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Sample records for lt fountain codes

  1. Student-Reported School Drinking Fountain Availability by Youth Characteristics and State Plumbing Codes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Wilking, Cara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Caloric intake among children could be reduced if sugar-sweetened beverages were replaced by plain water. School drinking water infrastructure is dictated in part by state plumbing codes, which generally require a minimum ratio of drinking fountains to students. Actual availability of drinking fountains in schools and how availability differs according to plumbing codes is unknown. Methods We abstracted state plumbing code data and used the 2010 YouthStyles survey data from 1,196 youth aged 9 through 18 years from 47 states. We assessed youth-reported school drinking fountain or dispenser availability and differences in availability according to state plumbing codes, sociodemographic characteristics, and area-level characteristics. Results Overall, 57.3% of youth reported that drinking fountains or dispensers in their schools were widely available, 40.1% reported there were only a few, and 2.6% reported that there were no working fountains. Reported fountain availability differed significantly (P < .01) by race/ethnicity, census region, the fountain to student ratio specified in plumbing codes, and whether plumbing codes allowed substitution of nonplumbed water sources for plumbed fountains. “Widely available” fountain access ranged from 45.7% in the West to 65.4% in the Midwest and was less common where state plumbing codes required 1 fountain per more than 100 students (45.4%) compared with 1 fountain per 100 students (60.1%) or 1 fountain per fewer than 100 students (57.6%). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase consumption of water may want to consider the role of plumbing codes in availability of school drinking fountains. PMID:24742393

  2. A Cooperative Downloading Method for VANET Using Distributed Fountain Code

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianhang; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Li, Shibao; Chen, Haihua; Cui, Xuerong; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative downloading is one of the effective methods to improve the amount of downloaded data in vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET). However, the poor channel quality and short encounter time bring about a high packet loss rate, which decreases transmission efficiency and fails to satisfy the requirement of high quality of service (QoS) for some applications. Digital fountain code (DFC) can be utilized in the field of wireless communication to increase transmission efficiency. For cooperative forwarding, however, processing delay from frequent coding and decoding as well as single feedback mechanism using DFC cannot adapt to the environment of VANET. In this paper, a cooperative downloading method for VANET using concatenated DFC is proposed to solve the problems above. The source vehicle and cooperative vehicles encodes the raw data using hierarchical fountain code before they send to the client directly or indirectly. Although some packets may be lost, the client can recover the raw data, so long as it receives enough encoded packets. The method avoids data retransmission due to packet loss. Furthermore, the concatenated feedback mechanism in the method reduces the transmission delay effectively. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of increasing amount of downloaded data and data receiving rate. PMID:27754339

  3. A Cooperative Downloading Method for VANET Using Distributed Fountain Code.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhang; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Li, Shibao; Chen, Haihua; Cui, Xuerong; Sun, Yi

    2016-10-12

    Cooperative downloading is one of the effective methods to improve the amount of downloaded data in vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET). However, the poor channel quality and short encounter time bring about a high packet loss rate, which decreases transmission efficiency and fails to satisfy the requirement of high quality of service (QoS) for some applications. Digital fountain code (DFC) can be utilized in the field of wireless communication to increase transmission efficiency. For cooperative forwarding, however, processing delay from frequent coding and decoding as well as single feedback mechanism using DFC cannot adapt to the environment of VANET. In this paper, a cooperative downloading method for VANET using concatenated DFC is proposed to solve the problems above. The source vehicle and cooperative vehicles encodes the raw data using hierarchical fountain code before they send to the client directly or indirectly. Although some packets may be lost, the client can recover the raw data, so long as it receives enough encoded packets. The method avoids data retransmission due to packet loss. Furthermore, the concatenated feedback mechanism in the method reduces the transmission delay effectively. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of increasing amount of downloaded data and data receiving rate.

  4. FOG: Fighting the Achilles' Heel of Gossip Protocols with Fountain Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Le Scouarnec, Nicolas

    Gossip protocols are well known to provide reliable and robust dissemination protocols in highly dynamic systems. Yet, they suffer from high redundancy in the last phase of the dissemination. In this paper, we combine fountain codes (rateless erasure-correcting codes) together with gossip protocols for a robust and fast content dissemination in large-scale dynamic systems. The use of fountain enables to eliminate the unnecessary redundancy of gossip protocols. We propose the design of FOG, which fully exploits the first exponential growth phase (where the data is disseminated exponentially fast) of gossip protocols while avoiding the need for the shrinking phase by using fountain codes. FOG voluntarily increases the number of disseminations but limits those disseminations to the exponential growth phase. In addition, FOG creates a split-graph overlay that splits the peers between encoders and forwarders. Forwarder peers become encoders as soon as they have received the whole content. In order to benefit even further and quicker from encoders, FOG biases the dissemination towards the most advanced peers to make them complete earlier.

  5. Designing an efficient LT-code with unequal error protection for image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Marques, F.; Schwartz, C.; Pinho, M. S.; Finamore, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of images from earth observation satellites is spread over different applications, such as a car navigation systems and a disaster monitoring. In general, those images are captured by on board imaging devices and must be transmitted to the Earth using a communication system. Even though a high resolution image can produce a better Quality of Service, it leads to transmitters with high bit rate which require a large bandwidth and expend a large amount of energy. Therefore, it is very important to design efficient communication systems. From communication theory, it is well known that a source encoder is crucial in an efficient system. In a remote sensing satellite image transmission, this efficiency is achieved by using an image compressor, to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a multinational forum for the development of communications and data system standards for space flight, establishes a recommended standard for a data compression algorithm for images from space systems. Unfortunately, in the satellite communication channel, the transmitted signal is corrupted by the presence of noise, interference signals, etc. Therefore, the receiver of a digital communication system may fail to recover the transmitted bit. Actually, a channel code can be used to reduce the effect of this failure. In 2002, the Luby Transform code (LT-code) was introduced and it was shown that it was very efficient when the binary erasure channel model was used. Since the effect of the bit recovery failure depends on the position of the bit in the compressed image stream, in the last decade many e orts have been made to develop LT-code with unequal error protection. In 2012, Arslan et al. showed improvements when LT-codes with unequal error protection were used in images compressed by SPIHT algorithm. The techniques presented by Arslan et al. can be adapted to work with the algorithm for image compression

  6. Molecular fountain.

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  7. Molecular Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cunfeng; van der Poel, Aernout P. P.; Jansen, Paul; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Wall, Thomas E.; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.

    2016-12-01

    The resolution of any spectroscopic or interferometric experiment is ultimately limited by the total time a particle is interrogated. Here we demonstrate the first molecular fountain, a development which permits hitherto unattainably long interrogation times with molecules. In our experiments, ammonia molecules are decelerated and cooled using electric fields, launched upwards with a velocity between 1.4 and 1.9 m/s and observed as they fall back under gravity. A combination of quadrupole lenses and bunching elements is used to shape the beam such that it has a large position spread and a small velocity spread (corresponding to a transverse temperature of <10 μ K and a longitudinal temperature of <1 μ K ) when the molecules are in free fall, while being strongly focused at the detection region. The molecules are in free fall for up to 266 ms, making it possible, in principle, to perform sub-Hz measurements in molecular systems and paving the way for stringent tests of fundamental physics theories.

  8. Convolutional fountain distribution over fading wireless channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Mohammed

    2012-08-01

    Mobile broadband has opened the possibility of a rich variety of services to end users. Broadcast/multicast of multimedia data is one such service which can be used to deliver multimedia to multiple users economically. However, the radio channel poses serious challenges due to its time-varying properties, resulting in each user experiencing different channel characteristics, independent of other users. Conventional methods of achieving reliability in communication, such as automatic repeat request and forward error correction do not scale well in a broadcast/multicast scenario over radio channels. Fountain codes, being rateless and information additive, overcome these problems. Although the design of fountain codes makes it possible to generate an infinite sequence of encoded symbols, the erroneous nature of radio channels mandates the need for protecting the fountain-encoded symbols, so that the transmission is feasible. In this article, the performance of fountain codes in combination with convolutional codes, when used over radio channels, is presented. An investigation of various parameters, such as goodput, delay and buffer size requirements, pertaining to the performance of fountain codes in a multimedia broadcast/multicast environment is presented. Finally, a strategy for the use of 'convolutional fountain' over radio channels is also presented.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  10. The USNO rubidium fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    Four rubidium fountains at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been in operation for 4.5 years. Each fountain has demonstrated periods of stability marked by Total or Theo deviation below 10-16 Occasional frequency changes, on order of 1.5 times per year per fountain, introduce deviations from white-frequency noise behavior. Averaged together, the four fountains form an ensemble with a white-frequency noise level of 10-13 and excellent long-term stability as compared to the primary frequency standards contributing to TAI. Progress on using the clocks at USNO for improving limits on coupling of fundamental constants to gravity by measuring the universality of the gravitational redshift for different types of clocks is discussed.

  11. Fountain-Jet Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    and 3 times higher than expected from free- jet results. Hill et al., (Reference 6) in work with foun- tain jets impacting fuselage models, detected ...delineate the origins of the turbulent anomalies associated with fountain jets by extending the previous studies. The results are presented herein...jet velocities were detected with a Thermal Systems Inc. Model 1050 dual-channel constant-temperature anemometer equipped with a Thermal Systems Inc

  12. An Ensemble of Atomic Fountains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    United States Naval Observatory Washington, DC 20392 Abstract—Four rubidium fountains have been in operation for the past 1.2 years at USNO...this proceeding, four rubidium fountains have been in operation for 1.2 years, during which their performance has been assessed and they have...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Four rubidium fountains have been in operation for the past 1.2 years at USNO

  13. Laser Soap Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which subsequently hits an inclined plane. As the liquid soap, a non-Newtonian fluid, begins to accumulate into a pile, its shear properties change and the incoming fluid rebounds from the pile, forming striking parabolic arcs. We present here a readily reproducible and inexpensive version of a laser soap fountain.

  14. Margaret Fountaine: a lepidopterist remembered

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Margaret Fountaine (1862–1940) was a lepidopterist during a period of transition and professionalization in natural history. Over her lifespan she collected more than 22 000 butterflies, published extensively and wrote a diary of more than a million words. Wealthy and independent, Fountaine toured Europe in her early twenties and then, over the next 50 years, travelled the globe collecting butterflies. Fountaine straddles many of the boundaries that historians have constructed to aid understanding of natural history in this period, specifically those defining gender roles, the nature of scientific knowledge and the divide between amateur and professional. Fountaine reminds us that these categories are never a clear or perfect division and that the reality of natural history research and exchange was much more complex than these boundaries often allow for. Fountaine herself is under-researched and this article contains a useful account of her entomological career. PMID:26489183

  15. Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.

    2015-03-01

    Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.

  16. Rise Heights of Lazy Fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gary

    2005-11-01

    The initial rise height zm of turbulent Boussinesq fountains is determined analytically for small and large source Froude numbers Fr0. Solutions were obtained after recasting the plume conservations equations of Morton, Taylor & Turner (1956) in terms of the inverse square of a local Froude number and a local dimensionless fountain width. For large Fr0, the fountain is `forced' and the well-established linear increase of the rise height with Fr0 is obtained, i.e. zm/r0˜Fr0; r0 denoting the source radius. However, for small Fr0 the fountain is `lazy' and the dependence zm/r0˜Fr0^2 more sensitive. Additionally, the rise height for lazy fountains is predicted to be independent of the entrainment coefficient α. Comparison of our solutions with existing experimental and numerical results of fountain rise height, as well as with our own experimental results, show good agreement and support the derived scalings. Experimental results suggest that the entrainment coefficient for highly-forced fountains is αf 0.058, i.e. closer to that of a jet than of a plume. Morton, B. R., Taylor, G. I. & Turner, J. S. (1956), "Turbulent gravitational convection from maintained and instantaneous sources", Proc. Roy. Soc. A 234, 1-23.

  17. The Liquid Nitrogen Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Robin; Rahn, Jeffrey A.; Beamer, Timothy W.; Lebret, Norm

    2002-10-01

    Details of a demonstration using liquid nitrogen are presented. The demonstration is based on a 500-mL transparent polyethylene soft-drink bottle with a screw-on pop-up drink top. Prior to the demonstration, a balloon is placed over the popped-up spout of the bottle top. The bottle is filled with liquid nitrogen and the top, with the balloon affixed, is quickly put in place and screwed on tightly. As the liquid nitrogen in the bottle boils, the balloon inflates. When the balloon bursts the noise produced is far greater than would ordinarily be expected, and a fountain of liquid nitrogen and condensing water vapor shoots into the air above the bottle.

  18. A comparative analysis of XV-15 tiltrotor hover test data and WOPWOP predictions incorporating the fountain effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Charles K.; Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic measurements from a hovering full scale XV-15 tilt rotor with the advanced technology blades are presented which show the directionality of fountain effect noise. Predicted acoustic directivity results are also presented which show agreement with the measured data. The aeroacoustic code, WOPWOP, was used in conjunction with a mathematical model which simulated the fountain recirculation aerodynamic effect on the rotor blade surface pressures. The predictions were used to identify the spike character in the measured data as fountain effect associated noise. The directivity of the fountain effect noise was observed to be dominant at the rear of the aircraft with increased intensities 45 degrees below the rotor disk planes.

  19. Measurements with Multiple Operational Fountain Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    measurement can be made of the fountain frequencies versus the frequencies of the primary standards used in determining International Atomic Time (TAI...with four fountains indicate frequency agreement at the 10−15 level and good agreement with the primary frequency standards contributing to TAI. I...activities, 7 rubidium fountain clocks are being added to the clock ensemble. The fountains will serve as a long-term frequency reference, similar to

  20. Collapsing plumes and resurrecting fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bremer, Ton; Hunt, Gary

    2012-11-01

    We explore the range of behaviour predicted for steady plumes and fountains that undergo an increase or decrease in buoyancy which arise due to phase changes or chemical reactions. We model these changes in the simplest possible way by assuming a quadratic relationship between the density and the temperature of the fluid. We thereby extend the model of Caulfield & Woods (`95) to include the most recent developments in the literature on steady releases of buoyancy emitted vertically from horizontal area sources in unconfined quiescent environments of uniform density based on the plume model of Morton, Taylor & Turner (`56). We provide closed-form solutions and identify four classes of solution: collapsing plumes, resurrecting fountains, plumes with enhanced buoyancy and fountains with enhanced negative buoyancy. We provide criteria for each category of behaviour in terms of the source-value of two non-dimensional quantities: the Richardson number and a temperature parameter.

  1. Maximizing the Spectacle of Water Fountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    For a given initial speed of water from a spigot or jet, what angle of the jet will maximize the visual impact of the water spray in the fountain? This paper focuses on fountains whose spigots are arranged in circular fashion, and couches the measurement of the visual impact in terms of the surface area and the volume under the fountain's natural…

  2. Theory of Adiabatic Fountain Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of "Adiabatic Fountain Resonance" with superfluid ^4{He} is clarified. In this geometry a film region between two silicon wafers bonded at their outer edge opens up to a central region with a free surface. We find that the resonance in this system is not a Helmholtz resonance as claimed by Gasparini et al., but in fact is a fourth sound resonance. We postulate that it occurs at relatively low frequency because the thin silicon wafers flex appreciably from the pressure oscillations of the sound wave.

  3. Cesium Atomic Fountain Clocks at NMIJ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Wynands and S. Weyers, 2005, “Atomic fountain clocks,” Metrologia , 42, S64-S79. [2] M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, et al., 2005, “An optical...beam of laser-cooled cesium atoms,” Physical Review, A 60, R4241-R4244. [13] V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, S. Weyers, et al., 2010, “Uncertainty evaluation of the caesium fountain clock PTB-CSF2,” Metrologia , 47, 65-79.

  4. 1. FOUNTAIN IN FRONT (SOUTH) OF CLUBHOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FOUNTAIN IN FRONT (SOUTH) OF CLUBHOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Fountain, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  5. 2. Photocopy of the fountain in front of Philadelphia Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of the fountain in front of Philadelphia Museum of Art, ca. 1928, courtesy of Philadelphia Museum of Art - Fountain of the Sea Horses, Aquarium Lane, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Is there a stratospheric fountain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Held, G.

    2007-06-01

    of convective overshoots as proposed by Danielsen (1982) do not appear as episodic isolated features, but common and systematic events over a land convective area, that is a Stratospheric Fountain. Though the two-stages process proposed by Sherwood (2000) may also be operative, it offers a mechanism for producing the chemical, moisture and thermal properties observed in the stratosphere. The consistency between convective cooling of the TTL and weather radar echoes heights observed during the summer over South-East Brazil and the TRMM radar OPFs and LIS lightning events maximum frequencies, the latter showing also maximum events over Africa, South-East Asia, the Indonesian Islands and Northern Australia depending on the season (Liu and Zipser, 2005), suggests the existence of several "Stratospheric Fountains" over continents instead of the oceanic area of Micronesia as proposed by Newell and Gould-Stewart (1982), which appears a region of little overshoot.

  7. Accurate rubidium atomic fountain frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Yuri; Marra, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    The design, operating parameters and the accuracy evaluation of the NPL Rb atomic fountain are described. The atomic fountain employs a double magneto-optical arrangement that allows a large number of 87Rb atoms to be trapped, a water-cooled temperature-stabilized interrogation region and a high quality factor interrogation cavity. From the uncertainties of measured and calculated systematic frequency shifts, the fractional frequency accuracy is estimated to be 3.7 × 10-16. The fractional frequency stability, limited predominantly by noise in the local oscillator, is measured to be 7 × 10-16 after one day of averaging. Based on the proposed quasi-continuous regime of operation of the fountain, the accuracy of the Rb standard of 5 × 10-17 reachable in two days of averaging is predicted.

  8. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains.

    PubMed

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  9. Legionellosis Outbreak Associated With a Hotel Fountain

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shamika S.; Ritger, Kathy; Samala, Usha; Black, Stephanie R.; Okodua, Margaret; Miller, Loretta; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Hicks, Lauri A.; Steinheimer, Craig; Ewaidah, Saadeh; Presser, Lance; Siston, Alicia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In August 2012, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of acute respiratory illness, including 1 fatality, among a group of meeting attendees who stayed at a Chicago hotel during July 30–August 3, 2012. Suspecting Legionnaires' disease (LD), CDPH advised the hotel to close their swimming pool, spa, and decorative lobby fountain and began an investigation. Methods. Case finding included notification of individuals potentially exposed during July 16–August 15, 2012. Individuals were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. An environmental assessment was performed. Results. One hundred fourteen cases were identified: 11 confirmed LD, 29 suspect LD, and 74 Pontiac fever cases. Illness onsets occurred July 21–August 22, 2012. Median age was 48 years (range, 22–82 years), 64% were male, 59% sought medical care (15 hospitalizations), and 3 died. Relative risks for hotel exposures revealed that persons who spent time near the decorative fountain or bar, both located in the lobby were respectively 2.13 (95%, 1.64–2.77) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09–1.44) times more likely to become ill than those who did not. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from samples collected from the fountain, spa, and women's locker room fixtures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 environmental isolates and a clinical isolate had matching sequence-based types. Hotel maintenance records lacked a record of regular cleaning and disinfection of the fountain. Conclusions. Environmental testing identified Legionella in the hotel's potable water system. Epidemiologic and laboratory data indicated the decorative fountain as the source. Poor fountain maintenance likely created favorable conditions for Legionella overgrowth. PMID:26716104

  10. Legionellosis Outbreak Associated With a Hotel Fountain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shamika S; Ritger, Kathy; Samala, Usha; Black, Stephanie R; Okodua, Margaret; Miller, Loretta; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A; Hicks, Lauri A; Steinheimer, Craig; Ewaidah, Saadeh; Presser, Lance; Siston, Alicia M

    2015-12-01

    Background.  In August 2012, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of acute respiratory illness, including 1 fatality, among a group of meeting attendees who stayed at a Chicago hotel during July 30-August 3, 2012. Suspecting Legionnaires' disease (LD), CDPH advised the hotel to close their swimming pool, spa, and decorative lobby fountain and began an investigation. Methods.  Case finding included notification of individuals potentially exposed during July 16-August 15, 2012. Individuals were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. An environmental assessment was performed. Results.  One hundred fourteen cases were identified: 11 confirmed LD, 29 suspect LD, and 74 Pontiac fever cases. Illness onsets occurred July 21-August 22, 2012. Median age was 48 years (range, 22-82 years), 64% were male, 59% sought medical care (15 hospitalizations), and 3 died. Relative risks for hotel exposures revealed that persons who spent time near the decorative fountain or bar, both located in the lobby were respectively 2.13 (95%, 1.64-2.77) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09-1.44) times more likely to become ill than those who did not. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from samples collected from the fountain, spa, and women's locker room fixtures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 environmental isolates and a clinical isolate had matching sequence-based types. Hotel maintenance records lacked a record of regular cleaning and disinfection of the fountain. Conclusions.  Environmental testing identified Legionella in the hotel's potable water system. Epidemiologic and laboratory data indicated the decorative fountain as the source. Poor fountain maintenance likely created favorable conditions for Legionella overgrowth.

  11. Department of Amplification: The Perpetual Salt Fountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Arnold B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the story of "The Perpetual Salt Fountain" to illustrate some fairly typical ramifications and vagaries in the workings of science. Outlines the discovery of double diffusive convection and uses the fact that it had been observed in the laboratory a century before its independent rediscovery to emphasize the vagaries of…

  12. Systematic Effects in Atomic Fountain Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibble, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    We describe recent advances in the accuracies of atomic fountain clocks. New rigorous treatments of the previously large systematic uncertainties, distributed cavity phase, microwave lensing, and background gas collisions, enabled these advances. We also discuss background gas collisions of optical lattice and ion clocks and derive the smooth transition of the microwave lensing frequency shift to photon recoil shifts for large atomic wave packets.

  13. Evaluation of long term performance of continuously running atomic fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James L.; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2014-06-01

    An ensemble of rubidium atomic fountain clocks has been put into operation at the US Naval Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved timing applications. Four fountains have been in operation for more than two years and are included in the ensemble used to generate the USNO master clock. Individual fountain performance is characterized by a white-frequency noise level below 2 × 10-13 and fractional-frequency stability routinely reaching the low 10-16 s. The highest performing pair of fountains exhibits stability consistent with each fountain integrating as white frequency noise, with Allan deviation surpassing 6 × 10-17 at 107 s, and with no relative drift between the fountains at the level of 7.5 × 10-19/day. As an ensemble, the fountains generate a timescale with white-frequency noise level of 1 × 10-13 and long-term frequency stability consistent with zero drift relative to the world's primary standards at 1 × 10-18/day. The rubidium fountains are reported to the BIPM as continuously running clocks, as opposed to secondary standards, the only cold-atom clocks so reported. Here we further characterize the performance of the individual fountains and the ensemble during the first two years in an operational environment, presenting the first look at long-term continuous behavior of fountain clocks.

  14. The cleft ion fountain - A two-dimensional kinetic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Lockwood, M.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of ionospheric ions from a source in the polar cleft ionosphere through the polar magnetosphere is investigated using a two-dimensional, kinetic, trajectory-based code. The transport model includes the effects of gravitation, longitudinal magnetic gradient force, convection electric fields, and parallel electric fields. Individual ion trajectories as well as distribution functions and resulting bulk parameters of density, parallel average energy, and parallel flux for a presumed cleft ionosphere source distribution are presented for various conditions to illustrate parametrically the dependences on source energies, convection electric field strengths, ion masses, and parallel electric field strengths. The essential features of the model are consistent with the concept of a cleft-based ion fountain supplying ionospheric ions to the polar magnetosphere, and the resulting plasma distributions and parameters are in general agreement with recent low-energy ion measurements from the DE 1 satellite.

  15. A distinctive type of ascending prominence - 'Fountain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Riddle, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Cinematographic observations of solar prominences made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, during the past few years suggest that there is a well-defined subclass of ascending prominences characterized by closed-system transference of chromospheric material along an arch or loop (up one leg and down the other). While this occurs, the entire prominence envelope steadily rises upward and expands through the corona. These prominences are denoted as 'fountains'. Several examples are described. Fountains appear to be well contained by coronal magnetic fields. Their total kinetic energy is of the order of 10 to the 30th power erg, but dissipation is typically quite slow (over time periods of 100 min or so), so that the correlative disturbances (radio bursts, coronal transients, chromospheric brightenings) are generally not spectacular or nonexistent.

  16. Initial Evaluation of the USNO Rubidium Fountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    output of a BVA quartz crystal that is phase-locked to a hydrogen maser with a time constant of ~3 seconds. In this configuration, we can see a short...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...crystal frequency steered to that fountain. This ‘open- loop’ steering is carried out with a time constant of ~3.5 seconds and does not change the

  17. Concerns about infectious hepatitis and Delacorte's Welfare Island Fountain.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence; Metz, Arielle A

    2004-06-01

    In 1969, philanthropist George T. Delacorte donated a spectacular water fountain to New York City on the southern tip of Welfare Island. Architects designed the fountain's jet geyser to pump a plume of water from the East River more than 400 feet into the air. Public health experts feared that the water from the heavily polluted East River could be a possible source for the spread of infectious hepatitis. Water droplets could be airborne by the prevailing winds to land on the densely populated east side of Manhattan. Upon the insistence of the New York City Department of Health, the fountain's water intake source was chlorinated. This action was initiated before the discovery of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in 1973. A miscellany of continuing problems plagued the fountain for about two decades, causing the donor to label the fountain "Delacorte's Folly." Eventually, Delacorte gave up. In the late 1980s, the fountain ceased spouting and was finally dismantled.

  18. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  19. Hydrogen masers and cesium fountains at NRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, J.-S.; Morris, D.; Douglas, R. J.; Gagne, M.-C.

    1994-01-01

    The NRC masers H-3 and H-4 have been operating since June 1993 with cavity servo control. These low-flux active H masers are showing stabilities of about 10(exp -15) from 1 hour to several days. Stability results are presented, and the current and planned uses of the masers are discussed. A cesium fountain primary frequency standard project has been started at NRC. Trapping and launching experiments with the goal of 7 m/s launches are beginning. We discuss our plans for a local oscillator and servo that exploit the pulsed aspect of cesium fountain standards, and meet the challenge of 10(exp -14) tau(exp -1/2) stability without requiring masers. At best, we expect to run this frequency standard initially for periods of hours each working day rather than continuously for years, and so frequency transfer to outside laboratories has been carefully considered. We conclude that masers (or other even better secondary clocks) are required to exploit this potential accuracy of the cesium fountain. We present and discuss our conclusion that it is feasible to transfer frequency in this way with a transfer-induced uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15), even in the presence of maser frequency drift and random walk noise.

  20. The Development of the CryoTel™ LT and GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Reuven

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the considerations, design modifications and test results for the recently-developed Sunpower CryoTel™ LT and GT. After successful market introduction of the CryoTel™ CT, it became evident that some basic design modifications would render the unit available to a wider range of application. The CryoTel™ LT is a low-temperature variant of the original design. The LT's cooling capacity is 0.5W @ 23 K. The CryoTel™ GT is the enhanced performance variant. The GT's cooling capacity is 15 W @ 77 K. Both LT and GT largely retain the original structure and components and therefore benefit from the low-cost manufacturing profile of the original. Sunpower's main analysis and simulation tools were in-house codes and Gedeon Associates' SAGE Stirling cycle simulation. The CryoTel™ is a Linear Free Piston Integral Stirling cryocooler that makes use of Gas Bearing technology for non-contact operation and a microprocessor based driver/controller with a closed-loop temperature control.

  1. Simulation of the formation and characteristics of ultrasonic fountain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Yasuda, Keiji; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    In order to design an ultrasonic apparatus with a high throughput rate for generating atomization, the mechanism of fountain characteristics is important because the throughput rate of the ultrasonic atomization is decided by the area of the fountain surface. The formation of the fountain can be numerically studied by taking into account the effect of surface tension and radiation pressure. We have investigated the shape of the fountain with different ultrasound parameters or different kinds of solutions. When the amplitude of input sound pressure is higher than 1.3×10(5)Pa, the liquid separates from the ultrasonic fountain after irradiation for a very short period. It is further found that the area of the fountain surface increases with the concentration of the ethanol due to its low surface tension, density and sound speed. Finally, we discuss the difference between the ultrasonic fountain and the pump fountain, and find that the velocity field in the reactor induced by the pump is higher than that by the ultrasound.

  2. Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldi, Andrea

    2010-07-15

    A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

  3. View looking down to the Oscar S. Straus Memorial Fountain. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking down to the Oscar S. Straus Memorial Fountain. The monument was authorized by Congress in 1927 and dedicated in 1947. It consists of the fountain and two groups of statues, Religious Freedom and Reason. It was disassembled in 1991 and reinstalled after the construction of the Ronald Reagan Building and the International Trade Center. The rededication took place in 1998 and the fountain is located near the west entrance of the building complex. - Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Performance of the PARCS Testbed Cesium Fountain Frequency Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.

    2004-01-01

    A cesium fountain frequency standard has been developed as a ground testbed for the PARCS (Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space) experiment, an experiment intended to fly on the International Space Station. We report on the performance of the fountain and describe some of the implementations motivated in large part by flight considerations, but of relevance for ground fountains. In particular, we report on a new technique for delivering cooling and trapping laser beams to the atom collection region, in which a given beam is recirculated three times effectively providing much more optical power than traditional configurations. Allan deviations down to 10 have been achieved with this method.

  5. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Adam K.; Wilson, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work.

  6. 4. ANODIZED ALUMINUM WATER FOUNTAIN, DIABLO POWERHOUSE, CUSTOMMADE FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ANODIZED ALUMINUM WATER FOUNTAIN, DIABLO POWERHOUSE, CUSTOM-MADE FOR THE VISITORS LOBBY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN (CENTER), DULION APARTMENTS AND ELEVENTH AVENUE SOUTH (RIGHT). VIEW TAKEN JUST AFTER BIRMINGHAM BLIZZARD OF 1993. - Highlands United Methodist Church, 1045 Twentieth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 19th Century Textbook Illustrations - XLI, Hero's Fountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and instructions for constructing a Hero's water fountain. Includes photographs of the apparatus from old textbooks and one in the collection of the National Museum of History and Technology at the Smithsonian Institution. (SK)

  9. Cancellation of the Collisional Frequency Shift in Caesium Fountain Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Szymaniec, K.; Chalupczak, W.; Tiesinga, E.; Williams, C. J.; Weyers, S.; Wynands, R.

    2007-04-13

    We have observed that the collisional frequency shift in primary caesium fountain clocks varies with the clock state population composition and, in particular, is zero for a given fraction of the |F=4,m{sub F}=0> atoms, depending on the initial cloud parameters. We present a theoretical model explaining our observations. The possibility of the collisional shift cancellation implies an improvement in the performance of caesium fountain standards and a simplification in their operation.

  10. HyBoLT Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang-Jeng (Frank); Berry, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    HyBoLT was a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition flight experiment funded by the Hypersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program in NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The HyBoLT test article mounted on the top of the ALV X-1 rocket was launched from Virginia's Wallops Island on August 22, 2008. Unfortunately a problem in the rocket's flight control system caused the vehicle to veer off the designed flight course. Launch officials activated a self-destruct mechanism in the rocket's nose cone after 20 seconds into flight. This report is a closeout document about the HyBoLT flight experiment. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with this experimental program as well as the 20 seconds flight data acquired before the vehicle was destroyed.

  11. Impaired physical function following pediatric LT.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy G; Neighbors, Katie; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Rak, Melanie; Varni, James W; Alonso, Estella M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the spectrum of physical function of pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients 12-24 months after LT. Review data were collected through the functional outcomes group, an ancillary study of the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation registry. Patients were eligible if they had survived LT by 12-24 months. Children ≥ 8 years and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales, which includes 8 questions assessing physical function. Scores were compared to a matched healthy child population (n = 1658) and between survivors with optimal versus nonoptimal health. A total of 263 patients were included. Median age at transplant and survey was 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3-11.4 years) and 5.9 years (IQR, 2.6-13.1 years), respectively. The mean physical functioning score on child and parent reports were 81.2 ± 17.3 and 77.1 ± 23.7, respectively. Compared to a matched healthy population, transplant survivors and their parents reported lower physical function scores (P < 0.001); 32.9% of patients and 35.0% of parents reported a physical function score <75, which is > 1 standard deviation below the mean of a healthy population. Physical functioning scores were significantly higher in survivors with optimal health than those with nonoptimal health (P < 0.01). There was a significant relationship between emotional functioning and physical functioning scores for LT recipients (r = 0.69; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, primary disease, height z score < -1.64 at longterm follow-up (LTF) visit,  > 4 days of hospitalization since LTF visit, and not being listed as status 1 were predictors of poor physical function. In conclusion, pediatric LT recipients 1-2 years after LT and their parents report lower physical function than a healthy population. Findings suggest practitioners need to routinely assess physical function, and

  12. A Dynamic Fountain Model for Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Vondrak, R. R.; Farrell, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Apollo era of exploration it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to horizon glow and streamers above the lunar surface. This was observed from the dark side of the Moon during sunset and sunrise by both surface landers and astronauts in orbit. These observations were quite unexpected, as the Moon was thought to be a pristine environment with a negligible atmosphere or exosphere. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. It has since been demonstrated that this dust population could have serious implications for astronomical observations from the lunar surface. The lunar surface is electrostatically charged by the Moon s large-scale interaction with the local plasma environment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar ultra-violet (UV) light and X-rays. The like-charged surface and dust grains then act to repel each other, such that under certain conditions the dust grains are lifted above the surface. We present a dynamic fountain model which can explain how sub-micron dust is able to reach altitudes of up to approximately 100 km above the lunar surface. Previous static dust levitation models are most applicable to the heavier micron-sized grains in close proximity proximity to the surface, but they cannot explain the presence of extremely light grains at high altitudes. If we relax the static constraint applied to previous models, and instead assume that the grains are in constant motion (under the action of dynamic forces), a new picture emerges for the behavior of sub-micron lunar dust.

  13. Sculpture, view of the classically inspired, tiered fountain made of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, view of the classically inspired, tiered fountain made of marble and located in the center of DeWitt Circle in the front of Main - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  14. VIEW OF THE FOUNTAIN IN THE BANNEKER OVERLOOK DESIGNED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FOUNTAIN IN THE BANNEKER OVERLOOK DESIGNED BY DAN URBAN KILEY AND COMPLETED AROUND 1968 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Performance and Applications of an Ensemble of Atomic Fountains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    clock based time scale,” Metrologia 49, pp. 180-188 (2012). [2] T. Parker, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and E. Donley, “Operation of the NIST-F1 caesium...fountain primary standard with a maser ensemble, including the impact of frequency transfer noise,” Metrologia 42, pp. 423-430 (2005). [3] J. Guéna, et

  16. The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M. Dale

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new demonstration that uses an apparatus like the ammonia-fountain apparatus but with modifications designed to produce ammonium-chloride smoke. This demonstration is easy to perform, interesting to observe, and allows demonstration of the solubility of ammonia in water, the basic nature of ammonia, the acidic nature of hydrogen…

  17. Cryogenic fountain development at NIST and INRIM: preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Levi, Filippo; Calosso, Claudio; Calonico, Davide; Lorini, Luca; Bertacco, Elio K; Godone, Aldo; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Mongino, Barbara; Jefferts, Steven R; Heavner, Thomas P; Donley, Elizabeth A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the new twin laser-cooled Cs fountain primary frequency standards NIST-F2 and ITCsF2, and presents some of their design features. Most significant is a cryogenic microwave interrogation region which dramatically reduces the blackbody radiation shift. We also present a preliminary accuracy evaluation of IT-CsF2.

  18. Ultrasonic atomization of liquids in drop-chain acoustic fountains.

    PubMed

    Simon, Julianna C; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Khokhlova, Vera A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    When focused ultrasound waves of moderate intensity in liquid encounter an air interface, a chain of drops emerges from the liquid surface to form what is known as a drop-chain fountain. Atomization, or the emission of micro-droplets, occurs when the acoustic intensity exceeds a liquid-dependent threshold. While the cavitation-wave hypothesis, which states that atomization arises from a combination of capillary-wave instabilities and cavitation bubble oscillations, is currently the most accepted theory of atomization, more data on the roles of cavitation, capillary waves, and even heat deposition or boiling would be valuable. In this paper, we experimentally test whether bubbles are a significant mechanism of atomization in drop-chain fountains. High-speed photography was used to observe the formation and atomization of drop-chain fountains composed of water and other liquids. For a range of ultrasonic frequencies and liquid sound speeds, it was found that the drop diameters approximately equalled the ultrasonic wavelengths. When water was exchanged for other liquids, it was observed that the atomization threshold increased with shear viscosity. Upon heating water, it was found that the time to commence atomization decreased with increasing temperature. Finally, water was atomized in an overpressure chamber where it was found that atomization was significantly diminished when the static pressure was increased. These results indicate that bubbles, generated by either acoustic cavitation or boiling, contribute significantly to atomization in the drop-chain fountain.

  19. Mapping the magnetic field vector in a fountain clock

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsvolf, Marina; Marmet, Louis

    2011-12-15

    We show how the mapping of the magnetic field vector components can be achieved in a fountain clock by measuring the Larmor transition frequency in atoms that are used as a spatial probe. We control two vector components of the magnetic field and apply audio frequency magnetic pulses to localize and measure the field vector through Zeeman spectroscopy.

  20. Ultrasonic atomization of liquids in drop-chain acoustic fountains

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Julianna C.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    When focused ultrasound waves of moderate intensity in liquid encounter an air interface, a chain of drops emerges from the liquid surface to form what is known as a drop-chain fountain. Atomization, or the emission of micro-droplets, occurs when the acoustic intensity exceeds a liquid-dependent threshold. While the cavitation-wave hypothesis, which states that atomization arises from a combination of capillary-wave instabilities and cavitation bubble oscillations, is currently the most accepted theory of atomization, more data on the roles of cavitation, capillary waves, and even heat deposition or boiling would be valuable. In this paper, we experimentally test whether bubbles are a significant mechanism of atomization in drop-chain fountains. High-speed photography was used to observe the formation and atomization of drop-chain fountains composed of water and other liquids. For a range of ultrasonic frequencies and liquid sound speeds, it was found that the drop diameters approximately equalled the ultrasonic wavelengths. When water was exchanged for other liquids, it was observed that the atomization threshold increased with shear viscosity. Upon heating water, it was found that the time to commence atomization decreased with increasing temperature. Finally, water was atomized in an overpressure chamber where it was found that atomization was significantly diminished when the static pressure was increased. These results indicate that bubbles, generated by either acoustic cavitation or boiling, contribute significantly to atomization in the drop-chain fountain. PMID:25977591

  1. Compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang; Ruan, Jun; Shi, Junru; Yu, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xinliang; Zhang, Shougang

    2016-09-01

    The optical system plays a significant role to cesium atomic fountain clocks, which manipulates and detects population of cesium atoms. This paper presents a compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clocks. The optical system provides two beams with 32mW separately for cooling atoms and six beams of 12mW respectively for trapping atoms with the frequency tuning from 80MHz to 220MHz. The relative intensity noise of the detect laser beam reduces from 1.33×10-6 Hz to 1.52×10-10 Hz at 1Hz by the laser power stabilization system. The optical system operates continuously for 30 days with the fluctuation of optical power less than 3% approximately. And the frequency stability is 3×10-15 at 1000s. The results show the optical system satisfies with the needs of our cesium atomic fountain clock developed and establishes the foundation for cesium atomic fountain continuous operation.

  2. Using Moeller PLC in automation of an artesian fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Deaconu, S.; Preradović, D.; Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the use of a Moeller PLC in the automation of an artesian fountains from Baia Mare. The application is developed in Ladder Diagram and contains two modes of operation. The first mode is the Automatic Mode in which are defines certain operating times of the artesian fountains pumps. These set times make recurrence of the operation. The second mode is the Manual Mode in which each pump is operated independently. Manual mode is only active for service personal, according to the user accounts and authorization rights of its. All orders are made with a touch screen Weintek in menus that are created for application. Using the Service Menu can visualize defects occurred during the regime of operation, which is recorded.

  3. Design and Preliminary Characterization of the USNO Rubidium Fountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Design and Preliminary Characterization of the USNO Rubidium Fountain Steven Peil, Scott Crane, Thomas B. Swanson, and Christopher R. Ekstrom Time ...and power servos are among the user-configurable electronics modules that we designed. Data acquisition and timing are executed with compact PCI...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  4. FOUNTAIN HOUSE, LAHORE*A UNIQUE EXPERIEMENT IN CROSS-CULTURAL COLLABORATION

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Mohammad Rashid; Mirza, Laeeq

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Fountain House has passed through various developmental stages. It has adopted the ideology of a club-house from Fountain House, New York, along with a number of innovative programmes for the rehabilitation of the mentally ill. Through a process of constant experimentation and evaluation, it has evolved a programme and an ideological framework which is in keeping with the religious and cultural requirements of the members served by Fountain House, Lahore. PMID:21847311

  5. Coupled pulsing of lava fountains: Video monitoring reveals systematic height and velocity variations of adjacent vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2014-05-01

    Lava fountains are a common eruption form at basaltic volcanoes. Many of the lava fountains occur at fissure eruptions, associated with the alignment of active vents. We observed that the lava fountain pulses may occur in chorus at several adjacent vents, implying that activity at these vents is coupled. The mechanisms behind such a coupling of adjacent lava fountains and the underlying connection between the different craters are not fully understood, however. Here we employ video images to measure the height, width and velocity of the ejecta leaving the vent. With a Sobel edge-detection algorithm, our aim is to measure the height of the different fountains occurring along fissure eruptions. Video data acquired from Puu'oo (Hawaii) and from Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) are showing major similarities in fountaining behavior. Based on the fountain activity times series we estimate the sign and degree of correlation of the different vents. We find that the height and velocity of adjacent lava fountains are often in chorus. The velocity is calculated by a correlation in the Fourier space of contiguous images. We observed that episodically and sporadically the correlation regime can change. Despite these changes, both the frequency of the lava pulses and the eruption and rest time between the pulses remain similar for adjacent lava fountains, implying, a controlling process in the magma feeder system itself. We interpret the initial vertical velocity at the vent to be proportional to the extent of bubbles, and layers of bubbles rising. Lateral migration of fountains and their dynamics, in turn, is associated to lateral magma and gas flow or inclined layers of bubbles developing along the fissure at depth. Systematic recording and analysis of video data from different volcanoes hence result in a better understanding of the mechanisms of parallel and non-parallel lava fountain pulses.

  6. Realization of the new UTC(OP) based on the LNE-SYRTE atomic fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupin, B.; Bize, S.; Guéna, J.; Laurent, P.; Rosenbusch, P.; Uhrich, P.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, G.

    2014-12-01

    For many years, UTC(OP), the real-time approximation of UTC built in LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris (OP), Paris, France, had been based on industrial Cesium (Cs) standards [1]. Since October 2012, new algorithm for the generation of UTC(OP) has been put in operation. It is based on the steering of a H-maser signal on the LNE-SYRTE Primary Frequency Standards. The current OP atomic fountain ensemble comprises a Cs fountain called FO1, a dual fountain working with Cs and Rubidium (Rb) atoms called FO2, and a mobile Cs fountain called FOM. All fountains share the same cryogenic oscillator which is phase locked to a H-maser, so that all fountains measure the frequency of the same H-maser. Automatic fountain data processing provides hourly preliminary data corrected of all systematic frequency shifts. The steering of the H-maser frequency is calculated daily by a fit to the fountain data. First we describe the implementation of all the instruments used for the generation of UTC(OP) together with the current version of the algorithm. The choice of this algorithm has been oriented to obtain robustness of the system instead of the ultimate optimization of performances. We then present the results obtained during the first year of operation.

  7. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  8. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  9. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  10. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  11. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  12. Phase Separators And Fountain-Effect Pumps For He 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Fused-glass microchannel arrays for use as HE 11 phase separators and fountain-effect pumps. Microchannel devices for use in low-gravity storage and cooling systems containing superfluid helium. Phase separators and pumps take advantage of thermomechanical effect peculiar to He 11 in restricted spaces. By creating thermal gradient in porous plug, direction of flow reversed, turning phase separator into pump. However, addition of heat disadvantage. Thermal gradient created by using Peltier effect to transfer heat across array, removing heat from He 11 supply and overcoming undesirable addition of heat.

  13. The Galactic fountain as an origin for the Smith Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, A.; Fraternali, F.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of an enriched metallicity for the Smith high-velocity H I Cloud (SC) lends support to a Galactic origin for this system. We use a dynamical model of the galactic fountain to reproduce the observed properties of the SC. In our model, fountain clouds are ejected from the region of the disc spiral arms and move through the halo interacting with a pre-existing hot corona. We find that a simple model where cold gas outflows vertically from the Perseus spiral arm reproduces the kinematics and the distance of the SC, but is in disagreement with the cloud's cometary morphology, if this is produced by ram-pressure stripping by the ambient gas. To explain the cloud morphology, we explore two scenarios: (i) the outflow is inclined with respect to the vertical direction and (ii) the cloud is entrained by a fast wind that escapes an underlying superbubble. Solutions in agreement with all observational constraints can be found for both cases, the former requires outflow angles >40° while the latter requires ≳1000 km s-1 winds. All scenarios predict that the SC is in the ascending phase of its trajectory and has large - but not implausible - energy requirements.

  14. Equatorial ionosphere 'fountain- effect' above imminent earthquake epicenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhin, Yu.; Depueva, A. H.; Devi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Existence of lithosphere-ionosphere interaction is known for a long time, but it does not mean that the ionospheric morphology above areas of earthquakes preparation is investigated sufficiently well. It was shown that seismo-precursor variations of the atmosphere electricity cause appropriate electric field at the ionospheric heights, which being added to existing natural field may both increase or decrease its action on the ionospheric plasma characteristics: drifts, aeronomy, plasma chemistry, ion composition etc. Anomalous variations appear inside whole ionosphere volume from the lowest boundary of Earth's plasma shell (100 km) up to 1000km and higher. Under fortunate coincidence seismo-precursor electric field can generate natural ionosphere phenomena, 'fountain- effect', leading to Appleton anomaly in the equatorial ionosphere over future earthquake position. Our basic idea is to take into account dependence of the observable effects on a geographical position of the earthquake epicenter. As for low latitudes it is proved by specificity of formation and dynamics of equatorial ionosphere (seismogenic ""fountain" effect , first of all), and also by features of earth crust structure close to the equator (mainly meridionally alongated tectonic faults). Ionospheric effects of low-latitude earthquakes were not investigated separately so far though rather semo-active zones are located namely at low latitudes: India, Peru, Oceania. We used the data of topside sounding of ALOUETTE-1 and ISS-b satellites, and also data of ground-based vertical sounding stationary stations Kodaikanal, Huancayo, Djibouti etc. and records of the total electron content (TEC).

  15. Star Trek's Lt. Uhura's Warp-Speed Visit to Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    Actress Nichelle Nichols warped to many worlds as Lt. Uhura in the 1960s Star Trek TV show. However, her real-life adventures have taken her to where no one has gone before in advocacy for NASA and...

  16. CysLT2 receptors interact with CysLT1 receptors and down-modulate cysteinyl leukotriene–dependent mitogenic responses of mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yongfeng; Borrelli, Laura A.; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Bacskai, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) induce inflammation through 2 G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), CysLT1 and CysLT2, which are coexpressed by most myeloid cells. Cys-LTs induce proliferation of mast cells (MCs), transactivate c-Kit, and phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Although MCs express CysLT2, their responses to cys-LTs are blocked by antagonists of CysLT1. We demonstrate that CysLT2 interacts with CysLT1, and that knockdown of CysLT2 increases CysLT1 surface expression and CysLT1-dependent proliferation of cord blood–derived human MCs (hMCs). Cys-LT–mediated responses were absent in MCs from mice lacking CysLT1 receptors, but enhanced by the absence of CysLT2 receptors. CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors colocalized to the plasma membranes and nuclei of a human MC line, LAD2. Antibody-based fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy confirmed complexes containing both receptors based on fluorescence energy transfer. Negative regulation of CysLT1-induced mitogenic signaling responses of MCs by CysLT2 demonstrates physiologically relevant functions for GPCR heterodimers on primary cells central to inflammation. PMID:17693579

  17. Recirculation of Laser Power in an Atomic Fountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, WIlliam M.; Moore, James D.

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for laser-cooling atoms in a cesium atomic fountain frequency standard relies on recirculation of laser light through the atom-collection region of the fountain. The recirculation, accomplished by means of reflections from multiple fixed beam-splitter cubes, is such that each of two laser beams makes three passes. As described below, this recirculation scheme offers several advantages over prior designs, including simplification of the laser system, greater optical power throughput, fewer optical and electrical connections, and simplification of beam power balancing. A typical laser-cooled cesium fountain requires the use of six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams to decelerate the atoms and hold them in a three-dimensional optical trap in vacuum. Typically, these trapping/cooling beams are linearly polarized and are positioned and oriented so that (1) counter-propagating beams in each pair have opposite linear polarizations and (2) three of the six orthogonal beams have the sum of their propagation directions pointing up, while the other three have the sum of their propagation directions pointing down. In a typical prior design, two lasers are used - one to generate the three "up" beams, the other to generate the three "down" beams. For this purpose, the output of each laser is split three ways, then the resulting six beams are delivered to the vacuum system, independently of each other, via optical fibers. The present recirculating design also requires two lasers, but the beams are not split before delivery. Instead, only one "up" beam and one oppositely polarized "down" beam are delivered to the vacuum system, and each of these beams is sent through the collection region three times. The polarization of each beam on each pass through the collection region is set up to yield the same combination of polarization and propagation directions as described above. In comparison with the prior design, the present

  18. Low-Light-Shift Cesium Fountain without Mechanical Shutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna

    2008-01-01

    A new technique for reducing errors in a laser-cooled cesium fountain frequency standard provides for strong suppression of the light shift without need for mechanical shutters. Because mechanical shutters are typically susceptible to failure after operating times of the order of months, the elimination of mechanical shutters could contribute significantly to the reliability of frequency standards that are required to function continuously for longer time intervals. With respect to the operation of an atomic-fountain frequency standard, the term "light shift" denotes an undesired relative shift in the two energy levels of the atoms (in this case, cesium atoms) in the atomic fountain during interrogation by microwaves. The shift in energy levels translates to a frequency shift that reduces the precision and possibly accuracy of the frequency standard. For reasons too complex to describe within the space available for this article, the light shift is caused by any laser light that reaches the atoms during the microwave- interrogation period, but is strongest for near-resonance light. In the absence of any mitigating design feature, the light shift, expressed as a fraction of the standard fs frequency, could be as large as approx. 2 x 10(exp -11), the largest error in the standard. In a typical prior design, to suppress light shift, the intensity of laser light is reduced during the interrogation period by using a single-pass acoustooptic modulator to deflect the majority of light away from the main optical path. Mechanical shutters are used to block the remaining undeflected light to ensure complete attenuation. Without shutters, this remaining undeflected light could cause a light shift of as much as .10.15, which is unacceptably large in some applications. The new technique implemented here involves additionally shifting the laser wavelength off resonance by a relatively large amount (typically of the order of nanometers) during microwave interrogation. In this

  19. Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with a drinking water fountain.

    PubMed

    Costa, D; Bousseau, A; Thevenot, S; Dufour, X; Laland, C; Burucoa, C; Castel, O

    2015-11-01

    Over a four-month period, ten patients were suspected of having acquired nosocomial infection to P. aeruginosa in the ear, nose, and throat department. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared. Only water from a drinking water fountain was contaminated by P. aeruginosa. This isolate and those of three patients had indistinguishable random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles. These patients had serious oncology diseases. The drinking water fountain was used for their alimentation by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and was the origin of the outbreak. Another type of drinking fountain with a terminal ultraviolet treatment was installed, following which no new infections linked to drinking water were identified.

  20. Search for variations of fundamental constants using atomic fountain clocks.

    PubMed

    Marion, H; Pereira Dos Santos, F; Abgrall, M; Zhang, S; Sortais, Y; Bize, S; Maksimovic, I; Calonico, D; Grünert, J; Mandache, C; Lemonde, P; Santarelli, G; Laurent, Ph; Clairon, A; Salomon, C

    2003-04-18

    Over five years, we have compared the hyperfine frequencies of 133Cs and 87Rb atoms in their electronic ground state using several laser-cooled 133Cs and 87Rb atomic fountains with an accuracy of approximately 10(-15). These measurements set a stringent upper bound to a possible fractional time variation of the ratio between the two frequencies: d/dt ln([(nu(Rb))/(nu(Cs))]=(0.2+/-7.0)x 10(-16) yr(-1) (1sigma uncertainty). The same limit applies to a possible variation of the quantity (mu(Rb)/mu(Cs))alpha(-0.44), which involves the ratio of nuclear magnetic moments and the fine structure constant.

  1. Spectral Variability at the L/T Transition and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Davis, Jonathan; York, Brian Andrew; Apai, Daniel; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier

    2017-01-01

    We present HST/WFC3 spectral time series (1-1.7 microns) of 3 variable brown dwarfs. The targets consist of 2 L/T transition brown dwarfs whose large photometric variability is thought to arise due to patchy cloud coverage, and one unusually blue mid-L dwarf that displays lower levels of variability. The observations add significantly to the number of L/T transition objects that have been monitored with WFC3, and allow us to test whether emerging trends (e.g. muted variability in the water absorption band) are shared by all L/T transition objects, indicative of common cloud structures and number of surface components. Furthermore, the spectral response of the blue L-dwarf is compared to those of the L/T transition brown dwarfs in order to investigate whether similar cloud structures are responsible for its variability and unusual colors. Our results suggest that spectral variability of L/T transition dwarfs is not uniform within this population, and that a wider range of heterogeneous cloud structures are required to explained the strong variations observed at these spectral types.

  2. The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B.

    2006-04-01

    An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.

  3. 79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat Basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat Basin Cafe, looking west. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  4. On the transition from strombolian to fountaining activity: a thermal energy-based driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombrun, Maxime; Spampinato, Letizia; Harris, Andrew; Barra, Vincent; Caltabiano, Tommaso

    2016-02-01

    Since 1999, Mount Etna's (Italy) South-East crater system has been characterised by episodic lava fountaining. Each episode is characterised by initial strombolian activity followed by transition to sustained fountaining to feed high-effusion rate lava flow. Here, we use thermal infrared data recorded by a permanent radiometer station to characterise the transition to sustained fountaining fed by the New South-East crater that developed on the eastern flank of the South-East crater starting from January 2011. We cover eight fountaining episodes that occurred between 2012 and 2013. We first developed a routine to characterise event waveforms apparent in the precursory, strombolian phase. This allowed extraction of a database for thermal energy and waveform shape for 1934 events. We detected between 66 and 650 events per episode, with event durations being between 4 and 55 s. In total, 1508 (78 %) of the events had short waxing phases and dominant waning phases. Event frequency increased as climax was approached. Events had energies of between 3.0 × 106 and 5.8 × 109 J, with rank order analysis indicating the highest possible event energy of 8.1 × 109 J. To visualise the temporal evolution of retrieved parameters during the precursory phase, we applied a dimensionality reduction technique. Results show that weaker events occur during an onset period that forms a low-energy "sink". The transition towards fountaining occurs at 107 J, where subsequent events have a temporal trend towards the highest energies, and where sustained fountaining occurs when energies exceed 109 J. Such an energy-based framework allows researchers to track the evolution of fountaining episodes and to predict the time at which sustained fountaining will begin.

  5. High Stability Comparison of Atomic Fountains using two Different Cryogenic Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Abgrall, Michel; Guena, Jocelyne; Lours, Michel; Santarelli, Giorgio; Tobar, Michael; Bize, Sebastien; Grop, Serge; Dubois, Benoit; Fluhr, Christophe; Giordano, Vincent

    2016-05-19

    We present a detailed characterization of two atomic clock interrogation systems based on two different cryogenic sapphire oscillators operated simultaneously. We use them as references for two accurate fountain clock frequency standards participating in international atomic time and operating both at the quantum projection noise frequency limit. The two fountain comparison down to a few 1016 over 28 days demonstrates the potential of a cryocooled oscillator to replace a He refilled cryogenic oscillator.

  6. Balancing bulk gas accumulation and gas output prior and during fire fountain episodes at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Zuccarello, Luciano; Messina, Alfio; Scollo, Simona; Rymer, Hazel

    2015-04-01

    Lava fountains represent a distinctive feature of Mt. Etna's activity. Up to the date of this writing (January 2015), 45 episodes of lava fountaining occurred from one of Etna's summit craters (NSEC) since January 2011. In particular, during the summer of 2011, the highest frequency of fire fountain episodes was recorded, with repose intervals of only a few days. Previous studies concluded that the episodes of lava fountaining at Etna are triggered by massive collapses of a foam layer that accumulates at shallow depth, i.e., in the uppermost portion of the magmatic reservoir of the NSEC. To address this hypothesis, we compare the volume of gas accumulated at depth prior to some fountaining episodes with the volume of gas emitted during the paroxysmal activity. The former figure is obtained through inversion of data from a continuously recording gravimeter installed in the summit zone of Etna. The latter is retrieved through the time development of the height of the fire fountains, in turn deduced from thermal imagery. Preliminary results suggest that, for the collapsing foam model to hold, the later stages of the foam growth must occur under lower than lithostatic pressure. This finding implies high vesiculation (lower-than-expected density) of the magma in the conduit between the shallow reservoir and the ground surface.

  7. Clouds and Binaries Across the L/T Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of clouds plays a primary, if not defining, role in shaping the spectral transition from L to T spectral classes, a transition through which all brown dwarfs must pass. The role of clouds is particularly notable in binary systems which straddle this transition. In this talk, I will briefly review the evidence of cloud evolution across the L/T transition and the observable impacts (the 1 µm brightening, binary excess, flattening of luminosities, spectral feature evolution, spectral binaries). I will then go into detail on the most recently discovered L/T transition binary, Luhman 16AB, and present the first results on spectral variability in this system.

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Petrography of Glassy Particles Produced by Lava Fountain Eruptions. Ph.D. Thesis - Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladle, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual model of a lava fountain consists of a vent, spatter ramparts, fountain column, downwind plume and associated pumice deposits. Glassy particles produced by lava fountain eruptions consist primarily of sideromelane glass and minor to moderate amounts of vesicles and crystals. Particles are classified on the basis of morphology as: (1) spherical, (2) elongate, (3) glass-coated mineral grain, (4) shard, (5) reticulite, (6) composite particle, and (7) lithic fragment.

  9. 17. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. Sheet 4 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 18. EXISTING FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. EXISTING FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. Sheet 5 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 14. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 1 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 16. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 3 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 15. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 2 OF 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Roy F. Weston, Inc. (Weston) low temperature thermal treatment (LT3®) system thermally desorbs organic compounds from contaminated soil without heating the soil to combustion temperatures. The transportable system is comprised of equipment assembled on thre...

  15. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Muré, Filippo

    2015-03-01

    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500 m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ∼1-2 km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2 and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2 ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (∼2 km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  16. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Murè, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ˜1-2km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (˜2km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  17. Balancing bulk gas accumulation and gas output before and during lava fountaining episodes at Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Daniele; Zuccarello, Luciano; Messina, Alfio; Scollo, Simona; Rymer, Hazel

    2015-12-10

    We focus on a sequence of 9 lava fountains from Etna that occurred in 2011, separated by intervals of 5 to 10 days. Continuous measurements allowed to discover the occurrence of gravity decreases before the onset of most fountaining episodes. We propose that the gravity changes are due to the pre-fountaining accumulation of a foam layer at shallow levels in the plumbing system of the volcano. Relying on the relationship between amount of gas trapped in the foam and amount of gas emitted during each episode, we develop a conceptual model of the mechanism controlling the passage from Strombolian to lava fountaining activity. Gas leakage from the foam layer during the late stages of its accumulation increases the gas volume fraction at upper levels, thus inducing a decrease of the magma-static pressure in the trapping zone and a further growth of the foam. This feedback mechanism eventually leads to the collapse of the foam layer and to the onset of lava fountaining. The possibility to detect the development of a foam layer at depth and to set quantitative constraints on the amount of trapped gas is important because of the implications for forecasting explosive eruptions and predicting their intensity.

  18. Balancing bulk gas accumulation and gas output before and during lava fountaining episodes at Mt. Etna

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Daniele; Zuccarello, Luciano; Messina, Alfio; Scollo, Simona; Rymer, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    We focus on a sequence of 9 lava fountains from Etna that occurred in 2011, separated by intervals of 5 to 10 days. Continuous measurements allowed to discover the occurrence of gravity decreases before the onset of most fountaining episodes. We propose that the gravity changes are due to the pre-fountaining accumulation of a foam layer at shallow levels in the plumbing system of the volcano. Relying on the relationship between amount of gas trapped in the foam and amount of gas emitted during each episode, we develop a conceptual model of the mechanism controlling the passage from Strombolian to lava fountaining activity. Gas leakage from the foam layer during the late stages of its accumulation increases the gas volume fraction at upper levels, thus inducing a decrease of the magma-static pressure in the trapping zone and a further growth of the foam. This feedback mechanism eventually leads to the collapse of the foam layer and to the onset of lava fountaining. The possibility to detect the development of a foam layer at depth and to set quantitative constraints on the amount of trapped gas is important because of the implications for forecasting explosive eruptions and predicting their intensity. PMID:26656099

  19. Copper dimer interactions on a thermomechanical superfluid {sup 4}He fountain

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi

    2015-05-28

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging and frequency domain excitation spectroscopy of the copper dimer (B{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}←X{sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}) in thermomechanical helium fountain at 1.7 K are demonstrated. The dimers penetrate into the fountain provided that their average propagation velocity is ca. 15 m/s. This energy threshold is interpreted in terms of an imperfect fountain liquid-gas interface, which acts as a trap for low velocity dimers. Orsay-Trento density functional theory calculations for superfluid {sup 4}He are used to characterize the dynamics of the dimer solvation process into the fountain. The dimers first accelerate towards the fountain surface and once the surface layer is crossed, they penetrate into the liquid and further slow down to Landau critical velocity by creating a vortex ring. Theoretical lineshape calculations support the assignment of the experimentally observed bands to Cu{sub 2} solvated in the bulk liquid. The vibronic progressions are decomposed of a zero-phonon line and two types of phonon bands, which correlate with solvent cavity interface compression (t < 200 fs) and expansion (200 < t < 500 fs) driven by the electronic excitation. The presented experimental method allows to perform molecular spectroscopy in bulk superfluid helium where the temperature and pressure can be varied.

  20. Vesiculation of Pyroclasts in High-Fountaining Hawaiian Eruptions: Kilauea Iki 1959

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; Houghton, B. F.; Hammer, J. E.; Fagents, S. A.; Swanson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The 1959 summit eruption of Kilauea volcano produced the highest Hawaiian fountain recorded in Hawai‘i. Quantitative analysis of closely spaced samples from the final two high-fountaining episodes form the basis for a fine-scale textural study of pyroclasts and provide a record of syn- and post-fragmentation processes. Syn-eruptive textures are preserved only in relatively dense, fluidal clasts and as the rims of more vesicular clasts. As clast vesicularity increases the vesicle number density decreases and vesicle morphology shifts from small and round to larger and more irregular. The shift in microtexture corresponds to increasing degrees of post-fragmentation expansion of bubbles in those clasts with higher vesicularity. We suggest the range of clast morphologies in the deposit is related to the thermal zonation within a Hawaiian fountain where the highest vesicularity pumices traveled axially, in the center of the fountain, and the lowest vesicularity clasts traveled along the margins. Vesicle number densities are greatest in the highest fountaining episode and therefore scale with intensity of activity. Major element chemical analyses and fasciculate crystal textures indicate that microlite-rich zones within individual clasts are portions of recycled lava lake material that were re-incorporated into newly vesiculating ascending melt.

  1. Structural characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 umu operon

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.M.; Crowne, H.M.; Pidsley, S.C.; Sedgwick, S.G. )

    1990-09-01

    The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes functions required for mutagenesis induced by radiation and a wide variety of chemicals. The closely related organism Salmonella typhimurium is markedly less mutable than E. coli, but a umu homolog has recently been identified and cloned from the LT2 subline. In this study the nucleotide sequence and structure of the S. typhimurium LT2 umu operon have been determined and its gene products have been identified so that the molecular basis of umu activity might be understood more fully. S. typhimurium LT2 umu consists of a smaller 417-base-pair (bp) umuD gene ending 2 bp upstream of a larger 1,266-bp umuC gene. The only apparent structural difference between the two operons is the lack of gene overlap. An SOS box identical to that found in E. coli is present in the promoter region upstream of umuD. The calculated molecular masses of the umuD and umuC gene products were 15.3 and 47.8 kilodaltons, respectively, which agree with figures determined by transpositional disruption and maxicell analysis. The S. typhimurium and E. coli umuD sequences were 68% homologous and encoded products with 71% amino acid identity; the umuC sequences were 71% homologous and encoded products with 83% amino acid identity. Furthermore, the potential UmuD cleavage site and associated catalytic sites could be identified. Thus the very different mutagenic responses of S. typhimurium LT2 and E. coli cannot be accounted for by gross differences in operon structure or gene products. Rather, the ability of the cloned S. typhimurium umuD gene to give stronger complementation of E. coli umuD77 mutants in the absence of a functional umuC gene suggests that Salmonella UmuC protein normally constrains UmuD protein activity.

  2. THE FIRST ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' COLLIMATED OUTFLOW IN A PLANETARY NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, José F.; Miranda, Luis F.; Guerrero, Martín A.; Rizzo, J. Ricardo; García-García, Enrique; Green, James A.; Uscanga, Lucero; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2015-02-01

    ''Water fountains'' (WFs) are evolved objects showing high-velocity, collimated jets traced by water maser emission. Most of them are in the post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) and they may represent one of the first manifestations of collimated mass loss in evolved stars. We present water maser, carbon monoxide, and mid-infrared spectroscopic data (obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, Herschel Space Observatory, and the Very Large Telescope, respectively) toward IRAS 15103–5754, a possible planetary nebula (PN) with WF characteristics. Carbon monoxide observations show that IRAS 15103–5754 is an evolved object, while the mid-IR spectrum displays unambiguous [Ne II] emission, indicating that photoionization has started and thus, its nature as a PN is confirmed. Water maser spectra show several components spreading over a large velocity range (≅ 75 km s{sup –1}) and tracing a collimated jet. This indicates that the object is a WF, the first WF known that has already entered the PN phase. However, the spatial and kinematical distribution of the maser emission in this object are significantly different from those in other WFs. Moreover, the velocity distribution of the maser emission shows a ''Hubble-like'' flow (higher velocities at larger distances from the central star), consistent with a short-lived, explosive mass-loss event. This velocity pattern is not seen in other WFs (which are presumably in earlier evolutionary stages). We therefore suggest that we are witnessing a fundamental change of mass-loss processes in WFs, with water masers being pumped by steady jets in post-AGB stars, but tracing explosive/ballistic events as the object enters the PN phase.

  3. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  4. Eruption dynamics of Hawaiian-style fountains: The case study of episode 1 of the Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stovall, W.K.; Houghton, B.F.; Gonnermann, H.; Fagents, S.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hawaiian eruptions are characterized by fountains of gas and ejecta, sustained for hours to days that reach tens to hundreds of meters in height. Quantitative analysis of the pyroclastic products from the 1959 eruption of K??lauea Iki, K??lauea volcano, Hawai'i, provides insights into the processes occurring during typical Hawaiian fountaining activity. This short-lived but powerful eruption contained 17 fountaining episodes and produced a cone and tephra blanket as well as a lava lake that interacted with the vent and fountain during all but the first episode of the eruption, the focus of this paper. Microtextural analysis of Hawaiian fountaining products from this opening episode is used to infer vesiculation processes within the fountain and shallow conduit. Vesicle number densities for all clasts are high (106-107 cm-3). Post-fragmentation expansion of bubbles within the thermally-insulated fountain overprints the pre-fragmentation bubble populations, leading to a reduction in vesicle number density and increase in mean vesicle size. However, early quenched rims of some clasts, with vesicle number densities approaching 107 cm-3, are probably a valid approximation to magma conditions near fragmentation. The extent of clast evolution from low vesicle-to-melt ratio and corresponding high vesicle number density to higher vesicle-to-melt ratio and lower vesicle-number density corresponds to the length of residence time within the fountain. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Flooding in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins in eastern Colorado, September 9–18, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, Robert A.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2015-11-25

    Flooding in the Fountain Creek Basin was primarily contained to Fountain Creek from southern Colorado Springs to its confluence with the Arkansas River in Pueblo, in lower Monument Creek, and in several mountain tributaries. New record peak streamflows occurred at four mountain tributary streamgages having at least 10 years of record; Bear Creek, Cheyenne Creek, Rock Creek, and Little Fountain Creek. Five streamgages with at least 10 years of record in a 32-mile reach of Fountain Creek extending from Colorado Springs to Piñon had peak streamflows in the top five for the period of record. A peak of 15,300 ft3/s at Fountain Creek near Fountain was the highest streamflow recorded in the Fountain Creek Basin during the September 2013 event and ranks the third highest peak in 46 years. Near the mouth of the basin, a peak of 11,800 ft3/s in Pueblo was only the thirteenth highest annual peak in 74 years. A new Colorado record for daily rainfall of 11.85 inches was recorded at a USGS rain gage in the Little Fountain Creek Basin on September 12, 2013.

  6. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  7. Loading a fountain clock with an enhanced low-velocity intense source of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrev, G.; Gerginov, V.; Weyers, S.

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental work for improved atom loading in the optical molasses of a cesium fountain clock, employing a low-velocity intense source of atoms [Lu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 77, 3331 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3331], which we modify by adding a dark-state pump laser. With this modification the atom source has a mean flux of 4 ×108 atoms/s at a mean atom velocity of 8.6 m/s. Compared to fountain operation using background gas loading, we achieve a significant increase of the loaded and detected atom number by a factor of 40. Operating the fountain clock with a total number of detected atoms Nat=2.9 ×106 in the quantum projection noise-limited regime, a frequency instability σy(1 s ) =2.7 ×10-14 is demonstrated.

  8. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  9. Genetic characterization of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 ara mutations.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Nishitani, J; Wilcox, G

    1984-04-01

    Seventeen independently isolated L-arabinose utilization-deficient mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were characterized. Four complementation groups (araA, araB, araC, and araD) were identified and were equivalent to the same genes in the ara system in Escherichia coli. The order of the four genes was determined to be araD-araA-araB-araC-leu. Two transcription units were found: the araBAD operon was transcribed counterclockwise, and the araC gene was transcribed clockwise.

  10. Variability of Two Young L/T Transition Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, Katelyn; Biller, Beth; Gallimore, Jack; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose for photometric monitoring observations of WISEP J004701.06+680352 (hereinafter W0047) and 2MASSWJ2244316+204343 (hereinafter 2M2244) using Spitzer/IRAC. Both objects are kinematically confirmed L7 members of the 150 Myr old AB Doradus moving group and show remarkable spectral similarity in both the near-IR and optical. The WoW survey found that L/T transition brown dwarfs having detected mid-IR variability are redder than the typical J - K color for their spectral type. A Cycle 11 exploration program (P.I. Metchev) is investigating the geometrical dependence of color and variability by expanding the original WoW sample. If inclination and J - K color are correlated (as predicted by Metchev et al.), then the spectral and photometric diversity seen across the L/T transition could be explained by geometry rather than diversity in atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. This would have wide ranging implications for the way we model cloud dissipation for brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. Our proposed observations will provide an important test of the Metchev et al. prediction complementary to their Cycle 11 program. W0047 and 2M2244 are the same age, and have remarkably similar colors (J - K = 2.55 and 2.46 mags, respectively) and underlying spectra. Thus, if Metchev's prediction about the correlation of inclination and spectral morphology holds true, we would expect that W0047 and 2M2244 should have similar inclinations. However, the measured v sin(i) values for W0047 and 2M2244 are quite different. This difference in v sin(i) could be due to spin-axis inclination (with W0047 having a smaller i) or orbital period (with W0047 having a longer period), both of which we will determine from our proposed observations. This test is a unique opportunity, as there are no other free-floating L/T transition dwarfs known to be both coeval and spectrally similar. Our proposed observations will also extend the spectral type range for young objects surveyed for variability

  11. Fast Screening of Whole Blood Samples and Pharmaceutical Compounds for Enantiorecognition of Free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4.

    PubMed

    Mitrofan, Grigorina; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; van Staden, Jacobus Frederick; Bazylak, Grzegorz; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-12-01

    A fast screening method of whole blood was proposed for enantiorecognition of free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4 . Stochastic microsensors based on four inulins (IN, IQ, TEX, and HD) immobilized on diamond paste (DP) were used for recognition of free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4 . For the enantiorecognition of free L-T4 and D-T4 in whole blood and pharmaceutical samples, the best microsensor was the one based on TEX/DP (wide linear concentration ranges, and low limits of quantification). The best limit of detection for the assay of free L-T3 (400 fmol/L) was recorded using the microsensors based on HD/DP, while for the assay of free L-T4, and D-T4 the best limit of determination (1 pmol/L) was recorded using the TX/DP-based microsensor. For the enantiorecognition of free L-T3 in whole blood and pharmaceutical samples the best microsensor was the one based on HD/DP (the wider linear concentration range, and the lower limit of quantification - of pmol/L magnitude order). For the enantiorecognition of free L-T3 in whole blood and pharmaceutical samples the best microsensor was the one based on HD/DP (the wider linear concentration range, and the lower limit of quantification - of pmol/L magnitude order). Free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4 were recovered with high reliabilities in whole blood samples (recoveries higher than 99.00%, with RSD values lower than 1.00%) and pharmaceutical samples (recoveries higher than 95.00% with RSD values lower than 1.00%).

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Aquareovirus That Infects the Endangered Fountain Darter, Etheostoma fonticola

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Cynthia R.; Lewis, Teresa D.; Brandt, Thomas M.; Sanders, Lakyn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1). PMID:28007856

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Aquareovirus That Infects the Endangered Fountain Darter, Etheostoma fonticola.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Adams, Cynthia R; Lewis, Teresa D; Brandt, Thomas M; Cornman, Robert S; Sanders, Lakyn

    2016-12-22

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1).

  14. Spectroscopic evidence for a lava fountain driven by previously accumulated magmatic gas.

    PubMed

    Allard, Patrick; Burton, Mike; Muré, Filippo

    2005-01-27

    Lava fountains are spectacular continuous gas jets, propelling lava fragments to heights of several hundred metres, which occasionally occur during eruptions of low-viscosity magmas. Whether they are generated by the effervescent disruption of fast-rising bubbly melt or by the separate ascent of a bubble foam layer accumulated at depth still remains a matter of debate. No field measurement has yet allowed firm discrimination between these two models. A key insight into the origin of lava fountains may be gained by measuring the chemical composition of the driving gas phase. This composition should differ markedly depending on whether the magma degassing occurs before or during eruption. Here we report the analysis of magmatic gas during a powerful (250-600 m high) lava fountain, measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on Mount Etna, Sicily. The abundances of volcanic gas species, determined from absorption spectra of lava radiation, reveal a fountain gas having higher CO2/S and S/Cl ratios than other etnean emissions, and which cannot derive from syn-eruptive bulk degassing of Etna basalt. Instead, its composition suggests violent emptying of a gas bubble layer previously accumulated at about 1.5 km depth below the erupting crater.

  15. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    PubMed

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers.

  16. Status and prospect of the Swiss continuous Cs fountain FoCS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallageas, A.; Devenoges, L.; Petersen, M.; Morel, J.; Bernier, L.-G.; Thomann, P.; Südmeyer, T.

    2016-06-01

    The continuous cesium fountain clock FoCS-2 at METAS presents many unique characteristics and challenges in comparison with standard pulsed fountain clocks. For several years FoCS-2 was limited by an unexplained frequency sensitivity on the velocity of the atoms, in the range of 140 • 10-15. Recent experiments allowed us to identify the origin of this problem as undesirable microwave surface currents circulating on the shield of the coaxial cables that feed the microwave cavity. A strong reduction of this effect was obtained by adding microwave absorbing coatings on the coaxial cables and absorbers inside of the vacuum chamber. This breakthrough opens the door to a true metrological validation of the fountain. A series of simulation tools have already been developed and proved their efficiency in the evaluation of some of the uncertainties of the continuous fountain. With these recent improvements, we are confident in the future demonstration of an uncertainty budget at the 10-15 level and below.

  17. 78 FR 39628 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Critical Habitat Map for the Fountain Darter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...; Critical Habitat Map for the Fountain Darter AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are correcting the critical habitat... ensure regulated entities and the general public have an accurate critical habitat map for the...

  18. SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD OF SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARDS. THESE STANDARDS ARE ISSUED IN RECOGNITION OF THE LONG FELT NEED FOR A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF SANITATION INVOLVING INDUSTRIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH OFFICIALS WHOSE OBLIGATION IT IS TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS.…

  19. Operation Facelift: Cover Makeovers Can Be the Fountain of Youth for Many Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh Ann

    2009-01-01

    Aging covers and those that miss their mark and lead to sluggish sales are often targeted for makeovers, many times with good results. Up to 75 percent of Viking's books get redesigned, says Assistant Art Director Jim Hoover, because the publisher sees it as a chance to reintroduce a book to the market. Makeovers are considered the fountain of…

  20. Unexpected hazards from tephra fallouts at Mt Etna: The 23 November 2013 lava fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Hundreds of paroxysmal episodes and a few long-lasting ash-emissions eruptions make Mt. Etna, in Italy, one of the most productive basaltic volcanoes in the world over recent years. This frequent explosive activity certainly gives volcanologists plenty of stimulating scientific material for study. Volcanic hazard from tephra fallout associated with lava fountains is still an issue that has not been fully assessed, albeit having to face this scenario several times in 2013. The 23 November 2013 lava fountain was exceptionally intense despite the short duration of the paroxysmal phase (< 1 h). Abundant decimetric-sized bombs fell within the first 5-6 km from the vent, and a macroscopically thicker and coarser tephra deposit than usual formed between 5 and 25 km; in addition, ash was reported to fall up to distances of 400 km. The analysis of fallout deposit provided a total erupted mass of 1.3 ± 1.1 × 109 kg (for a mass eruption rate of 4.5 ± 3.6 × 105 kg/s), in agreement with the value of 2.4 × 109 kg estimated by modeling. Grain-size distribution of samples shows poor sorting at least up to 25 km from the vent. By comparing dispersal, sedimentological features and physical parameters of the fallout deposit with other lava fountains of Etna, the 23 November 2013 episode may well be one of the largest events of the 21st Century in terms of eruption column height, total erupted mass and mass eruption rate. Furthermore, the impact of tephra on the territory was so high as to make it opportune to introduce a distinction, within the class of lava fountains, between small- and large-scale episodes. This classification can be a starting point for hazard assessment and help prevent the hazards from large-scale lava fountains at Etna in the future.

  1. Sliding-window raptor codes for efficient scalable wireless video broadcasting with unequal loss protection.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Pasquale; Grangetto, Marco; Tillo, Tammam; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2010-06-01

    Digital fountain codes have emerged as a low-complexity alternative to Reed-Solomon codes for erasure correction. The applications of these codes are relevant especially in the field of wireless video, where low encoding and decoding complexity is crucial. In this paper, we introduce a new class of digital fountain codes based on a sliding-window approach applied to Raptor codes. These codes have several properties useful for video applications, and provide better performance than classical digital fountains. Then, we propose an application of sliding-window Raptor codes to wireless video broadcasting using scalable video coding. The rates of the base and enhancement layers, as well as the number of coded packets generated for each layer, are optimized so as to yield the best possible expected quality at the receiver side, and providing unequal loss protection to the different layers according to their importance. The proposed system has been validated in a UMTS broadcast scenario, showing that it improves the end-to-end quality, and is robust towards fluctuations in the packet loss rate.

  2. Doppler radar retrievals from lava fountaining paroxysms generating tephra plumes at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin, Freret-Lorgeril; Franck, Donnadieu; Mauro, Coltelli; Simona, Scollo; Patrick, Fréville; Claude, Hervier; Michele, Prestifilippo

    2016-04-01

    Etna volcano is one of the most active European volcanoes. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a new crater called the New South East Crater (NSEC) was built during 46 eruptive episodes characterized by lava fountaining generating tephra plumes that reached up to 10 km (a.s.l). A 23 cm-wavelength Doppler radar (VOLDORAD 2B), located about 3 km from NSEC at the Montagnola station and integrated into the INGV-OE instrumental network, has been continuously monitoring the explosive activity of Mt. Etna's summit craters since 2009. We have studied these paroxysms by analyzing the radar echoes and Doppler signals coming from adjacent volumes of the fixed beam probing the lava fountains close to the eruptive crater, in combination with thermal and visible imagery. The range gating (150 m-deep probed volumes along-beam) allows us to discriminate the active summit craters and to roughly estimate the lava fountain width. The backscattered power, which is related to the erupted tephra mass load in the beam, and Doppler velocities help to mark the transition from Strombolian activity to lava fountaining, providing onset and end times of the fountain. Both radar parameters directly provide a proxy for the mass eruption rate, which is found to follow the time variations of tephra plume height. Oscillations of the echo power during lava fountaining indicate a pulsatile behavior likely originating in the magmatic conduit or deeper reservoir. Ejection velocities retrieved from positive along-beam velocities measured near the emission source, are found to range from 140 to almost 350 m/s during the climax. Maximum along-beam Doppler velocity components from fallouts allow us to infer maximum particle sizes (pluri-decimetric) in agreement with field observations. The mode of power spectral distribution could further be used to constrain the mean diameter of proximal fallout. A reliable quantification of the source mass loading parameters requires more stringent constraints on the

  3. Euler's friction of fluids theory and the estimation of fountain jet heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2015-09-01

    In 1761, Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) published a treatise with the title "Attempt at a Theory of the Friction of Fluids", in which he assumed that, as is the case for solid friction, fluid friction is proportional to pressure. Several experiments were proposed by Euler to derive a friction factor, which were intended to experimentally confirm his equations. Detailed developments of five different problems of discharge were presented in his treatise, taking into account the loss of head in the conduits. In the Appendix, an example is given of the calculation of the jet heights of a particular fountain, fed with conduits of different cross-sectional areas. Application of the current method for the calculation of head losses in pipes reveals that Euler grossly overestimated the fountain jet heights.

  4. Focusing a fountain of neutral cesium atoms with an electrostatic lens triplet

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, Juris G.; Amini, Jason M.; Gould, Harvey

    2005-10-15

    An electrostatic lens with three focusing elements in an alternating-gradient configuration is used to focus a fountain of cesium atoms in their ground (strong-field-seeking) state. The lens electrodes are shaped to produce only sextupole plus dipole equipotentials which avoids adding the unnecessary nonlinear forces present in cylindrical lenses. Defocusing between lenses is greatly reduced by having all of the main electric fields point in the same direction and be of nearly equal magnitude. The addition of the third lens gave us better control of the focusing strength in the two transverse planes and allowed focusing of the beam to half the image size in both planes. The beam envelope was calculated for lens voltages selected to produced specific focusing properties. The calculations, starting from first principles, were compared with measured beam sizes and found to be in good agreement. Application to fountain experiments, atomic clocks, and focusing polar molecules in strong-field-seeking states is discussed.

  5. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements of the capillary fountain jet produced via ultrasonic atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yohko F.; Douguchi, Junya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Iijima, Takao; Tomida, Yukinobu; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    In situ x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for investigating the liquid structure in the ultrasonic fountain jet to consider the mechanism of the "ultrasonic ethanol separation" reported by Sato et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. For pure liquids (water and ethanol), it was found that the high frequency ultrasound does not affect the liquid structure microscopically. For the 20mol% ethanol-water mixture, the estimated ethanol mole fraction in the ultrasonic fountain jet by using the position of the main maximum in the x-ray diffraction profile coincided with that in the reservoir. This result suggests that the ethanol separation is not caused by any distorted liquid structure under the ultrasound irradiation and occurs when or after the generation of the liquid droplet mist.

  6. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements of the capillary fountain jet produced via ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yohko F; Douguchi, Junya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Iijima, Takao; Tomida, Yukinobu; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Kazuo

    2006-11-07

    In situ x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for investigating the liquid structure in the ultrasonic fountain jet to consider the mechanism of the "ultrasonic ethanol separation" reported by Sato et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. For pure liquids (water and ethanol), it was found that the high frequency ultrasound does not affect the liquid structure microscopically. For the 20 mol % ethanol-water mixture, the estimated ethanol mole fraction in the ultrasonic fountain jet by using the position of the main maximum in the x-ray diffraction profile coincided with that in the reservoir. This result suggests that the ethanol separation is not caused by any distorted liquid structure under the ultrasound irradiation and occurs when or after the generation of the liquid droplet mist.

  7. Light shift measurements in a Cesium Fountain without the use of mechanical shutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.; Enzer, D. G.; Klipstein, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements confirming operation of a cesium fountain frequency standard with light shift below 10^-15 (and with evidence suggesting it is several orders of magnitude below this level) but without the use of mechanical shutters. Suppression of the light shift is realized using a master-slave laser configuration by reducing the overall optical power delivered to the physics package as well as spoiling the injection of the slave, causing it to lase far off resonance (1-2 nm) as proposed by the authors several years ago [l]. In the absence of any mitigation, this (AC Stark) shift, due to near-resonant laser light reaching the atoms during their microwave interrogation period, is the largest shift in such frequency standards (2x10^-11 for Our fountain). Mechanical shutters provided adequate light attenuation but have been prone to failure.

  8. Status of the atomic fountain clock at the National Research Council of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, S.; Alcock, J.; Jian, B.; Gertsvolf, M.; Bernard, J.

    2016-06-01

    Despite the rapid advances in optical frequency standards, caesium fountain clocks retain a critical role as the most accurate primary frequency standards available. At the National Research Council Canada, we are working to develop a second generation caesium fountain clock. Work is currently underway to improve several systems of FCs1, such as the laser system and microwave local oscillator, which will be incorporated into its refurbished version, FCs2. In addition, we have added an optical pumping stage which has increased the detected atom number by over a factor of six. In collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), we are planning on replacing the physics package of FCs1. We will report on several recent improvements to FCs1, along with our progress in the development of FCs2.

  9. Accurate Evaluation of Microwave-Leakage-Induced Frequency Shifts in Fountain Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liu, Nian-Feng; Suo, Rui; Li, Tian-Chun

    2014-10-01

    We report theoretical calculations of the transition probability errors introduced by microwave leakage in Cs fountain clocks, which will shift the clock frequency. The results show that the transition probability errors are affected by the Ramsey pulse amplitude, the relative phase between the Ramsey field and the leakage field, and the asymmetry of the leakage fields for the upward and downward passages. This effect is quite different for the leakage fields presenting below the Ramsey cavity and above the Ramsey cavity. The leakage-field-induced frequency shifts of the NIM5 fountain clock in different cases are measured. The results are consistent with the theoretical calculations, and give an accurate evaluation of the leakage-field-induced frequency shifts, as distinguished from other microwave-power-related effects for the first time.

  10. Fluidal-clast breccia generated by submarine fire fountaining, Trooper Creek Formation, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K.; McPhie, J.

    2001-09-01

    A distinctive monomictic breccia, composed of fluidal and blocky basaltic andesite clasts, occurs in a Cambro-Ordovician submarine volcanic succession in northern Queensland, Australia. Associated with this fluvial-clast buccia facies are coherent facies and coarse and fine breccia facies of the same composition. The fluidal-clast breccia facies is internally massive and >250 m thick, varying only in the ratio of fluidal clasts to blocky clasts. Fluidal clasts range in size from 2 cm to 170 cm, and have moderately to highly vesicular cores and thick (up to 1 cm), non-vesicular, formerly glassy rims. Blocky clasts are highly vesicular to non-vesicular, <2 cm, angular, dominantly equant or splintery in shape and identical in composition to the fluidal clasts. The fluidal clasts strongly resemble subaerial volcanic bombs and are interpreted to be the products of submarine fire fountaining of relatively low-viscosity lava. The blocky clasts were mainly derived from disintegration of the fluidal clasts, by means of quench fragmentation. Coherent basaltic andesite intercalated with the fluidal-clast breccia represents co-genetic lavas, dykes and irregular shallow intrusions. The coarse and fine breccia facies is very thickly bedded, monomictic (basaltic andesite), poorly sorted and clast supported. This facies is interpreted to have been generated by periodic gravitational collapse of unstable accumulations of the fluidal-clast breccia facies. Subaqueous fire-fountain breccias are distinguished from subaerial fire-fountain breccias by thick glassy margins on fluidal clasts, the lack of welding and agglutination, and the distinctive association of highly vesicular, fluidal clasts with non-vesicular, angular, blocky clasts. Recognition of submarine fire-fountain breccias in volcanic successions constrains the eruption style, proximity (tens of metres) to source and environment of deposition.

  11. Non-Linear Dependence of the Height of a Chain Fountain on Drop Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Y.; Kearns, F.; Mustafa, T.; Salih, R.; Ioratim-Uba, A.; Udall, I.; Usama, M.

    2015-01-01

    If the end of a long chain, which is contained in an elevated beaker, is dropped over the edge of the beaker and falls, it is observed that as the speed of the chain increases the chain rises to form a loop well above the top of the beaker. The name "chain fountain" has been applied to this phenomenon. In this study the dependence of the…

  12. WATER MASER SURVEY ON AKARI AND IRAS SOURCES: A SEARCH FOR ''LOW-VELOCITY'' WATER FOUNTAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Henkel, Christian

    2013-05-20

    We present the results of a 22 GHz H{sub 2}O maser survey toward a new sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB star candidates. Most of the objects are selected for the first time based on the AKARI data, which have high flux sensitivity in the mid-infrared ranges. We aim at finding H{sub 2}O maser sources in the transient phase between the AGB and post-AGB stages of evolution, where the envelopes start to develop large deviations from spherical symmetry. The observations were carried out with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope. Among 204 observed objects, 63 detections (36 new) were obtained. We found four objects that may be ''water fountain'' sources (IRAS 15193+3132, IRAS 18056-1514, OH 16.3-3.0, and IRAS 18455+0448). They possess an H{sub 2}O maser velocity coverage much smaller than those in other known water fountains. However, the coverage is still larger than that of the 1612 MHz OH maser. It implies that there is an outflow with a higher velocity than the envelope expansion velocity (typically {<=}25 km s{sup -1}), meeting the criterion of the water fountain class. We suggest that these candidates are possibly oxygen-rich late AGB or early post-AGB stars in a stage of evolution immediately after the spherically symmetric AGB mass loss has ceased.

  13. NPL Cs fountain frequency standards and the quest for the ultimate accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymaniec, K.; Lea, S. N.; Gibble, K.; Park, S. E.; Liu, K.; Głowacki, P.

    2016-06-01

    NPL operates a system of two primary caesium fountain clocks consisting of a fully characterised standard NPL-CsF2 together with a new standard NPL-CsF3, which has recently become operational. Both fountains feature a single-stage vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap as the source of cold atoms and an approximate cancellation of the potentially large cold collision frequency shift. As a result, the collision-shift type-B uncertainty is less than 10-16. Subsequently, more subtle systematic effects, including the frequency shifts from distributed cavity phase, microwave lensing and collisions with background gas have also been evaluated at the level of 10-16 or below. Now, as several systematic effects contribute to the fountains’ uncertainty budgets similarly, further significant improvement of their accuracies is expected to be even more difficult. The short-term stability of these standards is also a significant factor limiting the overall precision as many days or even weeks of averaging is required for the type-A statistical uncertainty to approach the declared type-B systematic uncertainty. Going forward, further improvements in the reliability and robustness of operation of fountain standards is one of our priorities.

  14. Characterization of type 1 pili of Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, T K; Lounatmaa, K; Ranta, H; Kuusi, N

    1980-01-01

    Type 1 pili from Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were purified and characterized. The pilus filaments were 6 nm in diameter and over 1 microns long. Estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the pilin was 21,000. The isoelectric point of the filament was 4.1. Hydrophobic amino acids comprised 40.3% of the total amino acids of the pilin, which contained more proline, serine, and lysine than reported for the type 1 pilin of Escherichia coli. Purified pili agglutinated both horse and chicken erythrocytes and yeast cells but not bovine, sheep, or human erythrocytes. Horse erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited at lower concentrations by alpha-methyl-D-mannoside than by yeast mannane and D-fructose. Agglutination was not affected by D-galactose or sucrose. Results of the present study confirm the role of type 1 pili as Salmonella hemagglutinins and show chemical differences between the type 1 pili of S. typhimurium and E. coli. Images PMID:6107289

  15. Loss Reduction on Adoption of High Voltage LT Less Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Deepika; Adhikari, Nikhileshwar Prasad; Gupta, Amit; Bajpai, Santosh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In India there is a need to improve the quality of the electricity distribution process which has increased varying from year to year. In distribution networks, the limiting factor to load carrying capacity is generally the voltage reduction. High voltage distribution system (HVDS) is one of the steps to reduce line losses in electrical distribution network. It helps to reduce the length of low tension (LT) lines and makes the power available close to the users. The high voltage power distribution system reduces the probability of power theft by hooking HVDS suggests an increase in installation of small capacity single-phase transformers in the network which again save considerable energy. This paper is compared to existing conventional low tension distribution network with HVDS. The paper gives a clear picture of reduction in distribution losses with adoption of HVDS system. Losses Reduction of 11 kV Feeder in Nuniya (India) with adoption of HVDS have been worked out/ quantified and benefits thereby in generating capacity have discussed.

  16. SuperLab LT: Evaluation and Uses in Teaching Experimental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzine, Frank

    2002-01-01

    I describe and evaluate SuperLab LT (Chase & Abboud, 1990), a software package that enables students to replicate classic experiments in cognitive psychology. I also discuss the package with respect to its uses in teaching an undergraduate course in Experimental Psychology. Although the package has minor flaws, SuperLab LT provides numerous…

  17. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek valley, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radell, Mary Jo; Lewis, Michael E.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    1994-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer in Fountain Creek Valley between Colorado Springs and Widefield is the source for several public-supply systems. Because of the importance of this aquifer, defining aquifer boundaries, areas where underflow occurs, and where Fountain Creek is hydraulically connected to the aquifer will greatly add to the understanding of the alluvial aquifer and management of the public- supply systems. Bedrock altitude, water-table altitude for October 1991, saturated thickness for October 1991, selected hydrogeologic sections in the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek Valley, and estimated underflow rates are mapped or tabulated for the area between Colorado Springs and Widefield, Colorado. Results from test drilling indicate that the bedrock surface is highly irregular and that several ridges and buried channels exist in the study area. These features affect the direction of ground-water flow on a local scale. In places, a shale ridge prevents exchange of water between Fountain Creek and the aquifer. Generally, ground water flowed toward Fountain Creek during the study (June 1991 to September 1992) in response to relatively high hydraulic heads in the aquifer and the steep gradients on the boundaries of the study area. Water levels, which were measured monthly, varied little during the study, except in areas near pumping wells or adjacent to Fountain Creek. Hydraulic-conductivity values, estimated from 30 bail tests in wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, were used to determine underflow across the saturated boundaries of the alluvial aquifer. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity values range from 1 to about 1,300 feet per day; the larger values occur in the buried channel of the alluvial aquifer and the smaller values occur near the boundaries of the saturated alluvium. Estimated underflow into the study area exceeded underflow out of the study area by about 10 times. Gain-loss investigations along Fountain Creek indicated that the

  18. A feasible method for indirect quantification of L-T4 in drugs by iodine determination.

    PubMed

    Mesko, Marcia Foster; Teotonio, Alessandra Cortes; Teixeira Oliveira, Dirce Taina; Rosa Novo, Diogo La; Costa, Vanize Caldeira

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a method combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) for sample preparation of commercial levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) drugs (L-T4: 25-200µg/tablet), and potentiometry with ion selective electrode (ISE) for iodine determination and subsequent indirect quantification of L-T4 was proposed. The type and concentration of the absorbing solution were evaluated to select the most suitable conditions for this study. Using the MIC method, it was possible to use solutions as diluted as 150mmolL(-1) (NH4)2CO3 (for samples containing 25-200µg of L-T4/tablet) for I absorption. In these conditions, recoveries for L-T4 were between 99% and 101%, and relative standard deviations were lower than 10%. The limit of detection for L-T4 was 11.2µg/tablet, which is almost two times lower than the minimum concentration of L-T4 in commercially available drugs. Thus, the MIC was suitable for the digestion of several L-T4 drugs for subsequent I determination by ISE and indirect quantification of L-T4. Furthermore, the proposed method presents high throughput with low reagent consumption and consequently lower waste generation, making it suitable for routine determination of L-T4 in drugs. From the obtained results, it was possible to observe that one of the analyzed samples is not in agreement with the limits established by the United States Pharmacopeia, indicating the importance of the drug quality control. The United States Pharmacopeia establishes that each tablet must contain between 90% and 110% of the amount of active substance declared by the manufacturer.

  19. On the estimation of jet-induced fountain lift and additional suckdown in hover for two-jet configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Bellavia, David C.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Currently available methods for estimating the net suckdown induced on jet V/STOL aircraft hovering in ground effect are based on a correlation of available force data and are, therefore, limited to configurations similar to those in the data base. Experience with some of these configurations has shown that both the fountain lift and additional suckdown are overestimated but these effects cancel each other for configurations within the data base. For other configurations, these effects may not cancel and the net suckdown could be grossly overestimated or underestimated. Also, present methods do not include the prediction of the pitching moments associated with the suckdown induced in ground effect. An attempt to develop a more logically based method for estimating the fountain lift and suckdown based on the jet-induced pressures is initiated. The analysis is based primarily on the data from a related family of three two-jet configurations (all using the same jet spacing) and limited data from two other two-jet configurations. The current status of the method, which includes expressions for estimating the maximum pressure induced in the fountain regions, and the sizes of the fountain and suckdown regions is presented. Correlating factors are developed to be used with these areas and pressures to estimate the fountain lift, the suckdown, and the related pitching moment increments.

  20. Comparability among four invertebrate sampling methods, Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Robert W.; Brown, Krystal D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering and Colorado Springs Utilities, designed a study to determine if sampling method and sample timing resulted in comparable samples and assessments of biological condition. To accomplish this task, annual invertebrate samples were collected concurrently using four sampling methods at 15 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages in the Fountain Creek basin from 2010 to 2012. Collectively, the four methods are used by local (U.S. Geological Survey cooperative monitoring program) and State monitoring programs (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment) in the Fountain Creek basin to produce two distinct sample types for each program that target single-and multiple-habitats. This study found distinguishable differences between single-and multi-habitat sample types using both community similarities and multi-metric index values, while methods from each program within sample type were comparable. This indicates that the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment methods were compatible with the cooperative monitoring program methods within multi-and single-habitat sample types. Comparisons between September and October samples found distinguishable differences based on community similarities for both sample types, whereas only differences were found for single-habitat samples when multi-metric index values were considered. At one site, differences between September and October index values from single-habitat samples resulted in opposing assessments of biological condition. Direct application of the results to inform the revision of the existing Fountain Creek basin U.S. Geological Survey cooperative monitoring program are discussed.

  1. Eruption dynamics of Hawaiian-style fountains: the case study of episode 1 of the Kīlauea Iki 1959 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, Wendy K.; Houghton, B. F.; Gonnermann, H.; Fagents, S. A.; Swanson, D. A.

    2011-07-01

    Hawaiian eruptions are characterized by fountains of gas and ejecta, sustained for hours to days that reach tens to hundreds of meters in height. Quantitative analysis of the pyroclastic products from the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Iki, Kīlauea volcano, Hawai`i, provides insights into the processes occurring during typical Hawaiian fountaining activity. This short-lived but powerful eruption contained 17 fountaining episodes and produced a cone and tephra blanket as well as a lava lake that interacted with the vent and fountain during all but the first episode of the eruption, the focus of this paper. Microtextural analysis of Hawaiian fountaining products from this opening episode is used to infer vesiculation processes within the fountain and shallow conduit. Vesicle number densities for all clasts are high (106-107 cm-3). Post-fragmentation expansion of bubbles within the thermally-insulated fountain overprints the pre-fragmentation bubble populations, leading to a reduction in vesicle number density and increase in mean vesicle size. However, early quenched rims of some clasts, with vesicle number densities approaching 107 cm-3, are probably a valid approximation to magma conditions near fragmentation. The extent of clast evolution from low vesicle-to-melt ratio and corresponding high vesicle number density to higher vesicle-to-melt ratio and lower vesicle-number density corresponds to the length of residence time within the fountain.

  2. The Application of LT-Table in TRIZ Contradiction Resolving Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zihui; Li, Qinghai; Wang, Donglin; Tian, Yumei

    TRIZ is used to resolve invention problems. ARIZ is the most powerful systematic method which integrates all of TRIZ heuristics. Definition of ideal final result (IFR), identification of contradictions and resource utilization are main lines of ARIZ. But resource searching of ARIZ has fault of blindness. Alexandr sets up mathematical model of transformation of the hereditary information in an invention problem using the theory of catastrophes, and provides method of resource searching using LT-table. The application of LT-table on contradiction resolving is introduced. Resource utilization using LT-table is joined into ARIZ step as an addition of TRIZ, apply this method in separator paper punching machine design.

  3. The Effects of Crossflow on the Pressures and Lift Induced by the Fountain Generated Between Two Impinging Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    When a jet STOVL aircraft is hovering, or in a crossflow, while close to the ground wall jets flowing radially outward from the impingement points of the jets are generated. An upflow, or fountain, is generated where the wall jets from adjacent jets meet on the ground surface. The induced lift and suckdown generated by the impingement of the fountain on the lower surface of the configuration has been the subject of previous studies. This study analyzes the limited available pressure and force data on the effect of crossflow on the fountain induced lift and suckdown. The analysis includes the effects of jet spacing, height and operating conditions. However, it is limited to twin jet configurations of circular, vertical jets operating at subcritical nozzle pressure ratios over a fixed ground surface.

  4. Evaluation of Doppler shifts to improve the accuracy of primary atomic fountain clocks.

    PubMed

    Guéna, Jocelyne; Li, Ruoxin; Gibble, Kurt; Bize, Sébastien; Clairon, André

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate agreement between measurements and ab initio calculations of the frequency shifts caused by distributed cavity phase variations in the microwave cavity of a primary atomic fountain clock. Experimental verification of the finite element models of the cavities gives the first quantitative evaluation of this leading uncertainty and allows it to be reduced to δν/ν=±8.4×10(-17). Applying these experimental techniques to clocks with improved microwave cavities will yield negligible distributed cavity phase uncertainties, less than ±1×10(-17).

  5. Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    1989-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

  6. The Fountain Hills Meteorite: A New CB(a) Chondrite from Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Killgore, M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Franchi, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    The CR clan of meteorites has been established and a detailed review of these meteorites is presented. There are several kinds of carbonaceous chondrites included in this clan: Carbonaceous Renazzo-like (CR), Carbonaceous with High metal (CH), Carbonaceous Bencubbin-like (CB), and LEW 85332, a unique-metal rich meteorite. The CB chondrites are further divided into two subgroups: CB(sub a) and CB(sub b). Here we describe a new member of the CR chondrite clan, Fountain Hills, a recent find with a total mass of approximately 60 g.

  7. Equatorial plasma fountain and its effects over three locations: Evidence for an additional layer, the F3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Bailey, G. J.; Abdu, M. A.; Oyama, K. I.; Richards, P. G.; MacDougall, J.; Batista, I. S.

    1997-02-01

    The equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly in the ionospheres over Jicamarca (77°W), Trivandrum (77°E), and Fortaleza (38°W) are presented using the Sheffield University plasmasphere-ionosphere model under magnetically quiet equinoctial conditions at high solar activity. The daytime plasma fountain and its effects in the regions outside the fountain lead to the formation of an additional layer, the F3 layer, at latitudes within about plus or minus 10° of the magnetic equator in each ionosphere. The maximum plasma concentration of the F3 layer, which occurs at about 550 km altitude, becomes greater than that of the F2 layer for a short period of time before noon when the vertical E×B drift is large. Within the F3 layer the plasma temperature decreases by as much as 100 K. The ionograms recorded at Fortaleza on January 15, 1995, provide observational evidence for the development and decay of an F3 layer before noon. The neutral wind, which causes large north-south asymmetries in the plasma fountain in each ionosphere during both daytime and nighttime, becomes least effective during the prereversal strengthening of the upward drift. During this time the plasma fountain is symmetrical with respect to the magnetic equator and rises to over 1200 km altitude at the equator, with accompanying plasma density depletions in the bottomside of the underlying F region. The north-south asymmetries of the equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly are more strongly dependent upon the displacement of the geomagnetic and geographic equators (Jicamarca and Trivandrum) than on the magnetic declination angle (Fortaleza).

  8. Measurement of the magnetic field profile in the atomic fountain clock FoCS-2 using Zeeman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devenoges, Laurent; Di Domenico, Gianni; Stefanov, André; Jallageas, Antoine; Morel, Jacques; Südmeyer, Thomas; Thomann, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    We report the evaluation of the second-order Zeeman shift in the continuous atomic fountain clock FoCS-2. Because of its continuous operation and geometrical constraints, the methods used in pulsed fountains are not applicable. We use here time-resolved Zeeman spectroscopy to probe the magnetic field profile in the clock. Pulses of ac magnetic excitation allow us to spatially resolve the Zeeman frequency and to evaluate the Zeeman shift with a relative uncertainty smaller than 5× {{10}-16} .

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  10. LT1SWTR Form for Conventional or Direct Filtration 10K

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The LT1SWTR monthly report for turbidity and disinfection data contains the Daily Data Sheet for Combined Filter Effluent (CFE) Turbidity, Disinfectant Residual Data, and Individual Filter (IF) Turbidity Monitoring data.

  11. ALMA Reveals a Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A new ALMA observation of the cool core brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597 reveals that a supermassive black hole can act much like a mechanical pump in a water fountain, driving a convective flow of molecular gas that drains into the black hole accretion reservoir, only to be pushed outward again in a jet-driven outflow that then rains back toward the galaxy center from which it came. The ALMA data reveal "shadows" cast by giant molecular clouds falling on ballistic trajectories towards the black hole in the innermost 500 parsecs of the galaxy, manifesting as deep redshifted continuum absorption features. The black hole accretion reservoir, fueled by these infalling cold clouds, powers an AGN that drives a jet-driven molecular outflow in the form of a 10 kpc-scale, billion solar mass expanding molecular bubble or plume. The molecular shell is permeated with young stars, perhaps triggered in situ by the jet. Buoyant X-ray cavities excavated by the propagating radio source may further uplift the molecular filaments, which are observed to fall inward toward the center of the galaxy from which they came, presumably keeping the fountain long-lived. The results show that cold molecular gas can couple to black hole growth via both feedback and feeding, in alignment with "cold chaotic accretion" models for the regulation of star formation in galaxies.

  12. Shrinking galaxy disks with fountain-driven accretion from the halo

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Struck, Curtis; Hunter, Deidre A. E-mail: curt@iastate.edu

    2014-12-01

    Star formation in most galaxies requires cosmic gas accretion because the gas consumption time is short compared to the Hubble time. This accretion presumably comes from a combination of infalling satellite debris, cold flows, and condensation of hot halo gas at the cool disk interface, perhaps aided by a galactic fountain. In general, the accretion will have a different specific angular momentum than the part of the disk that receives it, even if the gas comes from the nearby halo. The gas disk then expands or shrinks over time. Here we show that condensation of halo gas at a rate proportional to the star formation rate in the fountain model will preserve an initial shape, such as an exponential, with a shrinking scale length, leaving behind a stellar disk with a slightly steeper profile of younger stars near the center. This process is slow for most galaxies, producing imperceptible radial speeds, and it may be dominated by other torques, but it could be important for blue compact dwarfs, which tend to have large, irregular gas reservoirs and steep blue profiles in their inner stellar disks.

  13. The First Water Fountain in a Planetary Nebula with Synchrotron Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, O.; Gómez, J. F.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Miranda, L. F.; Guerrero, M. A.; Uscanga, L.; Green, J. A.; Rizzo, J. R.; Ramos-Larios, G.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) show a great variety of morphologies at optical wavelengths that might be due to the effects of jets (Sahai & Trauger [8]) and where magnetic fields might also play an important role. The special class of "water fountain" stars, showing high-velocity, collimated jets traced by water maser emission are key objects to understand the transition to the PN phase and the effect of the jets. IRAS 15103-5754 has been revealed as the youngest PN known, caught just at its birth. It is the first PN that shows water fountain characteristics (Gómez et al. [5]), and it shows, for the first time, direct evidence of the presence of synchrotron emission in a PN, tracing energetic, magnetized shocks (Suárez et al. [9]). Moreover, we observed a sudden change in the spectral distribution of its radio continuum emission, which marks the fast, recent passage of the ionization front over the radio-emitting region (Suárez et al. [9]).

  14. A User's Manual for ROTTILT Solver: Tiltrotor Fountain Flow Field Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadghighi, Hormoz; Rajagopalan, R. Ganesh

    1999-01-01

    A CFD solver has been developed to provide the time averaged details of the fountain flow typical for tiltrotor aircraft in hover. This Navier-Stokes solver, designated as ROTTILT, assumes the 3-D fountain flowfield to be steady and incompressible. The theoretical background is described in this manual. In order to enable the rotor trim solution in the presence of tiltrotor aircraft components such as wing, nacelle, and fuselage, the solver is coupled with a set of trim routines which are highly efficient in CPU and suitable for CFD analysis. The Cartesian grid technique utilized provides the user with a unique capability for insertion or elimination of any components of the bodies considered for a given tiltrotor aircraft configuration. The flowfield associated with either a semi or full-span configuration can be computed through user options in the ROTTILT input file. Full details associated with the numerical solution implemented in ROTTILT and assumptions are presented. A description of input surface mesh topology is provided in the appendices along with a listing of all preprocessor programs. Input variable definitions and default values are provided for the V22 aircraft. Limited predicted results using the coupled ROTTILT/WOPWOP program for the V22 in hover are made and compared with measurement. To visualize the V22 aircraft and predictions, a preprocessor graphics program GNU-PLOT3D was used. This program is described and example graphic results presented.

  15. A novel formulation of L-thyroxine (L-T4) reduces the problem of L-T4 malabsorption by coffee observed with traditional tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Vita, Roberto; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate if the coffee-associated malabsorption of tablet levothyroxine (L-T4) is reduced by soft gel capsule. We recruited 8 patients with coffee-associated L-T4 malabsorption including one hypothyroid patient. For 6 months, the patients were switched to the capsule maintaining the L-T4 daily dose. Patients took the capsule with water, having coffee 1 h later (proper habit, PH) on days 1-90, or with coffee ≤ 5 min later (improper habit, IH) on days 91-180. After 6 months, 2 patients volunteered for an acute loading test of 600 μg L-T4 (capsule) ingested with water (PH) or with coffee (IH). In the single hypothyroid patient, the post-switch TSH ranged 0.06-0.16 mU/L (PH) versus 5.8-22.4 mU/L pre-switch (PH) and 0.025-0.29 mU/L (IH) versus 26-34 mU/L pre-switch (IH). In the other 7 patients, post-switch TSH was 0.41 ± 0.46 (PH) versus 0.28 ± 0.20 pre-switch (PH) (P = 0.61) and 0.34 ± 0.30 (IH) versus 1.23 ± 1.47 pre-switch (IH) (P < 0.001). Importantly, TSH levels in PH versus IH habit did not differ post-switch (P = 0.90), but they did pre-switch (P < 0.0001). The proportions of post-switch TSH levels <0.10 mU/L with PH (33.3 %) or with IH (33.3 %) were borderline significantly greater than the corresponding pre-switch levels with PH (10.3 %) (P = 0.088) or with IH (0 %) (P = 0.0096). In the two volunteers, the L-T4 loading test showed that coffee influenced L-T4 pharmacokinetics minimally. Soft gel capsules can be used in patients who are unable/unwilling to change their IH of taking L-T4.

  16. Remediation scenarios for attenuating peak flows and reducing sediment transport in Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohn, Michael S.; Fulton, John W.; Williams, Cory A.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Fountain Creek Watershed, Flood Control and Greenway District assessed remediation scenarios to attenuate peak flows and reduce sediment loads in the Fountain Creek watershed. To evaluate these strategies, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) hydrologic and hydraulic models were employed. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Modeling System) version 3.5 was used to simulate runoff in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, associated with storms of varying magnitude and duration. Rain-gage precipitation data and radar-based precipitation data from the April 28–30, 1999, and September 14–15, 2011, storm events were used in the calibration process for the HEC-HMS model. The curve number and lag time for each subwatershed and Manning's roughness coefficients for each channel reach were adjusted within an acceptable range so that the simulated and measured streamflow hydrographs for each of the 12 USGS streamgages approximated each other. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC-RAS (River Analysis System) versions 4.1 and 4.2 were used to simulate streamflow and sediment transport, respectively, for the Fountain Creek watershed generated by a particular storm event. Data from 15 USGS streamgages were used for model calibration and 7 of those USGS streamgages were used for model validation. The calibration process consisted of comparing the simulated water-surface elevations and the cross-section-averaged velocities from the model with those surveyed in the field at the cross section at the corresponding 15 and 7 streamgages, respectively. The final Manning’s roughness coefficients were adjusted between –30 and 30 percent at the 15 calibration streamgages from the original left, right, and channel-averaged Manning's roughness coefficients upon completion of calibration. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC

  17. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Grasielli; Simão, Daniel H; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Souza, Richard D; Jamhour, Edgard; Penna, Manoel C; Brante, Glauber; Chang, Bruno S

    2017-03-31

    Underwater acoustic networks (UAN) allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC) codes and fountain codes (FC) for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  19. [UV-inducibility of the LT-toxin operon].

    PubMed

    Tiganova, I G; Rusina, O Iu; Andreeva, I V; Demkin, V V; Brukhanskiĭ, G V; Aleshkin, G I; Skavronskaia, A G

    1989-07-01

    The plasmid elt-operon pVZ14 was constructed by fusing of the eltoperon of the plasmid pVZ357 with the lac-gene of the bacteriophage Mud1 (Amp, Lac). lacZ gene has been proven to be fused with an elt-promoter by the loss of toxin production coded by pVZ357 and acquiring of Lac+ phenotype by pVZ14 containing cells, as well as by HindIII fragments hybridization of pVZ357 and pVZ14 with the labelled elt-probe. The kinetics of beta-galactosidase synthesis in E. coli cells harboring pVZ14 shows an elt-operon promoter to have expressed constitutive activity and to be activated by a SOS-inducing agent, UV-light.

  20. Merit Pay in Arkansas: An Evaluation of the Cobra Pride Incentive Program in the Fountain Lake School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Nathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Starting in the 2010-11, administrators at the Fountain Lake School District implemented the Cobra Pride Incentive Program (CPIP), a merit pay program designed to financially reward all school employees with year-end bonuses primarily for significant improvements in student achievement. At the conclusion of the 2010-11 school year, over $800,000…

  1. Modeling ash dispersal of the 23 February 2013 Etna lava fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poret, Matthieu; Costa, Antonio; Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Gouhier, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    Most plumes generated by explosive eruptions from Mt. Etna, Italy, are affected by winds towards East driving volcanic ash over the sea. It implies that erupted tephra can be collected only at proximal area around the volcano, i.e. within 20-25 km. It follows that the quantification of fine ash component and the Total Grain Size Distribution (TGSD) are very difficult and highly uncertain. Among the five lava fountain episodes occurred on the New South-East Crater of Mt. Etna, from the 17 to 23 February 2013, the 23 February paroxysmal phase lasted 1 hour and produced magma jets higher than 500 m and an eruptive plume that reached ~9 km above sea level. Winds oriented toward North-East advected the plume and produced an extended tephra fallout deposit from the slope of Etna up to Puglia region (~ 400 km from the volcano), allowing lapilli and ash to be sampled at different locations. Here, we first estimate the TGSD and the fine ash content associated to 12 samples collected after the paroxysmal episode over the entire tephra blanket. The TGSD is compared with the one related to the 12-13 January 2011 lava fountain showing a similar distribution with a mode around phi = -3. Satellite data describing the evolution of PM10 from the vent up to Calabria region were used to quantify the tail of the distribution and the fraction of the very fine ash. In order to reproduce both the field and spaceborne (MSG-SEVIRI) observations we simulated the tephra dispersal using the computational model Fall3D after modifying the TGSD by adding the fine ash component empirically. A set of simulations allowed us to assess key volcanological parameters such as the column height, the mass distribution within the plume and the effective TGSD. Best fit results indicate a Mass Eruption Rate around 1.0d+6 kg/s, a Total Erupted Mass of about 3.8d+9 kg and a PM10 fraction of ~0.73% respect to the total mass. Results lead the 23 February 2013 lava fountain episode as one of the most intense in

  2. Temporal change in biological community structure in the Fountain Creek basin, Colorado, 2001-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to better understand the relations between environmental characteristics and biological communities in the Fountain Creek basin in order to aide water-resource management and guide future monitoring activities. To accomplish this task, environmental (streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) and biological (fish and macroinvertebrate) data were collected annually at 24 sites over a 6- or 8-year period (fish, 2003 to 2008; macroinvertebrates, 2001 to 2008). For this report, these data were first analyzed to determine the presence of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure among years using nonparametric multivariate statistics. Where temporal change in the biological communities was found, these data were further analyzed using additional nonparametric multivariate techniques to determine which subset of selected streamflow, habitat, or water-chemistry variables best described site-specific changes in community structure relative to a gradient of urbanization. This study identified significant directional patterns of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure at 15 of 24 sites in the Fountain Creek basin. At four of these sites, changes in environmental variables were significantly correlated with the concurrent temporal change identified in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure (Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Monument Creek at Bijou Street at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Bear Creek near Colorado Springs, Colo.; Fountain Creek at Security, Colo.). Combinations of environmental variables describing directional temporal change in the biota appeared to be site specific as no single variable dominated the results; however, substrate composition variables (percent substrate composition composed of sand, gravel, or cobble) collectively were present in 80 percent of the environmental

  3. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  4. CysLT(1)R antagonists inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21(WAF/Cip1) (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells.

  5. CysLT1R Antagonists Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Xenograft Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21WAF/Cip1 (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells. PMID:24039952

  6. Suckdown, fountain lift, and pressures induced on several tandem jet V/STOL configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellavia, David C.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a program to improve the methods for predicting the suckdown and hot gas ingestion for jet V/STOL aircraft in ground effect, a data base is being created that provides a systematic variation of parameters so that a new empirical prediction procedure can be developed. The first series of tests in this program was completed. Suckdown, fountain lift, and pressures induced on several two-jet V/STOL configurations are described. It is one of three reports that present the data obtained from tests conducted at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems-Rye Canyon Facility and in the High Bay area of the 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel complex at NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. SEM observation of p-n junction in semiconductors using fountain secondary electron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Takashi; Kimura, Takashi; Iwai, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    When we observe a p-n junction in a certain semiconductors using scanning electron microscope, it is known that the p-type region is brighter than n-type region in secondary electron (SE) image. To clarify this origin, the p-n junctions in 4H-SiC was observed using fountain secondary electron detector (FSED). The original FSED image shows brighter p-region than n-region, which is similar to the SE image taken by Everhart-Thonley detector, mainly due to the background component of SE signal. By subtracting the background, the line profiles of FSED signal across p-n junction have been recorded according to the SE energies. These profiles may include the detailed information of p-n junction.

  8. Darcy's Public Fountains of the City of Dijon, Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobeck, P.; Ritzi, R. W.; Bair, E. S.

    2006-12-01

    Les Fountaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon (Darcy, 1856) is well known for introducing the equation of ground-water motion. The monograph is a summary of Darcy's career-long study of hydraulics including water flow in canals, aqueducts, pipes, sand filters, and ground-water wells. He presented his knowledge in these areas in reviewing his construction of the public water supply system for Dijon, a system completed in 1840. The authors have recently traveled the length of Darcy's aqueduct system from its source at Rosoir spring, to the Porte Guillaume reservoir (at Jardin Darcy as it enters Dijon), through the city, to the terminal reservoir. We present the state of Darcy's original aqueduct (no longer in use) and public water supply system, and compare his design to the modern public water supply system serving Dijon.

  9. Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, M.; Dutta, I.; Geiger, R.; Guerlin, C.; Garrido Alzar, C. L.; Landragin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows one to achieve the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a microwave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

  10. Bioaccumulation of selenium by the Bryophyte Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the Fountain Creek Watershed, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S J; Turner, J A; Carsella, J S; Lehmpuhl, D W; Nimmo, D R

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic bryophytes, Hygrohypnum ochraceum, were deployed "in situ" at 14 sites in the Fountain Creek Watershed, spring and fall, 2007 to study selenium (Se) accumulation. Dissolved, total, and pore (sediment derived) water samples were collected and water quality parameters determined while plants were exposed to the water for 10 days. There was a trend showing plant tissue-Se uptake with distance downstream and we found a strong correlation between Se in the water with total hardness in both seasons. There was a modest association between Se-uptake in plants with hardness in the spring of 2007 but not the fall. Plants bioconcentrated Se from the water by a factor of 5.8 × 10(3) at Green Mountain Falls and 1.5 × 10(4) at Manitou Springs in the fall of 2007. Both are examples of the bioconcentration abilities of the plants, primarily in the upper reaches of the watershed where bioconcentration factors were highest. However, the mean minima and maxima of Se in the plants in each of the three watershed segments appeared similar during both seasons. We found direct relationships between the pore and dissolved Se in water in the spring (R (2) = 0.84) and fall (R (2) = 0.95) and dissolved Se and total hardness in the spring and fall (R (2) = 0.92). The data indicate that H. ochraceum was a suitable indicator of Se bioavailability and Se uptake in other trophic levels in the Fountain Creek Watershed based on a subsequent study of Se accumulation in fish tissues at all 14 sites.

  11. Mercury and selenium in fish of Fountain Creek, Colorado (USA): possible sources and implications.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, D R; Herrmann, S J; Carsella, J S; McGarvy, C M; Foutz, H P; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Gregorich, J M; Turner, J A; Vanden Heuvel, B D

    2016-01-01

    Fountain Creek in Colorado USA is a major tributary that confluences with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado, the result being the tributary's influence on Arkansas River water quality affecting down-stream users. In a previous study, we found that bryophytes (aquatic plants) accumulated selenium in Fountain Creek watershed and this finding prompted us to investigate the extent of the metalloid in the whole-body tissues of fish. One hundred 11 fish (six species) were collected and analyzed for Se by inductively-coupled plasma emission mass spectrometry. Analysis of all analytical data also showed mercury in all of the fish whole bodies and selected tissues. There was a general increase in selenium but a decrease in mercury in fish with downstream travel-distance. The highest whole-body selenium was in Pueblo, Colorado (3393 µg/kg, dry weight; 906 µg/kg, wet weight); the highest mercury in fish was in the Monument Creek tributary north of Colorado Springs, Colorado (71 µg/kg, dry weight; 19 µg/kg, wet weight). In four tissues of 11 female fish captured, selenium was highest in the livers at eight sites but highest in the ovaries at three sites. Mercury was highest in the epaxial muscle at all sites. Selenium availability could be due to the watershed lithology and land uses; however, mercury could be carried by atmospheric deposition from coal-fired power plants and historic mining activities. Selenium in fish tissues and water samples were compared to U.S. national water quality criteria.

  12. Magma mixing and high fountaining during the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sides, I.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, Don; Steele-MacInnis, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption provides a unique opportunity to investigate the process of shallow magma mixing, its impact on the magmatic volatile budget and its role in triggering and driving episodes of Hawaiian fountaining. Melt inclusions hosted by olivine record a continuous decrease in H2O concentration through the 17 episodes of the eruption, while CO2 concentrations correlate with the degree of post-entrapment crystallization of olivine on the inclusion walls. Geochemical data, when combined with the magma budget and with contemporaneous eruption observations, show complex mixing between episodes involving hot, geochemically heterogeneous melts from depth, likely carrying exsolved vapor, and melts which had erupted at the surface, degassed and drained-back into the vent. The drained-back melts acted as a coolant, inducing rapid cooling of the more primitive melts and their olivines at shallow depths and inducing crystallization and vesiculation and triggering renewed fountaining. A consequence of the mixing is that the melts became vapor-undersaturated, so equilibration pressures cannot be inferred from them using saturation models. After the melt inclusions were trapped, continued growth of vapor bubbles, caused by enhanced post-entrapment crystallization, sequestered a large fraction of CO2 from the melt within the inclusions. This study, while cautioning against accepting melt inclusion CO2 concentrations “as measured” in mixed magmas, also illustrates that careful analysis and interpretation of post-entrapment modifications can turn this apparent challenge into a way to yield novel useful insights into the geochemical controls on eruption intensity.

  13. Bioaccumulation of Selenium by the Bryophyte Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the Fountain Creek Watershed, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, S. J.; Turner, J. A.; Carsella, J. S.; Lehmpuhl, D. W.; Nimmo, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic bryophytes, Hygrohypnum ochraceum, were deployed "in situ" at 14 sites in the Fountain Creek Watershed, spring and fall, 2007 to study selenium (Se) accumulation. Dissolved, total, and pore (sediment derived) water samples were collected and water quality parameters determined while plants were exposed to the water for 10 days. There was a trend showing plant tissue-Se uptake with distance downstream and we found a strong correlation between Se in the water with total hardness in both seasons. There was a modest association between Se-uptake in plants with hardness in the spring of 2007 but not the fall. Plants bioconcentrated Se from the water by a factor of 5.8 × 103 at Green Mountain Falls and 1.5 × 104 at Manitou Springs in the fall of 2007. Both are examples of the bioconcentration abilities of the plants, primarily in the upper reaches of the watershed where bioconcentration factors were highest. However, the mean minima and maxima of Se in the plants in each of the three watershed segments appeared similar during both seasons. We found direct relationships between the pore and dissolved Se in water in the spring ( R 2 = 0.84) and fall ( R 2 = 0.95) and dissolved Se and total hardness in the spring and fall ( R 2 = 0.92). The data indicate that H. ochraceum was a suitable indicator of Se bioavailability and Se uptake in other trophic levels in the Fountain Creek Watershed based on a subsequent study of Se accumulation in fish tissues at all 14 sites.

  14. Strong ambipolar-driven ion upflow within the cleft ion fountain during low geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yangyang; Knudsen, David J.; Burchill, Johnathan K.; Howarth, Andrew; Yau, Andrew; Redmon, Robert J.; Miles, David M.; Varney, Roger H.; Nicolls, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate low-energy (<10 eV) ion upflows (mainly O+) within the cleft ion fountain (CIF) using conjunctions of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite, the DMSP F16 satellite, the SuperDARN radar, and the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar North (RISR-N). The SEI instrument on board e-POP enables us to derive ion upflow velocities from the 2-D images of ion distribution functions with a frame rate of 100 images per second, and with a velocity resolution of the order of 25 m/s. We identify three cleft ion fountain events with very intense (>1.6 km/s) ion upflow velocities near 1000 km altitude during quiet geomagnetic activity (Kp < 3). Such large ion upflow velocities have been reported previously at or below 1000 km, but only during active periods. Analysis of the core ion distribution images allows us to demonstrate that the ion temperature within the CIF does not rise by more than 0.3 eV relative to background values, which is consistent with RISR-N observations in the F region. The presence of soft electron precipitation seen by DMSP and lack of significant ion heating indicate that the ion upflows we observe near 1000 km altitude are primarily driven by ambipolar electric fields. DC field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection velocity gradients accompany these events. The strongest ion upflows are associated with downward current regions, which is consistent with some (although not all) previously published results. The moderate correlation coefficient (0.51) between upflow velocities and currents implies that FACs serve as indirect energy inputs to the ion upflow process.

  15. Obscuring Fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei: Implications from Radiation-driven Fountain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction fobs for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, fobs for NH ≥ 1022 cm-2 increases from ˜0.2 to ˜0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity LX in the LX = 1042-44 erg s-1 range, but fobs becomes small (˜0.4) above a luminosity (˜1045 erg s-1). The behaviors of fobs can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given LAGN, fobs is always smaller (˜0.2-0.3) for a larger column density (NH ≥ 1023 cm-2). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  16. From the ashes: JVLA observations of water fountain nebula candidates show the rebirth of IRAS 18455+0448

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Amiri, N.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Tafoya, D.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The class of water fountain nebulae is thought to represent the stage of the earliest onset of collimated bipolar outflows during the post-asymptotic giant branch phase. They thus play a crucial role in the study of the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). To date, 14 water fountain nebulae have been identified. The identification of more sources in this unique stage of stellar evolution will enable us to study the origin of bipolar PNe morphologies in more detail. Aims: Water fountain candidates can be identified based on the often double peaked 22 GHz H2O maser spectrum with a large separation between the maser peaks (often >100 km s-1). However, even a fast bipolar outflow will only have a moderate velocity extent in its maser spectrum when located close to the plane of the sky. In this project we aim to enhance the water fountain sample by identifying objects whose jets are aligned close to the plane of the sky. Methods: We present the results of seven sources observed with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) that were identified as water fountain candidates in an Effelsberg 100 m telescope survey of 74 AGB and early post-AGB stars. Results: We find that our sample of water fountain candidates displays strong variability in their 22 GHz H2O maser spectra. The JVLA observations show an extended bipolar H2O maser outflow for one source, the OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448. This source was previously classified as a dying OH/IR star based on the exponential decrease of its 1612 MHz OH maser and the lack of H2O masers. We therefore also re-observed the 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz OH masers. We confirm that the 1612 MHz masers have not reappeared and find that the1665/1667 MHz masers have decreased in strength by several orders of magnitude during the last decade. The JVLA observations also reveal a striking asymmetry in the red-shifted maser emission of IRAS 19422+3506. Conclusions: The OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448 is confirmed to be a new addition to the

  17. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH PAN-STARRS1 AND WISE. II. L/T TRANSITION ATMOSPHERES AND YOUNG DISCOVERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Redstone, Joshua; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P.; Metcalfe, N.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of brown dwarfs from L to T spectral types is one of the least understood aspects of the ultracool population, partly for lack of a large, well-defined, and well-characterized sample in the L/T transition. To improve the existing census, we have searched ≈28,000 deg{sup 2} using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveys for L/T transition dwarfs within 25 pc. We present 130 ultracool dwarf discoveries with estimated distances ≈9–130 pc, including 21 that were independently discovered by other authors and 3 that were previously identified as photometric candidates. Seventy-nine of our objects have near-IR spectral types of L6–T4.5, the most L/T transition dwarfs from any search to date, and we have increased the census of L9–T1.5 objects within 25 pc by over 50%. The color distribution of our discoveries provides further evidence for the “L/T gap,” a deficit of objects with (J − K){sub MKO} ≈ 0.0–0.5 mag in the L/T transition, and thus reinforces the idea that the transition from cloudy to clear photospheres occurs rapidly. Among our discoveries are 31 candidate binaries based on their low-resolution spectral features. Two of these candidates are common proper motion companions to nearby main sequence stars; if confirmed as binaries, these would be rare benchmark systems with the potential to stringently test ultracool evolutionary models. Our search also serendipitously identified 23 late-M and L dwarfs with spectroscopic signs of low gravity implying youth, including 10 with vl-g or int-g gravity classifications and another 13 with indications of low gravity whose spectral types or modest spectral signal-to-noise ratio do not allow us to assign formal classifications. Finally, we identify 10 candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMG) with spectral types L7–T4.5, including three showing spectroscopic signs of low gravity. If confirmed, any of these would be among the coolest known YMG members

  18. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains among Youth and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. METHODS We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 5 participants disagreed their tap water was safe and nearly 2 in 5 disagreed school water fountains were clean and safe. Perceived tap water risk was more prevalent among non-Hispanic (NH) blacks (26.4%) and Hispanics (28.3%) compared to NH whites (14.7%, p < .001) and more prevalent among lower income youth. Negative water fountain perceptions were more common among high school age youth. Perceived tap water risk was not associated with SSB intake (odds ratio (OR) = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.5) or water intake (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.1). Negative water fountain perceptions were associated with SSB intake only among Hispanics (race/ethnicity interaction p < .001; OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.6) but were not associated with water intake. CONCLUSION Negative perceptions of tap water and water fountains among youth are common and should be considered in efforts to provide water in schools. PMID:24443781

  19. LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) TECHNOLOGY - ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3®) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. This evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and fi...

  20. TSH-Based Protocol, Tablet Instability, and Absorption Effects on L-T4 Bioequivalence

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Background FDA Guidance for pharmacokinetic (PK) testing of levothyroxine (L-T4) for interbrand bioequivalence has evolved recently. Concerns remain about efficacy and safety of the current protocol, based on PK analysis following supraphysiological L-T4 dosing in euthyroid volunteers, and recent recalls due to intrabrand manufacturing problems also suggest need for further refinement. We examine these interrelated issues quantitatively, using simulated what-if scenarios testing efficacy of a TSH-based protocol and tablet stability and absorption, to enhance precision of L-T4 bioequivalence methods. Methods We use an updated simulation model of human thyroid hormone regulation quantified and validated from data that span a wide range of normal and abnormal thyroid system function. Bioequivalence: We explored a TSH-based protocol, using normal replacement dosing in simulated thyroidectomized patients, switching brands after 8 weeks of full replacement dosing. We simulated effects of tablet potency differences and intestinal absorption differences on predicted plasma TSH, T4, and triiodothyronine (T3) dynamics. Stability: We simulated effects of potency decay and lot-by-lot differences in realistic scenarios, using actual tablet potency data spanning 2 years, comparing the recently reduced 95–105% FDA-approved potency range with the original 90–110% range. Results A simulated decrease as small as 10–15% in L-T4 or its absorption generated TSH concentrations outside the bioequivalence target range (0.5–2.5 mU/L TSH), whereas T3 and T4 plasma levels were maintained normal. For a 25% reduction, steady-state TSH changed 300% (from 1.5 to 6 mU/L) compared with <25% for both T4 and T3 (both within their reference ranges). Stability: TSH, T4, and T3 remained within normal ranges for most potency decay scenarios, but tablets of the same dose strength and brand were not bioequivalent between lots and between fresh and near-expired tablets. Conclusions A

  1. Fountain streaming contributes to fast tip-growth through regulating the gradients of turgor pressure and concentration in pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, ShaoBao; Liu, Han; Feng, ShangSheng; Lin, Min; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-03-29

    Fountain streaming is a typical microfluidic pattern in plant cells, especially for cells with a high aspect ratio such as pollen tubes. Although it has been found that fountain streaming plays crucial roles in the transport of nutrients and metabolites, the positioning of organelles and the mixing of cytoplasms, its implications for the fast tip growth of pollen tubes remain a mystery. To address this, based on the observations of asiatic lily Lilium Casablanca, we developed physical models for reverse fountain streaming in pollen tubes and solved the hydrodynamics and advection-diffusion dynamics of viscous Stokes flow in the shank and apical region of pollen tubes. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrated that the gradients of turgor pressure and concentration of wall materials along the length of pollen tubes provide undamped driving force and high-efficiency materials supply, which are supposed to contribute to the fast tip-growth of pollen tubes. The sample experimental results show that the tip-growth will be abnormal when the gradients of turgor pressure change under osmotic stress induced by different concentrations of PEG-6000 (a dehydrant).

  2. Investigation of Volcanic Seismo-Acoustic Signals: Applying Subspace Detection to Lava Fountain Activity at Etna Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciotto, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Cannata, A.; Arrowsmith, S.; Privitera, E.; Gresta, S.

    2011-12-01

    The current eruption of Mount Etna, which began in January, 2011, has produced numerous energetic episodes of lava fountaining, which have bee recorded by the INGV seismic and acoustic sensors located on and around the volcano. The source of these events was the pit crater on the east flank of the Southeast crater of Etna. Simultaneously, small levels of activity were noted in the Bocca Nuova as well, prior to its lava fountaining activity. We will present an analysis of seismic and acoustic signals related to the 2011 activity wherein we apply the method of subspace detection to determine whether the source exhibits a temporal evolution within or between fountaining events, or otherwise produces repeating, classifiable events occurring through the continuous explosive degassing. We will examine not only the raw waveforms, but also spectral variations in time as well as time-varying statistical functions such as signal skewness and kurtosis. These results will be compared to straightforward cross-correlation analysis. In addition to classification performance, the subspace method has promise to outperform standard STA/LTA methods for real-time event detection in cases where similar events can be expected.

  3. Periglacial Features in the Paleoequatorial Fountain Formation (Permo-Pennsylvanian), Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, D. E.; Soreghan, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    The Fountain Formation, along the east flank of the Front Range, Colorado, comprises coarse clastics shed as an alluvial wedge off the Ancestral Front range during the Ancestral Rocky Mountains orogeny. Locally, bedding-plane exposures within the Fountain exhibit a distinct geometric pattern composed of white, erosionally resistant ridges 2-10 cm wide and 13-61 cm deep rimming red polygons 15-76 cm across with depth-to-width ratios averaging 5.80. Both the white and the red lithologies comprise very poorly sorted, coarse arkose. However, in thin section, the white lithology exhibits a silicified micro-brecciated texture whereas the red lithology exhibits a diamictite texture with clasts suspended in a muddy matrix comprising ~25% of the rock. FTIR analysis of the <62 micron fraction (matrix) indicates that, relative to one another, the white lithology contains more quartz, whereas the red lithology contains more clay minerals. In addition to the polygons, downwardly tapering, clastic wedges occur locally. The wedges are 10-32 cm in width, penetrate to depths of 41- >220 cm, and have depth-to-width ratios averaging 4.31. Most wedges taper to a single terminus, but some splay downward. Granular to coarse arkosic sandstone fills wedges and locally exhibits a faint vertical foliation; laminae within host strata commonly bend upward adjacent to wedge edges. These preliminary data are most consistent with the hypothesis that both features relate to thermal contraction wherein the polygonal features represent fossil patterned ground and the clastic wedges record ice-wedge or seasonal frost crack casts. The color contrast is a diagenetic enhancement, the result of bleaching of the original polygonal surface by reducing fluids channeled by permeability contrasts between the muddy arkose (red) and the granule fills (now white). Contractional polygonal fractures have been related to (1) desiccation in an arid environment with either mud or evaporites providing cohesion and (2

  4. Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.

    2008-12-01

    Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with

  5. Advances in 133Cs Fountains: Control of the Cold Collision Shift and Observation of Feshbach Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Bize, S.; Marion, H.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Vian, C.; Rosenbusch, P.; Pereira dos Santos, F.; Wolf, P.; Abgrall, M.; Maksimovic, I.; Gruenert, J.; Santarelli, G.; Laurent, P.; Clairon, A.; Luiten, A.; Tobar, M.; Kokkelmans, S.; Salomon, C.

    2005-05-05

    This paper describes the work performed at BNM-SYRTE (Observatoire de Paris) over the past few years toward the improvement and the use of microwave frequency standards using laser-cooled atoms. First, recent improvements of the 133Cs and 87Rb atomic fountains are described. An important advance is the achievement of a fractional frequency instability of 1.6 x 10-14{tau}-1/2 where {tau} is the measurement time in seconds, thanks to the routine use of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator as an ultra-stable local frequency reference. The second advance is a powerful method to control the frequency shift due to cold collisions. These two advances lead to a frequency stability of 2 x 10-16 at 50,000 s for the first time for primary standards. In addition, these clocks realize the SI second with an accuracy of 7 x 10-16, one order of magnitude below that of uncooled devices.

  6. UTC(OP) based on LNE-SYRTE atomic fountain primary frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovera, G. D.; Bize, S.; Chupin, B.; Guéna, J.; Laurent, Ph; Rosenbusch, P.; Uhrich, P.; Abgrall, M.

    2016-06-01

    UTC(OP), the French national realization of the international coordinated universal time, was redesigned and rebuilt. The first step was the implementation in October 2012 of a new algorithm based on a H-maser and on atomic fountain data. Thanks to the new implementation, the stability of UTC(OP) was dramatically improved and UTC(OP) competes with the best time scales available today. Then the hardware generation and distribution of the UTC(OP) physical signals were replaced. Part of the new hardware is composed of commercial devices, but the key elements were specifically developed. One of them is a special switch that allows the UTC(OP) signals to be derived from one of two time scales, based on two different H-masers, which are generated simultaneously. This insures the continuity of the UTC(OP) signal even when a change of the reference H-maser is required. With the new hardware implementation, UTC(OP) is made available through three coherent signals: 100 MHz, 10 MHz and 1 PPS. For more than 3 years, UTC(OP) remained well below 10 ns close to UTC, with a difference even less than 5 ns if we except a short period around MJD 56650.

  7. Short-term effects of military fog oil on the fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola).

    PubMed

    Ryan, T A; Kohl, A N; Soucek, D J; Smith, T S; Brandt, T M; Bonner, T H; Cropek, D M

    2013-11-01

    Toxicity tests evaluated chronic and sublethal effects of fog oil (FO) on a freshwater endangered fish. FO is released during military training as an obscurant smoke that can drift into aquatic habitats. Fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, of four distinct life stages were exposed under laboratory conditions to three forms of FO. FO was vaporized into smoke and allowed to settle onto water, violently agitated with water, and dosed onto water followed by photo-oxidization by ultraviolet irradiation. Single smoke exposures of spawning adult fish did not affect egg production, egg viability, or adult fish survival in 21-day tests. Multiple daily smoke exposures induced mortality after 5 days for larvae fish. Larvae and juvenile fish were more sensitive than eggs in 96-h lethal concentration (LC50) tests with FO–water mixtures and photo-oxidized FO. Water-soluble FO components photo-modified by ultraviolet radiation were the most toxic, thus indicating the value of examining weathering and aging of chemicals for the best determination of environmental impact.

  8. High Velocity Precessing Jet from the Water Fountain IRAS 18286-0959 Revealed by VLBA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco; Nakashima, J.; Imai, H.; Deguchi, S.; Diamond, P. J.; Kwok, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the multi-epoch VLBA observations of 22.2GHz water maser emission associated with the "water fountain" star IRAS 18286-0959. The detected maser emission are distributed in the velocity range from -50km/s to 150km/s. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (namely, jet 1) extended from southeast to northwest direction, and the rest of the features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a "double-helix" pattern which lies across 200 milliarcseconds (mas). The maser features are reasonably fit by a model consisting of two precessing jets. The velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138km/s and 99km/s, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years, and for jet 2 it is about 73 years. We propose that the appearance of two jets observed are the result of a single driving source with a significant proper motion. This research was supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists from the Ministry 9 of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for Promotion Science.

  9. Galactic fountains and outflows in star forming dwarf galaxies: ISM expulsion and chemical enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melioli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the impact of supernova feedback in gas-rich dwarf galaxies experiencing a low-to-moderate star formation rate, typical of relatively quiescent phases between starbursts. We calculated the long term evolution of the ISM and the metal-rich SN ejecta using 3D hydrodynamical simulations, in which the feedback energy is deposited by SNII exploding in distinct OB associations. We found that a circulation flow similar to galactic fountains is generally estabilished, with some ISM lifted at heights of one to few kpc above the galactic plane. This gas forms an extra-planar layer, which falls back to the plane in about 108 yr, once the star formation stops. Very little or no ISM is expelled outside the galaxy system for the considered SFRs, even though in the most powerful model the SN energy is comparable to the gas binding energy. The metal-rich SN ejecta is instead more vulnerable to the feedback and we found that a significant fraction (25-80%) is vented in the intergalactic medium, even for low SN rate. About half of the metals retained by the galaxy are located far (z > 500 pc) from the galactic plane. Moreover, our models indicate that the circulation of the metal-rich gas out from and back to the galactic disk is not able to erase the chemical gradients imprinted by the (centrally concentrated) SN explosions.

  10. Do water fountain jets really indicate the onset of the morphological metamorphosis of circumstellar envelopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Imai, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale bipolar jets with short dynamical ages from 'water-fountain' (WF) sources are regarded as an indication of the onset of circumstellar envelope morphological metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. Such a process usually happens at the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. However, recent studies found that WFs could be AGB stars or even early planetary nebulae. This fact prompted the idea that WFs may not necessarily be objects at the beginning of the morphological transition process. In the present work, we show that WFs could have different envelope morphologies by studying their spectral energy distribution profiles. Some WFs have spherical envelopes that resemble usual AGB stars, while others have aspherical envelopes, which are more common to post-AGB stars. The results imply that WFs may not represent the earliest stage of morphological metamorphosis. We argue further that the dynamical age of a WF jet, which can be calculated from maser proper motions, may not be the real age of the jet. The dynamical age cannot be used to justify the moment when the envelope begins to become aspherical, nor to tell the concrete evolutionary status of the object. A WF jet could be the innermost part of a larger well-developed jet, which is not necessarily a young jet.

  11. Lonely drinking fountains and comforting coolers: paradoxes of water value and ironies of water use.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Martha

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses ethnographically on Americans and technologies of drinking water, as tokens of and vehicles for health, agency, and surprising kinds of community. Journalists and water scholars have argued that bottled water is a material concomitant of privatization and alienation in U.S. society. But, engaging Latour, this research shows that water technologies and the groups they assemble, are plural. Attention to everyday entwining of workplace lives with drinking fountains, single-serve bottles, and spring water coolers shows us several different quests, some individualized, some alienated, but some seeking health via public, collective care, acknowledgment of stakeholding, and community organizing. Focused on water practices on a college campus, in the roaring 1990s and increasingly sober 2000s in the context of earlier U.S. water histories of inclusion and exclusion, I draw on ethnographic research from the two years that led up to the recession and the presidential election of 2008. I argue for understanding of water value through attention to water use, focusing both on the social construction of water and the use of water for social construction.

  12. Aerosol formation in basaltic lava fountaining: Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Martin, Robert S.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-10-01

    A short-lived episode of basaltic lava fountaining at Eyjafjallajökull volcano (March - April 2010) produced a low-altitude, ash-poor plume. We measured the composition of aerosol particles (sampled using a cascade impactor and filter packs), gases (sampled using filter packs), and volatile species scavenged by scoria and external water in order to investigate the formation and speciation of near-source aerosol (<2 min from emission). Samples were analyzed for volatile species (S, Cl and F) and metals (Na, K, Ca and Mg). The aerosol mass showed two unusual features: the prevalent size mode was finer than typically found in volcanic plumes (˜0.2μm, compared to >0.4 μm), and its composition was dominated by chloride rather than sulfate. We used two thermodynamic equilibrium models (E-AIM and HSC Chemistry v5.1) to show that the formation of particulate Cl- by condensation of HCl gas is more responsive to changes in ambient temperature than the oxidation of SO2 to SO42-, so that a low SO42-/Cl- ratio in aerosol particles is characteristic of volcanic emissions in cold climates. Field measurements suggested that the efficiency of SO2 to SO42- conversion inside the vent increased with lower explosivity. Volatiles adsorbed on the surface of scoria had significantly higher SO42-/halogen molar ratios than the aerosol samples. Several potential explanations for these differences are discussed.

  13. IRAS 18113-2503: THE WATER FOUNTAIN WITH THE FASTEST JET?

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Jose F.; Guerrero, MartIn A.; Ricardo Rizzo, J.; Suarez, Olga; Miranda, Luis F.

    2011-09-20

    We present Expanded Very Large Array water maser observations at 22 GHz toward the source IRAS 18113-2503. Maser components span over a very high velocity range of {approx_equal} 500 km s{sup -1}, the second largest found in a Galactic maser, only surpassed by the high-mass star-forming region W49N. Maser components are grouped into a blueshifted and a redshifted cluster, separated by 0.''12. Further mid-IR and radio data suggest that IRAS 18113-2503 is a post-asymptotic giant branch star, thus a new bona fide member of the rare class of 'water fountains' (WFs). It is the evolved object with the largest total velocity spread in its water masers and with the highest velocity dispersion within its redshifted and blueshifted lobes ({approx_equal} 170 km s{sup -1}). The large total velocity range of emission probably indicates that IRAS 18113-2503 has the fastest jet among the known WF stars. On the other hand, the remarkably high velocity dispersion within each lobe may be interpreted in terms of shocks produced by an episode of mass ejection whose velocity increased up to very high values or, alternatively, by projection effects in a jet with a large opening angle and/or precessing motions.

  14. Petrographical records of multiple fluid-infiltration during HP-LT metamorphism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the subduction zone, flow of slab-derived fluids enriched in Si, Al, Na, and Ca enhances metamorphic + metasomatic reactions and precipitation of HP-LT minerals, and in some cases, the intraslab flow causes extensive elemental leaching (cf., Spandler & Pirard 2013). How does HP-LT rocks and minerals record subduction-zone fluid flow? Syn-metamorphic vein networks consisting of HP-LT minerals have been known in various blueschist- and low-temperature eclogites. The monomineralic and bimineralic veins includes a wide variety of HP-LT minerals: metamorphic pyroxenes, phengite, hydrous Ca-Al-silicate, and even rare garnet and rutile; oscillatory and sector zonings with resorption are common, suggesting precipitation from aqueous fluids. Natural observations imply that brittle fracturing and fluid infiltration during blueschist-to-eclogite-facies metamorphism are common phenomenon in the subducting oceanic crust attending progressive eclogitization. Another peculiar example of HP-LT rock preserving evidence of multiple fluid-infiltration is "lawsonitite", which is a metasomatic rock consisting of ~70-90 vol% lawsonite. Lawsonitite from the South Motagua Mélange consists principally of fluid precipitates and represents the extreme of lithological variation of "P-type" jadeitite (Tsujimori & Harlow 2012; Flores et al. 2013). Lawsonites show sector- and oscillatory-growth zoning on a millimeter to submicrometer scale. The rock shows millimeter-scale flow paths of Cr-rich fluids cross-cutting lawsonite crystals; the texture indicates that the fluid infiltration occurred after lawsonite crystallization/precipitation. The Cr-rich fluid flow-paths follow the track of Cr-bearing pinkish locally metasomatized lawsonite with inclusions of Cr-rich (kosmochloric) jadeite and Cr-rich phengite. These microtextures and mineral compositions indicate a chronological sequence of fluid infiltration events: lawsonite grains precipitated from subduction-zone aqueous fluids within

  15. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  16. The chromosomal nature of LT-II enterotoxins solved: a lambdoid prophage encodes both LT-II and one of two novel pertussis-toxin-like toxin family members in type II enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB5 toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins. PMID:26755534

  17. The chromosomal nature of LT-II enterotoxins solved: a lambdoid prophage encodes both LT-II and one of two novel pertussis-toxin-like toxin family members in type II enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB(5) toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins.

  18. Airpower Leadership on the Front Line: Lt Gen George H. Brett and Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    perspective to the project and his amicable encouragement to me personally. Col Larry Thompson receives my thanks for connecting me with his friend, Lt...a major general, Arnold dispatched him to conduct lend-lease discussions with the British and to make a tour of Africa. This trip turned out much...book examines how well Gen George Brett executed the duties he was assigned during his tour in the Far East. The examination will focus on the

  19. A large multi-pathogen gastroenteritis outbreak caused by drinking contaminated water from antique neighbourhood fountains, Erzurum city, Turkey, December 2012.

    PubMed

    Sezen, F; Aval, E; Ağkurt, T; Yilmaz, Ş; Temel, F; Güleşen, R; Korukluoğlu, G; Sucakli, M B; Torunoğlu, M A; Zhu, B-P

    2015-03-01

    We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak in Erzurum city, Turkey in December 2012 to identify its cause and mode of transmission. We defined a probable case as onset of diarrhoea (⩾3 episodes/day) or vomiting, plus fever or nausea or abdominal pain during 19-27 December, 2012 in an Erzurum city resident. In a case-control study we compared exposures of 95 randomly selected probable cases and 95 neighbourhood-matched controls. We conducted bacterial culture and real-time multiplex PCR for identification of pathogens. During the week before illness onset, 72% of cases and 15% of controls only drank water from antique neighbourhood fountains; conversely, 16% of cases and 65% of controls only drank bottled or tap water (adjusted odds ratio 20, 95% confidence interval 4·6-84, after controlling for age and sex using conditional logistic regression). Of eight stool specimens collected, two were positive for Shigella sonnei, one for astrovirus, one for astrovirus and norovirus, and one for astrovirus and rotavirus. Water samples from the fountains had elevated total coliform (38-300/100 ml) and Escherichia coli (22-198/100 ml) counts. In conclusion, drinking contaminated fountain water caused this multi-pathogen outbreak. Residents should stop drinking water from these fountains, and clean water from the water treatment plant should be connected to the fountains.

  20. Evaluation of fecal contamination by human and ruminant sources in upper Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2007-2008, by using multiple lines of evidence:

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Fountain Creek is a high-gradient stream on the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The headwaters of Fountain Creek drain Pikes Peak, a major destination for tourism. Fountain Creek is a drinking-water source for the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado, and is used for irrigation, recreation, and other purposes between Colorado Springs and the confluence with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado. In 2008, Fountain Creek was placed on the Colorado 303(d) list of impaired streams because of fecal contamination. Colorado uses a 30-day geometric mean standard of 126 Escherichia coli per 100 milliliters as its management goal for recreational waters. The objective of this study was to identify major sources of Escherichia coli in upper Fountain Creek during exceedances of the State recreational water standard. To meet this objective, a new approach was developed and tested that uses genetic marker analysis for microbial source tracking, along with other information, to evaluate potential contributions of fecal contamination from various sources.

  1. CysLT1R downregulation reverses intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced memory impairment via modulation of neuroinflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arijit; Chen, Fang; Wu, Feng; Tang, Su-Su; Hu, Mei; Long, Yan; Sun, Hong-Bin; Kong, Ling-Yi; Hong, Hao

    2017-02-06

    Our previous studies showed that cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor 1 (CysLT1R) is upregulated in amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and that administration of CysLT1R antagonists such as pranlukast or montelukast can ameliorate memory impairment in mice. In the current study, we sought to explore the role of CysLT1R in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (STZ-ICV)-induced mouse model of memory impairment and neuroinflammation through shRNA-mediated knockdown of CysLT1R and also its pharmacological blockade by pranlukast. ICR mice were infused with STZ (3.0mg/kg) by a single bilateral stereotaxic ICV microinjection followed by administration of CysLT1R-shRNA (intra-hippocampal) or pranlukast (intragastric, IG). After 21days, a set of behavioral and biochemical tests were performed in order to assess the degree of memory impairment and neuroinflammation in mice. STZ-infused mice spent less time in the target quadrant of Morris water maze test and took more time to find the shock-free arm in modified Y-maze test, which were rescued in the CysLT1R-knockdowned or pranlukast-treated mice. STZ-induced memory impairment was also accompanied by an elevated level of hippocampal CysLT1R, microglial activation, increased IL-1β, and TNF-α. Such elevation of these factors was found to be mediated through the classical NF-κB pathway and administration of CysLT1R-shRNA or pranlukast for 21days reversed all these parameters, suggesting a role of CysLT1R in STZ-induced memory deficit and neuroinflammation.

  2. Probing the atmosphere of a transiting ocean world: are there ice fountains on Europa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, William

    2013-10-01

    It is of extreme interest to NASA and the scientific community to confirm the presence of plumes of water ice venting from the polar regions of Europa. Roth et al 2014 presented evidence, based on line emission imaging of the dissociation products of water, that such plumes exist. We were awarded three orbits in Cycle 21 to pursue a completely independent approach to imaging the Europa exosphere, including a search for Enceladus-like plumes. In the FUV, Jupiter provides a uniformly illuminating backlight screen against which absorption by Europa's exosphere can be imaged as it transits Jupiter. The spatial resolution of HST is high in the FUV and molecular cross-sections are high. We request six additional STIS orbits, and two WFC3 orbits to provide sensitive limits on the absorbing column density and on entrained dusty particulates. Roth et al seek line emission at apoapsis and periapsis. We will span a range between these limits, closer to apoapsis where plumes are predicted. With the additional orbits we double our S/N and gain a factor of two in detectable column density, seek the scientific gold standard of reproducibility with multiple datasets, and provide a completely independent, contemporaneous {crucial when probing a transient phenomenon} validation of the line-emission approach. Our observations so far provide fascinating hints, but require confirmation through repeats and improved S/N. With a concerted effort, we have the opportunity to conclusively and unequivocally establish the presence of ice fountains on Europa. If they arise from the deep ocean, we have gained access to probably the most astrobiologically interesting location in the Solar System.

  3. Lava discharge during Etna's January 2011 fire fountain tracked using MSG-SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Harris, Andrew; Calvari, Sonia; Labazuy, Philippe; Guéhenneux, Yannick; Donnadieu, Franck; Valade, Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Etna's January 2011 eruption provided an excellent opportunity to test the ability of Meteosat Second Generation satellite's Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) sensor to track a short-lived effusive event. The presence of lava fountaining, the rapid expansion of lava flows, and the complexity of the resulting flow field make such events difficult to track from the ground. During the Etna's January 2011 eruption, we were able to use thermal data collected by SEVIRI every 15 min to generate a time series of the syn-eruptive heat flux. Lava discharge waxed over a ~1-h period to reach a peak that was first masked from the satellite view by a cold tephra plume and then was of sufficient intensity to saturate the 3.9-μm channel. Both problems made it impossible to estimate time-averaged lava discharge rates using the syn-eruptive heat flux curve. Therefore, through integration of data obtained by ground-based Doppler radar and thermal cameras, as well as ancillary satellite data (from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), we developed a method that allowed us to identify the point at which effusion stagnated, to allow definition of a lava cooling curve. This allowed retrieval of a lava volume of ~1.2 × 106 m3, which, if emitted for 5 h, was erupted at a mean output rate of ~70 m3 s-1. The lava volume estimated using the cooling curve method is found to be similar to the values inferred from field measurements.

  4. The absorption and emission spectrum of radiative cooling galactic fountain gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Robert A.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    We have calculated the time-dependent, nonequilibrium thermal and ionization history of gas cooling radiatively from 10(exp 6) K in a one-dimensional, planar, steady-state flow model of the galactic fountain, including the effects of radiative transfer. Our previous optically thin calculations explored the effects of photoionization on such a flow and demonstrated that self-ionization was sufficient to cause the flow to match the observed galactic halo column densities of C 4, Si 4, and N 5 and UV emission from C 4 and O 3 in the constant density (isochoric) limit, which corresponded to cooling regions homogeneous on scales D less than or approximately equal to 1 kpc. Our new calculations which take full account of radiative transfer confirm the importance of self-ionization in enabling such a flow to match the data but allow a much larger range for cooling region sizes, i.e. D(sub 0) greater than or approximately equal to 15 pc. For an initial flow velocity v(sub 0) approximately equal to 100 km/s, comparable to the sound speed of a 10(exp 6) K gas, the initial density is found to be n(sub h,0) is approximately 2 x 10(exp -2) cm(exp -3), in reasonable agreement with other observation estimates, and D(sub 0) is approximately equal to 40 pc. We also compare predicted H(alpha) fluxes, UV line emission, and broadband x-ray fluxes with observed values. One dimensional numerical hydrodynamical calculations including the effects of radiative cooling are also presented.

  5. EXPLORATION OF A RELIC CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE IN THE ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' SOURCE IRAS 18286-0959

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Kwok, Sun; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J. E-mail: junichi@hku.hk E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk E-mail: diamond@skatelescope.org

    2013-07-01

    The water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 (I18286) was reported as an object exhibiting highly collimated, double-helix stellar jets traced by the H{sub 2}O maser emission. Using the European VLBI Network, we measured the absolute coordinates of the 1612 MHz OH maser emission in I18286, which is very likely associated with a relic of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) developed in the asymptotic giant branch stage of the central star. The location of the OH maser is near the center of the H{sub 2}O maser feature cluster, where one of the originating points of the two jets is located. We also mapped 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission in this object using the Very Long Baseline Array in the seasons of 2006-2007 as well as 2008-2009. In the first three epochs in 2006-2007, we detected at least 90 maser features per epoch. In six epochs in 2008-2009, when the observation data had already been published and analyzed to identify the double-helix jets, we newly identified 14 proper motions of H{sub 2}O maser features which could not be measured in the previous analysis due to their short lifetimes. In this paper, together with the OH maser emission, we focus on ''outlier'' H{sub 2}O maser features, which exhibit slow expansion velocities (V{sub exp} {approx}< 30 km s{sup -1}) and are likely associated with either the relic CSE or an equatorial flow of I18286. They were marginally distinguishable from the maser features associated with the jets in I18286.

  6. Restaurant outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a decorative fountain: an environmental and case-control study

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, Rosalyn E; Kightlinger, Lon; Werpy, Matthew C; Brown, Ellen; Stevens, Valerie; Hepper, Clark; Keane, Tim; Benson, Robert F; Fields, Barry S; Moore, Matthew R

    2007-01-01

    Background From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from emergency department records and matched on underlying illness. We collected information about activities of case-patients and controls during the 14 days before symptom onset. Environmental samples (n = 291) were cultured for Legionella. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared using monoclonal antibody subtyping and sequence based typing (SBT). Results Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have passed through several city areas that contained or were adjacent to areas with cooling towers positive for Legionella. Six of 11 case-patients (matched odds ratio (mOR) 32.7, 95% CI 4.7-∞) reported eating in Restaurant A versus 0 controls. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from four clinical specimens: 3 were Benidorm type strains and 1 was a Denver type strain. Legionella were identified from several environmental sites including 24 (56%) of 43 cooling towers tested, but only one site, a small decorative fountain in Restaurant A, contained Benidorm, the outbreak strain. Clinical and environmental Benidorm isolates had identical SBT patterns. Conclusion This is the first time that small fountain without obvious aerosol-generating capability has been implicated as the source of a LD outbreak. Removal of the fountain halted transmission. PMID:17688692

  7. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  8. Effects of land use on water quality of the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chafin, Daniel T.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer in 1988 and 1989 as part of the Toxic-Waste Ground-Water Contamination Program. These data indicate that dissolved solids, most major ions, fluoride, ammonium, boron, lithium, selenium, and strontium were more concentrated in the agricultural land-use area than in the upgradient urban land-use area. Nitrate and phosphate had significantly larger concentrations, and volatile organic compounds had significantly greater detection frequencies in the urban land-use area.

  9. Testing Local Position Invariance with Four Cesium-Fountain Primary Frequency Standards and Four NIST Hydrogen Masers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.; Parker, T. E.; Radnaev, A. G.; Dudin, Y. O.

    2007-02-16

    We report the most sensitive tests to date of the assumption of local position invariance (LPI) underlying general relativity, based on a 7 yr comparison of cesium and hydrogen atomic clocks (frequency standards). The latest results place an upper limit that is over 20 times smaller than the previous most sensitive tests; this is consistent with the null shift predicted by LPI. The result is based on precise comparisons of frequencies of four hydrogen masers maintained by NIST, with four independent Cs fountain clocks--one at NIST and three in Europe--as the Sun's gravitational potential at Earth's surface varies due to Earth's orbital eccentricity.

  10. Testing local position invariance with four cesium-fountain primary frequency standards and four NIST hydrogen masers.

    PubMed

    Ashby, N; Heavner, T P; Jefferts, S R; Parker, T E; Radnaev, A G; Dudin, Y O

    2007-02-16

    We report the most sensitive tests to date of the assumption of local position invariance (LPI) underlying general relativity, based on a 7 yr comparison of cesium and hydrogen atomic clocks (frequency standards). The latest results place an upper limit that is over 20 times smaller than the previous most sensitive tests; this is consistent with the null shift predicted by LPI. The result is based on precise comparisons of frequencies of four hydrogen masers maintained by NIST, with four independent Cs fountain clocks--one at NIST and three in Europe--as the Sun's gravitational potential at Earth's surface varies due to Earth's orbital eccentricity.

  11. A Tripartite Fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B, of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin, Inhibit Adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 Fimbriae, and Protect Pigs against K88ac/Heat-Labile Toxin Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT192) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  12. Survey of A{sub LT'} asymmetries in semi-exclusive electron scattering on He4 and C12

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Protopopescu; et. Al.

    2005-02-21

    Single spin azimuthal asymmetries A{sub LT'} were measured at Jefferson Lab using 2.2 and 4.4 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C targets in the CLAS detector. A{sub LT'} is related to the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse interference and in quasifree nucleon knockout it provides an unambiguous signature for final state interactions (FSI). Experimental values of A{sub LT'} were found to be below 5%, typically |A{sub LT'}| < 3% for data with good statistical precision. Optical Model in Eikonal Approximation (OMEA) and Relativistic Multiple-Scattering Glauber Approximation (RMSGA) calculations are shown to be consistent with the measured asymmetries.

  13. Report on 27th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT27), Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, John; Kono, Kimitoshi

    2014-12-01

    The following is an extract from the Activity Report to the IUPAP General Assembly, November 2014 by Commision C5 (Low Temperature Physics). It provides an overview of LT27, reflecting the most important and recent developments.

  14. CysLT2 receptor activation is involved in LTC4-induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sekioka, Tomohiko; Kadode, Michiaki; Yonetomi, Yasuo; Kamiya, Akihiro; Fujita, Manabu; Nabe, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2017-01-05

    CysLT1 receptors are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the functional roles of CysLT2 receptors in this condition have not been determined. The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model of CysLT2 receptor-mediated LTC4-induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs and use this model to clarify the mechanism underlying response to such trapping. Because LTC4 is rapidly converted to LTD4 by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) under physiological conditions, S-hexyl GSH was used as a γ-GTP inhibitor. In anesthetized artificially ventilated guinea pigs with no S-hexyl GSH treatment, i.v. LTC4-induced bronchoconstriction was almost completely inhibited by montelukast, a CysLT1 receptor antagonist, but not by BayCysLT2RA, a CysLT2 receptor antagonist. The inhibitory effect of montelukast was diminished by treatment with S-hexyl GSH, whereas the effect of BayCysLT2RA was enhanced with increasing dose of S-hexyl GSH. Macroscopic and histological examination of lung tissue isolated from LTC4-/S-hexyl-GSH-treated guinea pigs revealed air-trapping expansion, particularly at the alveolar site. Inhaled LTC4 in conscious guinea pigs treated with S-hexyl GSH increased both airway resistance and airway hyperinflation. On the other hand, LTC4-induced air-trapping was only partially suppressed by treatment with the bronchodilator salmeterol. Although montelukast inhibition of LTC4-induced air-trapping was weak, treatment with BayCysLT2RA resulted in complete suppression of this air-trapping. Furthermore, BayCysLT2RA completely suppressed LTC4-induced airway vascular hyperpermeability. In conclusion, we found in this study that CysLT2 receptors mediate LTC4-induced bronchoconstriction and air-trapping in S-hexyl GSH-treated guinea pigs. It is therefore believed that CysLT2 receptors contribute to asthmatic response involving air-trapping.

  15. Identification of a umuDC locus in Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.; Eisenstadt, E. )

    1989-07-01

    The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli is required for efficient mutagenesis by UV light and many other DNA-damaging agents. The existence of a umuDC analog in Salmonella typhimurium has been questioned. With DNA probes to the E. coli umuD and umuC genes, we detected, by Southern blot hybridization, sequences similar to both of these genes in S. typhimurium LT2. We also confirmed that the presence of cloned E. coli umuD enhances the UV mutability and resistance of S. typhimurium. Our data strongly suggest that S. typhimurium contains a functional umuDC operon.

  16. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  17. Resonant cavities for efficient LT-GaAs photoconductors operating at λ = 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billet, M.; Latzel, P.; Pavanello, F.; Ducournau, G.; Lampin, J.-F.; Peytavit, E.

    2016-10-01

    We show that photoconductors based on low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) can be efficiently operated by 1.55 μm telecom wavelength by using metallic mirror based optical cavities. Two different semi-transparent front mirrors are compared: the first one is a thin gold layer, whereas the second one consists of a gold grating. Light absorption in grating mirror based optical cavities is numerically, analytically, and experimentally investigated allowing for an appropriate optical design. We show a 3 times improvement of the LT-GaAs photoconductor photoresponse by using, as front mirror, the gold grating once compared with the thin gold layer. It reaches around 0.5 mA/W under continuous wave, whereas a transient photoresistivity (Ron) as low as 5 Ω is deduced from dc photocurrents measured under femtosecond pulsed laser excitation. This work paves the way to efficient and reliable optoelectronics systems for GHz or THz waves sampling driven by 1.55 μm pulsed lasers widely available.

  18. Simulation-Based e-Learning Tools for Science,Engineering, and Technology Education(SimBeLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Doyle V.; Cherner, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The focus of Project SimBeLT is the research, development, testing, and dissemination of a new type of simulation-based integrated e-learning set of modules for two-year college technical and engineering curricula in the areas of thermodynamics, fluid physics, and fiber optics that can also be used in secondary schools and four-year colleges. A collection of sophisticated virtual labs is the core component of the SimBeLT modules. These labs will be designed to enhance the understanding of technical concepts and underlying fundamental principles of these topics, as well as to master certain performance based skills online. SimBeLT software will help educators to meet the National Science Education Standard that "learning science and technology is something that students do, not something that is done to them". A major component of Project SimBeLT is the development of multi-layered technology-oriented virtual labs that realistically mimic workplace-like environments. Dynamic data exchange between simulations will be implemented and links with instant instructional messages and data handling tools will be realized. A second important goal of Project SimBeLT labs is to bridge technical skills and scientific knowledge by enhancing the teaching and learning of specific scientific or engineering subjects. SimBeLT builds upon research and outcomes of interactive teaching strategies and tools developed through prior NSF funding (http://webphysics.nhctc.edu/compact/index.html) (Project SimBeLT is partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-0603277)

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of US Water Sys...

  20. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  1. Early long-term L-T3 replacement rescues mitochondria and prevents ischemic cardiac remodelling in rats.

    PubMed

    Forini, Francesca; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Ardehali, Hossein; Pucci, Angela; Cecchetti, Federica; Ghanefar, Mohsen; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Ichikawa, Yoshihiko; Nannipieri, Monica; Recchia, Fabio A; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2011-03-01

    3,5,3'-Levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3) is essential for DNA transcription, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, but its circulating levels rapidly decrease after myocardial infarction (MI). The main aim of our study was to test whether an early and sustained normalization of L-T3 serum levels after MI exerts myocardial protective effects through a mitochondrial preservation. Seventy-two hours after MI induced by anterior interventricular artery ligation, rats were infused with synthetic L-T3 (1.2 μg/kg/day) or saline over 4 weeks. Compared to saline, L-T3 infusion restored FT3 serum levels at euthyroid state (3.0 ± 0.2 versus 4.2 ± 0.3 pg/ml), improved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (39.5 ± 2.5 versus 65.5 ± 6.9%), preserved LV end-systolic wall thickening in the peri-infarct zone (6.34 ± 3.1 versus 33.7 ± 6.21%) and reduced LV infarct-scar size by approximately 50% (all P < 0.05). Moreover, L-T3 significantly increased angiogenesis and cell survival and enhanced the expression of nuclear-encoded transcription factors involved in these processes. Finally, L-T3 significantly increased the expression of factors involved in mitochondrial DNA transcription and biogenesis, such as hypoxic inducible factor-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, in the LV peri-infarct zone. To further explore mechanisms of L-T3 protective effects, we exposed isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes to H(2)O(2) and found that L-T3 rescued mitochondrial biogenesis and function and protected against cell death via a mitoKATP dependent pathway. Early and sustained physiological restoration of circulating L-T3 levels after MI halves infarct scar size and prevents the progression towards heart failure. This beneficial effect is likely due to enhanced capillary formation and mitochondrial protection.

  2. A new intense lava fountain episode at Voragine crater (Mt. Etna): the event of 3 December 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Bonadonna, Costanza; Cioni, Raffaello; Cristaldi, Antonio; Pascual, Aurélie Joy; Russo, Alessandro; Scollo, Simona

    2016-04-01

    On 3 December 2015 Voragine crater, one of the five summit craters of Mt. Etna (Italy), produced a powerful lava fountain. The last paroxysmal episodes from this crater had occurred on July 1998 and September 1999; both events had been very intense, the first one classified as subPlinian and the latter causing significant disruption to road traffic due dense tephra sedimentation. Afterward, the Voragine entered in a period of relative quiescence interrupted by short events of Strombolian activity and weak ash emissions. In August 2015 the crater resumed its activity with discontinuous ash puffs that were followed by periods of relatively intense ash blasts in September. In October, this activity was clearly replaced by weak, pulsating Strombolian explosions confined inside the crater, which was several tens of meter deep. Gradually the Strombolian blasts became more continuous and intense and lapilli started to sediment around the crater rim. In the night between 2 and 3 December, the increase of seismic tremor coevally to the Strombolian activity heralded the lava fountain episode. During the paroxysm, that lasted around 40 minutes, vigorous magma jets were also produced by the adjacent Bocca Nuova summit crater, contributing to form a unique eruption column up to at least 7-8 km above the volcano and dispersed to the NE. Lighting was recurrently observed inside the column. Field survey, carried out between 3 and 5 December from a distance of 5 km from the vent, allowed to map the fallout dispersal and collect tephra samples. Estimation of uncertainty associated with ash sampling were also performed. Due to low-intense winds, the fallout mostly affected the area close to the volcanic slopes, but it also reached both the Tyrrhenian Sea to the N and the Ionian Sea to the E, more than 100 km of distance from the crater. Measurements of shape and density on the largest clasts collected within the first km from the Voragine were performed. Furthermore, we measured the

  3. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to

  4. A laser-cooled cesium fountain frequency standard and a measurement of the frequency shift due to ultra-cold collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibble, Kurt; Kasapi, Steven; Chu, Steven

    1993-01-01

    A frequency standard based on an atomic fountain of cesium atoms may have an accuracy of 10(exp -16) due to longer interaction times and smaller anticipated systematic errors. All of the known systematic effects that now limit the accuracy of the Cs frequency standard increase either linearly or as some higher power of the atom's velocity. The one systematic frequency shift which is dramatically different is the frequency shift due to the collisions between the laser cooled atoms. At a temperature of a few micro-K, the de Broglie wavelength (lambda(sub deB) = h/p, where h is Planck's constant and p is the momentum of the atom) is much larger than the scale of the interatomic potential. Under these conditions the collision cross sections can be as large as (lambda(sub deB)(sup 2))/Pi and the frequency shift due to these collisions was recently calculated. In our Cs atomic fountain, we laser cooled and trapped 10(exp 10) Cs atoms in 0.4 s. By shifting the frequencies of the laser beams, the atoms were launched upwards at 2.5 m/s and a fraction of the atoms were optically pumped into the F=3 ground state. The unwanted atoms in the F=4 ground state were removed from the fountain with radiation pressure from a laser beam tuned to excite only those atoms. The Cs atoms in the F=3 state traveled ballistically upwards, were excited by the microwave cavity, and then returned back through the same cavity in the atomic fountain configuration. By varying the cold atom density, a density dependent shift of -12.9 +/- 0.7 mHz or -1.4 x 10-12 for an average fountain density of (2.7 +/- 1.5) 10(exp 9) atoms/cm(sup 3) was measured.

  5. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  6. Polarized Structure Function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for $p({\\vec e},e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Raue, Brian; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Carman, Daniel; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anciant, Eric; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asavapibhop, Burin; Asryan, Gegham; Audit, Gerard; Auger, Thierry; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Casey, Liam; Cetina, Catalina; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dragovitsch, Peter; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girard, Pascal; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gothe, Ralf; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hu, Jicun; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, Konstantin; MacCormick, Marion; Manak, Joseph; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Peterson, Gerald; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Sayre, Donald; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Shafi, Aziz; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Simionatto, Sebastio; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Taylor, Shawn; Tedeschi, David; Thoma, Ulrike; Thompson, Richard; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Wang,

    2008-06-01

    The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.

  7. Upward Bound: An Untapped Fountain Of Youth Wanting To Learn About Math And Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, L. C.; Svelling, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    , physics, math, and engineering. In addition, learning science through inquiry and experimentation lends tangible examples to abstract principles. Our curricula (available on-line for sharing) are comprised of (1) modular classroom lesson plans, (2) teacher tutorials, and (3) hands-on laboratory experiments. Each set of summer classes has a theme; the first set of summer classes centered on factors that affect climate on any planet. For example, students measured solar activity by counting sunspots and learned about the greenhouse effect by conducting experiments with colored bottles. The second summer focused on how the electromagnetic spectrum is fundamental to remote sensing. During our summer 2009 program the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter launched, and with its many instruments served as a shining example of how the electromagnetic spectrum is used to study planetary bodies. Thus, NASA archived and student-collected data sets used in a PBL setting provide the basic foundation for helping students learn science and math concepts, while the UB programs ensure sustainability by providing a fountain of youth who want to learn.

  8. Validation of Turbulence Models for the Beggar Code in Unsteady Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    the operation of Beggar and Magdi Rizk and Alex Dobrinski for their insight into the the Beggar code. I would like to thank LtCol Raymond Maple for his...1995-1691. June 1995. 30. Rizk, Magdi , et al. “Beggar - A Store Separation Predictive Tool.” AIAA 32nd Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit . Number

  9. Inducible pathway is required for mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Orrego, C.; Eisenstadt, E.

    1987-06-01

    UV mutability of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was eliminated in the presence of a multicopy plasmid carrying the Escherichia coli lexA/sup +/ gene. This result suggests that inducible, SOS-like functions are required for UV mutagenesis in S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium strains carrying either point or deletion mutations in topA had previously been shown to lose their mutability by UV or methyl methanesulfonate. Mitomycin C induction of the Phi(mucB'-lacZ') fusion (a DNA damage-inducible locus carried on plasmid pSE205) in S. typhimurium topA was normal, suggesting that RecA is activated in topA mutants. These observations lead the authors deduce that S. typhimurium has at least one DNA damage-inducible locus in addition to recA that is required for UV mutability.

  10. A direct probe of cloud holes at the L/T transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buenzli, Esther

    2014-10-01

    Understanding cloud formation, evolution and dispersal is one of the biggest challenges in the field of substellar atmospheres. At the transition from L to T type brown dwarfs, thick silicate and iron clouds disappear below the visible photosphere and the spectra are altered dramatically despite little change in effective temperature. Observed strengthening of the FeH band through the transition has indicated an opening of cloud holes rather than gradual sinking of the clouds. This view has been supported by the discovery of brown dwarfs with photometric variability attributed to patchy cloud cover. However, our recent spectral variability observations have complicated the picture because patchy cloud models with cloud holes currently cannot reproduce the color variations and spectral variability signatures. Whether this implies an absence of cloud holes (in contradiction to the interpretation of the observed strengthening of FeH) or is because models neglect other mechanisms that can affect the colors (eg temperature anomalies) remains unclear. Here, we propose WFC3/G102 spectral variability observations of the very nearby L/T transition benchmark binary Luhman 16AB, the only known variable brown dwarfs in a binary system. These observations target the FeH band. As the FeH molecule contains the cloud forming atom Fe, it is a direct tracer of the cloud holes. By comparing the variability amplitude in the FeH band with the surrounding continuum, as well as between the L and T component at different stages of cloud evolution, we will obtain direct evidence whether the formation of cloud holes is indeed the driving mechanism behind cloud dispersal at the L/T transition.

  11. Testing Periodic Local Position Invariance Using Long-Term Comparison of the Syrte Atomic Fountains and H-Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, M. E.; Stanwix, P. L.; McFerran, J. J.; Guena, J.; Abgrall, M.; Bize, S.; Clairon, A.; Laurent, Ph.; Rosenbusch, P.; Rovera, D.; Santarelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    The frequencies of Cs and Rb fountain clocks have been compared to various H-masers to search for periodic changes correlated with the gravitational potential and boost with respect to the cosmic microwave background. The data span about eight years and the main sources of long-term noise are the offsets and linear drifts associated with the H-masers. To circumvent these effects we apply a numerical derivative to the data, which significantly reduces the standard error. We determine a limit for the Local Position Invariance (LPI) coefficient with respect to gravity to be 4.8×10-6 and 10-5 for a Cs-H and Rb-H comparison, respectively. From the same data the boost LPI coefficients were measured to parts in 1011. From these results and others, independent limits on all coefficients of the boost violation vector with respect to fundamental constant invariance were determined to parts in 1010.

  12. Measurement of the blackbody radiation shift of the {sup 133}Cs hyperfine transition in an atomic fountain

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Lorini, Luca; Micalizio, Salvatore; Godone, Aldo

    2004-09-01

    We used a Cs fountain to measure the Stark shift of the ground-state hyperfine transition frequency in cesium (9.2 GHz) due to the electric field of the blackbody radiation. The relative shift at 300 K deduced from our measurements, including the leading and the second-order term in temperature, is (-1.45{+-}0.09)x10{sup -14} and agrees with our recent theoretical evaluation (-1.51{+-}0.07)x10{sup -14} [Micalizio et al. Phys. Rev. A 69, 053401 (2004)]. These values differ from that currently used (-1.735{+-}0.003)x10{sup -14}, with significant implications on frequency standards accuracy, on clocks comparison and on a variety of high-precision physics tests, such as the time stability of fundamental constants.

  13. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  14. Imaging and spectroscopy of secondary electrons from AlN and β-SiAlON ceramics using fountain detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yujin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Kimura, Takashi; Iwai, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the bright contrast of insulating ceramics in secondary electron (SE) image taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the low-pass secondary electron signals and images of conductive AlN and insulating β-SiAlON powders taken by fountain detector (FD) were inspected. It was found that the background component of β-SiAlON is originally strong. This component may come from the SE acceleration according to the charging. The low energy SEs of 5-20 eV were strong in AlN particles. According to the wide acceptance angle of FSED, we could not detect clear energy shift in SE spectra. These observations suggest that the bright contrast of insulating materials is not an intrinsic character of insulators but the SE3 contribution.

  15. High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bize, S.; Sortais, Y.; Santos, M. S.; Mandache, C.; Clairon, A.; Salomon, C.

    1999-03-01

    We describe the operation of a laser-cooled rubidium 87Rb frequency standard. We present a new measurement of the 87Rb hyperfine frequency with a 1.3 × 10-14 relative accuracy, by comparison with a Cs fountain primary standard. The measured 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting is ν87 = 6 834 682 610.90429(9) Hz. This value differs from previously published values (see Essen L., Hope E. G. and Sutcliffe D., Nature 189 1961 298; Penselin S., Moran T., Cohen W. and Wscinkler G., Phys. Rev. 127 1962 524; Arditi M. and Cerez P. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-21 1972 391) by about 2 - 3 Hz and is 104 times more accurate. Because of the low collisional shift in 87Rb, future improvements may lead to a stability of 1 × 10-14τ-1/2 and a relative accuracy in the 10-17 range.

  16. Repeated detection of microbes in beverages dispensed from soda fountain machines and the effect of flushing on microbial density.

    PubMed

    Godard, Renee D; Sharma, Puja; Wagner, Carlie Jo; Wilson, C Morgan; Fleming-Haddock, Amie; Beach, Rebecca L

    2013-05-15

    Few studies have examined patterns of microbial contamination in soda fountain beverages. In this study, patterns of microbial contamination in beverages dispensed from soda fountain machines (SFMs) sampled in June 2009 and then again 13 months later were compared. Over 70% of beverages contained microbes in both years, suggesting that contamination of beverages dispensed from SFMs can continue for long periods of time. In addition, the impact of disinfecting the dispensing nozzles and plastic tubing of SFMs, as well as the impact of machine use on microbial contamination was assessed. Managers from 26 establishments (fast-food and convenience stores) were interviewed about their SFM disinfecting practices and no correlation was found between the self-reported disinfecting practices and levels of microbial contamination in beverages dispensed from SFMs. Furthermore, in a direct study of two SFMs with an established disinfecting regimen, CFU/mL in beverages increased significantly immediately after disinfecting of plastic tubing yet returned to pre-disinfecting concentrations within 11 days. These results suggest that disinfecting may disturb microbial communities, resulting in increased planktonic microbes, but not the ultimate removal of communities themselves. Additionally, samples of a sugar and a diet soda were collected from 15 different SFMs before and after dispensing of ~0.95 L (the approximate size of a large beverage cup). Samples collected before dispensing this volume had significantly higher microbial counts than those collected after, suggesting that planktonic microbes in the beverage lines had been reduced by flushing. As there are currently no regulations regarding the disinfecting of SFM tubing or periodic inspections of beverages dispensed from SFMs, it would be valuable for consumers to encourage increased surveillance of SFMs, and to dispense some beverage before filling their cups.

  17. Hawaiian fissure fountains 1: decoding deposits-episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcheta, C.E.; Houghton, B.F.; Swanson, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deposits from episode 1 of the 1969–1974 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provide an exceptional opportunity to study processes of low intensity Hawaiian fissure fountains. Episode 1 lava flows passed through dense forest that had little impact on flow dynamics; in contrast, the pattern of spatter preservation was strongly influenced by the forest (through the formation of tree molds) and the preexisting topography. A low, near-continuous spatter rampart is present upwind and upslope, on the north side of the fissure. Most of the pyroclastic products, however, fell downwind to the south of the fissure, but little was preserved due to two processes: (1) incorporation of proximal spatter in rheomorphic lava flows 10–20 m from the vents, and (2) the downslope transport of cooler spatter falling on top of these flows beyond 20 m from vent. The lava flow field itself shows a complex history. Initially, discharge from the fissure exceeded the transport capacity of the southern drainage pathways, and lava ponded dynamically to a maximum height of 4 m for 40–120 min, until fountains began to decline. During declining discharge, lava flowed both southward away from the fissure and increasingly back into the vents. There is a clear “lava-shed” or delineation between where lava drained northwards back into the fissure, and where it continued flowing to the south. The 1969 deposits suggest that care is needed when products of less well-documented eruptions are analyzed, as postdepositional transport of spatter may preclude the formation of classic paired (symmetrical) ramparts.

  18. Determination of microbial quality and plasmid-mediated multidrug resistant bacteria in fountain drinking water sources in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akturk, Sayim; Dincer, Sadik; Toroglu, Sevil

    2012-11-01

    The bacterial contamination as the total aerobic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliform numbers were determined and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in seasonally collected water samples from fifteen different stations placed in Adana-Tufanbeyli road line during March 2008 - January 2009. In addition, antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were examined against frequently used antibiotics, and analyzed plasmid DNAof multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) isolates. Total aerobic bacteria in fountain water samples was determined as 3 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) and total and fecal coliforms were determined 460 MPN/100 ml. Results obtained from biochemical analysis showed that 121 of the isolates were Proteus vulgaris, 69 Escherichia coli, 51 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 28 Citrobacter spp. According to these results, the existence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in stations 2 and 10, and Streptococcus faecalis in stations 11 and 15 respectively were confirmed. Clostridium perfringens was not detected in water samples. A total of 273 isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by agar disc diffusion methods. A total of sixteen antibiotics were used for determination of antibiotic resistance of isolates. Resistance to bacitracin, vancomycine, cephalothin and ampicillin was detected in 77, 77, 63 and 50%, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) value > or = 0.25 was determined in 68.4% of identified 273 isolates and meaning of this percentage were resistant to four and more antibiotics. Plasmid DNA was isolated from 22 isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 taken randomly by agarose-gel electrophoresis, some of them contain a high-molecular weight plasmid DNA. Highlight of our study that the appearance of potential antibiotic resistances in fountain drinking water requires increased surveillance for risk assessment and prevention strategies to protect public health.

  19. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  20. LT175 Is a Novel PPARα/γ Ligand with Potent Insulin-sensitizing Effects and Reduced Adipogenic Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Gilardi, Federica; Giudici, Marco; Mitro, Nico; Maschi, Omar; Guerrini, Uliano; Rando, Gianpaolo; Maggi, Adriana; Cermenati, Gaia; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Pochetti, Giorgio; Lavecchia, Antonio; Caruso, Donatella; De Fabiani, Emma; Bamberg, Krister; Crestani, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Ongoing drug discovery programs aim to develop dual PPARα/γ agonists devoid of the side effects of the marketed antidiabetic agents thiazolidinediones and the dual agonists glitazars. Recently, we described a new dual PPARα/γ ligand, LT175, with a partial agonist profile against PPARγ and interacting with a newly identified region of the PPARγ-ligand binding domain (1). Here we show that LT175 differentially activated PPARγ target genes involved in fatty acid esterification and storage in 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes. This resulted in a less severe lipid accumulation compared with that triggered by rosiglitazone, suggesting that LT175 may have a lower adipogenic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, in vivo administration of LT175 to mice fed a high-fat diet decreased body weight, adipocyte size, and white adipose tissue mass, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, LT175 significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and increased circulating adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that the compound improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the peculiar interaction of LT175 with PPARγ affected the recruitment of the coregulators cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR1), fundamentals for the PPARγ-mediated adipogenic program. In conclusion, our results describe a new PPAR ligand, modulating lipid and glucose metabolism with reduced adipogenic activity, that may be used as a model for a series of novel molecules with an improved pharmacological profile for the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24451380

  1. Immunostimulant patches containing Escherichia coli LT enhance immune responses to DNA- and recombinant protein-based Alzheimer's disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Davtyan, Hayk; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Hovakimyan, Armine; Petrushina, Irina; Yu, Jianmei; Flyer, David; Madsen, Peter Juul; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Cribbs, David H; Agadjanyan, Michael G

    2014-03-15

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) using vaccination strategies must overcome the obstacle of achieving adequate responses to vaccination in the elderly. Here we demonstrate for the first time that application of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin adjuvant-laden immunostimulatory patches (LT-IS) dramatically enhances the onset and magnitude of immune responses to DNA- and protein-based vaccines for Alzheimer's disease following intradermal immunization via gene gun and conventional needles, respectively. Our studies suggest that the immune activation mediated by LT-IS offers improved potency for generating AD-specific vaccination responses that should be investigated as an adjuvant in the clinical arena.

  2. Source process of cyclic fire fountaining at Mt. Etna in 2000: a multidsciplinary study of the June 14 (63rd) event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.; Alparone, S.; Andronico, D.; Burton, M.; Lodato, L.; Murè, F.; Zgroi, T.

    2003-04-01

    From 26 January to 29 August 2000, Southeast crater of Etna (SEC, 3250 ma.s.l.) was the site of 66 paroxysmal fire fountaining events whose remarkable periodicity and reproducible eruptive pattern indicate a cyclic source mechanism operating in a magma feeding system of quite stable geometry. We have investigated this source mechanism in light of data for the whole series of events [1] and, in particular, of a detailed multi-disciplinary study of the 63rd (14 June) event [2]. Like previous ones, this event involved aseismic, precursory extrusion of degassed lava (10 hours), then growing Strombolian activity and lava effusion (1.5 h) and, finally, 40 minutes of 300 to 600 m high fire fountaining paroxysm that ended abruptly. The synchronous evolutions of volcanic tremor and eruptive activity evidences a main control of the seismic signal by the shallow conduit flow dynamics, even though a deepening of the tremor source (deeper magma effervescence and flow) is indicated during the eruption climax. Combining the erupted amounts of dense magma and gas, geochemical data for the erupted lavas, the chemistry of fountain gases measured for the first time on Etna using remote FTIR spectrometry, and the dynamics of the phenomena we show that periodical accumulation and collapse of a gas bubble foam layer at the base of SEC conduit was the most likely process responsible of the June 14 eruption and other fountaining events at SEC in 2000. The mean gas accumulation rate prior to the June 14 event is assessed at 35 kg.s-1. The different data types allow us to provide quantitative constraints upon the geometry of SEC feeding system (conduit height and width, size of the magma reservoir) and its evolution with time. We propose that the 2000 fountain series was triggered by the input of primitive volatile-rich melt into a permanent reservoir of moderate size that contained more evolved and partly degassed magma left after the previous 1998-99 SEC activity. Turbulent plumes, magma

  3. Improving the method of low-temperature anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (LT-AMS) measurements in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the limitations of the method of low-temperature anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (LT-AMS) measurements in air and presents technical improvements that significantly reduce the instrumental drift and measurement errors. We analyzed the temperature profile of porous chalk core after cooling in liquid nitrogen and found that the average temperature of the sample during the LT-AMS measurement in air is higher than 77K and close to 92K. This analysis indicates that the susceptibility of the paramagnetic minerals are amplified by a factor ˜3.2 relative to that of room temperature AMS (RT-AMS). In addition, it was found that liquid nitrogen was absorbed in the samples during immersing and contributed diamagnetic component of ˜-9 × 10-6 SI to the total mean susceptibility. We showed that silicone sheet placed around and at the bottom of the measuring coil is an effective thermal protection, preventing instrument drift by the cold sample. In this way, the measuring errors of LT-AMS reduced to the level of RT-AMS, allowing accurate comparison with standard AMS measurements. We examined the applicability of the LT-AMS measurements on chalk samples that consist <5% (weight) of paramagnetic minerals and showed that it helps to efficiently enhance the paramagnetic fabric. The present study offers a practical approach, which can be applied to various types of rocks to better delineate the paramagnetic phase using conventional equipment.

  4. Multi-Stage Tuberculosis Subunit Vaccine Candidate LT69 Provides High Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongxia; Peng, Jinxiu; Bai, Chunxiang; Liu, Xun; Hu, Lina; Luo, Yanping; Wang, Bingxiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jianzhu; Yu, Hongjuan; Xian, Qiaoyang; Zhu, Bingdong

    2015-01-01

    Effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine should target tubercle bacilli with various metabolic states and confer long-term protective immunity. In this study, we constructed a novel multi-stage TB subunit vaccine based on fusion protein ESAT6-Ag85B-MPT64(190-198)-Mtb8.4-HspX (LT69 for short) which combined early expressed antigens and latency-associated antigen. The fusion protein was mixed with an adjuvant being composed of N, N'-dimethyl-N, N'-dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C) to construct subunit vaccine, whose immunogenicity and protective ability were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that LT69 had strong immunogenicity and high protective effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv aerosol challenge. Low-dose (2 μg) of LT69 generated long-term immune memory responses and provided effective protection, which was even higher than traditional vaccine BCG did at 30 weeks post the last vaccination. In conclusion, multistage subunit vaccine LT69 showed high and long-term protection against M. tuberculosis infection in mice, whose effect could be enhanced by using a relative low dosage of antigen.

  5. Description and User Manual for a Web-Based Interface to a Transit-Loss Accounting Program for Monument and Fountain Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Krammes, Gary S.; Beal, Vivian J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 with the following objectives: (1) Apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise an existing accounting program for Fountain Creek to easily incorporate ongoing and future changes in management of return flows of reusable water, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program and develop a Web-based interface to the integrated program that incorporates simple and reliable data entry that is automated to the fullest extent possible. This report describes the results of completing objectives (2), (3), and (4) of that study. The accounting program for Monument Creek was developed first by (1) using the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek as a prototype, (2) incorporating the transit-loss results from a stream-aquifer modeling analysis of Monument Creek, and (3) developing new output reports. The capabilities of the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek then were incorporated into the program for Monument Creek and the output reports were expanded to include Fountain Creek. A Web-based interface to the new transit-loss accounting program then was developed that provided automated data entry. An integrated system of 34 nodes and 33 subreaches was integrated by combining the independent node and subreach systems used in the previously completed stream-aquifer modeling studies for the Monument and Fountain Creek reaches. Important operational criteria that were implemented in the new transit-loss accounting program for Monument and Fountain Creeks included the following: (1) Retain all the reusable water-management capabilities incorporated into the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek; (2) enable daily accounting and transit

  6. Operation of NIM5 fountain with 1.5x10-15 uncertainty and design of new NIM6 in NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Liu, N.; Liu, K.; Chen, W.; Suo, R.; Li, Tianchu

    2016-06-01

    The cesium fountain primary frequency standard NIM5 started to operate since 2008 and started to report to BIPM since 2014. The major constrains of NIM5 is a relatively large background signal at the detection and microwave leakages due to the Ramsey cavity. A new fountain clock NIM6 is under construction. Besides some improvements on the vacuum system, a new Ramsey cavity and a microwave synthesizer are made to reduce the Type B uncertainty. Another feature of NIM6 is collecting atoms from a MOT loading optical molasses to get more atoms with a more uniform density distribution. With a new frequency synthesizer based on cryogenic sapphire oscillator (CSO), NIM6 is aiming to reach the quantum projection noise, thus leading to a reduced Type A uncertainty compared with NIM5.

  7. Novel leptin receptor mutation in NOD/LtJ mice suppresses type 1 diabetes progression: II. Immunologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Chen, Yi-Guang; Chen, Jing; Reifsnyder, Peter C; Serreze, David V; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Rodriguez, Michelle; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A; Leiter, Edward H

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we identified in normally type 1 diabetes-prone NOD/LtJ mice a spontaneous new leptin receptor (LEPR) mutation (designated Lepr(db-5J)) producing juvenile obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. This early type 2 diabetes syndrome suppressed intra-islet insulitis and permitted spontaneous diabetes remission. No significant differences in plasma corticosterone, splenic CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell percentages, or functions of CD3(+) T-cells in vitro distinguished NOD wild-type from mutant mice. Yet splenocytes from hyperglycemic mutant donors failed to transfer type 1 diabetes into NOD.Rag1(-/-) recipients over a 13-week period, whereas wild-type donor cells did so. This correlated with significantly reduced (P < 0.01) frequencies of insulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein-reactive CD8(+) T-effector clonotypes in mutant mice. Intra-islet insulitis was also significantly suppressed in lethally irradiated NOD-Lepr(db-5J)/Lt recipients reconstituted with wild-type bone marrow (P < 0.001). In contrast, type 1 diabetes eventually developed when mutant marrow was transplanted into irradiated wild-type recipients. Mitogen-induced T-cell blastogenesis was significantly suppressed when splenic T-cells from both NOD/Lt and NOD-Lepr(db-5J)/Lt donors were incubated with irradiated mutant peritoneal exudate cells (P < 0.005). In conclusion, metabolic disturbances elicited by a type 2 diabetes syndrome (insulin and/or leptin resistance, but not hypercorticism) appear to suppress type 1 diabetes development in NOD-Lepr(db-5J)/Lt by inhibiting activation of T-effector cells.

  8. Acute and chronic bioeffects of single and multiple doses of piezoelectric shockwaves (EDAP LT.01).

    PubMed

    Ryan, P C; Jones, B J; Kay, E W; Nowlan, P; Kiely, E A; Gaffney, E F; Butler, M R

    1991-02-01

    Piezoelectric second generation lithotriptors are an established means of administering extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) enabling treatment to be performed without anaesthesia or analgesia, but higher shockwave doses and multiple or staged treatment are frequently required. The bioeffects of this modality of ESWL, therefore, require further assessment. Seven experimental groups of adult male rabbits were treated using the EDAP LT.01 in order to determine the acute and chronic bioeffects of clinical dose, excess dose, divided excess dose, high frequency and multiple treatment (X10) piezoelectric shockwaves (PSW). Renal function was measured before and after treatment using mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3) scans. Gross and histological morphological changes were assessed at one and 30 days following application of PSW. Application of single clinical dose PSW was not associated with any significant functional or morphological renal injury. Excess dose PSW caused transient gross renal contusion, which resolved in the majority of animals with no persistent microscopic abnormality. Divided excess dose PSW resulted in no gross or microscopic damage. High frequency PSW was associated with mild histological abnormality. Multiple PSW treatments caused small discrete fibrotic lesions in all cases, without any change in renal function.

  9. AT-RvD1 Promotes Resolution of Inflammation in NOD/ShiLtJ mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Shuen; Maruyama, Christina L.; Easley, Justin T.; Trump, Bryan G.; Baker, Olga J.

    2017-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by diminished secretory function of the exocrine glands. Treatments for hyposalivation are limited to the use of saliva substitutes and medications that provide only temporary relief. In light of the high degree of need and the limitations of current therapies, development of alternative treatments to restore functioning is essential. Resolvins (Rv), which are highly potent lipid mediators, offer a viable alternative for better treating inflammatory diseases such as SS. The goal of this study was to determine whether systemic preventive treatment with Aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) reduces inflammation and preserves secretory functioning in NOD/ShiLtJ SS-like mice. Our results indicate that systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 diminishes the progression of the disease in salivary epithelium from female mice as follows: (a) improves secretory function, (b) reduces pro-inflammatory molecule gene expression, (c) increases anti-inflammatory molecule gene expression and (d) induces M2 macrophage polarization. Finally, AT-RvD1 decreases lymphocytic infiltration into the salivary glands when used with small doses of the steroid, dexamethasone, and promotes the tissue healing process. PMID:28361884

  10. Low Q2 Measurement of g2p and the LT Spin Polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Slifer

    2009-07-01

    JLab has been at the forefront of a program to measure the nucleon spin-dependent structure functions over a wide kinematic range, and data of unprecedented quality has been extracted in all three experimental halls. Moments of these quantities have proven to be powerful tools to test QCD sum rules and provide benchmark tests of Lattice QCD and Chiral Perturbation Theory. Precision measurements of $g_{1,2}^n$ and $g_1^p$ have been performed as part of the highly successful `extended GDH program', but data on the $g_2^p$ structure function remain scarce. We discuss here JLab experiment E08-027, which will measure quantity $g_2^p$ in the resonance region at low $Q^2$. These data will be used to test the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule and to extract the higher moments $\\delta_{LT}^p(Q^2)$ and $\\overline{d}_2^p(Q^2)$. Data in the $Q^2$ range $0.02

  11. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  12. Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Sauvager, F; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Colwell, R R; Cormier, M

    2006-11-01

    S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic acid concentration of 7 mg/l. In SEW, at peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg/l, the cells were nonculturable (VNC), but retained virulence as demonstrated by invasion assays of HeLa cells. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) resulted in bacterial death, i.e. substrate non-responsive cells. Despite morphological alterations of the bacteria after peracetic acid treatment, visualized by transmission electronic microscopy, conservation of both adhesive and invasive capacities was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to 0-15 mg/l peracetic acid. Public health professionals need to recognize that peracetic acid-treated Salmonella is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entering and recovering from the viable but nonculturable state, and may remain virulent after a stay in SEW followed by peracetic acid treatment.

  13. Eruption dynamics and degassing histories of high fountaining episodes of the Pu`u `O`o eruption in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea, 1983-1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, S. J.; Carey, R.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.; Orr, T. R.; Patrick, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Between January 1983 and July 1986, activity at Kilauea was localised at Pu`u `O`o in the East Rift Zone. During this time activity was characterised by short (0.2 to 16 days), high intensity fountaining episodes of varying heights, which were separated by lengthy repose periods (10 to 50 days). Microtextural analysis of juvenile pyroclasts produced by eruptions such as these can be highly valuable in providing information on the nature of the evolution of the magma's volatiles in the shallow conduit. The growing literature on microtextural analysis of the vesicles in basaltic pyroclasts suggests that variations in eruption form, duration and intensity is controlled by the degassing and outgassing of the magma, and in variations in the timing and extent of the nucleation, growth and coalescence of bubbles in the magma and the degree in which they are mechanically coupled to the melt (Stovall et al. 2011, Parcheta et al. 2013). We have collected samples from three high fountaining episodes that were well characterised by Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff at the time of the eruption. These episodes produced fountains with heights between 391-445 m, and volumes of 1.1x107 m3 and 1.7x107 m3 of lava (bulk volume). We describe here microtextural characteristics and matrix glass volatile contents of pyroclasts erupted from the three episodes and we couple this data together with multidisciplinary geophysical and visual datasets collected by HVO staff. The combination of quantitative vesicle microtextures and syn-eruptive volatiles within groundmass glass permit us to quantify the degassing histories of magma erupted in each eruptive episode. This data will be combined with visual observations of fountain height and geophysical data (geodetic and seismic) in order to better define the factors that govern the variations in the eruption intensity of Hawaiian volcanism.

  14. Testing local position and fundamental constant invariance due to periodic gravitational and boost using long-term comparison of the SYRTE atomic fountains and H-masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, M. E.; Stanwix, P. L.; McFerran, J. J.; Guéna, J.; Abgrall, M.; Bize, S.; Clairon, A.; Laurent, Ph.; Rosenbusch, P.; Rovera, D.; Santarelli, G.

    2013-06-01

    The frequencies of three separate Cs fountain clocks and one Rb fountain clock have been compared to various hydrogen masers to search for periodic changes correlated with the changing solar gravitational potential at the Earth and boost with respect to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. The data sets span over more than 8 yr. The main sources of long-term noise in such experiments are the offsets and linear drifts associated with the various H-masers. The drift can vary from nearly immeasurable to as high as 1.3×10-15 per day. To circumvent these effects, we apply a numerical derivative to the data, which significantly reduces the standard error when searching for periodic signals. We determine a standard error for the putative local position invariance coefficient with respect to gravity for a Cs-fountain H-maser comparison of |βH-βCs|≤4.8×10-6 and |βH-βRb|≤10-5 for a Rb-Fountain H-maser comparison. From the same data, the putative boost local position invariance coefficients were measured to a precision of up to parts in 1011 with respect to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. By combining these boost invariance experiments to a cryogenic sapphire oscillator vs H-maser comparison, independent limits on all nine coefficients of the boost-violation vector with respect to fundamental constant invariance, Bα, Be, and Bq (fine structure constant, electron mass, and quark mass, respectively), were determined to a precision of parts up to 1010.

  15. Trends in precipitation and streamflow and changes in stream morphology in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 1939-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The Fountain Creek watershed, located in and along the eastern slope of the Front Range section of the southern Rocky Mountains, drains approximately 930 square miles of parts of Teller, El Paso, and Pueblo Counties in eastern Colorado. Streamflow in the watershed is dominated by spring snowmelt runoff and storm runoff during the summer monsoon season. Flooding during the 1990?s has resulted in increased streambank erosion. Property loss and damage associated with flooding and bank erosion has cost area residents, businesses, utilities, municipalities, and State and Federal agencies millions of dollars. Precipitation (4 stations) and streamflow (6 stations) data, aerial photographs, and channel reconnaissance were used to evaluate trends in precipitation and streamflow and changes in channel morphology. Trends were evaluated for pre-1977, post-1976, and period-of-record time periods. Analysis revealed the lack of trend in total annual and seasonal precipitation during the pre-1977 time period. In general, the analysis also revealed the lack of trend in seasonal precipitation for all except the spring season during the post-1976 time period. Trend analysis revealed a significant upward trend in long-term (period of record) total annual and spring precipitation data, apparently due to a change in total annual precipitation throughout the Fountain Creek watershed. During the pre-1977 time period, precipitation was generally below average; during the post- 1976 time period, total annual precipitation was generally above average. During the post- 1976 time period, an upward trend in total annual and spring precipitation was indicated at two stations. Because two of four stations evaluated had upward trends for the post-1976 period and storms that produce the most precipitation are isolated convection storms, it is plausible that other parts of the watershed had upward precipitation trends that could affect trends in streamflow. Also, because of the isolated nature of

  16. Products of Submarine Fountains and Bubble-burst Eruptive Activity at 1200 m on West Mata Volcano, Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Rubin, K. H.; Keller, N. S.

    2009-12-01

    An eruption was observed and sampled at West Mata Volcano using ROV JASON II for 5 days in May 2009 during the NSF-NOAA eruption response cruise to this region of suspected volcanic activity. Activity was focused near the summit at the Prometheus and Hades vents. Prometheus erupted almost exclusively as low-level fountains. Activity at Hades cycled between vigorous degassing, low fountains, and bubble-bursts, building up and partially collapsing a small spatter/scoria cone and feeding short sheet-like and pillow flows. Fire fountains at Prometheus produced mostly small primary pyroclasts that include Pele's hair and fluidal fragments of highly vesicular volcanic glass. These fragments have mostly shattered and broken surfaces, although smooth spatter-like surfaces also occur. As activity wanes, glow in the vent fades, and denser, sometimes altered volcanic clasts are incorporated into the eruption. The latter are likely from the conduit walls and/or vent-rim ejecta, drawn back into the vent by inrushing seawater that replaces water entrained in the rising volcanic plume. Repeated recycling of previously erupted materials eventually produces rounded clasts resembling beach cobbles and pitted surfaces on broken phenocrysts of pyroxene and olivine. We estimate that roughly 33% of near vent ejecta are recycled. Our best sample of this ejecta type was deposited in the drawer of the JASON II ROV during a particularly large explosion that occurred during plume sampling immediately above the vent. Elemental sulfur spherules up to 5 mm in diameter are common in ejecta from both vents and occur inside some of the lava fragments Hades activity included dramatic bubble-bursts unlike anything previously observed under water. The lava bubbles, sometimes occurring in rapid-fire sequence, collapsed in the water-column, producing fragments that are quenched in less than a second to form Pele's hair, limu o Pele, spatter-like lava blobs, and scoria. All are highly vesicular

  17. Estimating eruption temperature from thermal emission spectra of lava fountain activity in the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) volcano lava lake: Implications for observing Io's volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, A.G.; Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution temperature measurements of the active lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to derive requirements for measuring eruption temperatures at Io's volcanoes. Lava lakes are particularly attractive targets because they are persistent in activity and large, often with ongoing lava fountain activity that exposes lava at near-eruption temperature. Using infrared thermography, we find that extracting useful temperature estimates from remote-sensing data requires (a) high spatial resolution to isolate lava fountains from adjacent cooler lava and (b) rapid acquisition of multi-color data. Because existing spacecraft data of Io's volcanoes do not meet these criteria, it is particularly important to design future instruments so that they will be able to collect such data. Near-simultaneous data at more than two relatively short wavelengths (shorter than 1 ??m) are needed to constrain eruption temperatures. Resolving parts of the lava lake or fountains that are near the eruption temperature is also essential, and we provide a rough estimate of the required image scale. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Estimating eruption temperature from thermal emission spectra of lava fountain activity in the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) volcano lava lake: Implications for observing Io's volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Ashley G.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution temperature measurements of the active lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to derive requirements for measuring eruption temperatures at Io's volcanoes. Lava lakes are particularly attractive targets because they are persistent in activity and large, often with ongoing lava fountain activity that exposes lava at near-eruption temperature. Using infrared thermography, we find that extracting useful temperature estimates from remote-sensing data requires (a) high spatial resolution to isolate lava fountains from adjacent cooler lava and (b) rapid acquisition of multi-color data. Because existing spacecraft data of Io's volcanoes do not meet these criteria, it is particularly important to design future instruments so that they will be able to collect such data. Near-simultaneous data at more than two relatively short wavelengths (shorter than 1 μm) are needed to constrain eruption temperatures. Resolving parts of the lava lake or fountains that are near the eruption temperature is also essential, and we provide a rough estimate of the required image scale.

  19. Hump-shaped 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectra in K-feldspar and evidence for Cretaceous authigenesis in the Fountain Formation near Eldorado Springs, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnock, Andrew C.; van de Kamp, Peter C.

    1999-12-01

    The Fountain Formation near Eldorado Springs, CO, USA, shows evidence of alteration by hydrothermal fluids that precipitated authigenic potassium feldspar (adularia) as rims on detrital feldspars and as interstitial cement deposits. Detailed 40Ar/ 39Ar step-heating experiments of samples from the Fountain Formation reveal age spectra having a characteristic hump at laboratory temperatures between 900 and 1080°C. The humps appear to be related to the presence of adularia. Laser analyses of small grains of adularia indicate that the hump can be physically dissected, unlike age gradients found in igneous feldspars. Such behavior is consistent with the mixing of gas from two or more generations of K-feldspar, each having unique diffusion properties. The feldspars studied here indicate that two pulses of ˜150°C hydrothermal fluids migrated through the Fountain Formation at 135 and 94 Ma, prior to the main phase of Laramide tectonic activity in the region. The limited occurrence of authigenic cements suggests that reactivation of the underlying Precambrian Idaho Springs-Ralston Creek shear zone was significant enough to heat and mobilize large quantities of meteoric fluids. In addition, these data also suggest that Cretaceous movements along the Transcontinental Arch, correlated with stratigraphic events, began approximately 40 million years earlier than previously thought.

  20. A reconnaissance water-quality appraisal of the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer between Colorado Springs and Pueblo, Colorado, including trace elements and organic constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug; Edelmann, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the hydrology and chemical quality of water in the stream-aquifer system along Fountain Creek and relates groundwater quality to land use, water use, and wastewater discharges. The alluvial aquifer, which is underlain by shale bedrock, is transmissive, extensively pumped, and primarily is recharged by Fountain Creek and irrigation-return flow. Groundwater flows south about 20 ft/day, average residence time is less than 10 yr. Land use primarily is urban in the northern one-third and agricultural in the southern two-thirds of the area. Major ions, boron, iron, lithium, selenium, strontium, and uranium increased in concentration downgradient. The largest concentrations of nitrogen and detergents were in the northern end of the area because of recharge of sewage effluent in Fountain Creek. Other trace elements usually were present in concentrations less than 20 mg/L. Volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 11 of 20 wells sampled. Samples from 4 of the 20 wells were analyzed for semivolatile organics using a closed-loop stripping technique, which detected additional compounds at nanogram/L concentrations. (USGS)

  1. A FaeG-FedF-LT192 fusion elicits protective anti-adhesin and antitoxin antibodies against porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing anti-adhesin (anti-K88 & anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT & anti-ST) 5 immunity would provide ...

  2. Cusp Ion Fountain Observations from the e-POP Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) with DMSP and RISR-N conjunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Low-energy (<10 eV) ion upflows associated with ambipolar ion acceleration in the cusp/cleft and polar cap regions are investigated using conjunctions of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite, the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N) and the DMSP satellites in June 2014. e-POP encountered the cusp/cleft ion fountain at 10-14 MLT and around 1000 km altitude during these experiments. Such intermediate-altitude observations of ion upflow have been sampled only rarely by previous satellite missions and ground-based radars. The Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) onboard e-POP measures two-dimensional ion distribution functions with a frame rate of 100 images per second, from which, high-precision energy and angle information of entering ions can be inferred. Large field-aligned ion bulk flow velocities (2.5 km/s) are estimated from the angle information with a resolution of the order of 25 m/s. The ion velocities were, in general, upward in the cusp region and downward in the polar cap region. The ion temperatures have been resolved by investigating the slop shape of the distribution function. It has been found that only weak perpendicular (to B) heating occurred during these events, which when combined with the simultaneous soft electron precipitation observed by the DMSP SSJ/4 instrument, suggests that ambipolar electric fields play a dominant role in accelerating ions upward at and below 1000 km. Also, structured DC field-aligned currents derived from the magnetic field instrument (MGF) onboard e-POP are found to be well-correlated with upflow velocities. In addition, ion composition information is available from e-POP's ion mass spectrometer (IRM). Oxygen ions (O+) were found to dominate (85%) in the identified events, accompanied by a small fraction (15%) of hydrogen ions (H+) and helium ions (He+). We will compare these in situ measurements with RISR-N observations in order to further our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for, and

  3. Using the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory LT-MDL to Evaluate and Analyze Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    2008-01-01

    A long-term method detection level (LT-MDL) and laboratory reporting level (LRL) are used by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) when reporting results from most chemical analyses of water samples. Changing to this method provided data users with additional information about their data and often resulted in more reported values in the low concentration range. Before this method was implemented, many of these values would have been censored. The use of the LT-MDL and LRL presents some challenges for the data user. Interpreting data in the low concentration range increases the need for adequate quality assurance because even small contamination or recovery problems can be relatively large compared to concentrations near the LT-MDL and LRL. In addition, the definition of the LT-MDL, as well as the inclusion of low values, can result in complex data sets with multiple censoring levels and reported values that are less than a censoring level. Improper interpretation or statistical manipulation of low-range results in these data sets can result in bias and incorrect conclusions. This document is designed to help data users use and interpret data reported with the LTMDL/ LRL method. The calculation and application of the LT-MDL and LRL are described. This document shows how to extract statistical information from the LT-MDL and LRL and how to use that information in USGS investigations, such as assessing the quality of field data, interpreting field data, and planning data collection for new projects. A set of 19 detailed examples are included in this document to help data users think about their data and properly interpret lowrange data without introducing bias. Although this document is not meant to be a comprehensive resource of statistical methods, several useful methods of analyzing censored data are demonstrated, including Regression on Order Statistics and Kaplan-Meier Estimation. These two statistical methods handle complex

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine cascade and lethality in LT alpha/TNF alpha-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, F.; Fitting, C.; Tracey, K. J.; Cavaillon, J. M.; Dautry, F.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is often considered the main proinflammatory cytokine induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and consequently the critical mediator of the lethality associated with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used mice carrying a deletion of both the lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) and TNF-alpha genes to assess the role of TNF in the cytokine cascade and lethality induced by LPS. RESULTS: Initial production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10 is comparable in wild-type and mutant mice. However, at later times, expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-10 is prolonged, whereas that of IL-6 decreases in mutant mice. Expression of IFN-gamma is almost completely abrogated in mutants, which is in agreement with a more significant alteration of the late phase of the cytokine cascade. We measured similar LD50 (600 micrograms) for the intravenous injection of LPS in mice of the three genotypes (+/+, +/-, -/-), demonstrating that the absence of TNF does not confer long-term protection from lethality. However, death occurred much more slowly in mutant mice, who were protected more efficiently from death by CNI 1493, an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production, than were wild-type mice. DISCUSSION: Thus, while TNF-alpha is not required for the induction of these cytokines by LPS, it modulates the kinetics of their expression. The lethality studies simultaneously confirm a role for TNF as a mediator of early lethality and establish that, in the absence of these cytokines, other mediators take over, resulting in the absence of long-term protection from LPS toxicity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:9440119

  5. The Tricarballylate utilization (tcuRABC) genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey A; Horswill, Alexander R; Schwem, Brian E; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2004-03-01

    The genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encoding functions needed for the utilization of tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source were identified and their locations in the chromosome were established. Three of the tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes, tcuABC, are organized as an operon; a fourth gene, tcuR, is located immediately 5' to the tcuABC operon. The tcuABC operon and tcuR gene share the same direction of transcription but are independently transcribed. The tcuRABC genes are missing in the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. The tcuR gene is proposed to encode a regulatory protein needed for the expression of tcuABC. The tcuC gene is proposed to encode an integral membrane protein whose role is to transport tricarballylate across the cell membrane. tcuC function was sufficient to allow E. coli K-12 to grow on citrate (a tricarballylate analog) but not to allow growth of this bacterium on tricarballylate. E. coli K-12 carrying a plasmid with wild-type alleles of tcuABC grew on tricarballylate, suggesting that the functions of the TcuABC proteins were the only ones unique to S. enterica needed to catabolize tricarballylate. Analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of the TcuAB proteins suggest that TcuA is a flavoprotein, and TcuB is likely anchored to the cell membrane and probably contains one or more Fe-S centers. The TcuB protein is proposed to work in concert with TcuA to oxidize tricarballylate to cis-aconitate, which is further catabolized via the Krebs cycle. The glyoxylate shunt is not required for growth of S. enterica on tricarballylate. A model for tricarballylate catabolism in S. enterica is proposed.

  6. The Tricarballylate Utilization (tcuRABC) Genes of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Schwem, Brian E.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2004-01-01

    The genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encoding functions needed for the utilization of tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source were identified and their locations in the chromosome were established. Three of the tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes, tcuABC, are organized as an operon; a fourth gene, tcuR, is located immediately 5′ to the tcuABC operon. The tcuABC operon and tcuR gene share the same direction of transcription but are independently transcribed. The tcuRABC genes are missing in the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. The tcuR gene is proposed to encode a regulatory protein needed for the expression of tcuABC. The tcuC gene is proposed to encode an integral membrane protein whose role is to transport tricarballylate across the cell membrane. tcuC function was sufficient to allow E. coli K-12 to grow on citrate (a tricarballylate analog) but not to allow growth of this bacterium on tricarballylate. E. coli K-12 carrying a plasmid with wild-type alleles of tcuABC grew on tricarballylate, suggesting that the functions of the TcuABC proteins were the only ones unique to S. enterica needed to catabolize tricarballylate. Analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of the TcuAB proteins suggest that TcuA is a flavoprotein, and TcuB is likely anchored to the cell membrane and probably contains one or more Fe-S centers. The TcuB protein is proposed to work in concert with TcuA to oxidize tricarballylate to cis-aconitate, which is further catabolized via the Krebs cycle. The glyoxylate shunt is not required for growth of S. enterica on tricarballylate. A model for tricarballylate catabolism in S. enterica is proposed. PMID:14996793

  7. HST SPECTRAL MAPPING OF L/T TRANSITION BROWN DWARFS REVEALS CLOUD THICKNESS VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Apai, Daniel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Buenzli, Esther; Burrows, Adam; Reid, Iain Neill

    2013-05-10

    Most directly imaged giant exoplanets are fainter than brown dwarfs with similar spectra. To explain their relative underluminosity, unusually cloudy atmospheres have been proposed. However, with multiple parameters varying between any two objects, it remained difficult to observationally test this idea. We present a new method, sensitive time-resolved Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy, to study two rotating L/T transition brown dwarfs (2M2139 and SIMP0136). The observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved mapping of the cloud decks of the brown dwarfs. The data allow the study of cloud structure variations while other parameters are unchanged. We find that both brown dwarfs display variations of identical nature: J- and H-band brightness variations with minimal color and spectral changes. Our light curve models show that even the simplest surface brightness distributions require at least three elliptical spots. We show that for each source the spectral changes can be reproduced with a linear combination of only two different spectra, i.e., the entire surface is covered by two distinct types of regions. Modeling the color changes and spectral variations together reveal patchy cloud covers consisting of a spatially heterogeneous mix of low-brightness, low-temperature thick clouds and brighter, thin, and warm clouds. We show that the same thick cloud patches seen in our varying brown dwarf targets, if extended to the entire photosphere, predict near-infrared colors/magnitudes matching the range occupied by the directly imaged exoplanets that are cooler and less luminous than brown dwarfs with similar spectral types. This supports the models in which thick clouds are responsible for the near-infrared properties of these ''underluminous'' exoplanets.

  8. HIGH VELOCITY PRECESSING JETS FROM THE WATER FOUNTAIN IRAS 18286-0959 REVEALED BY VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J.

    2011-11-10

    We report the results of multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array observations of the 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission associated with the 'water fountain' IRAS 18286-0959. We suggest that this object is the second example of a highly collimated bipolar precessing outflow traced by H{sub 2}O maser emission, the other is W 43A. The detected H{sub 2}O emission peaks are distributed over a velocity range from -50 km s{sup -1} to 150 km s{sup -1}. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (jet 1) extended southeast to northwest; the remaining features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a 'double-helix' pattern which lies across {approx}200 mas. The maser distribution is reasonably fit by a model consisting of two bipolar precessing jets. The three-dimensional velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138 km s{sup -1} and 99 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years. For jet 2, three possible models are tested and they give different values for the kinematic parameters. We propose that the appearance of two jets is the result of a single driving source with significant proper motion.

  9. Environments of deposition of coal balls, cuticular shale and gray shale floras in Fountain and Parke counties, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, D.L.; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The western part of Indiana is included in the Illinois basin whose coal content is confined to the central Pennsylvania series. The authors make a detailed examination of the coal deposits of the region of the Roaring Creek Mine, Parke County and the region of the Maple Grove Mine, Fountain Country, focusing especial attention on questions of stratigraphy, palinology, coal petrography, paleobotany with the establishment of the species composition of the coal-forming plants and determination of the conditions for their growth, as well as the quality of the coals. The two studies regions are characterized by considerable differences in the coals and the surrounding deposits. In the opinion of the authors, the deposits in the region of Roaring Creek are formations of the upper delta with characteristic interrelationship with the overlying and underlying rocks, reduced content of sulfur in the coals and definite species composition of the paleoflora. On the contrary, the deposits in the region of Maple-Grove can be viewed as lower delta for which the listed signs have a different nature. With comparison of the conditions for sedimentation in the two regions, differences are also found in the quantity of atmospheric precipitation. This also has a definite influence on the nature of the forming deposits.

  10. Identification of oxygen-rich late/post-asymptotic giant branch stars and water fountains via maser and infrared criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Henkel, Christian; Hsia, Chih-Hao

    2016-07-01

    The transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB phases holds the key to our understanding of the late-stage metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. In particular, high velocity jets forming during this phase are suggested to contribute significantly to the shaping of planetary nebulae. For oxygen-rich stars, the rare “water fountains (WFs)” have been regarded as representative objects in this phase, and it is important to identify more of them for further studies. Here we briefly report the results of our latest OH and H2O maser surveys in which a new WF candidate (IRAS 19356+0754) was found. We also performed radiative transfer modelling on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of all known WFs. It is concluded that WFs might in fact not be the transitional objects, as opposed to previous belief. WFs could be AGB or post-AGB stars with no obvious similarities amongst their SEDs. Further efforts are still needed to improve the identification criteria.

  11. Homotopy perturbation method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM) for solving Lane-Emden type differential equations (LETDEs).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.

  12. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  13. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-11-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  14. An In Silico Insight into Novel Therapeutic Interaction of LTNF Peptide-LT10 and Design of Structure Based Peptidomimetics for Putative Anti-Diabetic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Sonali Gopichand; Deobagkar, Deepti Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Factor (LTNF) obtained from Opossum serum (Didephis virginiana) is known to exhibit toxin-neutralizing activity for envenomation caused by animals, plants and bacteria. Small synthetic peptide- LT10 (10mer) derived from N-terminal fraction of LTNF exhibit similar anti-lethal and anti-allergic property. In our in silico study, we identified Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE) as a potential target of LT10 peptide followed by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies which revealed relatively stable interaction of LT10 peptide with IDE. Moreover, their detailed interaction analyses dictate IDE-inhibitory interactions of LT10 peptide. This prediction ofLT10 peptide as a novel putative IDE-inhibitor suggests its possible role in anti-diabetic treatment since IDE- inhibitors are known to assist treatment of Diabetes mellitus by enhancing insulin signalling. Furthermore, series of structure based peptidomimetics were designed from LT10 peptide and screened for their inhibitory interactions which ultimately led to a small set of peptidomimetic inhibitors of IDE. These peptidomimetic thus might provide a new class of IDE-inhibitors, those derived from LT10 peptide. PMID:25816209

  15. Development of a high-performance composite cathode for LT-SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Wook

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) has drawn considerable attention for decades due to its high efficiency and low pollution, which is made possible since chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy through the system without combustion. However, successful commercialization of SOFC has been delayed due to its high production cost mainly related with using high cost of interconnecting materials and the other structural components required for high temperature operation. This is the reason that intermediate (IT) or low temperature (LT)-SOFC operating at 600~800°C or 650°C and below, respectively, is of particular significance because it allows the wider selection of cheaper materials such as stainless steel for interconnects and the other structural components. Also, extended lifetime and system reliability are expected due to less thermal stress through the system with reduced temperature. More rapid start-up/shut-down procedure is another advantage of lowering the operating temperatures. As a result, commercialization of SOFC will be more viable. However, there exists performance drop with reduced operating temperature due to increased polarization resistances from the electrode electrochemical reactions and decreased electrolyte conductivity. Since ohmic polarization of the electrolyte can be significantly reduced with state-of-the art thin film technology and cathode polarization has more drastic effect on total SOFC electrochemical performance than anode polarization as temperature decreases, development of the cathode with high performance operating at IT or LT range is thus essential. On the other hand, chemical stability of the cathode and its chemical compatibility with the electrolyte should also be considered for cathode development since instability and incompatibility of the cathode will also cause substantial performance loss. Based on requirements of the cathode mentioned above, in this study, several chemico-physical approaches were

  16. THE ORIGIN OF THE HOT GAS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: TESTING GALACTIC FOUNTAIN MODELS' X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin; Hill, Alex S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2015-02-20

    We test the X-ray emission predictions of galactic fountain models against XMM-Newton measurements of the emission from the Milky Way's hot halo. These measurements are from 110 sight lines, spanning the full range of Galactic longitudes. We find that a magnetohydrodynamical simulation of a supernova-driven interstellar medium, which features a flow of hot gas from the disk to the halo, reproduces the temperature but significantly underpredicts the 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness of the halo (by two orders of magnitude, if we compare the median predicted and observed values). This is true for versions of the model with and without an interstellar magnetic field. We consider different reasons for the discrepancy between the model predictions and the observations. We find that taking into account overionization in cooled halo plasma, which could in principle boost the predicted X-ray emission, is unlikely in practice to bring the predictions in line with the observations. We also find that including thermal conduction, which would tend to increase the surface brightnesses of interfaces between hot and cold gas, would not overcome the surface brightness shortfall. However, charge exchange emission from such interfaces, not included in the current model, may be significant. The faintness of the model may also be due to the lack of cosmic ray driving, meaning that the model may underestimate the amount of material transported from the disk to the halo. In addition, an extended hot halo of accreted material may be important, by supplying hot electrons that could boost the emission of the material driven out from the disk. Additional model predictions are needed to test the relative importance of these processes in explaining the observed halo emission.

  17. Evidence of sealing and brine distribution at grain boundaries in natural fine-grained Halite (Qum Kuh salt fountain, Central Iran): implications for rheology of salt extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; de Bresser, J. H. P.

    2010-05-01

    When grain boundary movement is stopped, surface energy related forces reassert themselves driving the system to its equilibrium conditions ([2], [6], [7], [8]). This could result in growth of islands and shrinking of channels and hence in healing the boundary by internal redistribution of fluid and solid in the contact region. Such islands are proposed to grow preferentially close to the contact rim and promote the healing of the grain-grain contact, which in turn prevents transport in or out the boundary region and thus traps the fluids in isolated inclusions. This contribution is focused on observation of grain boundary microstructures in natural mylonitic rocksalt collected from the distal part of Kum-Quh salt fountain (central Iran) in order to give unprecedented insight of grain boundary microstructures using argon-beam cross-sectioning to prepare high quality polished surfaces suitable for high-resolution SEM imaging. The possibility to use our SEM under cryogenic conditions allows also imaging the in-situ distribution of fluids. Results show that brine at grain boundaries occurs as thick layers (> µm in scale) corresponding to cross-sectioned wetted triple junction tubes, as filling at triple junction and as array of isolated fluids inclusions at grain-grain contacts. Close observations at islands contacts suggest the presence of a very thin fluid film (<100 nm). The most remarkable is evidence for sealing of pore space appearing as subhedral crystals filling the void space and decoupled from surrounding crystals by a thin brine layer. In parallel to this microstructural study, we deformed the same samples in order to simulate the simple shear flow at very low mean stress as in the salt fountain. First results suggest a complicated rheology. Samples loaded at σ < 0.7 MPa show no measurable deformation in a month, indicating strain rates less than 10-12 s-1 though, in fully activated pressure-solution (PS) creep, strain rates of several orders of magnitude

  18. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  19. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  20. A comparison of ground-based and satellite-derived radiative heat flux at Mt Etna: the 12 August lava fountain case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Gaetana; Calvari, Sonia; James, Mike; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The recent eruptive activity at Mt Etna has been characterized by quiet frequent, intermittent episodes of lava fountains associated with small lava flow output, occurring especially at the SE Crater. During 2011, 18 paroxysmal lava fountains were produced by a new cone, named "Sturiale Cone", on the east flank of the SE Crater. Given the high hazard posed by this activity, and the need of improving detection, description and knowledge of these events, remote monitoring through fixed cameras and satellites has becoming crucial, especially using thermal sensors. We here focus on the 12 August 2011 episode, the strongest of the lava fountains occurred in 2011, and also the best monitored, given the clear sky, absence of clouds, and possibility to collect also images from a close-up view. We disposed of a total of 8 fixed cameras working around the volcano, three of them offering a thermal view of the episode. Moreover, as satellite observations, we could use the complete data set from the SEVIRI sensor, which has a temporal resolution of 15 minutes. To compare the field- and satellite-derived radiative heat flux curves, thermal images were registered by taking into account a DEM, the GPS camera position, the relative camera rotations and first order lens distortion parameters. Moreover, it was performed a pixel by pixel correction from path length and atmospheric effects. Finally, a temperature threshold was fixed to identify the active lava area and the amount of heat lost by radiation from all the pixels covered by lava was computed. SEVIRI data were analyzed by the HOTSAT thermal monitoring system. Through automatic hot-spot detection algorithm based on dynamic thresholds, we are able to provide an estimate of the radiant heat flux for each thermally anomalous pixel and possibly convert it into time averaged discharge rate. Preliminary results showed a good agreement on timing, shape and amplitude of the radiative heat flux time series between thermal camera and

  1. Improved Frequency Measurement of the 1S0-3P0 Clock Transition in 87Sr Using a Cs Fountain Clock as a Transfer Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Takehiko; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takumi; Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ikegami, Takeshi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Inaba, Hajime; Okubo, Sho; Yasuda, Masami; Hong, Feng-Lei; Onae, Atsushi; Hosaka, Kazumoto

    2015-11-01

    We performed an absolute frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P0 transition in 87Sr with a fractional uncertainty of 1.2 × 10-15, which is less than one-third that of our previous measurement. A caesium fountain atomic clock was used as a transfer oscillator to reduce the uncertainty of the link between a strontium optical lattice clock and the SI second. The absolute value of the transition frequency is 429 228 004 229 873.56(49) Hz.

  2. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  3. Dendritic cell secretion of IL-15 is induced by recombinant huCD40LT and augments the stimulation of antigen-specific cytolytic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kuniyoshi, J S; Kuniyoshi, C J; Lim, A M; Wang, F Y; Bade, E R; Lau, R; Thomas, E K; Weber, J S

    1999-04-10

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells which stimulate strong proliferative and cytolytic T cell responses. Stimulation of CD40 on dendritic cells by its ligands and anti-CD40 antibodies induces maturation and enhances DC stimulatory ability. In order to understand the mechanism by which ligand:CD40 interactions augment DC function, we assessed the role of T cell stimulatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-15 in the function of DC stimulated with soluble trimeric CD40L, a recombinant fusion protein incorporating three covalently linked extracellular CD40L domains (huCD40LT). Peripheral blood derived DC treated with huCD40LT and/or IFN-gamma were used to stimulate T cell responses in vitro to specific antigens. DC treated with huCD40LT or IFN-gamma/huCD40LT stimulated enhanced T cell proliferation to CASTA, a soluble protein from C. albicans, induced T cells with augmented antigen-specific lysis, and increased the yield of antigen-specific IFN-gamma-producing T cells. IL-15 production by DC was enhanced in cultures treated with huCD40LT and correlated with expansion of antigen-specific cytolytic T cells. Addition of a neutralizing anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody inhibited the expansion of viral and tumor antigen-specific T cells stimulated by IFN-gamma and huCD40LT-treated DC. In contrast, this enhanced stimulatory ability of DC did not appear to depend on synthesis of IL-12 since huCD40LT treatment stimulated the generation of antigen-specific cytokine producing and cytolytic T cells without increased IL-12 production. Addition of anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody did not inhibit expansion of these cells. These data suggest that production of IL-15 but not IL-12 is an important factor in the enhanced immunostimulatory ability of huCD40LT-treated DC.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of MSC and MSC-Derived Osteoblasts on Resomer® LT706 and PCL: Impact of Biomaterial Substrate on Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Neuss, Sabine; Denecke, Bernd; Gan, Lin; Lin, Qiong; Bovi, Manfred; Apel, Christian; Wöltje, Michael; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Salber, Jochen; Knüchel, Ruth; Zenke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a particularly attractive cell type for bone tissue engineering because of their ex vivo expansion potential and multipotent differentiation capacity. MSC are readily differentiated towards mature osteoblasts with well-established protocols. However, tissue engineering frequently involves three-dimensional scaffolds which (i) allow for cell adhesion in a spatial environment and (ii) meet application-specific criteria, such as stiffness, degradability and biocompatibility. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we analysed two synthetic, long-term degradable polymers for their impact on MSC-based bone tissue engineering: PLLA-co-TMC (Resomer® LT706) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Both polymers enhance the osteogenic differentiation compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) as determined by Alizarin red stainings, scanning electron microscopy, PCR and whole genome expression analysis. Resomer® LT706 and PCL differ in their influence on gene expression, with Resomer® LT706 being more potent in supporting osteogenic differentiation of MSC. The major trigger on the osteogenic fate, however, is from osteogenic induction medium. Conclusion This study demonstrates an enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSC on Resomer® LT706 and PCL compared to TCPS. MSC cultured on Resomer® LT706 showed higher numbers of genes involved in skeletal development and bone formation. This identifies Resomer® LT706 as particularly attractive scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21935359

  5. PcLT, a novel C-type lectin from Procambarus clarkii, is involved in the innate defense against Vibrio alginolyticus and WSSV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan-Dan; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jing-You; Meng, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Lectins play important roles in the innate immunity. In this work, a C-type lectin, PcLT, was obtained from Procambarus clarkii which contained a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with the ability to bind to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated PcLT was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas and the mRNA was markedly upregulated by V. alginolyticus and WSSV challenge, although a slight difference in timing was observed. The study also revealed upregulation of the mRNA expression and activity of immunological factors, peroxinectin, phenoloxidase, and superoxide dismutase in hemolymph in response to recombinant PcLT (rPcLT). Moreover, rPcLT also enhanced the phagocytosis, facilitated the subsequent clearance of V. alginolyticus and prolonged the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. These results suggested that PcLT not only served as a pathogen recognition receptor (PRR), but also functioned as an immune modulator, participating in host defense against invaders.

  6. Femtosecond probe-probe transmission studies of LT-grown GaAs near the band edge

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H.B.; Bello, A.F.; Erskine, D.J.; Dinh, L.N.; Bennahmias, M.J.; Perry, M.D.; Ditmire, T.R.; Mariella, R.P. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    We have studied the near-edge optical response of a LT-grown GaAs sample which was deposited at 300{degrees}C on a Si substrate, and then annealed at 600{degrees}C. The Si was etched away to leave a 1 micron free standing GaAs film. Femtosecond transmission measurements were made using an equal pulse technique at four wavelengths between 825 and 870 nm. For each wavelength we observe both a multipicosecond relaxation time, as well as a shorter relaxation time which is less than 100 femtoseconds.

  7. Characterization and analysis of temporal and spatial variations in habitat and macroinvertebrate community structure, Fountain Creek basin, Colorado Springs and vicinity, Colorado, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, James F.

    2002-01-01

    The Fountain Creek Basin in and around Colorado Springs, Colorado, is affected by various land- and water-use activities. Biological, hydrological, water-quality, and land-use data were collected at 10 sites in the Fountain Creek Basin from April 1998 through April 2001 to provide a baseline characterization of macroinvertebrate communities and habitat conditions for comparison in subsequent studies; and to assess variation in macroinvertebrate community structure relative to habitat quality. Analysis of variance results indicated that instream and riparian variables were not affected by season, but significant differences were found among sites. Nine metrics were used to describe and evaluate macroinvertebrate community structure. Statistical analysis indicated that for six of the nine metrics, significant variability occurred between spring and fall seasons for 60 percent of the sites. Cluster analysis (unweighted pair group method average) using macroinvertebrate presence-absence data showed a well-defined separation between spring and fall samples. Six of the nine metrics had significant spatial variation. Cluster analysis using Sorenson?s Coefficient of Community values computed from macroinvertebrate density (number of organisms per square meter) data showed that macroinvertebrate community structure was more similar among tributary sites than main-stem sites. Canonical correspondence analysis identified a substrate particle-size gradient from site-specific species-abundance data and environmental correlates that decreased the 10 sites to 5 site clusters and their associated taxa.

  8. The transition of spatter to lava-like body in lava fountain deposits: features and examples from the Cabezo Segura volcano (Calatrava, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Sánchez, M.; Sarrionandia, F.; Arostegui, J.; Eguiluz, L.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2012-05-01

    The Cabezo Segura II volcanic cone (Calatrava volcanic province, Iberian microplate) comprises proximal wall deposits with a well defined crater wall unconformity and crater-fill deposits. The complex volcanic succession, that shows evidence of several eruptive episodes, was built by magmatic and hydrovolcanic explosions of different styles (Strombolian, Hawaiian, sub-Plinian and phreato-Strombolian) generated from a multiple feeder ultrabasic dyke. Intra-crater rock units at the volcano summit include spatter deposits together with up to 10 m thick and more than 200 m long lava-like bodies. Geological logs for the main lava-like bodies define a characteristic facies model that involves a central lava-like mass which grades vertically into a transition zone of apparently coherent spatter, then dense spatter and, finally, into vuggy spatter deposits. These units are inferred to have formed during pulsating lava fountain-type explosive eruptions; the depicted facies distribution being the result of progressive increase in welding grade and densification of the spatter in response to variations in the accumulation rate. Their field features may be used as a guide for the precise identification of vent sites in deposits of Hawaiian eruptions. Also, structures like those here recognised, that might have survived in lava-like flows, could be of help to identify when lava-producing eruptions represented an explosive Hawaiian event (lava fountains) and not a purely effusive event.

  9. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  10. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  11. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  12. Iron reduction by the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a under subsurface pressure and temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Aude; Testemale, Denis; Wagenknecht, Laura; Hazael, Rachael; Daniel, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms influence biogeochemical cycles from the surface down to the depths of the continental rocks and oceanic basaltic crust. Due to the poor recovery of microbial isolates from the deep subsurface, the influence of physical environmental parameters, such as pressure and temperature, on the physiology and metabolic potential of subsurface inhabitants is not well constrained. We evaluated Fe(III) reduction rates (FeRRs) and viability, measured as colony-forming ability, of the deep-sea piezophilic bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a over a range of pressures (0–125 MPa) and temperatures (4–37∘C) that included the in situ habitat of the bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediments at 4500 m depth below sea level. S. profunda LT13a was active at all temperatures investigated and at pressures up to 120 MPa at 30∘C, suggesting that it is well adapted to deep-sea and deep sedimentary environments. Average initial cellular FeRRs only slightly decreased with increasing pressure until activity stopped, suggesting that the respiratory chain was not immediately affected upon the application of pressure. We hypothesize that, as pressure increases, the increased energy demand for cell maintenance is not fulfilled, thus leading to a decrease in viability. This study opens up perspectives about energy requirements of cells in the deep subsurface. PMID:25653646

  13. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning.

  14. Iron reduction by the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a under subsurface pressure and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Picard, Aude; Testemale, Denis; Wagenknecht, Laura; Hazael, Rachael; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms influence biogeochemical cycles from the surface down to the depths of the continental rocks and oceanic basaltic crust. Due to the poor recovery of microbial isolates from the deep subsurface, the influence of physical environmental parameters, such as pressure and temperature, on the physiology and metabolic potential of subsurface inhabitants is not well constrained. We evaluated Fe(III) reduction rates (FeRRs) and viability, measured as colony-forming ability, of the deep-sea piezophilic bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a over a range of pressures (0-125 MPa) and temperatures (4-37∘C) that included the in situ habitat of the bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediments at 4500 m depth below sea level. S. profunda LT13a was active at all temperatures investigated and at pressures up to 120 MPa at 30∘C, suggesting that it is well adapted to deep-sea and deep sedimentary environments. Average initial cellular FeRRs only slightly decreased with increasing pressure until activity stopped, suggesting that the respiratory chain was not immediately affected upon the application of pressure. We hypothesize that, as pressure increases, the increased energy demand for cell maintenance is not fulfilled, thus leading to a decrease in viability. This study opens up perspectives about energy requirements of cells in the deep subsurface.

  15. Evaluation of Metal Halide, Plasma, and LED Lighting Technologies for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Light (H 2 LT)

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, L. B.; Donohoe, S. P.; Jones, M. H.; ...

    2015-04-22

    This article reports on the testing and comparison of a prototype hydrogen fuel cell light tower (H2LT) and a conventional diesel-powered metal halide light trailer for use in road maintenance and construction activities. The prototype was originally outfitted with plasma lights and then with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Light output and distribution, lighting energy efficiency (i.e., efficacy), power source thermal efficiency, and fuel costs are compared. The metal halide luminaires have 2.2 and 3.1 times more light output than the plasma and LED luminaires, respectively, but they require more power/lumen to provide that output. The LED luminaires have 1.6 timesmore » better light efficacy than either the metal halide or plasma luminaires. The light uniformity ratios produced by the plasma and LED towers are acceptable. The fuel cell thermal efficiency at the power required to operate the plasma lights is 48%, significantly higher than the diesel generator efficiency of 23% when operating the metal halide lights. Due to the increased efficiency of the fuel cell and the LED lighting, the fuel cost per lumen-hour of the H2LT is 62% of the metal halide diesel light tower assuming a kilogram of hydrogen is twice the cost of a gallon of diesel fuel.« less

  16. Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median

  17. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group, initiated a study of groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and loading of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium to Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, to improve understanding of sources and processes affecting loading of these constituents to streams in the Arkansas River Basin. Fourteen monitoring wells were installed in a series of three transects across Fountain Creek near Pueblo, and temporary streamgages were established at each transect to facilitate data collection for the study. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was characterized by using hydrogeologic mapping, groundwater and stream-surface levels, groundwater and stream temperatures, vertical hydraulic-head gradients and ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hyporheic zone, and streamflow mass-balance measurements. Water quality was characterized by collecting periodic samples from groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone for analysis of dissolved solids, selenium, uranium, and other selected constituents and by evaluating the oxidation-reduction condition for each groundwater sample under different hydrologic conditions throughout the study period. Groundwater loads to Fountain Creek and in-stream loads were computed for the study area, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium were evaluated on the basis of geology, geochemical conditions, land and water use, and evapoconcentration.During the study period, the groundwater-flow system generally contributed flow to Fountain Creek and its hyporheic zone (as a single system) except for the reach between the north and middle transects. However, the direction of flow between the stream, the hyporheic zone, and the near-stream aquifer was variable in response to streamflow and stage. During periods of low streamflow, Fountain Creek generally gained flow from

  18. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  19. Alkaline pH Is a signal for optimal production and secretion of the heat labile toxin, LT in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lucia; Ali, Zahra Bagher; Nygren, Erik; Wang, Zhiyun; Karlsson, Stefan; Zhu, Baoli; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Sjöling, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause secretory diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic areas. ETEC spreads through the fecal-oral route. After ingestion, ETEC passes through the stomach and duodenum before it colonizes the lower part of the small intestine, exposing bacteria to a wide range of pH and environmental conditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of external pH and activity of the Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) on the regulation of production and secretion of heat labile (LT) enterotoxin. ETEC strain E2863wt and its isogenic mutant E2863ΔCRP were grown in LBK media buffered to pH 5, 7 and 9. GM1 ELISA, cDNA and cAMP analyses were carried out on bacterial pellet and supernatant samples derived from 3 and 5 hours growth and from overnight cultures. We confirm that CRP is a repressor of LT transcription and production as has been shown before but we show for the first time that CRP is a positive regulator of LT secretion both in vitro and in vivo. LT secretion increased at neutral to alkaline pH compared to acidic pH 5 where secretion was completely inhibited. At pH 9 secretion of LT was optimal resulting in 600 percent increase of secreted LT compared to unbuffered LBK media. This effect was not due to membrane leakage since the bacteria were viable at pH 9. The results indicate that the transition to the alkaline duodenum and/or exposure to high pH close to the epithelium as well as activation of the global transcription factor CRP are signals that induce secretion of the LT toxin in ETEC.

  20. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  1. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  2. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  3. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  4. DANIEL: A computer code for high-speed dusty gas flows with multiple particle sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.

    1989-05-01

    This report describes a calculational model for nonreacting high-speed gas-particle flow dynamics. Differential equations are derived for a compressible, polytropic dusty gas with suspended larger particles. Dust is described as rigid particles small enough to maintain temperature and velocity equilibrium with the clean gas. The larger particles are rigid, noncolliding spheres of various sizes having velocities and temperatures significantly different from those of the gas. Exchange terms are included in the differential equations to account for momentum and energy transfer between the dusty gas and the particles. An explicit, Eulerian numerical algorithm approximates the solution of the differential equations. This algorithm is used to simulate volcanic pyroclastic fountaining. The numerical technique produces plausible volcanic eruption models. These results support the appropriateness of further code development, including adaptation to low flow speeds, turbulence transport and diffusion, and swirl. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Application of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for accurate identification of Legionella spp. Isolated from municipal fountains in Chengdu, China, based on 16S rRNA, mip, and rpoB genes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wang; Xu, Ying; Chen, Da-Li; Xu, Jia-Nan; Tian, Yu; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease; LD) is a form of severe pneumonia caused by species of Legionella bacteria. Because inhalation of Legionella-contaminated aerosol is considered the major infection route, routine assessments of potential infection sources such as hot water systems, air-conditioner cooling water, and municipal fountains are of great importance. In this study, we utilized in vitro culture and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) targeting 16S rRNA, mip, rpoB, and mip-rpoB concatenation to isolate and identify Legionella spp. from 5 municipal fountains in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China. Our results demonstrated that 16S rRNA was useful for initial identification, as it could recognize isolates robustly at the genus level, while the genes mip, rpoB, and mip-rpoB concatenation could confidently discriminate Legionella species. Notably, the three subspecies of L. pneumophila could be distinguished by the analysis based on rpoB. The serotyping result of strain CD-1 was consistent with genetic analysis based on the concatenation of mip and rpoB. Despite regular maintenance and sanitizing methods, 4 of the 5 municipal fountains investigated in this study were positive for Legionella contamination. Thus, regularly scheduled monitoring of municipal fountains is urgently needed as well as vigilant disinfection. Although the application of MLSA for inspection of potential sites of infection in public areas is not standard procedure, further investigations may prove its usefulness.

  6. Fountain of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2004-01-01

    Ponce de Laon describes his experience of watching different films at different stages of life from 1971 when he was at the age of nine. From these experiences he choose his own career as a scholar and as a director of the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center.

  7. Supershells and galactic fountains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B. M.

    1989-03-01

    In the gaseous disk of our Galaxy as well as in other galaxies, HI structures (shells, bubbles, holes, etc.) on scales of 0.1-1 kpc are recognized to be common features; see e.g. the comprehensive review by Tenorio-Tagle and Bodenheimer (1988). The larger ones are usually named with the prefix "super". The estimated energies which are required to produee sueh large objeets are high - up to some 1054 erg. These energetic events must exert a significant influenee upon the gaseous galactic disk and eorona.

  8. A Portable Rubidium Fountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    and K. Gibble, 2004, “Phase variations in microwave cavities for atomic clocks,” Metrologia , 41, 376-378. [7] S. R. Jefferts, J. H. Shirley, N...phase errors in atomic clocks,” Metrologia , 47, 534-551. 42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 320

  9. Laser Soap Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which…

  10. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  11. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz mineralization and repeated fragmentation along the Fountain Range Fault (Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, Lina; Blenkinsop, Tom; Heuss, Soraya; Ord, Alison; Kruhl, Jörn H.

    2015-04-01

    In large-scale fault zones fracture networks are commonly generated by high volumes of pressurized fluids, followed by quartz precipitation. In this way large amounts of quartz are formed as microcrystalline masses and as complex vein systems, with partly highly different textures, as a result of different formation processes. Based on field and microstructural data and the quantification of vein patterns, the spatial and temporal connection between fragmentation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Fountain Range Fault at Fountain Springs was investigated. Dextral strike-slip led to up to 25 km horizontal displacement along the fault. Due to various fragmentation and quartz formation processes, a ca. 100 m high, 80 - 100 m wide and km-long quartz ridge with numerous vein systems and variable microfabrics was formed. Locally, lenses of highly altered metamorphic wall-rocks occur in the quartz zone. Where exposed, the contact to wall rocks is sharp. Millimetre- to decimetre-thick quartz veins penetrate the wall-rocks only within metre distance from the contact. Several clearly distinguishable fine-grained reddish, brownish to dark and pigment-rich quartz masses form up to 50 m wide and up to several 100 m long steep lenses that build the major part of the silicified fault zone. A chronology can be established. Some of these lenses are oriented slightly oblique to the general trend of the quartz zone, in agreement with the supposed dextral strike slip along the fault. Numerous generations of typically µm-cm thick quartz veins transect the microcrystalline quartz masses and, locally, form anisotropic networks. In the quartz masses, angular fragments often composed of quartz with, again, internal fragmentation structures, indicate earlier fracturing and silicification events. Within the veins, quartz forms geodes, locally filled with fine-grained reddish quartz and palisade structures with feathery textures and fluid-inclusion zoning

  12. Metamorphic evolution of LT-UHP eclogite from the south Dabie orogen, central China: An insight from phase equilibria modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chunjing; Cui, Ying; Tian, Zuolin

    2015-11-01

    Low-temperature ultrahigh pressure (LT-UHP) eclogites from the south Dabie orogen are distributed in the Zhujiachong and Anqiling zones and their peak mineral assemblages and P-T paths are still disputable. The rocks consist commonly of garnet, omphacite, epidote, phengite, amphibole, quartz/coesite and rutile with or without glaucophane, kyanite, talc and paragonite. Garnet porphyroblasts in the representative sample (D901) from the Zhujiachong zone exhibit core-mantle zoning with slightly increasing pyrope (Xpy) and decreasing grossular (Xgr) contents, and mantle-rim zoning with rapidly increasing Xpy and decreasing Xgr. Garnet shows diverse rim compositions which can be classified into group-1 that show high Xpy and low Xgr values, being an indicative character of LT-UHP eclogite, and group-2 that show lower Xpy and higher Xgr than in group-1. Phengite shows higher Si contents in the Anqiling zone than in the Zhujiachong zone. Epidote, paragonite and amphibole usually occur as porphyroblasts that contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and rutile. Pseudosections calculated using THERMOCALC for the representative samples suggest that the mineral assemblage in the pressure peak stage would be garnet + omphacite + lawsonite + talc + phengite + coesite in the model system. In this assemblage, Xpy steadily increases as temperature rises and Si in phengite increases with pressure rising, whereas Xgr is very insensitive as pressure changes. The peak P-T conditions for low-T UHP eclogites can be determined using the isopleths of maximum Xpy and Si in phengite in P-T pseudosections. Using this approach, the peak P-T conditions of eclogite were estimated to be ∼30 kbar/615 °C for the representative sample in the Zhujiachong zone, and ∼32 kbar/623 °C or ∼36 kbar/640 °C for samples in the Anqiling zone. The pre-peak prograde metamorphic evolution during subduction was modeled according to the garnet growth zoning in sample D901, where the core-mantle zoning

  13. A new HG/LT-GC/ICP-MS multi-element speciation technique for real samples in different matrices.

    PubMed

    Grüter, U M; Kresimon, J; Hirner, A V

    2000-09-01

    An improved speciation technique is presented for metal(loid)organic compounds, enabling identification and quantification of species from twelve elements: germanium, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, tin, antimony, tellurium, iodine, tungsten, mercury, lead and bismuth. At this time it is possible to identify 29 species with boiling points between -88.5 degrees C and 250 C in gaseous, liquid and solid samples in a few minutes. This study shows as an example results from measurements of soil samples from municipal waste deposits. The HG/LT-GC/ICP-MS-(hydride generation/low temperature-gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) apparatus contains a home-built gas chromatograph that enables satisfactory separation of various species with a boiling point difference of > or = 14 degrees C. The absolute detection limits for the elements mentioned above were below 0.7 pg.

  14. Discovery of a visual T-dwarf triple system and binarity at the L/T transition

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Scholz, Alexander

    2013-11-20

    We present new high contrast imaging of eight L/T transition brown dwarfs (BDs) using the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope. One of our targets, the T3.5 dwarf 2MASS J08381155+1511155, was resolved into a hierarchal triple with projected separations of 2.5 ± 0.5 AU and 27 ± 5 AU for the BC and A(BC) components, respectively. Resolved OSIRIS spectroscopy of the A(BC) components confirms that all system members are T dwarfs. The system therefore constitutes the first triple T-dwarf system ever reported. Using resolved photometry to model the integrated-light spectrum, we infer spectral types of T3 ± 1, T3 ± 1, and T4.5 ± 1 for the A, B, and C components, respectively. The uniformly brighter primary has a bluer J – K{sub s} color than the next faintest component, which may reflect a sensitive dependence of the L/T transition temperature on gravity, or alternatively divergent cloud properties among components. Relying on empirical trends and evolutionary models we infer a total system mass of 0.034-0.104 M {sub ☉} for the BC components at ages of 0.3-3 Gyr, which would imply a period of 12-21 yr assuming the system semimajor axis to be similar to its projection. We also infer differences in effective temperatures and surface gravities between components of no more than ∼150 K and ∼0.1 dex. Given the similar physical properties of the components, the 2M0838+15 system provides a controlled sample for constraining the relative roles of effective temperature, surface gravity, and dust clouds in the poorly understood L/T transition regime. For an age of 3 Gyr we estimate a binding energy of ∼20 × 10{sup 41} erg for the wide A(BC) pair, which falls above the empirical minimum found for typical BD binaries, and suggests that the system may have been able to survive a dynamical ejection during formation. Combining our imaging survey results with previous work we find an observed binary fraction of 4/18 or 22{sub −8}{sup +10}% for unresolved spectral types

  15. Molecular modeling, simulation and virtual screening of MurD ligase protein from Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Samal, Himanshu Bhusan; Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2015-01-01

    The Mur enzymes of the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway constitute ideal targets for the design of new classes of antimicrobial inhibitors in Gram-negative bacteria. We built a homology model of MurD of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 using MODELLER (9v12) software. 'The homology model was subjected to energy minimization by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study with GROMACS software for a simulation time of 20 ns in water environment. The model was subjected for virtual screening study from the Zinc Database using Dockblaster software. Inhibition assay for the best inhibitor, 3-(amino methyl)-n-(4-methoxyphenyl) aniline, by flow cytometric analysis revealed the effective inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Results from this study provide new insights for the molecular understanding and development of new antibacterial drugs against the pathogen.

  16. Double-Spin Asymmetry A{sub LT} for Polarized Drell-Yan Process in pp-bar Collisions: Wandzura-Wilczek Contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuji; Yoshida, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-04

    The longitudinal-transverse spin asymmetry A{sub LT} in the polarized Drell-Yan process depends on twist-3 quark distributions of nucleon. In addition to the contributions associated with the twist-3 operators, these distributions contain the 'Wandzura-Wilczek (WW)' part, which is determined by a certain integral of twist-2 distributions. The recently obtained empirical information on the transversity allows a realistic estimate of the WW contribution to A{sub LT} for the polarized pp-bar collisions. Our results indicate that rather large A{sub LT}({approx}10%) can be observed in the proposed spin experiments at GSI, with novel pattern as a function of dilepton mass compared with A{sub TT} and A{sub LL}.

  17. Cross section for the process. pi. sup +. pi minus. r arrow. pi0. pi0. in the c. m. s. energy region 0. 55 lt M lt 2 GeV from the reaction. pi. sup minus p r arrow. pi0. pi0. n at 39. 1 GeV/ c

    SciTech Connect

    Apokin, V.D.; Arestov, Y.I.; Belikov, N.I.; Borisov, N.S.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Grachev, O.A.; Derevshchikov, A.A.; Kazarinov, Y.M.; Liburg, M.Y.; Matafonov, V.N.; and others

    1989-02-01

    The total cross section for the process {pi}{sup +}{pi{minus}}{r arrow}{pi0}{pi0} in the dipion mass region 0.55{lt}{ital M}{lt}2.0 GeV is determined from the peripheral transitions {pi}{sup {minus}}{r arrow}{pi0}{pi0} in carbon and propanediol targets at an initial {pi}{sup {minus}}-meson momentum 39.1 GeV/{ital c}.

  18. Photogrammetry Driven Tools to Support the Restoration of Open-Air Bronze Surfaces of Sculptures: AN Integrated Solution Starting from the Experience of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Basilissi, W.; Rivaroli, L.

    2017-02-01

    Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact's surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-based solution to support restorers in the open-air bronze artwork cleaning from corrosion and weathering decay. The solution allows the conservators to assess in real time and with a high level of fidelity in colour and shape, the `surfaces' to be cleaned before, during and after the clear-out treatment. The solution besides allows an effective and valuable support tool for restorers to identify the original layer of the bronze surface, developed and validated during the ongoing restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna.

  19. Evidence of a shallow persistent magmatic reservoir from joint inversion of gravity and ground deformation data: The 25-26 October 2013 Etna lava fountaining event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Filippo; Currenti, Gilda; Palano, Mimmo; Pepe, Antonio; Pepe, Susi

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the volcanic processes leading to the 25-26 October 2013 lava fountain at Mount Etna, we jointly investigated gravity, GPS, and DInSAR measurements covering the late-June to early-November time interval. We used finite element modeling to infer a shallow magmatic reservoir which (i) inflated since July 2013, (ii) fed the volcanic activity at the summit craters during 25-26 October, and (iii) deflated due to magma drainage related to this volcanic activity. We suggested that this reservoir belongs to a shallow volume, which is located beneath the summit area and is replenished by magma rising from deep reservoirs and fed the short-term volcanic activity, representing a persistent shallow magmatic plumbing system of Etna. In addition, the model results show that there is a large discrepancy between the erupted and shallow reservoir deflation volumes, which could be reasonably attributable to a highly compressible volatile-rich magma.

  20. Summary of water-quality data, October 1987 through September 1997, for Fountain and Monument Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossong, Clifford R.

    2001-01-01

    Fountain and Monument Creeks, which drain parts of El Paso and Pueblo Counties in Colorado, have been sampled systematically by the U.S. Geological Survey for many years to obtain records of water-quality properties and constituents; the data are stored in the National Water Inventory System. Statistical summaries of these data indicate that they have spatial and temporal trends. Comparison of water-quality data to in-stream regulatory standards, some of which were calculated in this report, indicate that some exceedances are widespread in the system and that some occur locally. Nonparametric tests to quantitatively detect monotonic trends in water-quality data indicate that many water-quality properties and constituents do not have significant monotonic trends; detected trends were mostly downward.

  1. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  2. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  3. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  4. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  5. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  6. PM10 measurements in urban settlements after lava fountain episodes at Mt Etna, Italy: pilot test to assess volcanic ash hazard on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, D.; Del Carlo, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we focus on the potential risks caused by the sub-10 micron fraction of volcanic ash (particulate matter: PM10) after the basaltic explosive eruptions from Mt Etna volcano (Italy), which have dramatically increased in frequency over the last 20 years. We present results deriving from the study of the ash concentration in the air following the lava fountain episode from the New South-East Crater of Etna on 15 November 2011, which caused tephra fallout over the eastern slope of the volcano. Short-duration tests of PM10 measurements were carried out at three different sites using a TSI® DustTrakTM aerosol monitor a few hours after the end of the eruption, and readouts of the air quality were repeated at the same sites a month later without volcanic activity. Furthermore, ash samples were characterized by grain-size, componentry, morphological and petro-chemical analyses. By comparing PM10 levels measured a few hours after the 15 November lava fountain and on 15 December, we found that relatively low amounts (500-1500 g m-2) of tephra fallout cause high levels of PM10 in the air. This is because the coarse particles, like basaltic ash, are readily broken up by traffic and hence remobilized into the air, due to their intrinsic, physical and morphological features. We believe that in the future the impact from ash fallout in the Etnean territory should receive proper attention in order to avoid potential health problems; this may be achieved by accomplishing simple but effective actions, first and foremost the prompt removal of the ash deposits from the urbanized areas.

  7. PM10 measurements in urban settlements after lava fountain episodes at Mt. Etna, Italy: pilot test to assess volcanic ash hazard to human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, D.; Del Carlo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a preliminary study on the potential risks caused by the sub-10 µm fraction of volcanic ash (particulate matter, PM10) after the basaltic explosive eruptions from Mt. Etna volcano (Italy), which have dramatically increased in frequency over the last 20 years. We present results deriving from the study of the ash concentration in the air following the lava fountain episode from the New Southeast Crater of Etna on 15 November 2011, which caused tephra fallout over the eastern slope of the volcano. Short-duration tests of PM10 measurements were carried out at three different sites using a TSI® DustTrakTM aerosol monitor a few hours after the end of the eruption, and readouts of the air quality were repeated at the same sites a month later without volcanic activity. Furthermore, ash samples were characterized by grain size, componentry and morphological and petrochemical analyses. By comparing PM10 levels measured a few hours after the 15 November lava fountain and on 15 December, we found that relatively low amounts (500-1500 g m-2) of tephra fallout cause high levels of PM10 in the air. This is because the coarse particles, particularly basaltic ash, are readily broken up by traffic and hence remobilized into the air. We believe the impact from ash fallout in the Etnean territory should receive greater attention, especially regarding potential health problems. Simple but effective actions can be implemented to reduce eventual risks, first and foremost the prompt removal of the ash deposits from the urbanized areas.

  8. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  9. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  10. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  11. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  12. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  13. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  14. Defeating the coding monsters.

    PubMed

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  15. Vesicle microtexture analysis and eruption dynamics of selected high fountaining episodes at Pu`u `Ō`ō, Kīlauea volcano, Hawai`i between 1985-1986.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, S. J.; Carey, R.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; McPhie, J.

    2015-12-01

    The early phases of the ongoing eruption of Pu`u `Ō`ō in the East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kīlauea on Hawai`i provide a unique opportunity to study the vesicle microtexture of tephra from five high (≥200m) Hawaiian fountaining events, from a single vent, over a prolonged period of time. The high Hawaiian fountains erupted at Pu`u `Ō`ō varied in height from 200 m up to a maximum of 467 m, during which the shallow conduit at Pu`u `Ō`ō remained stable. We conducted microtextural analysis of pyroclasts from five high (264 to 391 m) Hawaiian fountaining episodes at Kīlauea, Episodes 32, 37, 40, 44 and 45, erupted from the Pu`u `Ō`ō vent between 1985 and 1986 in order to constrain the parameters that lead to large variations in fountain height of Hawaiian fountains at Pu`u `Ō`ō. Our results show that pyroclasts from a single episode can vary greatly in texture (from bubbly to foamy) and have vesicle volume densities (Nmv) that vary by an order of magnitude. This range in vesicle texture and population is due to extensive growth and coalescence of vesicles within the eruption jet post-fragmentation, resulting in the observed vesicle texture not being wholly indicative of the syn-fragmentation vesicle population. Only four pyroclasts were found to have textures that are interpreted to be indicative of the vesicle population at the moment of fragmentation, all of which have bubbly texture, high density, high Nmv, and low vesicle-to-melt ratio (VG/VL). Due to the paucity of pyroclasts representative of syn-eruption vesiculation processes, comparison of shallow conduit dynamics across episodes can only be qualitative observations, which suggest the ascending melt is thermally and mechanically heterogeneous on a small scale during Hawaiian-style fountaining. This highlights the importance for detailed micro-scale qualitative textural observations on pyroclasts with end-member densities, as well as modal densities, when carrying out vesicle microtexture analysis. This

  16. [Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) control].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B.) microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration) LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time) LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5x10(6), 10(7), 5x10(7), 10(8), 5x10(8) and 10(9) conidia.mL(-1)) to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5x10(9) conidia.mL(1). The LC50 and LC90 were 3x10(7) and 5x10(8) respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  17. Impact of apple polyphenols on GSTT2 gene expression, subsequent protection of DNA and modulation of proliferation using LT97 human colon adenoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miene, Claudia; Klenow, Stefanie; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Richling, Elke; Glei, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Apple extract (AE) enhances expression of glutathione S-transferases (e.g., GSTT2) in human colon cells (LT97). Therefore, aim of the present study was to identify functional consequences of GSTT2 induction by AE and to determine the relation of AE effects to isolated compounds. Polyphenol composition of AE was analyzed. LT97 cells were treated with AE or synthetic polyphenol mixture (SPM) under conditions that induced GSTT2, and challenged with GSTT2-2 substrate cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) to determine DNA damage using comet assay. Modulation of GSTT2 expression (real-time PCR) was reassessed, and the influence on cell proliferation and pro-oxidative potential of AE and SPM were assessed to understand additional mechanisms. Induction of GSTT2 by AE was accompanied by protection of LT97 cells from CumOOH-induced genotoxicity. Although SPM was unable to reflect AE-specific bioactivity related to GSTT2 modulation and anti-genotoxicity, inhibition of LT97 cell proliferation by SPM was comparable. Storage of AE caused changes in phenolic composition along with loss of activity regarding GSTT2 induction and amplified growth inhibition. At the applied concentrations, no H(2)O(2) formation was detectable with any of the substances. AE can protect against oxidatively induced DNA damage. Nevertheless, chemopreventive effects of AE strongly depend on the specific composition, which is modified by storage.

  18. 75 FR 73156 - The Amended Designation of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT, LeT), aka Lashkar-e-Toiba, aka Lashkar-i-Taiba...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Amended Designation of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT, LeT), aka Lashkar-e-Toiba, aka Lashkar-i-Taiba, aka al Mansoorian, aka al Mansooreen, aka Army of the Pure, aka Army of the Righteous, aka Army of the Pure...

  19. Purification of heavy metal loaded wastewater from electroplating industry under synthesis of delafossite (ABO2) by "Lt-delafossite process".

    PubMed

    John, Melanie; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Ullrich, Aladin; Rettenwander, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In this study we present a new, environmental friendly and economic method, called Lt-delafossite process to treat industrial wastewater (initial Cu(2+)-concentrations of 1-15.6 g/l) by subsequent synthesis of nano-crystalline (doped) delafossite (CuFeO2) solely by precipitation and ageing at temperatures between 50 °C and 90 °C. The reached water purification rates are exclusively ≥99.99% for both wastewater models and wastewaters from electroplating industry. We succeeded to synthesize a mixture of 3R and 2H delafossite at 50 °C after 90 h and ≥70 °C after 16 h of ageing directly from industrial wastewater without any additional phases. In all cases green rust (GR), a Fe(II-III) layered double hydroxysulphate, Cu2O (cuprite) and Fe10O14(OH)2 (ferrihydrite) precipitates first. During ageing of the residues the metastable phases transform to delafossite. The residues are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, VFTB and Mößbauer measurements.

  20. Improvised design of THz spectrophotometer using LT-GaAs photoconductive antennas, pyroelectric detector and band-pass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottamchetty, V.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the improvised design of LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna and pyroelectric detector-based terahertz (THz) spectrophotometer by introducing band-pass filters. The spectrophotometer provides direct optical/absorption information of materials in THz domain without using any signal processing devices (such as lock-in amplifier) and delay arrangement, etc., which are required in conventional THz spectrometer. Moreover, obtained absorption results from spectrometer are less affected by laser fluctuations and inherent noises of the detector. The laser pulses of duration 15 fs at 80 MHz repetition rate are utilized in this spectrometer to generate THz radiation with good conversion efficiency ( η) of the order 3 × 10-3. In addition, emphasis is also given to understand the effect of single- and two-photon absorption on generated THz power with respect to incident laser power density. Absorption properties of packing materials such as paper, Teflon, transparency and rubber (eraser) sheets are investigated in terms of their attenuation coefficients and absorbance at 0.5 and 1.5 THz region in our newly designed THz spectrophotometer. Our study demonstrates the significant information about their attenuation coefficients lying between 300 and 5000 dB/m. The attenuation in THz power has been measured as a function of the paper thickness (0.3-1.5 mm). The obtained results show the exponential growth in absorption with respect to paper thickness.

  1. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  2. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  3. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  4. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  5. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  6. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  7. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  8. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  9. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  10. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  11. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions.

  12. Urban-Related Environmental Variables and Their Relation with Patterns in Biological Community Structure in the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Evans, Erin E.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to evaluate the influence of urbanization on stream ecosystems. To accomplish this task, invertebrate, fish, stream discharge, habitat, water-chemistry, and land-use data were collected from 13 sites in the Fountain Creek basin from 2003 to 2005. The Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate hydrologic indices known to be related to urbanization. Response of stream hydrology to urbanization was evident among hydrologic variables that described stormflow. These indices included one measurement of high-flow magnitude, two measurements of high-flow frequency, and one measurement of stream flashiness. Habitat and selected nonstormflow water chemistry were characterized at each site. Land-use data were converted to estimates of impervious surface cover and used as the measure of urbanization annually. Correlation analysis (Spearman?s rho) was used to identify a suite of nonredundant streamflow, habitat, and water-chemistry variables that were strongly associated (rho > 0.6) with impervious surface cover but not strongly related to elevation (rho < 0.60). An exploratory multivariate analysis (BIO-ENV, PRIMER ver 6.1, Plymouth, UK) was used to create subsets of eight urban-related environmental variables that described patterns in biological community structure. The strongest and most parsimonious subset of variables describing patterns in invertebrate community structure included high flood pulse count, lower bank capacity, and nutrients. Several other combinations of environmental variables resulted in competing subsets, but these subsets always included the three variables found in the most parsimonious list. This study found that patterns in invertebrate community structure from 2003 to 2005 in the Fountain Creek basin were associated with a variety of environmental characteristics influenced by urbanization. These patterns were explained by a combination of

  13. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  14. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  15. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  16. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  17. Coding Acoustic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boyang; Tang, Kun; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Zhengyou; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Coding acoustic metasurfaces can combine simple logical bits to acquire sophisticated functions in wave control. The acoustic logical bits can achieve a phase difference of exactly π and a perfect match of the amplitudes for the transmitted waves. By programming the coding sequences, acoustic metasurfaces with various functions, including creating peculiar antenna patterns and waves focusing, have been demonstrated.

  18. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  19. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  20. Evolving genetic code

    PubMed Central

    OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

    2008-01-01

    In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

  1. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  2. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities int he Enolase Superfamily: L-Talarate/Galactarate Dehydratase from Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2007-01-01

    We assigned L-talarate dehydratase (TalrD) and galactarate dehydratase (GalrD) functions to a group of orthologous proteins in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily, focusing our characterization on the protein encoded by the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 genome (GI:16766982; STM3697). Like the homologous mandelate racemase, L-fuconate dehydratase, and D-tartrate dehydratase, the active site of TalrD/GalrD contains a general acid/base Lys 197 at the end of the second {beta}-strand in the ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 7}{beta}-barrel domain, Asp 226, Glu 252, and Glu 278 as ligands for the essential Mg{sup 2+} at the ends of the third, fourth, and fifth {sup {beta}}-strands, a general acid/base His 328-Asp 301 dyad at the ends of the seventh and sixth {beta}-strands, and an electrophilic Glu 348 at the end of the eighth {beta}-strand. We discovered the function of STM3697 by screening a library of acid sugars; it catalyzes the efficient dehydration of both L-talarate (k{sub cat} = 2.1 s{sup -1}, k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 9.1 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and galactarate (k{sub cat} = 3.5 s{sup -1}, k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 1.1 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Because L-talarate is a previously unknown metabolite, we demonstrated that S. typhimurium LT2 can utilize L-talarate as carbon source. Insertional disruption of the gene encoding STM3697 abolishes this phenotype; this disruption also diminishes, but does not eliminate, the ability of the organism to utilize galactarate as carbon source. The dehydration of L-talarate is accompanied by competing epimerization to galactarate; little epimerization to L-talarate is observed in the dehydration of galactarate. On the basis of (1) structures of the wild type enzyme complexed with L-lyxarohydroxamate, an analogue of the enolate intermediate, and of the K197A mutant complexed with L-glucarate, a substrate for exchange of the {alpha}-proton, and (2) incorporation of solvent deuterium into galactarate in competition with

  3. CFBDS J111807-064016: A new L/T transition brown dwarf in a binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reylé, C.; Delorme, P.; Artigau, E.; Delfosse, X.; Albert, L.; Forveille, T.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Robin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Binary systems with a substellar companion are quite rare and provide interesting benchmarks. They constrain the complex physics of substellar atmospheres, because several physical parameters of the substellar secondary can be fixed from the much better characterized main-sequence primary. We report the discovery of CFBDS J111807-064016, a T2 brown-dwarf companion to 2MASS J111806.99-064007.8, a low-mass M4.5-M5 star. The brown dwarf was identified from the Canada France Brown Dwarf Survey. At a distance of 50-120 pc, the 7.7'' angular separation corresponds to projected separations of 390-900 AU. The primary displays no Hα emission, placing a lower limit on the age of the system of about 6 Gyr. The kinematics is also consistent with membership in the old thin disc. We obtained near-infrared spectra, which together with recent atmosphere models allow us to determine the effective temperature and gravity of the two components. We derived a system metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.1 ± 0.1 using metallicity-sensitive absorption features in our medium-resolution Ks spectrum of the primary. From these parameters and the age constraint, evolutionary models estimate masses of 0.10 to 0.15 M⊙ for the M dwarf and 0.06 to 0.07 M⊙ for the T dwarf. This system is a particularly valuable benchmark because the brown dwarf belongs to the early-T class: the cloud-clearing that occurs at the L/T transition is very sensitive to gravity, metallicity, and detailed dust properties, and produces a large scatter in the colours. This T2 dwarf, with its metallicity measured from the primary and its mass and gravity much better constrained than those of younger early-Ts, will anchor our understanding of the colours of L/T transition brown dwarfs. It is also one of the most massive T dwarfs, just below the hydrogen-burning limit, and all this makes it a prime probe for brown-dwarf atmosphere and evolution models. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT

  4. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

    2014-09-26

    Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 μmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 μmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 μmol/2 μL)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 μmol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 μmol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the

  5. Development and preclinical evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of an oral ETEC vaccine containing inactivated E. coli bacteria overexpressing colonization factors CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 combined with a hybrid LT/CT B subunit antigen, administered alone and together with dmLT adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, J; Bourgeois, L; Carlin, N; Clements, J; Gustafsson, B; Lundgren, A; Nygren, E; Tobias, J; Walker, R; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-05-07

    A first-generation oral inactivated whole-cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine, comprising formalin-killed ETEC bacteria expressing different colonization factor (CF) antigens combined with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), when tested in phase III studies did not significantly reduce overall (generally mild) ETEC diarrhea in travelers or children although it reduced more severe ETEC diarrhea in travelers by almost 80%. We have now developed a novel more immunogenic ETEC vaccine based on recombinant non-toxigenic E. coli strains engineered to express increased amounts of CF antigens, including CS6 as well as an ETEC-based B subunit protein (LCTBA), and the optional combination with a nontoxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (LT) molecule (dmLT) as an adjuvant. Two test vaccines were prepared under GMP: (1) A prototype E. coli CFA/I-only formalin-killed whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine, and (2) A "complete" inactivated multivalent ETEC-CF (CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 antigens) whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine. These vaccines, when given intragastrically alone or together with dmLT in mice, were well tolerated and induced strong intestinal-mucosal IgA antibody responses as well as serum IgG and IgA responses to each of the vaccine CF antigens as well as to LT B subunit (LTB). Both mucosal and serum responses were further enhanced (adjuvanted) when the vaccines were co-administered with dmLT. We conclude that the new multivalent oral ETEC vaccine, both alone and especially in combination with the dmLT adjuvant, shows great promise for further testing in humans.

  6. Cloning, characterization, and DNA sequence of the rfaLK region for lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, P R; Kadam, S K; Sanderson, K E

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the rfaL and rfaK genes for lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium LT2 on a 4.28-kb HindIII fragment from the previously described R' factor pKZ3 (S. K. Kadam, A. Rehemtulla, and K. E. Sanderson, J. Bacteriol. 161:277-284, 1985). rfaL is thought to encode a component of the O-antigen ligase, and rfaK is believed to encode the N-acetylglucosamine transferase. The genes were identified by the loss of complementation of prototype rfaL and rfaK mutations after Tn1000 mutagenesis. Translation of the nucleotide sequence predicted sizes of 45.9 and 43.1 kDa for the rfaL and rfaK gene products, respectively. Hydropathy analysis of the rfaL product suggested that it was an integral membrane protein. A third gene, rfaZ, was found to be an 808-bp open reading frame on the pyrE side of rfaK. Insertions into rfaZ reduced rfaK complementation, suggesting cotranscription in the pyrE-cysE direction. The rfaL gene is transcribed in the opposite direction in a separate operon which may also include rfaC. An incomplete open reading frame with homology to an Escherichia coli gene in the same region, rfaY, was found on the pyrE side of rfaZ. Complementation studies with Tn1000 insertions in rfaL showed that rfaL446 and rfaL447 are allelic. With the cloning of the rfaL and -K genes, the order of genes within the rfa cluster at 79 units on the linkage map was found to be cysE-rfaDFCLKZYJIBG-pyrE. Images FIG. 3 PMID:1657881

  7. LT2 Cryptosporidium data: what do they tell us about Cryptosporidium in surface water in the United States?

    PubMed

    Ongerth, Jerry E

    2013-05-07

    Beginning in 2006 a United States Federal regulation required public water suppliers using surface water serving more than 10,000 population to analyze for Cryptosporidium in at least 24 consecutive monthly samples from each surface water source. In July 2012, the U.S. EPA released the resulting data consisting of ca. 45,000 records. No Cryptosporidium were found in 93% of samples and no Cryptosporidium were found in any samples analyzed from over half of 1670 locations sampled. Nevertheless, at 250 locations representing every region of the U.S., Cryptosporidium were found in sufficient numbers of samples to provide a picture of their occurrence nationwide. Data from about 100 sites reporting the highest numbers were examined in detail. Although analysis of matrix spikes was required for quality control, the results do not permit estimating organism concentrations. The data reported at each of the individual sample locations were analyzed in the form of cumulative probability distributions to describe key risk-related features of median level and variability. Taken as a whole, the data describe a spectrum of median Cryptosporidium occurrence in surface waters of the U.S. ranging from ca. 0.005 to ca. 0.5 oocysts/L. The variability at individual sites ranged from ca. 1 to 15 r.s.d. Based on the LT2 positive data, comparison to measurements of other water quality parameters, and independent means of estimating organism production from watersheds reported in the literature, the hypothesis is offered that Cryptosporidium may be found in surface water anywhere worldwide continuously and within the spectrum defined above.

  8. Comparison of continuous-wave terahertz wave generation and bias-field-dependent saturation in GaAs:O and LT-GaAs antennas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejian; Li, Yu-tai; Yang, Mong-huan; Cheung, Wing Yiu; Pan, Ci-Ling; Chan, Kam Tai

    2009-04-01

    Terahertz wave (THz) photoconductive (PC) antennas were fabricated on oxygen-implanted GaAs (GaAs:O) and low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs). The measured cw THz power at 0.358 THz from the GaAs:O antenna is about twice that from the LT-GaAs antenna under the same testing conditions, with the former showing no saturation up to a bias of 40 kV/cm, while the latter is already beginning to saturate at 20 kV/cm. A modified theoretical model incorporating bias-field-dependent electron saturation velocity is employed to explain the results. It shows that GaAs:O exhibits a higher electron saturation velocity, which may be further exploited to generate even larger THz powers by reducing the ion dosage and optimizing the annealing process in GaAs:O.

  9. Measurement of the Polarized Structure Function sigma {sub LT'} for (p{rvec e},e'p) pi{sup 0} in the Delta (1232) Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kyungseon Joo; L.C. Smith; V.D. Burkert; R. Minehart

    2003-05-01

    The polarized longitudinal-transverse structure function {sigma}{sub LT'} has been measured for the first time in the {Delta}(1232) resonance region at Q{sup 2} = 0.40 and 0.65 GeV{sup 2}. Data for the p{rvec e},e'p {pi}{sup 0} reaction were taken at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 1.515 GeV. Evidence for interference between resonant and non-resonant amplitudes is discussed using a partial wave analysis. Comparison with previous beam asymmetry measurements at MAMI indicate a deviation from the predicted Q{sup 2} dependence of {sigma}{sub LT'} using recent phenomenological models.

  10. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  11. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  12. Embedded foveation image coding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  13. Coding theory based models for protein translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms.

    PubMed

    May, Elebeoba E; Vouk, Mladen A; Bitzer, Donald L; Rosnick, David I

    2004-01-01

    Our research explores the feasibility of using communication theory, error control (EC) coding theory specifically, for quantitatively modeling the protein translation initiation mechanism. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of Escherichia coli K-12 is modeled as a noisy (errored), encoded signal and the ribosome as a minimum Hamming distance decoder, where the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) serves as a template for generating a set of valid codewords (the codebook). We tested the E. coli based coding models on 5' untranslated leader sequences of prokaryotic organisms of varying taxonomical relation to E. coli including: Salmonella typhimurium LT2, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus Mu50. The model identified regions on the 5' untranslated leader where the minimum Hamming distance values of translated mRNA sub-sequences and non-translated genomic sequences differ the most. These regions correspond to the Shine-Dalgarno domain and the non-random domain. Applying the EC coding-based models to B. subtilis, and S. aureus Mu50 yielded results similar to those for E. coli K-12. Contrary to our expectations, the behavior of S. typhimurium LT2, the more taxonomically related to E. coli, resembled that of the non-translated sequence group.

  14. Coding theory based models for protein translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Elebeoba Eni; Bitzer, Donald L. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Rosnick, David I. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Vouk, Mladen A.

    2003-03-01

    Our research explores the feasibility of using communication theory, error control (EC) coding theory specifically, for quantitatively modeling the protein translation initiation mechanism. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of Escherichia coli K-12 is modeled as a noisy (errored), encoded signal and the ribosome as a minimum Hamming distance decoder, where the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) serves as a template for generating a set of valid codewords (the codebook). We tested the E. coli based coding models on 5' untranslated leader sequences of prokaryotic organisms of varying taxonomical relation to E. coli including: Salmonella typhimurium LT2, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus Mu50. The model identified regions on the 5' untranslated leader where the minimum Hamming distance values of translated mRNA sub-sequences and non-translated genomic sequences differ the most. These regions correspond to the Shine-Dalgarno domain and the non-random domain. Applying the EC coding-based models to B. subtilis, and S. aureus Mu50 yielded results similar to those for E. coli K-12. Contrary to our expectations, the behavior of S. typhimurium LT2, the more taxonomically related to E. coli, resembled that of the non-translated sequence group.

  15. Methods to determine transit losses for return flows of transmountain water in Fountain Creek between Colorado Springs and the Arkansas River, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    1988-01-01

    Methods were developed by which transit losses could be determined for transmountain return flows in Fountain Creek between Colorado Springs, Colorado, and its confluence with the Arkansas River. The study reach is a complex hydrologic system wherein a substantially variable streamflow interacts with an alluvial aquifer. The study approach included: (1) calibration and verification of a streamflow-routing model that contained a bank-storage-discharge component; (2) use of the model to develop the methods by which transit losses could be calculated; and (3) design of an application method for calculating daily transit loss using the model results. Sources of transit losses that were studied are bank storage, channel storage, and evaporation. Magnitude of bank-storage loss primarily depends on duration of a recovery period during which water lost to bank storage is returned to the stream. Net loss to bank storage can vary from about 50% for a 0-day recovery period to about 2% for a 180-day recovery period. Virtually all water lost to bank storage could be returned to the stream with longer recovery periods. Channel-storage loss was determined to be about 10% of a release quantity. Because the loss on any given day is totally recovered in the form of gains from channel storage on the subsequent day, channel storage is a temporary transit loss. Evaporation loss generally is less than 5% of a given daily transmountain return-flow release, depending on month of year. Evaporation losses are permanently lost from the system. (USGS)

  16. Deformation and seismic precursors to dome-collapse and fountain-collapse nuées ardentes at Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, 1994-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voight, B.; Young, K.D.; Hidayat, D.; ,; Purbawinata, M.A.; Ratdomopurbo, A.; ,; ,; Sayudi, D.S.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Murray, T.L.; Dejean, M.; Iguchi, M.; Ishihara, K.

    2000-01-01

    Following the eruption of January 1992, episodes of lava dome growth accompanied by generation of dome-collapse nuées ardentes occurred in 1994–1998. In addition, nuées ardentes were generated by fountain-collapse in January 1997, and the 1998 events also suggest an explosive component. Significant tilt and seismic precursors on varying time scales preceded these events. Deformation about the summit has been detected by electronic tiltmeters since November 1992, with inflation corresponding generally to lava dome growth, and deflation (or decreased inflation) corresponding to loss of dome mass. Strong short-term (days to weeks) accelerations in tilt rate and seismicity occurred prior to the major nuées ardentes episodes, apart from those of 22 November 1994 which were preceded by steadily increasing tilt for over 200 days but lacked short-term precursors. Because of the combination of populated hazardous areas and the lack of an issued warning, about 100 casualties occurred in 1994. In contrast, the strong precursors in 1997 and 1998 provided advance warning to observatory scientists, enabled the stepped raising of alert levels, and aided hazard management. As a result of these factors, but also the fortunate fact that the large nuées ardentes did not quite descend into populated areas, no casualties occurred. The nuée ardente episode of 1994 is interpreted as purely due to gravitational collapse, whereas those of 1997 and 1998 were influenced by gas-pressurization of the lava dome.

  17. Eco-friendly LC-MS/MS method for analysis of multi-class micropollutants in tap, fountain, and well water from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marta O; Ribeiro, Ana R; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2016-11-01

    Organic micropollutants present in drinking water (DW) may cause adverse effects for public health, and so reliable analytical methods are required to detect these pollutants at trace levels in DW. This work describes the first green analytical methodology for multi-class determination of 21 pollutants in DW: seven pesticides, an industrial compound, 12 pharmaceuticals, and a metabolite (some included in Directive 2013/39/EU or Decision 2015/495/EU). A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (offline SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized using eco-friendly solvents, achieving detection limits below 0.20 ng L(-1). The validated analytical method was successfully applied to DW samples from different sources (tap, fountain, and well waters) from different locations in the north of Portugal, as well as before and after bench-scale UV and ozonation experiments in spiked tap water samples. Thirteen compounds were detected, many of them not regulated yet, in the following order of frequency: diclofenac > norfluoxetine > atrazine > simazine > warfarin > metoprolol > alachlor > chlorfenvinphos > trimethoprim > clarithromycin ≈ carbamazepine ≈ PFOS > citalopram. Hazard quotients were also estimated for the quantified substances and suggested no adverse effects to humans. Graphical Abstract Occurrence and removal of multi-class micropollutants in drinking water, analyzed by an eco-friendly LC-MS/MS method.

  18. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    PubMed

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped (12)CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10(6) cm(-3)), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10(-4)M⊙ yr(-1) in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  19. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  20. Celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid co-treatment inhibits cell growth in familial adenomatous polyposis derived LT97 colon adenoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heumen, Bjorn W.H. van; Roelofs, Hennie M.J.; Morsche, Rene H.M. te; Marian, Brigitte; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Peters, Wilbert H.M.

    2012-04-15

    Chemoprevention would be a desirable strategy to avoid duodenectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) suffering from duodenal adenomatosis. We investigated the in vitro effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 expression of the potential chemopreventives celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). HT-29 colon cancer cells and LT97 colorectal micro-adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, were exposed to low dose celecoxib and UDCA alone or in combination with tauro-cholic acid (CA) and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), mimicking bile of FAP patients treated with UDCA. In HT-29 cells, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA resulted in a decreased cell growth (14-17%, p < 0.01). A more pronounced decrease (23-27%, p < 0.01) was observed in LT97 cells. Cell growth of HT-29 cells exposed to 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, was decreased (p < 0.001), either in the absence or presence of celecoxib. In LT97 cells incubated with 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, cell growth was decreased only in the presence of celecoxib (p < 0.05). No clear evidence was found for involvement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, caspase-3, or COX-2 in the cellular processes leading to the observed changes in cell growth. In conclusion, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA has growth inhibitory effects on colorectal adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, and further research on this combination as promising chemopreventive strategy is desired. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Celecoxib and UDCA acid co-treatment decreases cell growth in colon tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UDCA enriched 'artificial bile' decreases LT-97 cell growth only in presence of celecoxib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCNA, caspase-3, nor COX-2 seem to be involved in the observed changes in cell growth.

  1. Improved engraftment of human cord blood stem cells in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice after irradiation or multiple-day injections into unirradiated recipients.

    PubMed

    Lowry, P A; Shultz, L D; Greiner, D L; Hesselton, R M; Kittler, E L; Tiarks, C Y; Rao, S S; Reilly, J; Leif, J H; Ramshaw, H; Stewart, F M; Quesenberry, P J

    1996-02-01

    Human lymphoematopoietic stem cells engraft in irradiated immunodeficient mice that are homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation. Engraftment levels in C.B-17-scid/scid mice, however, have been low and transient, decreasing the utility of this model for investigation of the development potential and function of human stem cells. In the present study, we have used NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice as recipients and human cord blood as a source of donor stem cells. Our results demonstrate that NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice support approximately fivefold higher levels of human stem cell marrow engraftment than do C.B-17-scid/scid mice. Human CD34+ cells are present in the marrow of recipient mice, and the engrafted cells readily peripheralize to the circulation of the host. Terminal differentiation of the stem and progenitor cells into mature progeny is limited. Using a multiple-day injection protocol developed in mice, which allows engraftment of stem cells between congenic mice in the absence of irradiation preconditioning, we observed high levels of human cell engraftment in unirradiated NOD/LtSz-scid/scid recipients after three or five consecutive-day injections. These results demonstrate that NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice support high levels of human stem cell engraftment and that xenogeneic lymphohematopoietic stem cells can engraft in unirradiated hosts without the need for ablative reconditioning. This model will be useful for the in vivo investigation of human stem cells and for the preclinical analysis of human stem cells for transplantation.

  2. Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells.

    PubMed

    Klenow, S; Glei, M; Haber, B; Owen, R; Pool-Zobel, B L

    2008-04-01

    An extract of the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod (carob fibre extract), products formed after its fermentation by the gut flora and the major phenolic ingredient gallic acid (GA), were comparatively investigated for their influence on survival and growth parameters of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and adenoma LT97 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was quantified. After 1h 97+/-4 microM or 70+/-15 microM were found in HT29 medium and 6+/-1 microM or 3+/-3 microM in LT97 medium for carob fibre extract or GA, respectively. After 72 h carob fibre extract reduced survival of rapidly proliferating HT29 cells (by 76.4+/-12.9%) whereas metabolic activity and DNA-synthesis were only transiently impaired. Survival of slower growing LT97 cells was less decreased (by 21.5+/-12.9%), but there were marked effects on DNA-synthesis (reduction by 95.6+/-7%, 72 h). GA and fermented carob fibre did not have comparable effects. Thus, carob fibre extract resulted in H2O2 formation, which, however, could not explain impairment of cell growth. The differently modulated growth of human colon cell lines was more related to proliferation rates and impairment of DNA-synthesis than to H2O2 formation.

  3. AN INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF THE BROWN DWARF ATMOSPHERE MONITORING (BAM) DATA: LARGE-AMPLITUDE VARIABILITY IS RARE OUTSIDE THE L/T TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, Jacqueline

    2014-12-20

    Observations of variability can provide valuable information about the processes of cloud formation and dissipation in brown dwarf atmospheres. Here we report the results of an independent analysis of archival data from the Brown dwarf Atmosphere Monitoring (BAM) program. Time series data for 14 L and T dwarfs reported to be significantly variable over timescales of hours were analyzed. We confirm large-amplitude variability (amplitudes >2%) for 4 out of 13 targets and place upper limits of 0.7%-1.6% on variability in the remaining sample. For two targets we find evidence of weak variability at amplitudes of 1.3% and 1.6%. Based on our revised classification of variable objects in the BAM study, we find strong variability outside the L/T transition to be rare at near infrared wavelengths. From a combined sample of 81 L0-T9 dwarfs from the revised BAM sample and the variability survey of Radigan et al., we infer an overall observed frequency for large-amplitude variability outside the L/T transition of 3.2{sub −1.8}{sup +2.8}%, in contrast to 24{sub −9}{sup +11}% for L9-T3.5 spectral types. We conclude that while strong variability is not limited to the L/T transition, it occurs more frequently in this spectral type range, indicative of larger or more highly contrasting cloud features at these spectral types.

  4. The effect of rider weight and additional weight in Icelandic horses in tölt: part II. Stride parameters responses.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, V; Stefánsdóttir, G J; Jansson, A; Roepstorff, L

    2017-03-21

    This study investigated the effects of rider weight in the BW ratio (BWR) range common for Icelandic horses (20% to 35%), on stride parameters in tölt in Icelandic horses. The kinematics of eight experienced Icelandic school horses were measured during an incremental exercise test using a high-speed camera (300 frames/s). Each horse performed five phases (642 m each) in tölt at a BWR between rider (including saddle) and horse starting at 20% (BWR20) and increasing to 25% (BWR25), 30% (BWR30), 35% (BWR35) and finally 20% (BWR20b) was repeated. One professional rider rode all horses and weight (lead) was added to saddle and rider as needed. For each phase, eight strides at speed of 5.5 m/s were analyzed for stride duration, stride frequency, stride length, duty factor (DF), lateral advanced placement, lateral advanced liftoff, unipedal support (UPS), bipedal support (BPS) and height of front leg action. Stride length became shorter (Y=2.73-0.004x; P0.05). In conclusion, increased BWR decreased stride length and increased DF proportionally to the same extent in all limbs, whereas BPS increased at the expense of decreased UPS. These changes can be expected to decrease tölt quality when subjectively evaluated according to the breeding goals for the Icelandic horse. However, beat, symmetry and height of front leg lifting were not affected by BWR.

  5. Measurement of the interference structure function R{sub LT} for the {sup 12}C(e,e{sup {prime}}p) reaction in the quasielastic region

    SciTech Connect

    Holtrop, M.; Jordan, D.; McIlvain, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Bhushan, V.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J.P.; Dale, D.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Dzengeleski, J.; Farkhondeh, M.; Gilad, S.; Joo, K.; Kelsey, J.; Penn, S.; Sapp, W.; Tieger, D.; Tschalaer, C.; Turchinetz, W.; Warren, G.; Weinstein, L.; Alarcon, R.; Goergen, J.; Martinez, D.; Beck, R.; Dolfini, S.; Kim, W.; Laszewski, R.; Mandeville, J.; Papanicolas, C.; Williamson, S.; Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Lourie, R.; Miskimen, R.; Sarty, A.J.

    1998-12-01

    The coincidence cross section and the interference structure function, R{sub LT}, were measured for the {sup 12}C(e,e{sup {prime}}p)thinsp{sup 11}B reaction at quasielastic kinematics and central momentum transfer of {vert_bar}{rvec q}{vert_bar}=400thinspMeV/c. The measurement was at an opening angle of {theta}{sub pq}=11{degree}, covering a range in missing energy of E{sub m}=0 to 65 MeV. The R{sub LT} structure function is found to be consistent with zero for E{sub m}{gt}50thinspMeV, confirming an earlier study which indicated that R{sub L} vanishes in this region. The integrated strengths of the p- and s-shell are compared with a distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) calculation. The s-shell strength and shape are also compared with a Hartree Fock{endash}random phase approximation (HF-RPA) calculation. The DWIA calculation does not succeed in giving a consistent description of both the cross section data and the extracted R{sub LT} response for either shell. The HF-RPA calculation describes the data more consistently, which may be due to the inclusion of 2-body currents in this calculation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbier, John Greaton; Kelley, Timothy M.; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Calef, Matthew Thomas

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  7. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L.; Singer, M.

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  8. The power induced effects module: A FORTRAN code which estimates lift increments due to power induced effects for V/STOL flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Howard, Kipp E.

    1991-01-01

    A user friendly FORTRAN code that can be used for preliminary design of V/STOL aircraft is described. The program estimates lift increments, due to power induced effects, encountered by aircraft in V/STOL flight. These lift increments are calculated using empirical relations developed from wind tunnel tests and are due to suckdown, fountain, ground vortex, jet wake, and the reaction control system. The code can be used as a preliminary design tool along with NASA Ames' Aircraft Synthesis design code or as a stand-alone program for V/STOL aircraft designers. The Power Induced Effects (PIE) module was validated using experimental data and data computed from lift increment routines. Results are presented for many flat plate models along with the McDonnell Aircraft Company's MFVT (mixed flow vectored thrust) V/STOL preliminary design and a 15 percent scale model of the YAV-8B Harrier V/STOL aircraft. Trends and magnitudes of lift increments versus aircraft height above the ground were predicted well by the PIE module. The code also provided good predictions of the magnitudes of lift increments versus aircraft forward velocity. More experimental results are needed to determine how well the code predicts lift increments as they vary with jet deflection angle and angle of attack. The FORTRAN code is provided in the appendix.

  9. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  10. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  11. Pseudomorphs of Neotethyan Evaporites in Anatolia's HP/LT belts - Aptian basin-wide pelagic gypsum deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Franziska; Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Immenhauser, Adrian; Candan, Osman

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta Marble was defined in SW Anatolia as 3D-radiating textures of dm-to-m-long calcite rods in the HP/LT metamorphosed Mid-Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the Ören Unit. Rosetta Marble in the type locality are interbedded with meta-chert beds, and may constitute entire carbonate beds. Rare aragonite relicts and Sr-rich, fibrous calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite witness the HP metamorphic imprint of this sequence during the closure of a Neotethyan oceanic domain during latest Cretaceous-Palaeocene times. We investigated the Rosetta Marble of the Ören Unit, as well as other known and newly found localities in the Tavşanlı and Afyon zones, and the Alanya Massif and Malatya area, to decipher the metamorphic, diagenetic and sedimentologic significance of these uncommon textures. Based on field, petrographic and geochemical investigations, we document a wide variety of Rosetta-type textures. A striking resemblance with well-known gypsum morphologies (e.g. shallow-tail, palm-tree textures) leads us to argue that Rosetta Marble was initially composed of giant gypsum crystals (selenite). The absence of anhydrite relicts of pseudomorphs indicate that gypsum transformed into calcite soon after the deposition by the mean of a sulphate reduction reaction. The gypsum-to-calcite transformation requires that organic matter intervened as a reactant phase. Mid Cretaceous oceanic domains in the Tethyan realm are characterised by overall anoxic conditions that allowed the preservation of organic material. Rosetta Marble exposures are widely distributed over 600 km along the Neotethyan suture zone. During deepening of the Neotethyan ocean in Mid Cretaceous times, basin-wide and cyclic sedimentation of gypsum and radiolarite occurred. The origin of high-salinity waters needed for gypsum precipitation was located at shelf levels. Density and gravity effects forced the brines to cascade downwards into the deep ocean. Favorable climatic conditions trigger the formation

  12. The rfaS gene, which is involved in production of a rough form of lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12, is not present in the rfa cluster of Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed Central

    Klena, J D; Pradel, E; Schnaitman, C A

    1993-01-01

    Partial sequencing of the rfa cluster of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 indicated a region of 336 bp between rfaP and rfaB in the site occupied by the rfaS gene in Escherichia coli K-12. This region does not contain a functional rfaS gene, although DNA analysis suggests that the region may have contained an ancestral gene. This conclusion that S. typhimurium LT2 lacks rfaS is supported by its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) gel phenotype, since LT2 does not make the lipooligosaccharide band characteristic of LPS from smooth strains of E. coli K-12. Images PMID:8444813

  13. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  14. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  15. Coded source neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  16. The 12-13 January 2011 lava fountain of Mt. Etna volcano: total mass and grain-size evaluation of the fallout deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lo Castro, Maria Deborah; Scollo, Simona

    2013-04-01

    South-East Crater (SEC) of Mt Etna, Italy, is renowned for its sequences of paroxysms, otherwise called episodic eruptions, which produced more than 150 events since 1998. Each episode typically gives rise to eruption columns and fallout deposits over distances of up to several tens of km from the vent. The last sequence consisted of twenty-five lava fountains occurred between 12 January 2011 and 24 April 2012. The 2011-12 sequence began from a pit-vent located on the eastern flank of the cone; with time, the intense and recurrent paroxysmal activity was able to build a new cone above the SEC, renamed New South-East Crater. The first episode was preceded by the resumption of Strombolian activity on 11 January 2011; late in the afternoon of 12 January, the increasing of explosion intensity and frequency led to the formation of powerful magma jets and a dense eruption column which moved toward SSW. The paroxysmal activity lasted about 1 hour and half; afterward it almost abruptly stopped early on 13 January, thus causing also the end of the eruption plume. Based on prevalent winds blowing in the Etnean area, most of the fallout deposits from Etna disperse their tephra fallout eastward toward the Valle del Bove depression, difficulty accessible in the upper part, then reaching the Ionian Sea. These peculiar conditions usually prevent direct observation of the deposit within 5 km from and 15 km beyond the eruptive vent. The 12-13 January lava fountain fallout, conversely, was dispersed over the South of Etna, exceeding the southern coastline of Sicily and thus giving the chance to map, sample and describe for more than 100 km the tephra fallout, passing from a black scoria deposit to ash deposit (90 % of which formed by sideromelane particles). In particular, the proximal deposit (up to 5 km of distance from SEC) was composed of a continuous to almost continuous tephra blanket containing decimetric-sized scoriae to coarse lapilli, while the most distal sites were

  17. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  18. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  19. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  20. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    PubMed

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  1. Geologic map of the Providence Mountains in parts of the Fountain Peak and adjacent 7.5' quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Miller, David M.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Rosario, Jose J.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wan, Elmira; Priest, Susan S.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2017-03-22

    IntroductionThe Providence Mountains are in the eastern Mojave Desert about 60 km southeast of Baker, San Bernardino County, California. This range, which is noted for its prominent cliffs of Paleozoic limestone, is part of a northeast-trending belt of mountainous terrain more than 100 km long that also includes the Granite Mountains, Mid Hills, and New York Mountains. Providence Mountains State Recreation Area encompasses part of the range, the remainder of which is within Mojave National Preserve, a large parcel of land administered by the National Park Service. Access to the Providence Mountains is by secondary roads leading south and north from Interstate Highways 15 and 40, respectively, which bound the main part of Mojave National Preserve.The geologic map presented here includes most of Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and land that surrounds it on the north, west, and south. This area covers most of the Fountain Peak 7.5′ quadrangle and small adjacent parts of the Hayden quadrangle to the north, the Columbia Mountain quadrangle to the northeast, and the Colton Well quadrangle to the east. The map area includes representative outcrops of most of the major geologic elements of the Providence Mountains, including gneissic Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, a thick overlying sequence of Neoproterozoic to Triassic sedimentary rocks, Jurassic rhyolite that intrudes and overlies the sedimentary rocks, Jurassic plutons and associated dikes, Miocene volcanic rocks, and a variety of Quaternary surficial deposits derived from local bedrock units. The purpose of the project was to map the area in detail, with primary emphasis on the pre-Quaternary units, to provide an improved stratigraphic, structural, and geochronologic framework for use in land management applications and scientific research.

  2. Maser and infrared studies of oxygen-rich late/post-asymptotic giant branch stars and water fountains: development of a new identification method

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Henkel, Christian

    2014-10-10

    We explored an efficient method to identify evolved stars with oxygen-rich envelopes in the late asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or post-AGB phase of stellar evolution, which include a rare class of objects—the 'water fountains (WF)'. Our method considers the OH and H{sub 2}O maser spectra, the near-infrared Q-parameters (these are color indices accounting for the effect of extinction), and far-infrared AKARI colors. Here we first present the results of a new survey on OH and H{sub 2}O masers. There were 108 color-selected objects: 53 of them were observed in the three OH maser lines (1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz), with 24 detections (16 new for 1612 MHz); and 106 of them were observed in the H{sub 2}O maser line (22 GHz), with 24 detections (12 new). We identify a new potential WF source, IRAS 19356+0754, with large velocity coverages of both OH and H{sub 2}O maser emission. In addition, several objects with high-velocity OH maser emission are reported for the first time. The Q-parameters as well as the infrared [09]–[18] and [18]–[65] AKARI colors of the surveyed objects are then calculated. We suggest that these infrared properties are effective in isolating aspherical from spherical objects, but the morphology may not necessarily be related to the evolutionary status. Nonetheless, by considering altogether the maser and infrared properties, the efficiency of identifying oxygen-rich late/post-AGB stars could be improved.

  3. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  4. Quantitative transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 during mechanical slicing of tomatoes as impacted by multiple processing variables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-10-03

    Slicing of fresh produce can readily lead to pathogen cross-contamination with pre-sliced tomatoes having been linked to multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States. This study aimed to assess the impact of multiple processing variables on quantitative transfer of Salmonella during simulated commercial slicing of tomatoes. One red round tomato was inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 at ~5logCFU/g and sliced using a manual or electric slicer, followed by 20 uninoculated tomatoes. Thereafter, the distribution of Salmonella on inoculated and uninoculated tomato slices was evaluated along with the transfer of Salmonella from different parts of the slicer. The impact of multiple processing variables including post-contamination hold time (0 and 30min), tomato wetness (dry and wet), processing room temperature (23, 10 and 4°C), slice thickness (0.48, 0.64, and 0.95cm), tomato variety (Torero, Rebelski, and Bigdena) and pre-wash treatment (no wash, tap water, and chlorine) was also investigated. The data were fitted to a two-parameter exponential decay model (Y=A⋅exp(BX)) with the percentage of Salmonella transferred to 20 uninoculated tomatoes then calculated. Salmonella populations on nine inoculated tomato slices ranged from 4.6±0.2 to 5.5±0.3logCFU/g, with higher populations on slices from the blossom and stem scar ends. However, Salmonella transfer to the previously uninoculated slices was similar (P>0.05), ranging from 2.1±0.2 to 3.4±0.2logCFU/g. Significantly fewer salmonellae transferred from the blade (3.4±0.4 log CFU, P≤0.05) than from the back and bottom plates (4.7±0.3 log CFU) or the whole manual slicer (5.2±0.2 log CFU) to the 20 uninoculated tomatoes. However, the blade was the primary contributor to Salmonella transfer for the electric slicer. Post-contamination hold time, processing temperature and tomato slice thickness did not significantly impact (P>0.05) the Salmonella transfer rate (parameter B) or the overall

  5. A Degree Distribution Optimization Algorithm for Image Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Yang, Junjie

    2016-09-01

    Luby Transform (LT) code is the first practical implementation of digital fountain code. The coding behavior of LT code is mainly decided by the degree distribution which determines the relationship between source data and codewords. Two degree distributions are suggested by Luby. They work well in typical situations but not optimally in case of finite encoding symbols. In this work, the degree distribution optimization algorithm is proposed to explore the potential of LT code. Firstly selection scheme of sparse degrees for LT codes is introduced. Then probability distribution is optimized according to the selected degrees. In image transmission, bit stream is sensitive to the channel noise and even a single bit error may cause the loss of synchronization between the encoder and the decoder. Therefore the proposed algorithm is designed for image transmission situation. Moreover, optimal class partition is studied for image transmission with unequal error protection. The experimental results are quite promising. Compared with LT code with robust soliton distribution, the proposed algorithm improves the final quality of recovered images obviously with the same overhead.

  6. Polar Code Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Unclassified 2a SECURITY CLASSiF-ICATiON AUTHORIT’Y 3 DIStRIBUTION AVAILABILITY OF REPORT N,A Approved for public release; 2o DECLASSIFICAIiON DOWNGRADING SCH DI...SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3 . POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL-ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...11 Structure of the Bipolar Plasma Sheath Generated by SPEAR I ... ...... 1 3 The POLAR Code Wake Model: Comparison with in Situ Observations . . 23

  7. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  8. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  9. Dose-Response Analysis of Chemotactic Signaling Response in Salmonella typhimurium LT2 upon Exposure to Cysteine/Cystine Redox Pair.

    PubMed

    Rosier, Bob T; Lazova, Milena D

    2016-01-01

    The chemotaxis system enables motile bacteria to search for an optimum level of environmental factors. Salmonella typhimurium senses the amino acid cysteine as an attractant and its oxidized dimeric form, cystine, as a repellent. We investigated the dose-response dependence of changes in chemotactic signaling activity upon exposure to cysteine and cystine of S. typhimurium LT2 using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. The dose-response curve of the attractant response to cysteine had a sigmoidal shape, typical for receptor-ligand interactions. However, in a knockout strain of the chemoreceptor genes tsr and tar, we detected a repellent response to cysteine solutions, scaling linearly with the logarithm of the cysteine concentration. Interestingly, the magnitude of the repellent response to cystine also showed linear dependence to the logarithm of the cystine concentration. This linear dependence was observed over more than four orders of magnitude, where detection started at nanomolar concentrations. Notably, low concentrations of another oxidized compound, benzoquinone, triggered similar responses. In contrast to S. typhimurium 14028, where no response to cystine was observed in a knockout strain of chemoreceptor genes mcpB and mcpC, here we showed that McpB/McpC-independent responses to cystine existed in the strain S. typhimurium LT2 even at nanomolar concentrations. Additionally, knocking out mcpB and mcpC did not affect the linear dose-response dependence, whereas enhanced responses were only observed to solutions that where not pH neutral (>100 μM cystine) in the case of McpC overexpression. We discuss that the linear dependence of the response on the logarithm of cystine concentrations could be a result of a McpB/C-independent redox-sensing pathway that exists in S. typhimurium LT2. We supported this hypothesis with experiments with defined cysteine/cystine mixed solutions, where a transition from repellent to attractant

  10. Comparison of the Microflex LT and Vitek MS systems for routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Delphine; Busson, Laurent; Wybo, Ingrid; El Haj, Rachid Ait; Dediste, Anne; Vandenberg, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    This study compared the performance of three matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems: Microflex LT (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany), Vitek MS RUO (Axima Assurance-Saramis database; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and Vitek MS IVD (bioMérieux). A total of 1,129 isolates, including 1,003 routine isolates, 73 anaerobes, and 53 bacterial enteropathogens, were tested on the Microflex LT and Axima Assurance devices. The spectra were analyzed using three databases: Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics), Saramis, and Vitek MS (bioMérieux). Among the routine isolates requiring identification to the species level (n = 986), 92.7% and 93.2% were correctly identified by the Biotyper and Vitek MS databases, respectively. The Vitek MS database is more specific for the identification of Streptococcus viridans. For the anaerobes, the Biotyper database often identified Fusobacterium isolates to only the genus level, which is of low clinical significance, whereas 20% of the Bacteroides species were not identified or were misidentified by the Vitek MS database. For the enteropathogens, the poor discrimination between Escherichia coli and Shigella explains the high proportion of unidentified organisms. In contrast to the Biotyper database, the Vitek MS database properly discriminated all of the Salmonella entrica serovar Typhi isolates (n = 5). The performance of the Saramis database was globally poorer. In conclusion, for routine procedures, the Microflex LT and Vitek-MS systems are equally good choices in terms of analytical efficiency. Other factors, including price, work flow, and lab activity, will affect the choice of a system.

  11. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff.

  12. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  13. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  14. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  15. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  16. Student Dress Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  17. Video Coding for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Coding tasks, a valuable technique for teaching English as a Second Language, are presented that enable students to look at patterns and structures of marital communication as well as objectively evaluate the degree of happiness or distress in the marriage. (seven references) (JL)

  18. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  19. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  20. Use of the LMA Supreme in the Special Operations Environment: A Retrospective Comparison of the LMA Supreme and King LT-D.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Travis J; Maani, Christopher V; Redman, Theodore T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of the LMA Supreme® (LAM) as a combat supraglottic airway for U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF). It is imperative to continuously evaluate and compare existing management options for airway control as requirements and technologies change. Providing our Special Operators with the most advanced and reliable medical equipment is of the utmost importance, and it is our intention here to compare the LMA Supreme with the currently fielded King LT-D® (King Systems) to determine whether the LMA Supreme may be a viable alternative supraglottic airway.

  1. Discovery of dual positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor and CysLT1 antagonists for treating migraine headache.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Maria-Jesus; Benesh, Dana R; Knobelsdorf, James A; Khilevich, Albert; Cortez, Guillermo S; Mokube, Fese; Aicher, Thomas D; Groendyke, Todd M; Marmsater, Fredrik P; Tang, Tony P; Johnson, Kirk W; Clemens-Smith, Amy; Muhlhauser, Mark A; Swanson, Steven; Catlow, John; Emkey, Renee; Johnson, Michael P; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-15

    Pyridylmethylsulfonamide series were the first reported example of positive allosteric modulators (PAM) of the mGlu2 receptor. The hydroxyacetophenone scaffold is a second series of mGlu2 PAMs we have identified. This series of molecules are potent mGlu2 potentiators and possess significant CysLT1 (cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1) antagonist activity, showing in vivo efficacy in a dural plasma protein extravasation (PPE) model of migraine. In this paper, we describe the dual SAR, pharmacokinetics and preclinical in vivo efficacy data for a tetrazole containing hydroxyacetophenone scaffold.

  2. Fuel Maps for the GEP 6.5LT Engine When Operating on at J/JP-8 Fuel Blends at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Product 6.5L Turbocharged diesel engine at two inlet temperature conditions. The GEP 6.5LT engine represents legacy diesel engine design with...derived cetane number DF-2 Diesel Fuel number 2 ft Foot HEFA Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty Acid(s) HP or hp Horsepower hr Hour in Inch in³ cubic...indirect injection, diesel engine. All work was completed by the U.S. Army TARDEC Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (TFLRF), located at Southwest

  3. Coding Theory and Projective Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Natalia

    2008-05-01

    The projective space of order n over a finite field F_q is a set of all subspaces of the vector space F_q^{n}. In this work, we consider error-correcting codes in the projective space, focusing mainly on constant dimension codes. We start with the different representations of subspaces in the projective space. These representations involve matrices in reduced row echelon form, associated binary vectors, and Ferrers diagrams. Based on these representations, we provide a new formula for the computation of the distance between any two subspaces in the projective space. We examine lifted maximum rank distance (MRD) codes, which are nearly optimal constant dimension codes. We prove that a lifted MRD code can be represented in such a way that it forms a block design known as a transversal design. The incidence matrix of the transversal design derived from a lifted MRD code can be viewed as a parity-check matrix of a linear code in the Hamming space. We find the properties of these codes which can be viewed also as LDPC codes. We present new bounds and constructions for constant dimension codes. First, we present a multilevel construction for constant dimension codes, which can be viewed as a generalization of a lifted MRD codes construction. This construction is based on a new type of rank-metric codes, called Ferrers diagram rank-metric codes. Then we derive upper bounds on the size of constant dimension codes which contain the lifted MRD code, and provide a construction for two families of codes, that attain these upper bounds. We generalize the well-known concept of a punctured code for a code in the projective space to obtain large codes which are not constant dimension. We present efficient enumerative encoding and decoding techniques for the Grassmannian. Finally we describe a search method for constant dimension lexicodes.

  4. Structure–activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nawar, Hesham F.; King-Lyons, Natalie; Liang, Shuang; Connell, Terry D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2012-12-01

    Structural data for the S74D variant of the pentameric B subunit of type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli reveal a smaller pore opening that may explain its reduced Toll-like receptor binding affinity compared to that of the wild type enterotoxin. The explanation for the enhanced Toll-like receptor binding affinity of the S74A variant is more complex than simply being attributed to the pore opening. The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B{sub 5}) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B{sub 5}, but not the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B{sub 5} and the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-IIb-B{sub 5} have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside

  5. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  6. [A case of pathological complete response to lt. Lateral lymph node metastasis from lower rectal cancer by S-1 combined neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunichi; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Karasawa, Hideaki; Aoki, Takeshi; Kudoh, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Naoki; Nagao, Munenori; Abe, Tomoya; Musha, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Katayose, Yu; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki

    2014-11-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with an enlarged left (lt) lateral lymph node (LLN), which was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT). Endoscopic examination of the colon revealed the presence of a type 1 tumor, 20mm in diameter, in the lower rectum; the tumor was diagnosed as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (tub1). The patient received combined neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT)with S- 1 for treatment of the rectal cancer and LLN metastasis (MP, T2N3M0, Stage IIIb). S-1 was administered orally at a dose of 120 mg/day on days 1-14, and 22-35; a total dose of 45 Gy was delivered (1.8 Gy/day, for 25 days). Upon nCRT, there was a remarkable reduction in the tumor size, the primary tumor receded, and the LLN decreased from 16 mm to 8 mm in diameter. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) also decreased from 3.8 to 1.9 on PET-CT. Six weeks after nCRT, ultralow anterior resection and bilateral lymph node dissections were performed. Histopathological examination showed a partial presence of cancer cells in the scarred primary tumor; however, no viable cancer cells were observed in the lt. LLN.

  7. Evaluation of Metal Halide, Plasma, and LED Lighting Technologies for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Light (H 2 LT)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L. B.; Donohoe, S. P.; Jones, M. H.; White, W. A.; Klebanoff, L. E.; Velinsky, S. A.

    2015-04-22

    This article reports on the testing and comparison of a prototype hydrogen fuel cell light tower (H2LT) and a conventional diesel-powered metal halide light trailer for use in road maintenance and construction activities. The prototype was originally outfitted with plasma lights and then with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Light output and distribution, lighting energy efficiency (i.e., efficacy), power source thermal efficiency, and fuel costs are compared. The metal halide luminaires have 2.2 and 3.1 times more light output than the plasma and LED luminaires, respectively, but they require more power/lumen to provide that output. The LED luminaires have 1.6 times better light efficacy than either the metal halide or plasma luminaires. The light uniformity ratios produced by the plasma and LED towers are acceptable. The fuel cell thermal efficiency at the power required to operate the plasma lights is 48%, significantly higher than the diesel generator efficiency of 23% when operating the metal halide lights. Due to the increased efficiency of the fuel cell and the LED lighting, the fuel cost per lumen-hour of the H2LT is 62% of the metal halide diesel light tower assuming a kilogram of hydrogen is twice the cost of a gallon of diesel fuel.

  8. Performances and Reliability of Bruker Microflex LT and VITEK MS MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Systems for the Identification of Clinical Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Gorkem; Ciftci, Ugur; Laleli, Yahya Rauf

    2015-01-01

    In clinical microbiology laboratories, routine microbial identification is mostly performed using culture based methodologies requiring 24 to 72 hours from culturing to identification. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology has been established as a cost effective, reliable, and faster alternative identification platform. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of the two available MALDI-TOF MS systems for their routine clinical level identification accuracy and efficiency in a clinical microbiology laboratory setting. A total of 1,341 routine phenotypically identified clinical bacterial and fungal isolates were selected and simultaneously analyzed using VITEK MS (bioMérieux, France) and Microflex LT (Bruker Diagnostics, Germany) MALDI-TOF MS systems. For any isolate that could not be identified with either of the systems and for any discordant result, 16S rDNA gene or ITS1/ITS2 sequencing was used. VITEK MS and Microflex LT correctly identified 1,303 (97.17%) and 1,298 (96.79%) isolates to the species level, respectively. In 114 (8.50%) isolates initial phenotypic identification was inaccurate. Both systems showed a similar identification efficiency and workflow robustness, and they were twice as more accurate compared to routine phenotypic identification in our sample pool. MALDITOF systems with their accuracy and robustness offer a good identification platform for routine clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:26793718

  9. Sinusoidal transform coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  10. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semianalytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection, designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) delineation. A complete news item appeared in Eos, May 1, 1990, p. 690.The model consists of four independent, semianalytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  11. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semi-analytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection. It is designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of WHPA delineation.The model consists of four independent, semi-analytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  12. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  13. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008) Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter; Jochemsen, Reijer

    2009-04-01

    This issue forms part I of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 67-13 August 2008). The majority of the special invited lectures, such as the London prize lectures, the international union of pure and applied physics (IUPAP) young scientist award lectures, the plenary, half-plenary and public lectures, and the historical lectures presented at the LT25 conference, are included. The papers relating to the oral and poster presentations will appear in part II of the proceedings in a dedicated open access issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (2009 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 150). In addition to the organizer's report and a summary of the new developments in low temperature physics, which can also be found in this issue, part II provides useful information about LT25, such as an overview of committees, sponsors, exhibitors, and some conference statistics. To ensure the high publication standard mandated by Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series every paper was reviewed by at least one referee before it was accepted for publication. The editors are indebted to many colleagues for invaluable assistance in the preparation and review of 900 papers appearing in both parts I and II of these proceedings. In particular, we would like to thank Carlo Beenakker, Jeroen van den Brink, Hans Brom, Jos de Jongh, Horst Rogalla, Fons de Waele, and Jan Zaanen.

  14. HYCOM Code Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-10

    HYCOM code development Alan J. Wallcraft Naval Research Laboratory 2003 Layered Ocean Model Users’ Workshop February 10, 2003 Report Documentation...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Layered Ocean Modeling Workshop (LOM 2003), Miami, FL, Feb 2003 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Kraus-Turner mixed-layer Æ Energy-Loan (passive) ice model Æ High frequency atmospheric forcing Æ New I/O scheme (.a and .b files) Æ Scalability via

  15. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  16. Trajectory Code Studies, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Poukey, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The trajectory code TRAJ has been used extensively to study nonimmersed foilless electron diodes. The basic goal of the research is to design low-emittance injectors for electron linacs and propagation experiments. Systems studied during 1987 include Delphi, Recirc, and Troll. We also discuss a partly successful attempt to extend the same techniques to high currents (tens of kA). 7 refs., 30 figs.

  17. The PHARO Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-24

    n.cet..ary ad Identfy by block nutrb.) Visible radiation Sensors Infrared radiation Line and band transitions Isophots High altitude nuclear data...radiation (watts sr) in arbitrary wavelength intervals is determined. The results are a series of " isophot " plots for rbitrariiy placed cameras or sensors...Section II. The output of the PHARO code consists of contour plots of radiative intensity (watts/cm ster) or " isophot " plots for arbitrarily placed sensors

  18. The Phantom SPH code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris

    2016-05-01

    I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.

  19. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  20. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic.

  1. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  2. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  3. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  5. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  6. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  7. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  8. New quantum MDS-convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengwei; Yue, Qin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we utilize a family of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic codes to construct classical and quantum MDS convolutional codes. Our classical and quantum convolutional codes are optimal in the sense that they attain the classical (quantum) generalized Singleton bound.

  9. A class of constacyclic BCH codes and new quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liu, Yang; Li, Ruihu; Lv, Liangdong; Ma, Yuena

    2017-03-01

    Constacyclic BCH codes have been widely studied in the literature and have been used to construct quantum codes in latest years. However, for the class of quantum codes of length n=q^{2m}+1 over F_{q^2} with q an odd prime power, there are only the ones of distance δ ≤ 2q^2 are obtained in the literature. In this paper, by a detailed analysis of properties of q2-ary cyclotomic cosets, maximum designed distance δ _{max} of a class of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic BCH codes with length n=q^{2m}+1 are determined, this class of constacyclic codes has some characteristic analog to that of primitive BCH codes over F_{q^2}. Then we can obtain a sequence of dual-containing constacyclic codes of designed distances 2q^2<δ ≤ δ _{max}. Consequently, new quantum codes with distance d > 2q^2 can be constructed from these dual-containing codes via Hermitian Construction. These newly obtained quantum codes have better code rate compared with those constructed from primitive BCH codes.

  10. Program Listings for EOSAEL 80-B and Ancillary Codes AGAUS and FLASH. Volume II. User’s Manual Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    are always to be resident, appear only at the beginning of the table of contents and the source listing. Also included herein is a sample input file ...NEWRUN, and an output file , EOOUT, produced by using the aforementioned sample input file . The supplemental codes AGAUS and FLASH are supplied with...ANY WAVELENGTH IN DATA FILE IPHFUN EOM02120 C 4 LT4M .25-2.,3.-5.,8.-12. * EGM02130 C 5 XSCALE 1.06,3-5,8-12 * EOM02140 C 6 SMOKE .4-1.2,3-5,8-12 * 94

  11. Summary of 1990 Code Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, Kwok-Chi D.

    1990-01-01

    The Conference on Codes and the Linear Accelerator Community was held in Los Alamos in January 1990, and had approximately 100 participants. This conference was the second in a series which has as its goal the exchange of information about codes and code practices among those writing and actually using these codes for the design and analysis of linear accelerators and their components. The first conference was held in San Diego in January 1988, and concentrated on beam dynamics codes and Maxwell solvers. This most recent conference concentrated on 3-D codes and techniques to handle the large amounts of data required for three-dimensional problems. In addition to descriptions of codes, their algorithms and implementations, there were a number of paper describing the use of many of the codes. Proceedings of both these conferences are available. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Chemical Laser Computer Code Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    DOCUMENTATION: Resonator Geometry Synthesis Code Requi rement NV. L. Gamiz); Incorporate General Resonator into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwell... Synthesis Code Development (L. R. Stidhm) CATEGRY ATIUEOPTICS KINETICS GASOYNAM41CS None * None *iNone J.LEVEL Simrple Fabry Perot Simple SaturatedGt... Synthesis Co2de Require- ment (V L. ami l ncor~orate General Resonatorn into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwel) Srace Optimization Algorithms and Equations (W

  13. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  14. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  15. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP IRIG STANDARD 200-16 IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE FORMATS DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally left blank. IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE ...Serial Time Code Formats, RCC 200-16, August 2016 v Table of Contents Preface

  16. Coding Major Fields of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, L. G.; Carroll, C. D.

    The National Center for Education Statistics conducts surveys which require the coding of the respondent's major field of study. This paper presents a new system for the coding of major field of study. It operates on-line i a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) environment and allows conversational checks to verify coding directly from…

  17. Improved code-tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  18. Validation of the BEPLATE code

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E.; Bullock, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    The electroforming simulation code BEPLATE (Boundary Element-PLATE) has been developed and validated for specific applications at Oak Ridge. New areas of application are opening up and more validations are being performed. This paper reports the validation experience of the BEPLATE code on two types of electroforms and describes some recent applications of the code.

  19. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  20. Ptolemy Coding Style

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-05

    COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ptolemy Coding Style 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...lisp module for GNU Emacs that has appropriate indenting rules. This file works well with Emacs under both Unix and Windows. • testsuite/ptspell is a...Unix. It is much more liberal that the commonly used “GPL” or “ GNU Public License,” which encumbers the software and derivative works with the

  1. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  2. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-01

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3t times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  3. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  4. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  5. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ2 + μυF 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF2. In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R2, for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ2 = 0, υ2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2.

  6. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  7. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  8. FAST GYROSYNCHROTRON CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

  9. Determinate-state convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

    1991-01-01

    A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

  10. [UV-induction of the LT-toxin operon depending on genes lexA, recA, and umuD].

    PubMed

    Tiganova, I G; Rusina, O Iu; Andreeva, I V; Brukhanskiĭ, G V; Skavronskaia, A G

    1994-06-01

    UV induction of the elt operon (the LT-toxin operon in Escherichia coli) was demonstrated in experiments using fusion of elt::lac operons with the help of Mud1(Ap lac) phage. UV induction of the elt operon is lexA-dependent; thus, the possibility of SOS regulation of this process may be assumed. However, UV induction of the elt operon turned out to be recA-independent, which makes it impossible to consider this induction as a typical SOS response. UV induction of the elt operon is also observed in Salmonella typhimurium, which differs from E. coli in the product of umuD, which suggests that the UV induction of the elt operon is umuD independent.

  11. Comparison of the Vitek MS and Bruker Microflex LT MALDI-TOF MS platforms for routine identification of commonly isolated bacteria and yeast in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Deak, Eszter; Charlton, Carmen L; Bobenchik, April M; Miller, Shelley A; Pollett, Simon; McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max T; Garner, Omai B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the diagnostic performance of Bruker's Microflex LT and bioMérieux's Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems. A total of 477 isolates were tested on both instruments. Discrepant results were resolved by sequencing. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the proportion of isolates correctly identified, miscalled or not called by each instrument. Although both systems were good at identifying yeast (66/69 to species level), the confidence level was high only to genus level for 30% of the isolates on the Bruker. Both systems performed with high accuracy when evaluated solely on Food and Drug Administration-approved organisms for each database. A user-based assessment of the 2 instruments revealed an overall preference for the Vitek MS instrument.

  12. Miniaturized Atomic Fountain Optical Table

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Department,Clock Development Division,Washington,DC,20392 8. PERFORMING...Frequency Symposium and Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting, 29-31 Aug 2005, Vancouver, BC, Canada 14. ABSTRACT Using

  13. Atom-Chip Fountain Gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abend, S.; Gebbe, M.; Gersemann, M.; Ahlers, H.; Müntinga, H.; Giese, E.; Gaaloul, N.; Schubert, C.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Ertmer, W.; Schleich, W. P.; Rasel, E. M.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a quantum gravimeter by combining the advantages of an atom chip for the generation, delta-kick collimation, and coherent manipulation of freely falling Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with an innovative launch mechanism based on Bloch oscillations and double Bragg diffraction. Our high-contrast BEC interferometer realizes tens of milliseconds of free fall in a volume as little as a one centimeter cube and paves the way for measurements with sub-μ Gal accuracies in miniaturized, robust devices.

  14. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes.

  15. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  16. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  17. LARGE-AMPLITUDE VARIATIONS OF AN L/T TRANSITION BROWN DWARF: MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF PATCHY, HIGH-CONTRAST CLOUD FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafreniere, David; Artigau, Etienne; Marley, Mark; Saumon, Didier

    2012-05-10

    We present multiple-epoch photometric monitoring in the J, H, and K{sub s} bands of the T1.5 dwarf 2MASS J21392676+0220226 (2M2139), revealing persistent, periodic (P = 7.721 {+-} 0.005 hr) variability with a peak-to-peak amplitude as high as 26% in the J band. The light curve shape varies on a timescale of days, suggesting that evolving atmospheric cloud features are responsible. Using interpolations between model atmospheres with differing cloud thicknesses to represent a heterogeneous surface, we find that the multi-wavelength variations and the near-infrared spectrum of 2M2139 can be reproduced by either (1) cool, thick cloud features sitting above a thinner cloud layer, or (2) warm regions of low condensate opacity in an otherwise cloudy atmosphere, possibly indicating the presence of holes or breaks in the cloud layer. We find that temperature contrasts between thick and thin cloud patches must be greater than 175 K and as high as 425 K. We also consider whether the observed variability could arise from an interacting binary system, but this scenario is ruled out. 2M2139 joins the T2.5 dwarf SIMP0136 discovered by Artigau and coworkers as the second L/T transition brown dwarf to display large-amplitude variability on rotational timescales, suggesting that the fragmentation of dust clouds at the L/T transition may contribute to the abrupt decline in condensate opacity and J-band brightening observed to occur over this regime.

  18. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  19. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  20. Code lock with microcircuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobka, A.; May, I.

    1985-01-01

    A code lock with a microcircuit was invented which contains only a very few components. Two DD-triggers control the state of two identical transistors. When both transistors are turned on simultaneously the transistor VS1 is turned on so that the electromagnet YA1 pulls in the bolt and the door opens. This will happen only when a logic 1 appears at the inverted output of the first trigger and at the straight output of the second one. After the door is opened, a button on it resets the contactors to return both triggers to their original state. The electromagnetic is designed to produce the necessary pull force and sufficient power when under rectified 127 V line voltage, with the neutral wire of the lock circuit always connected to the - terminal of the power supply.

  1. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  2. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  3. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  4. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  5. THE SPATIOKINEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF H{sub 2}O AND OH MASERS IN THE ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' SOURCE IRAS 18460-0151

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Diamond, Philip J. E-mail: deguchishuji60@gmail.com E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk

    2013-08-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array and the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network, we have observed 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O and 1612 MHz OH masers in the water fountain source IRAS 18460-0151. The H{sub 2}O maser spectrum has a very wide line-of-sight velocity range ( Almost-Equal-To 310 km s{sup -1}) and consists of three groups of emission features at the blueshifted (-68 km s{sup -1}{approx}< V{sub LSR} {approx}< -17 km s{sup -1}) and redshifted (V{sub LSR} {approx_equal} 240 km s{sup -1}) edges as well as around the systemic velocity (112 km s{sup -1} {approx}< V{sub LSR} {approx}< 133 km s{sup -1}). The first two H{sub 2}O spectral components exhibit a highly collimated high-velocity bipolar jet on the sky, with an angular separation of Almost-Equal-To 120 milliarcsec (mas) (240 AU in linear length) and a three-dimensional flow velocity of Almost-Equal-To 160 km s{sup -1}. The flow dynamical age is estimated to be only Almost-Equal-To 6 yr (at the time of the observation epochs of 2006-2007). Interestingly, the systemic velocity component clearly exhibits a spherically expanding outflow with a radius of Almost-Equal-To 36 AU and a flow velocity of Almost-Equal-To 9 km s{sup -1}. On the other hand, the OH maser spectrum shows double peaks with a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 25 km s{sup -1} (V{sub LSR} = 111-116 and 138-141 km s{sup -1}), as typically seen in circumstellar envelopes of OH/IR stars. The angular offset between the velocity-integrated brightness peaks of the two high-velocity H{sub 2}O components is Almost-Equal-To 25 mas (50 AU). The offset direction and the alignment of the redshifted maser spots are roughly perpendicular to the axis of the H{sub 2}O maser flow. High-accuracy astrometry for the H{sub 2}O and OH masers demonstrates that the collimated fast jet and the slowly expanding outflow originate from a single or multiple sources which are located within 15 mas (30 AU). On the other hand, the estimated systemic velocity of

  6. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  7. QR code for medical information uses.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  8. Code Speed Measuring for VC++

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 688 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14025 CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ Tom Nealis...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT It’s often important to know how fast a snippet of code executes. This information allows the coder to make important decisions

  9. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  10. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  11. Upgrades to NRLMOL code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basurto, Luis

    This project consists of performing upgrades to the massively parallel NRLMOL electronic structure code in order to enhance its performance by increasing its flexibility by: a) Utilizing dynamically allocated arrays, b) Executing in a parallel environment sections of the program that were previously executed in a serial mode, c) Exploring simultaneous concurrent executions of the program through the use of an already existing MPI environment; thus enabling the simulation of larger systems than it is currently capable of performing. Also developed was a graphical user interface that will allow less experienced users to start performing electronic structure calculations by aiding them in performing the necessary configuration of input files as well as providing graphical tools for the displaying and analysis of results. Additionally, a computational toolkit that can avail of large supercomputers and make use of various levels of approximation for atomic interactions was developed to search for stable atomic clusters and predict novel stable endohedral fullerenes. As an application of the developed computational toolkit, a search was conducted for stable isomers of Sc3N C80 fullerene. In this search, about 1.2 million isomers of C80 were optimized in various charged states at the PM6 level. Subsequently, using the selected optimized isomers of C80 in various charged state, about 10,000 isomers of Sc3N C80 were constructed which were optimized using semi-empirical PM6 quantum chemical method. A few selected lowest isomers of Sc3N C80 were optimized at the DFT level. The calculation confirms the lowest 3 isomers previously reported in literature but 4 new isomers are found within the lowest 10 isomers. Using the upgraded NRLMOL code, a study was done of the electronic structure of a multichromoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. A systematic examination of the effect of

  12. The FLUKA Code: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

    2005-11-09

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  13. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  14. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  15. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  16. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6 x 4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (53,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  17. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6x4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (63,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  18. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  19. The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

  20. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.