive "sink" for the singlet oxygen excitation energy but serves as an active perturber of the oxygen open shell and finally - of the whole spin dynamics in the collision system.

  20. Vibronic exciton theory of singlet fission. I. Linear absorption and the anatomy of the correlated triplet pair state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Reichman, David R.

    2017-05-01

    Recent time-resolved spectroscopic experiments have indicated that vibronic coupling plays a vital role in facilitating the process of singlet fission. In this work, which forms the first article of a series, we set out to unravel the mechanisms underlying singlet fission through a vibronic exciton theory. We formulate a model in which both electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom are treated microscopically and non-perturbatively. Using pentacene as a prototypical material for singlet fission, we subject our theory to comparison with measurements on polarization-resolved absorption of single crystals, and employ our model to characterize the excited states underlying the absorption band. Special attention is given to the convergence of photophysical observables with respect to the basis size employed, through which we determine the optimal basis for more expensive calculations to be presented in subsequent work. We furthermore evaluate the energetic separation between the optically prepared singlet excited state and the correlated triplet pair state, as well as provide a real-space characterization of the latter, both of which are of key importance in the discussion of fission dynamics. We discuss our results in the context of recent experimental studies.

  1. Probing color-singlet exchange at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    We present latest preliminary results on hard color-singlet exchange in proton-antiproton collisions. The fraction of dijet events produced via color-singlet exchange is measured as a function of jet transverse energy, dijet pseudorapidity separation, and proton-antiproton center-of-mass energy. These results are qualitatively consistent with a color-singlet fraction that increases with increasing quark-initiated processes.

  2. Vibrationally-resolved spectroscopic studies of electronically excited states of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1,8-naphthalimide: a delicate interplay between one ππ* and two nπ* states.

    PubMed

    Maltseva, Elena; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-02-22

    The spectroscopic and dynamic properties of the lower electronically excited states of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1,8-naphthalimide have been studied in supersonically cooled molecular beams using nanosecond Resonance Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI) spectroscopic techniques in combination with quantum chemical calculations. The excitation spectra of these compounds show near - and even below - the apparent 0-0 transition to a strongly allowed electronic state, previously assigned as the S1(2(1)A1(ππ*)) state, a plethora of vibronic transitions that cannot simply be rationalized in terms of the Franck-Condon vibronic activity of that particular state. Instead, it is shown that the (1)B1(nπ*) state, which was previously reported to be S3 for vertical excitation, is adiabatically the lowest excited singlet state. Interactions between this 'dark' state and the 'bright' 2(1)A1(ππ*) state lead to intensity borrowing of transitions to 'dark' state levels that thus show up in the excitation spectra. A complicating factor is that, apart from the coupling of these two singlet states, a relatively strong spin-orbit coupling between the 2(1)A1(ππ*) and (3)B1(nπ*) states is also present. We show that the latter state has a slightly higher adiabatic excitation energy than the former state in 1,8-naphthalic anhydride but lies energetically below the 2(1)A1(ππ*) state in 1,8-naphthalimide. Concurrently, we find that the decay dynamics of the excited states of 1,8-naphthalimide are entirely dominated by intersystem crossing, while in 1,8-naphthalic anhydride both internal conversion to the ground state and intersystem crossing occur, albeit the former loses importance once the excitation energy exceeds that of the (3)B1(nπ*) state.

  3. Short-time dynamics and decay mechanism of 2(1H)-pyridinone upon excitation to the light-absorbing S4(21𝝅 𝝅* ) state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng-Shuo; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Xie, Bin-Bin; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2017-03-01

    The excited-state structural dynamics and the decay mechanism of 2(1H)-pyridinone (NHP) after excitation to the S4(21π π* ) light-absorbing state were studied using resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. The B-band absorption cross-section and the corresponding absolute resonance Raman cross-sections were simulated using a simple model based on time-dependent wave-packet theory. The geometric structures of the singlet electronic excited states and their curve-crossing points were optimized at the CASSCF level of theory. The obtained short-time structural dynamics in easy-to-visualize internal coordinates were then compared with the CASSCF-predicted structural-parameter changes of S4(21π π* ) /S3 (21nπ* ) -MIN , S4(21π π* ) /S1 (11nπ* ) -MIN , and S4(21π π* ) -MIN . Our results indicate that the initial population of NHP in the S4 state bifurcates in or near the Franck-Condon region, leading to two predominant (S4S3-MIN and S4S1-MIN) internal conversion pathways. The lowest-lying S2(11π π* ) excited state is finally formed via subsequent internal conversions S3(21nπ* ) /S2 (11π π* ) -MIN and S1(11nπ* ) /S2 (11π π* ) -MIN. The enol-keto tautomeric mechanism does not seem to play a role. The decay mechanism in the singlet realm is proposed.

  4. Absence of singlet fission and carrier multiplication in a model conjugated polymer: tracking the triplet population through phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Bange, Sebastian; Scherf, Ullrich; Lupton, John M

    2012-02-01

    Singlet fission, or multiple exciton generation, has been purported to occur in a variety of material systems. Given the current interest in exploiting this process in photovoltaics, we search for the direct signature of singlet fission, phosphorescence from the triplet state, in a model polymeric organic semiconductor for which photoinduced absorption experiments have implied a tripling of the intersystem crossing yield at the onset of fission. Fluorescence and phosphorescence are clearly discriminated using a picosecond gated photoluminescence excitation technique, at variable temperature. At low excitation densities, in a quasi-steady-state experiment, we detect no change of the relative triplet yield to within 4% for photon energies of almost three times the triplet energy of 2.1 eV. Identical results are obtained under nonlinear two-photon excitation. We conclude that assignments of singlet fission based on induced absorptions alone should be treated with caution and may substantially overestimate excited-state intersystem crossing yields, raising questions with regards to the applicability of the process in devices.

  5. Excited electronic states and spectroscopy of unsymmetrically substituted polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takao

    2013-09-01

    α-Methyl-ω-phenylpolyenes, Me-(CH=CH)N-Ph, (MPPNs) with N = 2, 3, and 4 were synthesized. Fluorescence, absorption, and excitation spectra of MPPNs have been measured under different conditions along with those of β-methylstyrene. It is shown that there is a forbidden singlet (π, π*) excited state located at energies below the absorbing state for MPPNs with N = 3 and 4. Excitation energies of these polyenes are determined as a function of N. Quantitative analysis of the temperature dependence of the relative intensity of the fluorescence spectrum and its solvent shift behavior extract estimates of the various physical parameters that characterize excitation energies and excited-state dynamical behavior of MPPN with N = 3. The singlet excited states of the MPPNs were compared with those of the α,ω-diphenylpolyenes and α,ω-dimethylpolyenes.

  6. Excited electronic states and spectroscopy of unsymmetrically substituted polyenes.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takao

    2013-09-07

    α-Methyl-ω-phenylpolyenes, Me-(CH=CH)N-Ph, (MPPNs) with N = 2, 3, and 4 were synthesized. Fluorescence, absorption, and excitation spectra of MPPNs have been measured under different conditions along with those of β-methylstyrene. It is shown that there is a forbidden singlet (π, π∗) excited state located at energies below the absorbing state for MPPNs with N = 3 and 4. Excitation energies of these polyenes are determined as a function of N. Quantitative analysis of the temperature dependence of the relative intensity of the fluorescence spectrum and its solvent shift behavior extract estimates of the various physical parameters that characterize excitation energies and excited-state dynamical behavior of MPPN with N = 3. The singlet excited states of the MPPNs were compared with those of the α,ω-diphenylpolyenes and α,ω-dimethylpolyenes.

  7. Astrophysical constraints on singlet scalars at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    We consider the viability of new heavy gauge singlet scalar particles at colliders such as the LHC . Our original motivation for this study came from the possibility of a new heavy particle of mass ~ TeV decaying significantly into two photons at colliders, such as LHC, but our analysis applies more broadly. We show that there are significant constraints from astrophysics and cosmology on the simplest UV complete models that incorporate such new particles and its associated collider signal. The simplest and most obvious UV complete model that incorporates such signals is that it arises from a new singlet scalar (or pseudo-scalar) coupled to a new electrically charged and colored heavy fermion. Here we show that these new fermions (and anti-fermions) would be produced in the early universe, then form new color singlet heavy mesons with light quarks, obtain a non-negligible freeze-out abundance, and remain in kinetic equilibrium until decoupling. These heavy mesons possess interesting phenomenology, dependent on their charge, including forming new bound states with electrons and protons. We show that a significant number of these heavy states would survive for the age of the universe and an appreciable number would eventually be contained within the earth and solar system. We show that this leads to detectable consequences, including the production of highly energetic events from annihilations on earth, new spectral lines, and, spectacularly, the destabilization of stars. The lack of detection of these consequences rules out such simple UV completions, putting pressure on the viability of such new particles at LHC . To incorporate such a scalar would require either much more complicated UV completions or even further new physics that provides a decay channel for the associated fermion.

  8. Decamethylytterbocene Complexes of Bipyridines and Diazabutadienes: Multiconfigurational Ground States and Open-Shell Singlet Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Corwin H.; Walter, Marc D.; Kazhdan, Daniel; Hu, Yung-Jin; Lukens, Wayne W.; Bauer, Eric D.; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-04-22

    Partial ytterbium f-orbital occupancy (i.e., intermediate valence) and open-shell singlet formation are established for a variety of bipyridine and diazabutadiene adducts with decamethylytterbocene, (C5Me5)2Yb, abbreviated as Cp*2Yb. Data used to support this claim include ytterbium valence measurements using Yb LIII-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) multiconfigurational calculations, as well as structural measurements compared to density functional theory calculations. The CASSCF calculations indicate that the intermediate valence is the result of a multiconfigurational ground-state wave function that has both an open-shell singlet f13(?*)1, where pi* is the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the bipyridine or dpiazabutadiene ligands, and a closed-shell singlet f14 component. A number of other competing theories for the unusual magnetism in these materials are ruled out by the lack of temperature dependence of the measured intermediate valence. These results have implications for understanding chemical bonding not only in organolanthanide complexes but also for f-element chemistry in general, as well as understanding magnetic interactions in nanoparticles and devices.

  9. The Nature of Singlet Exciton Fission in Carotenoid Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Singlet exciton fission allows the fast and efficient generation of two spin triplet states from one photoexcited singlet. It has the potential to improve organic photovoltaics, enabling efficient coupling to the blue to ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum to capture the energy generally lost as waste heat. However, many questions remain about the underlying fission mechanism. The relation between intermolecular geometry and singlet fission rate and yield is poorly understood and remains one of the most significant barriers to the design of new singlet fission sensitizers. Here we explore the structure–property relationship and examine the mechanism of singlet fission in aggregates of astaxanthin, a small polyene. We isolate five distinct supramolecular structures of astaxanthin generated through self-assembly in solution. Each is capable of undergoing intermolecular singlet fission, with rates of triplet generation and annihilation that can be correlated with intermolecular coupling strength. In contrast with the conventional model of singlet fission in linear molecules, we demonstrate that no intermediate states are involved in the triplet formation: instead, singlet fission occurs directly from the initial 1Bu photoexcited state on ultrafast time scales. This result demands a re-evaluation of current theories of polyene photophysics and highlights the robustness of carotenoid singlet fission. PMID:25825939

  10. The nature of singlet exciton fission in carotenoid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Musser, Andrew J; Maiuri, Margherita; Brida, Daniele; Cerullo, Giulio; Friend, Richard H; Clark, Jenny

    2015-04-22

    Singlet exciton fission allows the fast and efficient generation of two spin triplet states from one photoexcited singlet. It has the potential to improve organic photovoltaics, enabling efficient coupling to the blue to ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum to capture the energy generally lost as waste heat. However, many questions remain about the underlying fission mechanism. The relation between intermolecular geometry and singlet fission rate and yield is poorly understood and remains one of the most significant barriers to the design of new singlet fission sensitizers. Here we explore the structure-property relationship and examine the mechanism of singlet fission in aggregates of astaxanthin, a small polyene. We isolate five distinct supramolecular structures of astaxanthin generated through self-assembly in solution. Each is capable of undergoing intermolecular singlet fission, with rates of triplet generation and annihilation that can be correlated with intermolecular coupling strength. In contrast with the conventional model of singlet fission in linear molecules, we demonstrate that no intermediate states are involved in the triplet formation: instead, singlet fission occurs directly from the initial 1B(u) photoexcited state on ultrafast time scales. This result demands a re-evaluation of current theories of polyene photophysics and highlights the robustness of carotenoid singlet fission.

  11. Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron; Yang, Zeng-hui; Ullrich, Carsten A.; Trail, John R.; Needs, Richard J.

    2014-05-14

    A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two-electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange, is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble.

  12. Advanced spray generator of singlet oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalek, Otomar; Hrubý, Jan; Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena

    2007-05-01

    A spray type singlet oxygen generator (SOG) for chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied. Mathematical modeling has shown that a high O II(1Δ) yield can be attained with BHP (basic hydrogen peroxide) spray in the Cl II-He atmosphere. It was found experimentally that O II(1Δ) was produced with a >=50% yield at a total pressure up to 50 kPa (375 Torr). A rotating separator was developed that can segregate even very small droplets (>=0.5 μm) from O II(1Δ) flow.

  13. Doublet-singlet model and unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynolter, G.; Kovács, J.; Lendvai, E.

    2016-12-01

    We study the renormalizable singlet-doublet fermionic extension of the Standard Model (SM). In this model, the new vector-like fermions couple to the gauge bosons and to the Higgs via new Yukawa couplings that allow for nontrivial mixing in the new sector, providing a stable, neutral dark matter candidate. Approximate analytic formulae are given for the mass spectrum around the blind spots, where the dark matter candidate coupling to h or Z vanishes. We calculate the two particle scattering amplitudes in the model, impose the perturbative unitarity constraints and establish bounds on the Yukawa couplings.

  14. Non-radiative depletion of the excited electronic states of 9-cyanoanthracene in presence of tetrahydronaphthols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Misra, T.; Maiti, M.; Saini, R. D.; Chanda, M.; Lahiri, S.; Ganguly, T.

    2003-02-01

    Both steady state and time resolved spectroscopic measurements reveal that the prime process involved in quenching mechanism of the lowest excited singlet (S 1) and triplet (T 1) states of the well known electron acceptor 9-Cyanoanthracene (9CNA) in presence of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1-naphthol (TH1N) or 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthol (TH2N) is H-bonding interaction. It has been confirmed that the fluorescence of 9CNA is not at all affected in presence of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-methoxy naphthalene (TH2MN) both in non-polar n-heptane (NH) and highly polar acetonitrile (ACN) media. This indicates that the H-bonding interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the quenching phenomenon observed in the present investigations with TH1N (or TH2N) donors and 9CNA acceptor. In ACN solvent both contact ion-pair (CIP) and solvent-separated (or dissociated) ions are formed due to intermolecular H-bonding interactions in the excited electronic states (both singlet and triplet). In NH environment due to stronger H-bonding interactions, the large proton shift within excited charge transfer (CT) or ion-pair complex, 1or3(D +H⋯A -), causes the formation of the neutral radical, 3(D+HA)*, due to the complete detachment of the H-atom. It is hinted that both TH1N and TH2N due to their excellent H-bonding ability could be used as antioxidants.

  15. Many-body Green's function GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of the optical excitations in a paradigmatic model dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Faber, C; Boulanger, P; Duchemin, I; Attaccalite, C; Blase, X

    2013-11-21

    We study within the many-body Green's function GW and Bethe-Salpeter formalisms the excitation energies of a paradigmatic model dipeptide, focusing on the four lowest-lying local and charge-transfer excitations. Our GW calculations are performed at the self-consistent level, updating first the quasiparticle energies, and further the single-particle wavefunctions within the static Coulomb-hole plus screened-exchange approximation to the GW self-energy operator. Important level crossings, as compared to the starting Kohn-Sham LDA spectrum, are identified. Our final Bethe-Salpeter singlet excitation energies are found to agree, within 0.07 eV, with CASPT2 reference data, except for one charge-transfer state where the discrepancy can be as large as 0.5 eV. Our results agree best with LC-BLYP and CAM-B3LYP calculations with enhanced long-range exchange, with a 0.1 eV mean absolute error. This has been achieved employing a parameter-free formalism applicable to metallic or insulating extended or finite systems.

  16. Fully Relativistic Calculations on the Potential Energy Surfaces of the Lowest 23 States of Molecular Chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Luiz Guilherme M. de Macedo; de Jong, Wibe A.

    2008-01-24

    The electronic structure and spectroscopic properties (Re, ωexe, βe, Te ) of the ground state and the 22 lowest excited states of chlorine molecule were studied within a four component relativistic framework using the MOLFDIR program package. The potential energy curves of all possible 23 covalent states were calculated using relativistic complete open shell configuration interaction (COSCI) approach. In addition, four component multi-reference configuration interaction with singles and doubles excitations (MRCISD) calculations were performed in order to infer the effects due to dynamical correlation in vertical excitations. The calculated properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  17. Intramolecular charge transfer of push-pull pyridinium salts in the singlet manifold.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, Benedetta; Consiglio, Giuseppe; Elisei, Fausto; Fortuna, Cosimo G; Mazzucato, Ugo; Spalletti, Anna

    2014-05-22

    The solvent effect on the photophysical and photochemical properties of the iodides of three trans (E) isomers of 2-D-vinyl,1-methylpyridinium, where D is a donor group (4-dimethylaminophenyl, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl and 1-pyrenyl), was studied by stationary and transient absorption techniques. The results obtained allowed the negative solvatochromism and relaxation pathways of the excited states in the singlet manifold to be reasonably interpreted. Resorting to ultrafast absorption techniques and DFT calculations allowed information on the excited state dynamics and the role of the solvent-controlled intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes to be obtained. The structure-dependent excited state dynamics in nonpolar solvents, where the ICT is slower than solvent rearrangement, and in polar solvents, where an opposite situation is operative, was thus explained. The push-pull character of the three compounds, particularly the anilino-derivative, suggests their potential application in optoelectronics.

  18. Sub-50 fs excited state dynamics of 6-chloroguanine upon deep ultraviolet excitation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sayan; Puranik, Mrinalini

    2016-05-18

    The photophysical properties of natural nucleobases and their respective nucleotides are ascribed to the sub-picosecond lifetime of their first singlet states in the UV-B region (260-350 nm). Electronic transitions of the ππ* type, which are stronger than those in the UV-B region, lie at the red edge of the UV-C range (100-260 nm) in all isolated nucleobases. The lowest energetic excited states in the UV-B region of nucleobases have been investigated using a plethora of experimental and theoretical methods in gas and solution phases. The sub-picosecond lifetime of these molecules is not a general attribute of all nucleobases but specific to the five primary nucleobases and a few xanthine and methylated derivatives. To determine the overall UV photostability, we aim to understand the effect of more energetic photons lying in the UV-C region on nucleobases. To determine the UV-C initiated photophysics of a nucleobase system, we chose a halogen substituted purine, 6-chloroguanine (6-ClG), that we had investigated previously using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have performed quantitative measurements of the resonance Raman cross-section across the Bb absorption band (210-230 nm) and constructed the Raman excitation profiles. We modeled the excitation profiles using Lee and Heller's time-dependent theory of resonance Raman intensities to extract the initial excited state dynamics of 6-ClG within 30-50 fs after photoexcitation. We found that imidazole and pyrimidine rings of 6-ClG undergo expansion and contraction, respectively, following photoexcitation to the Bb state. The amount of distortions of the excited state structure from that of the ground state structure is reflected by the total internal reorganization energy that is determined at 112 cm(-1). The contribution of the inertial component of the solvent response towards the total reorganization energy was obtained at 1220 cm(-1). In addition, our simulation also yields an instantaneous response of the first

  19. Development of a Mist Singlet Oxygen Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shigeki; Endo, Masamori; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2002-08-01

    The singlet oxygen generator (SOG) generates singlet oxygen for a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), using the gas-liquid reaction between basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) and Cl2 gas. The Jet-SOG has been widely used, wherein jet BHP from small orifices reacts with Cl2 gas, and the BHP utilization is less than 1% in a single pass through the reaction zone. To improve BHP utilization, the reaction surface with Cl2 gas should be increased, and the droplet diameter of BHP should be decreased. In this study, two types of mist generators were tested for the SOG, with which 65-μm- and 15-μm-diameter droplets were generated. In the 65 μm mist generator, BHP utilization was 22.5% at the Cl2 flow rate of 8.3 mmol/s, and in the 15 μm mist generator, BHP utilization was 41.5% at the Cl2 flow rate of 9.0 mmol/s, that is, BHP utilization of the new SOG, Mist-SOG, markedly exceeded that of the conventional Jet-SOG.

  20. Flavour singlets in gauge theory as permutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yusuke; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Suzuki, Ryo

    2016-12-01

    Gauge-invariant operators can be specified by equivalence classes of permutations. We develop this idea concretely for the singlets of the flavour group SO( N f ) in U( N c ) gauge theory by using Gelfand pairs and Schur-Weyl duality. The singlet operators, when specialised at N f = 6, belong to the scalar sector of N=4 SYM. A simple formula is given for the two-point functions in the free field limit of g Y M 2 = 0. The free two-point functions are shown to be equal to the partition function on a 2-complex with boundaries and a defect, in a topological field theory of permutations. The permutation equivalence classes are Fourier transformed to a representation basis which is orthogonal for the two-point functions at finite N c , N f . Counting formulae for the gauge-invariant operators are described. The one-loop mixing matrix is derived as a linear operator on the permutation equivalence classes.

  1. CASSCF and CASPT2 ab initio electronic structure calculations find singlet methylnitrene is an energy minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Kemnitz, C.R.; Ellison, G.B.; Karney, W.L.; Borden, W.T.

    2000-02-16

    (12/11)CASSCF and (12/11)CASPT2 ab initio electronic structure calculations with both the cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets find that there is a barrier to the very exothermic hydrogen shift that converts singlet methylnitrene, CH{sub 3}N, to methyleneimine, H{sub 2}C{double{underscore}bond}NH. These two energy minima are connected by a transition structure of C{sub s} symmetry, which is computed to lie 3.8 kcal/mol above the reactant at the (12/11)CASPT2/cc-pVTZ//(12/11)CASSCF/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The (12/11)CASSCF/cc-pVTZ value for the lowest frequency vibration in the transition structure is 854 cm{sup {minus}1}, and CASPT2 calculations concur that this a{double{underscore}prime} vibration does indeed have a positive force constant. Thus, there is no evidence that this geometry is actually a mountain top, rather than a transition structure, on the global potential energy surface or that a C{sub 1} pathway of lower energy connects the reactant to the product. Therefore, computational results indicate that the bands seen for singlet methylnitrene in the negative ion photoelectron spectrum of CH{sub 3}N{sup {minus}} are due to singlet methylnitrene being an energy minimum, rather than a transition state. These results also lead to the prediction that, at least in principle, singlet methylnitrene should be an observable intermediate in the formation of methyleneimine.

  2. Chemical quenching of singlet oxygen by carotenoids in plants.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Fanny; Birtic, Simona; Cuiné, Stéphan; Triantaphylidès, Christian; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Havaux, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be the first line of defense of plants against singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) toxicity because of their capacity to quench (1)O(2) as well as triplet chlorophylls through a physical mechanism involving transfer of excitation energy followed by thermal deactivation. Here, we show that leaf carotenoids are also able to quench (1)O(2) by a chemical mechanism involving their oxidation. In vitro oxidation of β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin by (1)O(2) generated various aldehydes and endoperoxides. A search for those molecules in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves revealed the presence of (1)O(2)-specific endoperoxides in low-light-grown plants, indicating chronic oxidation of carotenoids by (1)O(2). β-Carotene endoperoxide, but not xanthophyll endoperoxide, rapidly accumulated during high-light stress, and this accumulation was correlated with the extent of photosystem (PS) II photoinhibition and the expression of various (1)O(2) marker genes. The selective accumulation of β-carotene endoperoxide points at the PSII reaction centers, rather than the PSII chlorophyll antennae, as a major site of (1)O(2) accumulation in plants under high-light stress. β-Carotene endoperoxide was found to have a relatively fast turnover, decaying in the dark with a half time of about 6 h. This carotenoid metabolite provides an early index of (1)O(2) production in leaves, the occurrence of which precedes the accumulation of fatty acid oxidation products.

  3. Polymorphism influences singlet fission rates in tetracene thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Arias, Dylan H.; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Cook, Jasper D.; ...

    2015-11-06

    Here, we report the effect of crystal structure and crystallite grain size on singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline tetracene, one of the most widely studied SF and organic semiconductor materials. SF has been comprehensively studied in one polymoprh (Tc I), but not in the other, less stable polymorph (Tc II). Using carefully controlled thermal evaporation deposition conditions and high sensitivity ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we found that for large crystallite size samples, SF in nearly pure Tc II films is significantly faster than SF in Tc I films. We also discovered that crystallite size has a minimal impact on themore » SF rate in Tc II films, but a significant influence in Tc I films. Large crystallites exhibit SF times of 125 ps and 22 ps in Tc I and Tc II, respectively, whereas small crystallites have SF times of 31 ps and 33 ps. Our results demonstrate first, that attention must be paid to polymorphism in obtaining a self-consistent rate picture for SF in tetracene and second, that control of polymorphism can play a significant role towards achieving a mechanistic understanding of SF in polycrystalline systems. In this latter context we show that conventional theory based on non-covalent tetracene couplings is insufficient, thus highlighting the need for models that capture the delocalized and highly mobile nature of excited states in elucidating the full photophysical picture.« less

  4. Polymorphism influences singlet fission rates in tetracene thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Dylan H.; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Cook, Jasper D.; Damrauer, Niels H.; Johnson, Justin C.

    2015-11-06

    Here, we report the effect of crystal structure and crystallite grain size on singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline tetracene, one of the most widely studied SF and organic semiconductor materials. SF has been comprehensively studied in one polymoprh (Tc I), but not in the other, less stable polymorph (Tc II). Using carefully controlled thermal evaporation deposition conditions and high sensitivity ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we found that for large crystallite size samples, SF in nearly pure Tc II films is significantly faster than SF in Tc I films. We also discovered that crystallite size has a minimal impact on the SF rate in Tc II films, but a significant influence in Tc I films. Large crystallites exhibit SF times of 125 ps and 22 ps in Tc I and Tc II, respectively, whereas small crystallites have SF times of 31 ps and 33 ps. Our results demonstrate first, that attention must be paid to polymorphism in obtaining a self-consistent rate picture for SF in tetracene and second, that control of polymorphism can play a significant role towards achieving a mechanistic understanding of SF in polycrystalline systems. In this latter context we show that conventional theory based on non-covalent tetracene couplings is insufficient, thus highlighting the need for models that capture the delocalized and highly mobile nature of excited states in elucidating the full photophysical picture.

  5. The predicted spectrum and singlet-triplet interaction of the hypermetallic molecule SrOSr.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, B; Jensen, Per; Schwerdtfeger, P; Bunker, P R

    2013-10-03

    In accordance with previous studies in our group on Be, Mg, and Ca hypermetallic oxides, we find that SrOSr has a linear X̃1Σ(g)+ ground electronic state and a very low lying first excited ã3Σ(u)+ triplet electronic state. No gas-phase spectrum of this molecule has been assigned yet, and to encourage and assist in its discovery we present a complete ab initio simulation, with absolute intensities, of the infrared absorption spectrum for both electronic states. The three-dimensional potential energy surfaces and the electric dipole moment surfaces of the X̃1Σ(g)+ and ã3Σ(u)+ electronic states are calculated using a multireference configuration interaction (MRCISD) approach in combination with internally contracted multireference perturbation theory (RS2C) based on complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave functions applying a Sadlej pVTZ basis set for both O and Sr and the Stuttgart relativistic small-core effective core potential for Sr. The infrared spectra are simulated using the MORBID program system. We also calculate vertical excitation energies and transition moments for several excited singlet and triplet electronic states in order to predict the positions and intensities of the most prominent singlet and triplet electronic absorption bands. Finally, for this heavy molecule, we calculate the singlet–triplet interaction matrix elements between close-lying vibronic levels of the X̃ and ã electronic states and find them to be very small.

  6. Analysis of Effect of Singlet-Triplet Annihilation in a Low-Threshold Optically Pumped Organic Semiconductor Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the impact of optical excitation in a low-threshold organic semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (OVCSEL) to achieve lasing. We study the threshold behavior and the dynamics of the optimized OVCSEL structure when pumped by both picosecond and nanosecond pulses. The boundary between pulsed and continuous wave lasing is analyzed for the study of annihilation quenching losses in the proposed OVCSEL. Results from numerical simulation show that, for the picosecond pulses excitation case, the singlet-triplet annihilation is not effective and a lasing threshold of about 0.75 μJ cm-2 can be obtained. We show that for the nanosecond pulses pumping case, triplet excitons largely quench singlet excitons and lasing is sustained for a short time following turn-on of the pump.

  7. Singlet fission in chiral carbon nanotubes: Density functional theory based computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryjevski, Andrei; Mihaylov, Deyan; Gifford, Brendan; Kilin, Dmitri

    2017-07-01

    Singlet fission (SF) process, where a singlet exciton decays into a pair of spin one exciton states which are in the total spin singlet state, is one of the possible channels for multiple exciton generation (MEG). In chiral single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), efficient SF is present within the solar spectrum energy range which is shown by the many-body perturbation theory calculations based on the density functional theory simulations. We calculate SF exciton-to-biexciton decay rates R1 →2 and biexciton-to-exciton rates R2 →1 in the (6,2), (6,5), (10,5) SWCNTs, and in the (6,2) SWCNT functionalized with Cl atoms. Within the solar energy range, we predict R1 →2˜1 014-1 015 s-1, while biexciton-to-exciton recombination is weak with R2 →1/R1 →2≤1 0-2. SF MEG strength in pristine SWCNTs varies strongly with the excitation energy, which is due to highly non-uniform density of states at low energy. However, our results for the (6,2) SWCNT with chlorine atoms adsorbed to the surface suggest that MEG in the chiral SWCNTs can be enhanced by altering the low-energy electronic states via surface functionalization.

  8. Helical Self-Assembly-Induced Singlet-Triplet Emissive Switching in a Mechanically Sensitive System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Zhou, Yunyun; Yin, Liyuan; Hang, Cheng; Li, Xin; Ågren, Hans; Yi, Tao; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Liangliang

    2017-01-18

    In nanoscience, chirality has shown a significant ability to tune materials' electronic properties, whereas imposing macrochirality into the regulation of singlet-triplet features of organic optoelectronics remains a challenging research topic. Since the tuning for singlet and triplet excited-state properties in a single π-functional molecule connects to its multicolor luminescent application and potential improvement of internal quantum efficiency, we here report that supramolecular chirality can be employed to toggle the singlet and triplet emissions in a well-designed asterisk-shaped molecule. Employing a hexathiobenzene-based single luminophore as a prototype and functionalizing it with chiral α-lipoiate side groups, we find that helical nanoarchitectures can accordingly form in mixed DMF/H2O solution. On this basis, switching between fluorescence and phosphorescence of the material can be realized upon helical self-assembly and dissociation. Such a behavior can be attributed to a helical-conformation-dependent manipulation of the intersystem crossing. Furthermore, reversible mechanoluminescence of the corresponding solid sample was also observed to rely on an analogous molecular self-assembly alternation. These results can probably provide new visions for the development of next-generation supramolecular chiral functional materials.

  9. A Direct Mechanism of Ultrafast Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene Dimers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    absorption and the correlated triplet pair1( TT ) or multiexcitonic (ME) state.28−34 In addition, the CT-mediated mechanism has been implicated in iSF polymers...and correspond to the ground state gg, the ME state, tt , the two singlet LE states, eg and ge, the two CT states, ac and ca, and the doubly excited...coupling between the LE and ME states, |⟨ | ̂ | ⟩| = |⟨ | ̂ | ⟩| = tt H ge tt H eg 2.2 meV at the reference dimer geometry and that the energy difference

  10. Singlet oxygen generation from water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lixin; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias

    2006-05-17

    Water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites have been prepared via electrostatic interaction. We used CdTe quantum dots with diameters up to 3.4 nm, 2-aminoethanethiol as a stabilizer, and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine dihydrochloride (TSPP) as an organic dye. The photophysical properties of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The fluorescence of the parent CdTe quantum dot is largely suppressed. Instead, indirect excitation of the TSPP moiety leads to production of singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of 0.43. The nanocomposite is sufficiently photostable for biological applications.

  11. Singlet oxygen detection in water by means of digital holography and digital holographic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashov, A. V.; Petrov, N. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents results on singlet oxygen detection in aqueous solutions of a photosensitizer based on the reconstruction of 3D temperature gradients resulting from nonradiative deactivation of excited oxygen molecules. 3D temperature distributions were reconstructed by means of the inverse Abel transformation from a single digital hologram in the case of cylindrically symmetric distribution of the temperature gradient and using holographic tomography algorithm with filtered back projection in the case of nonsymmetrical distribution. Major features of the applied techniques are discussed and results obtained by the two methods are compared.

  12. Lowest enthalpy polymorph of cold-compressed graphite phase.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Bao, Kuo; Tian, Fubo; Zeng, Zhenwu; He, Zhi; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2012-04-07

    Based on an ab initio evolutionary algorithm, a novel carbon polymorph with an orthorhombic Cmcm symmetry is predicted, named as C carbon, which has the lowest enthalpy among the previously proposed cold-compressed graphite phases.

  13. Lowest Price Technically Acceptable: Why All the Debate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    perceived overuse by the Department of Defense (DoD) of the Lowest Priced Technically Accept-able (LPTA) source-selection process. In appropriate...pressure on price . Furthermore, industry contends, overusing LPTA in the long haul will erode the DoD technological edge through low-cost/low-performance...contracting missions. Lowest Price Technically Acceptable Why All the Debate? Scott R. Calisti Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  14. Decomposition of formyl fluoride on the lowest triplet state surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumathi, R.; Chandra, A. K.

    1992-09-01

    Decomposition of formyl fluoride on the lowest triplet potential energy hypersurface is studied using ab initio quantum chemical methods. Dissociation energies and the barrier to dissociation from the lowest triplet HFCO into H( 2S) and FCO( 2A') are reported. Results reveal that the barrier to dissociation into F( 2P) + HCO( 2A') is very high. The triatomic radical, FCO( 2A') decomposes into F( 2P) + CO( 1Σ) from the high vibrational levels of the C-F stretch.

  15. Pseudogap and singlet formation in organic and cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, J.; Gunnarsson, O.

    2014-06-01

    The pseudogap phase occurring in cuprate and organic superconductors is analyzed based on the dynamical cluster approximation approach to the Hubbard model. In this method a cluster embedded in a self-consistent bath is studied. With increasing Coulomb repulsion, U, the antinodal point [k =(π,0)] displays a gradual suppression of spectral density of states around the Fermi energy which is not observed at the nodal point [k =(π/2,π/2)]. The opening of the antinodal pseudogap is found to be related to the internal structure of the cluster and the much weaker bath-cluster couplings at the antinodal than nodal point. The role played by internal cluster correlations is elucidated from a simple four-level model. For small U, the cluster levels form Kondo singlets with their baths leading to a peak in the spectral density. As U is increased a localized state is formed localizing the electrons in the cluster. If this cluster localized state is nondegenerate, the Kondo effect is destroyed and a pseudogap opens up in the spectra at the antinodal point. The pseudogap can be understood in terms of destructive interference between different paths for electrons hopping between the cluster and the bath. However, electrons at the nodal points remain in Kondo states up to larger U since they are more strongly coupled to the bath. The strong correlation between the (π,0) and the (0,π) cluster levels in the localized state leads to a large correlation energy gain, which is important for localizing electrons and opening up a pseudogap at the antinodal point. Such a scenario is in contrast with two independent Mott transitions found in two-band systems with different bandwidths in which the localized cluster electron does not correlate strongly with any other cluster electron for intermediate U. The important intracluster sector correlations are associated with the resonating valence bond character of the cluster ground state containing d-wave singlet pairs. The low

  16. Singlet Oxygen Photosensitization by EGFP and its Chromophore HBDI

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Banzo, Ana; Nonell, Santi; Hofkens, Johan; Flors, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The photosensitization of reactive oxygen species and, in particular, singlet oxygen by proteins from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family influences important processes such as photobleaching and genetically targeted chromophore-assisted light inactivation. In this article, we report an investigation of singlet oxygen photoproduction by GFPs using time-resolved detection of the NIR phosphorescence of singlet oxygen at 1275 nm. We have detected singlet oxygen generated by enhanced (E)GFP, and measured a lifetime of 4 μs in deuterated solution. By comparison with the model compound of the EGFP fluorophore 4-hydroxybenzylidene-1,2-dimethylimidazoline (HBDI), our results confirm that the β-can of EGFP provides shielding of the fluorophore and reduces the production of this reactive oxygen species. In addition, our results yield new information about the triplet state of these proteins. The quantum yield for singlet oxygen photosensitization by the model chromophore HBDI is 0.004. PMID:17766345

  17. Molecular dynamics of excited state intramolecular proton transfer: 3-hydroxyflavone in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bellucci, Michael A.; Coker, David F.

    2012-05-21

    The ultrafast enol-keto photoisomerization in the lowest singlet excited state of 3-hydroxyflavone is investigated using classical molecular dynamics in conjunction with empirical valence bond (EVB) potentials for the description of intramolecular interactions, and a molecular mechanics and variable partial charge model, dependent on transferring proton position, for the description of solute-solvent interactions. A parallel multi-level genetic program was used to accurately fit the EVB potential energy surfaces to high level ab initio data. We have studied the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction in three different solvent environments: methylcyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol. The effects of the environment on the proton transfer time and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the varied time scales of the ESIPT reaction rates are analyzed. We find that simulations with our EVB potential energy surfaces accurately reproduce experimentally determined reaction rates, fluorescence spectra, and vibrational frequency spectra in all three solvents. Furthermore, we find that the ultrafast ESIPT process results from a combination of ballistic transfer, and intramolecular vibrational redistribution, which leads to the excitation of a set of low frequency promoting vibrational modes. From this set of promoting modes, we find that an O-O in plane bend and a C-H out of plane bend are present in all three solvents, indicating that they are fundamental to the ultrafast proton transfer. Analysis of the slow proton transfer trajectories reveals a solvent mediated proton transfer mechanism, which is diffusion limited.

  18. A singlet - triplet T+ based qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Hugo; Petta, Jason; Burkard, Guido

    2010-03-01

    We theoretically show that the electronic two-spin states singlet and triplet T+ are promising candidates for the implementation of a qubit in GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). A coherent superposition of the two-spin states is obtained by finite time Landau-Zener-St"uckelberg interferometry [1] and the single qubit rotations are performed by means of an external magnetic field with a typical amplitude of about 100 mT. In such a system, the coherent manipulation of the qubit takes place in a time scale of about 1 ns. We also study the nuclear induced decoherence, mainly due to hyperfine contact coupling between the electronic and nuclear spins, and compute the decoherence time T2^* ˜10 ns. [4pt] [1] H. Ribeiro and G. Burkard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 216802 (2009)

  19. Supersymmetric Higgs singlet effects on FCNC observables

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgkinson, Robert N.

    2008-11-23

    Higgs singlet superflelds, usually present in extensions of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) which address the {mu}-problem, such as the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and the Minimal Nonminimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (mnSSM), can have significant contributions to B-meson flavour-changing neutral current observables for large values of tan{beta} > or approx. 50. Illustrative results are presented including effects on the B{sub s} and on the rare decay B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. In particular, we find that in the NMSSM, the branching ratio for B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} can be enhanced or even suppressed with respect to the Standard Model prediction by more than one order of magnitude.

  20. Dopant-Catalyzed Singlet Exciton Fission.

    PubMed

    Snamina, Mateusz; Petelenz, Piotr

    2017-01-04

    In acene-based molecular crystals, singlet exciton fission occurs through superexchange mediated by two virtual charge-transfer states. Hence, it is sensitive to their energies, which depend on the local environment. The crucial point is the balance between the charge-quadrupole interactions within the pair of molecules directly involved in the process and those with the surrounding crystal matrix, which are governed by local symmetry and may be influenced by breaking this symmetry. This happens, for example, in the vicinity of a vacancy or an impurity and in the latter case is complemented by polarization energy and potentially by dipolar contributions. Our model calculations indicate that the superexchange coupling is sensitive enough to these factors to enable fission to be catalyzed by judiciously designed dopant molecules. In favorable cases, dipolar dopants are expected to increase the fission rate by an order of magnitude.

  1. Naphthoxazole-based singlet oxygen fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Rubén; Zanocco, Renzo; Gidi, Yasser; Zanocco, Antonio L; Nonell, Santi; Lemp, Else

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and photochemical behavior of a new family of photoactive compounds to assess its potential as singlet oxygen ((1)O2) probes. The candidate dyads are composed by a (1)O2 trap plus a naphthoxazole moiety linked directly or through an unsaturated bond to the oxazole ring. In the native state, the inherent great fluorescence of the naphthoxazole moiety is quenched; but in the presence of (1)O2, generated by the addition and appropriate irradiation of an external photosensitizer, a photooxidation reaction occurs leading to the formation of a new chemical entity whose fluorescence is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the initial compound, at the optimal selected wavelength. The presented dyads outperform the commonly used indirect fluorescent (1)O2 probes in terms of fluorescence enhancement maintaining the required specificity for (1)O2 detection in solution.

  2. Intramolecular excited-state proton-transfer studies on flavones in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Sapan K.; Sharma, Neera; Rastogi, Ramesh C.

    2001-02-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of some biologically active flavones have been studied as a function of the acidity (pH/H 0) of the solution. Dissociation constants have been determined for the ground and first excited singlet states. The results are compared with those obtained from Forster-Weller calculations. The acidity constants obtained by fluorimetric titration method are in complete agreement (in most of the systems) with ground state data indicating a excited state deactivation prior to prototropic equilibration. Compared to umbelliferones, flavones are only weakly fluorescent in alkaline solution. This behaviour is explained by the small energy difference between the singlet excited state and triplet excited state giving rise to more efficient intersystem crossing. Most of the flavones studied here undergo adiabatic photodissociation in the singlet excited state indicating the formation of an exciplex or a phototautomer.

  3. Excited state properties of naphtho-homologated xxDNA bases and effect of methanol solution, deoxyribose, and base pairing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Laibin; Ren, Tingqi; Tian, Jianxiang; Yang, Xiuqin; Zhou, Liuzhu; Li, Xiaoming

    2013-04-18

    Design and synthesis of fluorescent nucleobase analogues for studying structures and dynamics of nucleic acids have attracted much attention in recent years. In the present work, a comprehensive theoretical study of electronic transitions of naphtho-homologated base analogues, namely, xxC, xxT, xxA, and xxG, was performed. The nature of the low-lying excited states was discussed, and the results were compared with those of x-bases. Geometrical characteristics of the lowest excited singlet ππ* states were explored using the CIS method. The calculated excitation maxima are 423, 397, 383, and 357 nm for xxA, xxG, xxC, and xxT, respectively, and they are greatly red-shifted compared with x-bases and natural bases, allowing them to be selectively excited in the presence of the natural bases. In the gas phase, the fluorescence from them would be expected to occur around 497, 461, 457, and 417 nm, respectively. The effects of methanol solution, deoxyribose, and base paring with their complementary natural bases on the relevant absorption and emission spectra of these modified bases were also examined.

  4. An ab initio investigation of the ground and low-lying singlet and triplet electronic states of XNO{sub 2} and XONO (X = Cl, Br, and I)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kirk A.; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2014-01-28

    A systematic ab initio treatment of the nitryl halides (XNO{sub 2}) and the cis- and trans- conformers of the halide nitrites (XONO), where X = Cl, Br, and I, have been carried out using highly correlated methods with sequences of correlation consistent basis sets. Equilibrium geometries and harmonic frequencies have been accurately calculated in all cases at the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b level of theory, including the effects of core-valence correlation for the former. Where experimental values are available for the equilibrium structures (ClNO{sub 2} and BrNO{sub 2}), the present calculations are in excellent agreement; however, the X-O distances are slightly too long by about 0.01 Å due to missing multireference effects. Accurate predictions for the iodine species are made for the first time. The vertical electronic excitation spectra have been calculated using equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for the low-lying singlet states and multireference configuration interaction for both singlet and triplet states. The latter also included the effects of spin-orbit coupling to provide oscillator strengths for the ground state singlet to excited triplet transitions. While for ClNO{sub 2} the transitions to excited singlet states all occur at wavelengths shorter than 310 nm, there is one longer wavelength singlet transition in BrNO{sub 2} and two in the case of INO{sub 2}. The long wavelength tail in the XNO{sub 2} species is predicted to be dominated by transitions to triplet states. In addition to red-shifting from X = Cl to I, the triplet transitions also increase in oscillator strength, becoming comparable to many of the singlet transitions in the case of INO{sub 2}. Hence in particular, the latter species should be very photolabile. Similar trends are observed and reported for the halogen nitrites, many of which for the first time.

  5. Fluctuations in Electronic Energy Affecting Singlet Fission Dynamics and Mixing with Charge-Transfer State: Quantum Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2016-02-04

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed process by which a singlet excited state is converted to two triplet states. To understand mechanisms of the ultrafast fission via a charge transfer (CT) state, one has investigated the dynamics through quantum-dynamical calculations with the uncorrelated fluctuation model; however, the electronic states are expected to experience the same fluctuations induced by the surrounding molecules because the electronic structure of the triplet pair state is similar to that of the singlet state except for the spin configuration. Therefore, the fluctuations in the electronic energies could be correlated, and the 1D reaction coordinate model may adequately describe the fission dynamics. In this work we develop a model for describing the fission dynamics to explain the experimentally observed behaviors. We also explore impacts of fluctuations in the energy of the CT state on the fission dynamics and the mixing with the CT state. The overall behavior of the dynamics is insensitive to values of the reorganization energy associated with the transition from the singlet state to the CT state, although the coherent oscillation is affected by the fluctuations. This result indicates that the mixing with the CT state is rather robust under the fluctuations in the energy of the CT state as well as the high-lying CT state.

  6. Singlet Oxygen Generation by Cyclometalated Complexes and Applications†

    PubMed Central

    Ashen-Garry, David; Selke, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    While cyclometalated complexes have been extensively studied for optoelectronic applications, these compounds also represent a relatively new class of photosensitizers for the production of singlet oxygen. Thus far, singlet oxygen generation from cyclometalated Ir and Pt complexes has been studied in detail. In this review, photophysical data for singlet oxygen generation from these complexes is presented, and the mechanism of 1O2 generation is discussed, including evidence for singlet oxygen generation via an electron transfer mechanism for some of cyclometalated Ir complexes. The period from the first report of singlet oxygen generation by a cyclometalated Ir complex in 2002 through August 2013 is covered in this review. This new class of singlet oxygen photosensitizers may prove to be rather versatile due to the ease of substitution of ancillary ligands without loss of activity. Several cyclometalated complexes have been tethered to zeolites, polystyrene, or quantum dots. Applications for photooxygenation of organic molecules, including “traditional” singlet oxygen reactions (ene reaction, [4+2] and [2+2] cycloadditions) as well as oxidative coupling of amines are presented. Potential biomedical applications are also reviewed. PMID:24344628

  7. Singlet oxygen generation by cyclometalated complexes and applications.

    PubMed

    Ashen-Garry, David; Selke, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    While cyclometalated complexes have been extensively studied for optoelectronic applications, these compounds also represent a relatively new class of photosensitizers for the production of singlet oxygen. Thus far, singlet oxygen generation from cyclometalated Ir and Pt complexes has been studied in detail. In this review, photophysical data for singlet oxygen generation from these complexes are presented, and the mechanism of (1) O2 generation is discussed, including evidence for singlet oxygen generation via an electron-transfer mechanism for some of cyclometalated Ir complexes. The period from the first report of singlet oxygen generation by a cyclometalated Ir complex in 2002 through August 2013 is covered in this review. This new class of singlet oxygen photosensitizers may prove to be rather versatile due to the ease of substitution of ancillary ligands without loss of activity. Several cyclometalated complexes have been tethered to zeolites, polystyrene, or quantum dots. Applications for photooxygenation of organic molecules, including "traditional" singlet oxygen reactions (ene reaction, [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloadditions) as well as oxidative coupling of amines are presented. Potential biomedical applications are also reviewed. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Reduction of the virtual space for coupled-cluster excitation energies of large molecules and embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Send, Robert; Kaila, Ville R I; Sundholm, Dage

    2011-06-07

    We investigate how the reduction of the virtual space affects coupled-cluster excitation energies at the approximate singles and doubles coupled-cluster level (CC2). In this reduced-virtual-space (RVS) approach, all virtual orbitals above a certain energy threshold are omitted in the correlation calculation. The effects of the RVS approach are assessed by calculations on the two lowest excitation energies of 11 biochromophores using different sizes of the virtual space. Our set of biochromophores consists of common model systems for the chromophores of the photoactive yellow protein, the green fluorescent protein, and rhodopsin. The RVS calculations show that most of the high-lying virtual orbitals can be neglected without significantly affecting the accuracy of the obtained excitation energies. Omitting all virtual orbitals above 50 eV in the correlation calculation introduces errors in the excitation energies that are smaller than 0.1 eV. By using a RVS energy threshold of 50 eV, the CC2 calculations using triple-ζ basis sets (TZVP) on protonated Schiff base retinal are accelerated by a factor of 6. We demonstrate the applicability of the RVS approach by performing CC2/TZVP calculations on the lowest singlet excitation energy of a rhodopsin model consisting of 165 atoms using RVS thresholds between 20 eV and 120 eV. The calculations on the rhodopsin model show that the RVS errors determined in the gas-phase are a very good approximation to the RVS errors in the protein environment. The RVS approach thus renders purely quantum mechanical treatments of chromophores in protein environments feasible and offers an ab initio alternative to quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics separation schemes.

  9. Triple-Singlet Mixing in Si_3: the 1^3A_{1}^{''} - {a}{^3}A{^{'}_2} Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2013-06-01

    The electronic spectrum of the triplet states of the D_{3h} isomer of Si_3 recorded using both mass selected REMPI and LIF spectroscopy was recently reported. In that same study the dispersed laser induced fluorescence (DLIF) spectra resulting from excitation of various bands in the visible range were recorded. The DLIF spectra exhibited a progression with a 505 cm^{-1} spacing, which was assign to the breathing mode of the D_{3h}, equilateral triangle, Si_{3} molecule. In addition, and quite unexpectedly, the DLIF spectra exhibited a progression having a spacing of 173 cm^{-1}. This progression was tentatively assigned to transition involving the bending mode of the ^1A_1 state of the C_{2v} isomer. A possible explanation for the observation of transitions in the singlet manifold is that upon laser excitation in the D_{3h} triplet manifold there is rapid intersystem crossing to the singlet manifold followed by fluorescence to the ground state of C_{2v} isomer. Here we address the issue of possible intersystem crossing by recording the excitation on DLIF spectra in the present of a static magnetic field. Magnetic fields are known to enhance the singlet-triple mixing. Si_{3} was produced using a supersonic pulsed discharge source (900 V, 20 μs, 6kΩ) with a 1% SiH_{4} in argon mixture. Magnetic fields of approximately 500 and 950 Gauss were applied. We will report the interpretation of the magnetic field induced changes to the LIF and DLIF spectra and the implications for the singlet-triple mixing process. N. J. Reilly, X. Zhuang, V. Gupta, R. Nagarajan, R. C. Fortenberry, J. P. Maier, T. C. Steimle, J. F. Stanton, M. C. McCarthy; {J. Chem. Phys., {136(19)}, 194307, (2004). V. I. Makarov, I. V. Khmelinskii; {Advances in Chemical Phisics, {Volume 118}, 45-98, (2001). thanks

  10. W∞-ALGEBRA for Fermions in the Lowest Landau Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    We derive the W∞-algebra directly from the cocycle (translational) transformation of fermions in the lowest Landau level. This happens whenever the translational symmetry is unbroken in the ground state. Under the cocycle transformations, the lowest Landau level condition and fermion number are preserved. In the droplet approximation, the algebra of this system is reduced to the classical w∞-algebra (area-preserving deformations) and is related to condensed matter physics. This describes the edge modes of the fractional quantum Hall effect.

  11. Excited-State Dynamics in 6-THIOGUANOSINE from Femtosecond to Microsecond Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cao; Reichardt, Christian; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.

    2011-06-01

    6-thioguanine is a widely used pro-drug in which the oxygen atom in the carbonyl group of guanine is replaced by a sulfur atom. Previous studies have shown that patients treated with 6-thioguanine can metabolize and incorporate it in DNA as 6-thioguanosine (6tGuo). These patients show a high incidence of skin cancer when they are exposed to extended periods of sunlight irradiation. In this work, the photodynamics of 6tGuo is investigated by broad band time resolved transient spectroscopy. Similar to previously studied 4-thiothymidine, our results show that excitation of 6tGuo with UVA light at 340 nm results in efficient and ultrafast intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold (τ = 0.31±0.05 ps) and a high triplet quantum yield (φ = 0.8±0.2). The triplet state has a lifetime of 720±10 ns in N2-saturated vs. 460±10 ns in air-saturated aqueous solution. In addition, a minor picosecond deactivation channel (80±15 ps) is observed, which is tentatively assigned to internal conversion from the lowest-energy excited singlet state to the ground state. Quantum chemical calculations support the proposed kinetic model. Based on the high triplet quantum yield measured, it is proposed that the phototoxicity of 6tGuo is due to its ability to photosensitized singlet oxygen, which can result in oxidative damage to DNA. P. O'Donovan, C. M. Perrett, X. Zhang, B. Montaner, Y.-Z. Xu, C. A. Harwood, J. M. McGregor, S. L. Walker, F. Hanaoka, P. Karran, Science 309, 1871 (2005). C. Reichardt, C. Guo, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, J. Phys. Chem. B. in press (2011). C. Reichardt, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 2239 (2010) C. Reichardt, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, Chem. Comm. 46, 5963 (2010).

  12. Generation of singlet oxygen from fragmentation of monoactivated 1,1-dihydroperoxides

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Jiliang; Ghorai, Prasanta; Finkenstaedt-Quinn, Solaire A.; Findik, Ilhan; Sliz, Emily; Kuwata, Keith T.; Dussault, Patrick H.

    2012-01-01

    The first singlet excited state of molecular oxygen (1O2) is an important oxidant in chemistry, biology, and medicine. 1O2 is most often generated through photosensitized excitation of ground state oxygen. 1O2 can also be generated chemically through the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and other peroxides. However, most of these “dark oxygenations” require water-rich media associated with short 1O2 lifetimes, and there is a need for oxygenations able to be conducted in organic solvents. We now report that monoactivated derivatives of 1,1-dihydroperoxides undergo a previously unobserved fragmentation to generate high yields of singlet molecular oxygen (1O2). The fragmentations, which can be conducted in a variety of organic solvents, require a geminal relationship between a peroxyanion and a peroxide activated towards heterolytic cleavage. The reaction is general for a range of skeletal frameworks and activating groups and, via in situ activation, can be applied directly to 1,1-dihydroperoxides. Our investigation suggests the fragmentation involves rate-limiting formation of a peroxyanion that decomposes via a Grob-like process. PMID:22283731

  13. Spin-singlet state formation in the cluster Mott insulator GaNb4S8 studied by μSR and NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waki, T.; Kajinami, Y.; Tabata, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, M.; Takigawa, M.; Watanabe, I.

    2010-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments revealed that the spin-singlet state with an excitation gap of ˜200K is realized from S=1/2Nb4 tetrahedral clusters in a cluster Mott insulator GaNb4S8 . The intercluster cooperative phenomenon to the singlet state at TS=32k is triggered by intracluster Jahn-Teller type structural instability developed from ˜3TS . Referring to the lattice symmetry, the formation of Nb8 octamer ( Nb4-Nb4 bond) is suggested.

  14. A statistical, ab initio, quantum mechanical study of the photolysis and final state distributions of singlet ketene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, John P.; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G.

    2003-09-01

    A new quantum mechanical, statistical, total angular momentum conserving theory designed to describe relative kinetic energy and fragment quantum state distributions in unimolecular dissociation processes is described. The theory is called the statistical adiabatic product distribution method and is based on a variational Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) treatment of the break-up process. It requires the definition of a break-up pathway or intrinsic reaction coordinate and the normal mode vibrational frequencies in the coordinate space orthogonal to this coordinate. In the present application to the break up of highly excited singlet ketene, the reaction coordinate and vibrational frequencies are evaluated using ab initio molecular electronic structure codes. The variational aspect of the theory involves locating, independently for every total angular momentum and total energy, the reaction coordinate value which leads to the lowest sum-of-states. In order to make predictions of the product quantum state and relative kinetic energy distributions the variational RRKM treatment is augmented by a J conserving quantum phase space treatment of the dissociation process. This treatment also takes into account the variation of the electronic energy along the reaction coordinate during the final stage of the break-up process. The conserved modes of the molecule are treated adiabatically during the break-up process as the fragment separation increases beyond the position of the critical geometry. The quantum phase space theory treatment enables us to identify the energy associated with rotation and translation at the critical geometry. The rotational motion of the fragments is also treated adiabatically during the break-up process, while the relative translational energy is used to surmount the potential and centrifugal barrier which may still have to be overcome to permit the fragments to separate. The phase space theory used takes proper account of the limitations

  15. Water induced dismutation of superoxide anion generates singlet molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Corey, E J; Mehrotra, M M; Khan, A U

    1987-06-15

    Direct spectroscopic measurement of 1268 nm singlet oxygen emission from KO2 suspensions at room temperature in three non-protonic solvents--CCl4, Cl2FCCClF2, and C6F14 by the action of water is reported. The results clearly show that the singlet oxygen generation is due to a water induced reaction, and suggest that one role of the enzyme superoxide dismutase may be the protection of biological structures, for example, lipid membranes, from degradation by singlet oxygen.

  16. A dynamic model for ALA-PDT of skin: analysis of the correlation of fluorescence and singlet oxygen luminescence to spatial distribution of singlet oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baochang; Farrell, Thomas J.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2011-02-01

    Both photosensitizer fluorescence photobleaching and singlet oxygen luminescence (SOL) have been measured during ALA-PDT of skin in attempts to estimate PDT dose. However, the relationship of these detected signals to singlet oxygen (1O2) dose in a given volume and to its depth distribution are not well understood and difficult to verify experimentally because of the temporal and spatial variations of the essential parameters in PDT. A model for ALA-PDT of normal human skin was developed to simulate the dynamic progress of PDT. The model incorporates Monte Carlo simulations of excitation light fluence and both SOL and PpIX fluorescence signals, 1O2-mediated photobleaching mechanism, ground-state oxygen (3O2) diffusion and perfusion, a cumulative 1O2-dependent threshold vascular response and any initial distribution of PpIX. The simulated time-resolved evolution of the instantaneous PpIX fluorescence photobleaching and cumulative SOL signals are examined as functions of irradiance and related to both the time-resolved distribution of cumulative 1O2 production at various depths and the average dose in the dermis. The simulations used a green light source at 523 nm. The correlation of SOL signals with the average dose was found to be less irradiance-dependent than that of fluorescence photobleaching, which indicates the great potential of SOL as a clinical dosimetric tool in PDT.

  17. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  18. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  19. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lowest overall transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... and incidental charges that (1) are in effect on, or become effective before, the expected date of the...

  1. 20. WINE CELLAR This is the lowest room in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WINE CELLAR This is the lowest room in the house, under the service entrance from S Street. Note reinforced concrete floor slab above (reinforced concrete floor slabs were used throughout the house). - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  3. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  4. Photochemical Dynamics of Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhou; Iwasaki, Hikari; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2017-06-01

    Singlet fission (SF) converts a singlet exciton (S_1) into a pair of triplet ones (T_1) via a ``multi-exciton'' (ME) intermediate: S_1 \\longleftrightarrow ^1ME \\longleftrightarrow ^1(T_1T_1) \\longrightarrow 2T_1. In exothermic cases, e.g., crystalline pentacene or its derivatives, the quantum yield of SF can reach 200%. With SF doubling the electric current generated by an incident high-energy photon, the solar conversion efficiency in pentacene-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit of 33.7%. The ME state is popularly considered to be a dimeric state with significant charge transfer (CT) character that is strongly coupled to both S_1 and ^1(T_1T_1), while this local model lacks strong support from full quantum dynamics studies. Intramolecular SF (ISF) occurring to covalently-bound dimers in the solution phase is an excellent model for a straightforward dynamics simulation of local excitons. In the present study, we investigate the ISF mechanisms for three covalently-bound dimers of pentacene derivatives, including ortho-, meta-, and para-bis(6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene)benzene, in non-protic solvents. Specifically, we propagate the real-time, non-adiabatic quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) dynamics on the potential energy surfaces associated with the states of S_1, ^1(T_1T_1) and CT. We explore how the energies of these ISF-relevant states and the non-adiabatic couplings between each other fluctuate with time and the instantaneous molecular configuration (e.g., intermonomer distance and orientation). We also quantitatively compare Condon and non-Condon ISF dynamics with solution-phase spectroscopic data. Our results allow us to understand the roles of CT energy levels in the ISF mechanism and propose a design strategy to maximize ISF efficiency. M. B. Smith and J. Michl, Chem. Rev. 110, 6891 (2010). W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961). T. C. Berkelbach, M. S. Hybertsen

  5. Singlet Oxygen in Aqueous Solution: A Lecture Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that illustrates the red chemiluminescence due to singlet molecular oxygen that can be observed when aqueous solutions of hypochlorite ion and hydrogen peroxide are mixed. (MLH)

  6. Detection of singlet oxygen yield from new photosensitizers using luminol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Harumasa; Oppelaar, Hugo; Baas, Paul; Van Zandwijk, Nico; Stewart, Fiona A.

    1995-03-01

    For the application of photodynamic therapy and diagnosis many different photosensitizers have been developed. It is important to compare these photosensitizers for their activity. It is generally accepted that the most important mechanism of cell killing is via the production of singlet oxygen. We therefore performed basic studies to detect singlet oxygen using a luminol reaction. The relative singlet oxygen yields from 4 photosensitizers (Photofrin, ATX-S10, mTHPC and NPe6) were measured by the detection of luminol chemiluminescence at 445 nm wavelength in Menzel's buffer solution at pH 10.5. NPe6, ATX-S10 and mTHPC all showed singlet oxygen productive abilities. These photosensitizers are new promising photosensitizers. These results show a possibility of comparison of each photosensitizer.

  7. Singlet exciton fission in nanostructured organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Priya J; Mohanty, Aseema; Sussman, Jason; Lee, Jiye; Baldo, Marc A

    2011-04-13

    Singlet exciton fission is an efficient multiexciton generation process in organic molecules. But two concerns must be satisfied before it can be exploited in low-cost solution-processed organic solar cells. Fission must be combined with longer wavelength absorption in a structure that can potentially surpass the single junction limit, and its efficiency must be demonstrated in nanoscale domains within blended devices. Here, we report organic solar cells comprised of tetracene, copper phthalocyanine, and the buckyball C(60). Short wavelength light generates singlet excitons in tetracene. These are subsequently split into two triplet excitons and transported through the phthalocyanine. In addition, the phthalocyanine absorbs photons below the singlet exciton energy of tetracene. To test tetracene in nanostructured blends, we fabricate coevaporated bulk heterojunctions and multilayer heterojunctions of tetracene and C(60). We measure a singlet fission efficiency of (71 ± 18)%, demonstrating that exciton fission can efficiently compete with exciton dissociation on the nanoscale.

  8. Singlet Oxygen in Aqueous Solution: A Lecture Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that illustrates the red chemiluminescence due to singlet molecular oxygen that can be observed when aqueous solutions of hypochlorite ion and hydrogen peroxide are mixed. (MLH)

  9. Singlet model interference effects with high scale UV physics

    DOE PAGES

    Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.

    2017-01-06

    One of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM) is the addition of a scalar gauge singlet, S . If S is not forbidden by a symmetry from mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, the mixing will generate non-SM rates for Higgs production and decays. Generally, there could also be unknown high energy physics that generates additional effective low energy interactions. We show that interference effects between the scalar resonance of the singlet model and the effective field theory (EFT) operators can have significant effects in the Higgs sector. Here, we examine a non- Z 2 symmetric scalarmore » singlet model and demonstrate that a fit to the 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings and to limits on high mass resonances, S , exhibit an interesting structure and possible large cancellations of effects between the resonance contribution and the new EFT interactions, that invalidate conclusions based on the renormalizable singlet model alone.« less

  10. Photoluminescence dynamics in singlet fission chromophore liquid melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piland, Geoffrey B.; Bardeen, Christopher J.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of high temperature melting on the photophysics of three prototypical singlet fission molecules is investigated. Time-resolved photoluminescence is used to look at the melt phase of the molecules tetracene, diphenylhexatriene and rubrene. Chemical decomposition of tetracene precluded any detailed measurements on this molecule. In the diphenylhexatriene melt, a rapid singlet state nonradiative relaxation process outcompetes singlet fission. In the rubrene melt, singlet fission occurs at a rate similar to that of the crystal, but the decay of the delayed fluorescence is much more rapid. The rapid decay of the delayed fluorescence suggests that either the triplet lifetime is shortened, or the fusion probability decreases, or that both factors are operative at higher temperatures.

  11. Pulsed diode laser-based monitor for singlet molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonkyung; Zhu, Leyun; Minhaj, Ahmed M.; Hinds, Michael F.; Vu, Danthu H.; Rosen, David I.; Davis, Steven J.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment. PDT uses the affinity of photosensitizers to be selectively retained in malignant tumors. When tumors, pretreated with the photosensitizer, are irradiated with visible light, a photochemical reaction occurs and tumor cells are destroyed. Oxygen molecules in the metastable singlet delta state O2(1Δ) are believed to be the species that destroys cancerous cells during PDT. Monitoring singlet oxygen produced by PDT may lead to more precise and effective PDT treatments. Our approach uses a pulsed diode laser-based monitor with optical fibers and a fast data acquisition system to monitor singlet oxygen during PDT. We present results of in vitro singlet oxygen detection in solutions and in a rat prostate cancer cell line as well as PDT mechanism modeling. PMID:18601555

  12. Singlet model interference effects with high scale UV physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM) is the addition of a scalar gauge singlet, S . If S is not forbidden by a symmetry from mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, the mixing will generate non-SM rates for Higgs production and decays. In general, there could also be unknown high energy physics that generates additional effective low energy interactions. We show that interference effects between the scalar resonance of the singlet model and the effective field theory (EFT) operators can have significant effects in the Higgs sector. We examine a non-Z2 symmetric scalar singlet model and demonstrate that a fit to the 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings and to limits on high mass resonances, S , exhibit an interesting structure and possible large cancellations of effects between the resonance contribution and the new EFT interactions, that invalidate conclusions based on the renormalizable singlet model alone.

  13. Li-air batteries: Importance of singlet oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntz, Alan C.; McCloskey, Bryan D.

    2017-04-01

    The deployment of Li-air batteries is hindered by severe parasitic reactions during battery cycling. Now, the reactive singlet oxygen intermediate is shown to substantially contribute to electrode and electrolyte degradation.

  14. Guanidine and guanidinium cation in the excited state—theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Antol, Ivana Glasovac, Zoran; Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Barbatti, Mario

    2014-08-21

    Diverse ab initio and density-functional-theory methods were used to investigate geometries, energies, and electronic absorption spectra of guanidine and its protonated form, as well as their photo-deactivation processes. It was shown that the guanidine is a weakly absorbing species with the excitation spectrum consisting mostly of transitions to the Rydberg excited states and one valence n-π{sub 4} state. The lowest energy band has a maximum at ca. 6.9 eV (∼180 nm). The protonation of guanidine affects its excitation spectrum substantially. A major shift of the Rydberg states to higher energies is clearly visible and strongly absorbing transitions from the ground state to the π{sub 3}-π{sub 4} and π{sub 2}-π{sub 4} states appears at 7.8 eV (∼160 nm). Three low-lying conical intersections (two for guanidine and one for protonated guanidine) between the ground state and the first excited singlet state were located. They are accessible from the Franck–Condon region through amino N–H stretching and out-of-plane deformations in guanidine and protonated guanidine, respectively. The relaxation of the π{sub 3}-3s Rydberg state via amino N–H bond stretching was hindered by a barrier. The nondissociated conical intersection in protonated guanidine mediates the radiationless deactivation of the compound after excitation into the π{sub 3}-π{sub 4} state. This fact is detrimental for the photostability of guanidine, since its conjugate acid is stable in aqueous solution over a wide pH range and in protein environment, where guanidinium moiety in arginine is expected to be in a protonated form.

  15. Ground and Excited States Of OH(-)(H2O)n Clusters.

    PubMed

    Zanuttini, David; Gervais, Benoit

    2015-07-23

    We present an ab initio study of OH(-)(H2O)n (n = 1-7) clusters in their lowest three singlet and two triplet electronic states, calculated with the RASPT2 method. Minimum energy structures were obtained by geometry optimization for both (a) the 1(1)Σ(+) ground state and (b) the 1(3)Π excited state. From these structures, vertical detachment energies (VDEs), transition energies, and atomic charges were calculated. (a) We found that ground-state geometries present the hydroxide at the surface, accepting three and four H bonds from water. The excess charge is strongly stabilized by water up to a VDE of 6.7 eV for n = 7. Bound singlet excited states for ground-state geometries exist for n ≥ 3, and their VDE increases up to 1 eV for n = 7. (b) The 1(3)Π state equilibrium geometries completely differ from the ground-state geometries. They are characterized by the hydroxide acting as a single H bond donor to a water molecule, which then donates a H-bond to two others, forming a "tree" pattern. All minimum energy structures present this "tree" pattern and a constant total number of 2n - 2 H bonds, or equivalently 3 dangling hydrogens. The excess charge stabilizes from n = 2 and goes mainly at the surface, on the dangling hydrogens of water. An almost neutral OH radical is then formed. Resulting structural resemblances with the neutral system make the VDEs of the first excited states weakly geometry dependent but size sensitive because of additive polarization effects. In contrast, the 1(1)Σ(+) state at the 1(3)Π geometries is strongly sensitive to structural patterns. We bring out existing correlations between these patterns and the corresponding 1(1)Σ(+) state energy increase, which leads to couplings with excited states and possibly to an inversion of the state energy order. From these assessments, we propose a scenario for recombination of aqueous hydroxide following excitation in a charge-transfer-to-solvent state.

  16. Effect of H2 binding on the nonadiabatic transition probability between singlet and triplet states of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site.

    PubMed

    Kaliakin, Danil S; Zaari, Ryan R; Varganov, Sergey A

    2015-02-12

    We investigate the effect of H2 binding on the spin-forbidden nonadiabatic transition probability between the lowest energy singlet and triplet electronic states of [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site model, using a velocity averaged Landau-Zener theory. Density functional and multireference perturbation theories were used to provide parameters for the Landau-Zener calculations. It was found that variation of the torsion angle between the terminal thiolate ligands around the Ni center induces an intersystem crossing between the lowest energy singlet and triplet electronic states in the bare active site and in the active site with bound H2. Potential energy curves between the singlet and triplet minima along the torsion angle and H2 binding energies to the two spin states were calculated. Upon H2 binding to the active site, there is a decrease in the torsion angle at the minimum energy crossing point between the singlet and triplet states. The probability of nonadiabatic transitions at temperatures between 270 and 370 K ranges from 35% to 32% for the active site with bound H2 and from 42% to 38% for the bare active site, thus indicating the importance of spin-forbidden nonadiabatic pathways for H2 binding on the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site.

  17. Accurate adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps in atoms and molecules employing the third-order spin-flip algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Rehn, Dirk R.; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    For the calculation of adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps (STG) in diradicaloid systems the spin-flip (SF) variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator in third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) has been applied. Due to the methodology of the SF approach the singlet and triplet states are treated on an equal footing since they are part of the same determinant subspace. This leads to a systematically more accurate description of, e.g., diradicaloid systems than with the corresponding non-SF single-reference methods. Furthermore, using analytical excited state gradients at ADC(3) level, geometry optimizations of the singlet and triplet states were performed leading to a fully consistent description of the systems, leading to only small errors in the calculated STGs ranging between 0.6 and 2.4 kcal/mol with respect to experimental references.

  18. Accurate adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps in atoms and molecules employing the third-order spin-flip algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator.

    PubMed

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Rehn, Dirk R; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-08-28

    For the calculation of adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps (STG) in diradicaloid systems the spin-flip (SF) variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator in third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) has been applied. Due to the methodology of the SF approach the singlet and triplet states are treated on an equal footing since they are part of the same determinant subspace. This leads to a systematically more accurate description of, e.g., diradicaloid systems than with the corresponding non-SF single-reference methods. Furthermore, using analytical excited state gradients at ADC(3) level, geometry optimizations of the singlet and triplet states were performed leading to a fully consistent description of the systems, leading to only small errors in the calculated STGs ranging between 0.6 and 2.4 kcal/mol with respect to experimental references.

  19. Singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed fluorescence of common water-soluble photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Breitenbach, Thomas; Hála, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Six common water-soluble singlet oxygen ((1)O2) photosensitizers - 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridinio) porphine (TMPyP), meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonathophenyl)porphine (TPPS4), Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4), eosin Y, rose bengal, and methylene blue - were investigated in terms of their ability to produce delayed fluorescence (DF) in solutions at room temperature. All the photosensitizers dissolved in air-saturated phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) exhibit easily detectable DF, which can be nearly completely quenched by 10 mM NaN3, a specific (1)O2 quencher. The DF kinetics has a biexponential rise-decay character in a microsecond time domain. Therefore, we propose that singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed fluorescence (SOSDF), where the triplet state of a photosensitizer reacts with (1)O2 giving rise to an excited singlet state of the photosensitizer, is the prevailing mechanism. It was confirmed by additional evidence, such as a monoexponential decay of triplet-triplet transient absorption kinetics, dependence of SOSDF kinetics on oxygen concentration, absence of SOSDF in a nitrogen-saturated sample, or the effect of isotopic exchange H2O-D2O. Eosin Y and AlPcS4 show the largest SOSDF quantum yield among the selected photosensitizers, whereas rose bengal possesses the highest ratio of SOSDF intensity to prompt fluorescence intensity. The rate constant for the reaction of triplet state with (1)O2 giving rise to the excited singlet state of photosensitizer was estimated to be ~/>1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). SOSDF kinetics contains information about both triplet and (1)O2 lifetimes and concentrations, which makes it a very useful alternative tool for monitoring photosensitizing and (1)O2 quenching processes, allowing its detection in the visible spectral region, utilizing the photosensitizer itself as a (1)O2 probe. Under our experimental conditions, SOSDF was up to three orders of magnitude more intense than the infrared (1)O2

  20. Evidence for conical intersection dynamics mediating ultrafast singlet exciton fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musser, Andrew J.; Liebel, Matz; Schnedermann, Christoph; Wende, Torsten; Kehoe, Tom B.; Rao, Akshay; Kukura, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Singlet exciton fission is the process in organic semiconductors through which a spin-singlet exciton converts into a pair of spin-triplet excitons residing on different chromophores, entangled in an overall spin-zero state. For some systems, singlet fission has been shown to occur on the 100 fs timescale and with a 200% quantum yield, but the mechanism of this process remains uncertain. Here we study a model singlet fission system, TIPS-pentacene, using ultrafast vibronic spectroscopy. We observe that vibrational coherence in the initially photogenerated singlet state is transferred to the triplet state and show that this behaviour is effectively identical to ultrafast internal conversion for polyenes in solution. This similarity in vibronic dynamics suggests that both multi-molecular singlet fission and single-molecular internal conversion are mediated by the same underlying relaxation processes, based on strong coupling between nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom. In its most efficient form this leads to a conical intersection between the coupled electronic states.

  1. Singlet fission in pentacene through multiple exciton quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zimmerman, Paul; Musgrave, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Multi-exciton generation (MEG) has been reported for several materials and may dramatically increase solar cell efficiency. Singlet fission is the molecular analogue of MEG and has been observed in various systems, including tetracene and pentacene, however, no fundamental mechanism for singlet fission has yet been described, although it may govern MEG processes in a variety of materials. Because photoexcited states have single-exciton character, singlet fission to produce a pair of triplet excitons must involve an intermediate state that: (1) exhibits multi-exciton (ME) character, (2) is accessible from S1 and satisfies the fission energy requirement, and (3) efficiently dissociates into multiple electron-hole pairs. Here, we use sophisticated ab initio calculations to show that singlet fission in pentacene proceeds through a dark state (D) of ME character that lies just below S1, satisfies the fission energy requirement (ED>2ET0), and splits into two triplets (2xT0). In tetracene, D lies just above S1, consistent with the observation that singlet fission is thermally activated in tetracene. Rational design of photovoltaic systems that exploit singlet fission will require ab initio analysis of ME states such as D.

  2. Observation of Excited State Spin Ordering under Pulsed Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Kiichi; Karaki, Yoshitomo; Yamada, Norikatsu; Haseda, Taiichiro

    1981-10-01

    Spin ordering among excited levels in NaNi Acac3\\cdotbenzene is observed in the course of pulsed adiabatic magnetization with sweep rate of 105 T/sec. For initial temperatures below 1 K, dM/dt signals give the characteristic double peaks around the field of 2.11 T where the excited singlet and the upper state of the ground doublet crosses.

  3. Ultrafast excited-state intramolecular proton transfer of aloesaponarin I.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Uno, Hidemitsu; Huppert, Dan

    2013-04-25

    Time-resolved emission of aloesaponarin I was studied with the fluorescence up-conversion and time-correlated single-photon-counting techniques. The rates of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, of the solvent and molecular rearrangements, and of the decay from the excited proton-transferred species were determined and interpreted in the light of time-dependent density functional calculations. These results were discussed in conjunction with UV protection and singlet-oxygen quenching activity of aloe.

  4. Exploring the Galactic Cosmic Rays at the lowest energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, M. M.

    2001-08-01

    The solar wind prevents the lowest-energy Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from entering the Heliosphere. Consequently, space probes have thus far been unable to sample them. We suggest that astrochemistry may provide a handle on these particles. Clouds in the interstellar medium (ISM) are sites of chemical-reaction networks that produce various molecular species detectable by their radioastronomical signatures. Highly ionizing low-energy cosmic rays are thought to be the principal agents of molecule production in clouds. Some anomalous abundances, e.g., of deuterium molecules, have been detected. Could studies of the foregoing networks of reactions and their products yield clues to the fluxes and energy spectra of the lowest-energy GCR in the ISM? Other approaches to this problem are also cited.

  5. New insight into singlet oxygen generation at surface modified nanocrystalline TiO2--the effect of near-infrared irradiation.

    PubMed

    Buchalska, Marta; Labuz, Przemysław; Bujak, Łukasz; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Sarna, Tadeusz; Maćkowski, Sebastian; Macyk, Wojciech

    2013-07-14

    The generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous colloids of nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase) modified by organic chelating ligands forming surface Ti(IV) complexes was studied. Detailed studies revealed a plausible and to date unappreciated influence of near-infrared irradiation on singlet oxygen generation at the surface of TiO2. To detect (1)O2, direct and indirect methods have been applied: a photon counting technique enabling time-resolved measurements of (1)O2 phosphorescence, and fluorescence measurements of a product of singlet oxygen interaction with Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green (SOSG). Both methods proved the generation of (1)O2. Nanocrystalline TiO2 modified with salicylic acid appeared to be the most efficient photosensitizer among the tested materials. The measured quantum yield reached the value of 0.012 upon irradiation at 355 nm, while unmodified TiO2 colloids appeared to be substantially less efficient generators of singlet oxygen with the corresponding quantum yield of ca. 0.003. A photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol, proceeding through oxidation by OH˙, was also monitored. The influence of irradiation conditions (UV, vis, NIR or any combination of these spectral ranges) on the generation of both singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals has been tested and discussed. Simultaneous irradiation with visible and NIR light did not accelerate OH˙ formation; however, for TiO2 modified with catechol it influenced (1)O2 generation. Singlet oxygen is presumably formed according to Nosaka's mechanism comprising O2˙(-) oxidation with a strong oxidant (hole, an oxidized ligand); however, the energy transfer from NIR-excited titanium(iii) centers (trapped electrons) plays also a plausible role.

  6. All-electrical measurement of the triplet-singlet spin relaxation time in self-assembled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltrudis, K.; Al-Ashouri, A.; Beckel, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.; Geller, M.; Lorke, A.

    2017-08-01

    We have measured the spin relaxation time of an excited two-electron spin-triplet state into its singlet ground state in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. We use a time-resolved measurement scheme that combines transconductance spectroscopy with spin-to-charge conversion to address the |s ↑,p ↑ 〉 triplet state, where one electron is in the quantum dot s-shell and a second one in the p-shell. The evaluation of the state-selective tunneling times from the dots into a nearby two-dimensional electron gas allows us to determine the s- and p-shell occupation and extract the relaxation time from a rate equation model. A comparably long triplet-to-singlet spin relaxation time of 25 μs is found.

  7. 5-Azido-2-aminopyridine, a new nitrene/nitrenium ion photoaffinity labeling agent that exhibits reversible intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet nitrenes.

    PubMed

    Panov, Maxim S; Voskresenska, Valentyna D; Ryazantsev, Mikhail N; Tarnovsky, Alexander N; Wilson, R Marshall

    2013-12-26

    The photochemistry of a new photoaffinity labeling (PAL) agent, 5-azido-2-(N,N-diethylamino)pyridine, was studied in aprotic and protic solvents using femtosecond-to-microsecond transient absorption and product analysis, in conjunction with ab initio multiconfigurational and multireference quantum chemical calculations. The excited singlet S1 state is spectroscopically dark, whereas photoexcitation to higher-lying singlet excited S2 and S3 states drives the photochemical reaction toward a barrierless ultrafast relaxation path via two conical intersections to S1, where N2 elimination leads to the formation of the closed-shell singlet nitrene. The singlet nitrene undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) to the triplet nitrene in aprotic and protic solvents as well as protonation to form the nitrenium ion. The ISC rate constants in aprotic solvents increase with solvent polarity, displaying a "direct" gap effect, whereas an "inverse" gap effect is observed in protic solvents. Transient absorption actinometry experiments suggest that a solvent-dependent fraction from 20% to 50% of nitrenium ions is generated on a time scale of a few tens of picoseconds. The closed-shell singlet and triplet nitrene are separated by a small energy gap in protic solvents. As a result, the unreactive triplet state nitrene undergoes delayed, thermally activated reverse ISC to reform the reactive closed-shell singlet nitrene, which subsequently protonates, forming the remaining fraction of nitrenium ions. The product studies demonstrate that the resulting nitrenium ion stabilized by the electron-donating 4-amino group yields the final cross-linked product with high, almost quantitative efficiency. The enhanced PAL function of this new azide with respect to the widely applied 4-amino-3-nitrophenyl azide is discussed.

  8. Singlet-singlet energy transfer studies of the internal organization of nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Eshaghpour, H; Dieterich, A E; Cantor, C R; Crothers, D M

    1980-04-29

    We report the measurement of two specific protein to DNA distances in several conformational states of core nucleosomes by singlet-singlet energy transfer. A distance of 50-53 A separates each DNA terminus from cysteine-110 of chicken erythrocyte histone H3 in the native nucleosome. This cysteine residue must therefore be located very near the center of the nucleosome. The H3-DNA distance remained nearly constant in several unfolded forms of the core particles, as found in very low salt, in 0.6 M NaCl, and in high urea. Furthermore, it was shown that each DNA end lies within 32 A of cysteine-73 of Arbacia lixula sperm histone H4 in both the compact and the low-salt unfolded forms of the nucleosome. Because of the invariance of the two measured distances in the various conformational states of the nucleosome, we conclude that the cysteine-containing C-terminal segments of histones H3 and H4 maintain a very strong and close association with the terminal positions of the 146 base pair nucleosomal DNA. This binding may provide the primary interactions necessary for the folding of DNA into nucleosomes and for protection of 146 base pair nucleosomes from further nuclease digestion.

  9. Collisionally-Mediated Singlet-Triplet Crossing in ˜{a}1A1 CH_2 Revisited: (010) Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory; Sears, Trevor

    2014-06-01

    Methylene, CH2, possesses a ground ˜{X}3B1 ground electronic state and an excited ˜{a}1A1 state only 3150cm-1 higher in energy. The collision-induced singlet-triplet crossing in the gaseous mixtures is important in determining overall reaction rates and chemical behavior. Accidental near-degeneracies between rotational levels of the singlet state and the vibrationally excited triplet state result in a few gateway rotational levels that mediate collision-induced intersystem crossing. The mixed states can be recognized and quantified by deperturbation, knowing the zero-order singlet and triplet energy levels. Hyperfine structure can be used as alternative indicator of singlet-triplet mixing. Non-zero mixing will induce hyperfine splittings intermediate between the unresolved hyperfine structure of pure singlet and the resolvable (≈50MHz) splittings of pure triplet, arising from the (I\\cdotS) interaction in the ortho states, where nuclear spin I=1. Collision-induced intersystem crossing rates from the (010) state are comparable to those for (000), yet the identities and characters of the presumed gateway states are unknown. A new spectrometer is under construction to investigate triplet mixing rotational levels of ˜{a}1A1(010) by sub-Doppler measurements of perturbation-induced hyperfine splittings. Their observation will permit the identification of gateway states and quantification of the degree of triplet contamination of the singlet wavefunction. Progress in the measurements and the analysis of rotational energy transfer in (010) will be reported. Acknowledgments: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. C.-H. Chang, G. E. Hall, T. J. Sears, J. Chem. Phys 133, 144310(2010) G. E. Hall, A. V. Komissarov, and T. J. Sears, J. Phys. Chem. A 108 7922-7927 (2004)

  10. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited.

    PubMed

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and CT-like character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals are compared with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set comprises an organic CT complex, two push-pull donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT. It is shown that such CT-like excitations do not have the characteristics of physical charge transfer, and improvements with LC functionals may not be obtained for the right reasons. The TDDFT triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the CT-like candidates, the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative with a non-hybrid functional to positive with a tuned LC functional. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is systematically too large with TDDFT, leading to better error compensation for the singlet energy with a non-hybrid functional.

  11. Identifying the lowest electronic states of the chlorophylls in the CP47 core antenna protein of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    De Weerd, Frank L; Palacios, Miguel A; Andrizhiyevskaya, Elena G; Dekker, Jan P; Van Grondelle, Rienk

    2002-12-24

    CP47 is a pigment-protein complex in the core of photosystem II that tranfers excitation energy to the reaction center. Here we report on a spectroscopic investigation of the isolated CP47 complex. By deconvoluting the 77 K absorption and linear dichroism, red-most states at 683 and 690 nm have been identified with oscillator strengths corresponding to approximately 3 and approximately 1 chlorophyll, respectively. Both states contribute to the 4 K emission, and the Stark spectrum shows that they have a large value for the difference polarizability between their ground and excited states. From site-selective polarized triplet-minus-singlet spectra, an excitonic origin for the 683 nm state was found. The red shift of the 690 nm state is most probably due to strong hydrogen bonding to a protein ligand, as follows from the position of the stretch frequency of the chlorophyll 13(1) keto group (1633 cm(-)(1)) in the fluorescence line narrowing spectrum at 4 K upon red-most excitation. We discuss how the 683 and 690 nm states may be linked to specific chlorophylls in the crystal structure [Zouni, A., Witt, H.-T., Kern, J., Fromme, P., Krauss, N., Saenger, W., and Orth, P. (2001) Nature 409, 739-743].

  12. Time-resolved investigations of singlet oxygen luminescence in water, in phosphatidylcholine, and in aqueous suspensions of phosphatidylcholine or HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Baier, Jürgen; Maier, Max; Engl, Roland; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2005-02-24

    Singlet oxygen was generated by energy transfer from the photoexcited sensitizer, Photofrin or 9-acetoxy-2,7,12,17-tetrakis-(beta-methoxyethyl)-porphycene (ATMPn), to molecular oxygen. Singlet oxygen was detected time-resolved by its luminescence at 1270 nm in an environment of increasing complexity, water (H2O), pure phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine in water (lipid suspensions), and aqueous suspensions of living cells. In the case of the lipid suspensions, the sensitizers accumulated in the lipids, whereas the localizations in the cells are the membranes containing phosphatidylcholine. By use of Photofrin, the measured luminescence decay times of singlet oxygen were 3.5 +/- 0.5 micros in water, 14 +/- 2 micros in lipid, 9 +/- 2 micros in aqueous suspensions of lipid droplets, and 10 +/- 3 micros in aqueous suspensions of human colonic cancer cells (HT29). The decay time in cell suspensions was much longer than in water and was comparable to the value in suspensions of phosphatidylcholine. That luminescence signal might be attributed to singlet oxygen decaying in the lipid areas of cellular membranes. The measured luminescence decay times of singlet oxygen excited by ATMPn in pure lipid and lipid suspensions were the same within the experimental error as for Photofrin. In contrast to experiments with Photofrin, the decay time in aqueous suspension of HT29 cells was 6 +/- 2 micros when using ATMPn.

  13. Skyrmion defects and competing singlet orders in a half-filled antiferromagnetic Kondo-Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Goswami, Pallab; Si, Qimiao

    2017-09-01

    Due to the interaction between the topological defects of an order parameter and underlying fermions, the defects can possess induced fermion numbers, leading to several exotic phenomena of fundamental importance to both condensed matter and high-energy physics. One of the intriguing outcomes of induced fermion numbers is the presence of fluctuating competing orders inside the core of a topological defect. In this regard, the interaction between fermions and skyrmion excitations of an antiferromagnetic phase can have important consequences for understanding the global phase diagrams of many condensed matter systems where antiferromagnetism and several singlet orders compete. We critically investigate the relation between fluctuating competing orders and skyrmion excitations of the antiferromagnetic insulating phase of a half-filled Kondo-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice. By combining analytical and numerical methods, we obtain the exact eigenstates of underlying Dirac fermions in the presence of a single skyrmion configuration, which are used for computing the induced chiral charge. Additionally, by employing this nonperturbative eigenbasis, we calculate the susceptibilities of different translational symmetry breaking charges, bond and current density wave orders, and translational symmetry preserving Kondo singlet formations. Based on the computed susceptibilities, we establish spin Peierls and Kondo singlets as dominant competing orders of antiferromagnetism. We show favorable agreement between our findings and field theoretic predictions based on the perturbative gradient expansion scheme, which crucially relies on the adiabatic principle and plane-wave eigenstates for Dirac fermions. The methodology developed here can be applied to many other correlated systems supporting competition between spin-triplet and spin-singlet orders in both lower and higher spatial dimensions.

  14. Conformational analysis of N-methylformamide in ground S0 and excited S1 and T1 electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukachev, N. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Godunov, I. A.

    2016-07-01

    For conformers of the N-methylformamide (HCONHCH3) molecule, calculations of equilibrium geometry parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies, energy differences and potential barriers to conformational transitions were performed in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) electronic states. In the S0 state, the molecule exists in trans and cis stable conformations (having Cs symmetry). Our calculations show that the electronic excitations T1←S0 and S1←S0 cause changes in the structure of conformers: both HCON and HNCC fragments become pyramidal and rotate around the CN bond. As a result, in each excited electronic state under consideration, there are 12 minima forming six pairs of equivalent conformers separated by relatively small potential barriers. One- and two-dimensional potential energy surface sections corresponding to different intramolecular large-amplitude motions were calculated using the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (S0) and CASPT2/cc-pVTZ (S1 and T1) methods. Anharmonic vibrational problems for large-amplitude motions were solved, and the corresponding frequencies were estimated.

  15. Theoretical Studies of Possible Synthetic Routes for the High Energy Density Material Td N4: Excited Electronic States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    Vertical electronic excitation energies for single states have been computed for the high energy density material (HEDM) Td N4 in order to assess possible synthetic routes that originate from excited electronic states of N2 molecules. Several ab initio theoretical approaches have been used, including complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), state averaged CASSCF (SA-CASSCF), singles configuration interaction (CIS), CIS with second-order and third-order correlation corrections [CIS(D)) and CIS(3)], and linear response singles and doubles coupled-cluster (LRCCSD), which is the highest level of theory employed. Standard double zeta polarized (DZP) and triple zeta double polarized (TZ2P) one-particle basis sets were used. The CASSCF calculations are found to overestimate the excitation energies, while the SA-CASSCF approach rectifies this error to some extent, but not completely. The accuracy of the CIS calculations varied depending on the particular state, while the CIS(D), CIS(3), and LRCCSD results are in generally good agreement. Based on the LRCCSD calculations, the lowest six excited singlet states are 9.35(l(sup)T1), 10.01(l(sup)T2), 10.04(1(sup)A2), 10.07(1(sup)E), 10.12(2(sup)T1), and 10.42(2(sup)T2) eV above the ground state, respectively. Comparison of these excited state energies with the energies of possible excited states of N2+N2 fragments, leads us to propose that the most likely synthetic route for Td N4 involving this mechanism arises from combination of two bound quintet states of N2.

  16. Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Lowest-Lying Electronic State in Sub-Critical and Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; Chipman, Dan

    2016-06-01

    We report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of high-temperature and supercritical water, where spectra were measured from room temperature up to the critical temperature, and as a function of density above the critical temperature. Spectra are seen to redshift with increasing temperature, demonstrating gradual breakdown of the hydrogen bond network. Above the critical temperature, tuning the density gives direct insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in the supercritical regime. The known gas-phase monomer spectrum can be duplicated in the low-density limit, with negligible contribution from hydrogen bonding. With increasing density, the spectrum blue shifts as small water clusters form, increasing the number of hydrogen bonds lowering the ground-state energy. The presence of vibrational structure inherent to the lowest-density gas-phase limit spectrum gradually diminishes with increasing density, giving a reasonable measure of the extent of water monomers having unperturbed electronic structure as a function of density.

  17. Direct participation of DNA in the formation of singlet oxygen and base damage under UVA irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yagura, Teiti; Schuch, André Passaglia; Garcia, Camila Carrião Machado; Rocha, Clarissa Ribeiro Reily; Moreno, Natália Cestari; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mendes, Davi; Severino, Divinomar; Bianchini Sanchez, Angelica; Di Mascio, Paolo; de Medeiros, Marisa Helena Gennari; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2017-07-01

    UVA light is hardly absorbed by the DNA molecule, but recent works point to a direct mechanism of DNA lesion by these wavelengths. UVA light also excite endogenous chromophores, which causes DNA damage through ROS. In this study, DNA samples were irradiated with UVA light in different conditions to investigate possible mechanisms involved in the induction of DNA damage. The different types of DNA lesions formed after irradiation were determined through the use of endonucleases, which recognize and cleave sites containing oxidized bases and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), as well as through antibody recognition. The formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine (8-oxodG) was also studied in more detail using electrochemical detection. The results show that high NaCl concentration and concentrated DNA are capable of reducing the induction of CPDs. Moreover, concerning damage caused by oxidative stress, the presence of sodium azide and metal chelators reduce their induction, while deuterated water increases the amounts of oxidized bases, confirming the involvement of singlet oxygen in the generation of these lesions. Curiously, however, high concentrations of DNA also enhanced the formation of oxidized bases, in a reaction that paralleled the increase in the formation of singlet oxygen in the solution. This was interpreted as being due to an intrinsic photosensitization mechanism, depending directly on the DNA molecule to absorb UVA and generate singlet oxygen. Therefore, the DNA molecule itself may act as a chromophore for UVA light, locally producing a damaging agent, which may lead to even greater concerns about the deleterious impact of sunlight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preferential triplet over singlet emission of Zn in laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardede, Marincan; Hedwig, Rinda; Lahna, Kurnia; Idris, Nasrullah; Nur Abdulmadjid, Syahrun; Jobiliong, Eric; Suyanto, Hery; Tjia, May On; Jie Lie, Tjung; Sukra Lie, Zener; Hendrik Kurniawan, Koo; Wihardjo, Erning; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2017-06-01

    An experimental study is performed on the time-dependent intensity variations of Zn emission focusing on the triplet (Zn I 481.0 nm) and singlet (Zn I 636.2 nm) emission lines induced under three experimental conditions. A single nanosecond (ns) Nd:YAG laser in standard laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) setup is employed for the investigation of direct shock wave-induced emission characteristics with N2 ambient gas at 0.4 kPa and the different effects of He ambient gas at 2 kPa. An additional two-laser system consisting of ns and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal setup is used to study the exclusive role of a He-assisted excitation (HAE) process for the generation of those two Zn emission lines. The results of this study consistently exhibit the dominant triplet emission over the singlet emission marked by initial maximum intensity ratios of 8 and 12 obtained from the experiments using a single-laser setup in N2 and He ambient gases, respectively, indicating the significant contribution of the HAE mechanism to the enhanced and longer lasting Zn emission in He gas. The experiment using the special two-laser setup further demonstrates the exclusive role of the HAE process in the Zn emission featuring an even markedly higher triplet/singlet intensity ratio of 22. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibly more general nature of dominant triplet emission phenomena previously found in laser-induced He and Ca emission spectra.

  19. Excited-state dynamics in nitro-naphthalene derivatives: intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold in hundreds of femtoseconds.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R Aaron; Reichardt, Christian; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2013-08-01

    Femtosecond transient absorption experiments and density functional calculations are presented for 2-methyl-1-nitronaphthalene, 2-nitronaphthalene, and 1-nitronaphthalene in cyclohexane and acetonitrile solutions. Excitation of 2-methyl-1-nitronaphthalene at 340 nm populates the Franck-Condon singlet state, which bifurcates into two barrierless decay channels with sub-200-fs lifetimes. The primary decay channel connects the Franck-Condon singlet excited state with a receiver triplet state, whereas the second, minor channel involves conformational relaxation to populate an intramolecular charge-transfer state, as previously reported for 1-nitronaphthalene (J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 113, 224518). Conversely, the experimental and computational data for 2-nitronaphthalene shows that almost the entire Franck-Condon singlet excited-state population intersystem crosses to the triplet state in less than 200 fs due to a sizable energy barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol that must be surmounted to access the intramolecular charge-transfer state. Our results lend support to the idea that the probability of population transfer to the triplet manifold in these nitronaphthalene derivatives is controlled not only by the small energy gap between the Franck-Condon singlet excited state and the receiver triplet state but also by the region of configuration space sampled in the singlet excited-state potential energy surface at the time of excitation. It is proposed that the ultrafast intersystem crossing dynamics in these nitronaphthalene molecules most likely occurs between nonequilibrated excited states in the strongly nonadiabatic regime.

  20. On the influence of singlet oxygen molecules on characteristics of HCCI combustion: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starik, A. M.; Kozlov, V. E.; Titova, N. S.

    2013-08-01

    Mechanisms of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion enhancement are investigated numerically when excited O2(a 1Δg) molecules are produced at different points in the compression stroke. The analysis is conducted with the use of an extended kinetic model involving the submechanism of nitric oxide formation in the presence of singlet oxygen O2(a 1Δg) or O2(b 1Σg +) molecules in the methane-air mixture. It is demonstrated that the abundance of excited O2(a 1Δg) molecules in the mixture even in a small amounts intensifies the ignition and combustion and allows one to control the ignition event in the HCCI engine. Such a method of energy supply in the HCCI engine is much more effective in advancement of combustion timing than mere heating of the mixture, because it leads to acceleration of the chain-branching mechanism. The excitation of O2 molecules to the a 1Δg electronic state makes it possible to organise the successful combustion in the cylinder at diminished initial temperature of the mixture and increase the effective energy released during HCCI combustion. The advance in the value of this energy is much higher than the energy needed for the excitation of oxygen molecules. Moreover, in this case, the output concentration of NO and CO can be reduced significantly.

  1. Singlet and triplet excitons and charge polarons in cycloparaphenylenes. A density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jin; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Doorn, Stephen K.; Tretiak, Sergei

    2015-05-14

    Conformational structure and the electronic properties of various electronic excitations in cycloparaphenylenes (CPPs) are calculated using hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT). The results demonstrate that wavefunctions of singlet and triplet excitons as well as the positive and negative polarons remain fully delocalized in CPPs. In contrast, these excitations in larger CPP molecules become localized on several phenyl rings, which are locally planarized, while the undeformed ground state geometry is preserved on the rest of the hoop. As evidenced by the measurements of bond-length alternation and dihedral angles, localized regions show stronger hybridization between neighboring bonds and thus enhanced electronic communication. This effect is even more significant in the smaller hoops, where phenyl rings have strong quinoid character in the ground state. Thus, upon excitation, electron–phonon coupling leads to the self-trapping of the electronic wavefunction and release of energy from fractions of an eV up to two eVs, depending on the type of excitation and the size of the hoop. The impact of such localization on electronic and optical properties of CPPs is systematically investigated and compared with the available experimental measurements.

  2. Singlet and triplet excitons and charge polarons in cycloparaphenylenes. A density functional theory study

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jin; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Doorn, Stephen K.; ...

    2015-05-14

    Conformational structure and the electronic properties of various electronic excitations in cycloparaphenylenes (CPPs) are calculated using hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT). The results demonstrate that wavefunctions of singlet and triplet excitons as well as the positive and negative polarons remain fully delocalized in CPPs. In contrast, these excitations in larger CPP molecules become localized on several phenyl rings, which are locally planarized, while the undeformed ground state geometry is preserved on the rest of the hoop. As evidenced by the measurements of bond-length alternation and dihedral angles, localized regions show stronger hybridization between neighboring bonds and thus enhanced electronic communication.more » This effect is even more significant in the smaller hoops, where phenyl rings have strong quinoid character in the ground state. Thus, upon excitation, electron–phonon coupling leads to the self-trapping of the electronic wavefunction and release of energy from fractions of an eV up to two eVs, depending on the type of excitation and the size of the hoop. The impact of such localization on electronic and optical properties of CPPs is systematically investigated and compared with the available experimental measurements.« less

  3. Erratum - the Lowest Surface Brightness Disc Galaxy Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M. J.

    1988-11-01

    The paper "The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known' by J.I. Davies, S. Phillipps and M.J. Disney was published in Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. (1988), 231, 69p. The declination of the object given in section 2 of the paper is incorrect and should be changed to +19^deg^48'23". Thus the object cannot be identified with GP 1444 as in the original paper. To minimize confusion we propose to refer to the low surface brightness galaxy as GP 1444A.

  4. Dynamics of momentum entanglement in lowest-order QED

    SciTech Connect

    Lamata, L.; Leon, J.; Solano, E.

    2006-01-15

    We study the dynamics of momentum entanglement generated in the lowest-order QED interaction between two massive spin-(1/2) charged particles, which grows in time as the two fermions exchange virtual photons. We observe that the degree of generated entanglement between interacting particles with initial well-defined momentum can be infinite. We explain this divergence in the context of entanglement theory for continuous variables, and show how to circumvent this apparent paradox. Finally, we discuss two different possibilities of transforming momentum into spin entanglement, through dynamical operations or through Lorentz boosts.

  5. A new analytical potential energy surface for the singlet state of He2H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jing-Juan; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Li-Zhi; Zhang, Qing-Gang

    2012-03-01

    The analytic potential energy surface (APES) for the exchange reaction of HeH+ (X1Σ+) + He at the lowest singlet state 11A/ has been built. The APES is expressed as Aguado-Paniagua function based on the many-body expansion. Using the adaptive non-linear least-squares algorithm, the APES is fitted from 15 682 ab initio energy points calculated with the multireference configuration interaction calculation with a large d-aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. To testify the new APES, we calculate the integral cross sections for He + H+He (v = 0, 1, 2, j = 0) → HeH+ + He by means of quasi-classical trajectory and compare them with the previous result in literature.

  6. Perturbative renormalization of the first two moments of non-singlet quark distributions with overlap fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitani, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    Using the overlap-Dirac operator proposed by Neuberger, we have computed in lattice QCD the one-loop renormalization factors of ten operators which measure the lowest two moments of unpolarized and polarized non-singlet quark distributions. These factors are necessary to extract physical numbers from Monte Carlo simulations made with overlap fermions. An exact chiral symmetry is maintained in all our results, and the renormalization constants of corresponding unpolarized and polarized operators which differ by a γ5 matrix have the same value. We have considered two lattice representations for each continuum operator. The computations have been carried out using the symbolic language FORM, in a general covariant gauge. In some simple cases they have also been checked by hand.

  7. Chirp excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaneja, Navin

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the design of broadband chirp excitation pulses. We first develop a three stage model for understanding chirp excitation in NMR. We then show how a chirp π pulse can be used to refocus the phase of the chirp excitation pulse. The resulting magnetization still has some phase dispersion in it. We show how a combination of two chirp π pulses instead of one can be used to eliminate this dispersion, leaving behind a small residual phase dispersion. The excitation pulse sequence presented here allows exciting arbitrary large bandwidths without increasing the peak rf-amplitude. Experimental excitation profiles for the residual HDO signal in a sample of 99.5 % D2O are displayed as a function of resonance offset. Although methods presented in this paper have appeared elsewhere, we present complete analytical treatment that elucidates the working of these methods.

  8. Triplet-triplet energy transfer and protection mechanisms against singlet oxygen in photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihara, Shigeharu

    In photosynthesis, (bacterio)chlorophylls ((B)Chl) play a crucial role in light harvesting and electron transport. (B)Chls, however, are known to be potentially dangerous due to the formation of the triplet excited state which forms the singlet oxygen (1O2*) when exposed to the sunlight. Singlet oxygen is highly reactive and all modern organisms incorporate special protective mechanisms to minimize the oxidative damage. One of the conventional photoprotective mechanisms used by photosynthetic organisms is by the nearby carotenoids quenching the excess energy and releasing it by heat. In this dissertation, two major aspects of this process are studied. First, based on experimental data and model calculations, the oxygen content in a functioning oxygenic photosynthetic oxygen cell was determined. These organisms perform water splitting and as a result significant amount of oxygen can be formed within the organism itself. It was found, that contrary to some published estimates, the excess oxygen concentration generated within an individual cell is extremely low -- 0.025 ... 0.25 microM, i.e. about 103-104 times lower than the oxygen concentration in air saturated water. Such low concentrations imply that the first oxygenic photosynthetic cells that evolved in oxygen-free atmosphere of the Earth ~2.8 billion years ago might have invented the water splitting machinery (photosystem II) without the need for special oxygen-protective mechanisms, and the latter mechanisms could have evolved in the next 500 million years during slow rise of oxygen in the atmosphere. This result also suggests that proteins within photosynthetic membranes are not exposed to significant O2 levels and thus can be studied in vitro under the usual O2 levels. Second, the fate of triplet excited states in the Fenna Matthew Olson (FMO) pigment-protein complex is studied by means of time-resolved nanosecond spectroscopy and exciton model simulations. For the first time, the properties of several

  9. Focal point analysis of the singlet-triplet energy gap of octacene and larger acenes.

    PubMed

    Hajgató, Balázs; Huzak, Matija; Deleuze, Michael S

    2011-08-25

    A benchmark theoretical study of the electronic ground state and of the vertical and adiabatic singlet-triplet (ST) excitation energies of n-acenes (C(4n+2)H(2n+4)) ranging from octacene (n = 8) to undecacene (n = 11) is presented. The T1 diagnostics of coupled cluster theory and further energy-based criteria demonstrate that all investigated systems exhibit predominantly a (1)A(g) singlet closed-shell electronic ground state. Singlet-triplet (S(0)-T(1)) energy gaps can therefore be very accurately determined by applying the principle of a focal point analysis (FPA) onto the results of a series of single-point and symmetry-restricted calculations employing correlation consistent cc-pVXZ basis sets (X = D, T, Q, 5) and single-reference methods [HF, MP2, MP3, MP4SDQ, CCSD, and CCSD(T)] of improving quality. According to our best estimates, which amount to a dual extrapolation of energy differences to the level of coupled cluster theory including single, double, and perturbative estimates of connected triple excitations [CCSD(T)] in the limit of an asymptotically complete basis set (cc-pV∞Z), the S(0)-T(1) vertical (adiabatic) excitation energies of these compounds amount to 13.40 (8.21), 10.72 (6.05), 8.05 (3.67), and 7.10 (2.58) kcal/mol, respectively. In line with the absence of Peierls distortions (bond length alternations), extrapolations of results obtained at this level for benzene (n = 1) and all studied n-acenes so far (n = 2-11) indicate a vanishing S(0)-T(1) energy gap, in the limit of an infinitely large polyacene, within an uncertainty of 1.5 kcal/mol (0.06 eV). Lacking experimental values for the S(0)-T(1) energy gaps of n-acenes larger than hexacene, comparison is made with recent optical and electrochemical determinations of the HOMO-LUMO band gap. Further issues such as scalar relativistic, core correlation, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections (DBOCs) are tentatively examined.

  10. An ab initio study on the four electronically lowest-lying states of CH 2 using the state-averaged complete active space second-order configuration interaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1997-12-01

    Four electronically lowest-lying ( X˜ 3B 1, ã 1A 1, b˜ 1B 1, and c˜ 1A 1) states of CH 2 have been investigated systematically using ab initio electronic structure theory. Complete active space (CAS) self-consistent-field (SCF) second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) and state-averaged (SA) CASSCF-SOCI levels of theory have been employed. The CASSCF reference wave function was constructed by minimizing the total energy of a specified state, while the SACASSCF reference wave function was obtained by minimizing the equally weighted total energy of the four ( X˜ 3B 1, ã 1A 1, b˜ 1B 1, and c˜ 1A 1) states. The third excited state ( c˜ 1A 1 or 2 1A 1) is of particular theoretical interest because it is represented by the second root of CASSCF and SOCI Hamiltonian matrices. Theoretical treatments of states not the lowest of their symmetry require special attention due to their tendency of variational collapse to the lower-lying state(s). For these four lowest-lying states total energies and physical properties including dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and associated infrared (IR) intensities were determined and compared with the results from the configuration interaction with single and double excitations (CISD) method and available experimental values. The CASSCF-SOCI method should provide the most reliable energetics and physical properties in the present study owing to its fully variational nature in the molecular orbital (MO) and CI spaces for a given state. It is demonstrated that the SACASSCF-SOCI wave functions produce results which are quite consistent with those from the CASSCF-SOCI method. Thus significantly increased application of the SACASSCF-SOCI method to the excited states of a wide variety of molecular systems is expected.

  11. Exciter switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  12. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    PubMed Central

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  13. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  14. Singlet-like Higgs boson in the NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik

    2017-01-01

    We study the properties of the singlet-like Higgs boson in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. Scalar mixing depends on the higgsino mass parameter and the coupling of the singlet to the Higgs bilinear in the superpotential, which are constrained by the Large Electron-Positron Collider bound on the chargino mass and the perturbativity of the model to high energy scales, respectively. Using the relations between these parameters and mixing angles, we examine how strongly the singlet-like Higgs boson can couple to the standard model sector depending on its mass. In this paper, we consider the case in which the observed 125-GeV Higgs boson has properties very close to those predicted in the standard model, for which the singlet-like Higgs boson couples to the standard model sector via mixing with the heavy doublet Higgs boson. Interestingly the mixing turns out to be large either if the singlet-like Higgs boson is below a few hundred GeV or if tan β is moderate or large.

  15. Macroscopic Modeling of the singlet oxygen production during PDT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhou, Xiaodong; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) dose, D, is defined as the absorbed dose by the photosensitizer during photodynamic therapy. It is proportional to the product of photosensitizer concentration and the light fluence. This quantity can be directly characterized during PDT and is considered to be predictive of photodynamic efficacy under ample oxygen supply. For type-II photodynamic interaction, the cell killing is caused by the reaction of cellular acceptors with singlet oxygen. The production of singlet oxygen can be expressed as ηD, where η is the singlet oxygen quantum yield and is a constant under ample oxygen supply. For most PDT, it is desirable to also take into account the effect of tissue oxygenation. We have modeled the coupled kinetics equation of the concentrations of the singlet oxygen, the photosensitizers in ground and triplet states, the oxygen, and tissue acceptors along with the diffusion equation governing the light transport in turbid medium. We have shown that it is possible to express η as a function of local oxygen concentration during PDT and this expression is a good approximation to predict the production of singlet oxygen during PDT. Theoretical estimation of the correlation between the tissue oxygen concentration and hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood flow is presented. PMID:25983366

  16. Revision of singlet quantum yields in the catalyzed decomposition of cyclic peroxides.

    PubMed

    Almeida de Oliveira, Marcelo; Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Ciscato, Luiz Francisco Monteiro Leite; Bastos, Erick Leite; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2012-12-07

    The chemiluminescence of cyclic peroxides activated by oxidizable fluorescent dyes is an example of chemically initiated electron exchange luminescence (CIEEL), which has been used also to explain the efficient bioluminescence of fireflies. Diphenoyl peroxide and dimethyl-1,2-dioxetanone were used as model compounds for the development of this CIEEL mechanism. However, the chemiexcitation efficiency of diphenoyl peroxide was found to be much lower than originally described. In this work, we redetermine the chemiexcitation quantum efficiency of dimethyl-1,2-dioxetanone, a more adequate model for firefly bioluminescence, and found a singlet quantum yield (Φ(S)) of 0.1%, a value at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously reported. Furthermore, we synthesized two other 1,2-dioxetanone derivatives and confirm the low chemiexcitation efficiency (Φ(S) < 0.1%) of the intermolecular CIEEL-activated decomposition of this class of cyclic peroxides. These results are compared with other chemiluminescent reactions, supporting the general trend that intermolecular CIEEL systems are much less efficient in generating singlet excited states than analogous intramolecular processes (Φ(S) ≈ 50%), with the notable exception of the peroxyoxalate reaction (Φ(S) ≈ 60%).

  17. Removal of Water Vapor in a Mist Singlet Oxygen Generator for Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shigeki; Endo, Masamori; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2004-02-01

    The mist singlet oxygen generator (Mist-SOG) for a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) has been developed in order to increase basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) utilization. It was clarified that the Mist-SOG generated much more water vapor than conventional SOGs because the heat capacity of BHP is small. The water vapor deactivates the excited iodine and depresses the laser power. Therefore, a jet-cold trap was developed in order to remove the water vapor while maintaining a minimum deactivation of singlet oxygen. In this method, a nozzle was used to spray chilled H2O2 at 238 K as a thin layer directly to the gas flow to achieve a large specific surface area for water vapor. As a result, the water vapor mole fraction was reduced to 7% from 18% with the BHP utilization of 21% at the Cl2 consumption rate of 3.5 mmol/s (Cl2 input flow rate of 8.0 mmol/s) for 65-μm-diameter BHP droplets.

  18. Impact of Intermolecular Distance on Singlet Fission in a Series of TIPS Pentacene Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yishi; Liu, Ke; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Haoli; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2014-10-16

    Singlet fission has attracted considerable interest for its potential application in organic photovoltaics. However, the underlying microscopic mechanism is not well understood and the molecular parameters that govern SF efficiency remain unclear. We herein study the primary exciton photogeneration and evolution in the thin film of a series of pentacene derivatives (TIPS-Pn and ADPD-Pn) using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. With a favorable "long-edge on" packing motif, the singlet-excited slip-stacked TIPS-Pn and ADPD-Pn molecules undergo ultrafast fission to produce triplet excitonic states with time constants of ∼0.3 ps. More importantly, the ADPD-Pn compound features a considerably higher triplet yield than TIPS-Pn (162 ± 10% vs 114 ± 15%). The enhanced electronic coupling as a result of closer interchromophore distance (3.33 Å for ADPD-Pn vs 3.40 Å for TIPS-Pn) is suggested to account for the much higher triplet yield for ADPD-Pn relative to that for TIPS-Pn, proving SF can be readily modulated by adjusting the intermolecular distance.

  19. Filter-filter interactions. Photostabilization, triplet quenching and reactivity with singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Marin, Mireia; Jimenez, Oscar; Gorchs, Olga; Trullas, Carles; Miranda, Miguel Angel

    2010-04-01

    In most sunscreens, the presence of two UV filters usually leads to synergistic effects regarding both the final performance and photostabilization of the active principles. However, this may also result in an accelerated decomposition if a photoreaction occurs between the single components. Thus, the understanding of photophysics and photochemistry of UV filter combinations is important to improve sunscreen photostability. In this context, photoreactivity of a commonly used UVA filter, namely tert-butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM, also known as avobenzone, Parsol 1789, etc.), has been studied in the presence of six commercial solar filters: octyl methoxycinnamate, bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine, octocrylene, diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate, octyl triazone and dioctyl butamido triazone. To achieve this goal, a mechanism-based strategy has been designed in order to investigate the photostability of sunscreens in a more systematic way, taking into account different processes: tautomerization of BM-DBM, formation of triplet excited state of BM-DBM in its diketo form and its quenching in the presence of UV filters, reactivity of UV filters under triplet photosensitization, quenching of singlet oxygen by UV filters and degradation of the latter under singlet oxygenation conditions.

  20. The relativistic polarization propagator for the calculation of electronic excitations in heavy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pernpointner, Markus

    2014-02-28

    In this work, we present a new four-component implementation of the polarization propagator for accurate calculations of excited states in heavy systems. Differences to existing nonrelativistic realizations are detailed and the energetically lowest final states of the ns{sup 2}np{sup 6} → ns{sup 2}np{sup 5}(n + 1)s{sup 1} and ns{sup 2}np{sup 6} → ns{sup 2}np{sup 5}(n + 1)p{sup 1} transitions in noble gases are calculated and compared with experimental data. Already for the light atoms Ne and Ar spin-orbit coupling leads to noticeable zero field splitting that gradually increases in the heavier homologues and eventually invalidates the LS-based description of singlet and triplet excited states. For all four noble gases Ne through Xe, we observe a very good agreement with experimental transition energies in the considered energetic range where the extended version of the propagator implementation in general yields better excitation energy differences than the strict variant. In the extended version, off-diagonal first-order contributions in the two-particle-two-hole block are included that are not present in the strict variant. In case of Kr and Xe, nonrelativistic approaches already exhibit unacceptable deviations in the reproduction of transition energies and the spectral structure. The obtained excited final states are analyzed in terms of atomic contributions to the donor and acceptor orbitals constituting the corresponding wave functions. The relativistic polarization propagator provides a consistent description of electron correlation and relativistic effects especially relevant for the heavier systems where these two contributions are no longer separable.