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Sample records for lt fountain codes

  1. Prioritized LT Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode

  2. Student-Reported School Drinking Fountain Availability by Youth Characteristics and State Plumbing Codes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Wilking, Cara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Caloric intake among children could be reduced if sugar-sweetened beverages were replaced by plain water. School drinking water infrastructure is dictated in part by state plumbing codes, which generally require a minimum ratio of drinking fountains to students. Actual availability of drinking fountains in schools and how availability differs according to plumbing codes is unknown. Methods We abstracted state plumbing code data and used the 2010 YouthStyles survey data from 1,196 youth aged 9 through 18 years from 47 states. We assessed youth-reported school drinking fountain or dispenser availability and differences in availability according to state plumbing codes, sociodemographic characteristics, and area-level characteristics. Results Overall, 57.3% of youth reported that drinking fountains or dispensers in their schools were widely available, 40.1% reported there were only a few, and 2.6% reported that there were no working fountains. Reported fountain availability differed significantly (P < .01) by race/ethnicity, census region, the fountain to student ratio specified in plumbing codes, and whether plumbing codes allowed substitution of nonplumbed water sources for plumbed fountains. “Widely available” fountain access ranged from 45.7% in the West to 65.4% in the Midwest and was less common where state plumbing codes required 1 fountain per more than 100 students (45.4%) compared with 1 fountain per 100 students (60.1%) or 1 fountain per fewer than 100 students (57.6%). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase consumption of water may want to consider the role of plumbing codes in availability of school drinking fountains. PMID:24742393

  3. A Cooperative Downloading Method for VANET Using Distributed Fountain Code

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianhang; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Li, Shibao; Chen, Haihua; Cui, Xuerong; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative downloading is one of the effective methods to improve the amount of downloaded data in vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET). However, the poor channel quality and short encounter time bring about a high packet loss rate, which decreases transmission efficiency and fails to satisfy the requirement of high quality of service (QoS) for some applications. Digital fountain code (DFC) can be utilized in the field of wireless communication to increase transmission efficiency. For cooperative forwarding, however, processing delay from frequent coding and decoding as well as single feedback mechanism using DFC cannot adapt to the environment of VANET. In this paper, a cooperative downloading method for VANET using concatenated DFC is proposed to solve the problems above. The source vehicle and cooperative vehicles encodes the raw data using hierarchical fountain code before they send to the client directly or indirectly. Although some packets may be lost, the client can recover the raw data, so long as it receives enough encoded packets. The method avoids data retransmission due to packet loss. Furthermore, the concatenated feedback mechanism in the method reduces the transmission delay effectively. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of increasing amount of downloaded data and data receiving rate. PMID:27754339

  4. A Cooperative Downloading Method for VANET Using Distributed Fountain Code.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhang; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Li, Shibao; Chen, Haihua; Cui, Xuerong; Sun, Yi

    2016-10-12

    Cooperative downloading is one of the effective methods to improve the amount of downloaded data in vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET). However, the poor channel quality and short encounter time bring about a high packet loss rate, which decreases transmission efficiency and fails to satisfy the requirement of high quality of service (QoS) for some applications. Digital fountain code (DFC) can be utilized in the field of wireless communication to increase transmission efficiency. For cooperative forwarding, however, processing delay from frequent coding and decoding as well as single feedback mechanism using DFC cannot adapt to the environment of VANET. In this paper, a cooperative downloading method for VANET using concatenated DFC is proposed to solve the problems above. The source vehicle and cooperative vehicles encodes the raw data using hierarchical fountain code before they send to the client directly or indirectly. Although some packets may be lost, the client can recover the raw data, so long as it receives enough encoded packets. The method avoids data retransmission due to packet loss. Furthermore, the concatenated feedback mechanism in the method reduces the transmission delay effectively. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of increasing amount of downloaded data and data receiving rate.

  5. FOG: Fighting the Achilles' Heel of Gossip Protocols with Fountain Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Le Scouarnec, Nicolas

    Gossip protocols are well known to provide reliable and robust dissemination protocols in highly dynamic systems. Yet, they suffer from high redundancy in the last phase of the dissemination. In this paper, we combine fountain codes (rateless erasure-correcting codes) together with gossip protocols for a robust and fast content dissemination in large-scale dynamic systems. The use of fountain enables to eliminate the unnecessary redundancy of gossip protocols. We propose the design of FOG, which fully exploits the first exponential growth phase (where the data is disseminated exponentially fast) of gossip protocols while avoiding the need for the shrinking phase by using fountain codes. FOG voluntarily increases the number of disseminations but limits those disseminations to the exponential growth phase. In addition, FOG creates a split-graph overlay that splits the peers between encoders and forwarders. Forwarder peers become encoders as soon as they have received the whole content. In order to benefit even further and quicker from encoders, FOG biases the dissemination towards the most advanced peers to make them complete earlier.

  6. Design of packet erasure mitigation technique using a digital fountain code for wearable wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a digital fountain code as a design criterion in order to mitigate packet erasure in wireless wearable body area networks (WBANs). First, we measure its radio propagation around the human body between two antennas attached to participants, and then analyze the measurement results from the standpoint of occurrence ratio of packet erasure. Then, we evaluate the application of digital fountain code into such WBANs where a rateless code is introduced as such code in order to provide a design criterion for the code.

  7. Designing an efficient LT-code with unequal error protection for image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Marques, F.; Schwartz, C.; Pinho, M. S.; Finamore, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of images from earth observation satellites is spread over different applications, such as a car navigation systems and a disaster monitoring. In general, those images are captured by on board imaging devices and must be transmitted to the Earth using a communication system. Even though a high resolution image can produce a better Quality of Service, it leads to transmitters with high bit rate which require a large bandwidth and expend a large amount of energy. Therefore, it is very important to design efficient communication systems. From communication theory, it is well known that a source encoder is crucial in an efficient system. In a remote sensing satellite image transmission, this efficiency is achieved by using an image compressor, to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a multinational forum for the development of communications and data system standards for space flight, establishes a recommended standard for a data compression algorithm for images from space systems. Unfortunately, in the satellite communication channel, the transmitted signal is corrupted by the presence of noise, interference signals, etc. Therefore, the receiver of a digital communication system may fail to recover the transmitted bit. Actually, a channel code can be used to reduce the effect of this failure. In 2002, the Luby Transform code (LT-code) was introduced and it was shown that it was very efficient when the binary erasure channel model was used. Since the effect of the bit recovery failure depends on the position of the bit in the compressed image stream, in the last decade many e orts have been made to develop LT-code with unequal error protection. In 2012, Arslan et al. showed improvements when LT-codes with unequal error protection were used in images compressed by SPIHT algorithm. The techniques presented by Arslan et al. can be adapted to work with the algorithm for image compression

  8. Molecular fountain.

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  9. Molecular Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cunfeng; van der Poel, Aernout P. P.; Jansen, Paul; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Wall, Thomas E.; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.

    2016-12-01

    The resolution of any spectroscopic or interferometric experiment is ultimately limited by the total time a particle is interrogated. Here we demonstrate the first molecular fountain, a development which permits hitherto unattainably long interrogation times with molecules. In our experiments, ammonia molecules are decelerated and cooled using electric fields, launched upwards with a velocity between 1.4 and 1.9 m/s and observed as they fall back under gravity. A combination of quadrupole lenses and bunching elements is used to shape the beam such that it has a large position spread and a small velocity spread (corresponding to a transverse temperature of <10 μ K and a longitudinal temperature of <1 μ K ) when the molecules are in free fall, while being strongly focused at the detection region. The molecules are in free fall for up to 266 ms, making it possible, in principle, to perform sub-Hz measurements in molecular systems and paving the way for stringent tests of fundamental physics theories.

  10. Convolutional fountain distribution over fading wireless channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Mohammed

    2012-08-01

    Mobile broadband has opened the possibility of a rich variety of services to end users. Broadcast/multicast of multimedia data is one such service which can be used to deliver multimedia to multiple users economically. However, the radio channel poses serious challenges due to its time-varying properties, resulting in each user experiencing different channel characteristics, independent of other users. Conventional methods of achieving reliability in communication, such as automatic repeat request and forward error correction do not scale well in a broadcast/multicast scenario over radio channels. Fountain codes, being rateless and information additive, overcome these problems. Although the design of fountain codes makes it possible to generate an infinite sequence of encoded symbols, the erroneous nature of radio channels mandates the need for protecting the fountain-encoded symbols, so that the transmission is feasible. In this article, the performance of fountain codes in combination with convolutional codes, when used over radio channels, is presented. An investigation of various parameters, such as goodput, delay and buffer size requirements, pertaining to the performance of fountain codes in a multimedia broadcast/multicast environment is presented. Finally, a strategy for the use of 'convolutional fountain' over radio channels is also presented.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  12. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  13. The USNO rubidium fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    Four rubidium fountains at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been in operation for 4.5 years. Each fountain has demonstrated periods of stability marked by Total or Theo deviation below 10-16 Occasional frequency changes, on order of 1.5 times per year per fountain, introduce deviations from white-frequency noise behavior. Averaged together, the four fountains form an ensemble with a white-frequency noise level of 10-13 and excellent long-term stability as compared to the primary frequency standards contributing to TAI. Progress on using the clocks at USNO for improving limits on coupling of fundamental constants to gravity by measuring the universality of the gravitational redshift for different types of clocks is discussed.

  14. Fountain-Jet Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    and 3 times higher than expected from free- jet results. Hill et al., (Reference 6) in work with foun- tain jets impacting fuselage models, detected ...delineate the origins of the turbulent anomalies associated with fountain jets by extending the previous studies. The results are presented herein...jet velocities were detected with a Thermal Systems Inc. Model 1050 dual-channel constant-temperature anemometer equipped with a Thermal Systems Inc

  15. The mglB sequence of Salmonella typhimurium LT2; promoter analysis by gene fusions and evidence for a divergently oriented gene coding for the mgl repressor.

    PubMed

    Benner-Luger, D; Boos, W

    1988-11-01

    The mglB gene of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 coding for the galactose-binding protein (GBP) was sequenced. We compared the deduced amino acid sequence with the GBP sequence of Escherichia coli K 12. The mature proteins differ in only 19 of 309 amino acid residues, corresponding to 94% homology. Analysis of the mglB control region by promoter-probe vectors revealed that two promoters, P1 and P2, constitute the mgl control region (Pmgl). P1 and P2 function in a synergistic way. P1 is the main promoter of the operon; its activity is 20 times the activity of P2. Both promoters are activated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate catabolite activator protein (cAMP/CAP) complex. While P1 is inactive in the absence of the cAMP/CAP complex, there is residual activity of P2 under these conditions. Studies on the inducibility of the mglBAEC operon using multicopy plasmid promoter-probe vectors were hampered by the titration of the mgl repressor resulting in a partially constitutive expression of the mgl operon. The results indicate that only P1 is responding to induction by D-fucose. A weak promoter, PD, within the P1 region but divergent to it was found. PD is neither stimulated by the cAMP/CAP complex nor by D-fucose. We cloned the gene located downstream to PD and found it to strongly repress the expression of the mgl operon. We termed this gene mglD. The presence of D-fucose abolished the repression caused by the plasmid-encoded mglD gene product.

  16. An Ensemble of Atomic Fountains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    holdover mode, in which the maser serves as a flywheel , and back automatically. Detection of some problem in operation will cause the fountain to...combination of this ability to rely on the maser as a flywheel and the general robustness of the fountains over the past 1.2 years has resulted in

  17. Laser Soap Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which subsequently hits an inclined plane. As the liquid soap, a non-Newtonian fluid, begins to accumulate into a pile, its shear properties change and the incoming fluid rebounds from the pile, forming striking parabolic arcs. We present here a readily reproducible and inexpensive version of a laser soap fountain.

  18. Margaret Fountaine: a lepidopterist remembered

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Margaret Fountaine (1862–1940) was a lepidopterist during a period of transition and professionalization in natural history. Over her lifespan she collected more than 22 000 butterflies, published extensively and wrote a diary of more than a million words. Wealthy and independent, Fountaine toured Europe in her early twenties and then, over the next 50 years, travelled the globe collecting butterflies. Fountaine straddles many of the boundaries that historians have constructed to aid understanding of natural history in this period, specifically those defining gender roles, the nature of scientific knowledge and the divide between amateur and professional. Fountaine reminds us that these categories are never a clear or perfect division and that the reality of natural history research and exchange was much more complex than these boundaries often allow for. Fountaine herself is under-researched and this article contains a useful account of her entomological career. PMID:26489183

  19. Unraveling the chain fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggins, John; Warner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    If a chain is initially at rest in a beaker at a height h1 above the ground, and the end of the chain is pulled over the rim of the beaker and down towards the ground and then released, the chain will spontaneously ``flow'' out of the beaker under gravity. Furthermore, the beads do not simply drag over the edge of the beaker but form a fountain reaching a height h2 above it. I will show that the formation of a fountain requires that the beads come into motion not only by being pulled upwards by the part of the chain immediately above the pile, but also by being pushed upwards by an unexpected reaction force from the pile of stationary chain. I will propose possible origins for this force, argue that its magnitude will be proportional to the square of the chain velocity, and predict and verify experimentally that h2 ~h1 . I will also discuss the case where the pot is tilted, and show, experimentally and theoretically, that the chain rises and falls in an inverted catenary, and discuss the appropriate boundary conditions at the ends of the chain.

  20. Rise Heights of Lazy Fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gary

    2005-11-01

    The initial rise height zm of turbulent Boussinesq fountains is determined analytically for small and large source Froude numbers Fr0. Solutions were obtained after recasting the plume conservations equations of Morton, Taylor & Turner (1956) in terms of the inverse square of a local Froude number and a local dimensionless fountain width. For large Fr0, the fountain is `forced' and the well-established linear increase of the rise height with Fr0 is obtained, i.e. zm/r0˜Fr0; r0 denoting the source radius. However, for small Fr0 the fountain is `lazy' and the dependence zm/r0˜Fr0^2 more sensitive. Additionally, the rise height for lazy fountains is predicted to be independent of the entrainment coefficient α. Comparison of our solutions with existing experimental and numerical results of fountain rise height, as well as with our own experimental results, show good agreement and support the derived scalings. Experimental results suggest that the entrainment coefficient for highly-forced fountains is αf 0.058, i.e. closer to that of a jet than of a plume. Morton, B. R., Taylor, G. I. & Turner, J. S. (1956), "Turbulent gravitational convection from maintained and instantaneous sources", Proc. Roy. Soc. A 234, 1-23.

  1. Fountains of Enceladus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-28

    Recent Cassini images of Saturn's moon Enceladus backlit by the sun show the fountain-like sources of the fine spray of material that towers over the south polar region. This image was taken looking more or less broadside at the "tiger stripe" fractures observed in earlier Enceladus images. It shows discrete plumes of a variety of apparent sizes above the limb (edge) of the moon. This image was acquired on Nov. 27, 2005. Imaging scientists, as reported in the journal Science on March 10, 2006, believe that the jets are geysers erupting from pressurized subsurface reservoirs of liquid water above 273 degrees Kelvin (0 degrees Celsius). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07758

  2. The Liquid Nitrogen Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Robin; Rahn, Jeffrey A.; Beamer, Timothy W.; Lebret, Norm

    2002-10-01

    Details of a demonstration using liquid nitrogen are presented. The demonstration is based on a 500-mL transparent polyethylene soft-drink bottle with a screw-on pop-up drink top. Prior to the demonstration, a balloon is placed over the popped-up spout of the bottle top. The bottle is filled with liquid nitrogen and the top, with the balloon affixed, is quickly put in place and screwed on tightly. As the liquid nitrogen in the bottle boils, the balloon inflates. When the balloon bursts the noise produced is far greater than would ordinarily be expected, and a fountain of liquid nitrogen and condensing water vapor shoots into the air above the bottle.

  3. Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.

    2015-03-01

    Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.

  4. a Molecular Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cunfeng; van der Poel, Aernout P. P.; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick

    2017-06-01

    The resolution of any spectroscopic experiment is limited by the coherent interaction time between the probe radiation and the particle that is being studied. The introduction of cooling techniques for atoms and ions has resulted in a dramatic increase of interaction times and accuracy, it is hoped that molecular cooling techniques will lead to a similar increase. Here we demonstrate the first molecular fountain, a development which permits hitherto unattainably long interrogation times with molecules. In our experiment, beams of ammonia molecules are decelerated, trapped and cooled using inhomogeneous electric fields and subsequently launched. Using a combination of quadrupole lenses and buncher elements, the beam is shaped such that it has a large position spread and a small velocity spread (corresponding to a transverse temperature of less than 10μK and a longitudinal temperature of less than 1μK) while the molecules are in free fall, but strongly focused at the detection region. The molecules are in free fall for up to 266 milliseconds, making it possible, in principle, to perform sub-Hz measurements in molecular systems and paving the way for stringent tests of fundamental physics theories.

  5. A comparative analysis of XV-15 tiltrotor hover test data and WOPWOP predictions incorporating the fountain effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Charles K.; Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic measurements from a hovering full scale XV-15 tilt rotor with the advanced technology blades are presented which show the directionality of fountain effect noise. Predicted acoustic directivity results are also presented which show agreement with the measured data. The aeroacoustic code, WOPWOP, was used in conjunction with a mathematical model which simulated the fountain recirculation aerodynamic effect on the rotor blade surface pressures. The predictions were used to identify the spike character in the measured data as fountain effect associated noise. The directivity of the fountain effect noise was observed to be dominant at the rear of the aircraft with increased intensities 45 degrees below the rotor disk planes.

  6. Measurements with Multiple Operational Fountain Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    measurement can be made of the fountain frequencies versus the frequencies of the primary standards used in determining International Atomic Time (TAI...with four fountains indicate frequency agreement at the 10−15 level and good agreement with the primary frequency standards contributing to TAI. I...activities, 7 rubidium fountain clocks are being added to the clock ensemble. The fountains will serve as a long-term frequency reference, similar to

  7. Collapsing plumes and resurrecting fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bremer, Ton; Hunt, Gary

    2012-11-01

    We explore the range of behaviour predicted for steady plumes and fountains that undergo an increase or decrease in buoyancy which arise due to phase changes or chemical reactions. We model these changes in the simplest possible way by assuming a quadratic relationship between the density and the temperature of the fluid. We thereby extend the model of Caulfield & Woods (`95) to include the most recent developments in the literature on steady releases of buoyancy emitted vertically from horizontal area sources in unconfined quiescent environments of uniform density based on the plume model of Morton, Taylor & Turner (`56). We provide closed-form solutions and identify four classes of solution: collapsing plumes, resurrecting fountains, plumes with enhanced buoyancy and fountains with enhanced negative buoyancy. We provide criteria for each category of behaviour in terms of the source-value of two non-dimensional quantities: the Richardson number and a temperature parameter.

  8. Maximizing the Spectacle of Water Fountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    For a given initial speed of water from a spigot or jet, what angle of the jet will maximize the visual impact of the water spray in the fountain? This paper focuses on fountains whose spigots are arranged in circular fashion, and couches the measurement of the visual impact in terms of the surface area and the volume under the fountain's natural…

  9. Theory of Adiabatic Fountain Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2017-06-01

    The theory of "Adiabatic Fountain Resonance" with superfluid ^4{He} is clarified. In this geometry a film region between two silicon wafers bonded at their outer edge opens up to a central region with a free surface. We find that the resonance in this system is not a Helmholtz resonance as claimed by Gasparini et al., but in fact is a fourth sound resonance. We postulate that it occurs at relatively low frequency because the thin silicon wafers flex appreciably from the pressure oscillations of the sound wave.

  10. Theory of Adiabatic Fountain Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of "Adiabatic Fountain Resonance" with superfluid ^4{He} is clarified. In this geometry a film region between two silicon wafers bonded at their outer edge opens up to a central region with a free surface. We find that the resonance in this system is not a Helmholtz resonance as claimed by Gasparini et al., but in fact is a fourth sound resonance. We postulate that it occurs at relatively low frequency because the thin silicon wafers flex appreciably from the pressure oscillations of the sound wave.

  11. Fountains of Enceladus - Image #2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-28

    Recent Cassini images of Saturn's moon Enceladus backlit by the sun show the fountain-like sources of the fine spray of material that towers over the south polar region. The image was taken looking more or less broadside at the "tiger stripe" fractures observed in earlier Enceladus images. It shows discrete plumes of a variety of apparent sizes above the limb of the moon. The greatly enhanced and colorized image shows the enormous extent of the fainter, larger-scale component of the plume. Imaging scientists, as reported in the journal Science on March 10, 2006, believe that the jets are geysers erupting from pressurized subsurface reservoirs of liquid water above 273 degrees Kelvin (0 degrees Celsius). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07759

  12. Exercise: the Cellular 'Fountain of Youth'

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164328.html Exercise: The Cellular 'Fountain of Youth' Intense interval training ... TUESDAY, March 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High-intensity exercise may help older adults reverse certain aspects of ...

  13. Cesium Atomic Fountain Clocks at NMIJ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Wynands and S. Weyers, 2005, “Atomic fountain clocks,” Metrologia , 42, S64-S79. [2] M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, et al., 2005, “An optical...beam of laser-cooled cesium atoms,” Physical Review, A 60, R4241-R4244. [13] V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, S. Weyers, et al., 2010, “Uncertainty evaluation of the caesium fountain clock PTB-CSF2,” Metrologia , 47, 65-79.

  14. 2. Photocopy of the fountain in front of Philadelphia Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of the fountain in front of Philadelphia Museum of Art, ca. 1928, courtesy of Philadelphia Museum of Art - Fountain of the Sea Horses, Aquarium Lane, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 1. FOUNTAIN IN FRONT (SOUTH) OF CLUBHOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FOUNTAIN IN FRONT (SOUTH) OF CLUBHOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Fountain, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. Is there a stratospheric fountain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Held, G.

    2007-06-01

    of convective overshoots as proposed by Danielsen (1982) do not appear as episodic isolated features, but common and systematic events over a land convective area, that is a Stratospheric Fountain. Though the two-stages process proposed by Sherwood (2000) may also be operative, it offers a mechanism for producing the chemical, moisture and thermal properties observed in the stratosphere. The consistency between convective cooling of the TTL and weather radar echoes heights observed during the summer over South-East Brazil and the TRMM radar OPFs and LIS lightning events maximum frequencies, the latter showing also maximum events over Africa, South-East Asia, the Indonesian Islands and Northern Australia depending on the season (Liu and Zipser, 2005), suggests the existence of several "Stratospheric Fountains" over continents instead of the oceanic area of Micronesia as proposed by Newell and Gould-Stewart (1982), which appears a region of little overshoot.

  17. Accurate rubidium atomic fountain frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Yuri; Marra, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    The design, operating parameters and the accuracy evaluation of the NPL Rb atomic fountain are described. The atomic fountain employs a double magneto-optical arrangement that allows a large number of 87Rb atoms to be trapped, a water-cooled temperature-stabilized interrogation region and a high quality factor interrogation cavity. From the uncertainties of measured and calculated systematic frequency shifts, the fractional frequency accuracy is estimated to be 3.7 × 10-16. The fractional frequency stability, limited predominantly by noise in the local oscillator, is measured to be 7 × 10-16 after one day of averaging. Based on the proposed quasi-continuous regime of operation of the fountain, the accuracy of the Rb standard of 5 × 10-17 reachable in two days of averaging is predicted.

  18. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains.

    PubMed

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  19. Legionellosis Outbreak Associated With a Hotel Fountain

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shamika S.; Ritger, Kathy; Samala, Usha; Black, Stephanie R.; Okodua, Margaret; Miller, Loretta; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Hicks, Lauri A.; Steinheimer, Craig; Ewaidah, Saadeh; Presser, Lance; Siston, Alicia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In August 2012, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of acute respiratory illness, including 1 fatality, among a group of meeting attendees who stayed at a Chicago hotel during July 30–August 3, 2012. Suspecting Legionnaires' disease (LD), CDPH advised the hotel to close their swimming pool, spa, and decorative lobby fountain and began an investigation. Methods. Case finding included notification of individuals potentially exposed during July 16–August 15, 2012. Individuals were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. An environmental assessment was performed. Results. One hundred fourteen cases were identified: 11 confirmed LD, 29 suspect LD, and 74 Pontiac fever cases. Illness onsets occurred July 21–August 22, 2012. Median age was 48 years (range, 22–82 years), 64% were male, 59% sought medical care (15 hospitalizations), and 3 died. Relative risks for hotel exposures revealed that persons who spent time near the decorative fountain or bar, both located in the lobby were respectively 2.13 (95%, 1.64–2.77) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09–1.44) times more likely to become ill than those who did not. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from samples collected from the fountain, spa, and women's locker room fixtures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 environmental isolates and a clinical isolate had matching sequence-based types. Hotel maintenance records lacked a record of regular cleaning and disinfection of the fountain. Conclusions. Environmental testing identified Legionella in the hotel's potable water system. Epidemiologic and laboratory data indicated the decorative fountain as the source. Poor fountain maintenance likely created favorable conditions for Legionella overgrowth. PMID:26716104

  20. Legionellosis Outbreak Associated With a Hotel Fountain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shamika S; Ritger, Kathy; Samala, Usha; Black, Stephanie R; Okodua, Margaret; Miller, Loretta; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A; Hicks, Lauri A; Steinheimer, Craig; Ewaidah, Saadeh; Presser, Lance; Siston, Alicia M

    2015-12-01

    Background.  In August 2012, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of acute respiratory illness, including 1 fatality, among a group of meeting attendees who stayed at a Chicago hotel during July 30-August 3, 2012. Suspecting Legionnaires' disease (LD), CDPH advised the hotel to close their swimming pool, spa, and decorative lobby fountain and began an investigation. Methods.  Case finding included notification of individuals potentially exposed during July 16-August 15, 2012. Individuals were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. An environmental assessment was performed. Results.  One hundred fourteen cases were identified: 11 confirmed LD, 29 suspect LD, and 74 Pontiac fever cases. Illness onsets occurred July 21-August 22, 2012. Median age was 48 years (range, 22-82 years), 64% were male, 59% sought medical care (15 hospitalizations), and 3 died. Relative risks for hotel exposures revealed that persons who spent time near the decorative fountain or bar, both located in the lobby were respectively 2.13 (95%, 1.64-2.77) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09-1.44) times more likely to become ill than those who did not. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from samples collected from the fountain, spa, and women's locker room fixtures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 environmental isolates and a clinical isolate had matching sequence-based types. Hotel maintenance records lacked a record of regular cleaning and disinfection of the fountain. Conclusions.  Environmental testing identified Legionella in the hotel's potable water system. Epidemiologic and laboratory data indicated the decorative fountain as the source. Poor fountain maintenance likely created favorable conditions for Legionella overgrowth.

  1. Systematic Effects in Atomic Fountain Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibble, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    We describe recent advances in the accuracies of atomic fountain clocks. New rigorous treatments of the previously large systematic uncertainties, distributed cavity phase, microwave lensing, and background gas collisions, enabled these advances. We also discuss background gas collisions of optical lattice and ion clocks and derive the smooth transition of the microwave lensing frequency shift to photon recoil shifts for large atomic wave packets.

  2. Department of Amplification: The Perpetual Salt Fountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Arnold B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the story of "The Perpetual Salt Fountain" to illustrate some fairly typical ramifications and vagaries in the workings of science. Outlines the discovery of double diffusive convection and uses the fact that it had been observed in the laboratory a century before its independent rediscovery to emphasize the vagaries of…

  3. Evaluation of long term performance of continuously running atomic fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James L.; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2014-06-01

    An ensemble of rubidium atomic fountain clocks has been put into operation at the US Naval Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved timing applications. Four fountains have been in operation for more than two years and are included in the ensemble used to generate the USNO master clock. Individual fountain performance is characterized by a white-frequency noise level below 2 × 10-13 and fractional-frequency stability routinely reaching the low 10-16 s. The highest performing pair of fountains exhibits stability consistent with each fountain integrating as white frequency noise, with Allan deviation surpassing 6 × 10-17 at 107 s, and with no relative drift between the fountains at the level of 7.5 × 10-19/day. As an ensemble, the fountains generate a timescale with white-frequency noise level of 1 × 10-13 and long-term frequency stability consistent with zero drift relative to the world's primary standards at 1 × 10-18/day. The rubidium fountains are reported to the BIPM as continuously running clocks, as opposed to secondary standards, the only cold-atom clocks so reported. Here we further characterize the performance of the individual fountains and the ensemble during the first two years in an operational environment, presenting the first look at long-term continuous behavior of fountain clocks.

  4. The cleft ion fountain - A two-dimensional kinetic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Lockwood, M.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of ionospheric ions from a source in the polar cleft ionosphere through the polar magnetosphere is investigated using a two-dimensional, kinetic, trajectory-based code. The transport model includes the effects of gravitation, longitudinal magnetic gradient force, convection electric fields, and parallel electric fields. Individual ion trajectories as well as distribution functions and resulting bulk parameters of density, parallel average energy, and parallel flux for a presumed cleft ionosphere source distribution are presented for various conditions to illustrate parametrically the dependences on source energies, convection electric field strengths, ion masses, and parallel electric field strengths. The essential features of the model are consistent with the concept of a cleft-based ion fountain supplying ionospheric ions to the polar magnetosphere, and the resulting plasma distributions and parameters are in general agreement with recent low-energy ion measurements from the DE 1 satellite.

  5. A distinctive type of ascending prominence - 'Fountain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Riddle, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Cinematographic observations of solar prominences made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, during the past few years suggest that there is a well-defined subclass of ascending prominences characterized by closed-system transference of chromospheric material along an arch or loop (up one leg and down the other). While this occurs, the entire prominence envelope steadily rises upward and expands through the corona. These prominences are denoted as 'fountains'. Several examples are described. Fountains appear to be well contained by coronal magnetic fields. Their total kinetic energy is of the order of 10 to the 30th power erg, but dissipation is typically quite slow (over time periods of 100 min or so), so that the correlative disturbances (radio bursts, coronal transients, chromospheric brightenings) are generally not spectacular or nonexistent.

  6. Radiative heating rates near the stratospheric fountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, G. M.; Newell, R. E.; Danielsen, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Radiative heating rates are computed for various sets of conditions thought to be appropriate to the stratospheric fountain region: with and without a layer of cirrus cloud between 100 and 150 mbar; with standard ozone and with decreased ozone in the lower stratosphere, again with and without the cirrus cloud; and with different temperatures in the tropopause region. The presence of the cloud decreases the radiative cooling below the cloud in the upper troposphere and increases the cooling above it in the lower stratosphere. The cloud is heated at the base and cooled at the top and thus radiatively destabilized; overall it gains energy by radiation. Decreasing ozone above the cloud also tends to cool the lower stratosphere. The net effect is a tendency for vertical convergence and horizontal divergence in the cloud region. High resolution profiles of temperature, ozone, and cloudiness within the fountain region are required in order to assess the final balance of the various processes.

  7. Initial Evaluation of the USNO Rubidium Fountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    output of a BVA quartz crystal that is phase-locked to a hydrogen maser with a time constant of ~3 seconds. In this configuration, we can see a short...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...crystal frequency steered to that fountain. This ‘open- loop’ steering is carried out with a time constant of ~3.5 seconds and does not change the

  8. Concerns about infectious hepatitis and Delacorte's Welfare Island Fountain.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence; Metz, Arielle A

    2004-06-01

    In 1969, philanthropist George T. Delacorte donated a spectacular water fountain to New York City on the southern tip of Welfare Island. Architects designed the fountain's jet geyser to pump a plume of water from the East River more than 400 feet into the air. Public health experts feared that the water from the heavily polluted East River could be a possible source for the spread of infectious hepatitis. Water droplets could be airborne by the prevailing winds to land on the densely populated east side of Manhattan. Upon the insistence of the New York City Department of Health, the fountain's water intake source was chlorinated. This action was initiated before the discovery of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in 1973. A miscellany of continuing problems plagued the fountain for about two decades, causing the donor to label the fountain "Delacorte's Folly." Eventually, Delacorte gave up. In the late 1980s, the fountain ceased spouting and was finally dismantled.

  9. Hydrogen masers and cesium fountains at NRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, J.-S.; Morris, D.; Douglas, R. J.; Gagne, M.-C.

    1994-01-01

    The NRC masers H-3 and H-4 have been operating since June 1993 with cavity servo control. These low-flux active H masers are showing stabilities of about 10(exp -15) from 1 hour to several days. Stability results are presented, and the current and planned uses of the masers are discussed. A cesium fountain primary frequency standard project has been started at NRC. Trapping and launching experiments with the goal of 7 m/s launches are beginning. We discuss our plans for a local oscillator and servo that exploit the pulsed aspect of cesium fountain standards, and meet the challenge of 10(exp -14) tau(exp -1/2) stability without requiring masers. At best, we expect to run this frequency standard initially for periods of hours each working day rather than continuously for years, and so frequency transfer to outside laboratories has been carefully considered. We conclude that masers (or other even better secondary clocks) are required to exploit this potential accuracy of the cesium fountain. We present and discuss our conclusion that it is feasible to transfer frequency in this way with a transfer-induced uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15), even in the presence of maser frequency drift and random walk noise.

  10. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  11. Simulation of the formation and characteristics of ultrasonic fountain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Yasuda, Keiji; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    In order to design an ultrasonic apparatus with a high throughput rate for generating atomization, the mechanism of fountain characteristics is important because the throughput rate of the ultrasonic atomization is decided by the area of the fountain surface. The formation of the fountain can be numerically studied by taking into account the effect of surface tension and radiation pressure. We have investigated the shape of the fountain with different ultrasound parameters or different kinds of solutions. When the amplitude of input sound pressure is higher than 1.3×10(5)Pa, the liquid separates from the ultrasonic fountain after irradiation for a very short period. It is further found that the area of the fountain surface increases with the concentration of the ethanol due to its low surface tension, density and sound speed. Finally, we discuss the difference between the ultrasonic fountain and the pump fountain, and find that the velocity field in the reactor induced by the pump is higher than that by the ultrasound.

  12. Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldi, Andrea

    2010-07-15

    A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

  13. The Development of the CryoTel™ LT and GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Reuven

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the considerations, design modifications and test results for the recently-developed Sunpower CryoTel™ LT and GT. After successful market introduction of the CryoTel™ CT, it became evident that some basic design modifications would render the unit available to a wider range of application. The CryoTel™ LT is a low-temperature variant of the original design. The LT's cooling capacity is 0.5W @ 23 K. The CryoTel™ GT is the enhanced performance variant. The GT's cooling capacity is 15 W @ 77 K. Both LT and GT largely retain the original structure and components and therefore benefit from the low-cost manufacturing profile of the original. Sunpower's main analysis and simulation tools were in-house codes and Gedeon Associates' SAGE Stirling cycle simulation. The CryoTel™ is a Linear Free Piston Integral Stirling cryocooler that makes use of Gas Bearing technology for non-contact operation and a microprocessor based driver/controller with a closed-loop temperature control.

  14. Discovery of Highly Potent Dual CysLT1 and CysLT2 Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The benzoxazine derivative, (2S)-4-(3-carboxypropyl)-8-{[4-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzoyl]amino}-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acid (19, ONO-2050297), was identified as the first potent dual CysLT1 and CysLT2 antagonist with IC50 values of 0.017 μM (CysLT1) and 0.00087 μM (CysLT2), respectively. PMID:25408836

  15. Performance of the PARCS Testbed Cesium Fountain Frequency Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.

    2004-01-01

    A cesium fountain frequency standard has been developed as a ground testbed for the PARCS (Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space) experiment, an experiment intended to fly on the International Space Station. We report on the performance of the fountain and describe some of the implementations motivated in large part by flight considerations, but of relevance for ground fountains. In particular, we report on a new technique for delivering cooling and trapping laser beams to the atom collection region, in which a given beam is recirculated three times effectively providing much more optical power than traditional configurations. Allan deviations down to 10 have been achieved with this method.

  16. View looking down to the Oscar S. Straus Memorial Fountain. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking down to the Oscar S. Straus Memorial Fountain. The monument was authorized by Congress in 1927 and dedicated in 1947. It consists of the fountain and two groups of statues, Religious Freedom and Reason. It was disassembled in 1991 and reinstalled after the construction of the Ronald Reagan Building and the International Trade Center. The rededication took place in 1998 and the fountain is located near the west entrance of the building complex. - Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Adam K.; Wilson, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work.

  18. 4. ANODIZED ALUMINUM WATER FOUNTAIN, DIABLO POWERHOUSE, CUSTOMMADE FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ANODIZED ALUMINUM WATER FOUNTAIN, DIABLO POWERHOUSE, CUSTOM-MADE FOR THE VISITORS LOBBY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN (CENTER), DULION APARTMENTS AND ELEVENTH AVENUE SOUTH (RIGHT). VIEW TAKEN JUST AFTER BIRMINGHAM BLIZZARD OF 1993. - Highlands United Methodist Church, 1045 Twentieth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 19th Century Textbook Illustrations - XLI, Hero's Fountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and instructions for constructing a Hero's water fountain. Includes photographs of the apparatus from old textbooks and one in the collection of the National Museum of History and Technology at the Smithsonian Institution. (SK)

  1. 19th Century Textbook Illustrations - XLI, Hero's Fountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and instructions for constructing a Hero's water fountain. Includes photographs of the apparatus from old textbooks and one in the collection of the National Museum of History and Technology at the Smithsonian Institution. (SK)

  2. Cancellation of the Collisional Frequency Shift in Caesium Fountain Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Szymaniec, K.; Chalupczak, W.; Tiesinga, E.; Williams, C. J.; Weyers, S.; Wynands, R.

    2007-04-13

    We have observed that the collisional frequency shift in primary caesium fountain clocks varies with the clock state population composition and, in particular, is zero for a given fraction of the |F=4,m{sub F}=0> atoms, depending on the initial cloud parameters. We present a theoretical model explaining our observations. The possibility of the collisional shift cancellation implies an improvement in the performance of caesium fountain standards and a simplification in their operation.

  3. Modeling studies of equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Bailey, G. J.

    The importance of diffusion, electrodynamic drift, amd neutral wind on the generation and modulation of the equatorial plasma fountain of the Earth's ionosphere is studied using the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) for the ionosphere above Jicamarca (77 degW) under magnetically quiet (Ap = 4) equinoctial conditions (day 264) at medium solar activity (F10.7 = 145). The study also investigates the effects of the fountain, which include the equatorial anomaly. The F-region vertical E x B drift velocity measured at the equatorial station Jicamarca is used to represent the electrodynamic drift. The neutral wind is obtained from the HWM90 thermospheric wind model. As expected, the F-region electrodynamic drift generates the plasma fountain and the anomaly, which are symmetric with respect to the equator. The neutral wind makes the fountain and the anomaly asymmetric, with larger plasma flow (towards the hemisphere of stronger poleward wind) and stronger anomaly crest occurring in opposite hemispheres. The paper also addresses many important (some new) features which are related to the fountain. The features are: (1) the possibility of existence of an additional layer (called the G-layer) in the equatorial ionosphere, (2) the reverse plasma fountain, (3) the equatorial anomaly in vertical ionospheric electron content (IEC), (4) the presence (in Nmax) and absence (in IEC) of noon bite-out, (5) the occurrence of nighttime increase in ionization, and (6) plasma bubbles and spread-F.

  4. [Heavy metals in water of drinking fountains].

    PubMed

    Segura-Muñoz, Susana I; Trevilato, Tânia M; Takayanagui, Angela M; Hering, Sylvia E; Cupo, Palmira

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), cooper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in the water of drinking fountains distributed in the Campus of the University of São Paulo. Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Thirty random samples were collected in different parts of the Campus that were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. According to WHO's Drinking Water Guidelines; lead, cadmium and zinc were found in concentrations higher than those recommended in 40%, 20% and 13% of the samples, respectively. The results were analyzed considering nutritional and toxicological aspects related to the presence of essential and toxic elements for the human being. Reviewing the regulatory limits established in ten countries of America, authors focus in the necessity to find a consensus in the establishment of the higher levels of heavy metals in potable water. The tolerable daily intake, have to be the basis to assure the prevention of diseases associated with a long-term ingestion of these elements through foods.

  5. HyBoLT Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang-Jeng (Frank); Berry, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    HyBoLT was a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition flight experiment funded by the Hypersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program in NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The HyBoLT test article mounted on the top of the ALV X-1 rocket was launched from Virginia's Wallops Island on August 22, 2008. Unfortunately a problem in the rocket's flight control system caused the vehicle to veer off the designed flight course. Launch officials activated a self-destruct mechanism in the rocket's nose cone after 20 seconds into flight. This report is a closeout document about the HyBoLT flight experiment. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with this experimental program as well as the 20 seconds flight data acquired before the vehicle was destroyed.

  6. A Dynamic Fountain Model for Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Vondrak, R. R.; Farrell, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Apollo era of exploration it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to horizon glow and streamers above the lunar surface. This was observed from the dark side of the Moon during sunset and sunrise by both surface landers and astronauts in orbit. These observations were quite unexpected, as the Moon was thought to be a pristine environment with a negligible atmosphere or exosphere. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. It has since been demonstrated that this dust population could have serious implications for astronomical observations from the lunar surface. The lunar surface is electrostatically charged by the Moon s large-scale interaction with the local plasma environment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar ultra-violet (UV) light and X-rays. The like-charged surface and dust grains then act to repel each other, such that under certain conditions the dust grains are lifted above the surface. We present a dynamic fountain model which can explain how sub-micron dust is able to reach altitudes of up to approximately 100 km above the lunar surface. Previous static dust levitation models are most applicable to the heavier micron-sized grains in close proximity proximity to the surface, but they cannot explain the presence of extremely light grains at high altitudes. If we relax the static constraint applied to previous models, and instead assume that the grains are in constant motion (under the action of dynamic forces), a new picture emerges for the behavior of sub-micron lunar dust.

  7. Interferometric confirmation of `water fountain' candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, José F.; Suárez, Olga; Rizzo, J. Ricardo; Uscanga, Lucero; Walsh, Andrew; Miranda, Luis F.; Bendjoya, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Water fountain stars (WFs) are evolved objects with water masers tracing high-velocity jets (up to several hundreds of km s-1). They could represent one of the first manifestations of collimated mass-loss in evolved objects and thus be a key to understanding the shaping mechanisms of planetary nebulae. Only 13 objects had been confirmed so far as WFs with interferometer observations. We present new observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and archival observations with the Very Large Array of four objects that are considered to be WF candidates, mainly based on single-dish observations. We confirm IRAS 17291-2147 and IRAS 18596+0315 (OH 37.1-0.8) as bona fide members of the WF class, with high-velocity water maser emission consistent with tracing bipolar jets. We argue that IRAS 15544-5332 has been wrongly considered as a WF in previous works, since we see no evidence in our data nor in the literature that this object harbours high-velocity water maser emission. In the case of IRAS 19067+0811, we did not detect any water maser emission, so its confirmation as a WF is still pending. With the result of this work, there are 15 objects that can be considered confirmed WFs. We speculate that there is no significant physical difference between WFs and obscured post-AGB stars in general. The absence of high-velocity water maser emission in some obscured post-AGB stars could be attributed to a variability or orientation effect.

  8. ISMuLT Guidelines for muscle injuries

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Oliva, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Nanni, Gianni; Barazzuol, Michele; Via, Alessio Giai; Ramponi, Carlo; Brancaccio, Paola; Lisitano, Gianfranco; Rizzo, Diego; Freschi, Marco; Galletti, Stefano; Melegati, Gianluca; Pasta, Giulio; Testa, Vittorino; Valent, Alessandro; Del Buono, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Muscle injuries are frequent in high demand sports. No guidelines are available in the scientific literature. ISMuLT, the “Italian Society of Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons”, in line with its multidisciplinary mission, is proud to cover this gap. PMID:24596685

  9. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... prevent backflow. (b) Ice shall not be permitted to come in contact with water in coolers or constant...

  10. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... prevent backflow. (b) Ice shall not be permitted to come in contact with water in coolers or constant...

  11. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... prevent backflow. (b) Ice shall not be permitted to come in contact with water in coolers or constant...

  12. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... prevent backflow. (b) Ice shall not be permitted to come in contact with water in coolers or constant...

  13. Impaired physical function following pediatric LT.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy G; Neighbors, Katie; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Rak, Melanie; Varni, James W; Alonso, Estella M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the spectrum of physical function of pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients 12-24 months after LT. Review data were collected through the functional outcomes group, an ancillary study of the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation registry. Patients were eligible if they had survived LT by 12-24 months. Children ≥ 8 years and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales, which includes 8 questions assessing physical function. Scores were compared to a matched healthy child population (n = 1658) and between survivors with optimal versus nonoptimal health. A total of 263 patients were included. Median age at transplant and survey was 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3-11.4 years) and 5.9 years (IQR, 2.6-13.1 years), respectively. The mean physical functioning score on child and parent reports were 81.2 ± 17.3 and 77.1 ± 23.7, respectively. Compared to a matched healthy population, transplant survivors and their parents reported lower physical function scores (P < 0.001); 32.9% of patients and 35.0% of parents reported a physical function score <75, which is > 1 standard deviation below the mean of a healthy population. Physical functioning scores were significantly higher in survivors with optimal health than those with nonoptimal health (P < 0.01). There was a significant relationship between emotional functioning and physical functioning scores for LT recipients (r = 0.69; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, primary disease, height z score < -1.64 at longterm follow-up (LTF) visit,  > 4 days of hospitalization since LTF visit, and not being listed as status 1 were predictors of poor physical function. In conclusion, pediatric LT recipients 1-2 years after LT and their parents report lower physical function than a healthy population. Findings suggest practitioners need to routinely assess physical function, and

  14. Mapping the magnetic field vector in a fountain clock

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsvolf, Marina; Marmet, Louis

    2011-12-15

    We show how the mapping of the magnetic field vector components can be achieved in a fountain clock by measuring the Larmor transition frequency in atoms that are used as a spatial probe. We control two vector components of the magnetic field and apply audio frequency magnetic pulses to localize and measure the field vector through Zeeman spectroscopy.

  15. The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M. Dale

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new demonstration that uses an apparatus like the ammonia-fountain apparatus but with modifications designed to produce ammonium-chloride smoke. This demonstration is easy to perform, interesting to observe, and allows demonstration of the solubility of ammonia in water, the basic nature of ammonia, the acidic nature of hydrogen…

  16. Sculpture, view of the classically inspired, tiered fountain made of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, view of the classically inspired, tiered fountain made of marble and located in the center of DeWitt Circle in the front of Main - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  17. Ultrasonic atomization of liquids in drop-chain acoustic fountains

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Julianna C.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    When focused ultrasound waves of moderate intensity in liquid encounter an air interface, a chain of drops emerges from the liquid surface to form what is known as a drop-chain fountain. Atomization, or the emission of micro-droplets, occurs when the acoustic intensity exceeds a liquid-dependent threshold. While the cavitation-wave hypothesis, which states that atomization arises from a combination of capillary-wave instabilities and cavitation bubble oscillations, is currently the most accepted theory of atomization, more data on the roles of cavitation, capillary waves, and even heat deposition or boiling would be valuable. In this paper, we experimentally test whether bubbles are a significant mechanism of atomization in drop-chain fountains. High-speed photography was used to observe the formation and atomization of drop-chain fountains composed of water and other liquids. For a range of ultrasonic frequencies and liquid sound speeds, it was found that the drop diameters approximately equalled the ultrasonic wavelengths. When water was exchanged for other liquids, it was observed that the atomization threshold increased with shear viscosity. Upon heating water, it was found that the time to commence atomization decreased with increasing temperature. Finally, water was atomized in an overpressure chamber where it was found that atomization was significantly diminished when the static pressure was increased. These results indicate that bubbles, generated by either acoustic cavitation or boiling, contribute significantly to atomization in the drop-chain fountain. PMID:25977591

  18. The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M. Dale

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new demonstration that uses an apparatus like the ammonia-fountain apparatus but with modifications designed to produce ammonium-chloride smoke. This demonstration is easy to perform, interesting to observe, and allows demonstration of the solubility of ammonia in water, the basic nature of ammonia, the acidic nature of hydrogen…

  19. 9. VIEW OF THE FOUNTAIN IN THE BANNEKER OVERLOOK DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF THE FOUNTAIN IN THE BANNEKER OVERLOOK DESIGNED BY DAN URBAN KILEY AND COMPLETED AROUND 1968 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang; Ruan, Jun; Shi, Junru; Yu, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xinliang; Zhang, Shougang

    2016-09-01

    The optical system plays a significant role to cesium atomic fountain clocks, which manipulates and detects population of cesium atoms. This paper presents a compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clocks. The optical system provides two beams with 32mW separately for cooling atoms and six beams of 12mW respectively for trapping atoms with the frequency tuning from 80MHz to 220MHz. The relative intensity noise of the detect laser beam reduces from 1.33×10-6 Hz to 1.52×10-10 Hz at 1Hz by the laser power stabilization system. The optical system operates continuously for 30 days with the fluctuation of optical power less than 3% approximately. And the frequency stability is 3×10-15 at 1000s. The results show the optical system satisfies with the needs of our cesium atomic fountain clock developed and establishes the foundation for cesium atomic fountain continuous operation.

  1. Ultrasonic atomization of liquids in drop-chain acoustic fountains.

    PubMed

    Simon, Julianna C; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Khokhlova, Vera A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    When focused ultrasound waves of moderate intensity in liquid encounter an air interface, a chain of drops emerges from the liquid surface to form what is known as a drop-chain fountain. Atomization, or the emission of micro-droplets, occurs when the acoustic intensity exceeds a liquid-dependent threshold. While the cavitation-wave hypothesis, which states that atomization arises from a combination of capillary-wave instabilities and cavitation bubble oscillations, is currently the most accepted theory of atomization, more data on the roles of cavitation, capillary waves, and even heat deposition or boiling would be valuable. In this paper, we experimentally test whether bubbles are a significant mechanism of atomization in drop-chain fountains. High-speed photography was used to observe the formation and atomization of drop-chain fountains composed of water and other liquids. For a range of ultrasonic frequencies and liquid sound speeds, it was found that the drop diameters approximately equalled the ultrasonic wavelengths. When water was exchanged for other liquids, it was observed that the atomization threshold increased with shear viscosity. Upon heating water, it was found that the time to commence atomization decreased with increasing temperature. Finally, water was atomized in an overpressure chamber where it was found that atomization was significantly diminished when the static pressure was increased. These results indicate that bubbles, generated by either acoustic cavitation or boiling, contribute significantly to atomization in the drop-chain fountain.

  2. Performance and Applications of an Ensemble of Atomic Fountains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    clock based time scale,” Metrologia 49, pp. 180-188 (2012). [2] T. Parker, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and E. Donley, “Operation of the NIST-F1 caesium...fountain primary standard with a maser ensemble, including the impact of frequency transfer noise,” Metrologia 42, pp. 423-430 (2005). [3] J. Guéna, et

  3. Cryogenic fountain development at NIST and INRIM: preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Levi, Filippo; Calosso, Claudio; Calonico, Davide; Lorini, Luca; Bertacco, Elio K; Godone, Aldo; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Mongino, Barbara; Jefferts, Steven R; Heavner, Thomas P; Donley, Elizabeth A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the new twin laser-cooled Cs fountain primary frequency standards NIST-F2 and ITCsF2, and presents some of their design features. Most significant is a cryogenic microwave interrogation region which dramatically reduces the blackbody radiation shift. We also present a preliminary accuracy evaluation of IT-CsF2.

  4. HaLT2- an enhanced lumber grading trainer

    Treesearch

    Powsiri Klinkhachorn; Charles Gatchell; Charles McMillin; Ravi Kothari; Dennis Yost

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on HaLT2, an improved version of HaLT (Hardwood Lumber Traning Program)- a computer program that provides training in lumber grading. The newly added enhancements In HaLT2 will provide training for both novice and experienced hardwood lumber graders in accordance with National Hardwood Lumber Assodation (NHLA) rules. HaLT2 is more accurate, easier to...

  5. Storm Enhanced Density (SED) plumes as possible suppliers of dayside cleft ion fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, James

    Foster et al. [2002] have observed elevated ionospheric density regions being convected from the subauroral plasmaspheric region toward noon, in association with convection of plasmaspheric tails in the dayside magnetosphere. These so-called Storm Enhanced Density (SED) regions could serve as ionospheric plasma source populations for cleft ion fountain outflows. Here we examine this scenario and employ our fluid-kinetic ionospheric plasma transport code to simulate the entry of a high-density "plasmasphere-like" flux tube entering the cleft region and subjected to an episode of wave-driven transverse ion heating. We find that such pronounced intervals of SED at F-region and topside altitudes passing through regions of CIF processes indeed appear capable of supporting episodes of strong CIF outflows. Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, A. J. Coster, J. Goldstein, and F. J. Rich, Ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric tails, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(13), 1623, doi:10.1029/2002GL015067, 2002.

  6. Soluble expression and sodium channel activity of lt16a, a novel framework XVI conotoxin from the M-superfamily.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Maojun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yun; Liu, Junliang; Sun, Dandan; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Feng, Yuchao; Qin, Mengying; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-05-01

    A peptide toxin, lt16a, from the venom of the worm-hunting Conus litteratus, shares the typical signal peptide sequences of M-superfamily conotoxins, which usually contain six cysteine residues that are arranged in a CC-C-C-CC pattern. Interestingly, lt16a comprises 21 amino acid residues in its mature region and has a cysteine framework XVI, which is arranged in a C-C-CC pattern. The coding region of lt16a was cloned into the pTRX vector and the fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. After cleaving the fusion protein and purifying the protein lt16a using chromatography, the mass of lt16a was found by mass spectrometry to be consistent with the expected mass of 2357.7 Da. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments demonstrated that lt16a could inhibit both the TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium currents in adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of lt16a on TTX-resistant sodium currents was stronger than on TTX-sensitive sodium currents. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a framework XVI conotoxin that can inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel currents in mammalian sensory neurons. This report helps facilitates an understanding of the sequence diversity of conotoxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Moeller PLC in automation of an artesian fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Deaconu, S.; Preradović, D.; Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the use of a Moeller PLC in the automation of an artesian fountains from Baia Mare. The application is developed in Ladder Diagram and contains two modes of operation. The first mode is the Automatic Mode in which are defines certain operating times of the artesian fountains pumps. These set times make recurrence of the operation. The second mode is the Manual Mode in which each pump is operated independently. Manual mode is only active for service personal, according to the user accounts and authorization rights of its. All orders are made with a touch screen Weintek in menus that are created for application. Using the Service Menu can visualize defects occurred during the regime of operation, which is recorded.

  8. Design and Preliminary Characterization of the USNO Rubidium Fountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Design and Preliminary Characterization of the USNO Rubidium Fountain Steven Peil, Scott Crane, Thomas B. Swanson, and Christopher R. Ekstrom Time ...and power servos are among the user-configurable electronics modules that we designed. Data acquisition and timing are executed with compact PCI...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  9. A new CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors-mediated anaphylaxis guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Sekioka, Tomohiko; Kadode, Michiaki; Osakada, Noriko; Fujita, Manabu; Matsumura, Naoya; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Nakade, Shinji; Nabe, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2017-04-01

    Although the effectiveness of CysLT1 receptor antagonists on asthma has been clinically established, the effects of CysLT2 receptor antagonists are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop a new CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors-mediated anaphylaxis guinea pig model using S-hexyl GSH, a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP) inhibitor, to suppress conversion of LTC4 to LTD4. Actively sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with OVA in the absence or presence of S-hexyl GSH, and survival rate following anaphylactic response was monitored. OVA-induced fatal anaphylaxis in the absence of S-hexyl GSH was almost completely inhibited by montelukast, a CysLT1 receptor antagonist, but not by the CysLT2 receptor antagonist BayCysLT2RA. However, under treatment with S-hexyl-GSH, the inhibitory effect of motelukast was dramatically diminished, whereas that of BayCysLT2RA was markedly increased. The dual CysLT1/2 receptor antagonist ONO-6950 effectively inhibited anaphylactic response in both S-hexyl GSH-treated and non-treated animals. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed that S-hexyl GSH treatment actually inhibited LTC4 metabolism in the blood and lung tissues. Using S-hexyl GSH, we developed a novel CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors-mediated anaphylaxis guinea pig model that can be useful for not only screening both CysLT2 and CysLT1/2 receptors antagonists, but also for functional analysis of CysLT2 receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Middle School Student Attitudes about School Drinking Fountains and Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anisha I.; Bogart, Laura M.; Klein, David J.; Cowgill, Burt; Uyeda, Kimberly E.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe middle school student attitudes about school drinking fountains, investigate whether such attitudes are associated with intentions to drink water at school, and determine how intentions relate to overall water intake. Methods Students (n=3,211) in 9 California middle schools completed surveys between 2009–2011. We used multivariate linear regression, adjusting for school sociodemographic characteristics, to examine how attitudes about fountains (5-point scale; higher scores indicating more positive attitudes) were associated with intentions to drink water at school and how intentions to drink water at school were related to overall water intake. Results Mean age of students was 12.3 (SD=0.7) years; 75% were Latino, 89% low-income, and 39% foreign-born. Fifty-two percent reported lower than recommended overall water intake (<3 glasses/day), and 30% reported that they were unlikely or extremely unlikely to drink water at school. Fifty-nine percent reported that school fountains were unclean, 48% that fountain water does not taste good, 33% that fountains could make them sick, 31% that it was not okay to drink from fountains, and 24% that fountain water is contaminated. In adjusted analyses, attitudes about school drinking fountains were related to intentions to drink water at school (B=0.41; p-value <0.001); intentions to drink water at school were also associated with overall water intake (B=0.20; p-value <0.001). Conclusions and Relevance Students have negative attitudes about school fountains. To increase overall water intake, it may be important to promote and improve drinking water sources not only at school, but also at home and in other community environments. What’s New Although most schools provide water via fountains, little is known about student attitudes about fountains. In this study, middle school students had negative attitudes about fountains; such attitudes were associated with lower intentions to drink water at school. PMID

  11. FOUNTAIN HOUSE, LAHORE*A UNIQUE EXPERIEMENT IN CROSS-CULTURAL COLLABORATION

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Mohammad Rashid; Mirza, Laeeq

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Fountain House has passed through various developmental stages. It has adopted the ideology of a club-house from Fountain House, New York, along with a number of innovative programmes for the rehabilitation of the mentally ill. Through a process of constant experimentation and evaluation, it has evolved a programme and an ideological framework which is in keeping with the religious and cultural requirements of the members served by Fountain House, Lahore. PMID:21847311

  12. Factors influencing the height of Hawaiian lava fountains: implications for the use of fountain height as an indicator of magma gas content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfitt, E.A.; Wilson, L.; Neal, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The heights of lava fountains formed in Hawaiian-style eruptions are controlled by magma gas content, volume flux and the amounts of lava re-entrainment and gas bubble coalescence. Theoretical models of lava fountaining are used to analyse data on lava fountain height variations collected during the 1983-1986 Pu'u 'O'o vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The results show that the variable fountain heights can be largely explained by the impact of variations in volume flux and amount of lava re-entrainment on erupting magmas with a constant gas content of ???0.32 wt.% H2O. However, the gas content of the magma apparently declined by ???0.05 wt.% during the last 10 episodes of the eruption series and this decline is attributed to more extensive pre-eruption degassing due to a shallowing of the sub-vent feeder dike. It is concluded that variations in lava fountain height cannot be simply interpreted as variations in gas content, as has previously been suggested, but that fountain height can still be a useful guide to minimum gas contents. Where sufficient data are available on eruptive volume fluxes and extent of lava entrainment, greatly improved estimates can be made of magma gas content from lava fountain height. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Coupled pulsing of lava fountains: Video monitoring reveals systematic height and velocity variations of adjacent vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2014-05-01

    Lava fountains are a common eruption form at basaltic volcanoes. Many of the lava fountains occur at fissure eruptions, associated with the alignment of active vents. We observed that the lava fountain pulses may occur in chorus at several adjacent vents, implying that activity at these vents is coupled. The mechanisms behind such a coupling of adjacent lava fountains and the underlying connection between the different craters are not fully understood, however. Here we employ video images to measure the height, width and velocity of the ejecta leaving the vent. With a Sobel edge-detection algorithm, our aim is to measure the height of the different fountains occurring along fissure eruptions. Video data acquired from Puu'oo (Hawaii) and from Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) are showing major similarities in fountaining behavior. Based on the fountain activity times series we estimate the sign and degree of correlation of the different vents. We find that the height and velocity of adjacent lava fountains are often in chorus. The velocity is calculated by a correlation in the Fourier space of contiguous images. We observed that episodically and sporadically the correlation regime can change. Despite these changes, both the frequency of the lava pulses and the eruption and rest time between the pulses remain similar for adjacent lava fountains, implying, a controlling process in the magma feeder system itself. We interpret the initial vertical velocity at the vent to be proportional to the extent of bubbles, and layers of bubbles rising. Lateral migration of fountains and their dynamics, in turn, is associated to lateral magma and gas flow or inclined layers of bubbles developing along the fissure at depth. Systematic recording and analysis of video data from different volcanoes hence result in a better understanding of the mechanisms of parallel and non-parallel lava fountain pulses.

  14. Realization of the new UTC(OP) based on the LNE-SYRTE atomic fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupin, B.; Bize, S.; Guéna, J.; Laurent, P.; Rosenbusch, P.; Uhrich, P.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, G.

    2014-12-01

    For many years, UTC(OP), the real-time approximation of UTC built in LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris (OP), Paris, France, had been based on industrial Cesium (Cs) standards [1]. Since October 2012, new algorithm for the generation of UTC(OP) has been put in operation. It is based on the steering of a H-maser signal on the LNE-SYRTE Primary Frequency Standards. The current OP atomic fountain ensemble comprises a Cs fountain called FO1, a dual fountain working with Cs and Rubidium (Rb) atoms called FO2, and a mobile Cs fountain called FOM. All fountains share the same cryogenic oscillator which is phase locked to a H-maser, so that all fountains measure the frequency of the same H-maser. Automatic fountain data processing provides hourly preliminary data corrected of all systematic frequency shifts. The steering of the H-maser frequency is calculated daily by a fit to the fountain data. First we describe the implementation of all the instruments used for the generation of UTC(OP) together with the current version of the algorithm. The choice of this algorithm has been oriented to obtain robustness of the system instead of the ultimate optimization of performances. We then present the results obtained during the first year of operation.

  15. Phase Separators And Fountain-Effect Pumps For He 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Fused-glass microchannel arrays for use as HE 11 phase separators and fountain-effect pumps. Microchannel devices for use in low-gravity storage and cooling systems containing superfluid helium. Phase separators and pumps take advantage of thermomechanical effect peculiar to He 11 in restricted spaces. By creating thermal gradient in porous plug, direction of flow reversed, turning phase separator into pump. However, addition of heat disadvantage. Thermal gradient created by using Peltier effect to transfer heat across array, removing heat from He 11 supply and overcoming undesirable addition of heat.

  16. Phase Separators And Fountain-Effect Pumps For He 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Fused-glass microchannel arrays for use as HE 11 phase separators and fountain-effect pumps. Microchannel devices for use in low-gravity storage and cooling systems containing superfluid helium. Phase separators and pumps take advantage of thermomechanical effect peculiar to He 11 in restricted spaces. By creating thermal gradient in porous plug, direction of flow reversed, turning phase separator into pump. However, addition of heat disadvantage. Thermal gradient created by using Peltier effect to transfer heat across array, removing heat from He 11 supply and overcoming undesirable addition of heat.

  17. Equatorial ionosphere 'fountain- effect' above imminent earthquake epicenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhin, Yu.; Depueva, A. H.; Devi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Existence of lithosphere-ionosphere interaction is known for a long time, but it does not mean that the ionospheric morphology above areas of earthquakes preparation is investigated sufficiently well. It was shown that seismo-precursor variations of the atmosphere electricity cause appropriate electric field at the ionospheric heights, which being added to existing natural field may both increase or decrease its action on the ionospheric plasma characteristics: drifts, aeronomy, plasma chemistry, ion composition etc. Anomalous variations appear inside whole ionosphere volume from the lowest boundary of Earth's plasma shell (100 km) up to 1000km and higher. Under fortunate coincidence seismo-precursor electric field can generate natural ionosphere phenomena, 'fountain- effect', leading to Appleton anomaly in the equatorial ionosphere over future earthquake position. Our basic idea is to take into account dependence of the observable effects on a geographical position of the earthquake epicenter. As for low latitudes it is proved by specificity of formation and dynamics of equatorial ionosphere (seismogenic ""fountain" effect , first of all), and also by features of earth crust structure close to the equator (mainly meridionally alongated tectonic faults). Ionospheric effects of low-latitude earthquakes were not investigated separately so far though rather semo-active zones are located namely at low latitudes: India, Peru, Oceania. We used the data of topside sounding of ALOUETTE-1 and ISS-b satellites, and also data of ground-based vertical sounding stationary stations Kodaikanal, Huancayo, Djibouti etc. and records of the total electron content (TEC).

  18. The Galactic fountain as an origin for the Smith Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, A.; Fraternali, F.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of an enriched metallicity for the Smith high-velocity H I Cloud (SC) lends support to a Galactic origin for this system. We use a dynamical model of the galactic fountain to reproduce the observed properties of the SC. In our model, fountain clouds are ejected from the region of the disc spiral arms and move through the halo interacting with a pre-existing hot corona. We find that a simple model where cold gas outflows vertically from the Perseus spiral arm reproduces the kinematics and the distance of the SC, but is in disagreement with the cloud's cometary morphology, if this is produced by ram-pressure stripping by the ambient gas. To explain the cloud morphology, we explore two scenarios: (i) the outflow is inclined with respect to the vertical direction and (ii) the cloud is entrained by a fast wind that escapes an underlying superbubble. Solutions in agreement with all observational constraints can be found for both cases, the former requires outflow angles >40° while the latter requires ≳1000 km s-1 winds. All scenarios predict that the SC is in the ascending phase of its trajectory and has large - but not implausible - energy requirements.

  19. Cardiac and pulmonary issues in LT assessment candidates.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Norma C; Hayes, Peter C

    2014-08-01

    With the incidence of liver disease increasing worldwide, a growing number of patients are being referred for assessment for liver transplant (LT). Unfortunately, the donor pool is not expanding at the same rate, which consequentially results in increasing demand on a finite resource. It is therefore imperative that the candidate who undergoes an LT gets maximal benefit with a resultant maximal increase in life expectancy. This article addresses some of the main cardiac and pulmonary issues that may occur in LT assessment candidates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of parks or playgrounds: reported access to drinking water fountains among US adults, 2009.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping

    2012-03-01

    As a first step to determining the public availability of drinking water, self-reported access to water fountains in parks and playgrounds was examined. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a convenience sample of 4163 US adults (aged ≥ 18 years) using the 2009 HealthStyles Survey. The outcome measure was reported access to water fountains in parks/playgrounds. Among those who reported using parks/playgrounds, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and reported access to water fountains. About half (54.7%) of participants used parks/playgrounds. Among those, 55.0% reported access to water fountains. Factors significantly associated with reported access to water fountains were being male [odds ratio (OR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 1.85] and living in the Pacific region (versus East North Central region, OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.61, 4.06). Age, race/ethnicity, household income, marital status, education, smoking and physical activity were not significantly associated with reported access to water fountains. Among 54.7% of adults using parks/playgrounds, reported access to water fountains was significantly differed by sex and region. This study provides information that can be considered when developing interventions to increase access to drinking water in public facilities.

  1. Low-Light-Shift Cesium Fountain without Mechanical Shutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna

    2008-01-01

    A new technique for reducing errors in a laser-cooled cesium fountain frequency standard provides for strong suppression of the light shift without need for mechanical shutters. Because mechanical shutters are typically susceptible to failure after operating times of the order of months, the elimination of mechanical shutters could contribute significantly to the reliability of frequency standards that are required to function continuously for longer time intervals. With respect to the operation of an atomic-fountain frequency standard, the term "light shift" denotes an undesired relative shift in the two energy levels of the atoms (in this case, cesium atoms) in the atomic fountain during interrogation by microwaves. The shift in energy levels translates to a frequency shift that reduces the precision and possibly accuracy of the frequency standard. For reasons too complex to describe within the space available for this article, the light shift is caused by any laser light that reaches the atoms during the microwave- interrogation period, but is strongest for near-resonance light. In the absence of any mitigating design feature, the light shift, expressed as a fraction of the standard fs frequency, could be as large as approx. 2 x 10(exp -11), the largest error in the standard. In a typical prior design, to suppress light shift, the intensity of laser light is reduced during the interrogation period by using a single-pass acoustooptic modulator to deflect the majority of light away from the main optical path. Mechanical shutters are used to block the remaining undeflected light to ensure complete attenuation. Without shutters, this remaining undeflected light could cause a light shift of as much as .10.15, which is unacceptably large in some applications. The new technique implemented here involves additionally shifting the laser wavelength off resonance by a relatively large amount (typically of the order of nanometers) during microwave interrogation. In this

  2. Recirculation of Laser Power in an Atomic Fountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, WIlliam M.; Moore, James D.

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for laser-cooling atoms in a cesium atomic fountain frequency standard relies on recirculation of laser light through the atom-collection region of the fountain. The recirculation, accomplished by means of reflections from multiple fixed beam-splitter cubes, is such that each of two laser beams makes three passes. As described below, this recirculation scheme offers several advantages over prior designs, including simplification of the laser system, greater optical power throughput, fewer optical and electrical connections, and simplification of beam power balancing. A typical laser-cooled cesium fountain requires the use of six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams to decelerate the atoms and hold them in a three-dimensional optical trap in vacuum. Typically, these trapping/cooling beams are linearly polarized and are positioned and oriented so that (1) counter-propagating beams in each pair have opposite linear polarizations and (2) three of the six orthogonal beams have the sum of their propagation directions pointing up, while the other three have the sum of their propagation directions pointing down. In a typical prior design, two lasers are used - one to generate the three "up" beams, the other to generate the three "down" beams. For this purpose, the output of each laser is split three ways, then the resulting six beams are delivered to the vacuum system, independently of each other, via optical fibers. The present recirculating design also requires two lasers, but the beams are not split before delivery. Instead, only one "up" beam and one oppositely polarized "down" beam are delivered to the vacuum system, and each of these beams is sent through the collection region three times. The polarization of each beam on each pass through the collection region is set up to yield the same combination of polarization and propagation directions as described above. In comparison with the prior design, the present

  3. Star Trek's Lt. Uhura's Warp-Speed Visit to Dryden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Actress Nichelle Nichols warped to many worlds as Lt. Uhura in the 1960s Star Trek TV show. However, her real-life adventures have taken her to where no one has gone before in advocacy for NASA and...

  4. A quantitative experiment on the fountain effect in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigó, M. L.; Herrera, T.; Neñer, L.; Peralta Gavensky, L.; Turco, F.; Luzuriaga, J.

    2017-09-01

    Superfluid helium, a state of matter existing at low temperatures, shows many remarkable properties. One example is the so called fountain effect, where a heater can produce a jet of helium. This converts heat into mechanical motion; a machine with no moving parts, but working only below 2 K. Allen and Jones first demonstrated the effect in 1938, but their work was basically qualitative. We now present data of a quantitative version of the experiment. We have measured the heat supplied, the temperature and the height of the jet produced. We also develop equations, based on the two-fluid model of superfluid helium, that give a satisfactory fit to the data. The experiment has been performed by advanced undergraduate students in our home institution, and illustrates in a vivid way some of the striking properties of the superfluid state.

  5. Microfabricated Fountain Pens for High-Density DNA Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Matthew O.; van Dam, R. Michae; Scherer, Axel; Quake, Stephen R.

    2003-01-01

    We used photolithographic microfabrication techniques to create very small stainless steel fountain pens that were installed in place of conventional pens on a microarray spotter. Because of the small feature size produced by the microfabricated pens, we were able to print arrays with up to 25,000 spots/cm2, significantly higher than can be achieved by other deposition methods. This feature density is sufficiently large that a standard microscope slide can contain multiple replicates of every gene in a complex organism such as a mouse or human. We tested carryover during array printing with dye solution, labeled DNA, and hybridized DNA, and we found it to be indistinguishable from background. Hybridization also showed good sequence specificity to printed oligonucleotides. In addition to improved slide capacity, the microfabrication process offers the possibility of low-cost mass-produced pens and the flexibility to include novel pen features that cannot be machined with conventional techniques. PMID:12975313

  6. Fountain-pen-based laser microstructuring with gold nanoparticle inks

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Tae Y.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2004-07-05

    Employing the fountain-pen principle, a micropipette is used to write an Au nanoparticle ink on glass substrates. A continuous-wave laser (488-515 nm) is subsequently used as a controlled, localized energy source to evaporate the carrier liquid (toluene) in the ink and sinter the nanoparticles together thus fabricating continuous gold stripes 5 {mu}m in width and a few hundred nanometers in height. The scanning speed, the laser intensity, and the degree of defocusing are identified as important parameters to the successful manufacturing of the gold microstructures. The electrical resistivity of the stripes, within the parametric domain of the present work, is measured to be the order of 10{sup -6} {omega} m.

  7. Search for variations of fundamental constants using atomic fountain clocks.

    PubMed

    Marion, H; Pereira Dos Santos, F; Abgrall, M; Zhang, S; Sortais, Y; Bize, S; Maksimovic, I; Calonico, D; Grünert, J; Mandache, C; Lemonde, P; Santarelli, G; Laurent, Ph; Clairon, A; Salomon, C

    2003-04-18

    Over five years, we have compared the hyperfine frequencies of 133Cs and 87Rb atoms in their electronic ground state using several laser-cooled 133Cs and 87Rb atomic fountains with an accuracy of approximately 10(-15). These measurements set a stringent upper bound to a possible fractional time variation of the ratio between the two frequencies: d/dt ln([(nu(Rb))/(nu(Cs))]=(0.2+/-7.0)x 10(-16) yr(-1) (1sigma uncertainty). The same limit applies to a possible variation of the quantity (mu(Rb)/mu(Cs))alpha(-0.44), which involves the ratio of nuclear magnetic moments and the fine structure constant.

  8. CysLT2 receptors interact with CysLT1 receptors and down-modulate cysteinyl leukotriene–dependent mitogenic responses of mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yongfeng; Borrelli, Laura A.; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Bacskai, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) induce inflammation through 2 G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), CysLT1 and CysLT2, which are coexpressed by most myeloid cells. Cys-LTs induce proliferation of mast cells (MCs), transactivate c-Kit, and phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Although MCs express CysLT2, their responses to cys-LTs are blocked by antagonists of CysLT1. We demonstrate that CysLT2 interacts with CysLT1, and that knockdown of CysLT2 increases CysLT1 surface expression and CysLT1-dependent proliferation of cord blood–derived human MCs (hMCs). Cys-LT–mediated responses were absent in MCs from mice lacking CysLT1 receptors, but enhanced by the absence of CysLT2 receptors. CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors colocalized to the plasma membranes and nuclei of a human MC line, LAD2. Antibody-based fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy confirmed complexes containing both receptors based on fluorescence energy transfer. Negative regulation of CysLT1-induced mitogenic signaling responses of MCs by CysLT2 demonstrates physiologically relevant functions for GPCR heterodimers on primary cells central to inflammation. PMID:17693579

  9. 79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat Basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat Basin Cafe, looking west. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  10. The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B.

    2006-04-01

    An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.

  11. On the transition from strombolian to fountaining activity: a thermal energy-based driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombrun, Maxime; Spampinato, Letizia; Harris, Andrew; Barra, Vincent; Caltabiano, Tommaso

    2016-02-01

    Since 1999, Mount Etna's (Italy) South-East crater system has been characterised by episodic lava fountaining. Each episode is characterised by initial strombolian activity followed by transition to sustained fountaining to feed high-effusion rate lava flow. Here, we use thermal infrared data recorded by a permanent radiometer station to characterise the transition to sustained fountaining fed by the New South-East crater that developed on the eastern flank of the South-East crater starting from January 2011. We cover eight fountaining episodes that occurred between 2012 and 2013. We first developed a routine to characterise event waveforms apparent in the precursory, strombolian phase. This allowed extraction of a database for thermal energy and waveform shape for 1934 events. We detected between 66 and 650 events per episode, with event durations being between 4 and 55 s. In total, 1508 (78 %) of the events had short waxing phases and dominant waning phases. Event frequency increased as climax was approached. Events had energies of between 3.0 × 106 and 5.8 × 109 J, with rank order analysis indicating the highest possible event energy of 8.1 × 109 J. To visualise the temporal evolution of retrieved parameters during the precursory phase, we applied a dimensionality reduction technique. Results show that weaker events occur during an onset period that forms a low-energy "sink". The transition towards fountaining occurs at 107 J, where subsequent events have a temporal trend towards the highest energies, and where sustained fountaining occurs when energies exceed 109 J. Such an energy-based framework allows researchers to track the evolution of fountaining episodes and to predict the time at which sustained fountaining will begin.

  12. High Stability Comparison of Atomic Fountains using two Different Cryogenic Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Abgrall, Michel; Guena, Jocelyne; Lours, Michel; Santarelli, Giorgio; Tobar, Michael; Bize, Sebastien; Grop, Serge; Dubois, Benoit; Fluhr, Christophe; Giordano, Vincent

    2016-05-19

    We present a detailed characterization of two atomic clock interrogation systems based on two different cryogenic sapphire oscillators operated simultaneously. We use them as references for two accurate fountain clock frequency standards participating in international atomic time and operating both at the quantum projection noise frequency limit. The two fountain comparison down to a few 1016 over 28 days demonstrates the potential of a cryocooled oscillator to replace a He refilled cryogenic oscillator.

  13. Lead and copper in drinking water fountains--information for physicians.

    PubMed

    Cech, Irina; Smolensky, Michael H; Afshar, Masoud; Broyles, Gregory; Barczyk, Matthew; Burau, Keith; Emery, Robert

    2006-02-01

    Lead and copper are potentially toxic metals. The objective of our work was to test the water from the drinking fountains of a large public access office complex in southwest Houston, Texas, for the presence of lead, copper, and microbiologic contamination. The data for the water fountains were compared with what we found in the local municipal drinking water supplies. Samples were collected as the first draw at the beginning of the work week. These samples were acidified to prevent the precipitation of heavy metals and analyzed using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) approved procedures and quality control. Traces of lead were detected in 37.5% and copper in 100% of the tested water fountains. In two buildings, concentrations in some fountains exceeded the USEPA action level for lead (by up to 12-fold) and for copper (by up to 3.9 fold). One sample was positive for total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. Comparison with samples from the local municipal drinking water supplies indicated that both metals and bacteria were the result of secondary contamination at the water fountain sites. This study showed that drinking water fountains can be an unexpected and unappreciated source of intake of metal and bacterial contaminants.

  14. Balancing bulk gas accumulation and gas output prior and during fire fountain episodes at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Zuccarello, Luciano; Messina, Alfio; Scollo, Simona; Rymer, Hazel

    2015-04-01

    Lava fountains represent a distinctive feature of Mt. Etna's activity. Up to the date of this writing (January 2015), 45 episodes of lava fountaining occurred from one of Etna's summit craters (NSEC) since January 2011. In particular, during the summer of 2011, the highest frequency of fire fountain episodes was recorded, with repose intervals of only a few days. Previous studies concluded that the episodes of lava fountaining at Etna are triggered by massive collapses of a foam layer that accumulates at shallow depth, i.e., in the uppermost portion of the magmatic reservoir of the NSEC. To address this hypothesis, we compare the volume of gas accumulated at depth prior to some fountaining episodes with the volume of gas emitted during the paroxysmal activity. The former figure is obtained through inversion of data from a continuously recording gravimeter installed in the summit zone of Etna. The latter is retrieved through the time development of the height of the fire fountains, in turn deduced from thermal imagery. Preliminary results suggest that, for the collapsing foam model to hold, the later stages of the foam growth must occur under lower than lithostatic pressure. This finding implies high vesiculation (lower-than-expected density) of the magma in the conduit between the shallow reservoir and the ground surface.

  15. Spectral Variability at the L/T Transition and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Davis, Jonathan; York, Brian Andrew; Apai, Daniel; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier

    2017-01-01

    We present HST/WFC3 spectral time series (1-1.7 microns) of 3 variable brown dwarfs. The targets consist of 2 L/T transition brown dwarfs whose large photometric variability is thought to arise due to patchy cloud coverage, and one unusually blue mid-L dwarf that displays lower levels of variability. The observations add significantly to the number of L/T transition objects that have been monitored with WFC3, and allow us to test whether emerging trends (e.g. muted variability in the water absorption band) are shared by all L/T transition objects, indicative of common cloud structures and number of surface components. Furthermore, the spectral response of the blue L-dwarf is compared to those of the L/T transition brown dwarfs in order to investigate whether similar cloud structures are responsible for its variability and unusual colors. Our results suggest that spectral variability of L/T transition dwarfs is not uniform within this population, and that a wider range of heterogeneous cloud structures are required to explained the strong variations observed at these spectral types.

  16. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Petrography of Glassy Particles Produced by Lava Fountain Eruptions. Ph.D. Thesis - Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladle, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual model of a lava fountain consists of a vent, spatter ramparts, fountain column, downwind plume and associated pumice deposits. Glassy particles produced by lava fountain eruptions consist primarily of sideromelane glass and minor to moderate amounts of vesicles and crystals. Particles are classified on the basis of morphology as: (1) spherical, (2) elongate, (3) glass-coated mineral grain, (4) shard, (5) reticulite, (6) composite particle, and (7) lithic fragment.

  17. Clouds and Binaries Across the L/T Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of clouds plays a primary, if not defining, role in shaping the spectral transition from L to T spectral classes, a transition through which all brown dwarfs must pass. The role of clouds is particularly notable in binary systems which straddle this transition. In this talk, I will briefly review the evidence of cloud evolution across the L/T transition and the observable impacts (the 1 µm brightening, binary excess, flattening of luminosities, spectral feature evolution, spectral binaries). I will then go into detail on the most recently discovered L/T transition binary, Luhman 16AB, and present the first results on spectral variability in this system.

  18. Telomeres and telomerase: a modern fountain of youth?

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Toussaint, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Since ageing is a universal human feature, it is not surprising that, from the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh to Ponce de Leon seeking the "Fountain of Youth," countless people have dreamed of finding a way to avoid ageing, to no avail. Yet the search continues. In this review, we present one of the latest candidates: the enzyme telomerase, capable of elongating the tips of chromosomes, the telomeres. Research into the causes of cellular ageing established the telomeres as the molecular clock that counts the number of times cells divide and triggers cellular senescence. Herein, we review arguments both in favor and against the use of telomerase as an anti-ageing therapy. The importance of the telomeres in cellular ageing, the low or non-existent levels of telomerase activity in human tissues, and the ability of telomerase to immortalize human cells suggest that telomerase can be used as an anti-ageing therapy. On the other hand, recent experiments in mice have raised doubts whether telomerase affects organismal ageing. Results from human cells expressing telomerase have also suggested telomerase may promote tumorigenesis. We conclude that, though telomerase may be used in regenerative medicine and to treat specific diseases, it is unlikely to become a source of anti-ageing therapies.

  19. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Muré, Filippo

    2015-03-01

    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500 m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ∼1-2 km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2 and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2 ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (∼2 km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  20. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Murè, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ˜1-2km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (˜2km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  1. A cluster of nosocomial Legionnaire’s disease linked to a contaminated hospital decorative water fountain

    PubMed Central

    Palmore, Tara N.; Stock, Frida; White, Margaret; Bordner, MaryAnn; Michelin, Angela; Bennett, John E.; Murray, Patrick R.; Henderson, David K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nosocomial outbreaks of Legionnaire’s disease have been linked to contaminated water in hospitals. Immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable and, when infected, have a high mortality rate. We report the investigation of a cluster of nosocomial pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 that occurred among patients on our stem cell transplantation unit. Methods We conducted a record review to identify common points of potential exposure, followed by environmental and water sampling for Legionella spp. from those sources. We used an air sampler in an attempt to detect aerosolized Legionella, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare clinical and environmental isolates. Results The most likely sources identified were the water supply in the patients’ rooms and a decorative fountain in the radiation oncology suite. Samples from the patients’ rooms did not grow Legionella species. Cultures of the fountain, which had been restarted 4 months earlier after being shut off for 5 months, yielded L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The isolates from both patients and the fountain were identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Both patients developed pneumonia within 10 days of completing radiation therapy, and each reported having observed the fountain at close range. Both patients’ infections were identified early and treated promptly, and both recovered. Conclusions This cluster was caused by contamination of a decorative fountain despite its being equipped with a filter and ozone generator. Fountains are a potential source of nosocomial Legionnaire’s disease despite standard maintenance and sanitizing measures. In our opinion, fountains present unacceptable risk in hospitals serving immunocompromised patients. PMID:19580436

  2. 16. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 3 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  3. 17. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. Sheet 4 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 14. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 1 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 15. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 2 OF 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 18. EXISTING FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. EXISTING FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. Sheet 5 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Roy F. Weston, Inc. (Weston) low temperature thermal treatment (LT3®) system thermally desorbs organic compounds from contaminated soil without heating the soil to combustion temperatures. The transportable system is comprised of equipment assembled on thre...

  8. Balancing bulk gas accumulation and gas output before and during lava fountaining episodes at Mt. Etna

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Daniele; Zuccarello, Luciano; Messina, Alfio; Scollo, Simona; Rymer, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    We focus on a sequence of 9 lava fountains from Etna that occurred in 2011, separated by intervals of 5 to 10 days. Continuous measurements allowed to discover the occurrence of gravity decreases before the onset of most fountaining episodes. We propose that the gravity changes are due to the pre-fountaining accumulation of a foam layer at shallow levels in the plumbing system of the volcano. Relying on the relationship between amount of gas trapped in the foam and amount of gas emitted during each episode, we develop a conceptual model of the mechanism controlling the passage from Strombolian to lava fountaining activity. Gas leakage from the foam layer during the late stages of its accumulation increases the gas volume fraction at upper levels, thus inducing a decrease of the magma-static pressure in the trapping zone and a further growth of the foam. This feedback mechanism eventually leads to the collapse of the foam layer and to the onset of lava fountaining. The possibility to detect the development of a foam layer at depth and to set quantitative constraints on the amount of trapped gas is important because of the implications for forecasting explosive eruptions and predicting their intensity. PMID:26656099

  9. Multidisciplinary investigation on a lava fountain preceding a flank eruption: The 10 May 2008 Etna case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Cannata, A.; Corsaro, R. A.; di Grazia, G.; Gambino, S.; Greco, F.; Miraglia, L.; Pistorio, A.

    2011-07-01

    A multidisciplinary approach integrating a wide data set ranging from bulk rock compositions of the erupted products to volcanic tremor, long-period events, and tilt and gravity signals is used to investigate the source depth and magma dynamics of the 10 May 2008 lava fountain at Southeast crater (SEC) of Mount Etna. The investigation was undertaken in the framework of the previous 2007 explosive activity as well as the subsequent effusive eruption beginning 13 May 2008 and lasting up to July 2009. All the data concur in indicating that the 10 May lava fountain was generated by the fragmentation of a foam layer trapped at the top of a shallow reservoir, about 1500-1700 m below the summit of SEC. The shift from the episodic strombolian/lava fountain activity occurring in 2007 at SEC to the more powerful 10 May 2008 lava fountain is explained by the intrusion of a new more primitive magma into the shallow reservoir. Data also indicate that an attempted magma intrusion east of the summit area occurred during the 10 May fire fountain. This event caused the fracturing and weakening of the surrounding rocks and created a preferential pathway for the penetration of the magma that, only 3 days later, started to feed the 2008-2009 effusive eruption.

  10. Balancing bulk gas accumulation and gas output before and during lava fountaining episodes at Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Daniele; Zuccarello, Luciano; Messina, Alfio; Scollo, Simona; Rymer, Hazel

    2015-12-10

    We focus on a sequence of 9 lava fountains from Etna that occurred in 2011, separated by intervals of 5 to 10 days. Continuous measurements allowed to discover the occurrence of gravity decreases before the onset of most fountaining episodes. We propose that the gravity changes are due to the pre-fountaining accumulation of a foam layer at shallow levels in the plumbing system of the volcano. Relying on the relationship between amount of gas trapped in the foam and amount of gas emitted during each episode, we develop a conceptual model of the mechanism controlling the passage from Strombolian to lava fountaining activity. Gas leakage from the foam layer during the late stages of its accumulation increases the gas volume fraction at upper levels, thus inducing a decrease of the magma-static pressure in the trapping zone and a further growth of the foam. This feedback mechanism eventually leads to the collapse of the foam layer and to the onset of lava fountaining. The possibility to detect the development of a foam layer at depth and to set quantitative constraints on the amount of trapped gas is important because of the implications for forecasting explosive eruptions and predicting their intensity.

  11. Vesiculation of Pyroclasts in High-Fountaining Hawaiian Eruptions: Kilauea Iki 1959

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; Houghton, B. F.; Hammer, J. E.; Fagents, S. A.; Swanson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The 1959 summit eruption of Kilauea volcano produced the highest Hawaiian fountain recorded in Hawai‘i. Quantitative analysis of closely spaced samples from the final two high-fountaining episodes form the basis for a fine-scale textural study of pyroclasts and provide a record of syn- and post-fragmentation processes. Syn-eruptive textures are preserved only in relatively dense, fluidal clasts and as the rims of more vesicular clasts. As clast vesicularity increases the vesicle number density decreases and vesicle morphology shifts from small and round to larger and more irregular. The shift in microtexture corresponds to increasing degrees of post-fragmentation expansion of bubbles in those clasts with higher vesicularity. We suggest the range of clast morphologies in the deposit is related to the thermal zonation within a Hawaiian fountain where the highest vesicularity pumices traveled axially, in the center of the fountain, and the lowest vesicularity clasts traveled along the margins. Vesicle number densities are greatest in the highest fountaining episode and therefore scale with intensity of activity. Major element chemical analyses and fasciculate crystal textures indicate that microlite-rich zones within individual clasts are portions of recycled lava lake material that were re-incorporated into newly vesiculating ascending melt.

  12. Copper dimer interactions on a thermomechanical superfluid {sup 4}He fountain

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi

    2015-05-28

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging and frequency domain excitation spectroscopy of the copper dimer (B{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}←X{sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}) in thermomechanical helium fountain at 1.7 K are demonstrated. The dimers penetrate into the fountain provided that their average propagation velocity is ca. 15 m/s. This energy threshold is interpreted in terms of an imperfect fountain liquid-gas interface, which acts as a trap for low velocity dimers. Orsay-Trento density functional theory calculations for superfluid {sup 4}He are used to characterize the dynamics of the dimer solvation process into the fountain. The dimers first accelerate towards the fountain surface and once the surface layer is crossed, they penetrate into the liquid and further slow down to Landau critical velocity by creating a vortex ring. Theoretical lineshape calculations support the assignment of the experimentally observed bands to Cu{sub 2} solvated in the bulk liquid. The vibronic progressions are decomposed of a zero-phonon line and two types of phonon bands, which correlate with solvent cavity interface compression (t < 200 fs) and expansion (200 < t < 500 fs) driven by the electronic excitation. The presented experimental method allows to perform molecular spectroscopy in bulk superfluid helium where the temperature and pressure can be varied.

  13. THE FIRST ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' COLLIMATED OUTFLOW IN A PLANETARY NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, José F.; Miranda, Luis F.; Guerrero, Martín A.; Rizzo, J. Ricardo; García-García, Enrique; Green, James A.; Uscanga, Lucero; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2015-02-01

    ''Water fountains'' (WFs) are evolved objects showing high-velocity, collimated jets traced by water maser emission. Most of them are in the post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) and they may represent one of the first manifestations of collimated mass loss in evolved stars. We present water maser, carbon monoxide, and mid-infrared spectroscopic data (obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, Herschel Space Observatory, and the Very Large Telescope, respectively) toward IRAS 15103–5754, a possible planetary nebula (PN) with WF characteristics. Carbon monoxide observations show that IRAS 15103–5754 is an evolved object, while the mid-IR spectrum displays unambiguous [Ne II] emission, indicating that photoionization has started and thus, its nature as a PN is confirmed. Water maser spectra show several components spreading over a large velocity range (≅ 75 km s{sup –1}) and tracing a collimated jet. This indicates that the object is a WF, the first WF known that has already entered the PN phase. However, the spatial and kinematical distribution of the maser emission in this object are significantly different from those in other WFs. Moreover, the velocity distribution of the maser emission shows a ''Hubble-like'' flow (higher velocities at larger distances from the central star), consistent with a short-lived, explosive mass-loss event. This velocity pattern is not seen in other WFs (which are presumably in earlier evolutionary stages). We therefore suggest that we are witnessing a fundamental change of mass-loss processes in WFs, with water masers being pumped by steady jets in post-AGB stars, but tracing explosive/ballistic events as the object enters the PN phase.

  14. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  15. Eruption dynamics of Hawaiian-style fountains: The case study of episode 1 of the Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stovall, W.K.; Houghton, B.F.; Gonnermann, H.; Fagents, S.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hawaiian eruptions are characterized by fountains of gas and ejecta, sustained for hours to days that reach tens to hundreds of meters in height. Quantitative analysis of the pyroclastic products from the 1959 eruption of K??lauea Iki, K??lauea volcano, Hawai'i, provides insights into the processes occurring during typical Hawaiian fountaining activity. This short-lived but powerful eruption contained 17 fountaining episodes and produced a cone and tephra blanket as well as a lava lake that interacted with the vent and fountain during all but the first episode of the eruption, the focus of this paper. Microtextural analysis of Hawaiian fountaining products from this opening episode is used to infer vesiculation processes within the fountain and shallow conduit. Vesicle number densities for all clasts are high (106-107 cm-3). Post-fragmentation expansion of bubbles within the thermally-insulated fountain overprints the pre-fragmentation bubble populations, leading to a reduction in vesicle number density and increase in mean vesicle size. However, early quenched rims of some clasts, with vesicle number densities approaching 107 cm-3, are probably a valid approximation to magma conditions near fragmentation. The extent of clast evolution from low vesicle-to-melt ratio and corresponding high vesicle number density to higher vesicle-to-melt ratio and lower vesicle-number density corresponds to the length of residence time within the fountain. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  17. Flooding in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins in eastern Colorado, September 9–18, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, Robert A.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2015-11-25

    Flooding in the Fountain Creek Basin was primarily contained to Fountain Creek from southern Colorado Springs to its confluence with the Arkansas River in Pueblo, in lower Monument Creek, and in several mountain tributaries. New record peak streamflows occurred at four mountain tributary streamgages having at least 10 years of record; Bear Creek, Cheyenne Creek, Rock Creek, and Little Fountain Creek. Five streamgages with at least 10 years of record in a 32-mile reach of Fountain Creek extending from Colorado Springs to Piñon had peak streamflows in the top five for the period of record. A peak of 15,300 ft3/s at Fountain Creek near Fountain was the highest streamflow recorded in the Fountain Creek Basin during the September 2013 event and ranks the third highest peak in 46 years. Near the mouth of the basin, a peak of 11,800 ft3/s in Pueblo was only the thirteenth highest annual peak in 74 years. A new Colorado record for daily rainfall of 11.85 inches was recorded at a USGS rain gage in the Little Fountain Creek Basin on September 12, 2013.

  18. Loading a fountain clock with an enhanced low-velocity intense source of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrev, G.; Gerginov, V.; Weyers, S.

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental work for improved atom loading in the optical molasses of a cesium fountain clock, employing a low-velocity intense source of atoms [Lu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 77, 3331 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3331], which we modify by adding a dark-state pump laser. With this modification the atom source has a mean flux of 4 ×108 atoms/s at a mean atom velocity of 8.6 m/s. Compared to fountain operation using background gas loading, we achieve a significant increase of the loaded and detected atom number by a factor of 40. Operating the fountain clock with a total number of detected atoms Nat=2.9 ×106 in the quantum projection noise-limited regime, a frequency instability σy(1 s ) =2.7 ×10-14 is demonstrated.

  19. Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with a drinking water fountain.

    PubMed

    Costa, D; Bousseau, A; Thevenot, S; Dufour, X; Laland, C; Burucoa, C; Castel, O

    2015-11-01

    Over a four-month period, ten patients were suspected of having acquired nosocomial infection to P. aeruginosa in the ear, nose, and throat department. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared. Only water from a drinking water fountain was contaminated by P. aeruginosa. This isolate and those of three patients had indistinguishable random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles. These patients had serious oncology diseases. The drinking water fountain was used for their alimentation by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and was the origin of the outbreak. Another type of drinking fountain with a terminal ultraviolet treatment was installed, following which no new infections linked to drinking water were identified. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterogeneous dopamine neurochemistry in the striatum: the fountain-drain matrix.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Morales, Ingrid; Gomez, Isabel; Gonzalez, Sergio; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas; Gonzalez-Mora, Jose Luis

    2006-10-01

    In contrast to the relatively high attention paid to the structural heterogeneity of striatal dopamine (DA) innervation, little attention has been focused on the possible striatal heterogeneity for release and uptake of DA. By using amperometric methods, we found striatal regions showing a DA decrease during the medial forebrain bundle stimulation (drain areas) near to other zones that showed an increase in DA concentration (fountain areas). Both areas were intermixed to form a tridimensional matrix to regulate DA concentration throughout the striatum (fountain-drain matrix). The response to electrical stimuli of different amplitudes and durations and to different drugs (alpha-methyl-l-tyrosine, cocaine, gamma-butyrolactone, and haloperidol) suggests that regional differences for both DA release/DA uptake and DA cell firing autoregulation are behind the striatal fountain-drain matrix. The high diversity of DA activity observed in the striatum is a new framework for analyzing experimental and clinical phenomena.

  1. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  2. Mapping the surprisingly high-velocity submm H2O masers of water-fountain nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Ramiro; Chapman, Jessica; Vlemmings, Wouter; Tafoya, Daniel; Chavarria, Luis; Perez-Sanchez, Andres

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the outflows and their formation for water-fountain nebulae is crucial for understanding the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae. Our first discovery of submillimeter water masers towards a number of water-fountains has created an exciting new opportunity to study these important sources. We intend to image the water masers towards three sources recently detected in the submillimeter water masers transition simultaneously at 22 GHz with ATCA and at 321 GHz with ALMA. These observations will allow us to determine the physical conditions of the gas in the fast jets responsible for shaping their circumstellar environment.

  3. Structural characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 umu operon

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.M.; Crowne, H.M.; Pidsley, S.C.; Sedgwick, S.G. )

    1990-09-01

    The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes functions required for mutagenesis induced by radiation and a wide variety of chemicals. The closely related organism Salmonella typhimurium is markedly less mutable than E. coli, but a umu homolog has recently been identified and cloned from the LT2 subline. In this study the nucleotide sequence and structure of the S. typhimurium LT2 umu operon have been determined and its gene products have been identified so that the molecular basis of umu activity might be understood more fully. S. typhimurium LT2 umu consists of a smaller 417-base-pair (bp) umuD gene ending 2 bp upstream of a larger 1,266-bp umuC gene. The only apparent structural difference between the two operons is the lack of gene overlap. An SOS box identical to that found in E. coli is present in the promoter region upstream of umuD. The calculated molecular masses of the umuD and umuC gene products were 15.3 and 47.8 kilodaltons, respectively, which agree with figures determined by transpositional disruption and maxicell analysis. The S. typhimurium and E. coli umuD sequences were 68% homologous and encoded products with 71% amino acid identity; the umuC sequences were 71% homologous and encoded products with 83% amino acid identity. Furthermore, the potential UmuD cleavage site and associated catalytic sites could be identified. Thus the very different mutagenic responses of S. typhimurium LT2 and E. coli cannot be accounted for by gross differences in operon structure or gene products. Rather, the ability of the cloned S. typhimurium umuD gene to give stronger complementation of E. coli umuD77 mutants in the absence of a functional umuC gene suggests that Salmonella UmuC protein normally constrains UmuD protein activity.

  4. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  5. Stepwise transplantation of an active site loop between heat-labile enterotoxins LT-II and LT-I and characterization of the obtained hybrid toxins.

    PubMed

    Feil, I K; Platas, A A; van den Akker, F; Reddy, R; Merritt, E A; Storm, D R; Hol, W G

    1998-11-01

    Members of the cholera toxin family, including Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins LT-I and LT-II, catalyze the covalent modification of intracellular proteins by transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to a specific arginine of the target protein. The ADP-ribosylating activity of these toxins is located in the A-subunit, for which LT-I and LT-II share a 63% sequence identity. The flexible loop in LT-I, ranging from residue 47 to 56, closes over the active site cleft. Previous studies have shown that point mutations in this loop have dramatic effects on the activity of LT-I. Yet, in LT-II the sequence of the equivalent loop differs at four positions from LT-I. Therefore five mutants of the active site loop were created by a stepwise replacement of the loop sequence in LT-I with virtually all the corresponding residues in LT-II. Since we discovered that LT-II had no activity versus the artificial substrate diethylamino-benzylidine-aminoguanidine (DEABAG) while LT-I does, our active site mutants most likely probe the NAD binding, not the arginine binding region of the active site. The five hybrid toxins obtained (Q49A, F52N, V53T, Q49V/F52N and Q49V/F52N/V53T) show (i) great differences in holotoxin assembly efficiency; (ii) decreased cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells; and (iii) increased in vitro enzymatic activity compared with wild type LT-I. Specifically, the three mutants containing the F52N substitution display a greater Vmax for NAD than wild type LT-I. The enzymatic activity of the V53T mutant is significantly higher than that of wild type LT-I. Apparently this subtle variation at position 53 is beneficial, in contrast to several other substitutions at position 53 which previously had been shown to be deleterious for activity. The most striking result of this study is that the active site loop of LT-I, despite great sensitivity for point mutations, can essentially be replaced by the active site loop of LT-II, yielding an active 'hybrid enzyme' as well

  6. Complete genome sequence of a novel aquareovirus that infects the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Adams, Cynthia; Lewis, Teresa D.; Brandt, Thomas M.; Cornman, Robert S.; Sanders, Lakyn R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1).

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Aquareovirus That Infects the Endangered Fountain Darter, Etheostoma fonticola

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Cynthia R.; Lewis, Teresa D.; Brandt, Thomas M.; Sanders, Lakyn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1). PMID:28007856

  8. Operation Facelift: Cover Makeovers Can Be the Fountain of Youth for Many Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh Ann

    2009-01-01

    Aging covers and those that miss their mark and lead to sluggish sales are often targeted for makeovers, many times with good results. Up to 75 percent of Viking's books get redesigned, says Assistant Art Director Jim Hoover, because the publisher sees it as a chance to reintroduce a book to the market. Makeovers are considered the fountain of…

  9. SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD OF SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARDS. THESE STANDARDS ARE ISSUED IN RECOGNITION OF THE LONG FELT NEED FOR A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF SANITATION INVOLVING INDUSTRIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH OFFICIALS WHOSE OBLIGATION IT IS TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS.…

  10. Operation Facelift: Cover Makeovers Can Be the Fountain of Youth for Many Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh Ann

    2009-01-01

    Aging covers and those that miss their mark and lead to sluggish sales are often targeted for makeovers, many times with good results. Up to 75 percent of Viking's books get redesigned, says Assistant Art Director Jim Hoover, because the publisher sees it as a chance to reintroduce a book to the market. Makeovers are considered the fountain of…

  11. Status and prospect of the Swiss continuous Cs fountain FoCS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallageas, A.; Devenoges, L.; Petersen, M.; Morel, J.; Bernier, L.-G.; Thomann, P.; Südmeyer, T.

    2016-06-01

    The continuous cesium fountain clock FoCS-2 at METAS presents many unique characteristics and challenges in comparison with standard pulsed fountain clocks. For several years FoCS-2 was limited by an unexplained frequency sensitivity on the velocity of the atoms, in the range of 140 • 10-15. Recent experiments allowed us to identify the origin of this problem as undesirable microwave surface currents circulating on the shield of the coaxial cables that feed the microwave cavity. A strong reduction of this effect was obtained by adding microwave absorbing coatings on the coaxial cables and absorbers inside of the vacuum chamber. This breakthrough opens the door to a true metrological validation of the fountain. A series of simulation tools have already been developed and proved their efficiency in the evaluation of some of the uncertainties of the continuous fountain. With these recent improvements, we are confident in the future demonstration of an uncertainty budget at the 10-15 level and below.

  12. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    PubMed

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Aquareovirus That Infects the Endangered Fountain Darter, Etheostoma fonticola.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Adams, Cynthia R; Lewis, Teresa D; Brandt, Thomas M; Cornman, Robert S; Sanders, Lakyn

    2016-12-22

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1).

  14. Selenium speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed and its effects on fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Carsella, James; Melnykov, Igor; Bonetti, Sandra; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Crans, Debbie C

    2017-07-01

    Se is an environmental concern as it can be toxic if present in high concentrations even though it is a dietary requirement for all animals. Se levels are a special concern in the Fountain Creek Watershed located in southeastern Colorado whose geological source is the Se-rich Pierre Shale. Segments of Fountain Creek have Se water levels that exceed the current EPA limit of 5 µg/l. In the studies described here, the effects of river water containing selenium were examined on fish populations at different sites along the Fountain Creek Watershed. Based on the hypothesis that high levels of Se present in the Creek and resident bryophytes should be an indicator of diversity in the river fish we explored the possibility that the low toxicity of the selenium could be due to speciation. A speciation analysis was conducted to determine the selenium(IV) and selenium(VI). Our results show that sites with higher ratios of the more toxic Se(IV) relative to total selenium exhibit lower fish diversity and number of fish. Our results indicate that factors, other than total Se, such as Se speciation may be involved in controlling the bioavailability and toxicity of this element to aquatic organisms in Fountain Creek.

  15. Spectroscopic evidence for a lava fountain driven by previously accumulated magmatic gas.

    PubMed

    Allard, Patrick; Burton, Mike; Muré, Filippo

    2005-01-27

    Lava fountains are spectacular continuous gas jets, propelling lava fragments to heights of several hundred metres, which occasionally occur during eruptions of low-viscosity magmas. Whether they are generated by the effervescent disruption of fast-rising bubbly melt or by the separate ascent of a bubble foam layer accumulated at depth still remains a matter of debate. No field measurement has yet allowed firm discrimination between these two models. A key insight into the origin of lava fountains may be gained by measuring the chemical composition of the driving gas phase. This composition should differ markedly depending on whether the magma degassing occurs before or during eruption. Here we report the analysis of magmatic gas during a powerful (250-600 m high) lava fountain, measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on Mount Etna, Sicily. The abundances of volcanic gas species, determined from absorption spectra of lava radiation, reveal a fountain gas having higher CO2/S and S/Cl ratios than other etnean emissions, and which cannot derive from syn-eruptive bulk degassing of Etna basalt. Instead, its composition suggests violent emptying of a gas bubble layer previously accumulated at about 1.5 km depth below the erupting crater.

  16. Unexpected hazards from tephra fallouts at Mt Etna: The 23 November 2013 lava fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Hundreds of paroxysmal episodes and a few long-lasting ash-emissions eruptions make Mt. Etna, in Italy, one of the most productive basaltic volcanoes in the world over recent years. This frequent explosive activity certainly gives volcanologists plenty of stimulating scientific material for study. Volcanic hazard from tephra fallout associated with lava fountains is still an issue that has not been fully assessed, albeit having to face this scenario several times in 2013. The 23 November 2013 lava fountain was exceptionally intense despite the short duration of the paroxysmal phase (< 1 h). Abundant decimetric-sized bombs fell within the first 5-6 km from the vent, and a macroscopically thicker and coarser tephra deposit than usual formed between 5 and 25 km; in addition, ash was reported to fall up to distances of 400 km. The analysis of fallout deposit provided a total erupted mass of 1.3 ± 1.1 × 109 kg (for a mass eruption rate of 4.5 ± 3.6 × 105 kg/s), in agreement with the value of 2.4 × 109 kg estimated by modeling. Grain-size distribution of samples shows poor sorting at least up to 25 km from the vent. By comparing dispersal, sedimentological features and physical parameters of the fallout deposit with other lava fountains of Etna, the 23 November 2013 episode may well be one of the largest events of the 21st Century in terms of eruption column height, total erupted mass and mass eruption rate. Furthermore, the impact of tephra on the territory was so high as to make it opportune to introduce a distinction, within the class of lava fountains, between small- and large-scale episodes. This classification can be a starting point for hazard assessment and help prevent the hazards from large-scale lava fountains at Etna in the future.

  17. Variability of Two Young L/T Transition Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, Katelyn; Biller, Beth; Gallimore, Jack; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose for photometric monitoring observations of WISEP J004701.06+680352 (hereinafter W0047) and 2MASSWJ2244316+204343 (hereinafter 2M2244) using Spitzer/IRAC. Both objects are kinematically confirmed L7 members of the 150 Myr old AB Doradus moving group and show remarkable spectral similarity in both the near-IR and optical. The WoW survey found that L/T transition brown dwarfs having detected mid-IR variability are redder than the typical J - K color for their spectral type. A Cycle 11 exploration program (P.I. Metchev) is investigating the geometrical dependence of color and variability by expanding the original WoW sample. If inclination and J - K color are correlated (as predicted by Metchev et al.), then the spectral and photometric diversity seen across the L/T transition could be explained by geometry rather than diversity in atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. This would have wide ranging implications for the way we model cloud dissipation for brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. Our proposed observations will provide an important test of the Metchev et al. prediction complementary to their Cycle 11 program. W0047 and 2M2244 are the same age, and have remarkably similar colors (J - K = 2.55 and 2.46 mags, respectively) and underlying spectra. Thus, if Metchev's prediction about the correlation of inclination and spectral morphology holds true, we would expect that W0047 and 2M2244 should have similar inclinations. However, the measured v sin(i) values for W0047 and 2M2244 are quite different. This difference in v sin(i) could be due to spin-axis inclination (with W0047 having a smaller i) or orbital period (with W0047 having a longer period), both of which we will determine from our proposed observations. This test is a unique opportunity, as there are no other free-floating L/T transition dwarfs known to be both coeval and spectrally similar. Our proposed observations will also extend the spectral type range for young objects surveyed for variability

  18. Fast Screening of Whole Blood Samples and Pharmaceutical Compounds for Enantiorecognition of Free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4.

    PubMed

    Mitrofan, Grigorina; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; van Staden, Jacobus Frederick; Bazylak, Grzegorz; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-12-01

    A fast screening method of whole blood was proposed for enantiorecognition of free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4 . Stochastic microsensors based on four inulins (IN, IQ, TEX, and HD) immobilized on diamond paste (DP) were used for recognition of free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4 . For the enantiorecognition of free L-T4 and D-T4 in whole blood and pharmaceutical samples, the best microsensor was the one based on TEX/DP (wide linear concentration ranges, and low limits of quantification). The best limit of detection for the assay of free L-T3 (400 fmol/L) was recorded using the microsensors based on HD/DP, while for the assay of free L-T4, and D-T4 the best limit of determination (1 pmol/L) was recorded using the TX/DP-based microsensor. For the enantiorecognition of free L-T3 in whole blood and pharmaceutical samples the best microsensor was the one based on HD/DP (the wider linear concentration range, and the lower limit of quantification - of pmol/L magnitude order). For the enantiorecognition of free L-T3 in whole blood and pharmaceutical samples the best microsensor was the one based on HD/DP (the wider linear concentration range, and the lower limit of quantification - of pmol/L magnitude order). Free L-T3 , L-T4 , and D-T4 were recovered with high reliabilities in whole blood samples (recoveries higher than 99.00%, with RSD values lower than 1.00%) and pharmaceutical samples (recoveries higher than 95.00% with RSD values lower than 1.00%).

  19. Sliding-window raptor codes for efficient scalable wireless video broadcasting with unequal loss protection.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Pasquale; Grangetto, Marco; Tillo, Tammam; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2010-06-01

    Digital fountain codes have emerged as a low-complexity alternative to Reed-Solomon codes for erasure correction. The applications of these codes are relevant especially in the field of wireless video, where low encoding and decoding complexity is crucial. In this paper, we introduce a new class of digital fountain codes based on a sliding-window approach applied to Raptor codes. These codes have several properties useful for video applications, and provide better performance than classical digital fountains. Then, we propose an application of sliding-window Raptor codes to wireless video broadcasting using scalable video coding. The rates of the base and enhancement layers, as well as the number of coded packets generated for each layer, are optimized so as to yield the best possible expected quality at the receiver side, and providing unequal loss protection to the different layers according to their importance. The proposed system has been validated in a UMTS broadcast scenario, showing that it improves the end-to-end quality, and is robust towards fluctuations in the packet loss rate.

  20. Dynamic Fluid-Kinetic (DyFK) Simulations of Storm-Enhanced Density Supply of Cleft Ion Fountain Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Zeng, W.; Foster, J. C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Adrian, M. L.; Moore, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    Elevated ionospheric density regions frequently appear to be convected from the subauroral plasmaspheric region toward noon, in association with convection of plasmaspheric tails in the dayside magnetosphere, typically during large geomagnetic storms. In this presentation, we explore the possibility that these Storm Enhanced Density (SED) regions could provide ionospheric plasma source populations for cleft ion fountain outflows. We use our Dynamic Fluid Kinetic (DyFK) code to simulate the entry of a high-density "plasmasphere-like" flux tube entering the cleft region and subjected to an episode of wave-driven transverse ion heating. The results of including different proportions of SED and soft electron precipitation levels, together with transverse ion heating effects on the resulting outflows, will be presented, including the O+ and H+ ion density and related parameter profiles for the simulated SED involved events. We will also compare these modeling results with SED-outflow observations from GPS TEC, and the FAST and IMAGE spacecraft. Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, A. J. Coster, J. Goldstein, and F. J. Rich, Ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric tails, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(13), 1623, doi:10.1029/2002GL015067, 2002.

  1. Doppler radar retrievals from lava fountaining paroxysms generating tephra plumes at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin, Freret-Lorgeril; Franck, Donnadieu; Mauro, Coltelli; Simona, Scollo; Patrick, Fréville; Claude, Hervier; Michele, Prestifilippo

    2016-04-01

    Etna volcano is one of the most active European volcanoes. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a new crater called the New South East Crater (NSEC) was built during 46 eruptive episodes characterized by lava fountaining generating tephra plumes that reached up to 10 km (a.s.l). A 23 cm-wavelength Doppler radar (VOLDORAD 2B), located about 3 km from NSEC at the Montagnola station and integrated into the INGV-OE instrumental network, has been continuously monitoring the explosive activity of Mt. Etna's summit craters since 2009. We have studied these paroxysms by analyzing the radar echoes and Doppler signals coming from adjacent volumes of the fixed beam probing the lava fountains close to the eruptive crater, in combination with thermal and visible imagery. The range gating (150 m-deep probed volumes along-beam) allows us to discriminate the active summit craters and to roughly estimate the lava fountain width. The backscattered power, which is related to the erupted tephra mass load in the beam, and Doppler velocities help to mark the transition from Strombolian activity to lava fountaining, providing onset and end times of the fountain. Both radar parameters directly provide a proxy for the mass eruption rate, which is found to follow the time variations of tephra plume height. Oscillations of the echo power during lava fountaining indicate a pulsatile behavior likely originating in the magmatic conduit or deeper reservoir. Ejection velocities retrieved from positive along-beam velocities measured near the emission source, are found to range from 140 to almost 350 m/s during the climax. Maximum along-beam Doppler velocity components from fallouts allow us to infer maximum particle sizes (pluri-decimetric) in agreement with field observations. The mode of power spectral distribution could further be used to constrain the mean diameter of proximal fallout. A reliable quantification of the source mass loading parameters requires more stringent constraints on the

  2. Role of fire in the germination ecology of fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), an invasive African bunchgrass in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Edith N. Adkins; Susan Cordell; Donald R. Drake

    2011-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were carried out to test factors expected to be relevant for the germination of fountain grass: (1) light; (2) emergence of fountain grass seedlings from depths of 0, 2.5, and 5 cm; (3) fire passing over exposed and buried seeds; (4) laboratory heat treatment mimicking exposure to grass fire. Both fire in the field and heat applied in the...

  3. Perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and association with intake of plain water and sugar-sweetened beverages.

    PubMed

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-03-01

    Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Nearly 1 in 5 participants disagreed their tap water was safe and nearly 2 in 5 disagreed school water fountains were clean and safe. Perceived tap water risk was more prevalent among non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks (26.4%) and Hispanics (28.3%) compared with NH Whites (14.7%, p < .001) and more prevalent among lower-income youth. Negative water fountain perceptions were more common among high school-aged youth. Perceived tap water risk was not associated with SSB intake (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 1.5) or water intake (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.1). Negative water fountain perceptions were associated with SSB intake only among Hispanics (race/ethnicity interaction p < .001; OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.6) but were not associated with water intake. Negative perceptions of tap water and water fountains among youth are common and should be considered in efforts to provide water in schools. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Light shift measurements in a Cesium Fountain without the use of mechanical shutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.; Enzer, D. G.; Klipstein, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements confirming operation of a cesium fountain frequency standard with light shift below 10^-15 (and with evidence suggesting it is several orders of magnitude below this level) but without the use of mechanical shutters. Suppression of the light shift is realized using a master-slave laser configuration by reducing the overall optical power delivered to the physics package as well as spoiling the injection of the slave, causing it to lase far off resonance (1-2 nm) as proposed by the authors several years ago [l]. In the absence of any mitigation, this (AC Stark) shift, due to near-resonant laser light reaching the atoms during their microwave interrogation period, is the largest shift in such frequency standards (2x10^-11 for Our fountain). Mechanical shutters provided adequate light attenuation but have been prone to failure.

  5. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements of the capillary fountain jet produced via ultrasonic atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yohko F.; Douguchi, Junya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Iijima, Takao; Tomida, Yukinobu; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    In situ x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for investigating the liquid structure in the ultrasonic fountain jet to consider the mechanism of the "ultrasonic ethanol separation" reported by Sato et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. For pure liquids (water and ethanol), it was found that the high frequency ultrasound does not affect the liquid structure microscopically. For the 20mol% ethanol-water mixture, the estimated ethanol mole fraction in the ultrasonic fountain jet by using the position of the main maximum in the x-ray diffraction profile coincided with that in the reservoir. This result suggests that the ethanol separation is not caused by any distorted liquid structure under the ultrasound irradiation and occurs when or after the generation of the liquid droplet mist.

  6. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements of the capillary fountain jet produced via ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yohko F; Douguchi, Junya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Iijima, Takao; Tomida, Yukinobu; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Kazuo

    2006-11-07

    In situ x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for investigating the liquid structure in the ultrasonic fountain jet to consider the mechanism of the "ultrasonic ethanol separation" reported by Sato et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. For pure liquids (water and ethanol), it was found that the high frequency ultrasound does not affect the liquid structure microscopically. For the 20 mol % ethanol-water mixture, the estimated ethanol mole fraction in the ultrasonic fountain jet by using the position of the main maximum in the x-ray diffraction profile coincided with that in the reservoir. This result suggests that the ethanol separation is not caused by any distorted liquid structure under the ultrasound irradiation and occurs when or after the generation of the liquid droplet mist.

  7. Euler's friction of fluids theory and the estimation of fountain jet heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2015-09-01

    In 1761, Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) published a treatise with the title "Attempt at a Theory of the Friction of Fluids", in which he assumed that, as is the case for solid friction, fluid friction is proportional to pressure. Several experiments were proposed by Euler to derive a friction factor, which were intended to experimentally confirm his equations. Detailed developments of five different problems of discharge were presented in his treatise, taking into account the loss of head in the conduits. In the Appendix, an example is given of the calculation of the jet heights of a particular fountain, fed with conduits of different cross-sectional areas. Application of the current method for the calculation of head losses in pipes reveals that Euler grossly overestimated the fountain jet heights.

  8. Focusing a fountain of neutral cesium atoms with an electrostatic lens triplet

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, Juris G.; Amini, Jason M.; Gould, Harvey

    2005-10-15

    An electrostatic lens with three focusing elements in an alternating-gradient configuration is used to focus a fountain of cesium atoms in their ground (strong-field-seeking) state. The lens electrodes are shaped to produce only sextupole plus dipole equipotentials which avoids adding the unnecessary nonlinear forces present in cylindrical lenses. Defocusing between lenses is greatly reduced by having all of the main electric fields point in the same direction and be of nearly equal magnitude. The addition of the third lens gave us better control of the focusing strength in the two transverse planes and allowed focusing of the beam to half the image size in both planes. The beam envelope was calculated for lens voltages selected to produced specific focusing properties. The calculations, starting from first principles, were compared with measured beam sizes and found to be in good agreement. Application to fountain experiments, atomic clocks, and focusing polar molecules in strong-field-seeking states is discussed.

  9. Accurate Evaluation of Microwave-Leakage-Induced Frequency Shifts in Fountain Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liu, Nian-Feng; Suo, Rui; Li, Tian-Chun

    2014-10-01

    We report theoretical calculations of the transition probability errors introduced by microwave leakage in Cs fountain clocks, which will shift the clock frequency. The results show that the transition probability errors are affected by the Ramsey pulse amplitude, the relative phase between the Ramsey field and the leakage field, and the asymmetry of the leakage fields for the upward and downward passages. This effect is quite different for the leakage fields presenting below the Ramsey cavity and above the Ramsey cavity. The leakage-field-induced frequency shifts of the NIM5 fountain clock in different cases are measured. The results are consistent with the theoretical calculations, and give an accurate evaluation of the leakage-field-induced frequency shifts, as distinguished from other microwave-power-related effects for the first time.

  10. Status of the atomic fountain clock at the National Research Council of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, S.; Alcock, J.; Jian, B.; Gertsvolf, M.; Bernard, J.

    2016-06-01

    Despite the rapid advances in optical frequency standards, caesium fountain clocks retain a critical role as the most accurate primary frequency standards available. At the National Research Council Canada, we are working to develop a second generation caesium fountain clock. Work is currently underway to improve several systems of FCs1, such as the laser system and microwave local oscillator, which will be incorporated into its refurbished version, FCs2. In addition, we have added an optical pumping stage which has increased the detected atom number by over a factor of six. In collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), we are planning on replacing the physics package of FCs1. We will report on several recent improvements to FCs1, along with our progress in the development of FCs2.

  11. Non-Linear Dependence of the Height of a Chain Fountain on Drop Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Y.; Kearns, F.; Mustafa, T.; Salih, R.; Ioratim-Uba, A.; Udall, I.; Usama, M.

    2015-01-01

    If the end of a long chain, which is contained in an elevated beaker, is dropped over the edge of the beaker and falls, it is observed that as the speed of the chain increases the chain rises to form a loop well above the top of the beaker. The name "chain fountain" has been applied to this phenomenon. In this study the dependence of the…

  12. Non-Linear Dependence of the Height of a Chain Fountain on Drop Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Y.; Kearns, F.; Mustafa, T.; Salih, R.; Ioratim-Uba, A.; Udall, I.; Usama, M.

    2015-01-01

    If the end of a long chain, which is contained in an elevated beaker, is dropped over the edge of the beaker and falls, it is observed that as the speed of the chain increases the chain rises to form a loop well above the top of the beaker. The name "chain fountain" has been applied to this phenomenon. In this study the dependence of the…

  13. First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéna, J.; Weyers, S.; Abgrall, M.; Grebing, C.; Gerginov, V.; Rosenbusch, P.; Bize, S.; Lipphardt, B.; Denker, H.; Quintin, N.; Raupach, S. M. F.; Nicolodi, D.; Stefani, F.; Chiodo, N.; Koke, S.; Kuhl, A.; Wiotte, F.; Meynadier, F.; Camisard, E.; Chardonnet, C.; Le Coq, Y.; Lours, M.; Santarelli, G.; Amy-Klein, A.; Le Targat, R.; Lopez, O.; Pottie, P. E.; Grosche, G.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the first comparison of distant caesium fountain primary frequency standards (PFSs) via an optical fiber link. The 1415 km long optical link connects two PFSs at LNE-SYRTE (Laboratoire National de métrologie et d’Essais—SYstème de Références Temps-Espace) in Paris (France) with two at PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) in Braunschweig (Germany). For a long time, these PFSs have been major contributors to accuracy of the International Atomic Time (TAI), with stated accuracies of around 3× {{10}-16} . They have also been the references for a number of absolute measurements of clock transition frequencies in various optical frequency standards in view of a future redefinition of the second. The phase coherent optical frequency transfer via a stabilized telecom fiber link enables far better resolution than any other means of frequency transfer based on satellite links. The agreement for each pair of distant fountains compared is well within the combined uncertainty of a few 10-16 for all the comparisons, which fully supports the stated PFSs’ uncertainties. The comparison also includes a rubidium fountain frequency standard participating in the steering of TAI and enables a new absolute determination of the 87Rb ground state hyperfine transition frequency with an uncertainty of 3.1× {{10}-16} . This paper is dedicated to the memory of André Clairon, who passed away on 24 December 2015, for his pioneering and long-lasting efforts in atomic fountains. He also pioneered optical links from as early as 1997.

  14. Fluidal-clast breccia generated by submarine fire fountaining, Trooper Creek Formation, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K.; McPhie, J.

    2001-09-01

    A distinctive monomictic breccia, composed of fluidal and blocky basaltic andesite clasts, occurs in a Cambro-Ordovician submarine volcanic succession in northern Queensland, Australia. Associated with this fluvial-clast buccia facies are coherent facies and coarse and fine breccia facies of the same composition. The fluidal-clast breccia facies is internally massive and >250 m thick, varying only in the ratio of fluidal clasts to blocky clasts. Fluidal clasts range in size from 2 cm to 170 cm, and have moderately to highly vesicular cores and thick (up to 1 cm), non-vesicular, formerly glassy rims. Blocky clasts are highly vesicular to non-vesicular, <2 cm, angular, dominantly equant or splintery in shape and identical in composition to the fluidal clasts. The fluidal clasts strongly resemble subaerial volcanic bombs and are interpreted to be the products of submarine fire fountaining of relatively low-viscosity lava. The blocky clasts were mainly derived from disintegration of the fluidal clasts, by means of quench fragmentation. Coherent basaltic andesite intercalated with the fluidal-clast breccia represents co-genetic lavas, dykes and irregular shallow intrusions. The coarse and fine breccia facies is very thickly bedded, monomictic (basaltic andesite), poorly sorted and clast supported. This facies is interpreted to have been generated by periodic gravitational collapse of unstable accumulations of the fluidal-clast breccia facies. Subaqueous fire-fountain breccias are distinguished from subaerial fire-fountain breccias by thick glassy margins on fluidal clasts, the lack of welding and agglutination, and the distinctive association of highly vesicular, fluidal clasts with non-vesicular, angular, blocky clasts. Recognition of submarine fire-fountain breccias in volcanic successions constrains the eruption style, proximity (tens of metres) to source and environment of deposition.

  15. WATER MASER SURVEY ON AKARI AND IRAS SOURCES: A SEARCH FOR ''LOW-VELOCITY'' WATER FOUNTAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Henkel, Christian

    2013-05-20

    We present the results of a 22 GHz H{sub 2}O maser survey toward a new sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB star candidates. Most of the objects are selected for the first time based on the AKARI data, which have high flux sensitivity in the mid-infrared ranges. We aim at finding H{sub 2}O maser sources in the transient phase between the AGB and post-AGB stages of evolution, where the envelopes start to develop large deviations from spherical symmetry. The observations were carried out with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope. Among 204 observed objects, 63 detections (36 new) were obtained. We found four objects that may be ''water fountain'' sources (IRAS 15193+3132, IRAS 18056-1514, OH 16.3-3.0, and IRAS 18455+0448). They possess an H{sub 2}O maser velocity coverage much smaller than those in other known water fountains. However, the coverage is still larger than that of the 1612 MHz OH maser. It implies that there is an outflow with a higher velocity than the envelope expansion velocity (typically {<=}25 km s{sup -1}), meeting the criterion of the water fountain class. We suggest that these candidates are possibly oxygen-rich late AGB or early post-AGB stars in a stage of evolution immediately after the spherically symmetric AGB mass loss has ceased.

  16. Atomic fountain clock with very high frequency stability employing a pulse-tube-cryocooled sapphire oscillator.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hagimoto, Ken; Hirano, Iku; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Ikegami, Takeshi; Hartnett, John G

    2014-09-01

    The frequency stability of an atomic fountain clock was significantly improved by employing an ultra-stable local oscillator and increasing the number of atoms detected after the Ramsey interrogation, resulting in a measured Allan deviation of 8.3 × 10(-14)τ(-1/2)). A cryogenic sapphire oscillator using an ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler and cryostat, without the need for refilling with liquid helium, was applied as a local oscillator and a frequency reference. High atom number was achieved by the high power of the cooling laser beams and optical pumping to the Zeeman sublevel m(F) = 0 employed for a frequency measurement, although vapor-loaded optical molasses with the simple (001) configuration was used for the atomic fountain clock. The resulting stability is not limited by the Dick effect as it is when a BVA quartz oscillator is used as the local oscillator. The stability reached the quantum projection noise limit to within 11%. Using a combination of a cryocooled sapphire oscillator and techniques to enhance the atom number, the frequency stability of any atomic fountain clock, already established as primary frequency standard, may be improved without opening its vacuum chamber.

  17. The Dynamics of Prolonged Low Fountaining Behaviour at Halemaumau, Kilauea, in December 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Taddeucci, J.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.; Carey, R.; Patrick, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Episodes of low-fountaining eruption lasting minutes to tens of minutes alternated with passive degassing at Halema`uma`u during 5 days of observations in December 2013. Some low fountains were triggered by small collapses from the vent walls and originated close to the margin of the lava lake. Others began in the lake interior and migrated to its margins without any obvious link to rock falls. Observations using high-frequency (50-500 Hz) thermal and visible imaging reveal that the fountains consist of sequences of close-spaced, meter-scale pockets of gas that burst through the free surface. Bursts lasted between 0.15 and 1.5 seconds, often partially overlapping in time and space. Bursts entrain both relatively brittle plates from the crust of the lava lake and very ductile thin crust that formed between successive pockets. The latter form spectacular 'lace-work' pyroclasts, of meter-scale diameter, which rise, deform, tear, and fall back into the lava lake. The process can be treated as a form of hydrodynamic fragmentation involving the transformation of masses of accelerating liquid into jets via the generation of liquid films that experience strong stretching during highly non-linear fluid motion.

  18. Similarity and pleasantness assessments of water-fountain sounds recorded in urban public spaces.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Maria Rådsten; Lundén, Peter; Nilsson, Mats E

    2015-11-01

    Water fountains are potential tools for soundscape improvement, but little is known about their perceptual properties. To explore this, sounds were recorded from 32 fountains installed in urban parks. The sounds were recorded with a sound-field microphone and were reproduced using an ambisonic loudspeaker setup. Fifty-seven listeners assessed the sounds with regard to similarity and pleasantness. Multidimensional scaling of similarity data revealed distinct groups of soft variable and loud steady-state sounds. Acoustically, the soft variable sounds were characterized by low overall levels and high temporal variability, whereas the opposite pattern characterized the loud steady-state sounds. The perceived pleasantness of the sounds was negatively related to their overall level and positively related to their temporal variability, whereas spectral centroid was weakly correlated to pleasantness. However, the results of an additional experiment, using the same sounds set equal in overall level, found a negative relationship between pleasantness and spectral centroid, suggesting that spectral factors may influence pleasantness scores in experiments where overall level does not dominate pleasantness assessments. The equal-level experiment also showed that several loud steady-state sounds remained unpleasant, suggesting an inherently unpleasant sound character. From a soundscape design perspective, it may be advisable to avoid fountains generating such sounds.

  19. Turbulent fountains as a model for mixing at a density interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Nigel; Martin, William, III

    2013-11-01

    Numerical results are presented for the change in flow rate in a round turbulent fountain as it rises and falls. The theoretical models of Bloomfield and Kerr (2000) are used to examine the entrainment across a density interface due to the impingement of an axisymmetric turbulent shear flow such as a plume or jet. The numerical results indicate that there are two mixing regimes, a low Froude number (weak fountain) regime in which the entrainment coefficient scales approximately on α ~ Fr2 and a high Froude number (forced fountain) regime in which the entrainment coefficient scales like α ~ Fr . This is in contrast to the experimental parameterization of Kumagai (1984) which had the entrainment coefficient as α ~ Fr3 for low Froude numbers and α approaching a constant in the limit of high Fr . The numerical results are compared to a broad range of experimental measurements in the literature. The sensitivity of the calculated entrainment coefficients to the internal body force model and entrainment assumption is also examined. The results are discussed in relation to models for mixing efficiency in stratified flows.

  20. NPL Cs fountain frequency standards and the quest for the ultimate accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymaniec, K.; Lea, S. N.; Gibble, K.; Park, S. E.; Liu, K.; Głowacki, P.

    2016-06-01

    NPL operates a system of two primary caesium fountain clocks consisting of a fully characterised standard NPL-CsF2 together with a new standard NPL-CsF3, which has recently become operational. Both fountains feature a single-stage vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap as the source of cold atoms and an approximate cancellation of the potentially large cold collision frequency shift. As a result, the collision-shift type-B uncertainty is less than 10-16. Subsequently, more subtle systematic effects, including the frequency shifts from distributed cavity phase, microwave lensing and collisions with background gas have also been evaluated at the level of 10-16 or below. Now, as several systematic effects contribute to the fountains’ uncertainty budgets similarly, further significant improvement of their accuracies is expected to be even more difficult. The short-term stability of these standards is also a significant factor limiting the overall precision as many days or even weeks of averaging is required for the type-A statistical uncertainty to approach the declared type-B systematic uncertainty. Going forward, further improvements in the reliability and robustness of operation of fountain standards is one of our priorities.

  1. Ganglioside-binding specificities of E. coli enterotoxin LT-IIc: Importance of long-chain fatty acyl ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Charles S; Nawar, Hesham F; Kruzel, Ragina L; Mandell, Lorrie M; Connell, Terry D

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discovered E. coli LT, is comprised of an A polypeptide with high homology, and a B polypeptide with moderate homology, to LT-IIa and LT-IIb. LT-IIc is less cytotoxic than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. We theorized that LT-IIc–host cell interaction is regulated by specific structural attributes of immune cell ganglioside receptors and designed experiments to test this hypothesis. Overlay immunoblotting to a diverse array of neural and macrophage gangliosides indicated that LT-IIc bound to a restrictive range of gangliosides, each possessing a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc with a requisite terminal sialic acid. LT-IIc did not bind to GM1a with short-chain fatty acyl ceramides. Affinity overlay immunoblots, constructed to a diverse array of known ganglioside structures of murine peritoneal macrophages, established that LT-IIc bound to GM1a comprised of long-chain fatty acyl ceramides. Findings were confirmed with LT-IIc also binding to GM1a of RAW264.7 cells, comprised of a long-chain fatty acyl ceramide. Thus, LT-IIc-ganglioside binding differs distinctly from that of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. LT-IIc binding is not just dependent on carbohydrate composition, but also upon the orientation of the oligosaccharide portion of GM1a by the ceramide moiety. These studies are the first demonstration of LT-ganglioside dependence upon ceramide composition and underscore the contribution of long-chain fatty acyl ceramides to host cell interactions. PMID:22917572

  2. Ganglioside-binding specificities of E. coli enterotoxin LT-IIc: Importance of long-chain fatty acyl ceramide.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Charles S; Nawar, Hesham F; Kruzel, Ragina L; Mandell, Lorrie M; Connell, Terry D

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discovered E. coli LT, is comprised of an A polypeptide with high homology, and a B polypeptide with moderate homology, to LT-IIa and LT-IIb. LT-IIc is less cytotoxic than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. We theorized that LT-IIc-host cell interaction is regulated by specific structural attributes of immune cell ganglioside receptors and designed experiments to test this hypothesis. Overlay immunoblotting to a diverse array of neural and macrophage gangliosides indicated that LT-IIc bound to a restrictive range of gangliosides, each possessing a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc with a requisite terminal sialic acid. LT-IIc did not bind to GM1a with short-chain fatty acyl ceramides. Affinity overlay immunoblots, constructed to a diverse array of known ganglioside structures of murine peritoneal macrophages, established that LT-IIc bound to GM1a comprised of long-chain fatty acyl ceramides. Findings were confirmed with LT-IIc also binding to GM1a of RAW264.7 cells, comprised of a long-chain fatty acyl ceramide. Thus, LT-IIc-ganglioside binding differs distinctly from that of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. LT-IIc binding is not just dependent on carbohydrate composition, but also upon the orientation of the oligosaccharide portion of GM1a by the ceramide moiety. These studies are the first demonstration of LT-ganglioside dependence upon ceramide composition and underscore the contribution of long-chain fatty acyl ceramides to host cell interactions.

  3. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek valley, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radell, Mary Jo; Lewis, Michael E.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    1994-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer in Fountain Creek Valley between Colorado Springs and Widefield is the source for several public-supply systems. Because of the importance of this aquifer, defining aquifer boundaries, areas where underflow occurs, and where Fountain Creek is hydraulically connected to the aquifer will greatly add to the understanding of the alluvial aquifer and management of the public- supply systems. Bedrock altitude, water-table altitude for October 1991, saturated thickness for October 1991, selected hydrogeologic sections in the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek Valley, and estimated underflow rates are mapped or tabulated for the area between Colorado Springs and Widefield, Colorado. Results from test drilling indicate that the bedrock surface is highly irregular and that several ridges and buried channels exist in the study area. These features affect the direction of ground-water flow on a local scale. In places, a shale ridge prevents exchange of water between Fountain Creek and the aquifer. Generally, ground water flowed toward Fountain Creek during the study (June 1991 to September 1992) in response to relatively high hydraulic heads in the aquifer and the steep gradients on the boundaries of the study area. Water levels, which were measured monthly, varied little during the study, except in areas near pumping wells or adjacent to Fountain Creek. Hydraulic-conductivity values, estimated from 30 bail tests in wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, were used to determine underflow across the saturated boundaries of the alluvial aquifer. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity values range from 1 to about 1,300 feet per day; the larger values occur in the buried channel of the alluvial aquifer and the smaller values occur near the boundaries of the saturated alluvium. Estimated underflow into the study area exceeded underflow out of the study area by about 10 times. Gain-loss investigations along Fountain Creek indicated that the

  4. Characterization of type 1 pili of Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, T K; Lounatmaa, K; Ranta, H; Kuusi, N

    1980-01-01

    Type 1 pili from Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were purified and characterized. The pilus filaments were 6 nm in diameter and over 1 microns long. Estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the pilin was 21,000. The isoelectric point of the filament was 4.1. Hydrophobic amino acids comprised 40.3% of the total amino acids of the pilin, which contained more proline, serine, and lysine than reported for the type 1 pilin of Escherichia coli. Purified pili agglutinated both horse and chicken erythrocytes and yeast cells but not bovine, sheep, or human erythrocytes. Horse erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited at lower concentrations by alpha-methyl-D-mannoside than by yeast mannane and D-fructose. Agglutination was not affected by D-galactose or sucrose. Results of the present study confirm the role of type 1 pili as Salmonella hemagglutinins and show chemical differences between the type 1 pili of S. typhimurium and E. coli. Images PMID:6107289

  5. Loss Reduction on Adoption of High Voltage LT Less Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Deepika; Adhikari, Nikhileshwar Prasad; Gupta, Amit; Bajpai, Santosh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In India there is a need to improve the quality of the electricity distribution process which has increased varying from year to year. In distribution networks, the limiting factor to load carrying capacity is generally the voltage reduction. High voltage distribution system (HVDS) is one of the steps to reduce line losses in electrical distribution network. It helps to reduce the length of low tension (LT) lines and makes the power available close to the users. The high voltage power distribution system reduces the probability of power theft by hooking HVDS suggests an increase in installation of small capacity single-phase transformers in the network which again save considerable energy. This paper is compared to existing conventional low tension distribution network with HVDS. The paper gives a clear picture of reduction in distribution losses with adoption of HVDS system. Losses Reduction of 11 kV Feeder in Nuniya (India) with adoption of HVDS have been worked out/ quantified and benefits thereby in generating capacity have discussed.

  6. On the estimation of jet-induced fountain lift and additional suckdown in hover for two-jet configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Bellavia, David C.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Currently available methods for estimating the net suckdown induced on jet V/STOL aircraft hovering in ground effect are based on a correlation of available force data and are, therefore, limited to configurations similar to those in the data base. Experience with some of these configurations has shown that both the fountain lift and additional suckdown are overestimated but these effects cancel each other for configurations within the data base. For other configurations, these effects may not cancel and the net suckdown could be grossly overestimated or underestimated. Also, present methods do not include the prediction of the pitching moments associated with the suckdown induced in ground effect. An attempt to develop a more logically based method for estimating the fountain lift and suckdown based on the jet-induced pressures is initiated. The analysis is based primarily on the data from a related family of three two-jet configurations (all using the same jet spacing) and limited data from two other two-jet configurations. The current status of the method, which includes expressions for estimating the maximum pressure induced in the fountain regions, and the sizes of the fountain and suckdown regions is presented. Correlating factors are developed to be used with these areas and pressures to estimate the fountain lift, the suckdown, and the related pitching moment increments.

  7. Comparison of the carbohydrate-binding specificities of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins LTh-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuta, S; Magnani, J L; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K; Ginsburg, V

    1988-01-01

    The heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli are related in structure and function. They are oligomers consisting of A and B polypeptide subunits. They bind to gangliosides, and they activate adenylate cyclase. The toxins form two antigenically distinct groups; members of each group cross-react but are not necessarily identical. Serogroup I includes cholera toxin (CT) and type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I) of E. coli. LTh-I and LTp-I are antigenic variants of LT-I produced by strains of E. coli from humans and pigs, respectively. Serogroup II contains the type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) of E. coli. Two antigenic variants designated LT-IIa and LT-IIb have been described. The binding of CT, LTh-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb to gangliosides was analyzed by immunostaining thin-layer chromatograms and by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. The four toxins have different glycolipid-binding specificities. LTh-I and CT bind strongly to ganglioside GM1 and less strongly to ganglioside GD1b. However, LTh-I, unlike CT, also binds weakly to GM2 and asialo GM1. LTh-I, like CT, probably binds to the terminal sugar sequence Gal beta 1-3GalNAc beta 1-4(NeuAc alpha 2-3)Gal . . ., where GalNAc is N-acetylgalactosamine and NeuAc is N-acetylneuraminic acid. LT-IIa probably binds to the same sugar sequence to which CT and LTh-I bind, with the additional contribution to binding of a second NeuAc as in GD1b and GD2. Also, LT-IIa must bind the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc . . . sequence in such a way that its binding is relatively unaffected by attachment of NeuAc to the terminal galactose residue as in GD1a, GT1b, and GQ1b. LT-IIb probably binds to the terminal sugar sequence NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GalNAc . . ., as it binds to gangliosides GD1a and GT1b but not to GM1. Images PMID:3290106

  8. SuperLab LT: Evaluation and Uses in Teaching Experimental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzine, Frank

    2002-01-01

    I describe and evaluate SuperLab LT (Chase & Abboud, 1990), a software package that enables students to replicate classic experiments in cognitive psychology. I also discuss the package with respect to its uses in teaching an undergraduate course in Experimental Psychology. Although the package has minor flaws, SuperLab LT provides numerous…

  9. SuperLab LT: Evaluation and Uses in Teaching Experimental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzine, Frank

    2002-01-01

    I describe and evaluate SuperLab LT (Chase & Abboud, 1990), a software package that enables students to replicate classic experiments in cognitive psychology. I also discuss the package with respect to its uses in teaching an undergraduate course in Experimental Psychology. Although the package has minor flaws, SuperLab LT provides numerous…

  10. Pharmacological characterization of conotoxin lt14a as a potent non-addictive analgesic.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenghua; Wang, Lei; Qin, Mengying; You, Yuwen; Pan, Wuguang; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Dandan; Xu, Anlong

    2015-03-01

    Conotoxin lt14a is a small peptide consisting of 13 amino acids. It was originally identified from the cDNA of Conus litteratus in the South China Sea. Previous reports showed lt14a exhibited antinociceptive activity using a hot plate-induced pain mouse model and acted as an antagonist of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We confirmed that conotoxin lt14a administration resulted in antinociception activity using a mouse inflammatory pain model and a rat model of mechanically-induced pain. The mRNA expression of c-fos and NOS in the spinal cord of rats was suppressed by lt14a. Labeling of lt14a with an Alexa Fluor 488 ester showed that lt14a was bound to the surface of PC12 cells and that this binding was inhibited by pre-application of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist tubocurarine chloride (TUB) and the nAChR blocker hexamethonium bromide (HB). These data confirm previous reports that showed lt14a binds to the surface of PC12 cells via nAChRs with patch clamp whole-cell recordings. Additional results showed that lt14a suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in PC12 cells activated by Ach. Our results showed that lt14a did not induce drug dependence but rather suppressed morphine withdrawal symptoms. Our work suggests that lt14a is a novel antinociceptive agent that targets the nAChR receptor without inducing drug dependence. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A feasible method for indirect quantification of L-T4 in drugs by iodine determination.

    PubMed

    Mesko, Marcia Foster; Teotonio, Alessandra Cortes; Teixeira Oliveira, Dirce Taina; Rosa Novo, Diogo La; Costa, Vanize Caldeira

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a method combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) for sample preparation of commercial levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) drugs (L-T4: 25-200µg/tablet), and potentiometry with ion selective electrode (ISE) for iodine determination and subsequent indirect quantification of L-T4 was proposed. The type and concentration of the absorbing solution were evaluated to select the most suitable conditions for this study. Using the MIC method, it was possible to use solutions as diluted as 150mmolL(-1) (NH4)2CO3 (for samples containing 25-200µg of L-T4/tablet) for I absorption. In these conditions, recoveries for L-T4 were between 99% and 101%, and relative standard deviations were lower than 10%. The limit of detection for L-T4 was 11.2µg/tablet, which is almost two times lower than the minimum concentration of L-T4 in commercially available drugs. Thus, the MIC was suitable for the digestion of several L-T4 drugs for subsequent I determination by ISE and indirect quantification of L-T4. Furthermore, the proposed method presents high throughput with low reagent consumption and consequently lower waste generation, making it suitable for routine determination of L-T4 in drugs. From the obtained results, it was possible to observe that one of the analyzed samples is not in agreement with the limits established by the United States Pharmacopeia, indicating the importance of the drug quality control. The United States Pharmacopeia establishes that each tablet must contain between 90% and 110% of the amount of active substance declared by the manufacturer.

  12. Comparability among four invertebrate sampling methods, Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Brown, Krystal D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering and Colorado Springs Utilities, designed a study to determine if sampling method and sample timing resulted in comparable samples and assessments of biological condition. To accomplish this task, annual invertebrate samples were collected concurrently using four sampling methods at 15 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages in the Fountain Creek basin from 2010 to 2012. Collectively, the four methods are used by local (U.S. Geological Survey cooperative monitoring program) and State monitoring programs (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment) in the Fountain Creek basin to produce two distinct sample types for each program that target single-and multiple-habitats. This study found distinguishable differences between single-and multi-habitat sample types using both community similarities and multi-metric index values, while methods from each program within sample type were comparable. This indicates that the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment methods were compatible with the cooperative monitoring program methods within multi-and single-habitat sample types. Comparisons between September and October samples found distinguishable differences based on community similarities for both sample types, whereas only differences were found for single-habitat samples when multi-metric index values were considered. At one site, differences between September and October index values from single-habitat samples resulted in opposing assessments of biological condition. Direct application of the results to inform the revision of the existing Fountain Creek basin U.S. Geological Survey cooperative monitoring program are discussed.

  13. Reticulite, Scoria and Lava: Foam Formation in Hawaiian Fire Fountain Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, A. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    Hawaiian fire fountain eruptions can generate three types of foams: 1) scoria pyroclasts characterized by spherical bubbles and typical vesicularities of 70-85%, 2) reticulite pyroclasts consisting of a polygonal network of trigonal glass struts and vesicularities of 95-99% and 3) lava flows with bubble contents as high as 70-80%. We use bubble textures to explore the origins of these three distinct foams. With these data and the observation that all three foam types can erupt simultaneously, we discuss the dynamics of Hawaiian eruptions. Our main focus is reticulite, which is a minor but ubiquitous product of relatively high Hawaiian fountains. Compared to scoria, reticulite is more vesicular and has a larger mean bubble size and a much more uniform bubble size distribution. It was previously suggested that reticulite results from further expansion of hot scoria foam. However, to form reticulite from scoria requires not only that gas expand faster than it can percolate through bubble networks in scoria, but also requires processes such as Ostwald ripening that will reduce the range of bubble sizes. Such processes commonly occur in the formation of polygonal soap foams for instance. However, we suggest that a better analogue for reticulite formation is popcorn. In particular we propose that reticulite did not evolve from scoria but from magma that experienced (1) near-instantaneous bubble nucleation followed by (2) rapid and uniform expansion to generate (3) a polyhedral 'dry' foam that then (4) experienced near-instantaneous film rupture and quenching throughout the foam. In contrast, it seems that there are other parts of the system where bubble nucleation is not instantaneous and yields a broader size distribution of bubbles that expand more slowly, maintain spherical shapes, and become permeable through coalescence of small melt films between spherical bubble walls. We suggest that reticulite only forms in relatively high fire fountains, not because of longer

  14. Eruption dynamics of Hawaiian-style fountains: the case study of episode 1 of the Kīlauea Iki 1959 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, Wendy K.; Houghton, B. F.; Gonnermann, H.; Fagents, S. A.; Swanson, D. A.

    2011-07-01

    Hawaiian eruptions are characterized by fountains of gas and ejecta, sustained for hours to days that reach tens to hundreds of meters in height. Quantitative analysis of the pyroclastic products from the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Iki, Kīlauea volcano, Hawai`i, provides insights into the processes occurring during typical Hawaiian fountaining activity. This short-lived but powerful eruption contained 17 fountaining episodes and produced a cone and tephra blanket as well as a lava lake that interacted with the vent and fountain during all but the first episode of the eruption, the focus of this paper. Microtextural analysis of Hawaiian fountaining products from this opening episode is used to infer vesiculation processes within the fountain and shallow conduit. Vesicle number densities for all clasts are high (106-107 cm-3). Post-fragmentation expansion of bubbles within the thermally-insulated fountain overprints the pre-fragmentation bubble populations, leading to a reduction in vesicle number density and increase in mean vesicle size. However, early quenched rims of some clasts, with vesicle number densities approaching 107 cm-3, are probably a valid approximation to magma conditions near fragmentation. The extent of clast evolution from low vesicle-to-melt ratio and corresponding high vesicle number density to higher vesicle-to-melt ratio and lower vesicle-number density corresponds to the length of residence time within the fountain.

  15. The Effects of Crossflow on the Pressures and Lift Induced by the Fountain Generated Between Two Impinging Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    When a jet STOVL aircraft is hovering, or in a crossflow, while close to the ground wall jets flowing radially outward from the impingement points of the jets are generated. An upflow, or fountain, is generated where the wall jets from adjacent jets meet on the ground surface. The induced lift and suckdown generated by the impingement of the fountain on the lower surface of the configuration has been the subject of previous studies. This study analyzes the limited available pressure and force data on the effect of crossflow on the fountain induced lift and suckdown. The analysis includes the effects of jet spacing, height and operating conditions. However, it is limited to twin jet configurations of circular, vertical jets operating at subcritical nozzle pressure ratios over a fixed ground surface.

  16. The Fountain Hills Meteorite: A New CB(a) Chondrite from Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Killgore, M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Franchi, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    The CR clan of meteorites has been established and a detailed review of these meteorites is presented. There are several kinds of carbonaceous chondrites included in this clan: Carbonaceous Renazzo-like (CR), Carbonaceous with High metal (CH), Carbonaceous Bencubbin-like (CB), and LEW 85332, a unique-metal rich meteorite. The CB chondrites are further divided into two subgroups: CB(sub a) and CB(sub b). Here we describe a new member of the CR chondrite clan, Fountain Hills, a recent find with a total mass of approximately 60 g.

  17. Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    1989-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

  18. Evaluation of Doppler shifts to improve the accuracy of primary atomic fountain clocks.

    PubMed

    Guéna, Jocelyne; Li, Ruoxin; Gibble, Kurt; Bize, Sébastien; Clairon, André

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate agreement between measurements and ab initio calculations of the frequency shifts caused by distributed cavity phase variations in the microwave cavity of a primary atomic fountain clock. Experimental verification of the finite element models of the cavities gives the first quantitative evaluation of this leading uncertainty and allows it to be reduced to δν/ν=±8.4×10(-17). Applying these experimental techniques to clocks with improved microwave cavities will yield negligible distributed cavity phase uncertainties, less than ±1×10(-17).

  19. Equatorial plasma fountain and its effects over three locations: Evidence for an additional layer, the F3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Bailey, G. J.; Abdu, M. A.; Oyama, K. I.; Richards, P. G.; MacDougall, J.; Batista, I. S.

    1997-02-01

    The equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly in the ionospheres over Jicamarca (77°W), Trivandrum (77°E), and Fortaleza (38°W) are presented using the Sheffield University plasmasphere-ionosphere model under magnetically quiet equinoctial conditions at high solar activity. The daytime plasma fountain and its effects in the regions outside the fountain lead to the formation of an additional layer, the F3 layer, at latitudes within about plus or minus 10° of the magnetic equator in each ionosphere. The maximum plasma concentration of the F3 layer, which occurs at about 550 km altitude, becomes greater than that of the F2 layer for a short period of time before noon when the vertical E×B drift is large. Within the F3 layer the plasma temperature decreases by as much as 100 K. The ionograms recorded at Fortaleza on January 15, 1995, provide observational evidence for the development and decay of an F3 layer before noon. The neutral wind, which causes large north-south asymmetries in the plasma fountain in each ionosphere during both daytime and nighttime, becomes least effective during the prereversal strengthening of the upward drift. During this time the plasma fountain is symmetrical with respect to the magnetic equator and rises to over 1200 km altitude at the equator, with accompanying plasma density depletions in the bottomside of the underlying F region. The north-south asymmetries of the equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly are more strongly dependent upon the displacement of the geomagnetic and geographic equators (Jicamarca and Trivandrum) than on the magnetic declination angle (Fortaleza).

  20. Measurement of the magnetic field profile in the atomic fountain clock FoCS-2 using Zeeman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devenoges, Laurent; Di Domenico, Gianni; Stefanov, André; Jallageas, Antoine; Morel, Jacques; Südmeyer, Thomas; Thomann, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    We report the evaluation of the second-order Zeeman shift in the continuous atomic fountain clock FoCS-2. Because of its continuous operation and geometrical constraints, the methods used in pulsed fountains are not applicable. We use here time-resolved Zeeman spectroscopy to probe the magnetic field profile in the clock. Pulses of ac magnetic excitation allow us to spatially resolve the Zeeman frequency and to evaluate the Zeeman shift with a relative uncertainty smaller than 5× {{10}-16} .

  1. The Application of LT-Table in TRIZ Contradiction Resolving Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zihui; Li, Qinghai; Wang, Donglin; Tian, Yumei

    TRIZ is used to resolve invention problems. ARIZ is the most powerful systematic method which integrates all of TRIZ heuristics. Definition of ideal final result (IFR), identification of contradictions and resource utilization are main lines of ARIZ. But resource searching of ARIZ has fault of blindness. Alexandr sets up mathematical model of transformation of the hereditary information in an invention problem using the theory of catastrophes, and provides method of resource searching using LT-table. The application of LT-table on contradiction resolving is introduced. Resource utilization using LT-table is joined into ARIZ step as an addition of TRIZ, apply this method in separator paper punching machine design.

  2. Evidences of increasing primary production in the ocean by Stommel's perpetual salt fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Shigenao; Yabuki, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuya; Tsubaki, Koutaro; Komiya, Atsuki; Watanabe, Mikihito; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2011-05-01

    The American physical oceanographer Henry Stommel and co-workers proposed "the perpetual salt fountain" and suggested the possibility of upwelling deep seawater without an energy source. In the open ocean, deep seawater containing rich nutrients becomes a source of primary production. Previously, we have tested Stommel's hypothesis by numerical simulations and in ocean experiments, and confirmed the upwelling of a perpetual salt fountain. In the present study, we conducted an open-ocean experiment in the Philippines Sea, and succeeded to demonstrate an increase in chlorophyll concentration. The chlorophyll concentration at the pipe outlet was much greater than that in the surrounding seawater. Satellite ocean-color image around the pipe was analyzed, and the signal of artificial upwelling is investigated. Composite analysis of satellite chlorophyll image indicates an increased surface chlorophyll distribution in the vicinity of pipe position, in which the increasing signal is much larger than the expected production based on nutrient supply. Although the problem must be further discussed, this increased signal is shown to be statistically significant. This mechanism may contribute to effective utilization of fishery resources in subtropical oligotrophic region.

  3. Outbreak of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis associated with a neighborhood interactive water fountain--Florida, 2006.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Leah; Bodager, Dean; Ginzl, Dawn

    2008-10-01

    An outbreak of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis was identified in central Florida in September 2006. Environmental and epidemiological investigations indicated the likely source was a neighborhood interactive water fountain in a large upscale urban neighborhood. Forty-nine cases meeting the case definition were identified, of which 38 were giardiasis, nine were cryptosporidiosis, and two were co-infections. The median age of those affected was four years old, and 32 (65.3%) cases were male. This outbreak and other similar occurrences highlight the need to design and implement more stringent disinfection practices and filtration requirements for treated interactive water venues. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts are small and chlorine-resistant, and they may require supplemental disinfection methods, such as ultraviolet light irradiation, ozonation, or chlorine dioxide. Individuals who use these types of venues also need to change their behavior to prevent disease transmission. This is the first documentation of a giardiasis outbreak associated with exposure to an interactive water fountain in the United States.

  4. A User's Manual for ROTTILT Solver: Tiltrotor Fountain Flow Field Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadghighi, Hormoz; Rajagopalan, R. Ganesh

    1999-01-01

    A CFD solver has been developed to provide the time averaged details of the fountain flow typical for tiltrotor aircraft in hover. This Navier-Stokes solver, designated as ROTTILT, assumes the 3-D fountain flowfield to be steady and incompressible. The theoretical background is described in this manual. In order to enable the rotor trim solution in the presence of tiltrotor aircraft components such as wing, nacelle, and fuselage, the solver is coupled with a set of trim routines which are highly efficient in CPU and suitable for CFD analysis. The Cartesian grid technique utilized provides the user with a unique capability for insertion or elimination of any components of the bodies considered for a given tiltrotor aircraft configuration. The flowfield associated with either a semi or full-span configuration can be computed through user options in the ROTTILT input file. Full details associated with the numerical solution implemented in ROTTILT and assumptions are presented. A description of input surface mesh topology is provided in the appendices along with a listing of all preprocessor programs. Input variable definitions and default values are provided for the V22 aircraft. Limited predicted results using the coupled ROTTILT/WOPWOP program for the V22 in hover are made and compared with measurement. To visualize the V22 aircraft and predictions, a preprocessor graphics program GNU-PLOT3D was used. This program is described and example graphic results presented.

  5. Shrinking galaxy disks with fountain-driven accretion from the halo

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Struck, Curtis; Hunter, Deidre A. E-mail: curt@iastate.edu

    2014-12-01

    Star formation in most galaxies requires cosmic gas accretion because the gas consumption time is short compared to the Hubble time. This accretion presumably comes from a combination of infalling satellite debris, cold flows, and condensation of hot halo gas at the cool disk interface, perhaps aided by a galactic fountain. In general, the accretion will have a different specific angular momentum than the part of the disk that receives it, even if the gas comes from the nearby halo. The gas disk then expands or shrinks over time. Here we show that condensation of halo gas at a rate proportional to the star formation rate in the fountain model will preserve an initial shape, such as an exponential, with a shrinking scale length, leaving behind a stellar disk with a slightly steeper profile of younger stars near the center. This process is slow for most galaxies, producing imperceptible radial speeds, and it may be dominated by other torques, but it could be important for blue compact dwarfs, which tend to have large, irregular gas reservoirs and steep blue profiles in their inner stellar disks.

  6. Extracellular plant DNA in Geneva groundwater and traditional artesian drinking water fountains.

    PubMed

    Poté, John; Mavingui, Patrick; Navarro, Elisabeth; Rosselli, Walter; Wildi, Walter; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2009-04-01

    DNA, as the signature of life, has been extensively studied in a wide range of environments. While DNA analysis has become central to work on natural gene exchange, forensic analyses, soil bioremediation, genetically modified organisms, exobiology, and palaeontology, fundamental questions about DNA resistance to degradation remain. This paper investigated on the presence of plant DNA in groundwater and artesian fountain (groundwater-fed) samples, which relates to the movement and persistence of DNA in the environment. The study was performed in the groundwater and in the fountains, which are considered as a traditional artesian drinking water in Geneva Champagne Basin. DNA from water samples was extracted, analysed and quantified. Plant gene sequences were detected using PCR amplification based on 18S rRNA gene primers specific for eukaryotes. Physicochemical parameters of water samples including temperature, pH, conductivity, organic matter, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured throughout the study. The results revealed that important quantities of plant DNA can be found in the groundwater. PCR amplification based on 18S rDNA, cloning, RFLP analysis and sequencing demonstrated the presence of plant DNA including Vitis rupestris, Vitis berlandieri, Polygonum sp. Soltis, Boopis graminea, and Sinapis alba in the water samples. Our observations support the notion of plant DNA release, long-term persistence and movement in the unsaturated medium as well as in groundwater aquifers.

  7. ALMA Reveals a Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A new ALMA observation of the cool core brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597 reveals that a supermassive black hole can act much like a mechanical pump in a water fountain, driving a convective flow of molecular gas that drains into the black hole accretion reservoir, only to be pushed outward again in a jet-driven outflow that then rains back toward the galaxy center from which it came. The ALMA data reveal "shadows" cast by giant molecular clouds falling on ballistic trajectories towards the black hole in the innermost 500 parsecs of the galaxy, manifesting as deep redshifted continuum absorption features. The black hole accretion reservoir, fueled by these infalling cold clouds, powers an AGN that drives a jet-driven molecular outflow in the form of a 10 kpc-scale, billion solar mass expanding molecular bubble or plume. The molecular shell is permeated with young stars, perhaps triggered in situ by the jet. Buoyant X-ray cavities excavated by the propagating radio source may further uplift the molecular filaments, which are observed to fall inward toward the center of the galaxy from which they came, presumably keeping the fountain long-lived. The results show that cold molecular gas can couple to black hole growth via both feedback and feeding, in alignment with "cold chaotic accretion" models for the regulation of star formation in galaxies.

  8. Tephra fountaining, rheomorphism, and spatter flow during emplacement of the Pitigliano Tuffs, Latera caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbeville, B. N.

    1992-11-01

    Toward the end of the main ash-flow phase (ca. 156 ka) of the Latera caldera, central Italy, explosive eruptions near the NW caldera rim produced coarse-grained tephra exposed in > 35 m high faces of the Toscapomice (Casa Collina) quarry. The pyroclastic sequence fills a narrow SW-NE paleovalley and records the near-continuous eruption of a compositionally zoned magma batch. White phonolitic pumice clasts abruptly grade upward to, and partly intrude, black spatter-like pumice fragments, also of phonolite composition. This sequence, in turn, is overlain by densely welded tuff that grades upward to tephriphonolitic scoriae and ash. The upper welded part of this sequence—referred to as the "Vulcanite Complessa di Pitigliano"—has long been among the more enigmatic deposits in the Latera area. This sequence displays evidence for both fall and flow emplacement, and is here interpreted as an ash fountain-fed deposit that locally welded as spatter, yet became sufficiently fluidized in distal parts to behave as a spatter-rich pyroclastic flow. This mechanism requires that the eruption underwent abrupt transition from a vigorously convecting column to a weakly convecting ash fountain, and that this period of explosive activity culminated with unusually high accumulation rates. The rapidly emplaced tephra retained sufficient heat to weld by compaction and undergo rheomorphism close to the vent, yet contained high enough proportions of fluidized dust to have flowed outward along the northern caldera rim and, eventually, to have welded by vapor-phase sintering.

  9. The First Water Fountain in a Planetary Nebula with Synchrotron Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, O.; Gómez, J. F.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Miranda, L. F.; Guerrero, M. A.; Uscanga, L.; Green, J. A.; Rizzo, J. R.; Ramos-Larios, G.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) show a great variety of morphologies at optical wavelengths that might be due to the effects of jets (Sahai & Trauger [8]) and where magnetic fields might also play an important role. The special class of "water fountain" stars, showing high-velocity, collimated jets traced by water maser emission are key objects to understand the transition to the PN phase and the effect of the jets. IRAS 15103-5754 has been revealed as the youngest PN known, caught just at its birth. It is the first PN that shows water fountain characteristics (Gómez et al. [5]), and it shows, for the first time, direct evidence of the presence of synchrotron emission in a PN, tracing energetic, magnetized shocks (Suárez et al. [9]). Moreover, we observed a sudden change in the spectral distribution of its radio continuum emission, which marks the fast, recent passage of the ionization front over the radio-emitting region (Suárez et al. [9]).

  10. Fire Fountains At Etna Volcano: What Do We Learn From Acoustic Measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniolle, S.

    Acoustic measurements were performed on Etna volcano (Italy) in July 2001, during two episodes of quasi fire fountains. They last about 4 h, are separated by quiet peri- ods of a few days and consist in a serie of explosions, whose intermittency increases in time from several minutes to several seconds. The waveform of every explosion is very similar to explosions at Stromboli, suggesting that the sound at Etna is also pro- duced by bursting large bubbles. The model for bubble vibration, at work at Stromboli, gives a very good fit between data and theory. When the eruptive episode reaches its climax, a bubble at Etna has a radius of 5 m, a length of 8 m for an overpressure of 0.39 MPa. Rising large expanding bubbles in a conduit distorts the top of the lava column and sloshing waves can be produced. The theoretical frequency is between 0.3 and 0.7 Hz for a radius of 5 m. Recorded acoustic pressure shows these frequen- cies. Their intensity is directly correlated to the intensity for bubble bursting (2 Hz), showing that frequencies between 0.3 Hz and 0.7 Hz are sloshing waves in a conduit radius of 5 m. Furthermore if the source of sound is monopole, gas and ejecta ve- locity is estimated at 92 m/s during episode climax, assuming a conduit radius of 5 m. Simultaneous measurements done with a radar produce exactly the same estimate [Duboclard et al., 2001]. The very good agreement between the synthetic waveform, the theoretical sloshing waves and the estimate of gas velocity shows that fire foun- tains at Etna correspond to a serie of bursting bubbles of radius 5 m, colliding during its climax to form an inner gas jet. The alternance between fire fountains and quiet periods is totally similar between Etna and Kilauea volcanoes (Hawaii). Therefore fire fountains at Etna might also be generated at depth by coalescence of a foam layer trapped at the top of the magma chamber. The total gas volume released by one fire fountain is equal to 7.4 × 106 m3 and has been

  11. Remediation scenarios for attenuating peak flows and reducing sediment transport in Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohn, Michael S.; Fulton, John W.; Williams, Cory A.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Fountain Creek Watershed, Flood Control and Greenway District assessed remediation scenarios to attenuate peak flows and reduce sediment loads in the Fountain Creek watershed. To evaluate these strategies, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) hydrologic and hydraulic models were employed. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Modeling System) version 3.5 was used to simulate runoff in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, associated with storms of varying magnitude and duration. Rain-gage precipitation data and radar-based precipitation data from the April 28–30, 1999, and September 14–15, 2011, storm events were used in the calibration process for the HEC-HMS model. The curve number and lag time for each subwatershed and Manning's roughness coefficients for each channel reach were adjusted within an acceptable range so that the simulated and measured streamflow hydrographs for each of the 12 USGS streamgages approximated each other. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC-RAS (River Analysis System) versions 4.1 and 4.2 were used to simulate streamflow and sediment transport, respectively, for the Fountain Creek watershed generated by a particular storm event. Data from 15 USGS streamgages were used for model calibration and 7 of those USGS streamgages were used for model validation. The calibration process consisted of comparing the simulated water-surface elevations and the cross-section-averaged velocities from the model with those surveyed in the field at the cross section at the corresponding 15 and 7 streamgages, respectively. The final Manning’s roughness coefficients were adjusted between –30 and 30 percent at the 15 calibration streamgages from the original left, right, and channel-averaged Manning's roughness coefficients upon completion of calibration. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC

  12. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Grasielli; Simão, Daniel H; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Souza, Richard D; Jamhour, Edgard; Penna, Manoel C; Brante, Glauber; Chang, Bruno S

    2017-03-31

    Underwater acoustic networks (UAN) allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC) codes and fountain codes (FC) for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  14. LT1SWTR Form for Conventional or Direct Filtration 10K

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The LT1SWTR monthly report for turbidity and disinfection data contains the Daily Data Sheet for Combined Filter Effluent (CFE) Turbidity, Disinfectant Residual Data, and Individual Filter (IF) Turbidity Monitoring data.

  15. Merit Pay in Arkansas: An Evaluation of the Cobra Pride Incentive Program in the Fountain Lake School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Nathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Starting in the 2010-11, administrators at the Fountain Lake School District implemented the Cobra Pride Incentive Program (CPIP), a merit pay program designed to financially reward all school employees with year-end bonuses primarily for significant improvements in student achievement. At the conclusion of the 2010-11 school year, over $800,000…

  16. Identification and dating of the fountain pen ink entries on documents by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Feng; Yu, Jing; Xie, Meng-Xia; Yao, Ya-Tong; Han, Jie

    2008-08-25

    A novel approach for the identification and dating of the fountain pen ink entries on paper has been established by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC). Twelve black and six red fountain inks have been collected, and their ink entries have been prepared by drawing lines on paper. The chromatographic conditions for separation of their dye components after extraction with solvents were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the 18 fountain pen inks were differentiated individually by comparing the number of detectable main or minor dye components, and the relative peak intensities of each component. The ink entries were artificially and naturally aged, and the analysis results showed that the ink dye components were significantly decomposed when exposed to UV or fluorescent light compare to those of inks stored under natural condition. The changes of the relative peak height for the dye components were linearly related to the aging time, especially under natural aging conditions. The degradation characteristics of the dye components under different aging conditions provide scientific evidences for dating of the suspicious fountain pen ink entries on document.

  17. Merit Pay in Arkansas: An Evaluation of the Cobra Pride Incentive Program in the Fountain Lake School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Nathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Starting in the 2010-11, administrators at the Fountain Lake School District implemented the Cobra Pride Incentive Program (CPIP), a merit pay program designed to financially reward all school employees with year-end bonuses primarily for significant improvements in student achievement. At the conclusion of the 2010-11 school year, over $800,000…

  18. Lava fountaining and vent morphology analyzed at the 2014 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland, by video monitoring and topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.; Müller, Daniel; Schöpa, Anne; Steinke, Bastian; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.

    2017-04-01

    Fissure eruptions are commonly linked to magma at depth and lava fountaining at the surface. Shortly after the onset of eruptive activity, erupting fissures begin to focus their activity at distinct vents, resulting in the formation of morphological craters shaping the sites of the eruption. A detailed analysis of the morphological development during fissure eruptions and the link to the lava fountain activity has not been conducted in large detail so far. To analyze the lava fountains in height and venting activity and compare that to the vent morphology, we used videos recorded from different locations at a distance up to 2 km during the first few days of the 2014 main Holuhraun eruption, Iceland. The videos have lengths of up to 2 hours and focus on the main eruptive vents. To investigate the morphology of the developing craters after the eruption in detail, a fieldwork mapping project combining terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based aerophoto analysis was realized in summer 2015. From the data, we generated a locally high-resolution digital elevation model by structure from motion (SfM) at the eruptive vents. We found that at the locations of highest venting activity the lava spatters formed craters during the very initial phase of the eruption of 4 days. Comparison to post-eruptive topography shows that the craters remain similar in shape, but increase in size as the eruption progressed. Therefore, the remaining morphology is mostly conditioned in the beginning of the eruption. Furthermore, the smaller craters of Sudri show distinct lava fountains, which are much smaller and thinner than the ones from the bigger Baugur crater. Comparably, the activity of the lava fountains is a little bit lower at Sudri. The Baugur crater is the locus of several high lava fountains, which slightly move in location by up to 20 m and intertwine/overlap each other. This might be due to the presence of the large lava lake at the Baugur crater. In

  19. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain shows protective effects against the B. anthracis LT toxin.

    PubMed

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Rampal, Patrick; Peyron, Jean-François; Munro, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Czerucka, Dorota

    2015-10-30

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  20. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Strain Shows Protective Effects against the B. anthracis LT Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Rampal, Patrick; Peyron, Jean-François; Munro, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Czerucka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax. PMID:26529015

  1. A novel formulation of L-thyroxine (L-T4) reduces the problem of L-T4 malabsorption by coffee observed with traditional tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Vita, Roberto; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate if the coffee-associated malabsorption of tablet levothyroxine (L-T4) is reduced by soft gel capsule. We recruited 8 patients with coffee-associated L-T4 malabsorption including one hypothyroid patient. For 6 months, the patients were switched to the capsule maintaining the L-T4 daily dose. Patients took the capsule with water, having coffee 1 h later (proper habit, PH) on days 1-90, or with coffee ≤ 5 min later (improper habit, IH) on days 91-180. After 6 months, 2 patients volunteered for an acute loading test of 600 μg L-T4 (capsule) ingested with water (PH) or with coffee (IH). In the single hypothyroid patient, the post-switch TSH ranged 0.06-0.16 mU/L (PH) versus 5.8-22.4 mU/L pre-switch (PH) and 0.025-0.29 mU/L (IH) versus 26-34 mU/L pre-switch (IH). In the other 7 patients, post-switch TSH was 0.41 ± 0.46 (PH) versus 0.28 ± 0.20 pre-switch (PH) (P = 0.61) and 0.34 ± 0.30 (IH) versus 1.23 ± 1.47 pre-switch (IH) (P < 0.001). Importantly, TSH levels in PH versus IH habit did not differ post-switch (P = 0.90), but they did pre-switch (P < 0.0001). The proportions of post-switch TSH levels <0.10 mU/L with PH (33.3 %) or with IH (33.3 %) were borderline significantly greater than the corresponding pre-switch levels with PH (10.3 %) (P = 0.088) or with IH (0 %) (P = 0.0096). In the two volunteers, the L-T4 loading test showed that coffee influenced L-T4 pharmacokinetics minimally. Soft gel capsules can be used in patients who are unable/unwilling to change their IH of taking L-T4.

  2. Temporal change in biological community structure in the Fountain Creek basin, Colorado, 2001-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to better understand the relations between environmental characteristics and biological communities in the Fountain Creek basin in order to aide water-resource management and guide future monitoring activities. To accomplish this task, environmental (streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) and biological (fish and macroinvertebrate) data were collected annually at 24 sites over a 6- or 8-year period (fish, 2003 to 2008; macroinvertebrates, 2001 to 2008). For this report, these data were first analyzed to determine the presence of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure among years using nonparametric multivariate statistics. Where temporal change in the biological communities was found, these data were further analyzed using additional nonparametric multivariate techniques to determine which subset of selected streamflow, habitat, or water-chemistry variables best described site-specific changes in community structure relative to a gradient of urbanization. This study identified significant directional patterns of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure at 15 of 24 sites in the Fountain Creek basin. At four of these sites, changes in environmental variables were significantly correlated with the concurrent temporal change identified in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure (Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Monument Creek at Bijou Street at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Bear Creek near Colorado Springs, Colo.; Fountain Creek at Security, Colo.). Combinations of environmental variables describing directional temporal change in the biota appeared to be site specific as no single variable dominated the results; however, substrate composition variables (percent substrate composition composed of sand, gravel, or cobble) collectively were present in 80 percent of the environmental

  3. Modeling ash dispersal of the 23 February 2013 Etna lava fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poret, Matthieu; Costa, Antonio; Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Gouhier, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    Most plumes generated by explosive eruptions from Mt. Etna, Italy, are affected by winds towards East driving volcanic ash over the sea. It implies that erupted tephra can be collected only at proximal area around the volcano, i.e. within 20-25 km. It follows that the quantification of fine ash component and the Total Grain Size Distribution (TGSD) are very difficult and highly uncertain. Among the five lava fountain episodes occurred on the New South-East Crater of Mt. Etna, from the 17 to 23 February 2013, the 23 February paroxysmal phase lasted 1 hour and produced magma jets higher than 500 m and an eruptive plume that reached ~9 km above sea level. Winds oriented toward North-East advected the plume and produced an extended tephra fallout deposit from the slope of Etna up to Puglia region (~ 400 km from the volcano), allowing lapilli and ash to be sampled at different locations. Here, we first estimate the TGSD and the fine ash content associated to 12 samples collected after the paroxysmal episode over the entire tephra blanket. The TGSD is compared with the one related to the 12-13 January 2011 lava fountain showing a similar distribution with a mode around phi = -3. Satellite data describing the evolution of PM10 from the vent up to Calabria region were used to quantify the tail of the distribution and the fraction of the very fine ash. In order to reproduce both the field and spaceborne (MSG-SEVIRI) observations we simulated the tephra dispersal using the computational model Fall3D after modifying the TGSD by adding the fine ash component empirically. A set of simulations allowed us to assess key volcanological parameters such as the column height, the mass distribution within the plume and the effective TGSD. Best fit results indicate a Mass Eruption Rate around 1.0d+6 kg/s, a Total Erupted Mass of about 3.8d+9 kg and a PM10 fraction of ~0.73% respect to the total mass. Results lead the 23 February 2013 lava fountain episode as one of the most intense in

  4. Reticulite‐producing fountains from ring fractures in Kīlauea Caldera ca. 1500 CE: Chapter 16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Michael; Carey, Rebecca J.; Swanson, Don; Houghton, Bruce F.; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A widely dispersed reticulite bed occurs close to the base of the Keanakākoʻi Tephra at Kīlauea Volcano. It can be divided into six subunits in the northern sector of the volcano; the reticulite also occurs in the southern sector, but outcrops are sparse owing to penecontemporaneous erosion and burial. Multilobate isopachs for each subunit and the total deposit suggest that multiple fountaining vents were distributed in the northern half of the caldera, possibly along ring fractures for the newly formed caldera. Isopach maps also show a sharp decline in thickness along the dispersal axis of each lobe, which could be explained by remobilization of tephra and/or inclined fountains. Despite such isopach characteristics, thinning rates calculated from the isopach data indicate that the fountains were among the most intense and powerful of all studied Kīlauea fountains. Density analyses of the pyroclasts suggest that fountaining was high (>600m) yet complex, possibly due to lava ponding and reentrainment. The calculated volume of the reticulite deposited around the caldera rim is approximately 0.2km3, more voluminous than the deposits of the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption; this volume is a minimum, however, as the low-density tephra is easily remobilized, and 600m high caldera walls probably trapped tephra within the caldera, which is deeply buried today and not accounted for in the volume calculations. The duration of this eruption was most likely at least a few days to weeks, based on the calculated volume and estimated discharge rates as seen during the Kīlauea Iki 1959 eruption.

  5. [UV-inducibility of the LT-toxin operon].

    PubMed

    Tiganova, I G; Rusina, O Iu; Andreeva, I V; Demkin, V V; Brukhanskiĭ, G V; Aleshkin, G I; Skavronskaia, A G

    1989-07-01

    The plasmid elt-operon pVZ14 was constructed by fusing of the eltoperon of the plasmid pVZ357 with the lac-gene of the bacteriophage Mud1 (Amp, Lac). lacZ gene has been proven to be fused with an elt-promoter by the loss of toxin production coded by pVZ357 and acquiring of Lac+ phenotype by pVZ14 containing cells, as well as by HindIII fragments hybridization of pVZ357 and pVZ14 with the labelled elt-probe. The kinetics of beta-galactosidase synthesis in E. coli cells harboring pVZ14 shows an elt-operon promoter to have expressed constitutive activity and to be activated by a SOS-inducing agent, UV-light.

  6. Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, M.; Dutta, I.; Geiger, R.; Guerlin, C.; Garrido Alzar, C. L.; Landragin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows one to achieve the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a microwave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

  7. Suckdown, fountain lift, and pressures induced on several tandem jet V/STOL configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellavia, David C.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a program to improve the methods for predicting the suckdown and hot gas ingestion for jet V/STOL aircraft in ground effect, a data base is being created that provides a systematic variation of parameters so that a new empirical prediction procedure can be developed. The first series of tests in this program was completed. Suckdown, fountain lift, and pressures induced on several two-jet V/STOL configurations are described. It is one of three reports that present the data obtained from tests conducted at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems-Rye Canyon Facility and in the High Bay area of the 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel complex at NASA Ames Research Center.

  8. SEM observation of p-n junction in semiconductors using fountain secondary electron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Takashi; Kimura, Takashi; Iwai, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    When we observe a p-n junction in a certain semiconductors using scanning electron microscope, it is known that the p-type region is brighter than n-type region in secondary electron (SE) image. To clarify this origin, the p-n junctions in 4H-SiC was observed using fountain secondary electron detector (FSED). The original FSED image shows brighter p-region than n-region, which is similar to the SE image taken by Everhart-Thonley detector, mainly due to the background component of SE signal. By subtracting the background, the line profiles of FSED signal across p-n junction have been recorded according to the SE energies. These profiles may include the detailed information of p-n junction.

  9. Darcy's Public Fountains of the City of Dijon, Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobeck, P.; Ritzi, R. W.; Bair, E. S.

    2006-12-01

    Les Fountaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon (Darcy, 1856) is well known for introducing the equation of ground-water motion. The monograph is a summary of Darcy's career-long study of hydraulics including water flow in canals, aqueducts, pipes, sand filters, and ground-water wells. He presented his knowledge in these areas in reviewing his construction of the public water supply system for Dijon, a system completed in 1840. The authors have recently traveled the length of Darcy's aqueduct system from its source at Rosoir spring, to the Porte Guillaume reservoir (at Jardin Darcy as it enters Dijon), through the city, to the terminal reservoir. We present the state of Darcy's original aqueduct (no longer in use) and public water supply system, and compare his design to the modern public water supply system serving Dijon.

  10. Magma mixing and high fountaining during the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sides, I.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, Don; Steele-MacInnis, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption provides a unique opportunity to investigate the process of shallow magma mixing, its impact on the magmatic volatile budget and its role in triggering and driving episodes of Hawaiian fountaining. Melt inclusions hosted by olivine record a continuous decrease in H2O concentration through the 17 episodes of the eruption, while CO2 concentrations correlate with the degree of post-entrapment crystallization of olivine on the inclusion walls. Geochemical data, when combined with the magma budget and with contemporaneous eruption observations, show complex mixing between episodes involving hot, geochemically heterogeneous melts from depth, likely carrying exsolved vapor, and melts which had erupted at the surface, degassed and drained-back into the vent. The drained-back melts acted as a coolant, inducing rapid cooling of the more primitive melts and their olivines at shallow depths and inducing crystallization and vesiculation and triggering renewed fountaining. A consequence of the mixing is that the melts became vapor-undersaturated, so equilibration pressures cannot be inferred from them using saturation models. After the melt inclusions were trapped, continued growth of vapor bubbles, caused by enhanced post-entrapment crystallization, sequestered a large fraction of CO2 from the melt within the inclusions. This study, while cautioning against accepting melt inclusion CO2 concentrations “as measured” in mixed magmas, also illustrates that careful analysis and interpretation of post-entrapment modifications can turn this apparent challenge into a way to yield novel useful insights into the geochemical controls on eruption intensity.

  11. Obscuring Fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei: Implications from Radiation-driven Fountain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction fobs for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, fobs for NH ≥ 1022 cm-2 increases from ˜0.2 to ˜0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity LX in the LX = 1042-44 erg s-1 range, but fobs becomes small (˜0.4) above a luminosity (˜1045 erg s-1). The behaviors of fobs can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given LAGN, fobs is always smaller (˜0.2-0.3) for a larger column density (NH ≥ 1023 cm-2). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  12. OBSCURING FRACTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: IMPLICATIONS FROM RADIATION-DRIVEN FOUNTAIN MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction f{sub obs} for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, f{sub obs} for N{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2} increases from ∼0.2 to ∼0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} in the L{sub X} = 10{sup 42–44} erg s{sup −1} range, but f{sub obs} becomes small (∼0.4) above a luminosity (∼10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1}). The behaviors of f{sub obs} can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given L{sub AGN}, f{sub obs} is always smaller (∼0.2–0.3) for a larger column density (N{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  13. Bioaccumulation of selenium by the Bryophyte Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the Fountain Creek Watershed, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S J; Turner, J A; Carsella, J S; Lehmpuhl, D W; Nimmo, D R

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic bryophytes, Hygrohypnum ochraceum, were deployed "in situ" at 14 sites in the Fountain Creek Watershed, spring and fall, 2007 to study selenium (Se) accumulation. Dissolved, total, and pore (sediment derived) water samples were collected and water quality parameters determined while plants were exposed to the water for 10 days. There was a trend showing plant tissue-Se uptake with distance downstream and we found a strong correlation between Se in the water with total hardness in both seasons. There was a modest association between Se-uptake in plants with hardness in the spring of 2007 but not the fall. Plants bioconcentrated Se from the water by a factor of 5.8 × 10(3) at Green Mountain Falls and 1.5 × 10(4) at Manitou Springs in the fall of 2007. Both are examples of the bioconcentration abilities of the plants, primarily in the upper reaches of the watershed where bioconcentration factors were highest. However, the mean minima and maxima of Se in the plants in each of the three watershed segments appeared similar during both seasons. We found direct relationships between the pore and dissolved Se in water in the spring (R (2) = 0.84) and fall (R (2) = 0.95) and dissolved Se and total hardness in the spring and fall (R (2) = 0.92). The data indicate that H. ochraceum was a suitable indicator of Se bioavailability and Se uptake in other trophic levels in the Fountain Creek Watershed based on a subsequent study of Se accumulation in fish tissues at all 14 sites.

  14. Strong ambipolar-driven ion upflow within the cleft ion fountain during low geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yangyang; Knudsen, David J.; Burchill, Johnathan K.; Howarth, Andrew; Yau, Andrew; Redmon, Robert J.; Miles, David M.; Varney, Roger H.; Nicolls, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate low-energy (<10 eV) ion upflows (mainly O+) within the cleft ion fountain (CIF) using conjunctions of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite, the DMSP F16 satellite, the SuperDARN radar, and the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar North (RISR-N). The SEI instrument on board e-POP enables us to derive ion upflow velocities from the 2-D images of ion distribution functions with a frame rate of 100 images per second, and with a velocity resolution of the order of 25 m/s. We identify three cleft ion fountain events with very intense (>1.6 km/s) ion upflow velocities near 1000 km altitude during quiet geomagnetic activity (Kp < 3). Such large ion upflow velocities have been reported previously at or below 1000 km, but only during active periods. Analysis of the core ion distribution images allows us to demonstrate that the ion temperature within the CIF does not rise by more than 0.3 eV relative to background values, which is consistent with RISR-N observations in the F region. The presence of soft electron precipitation seen by DMSP and lack of significant ion heating indicate that the ion upflows we observe near 1000 km altitude are primarily driven by ambipolar electric fields. DC field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection velocity gradients accompany these events. The strongest ion upflows are associated with downward current regions, which is consistent with some (although not all) previously published results. The moderate correlation coefficient (0.51) between upflow velocities and currents implies that FACs serve as indirect energy inputs to the ion upflow process.

  15. Mercury and selenium in fish of Fountain Creek, Colorado (USA): possible sources and implications.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, D R; Herrmann, S J; Carsella, J S; McGarvy, C M; Foutz, H P; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Gregorich, J M; Turner, J A; Vanden Heuvel, B D

    2016-01-01

    Fountain Creek in Colorado USA is a major tributary that confluences with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado, the result being the tributary's influence on Arkansas River water quality affecting down-stream users. In a previous study, we found that bryophytes (aquatic plants) accumulated selenium in Fountain Creek watershed and this finding prompted us to investigate the extent of the metalloid in the whole-body tissues of fish. One hundred 11 fish (six species) were collected and analyzed for Se by inductively-coupled plasma emission mass spectrometry. Analysis of all analytical data also showed mercury in all of the fish whole bodies and selected tissues. There was a general increase in selenium but a decrease in mercury in fish with downstream travel-distance. The highest whole-body selenium was in Pueblo, Colorado (3393 µg/kg, dry weight; 906 µg/kg, wet weight); the highest mercury in fish was in the Monument Creek tributary north of Colorado Springs, Colorado (71 µg/kg, dry weight; 19 µg/kg, wet weight). In four tissues of 11 female fish captured, selenium was highest in the livers at eight sites but highest in the ovaries at three sites. Mercury was highest in the epaxial muscle at all sites. Selenium availability could be due to the watershed lithology and land uses; however, mercury could be carried by atmospheric deposition from coal-fired power plants and historic mining activities. Selenium in fish tissues and water samples were compared to U.S. national water quality criteria.

  16. Bioaccumulation of Selenium by the Bryophyte Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the Fountain Creek Watershed, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, S. J.; Turner, J. A.; Carsella, J. S.; Lehmpuhl, D. W.; Nimmo, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic bryophytes, Hygrohypnum ochraceum, were deployed "in situ" at 14 sites in the Fountain Creek Watershed, spring and fall, 2007 to study selenium (Se) accumulation. Dissolved, total, and pore (sediment derived) water samples were collected and water quality parameters determined while plants were exposed to the water for 10 days. There was a trend showing plant tissue-Se uptake with distance downstream and we found a strong correlation between Se in the water with total hardness in both seasons. There was a modest association between Se-uptake in plants with hardness in the spring of 2007 but not the fall. Plants bioconcentrated Se from the water by a factor of 5.8 × 103 at Green Mountain Falls and 1.5 × 104 at Manitou Springs in the fall of 2007. Both are examples of the bioconcentration abilities of the plants, primarily in the upper reaches of the watershed where bioconcentration factors were highest. However, the mean minima and maxima of Se in the plants in each of the three watershed segments appeared similar during both seasons. We found direct relationships between the pore and dissolved Se in water in the spring ( R 2 = 0.84) and fall ( R 2 = 0.95) and dissolved Se and total hardness in the spring and fall ( R 2 = 0.92). The data indicate that H. ochraceum was a suitable indicator of Se bioavailability and Se uptake in other trophic levels in the Fountain Creek Watershed based on a subsequent study of Se accumulation in fish tissues at all 14 sites.

  17. Persistence of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 in Soil Enhanced after Growth in Lettuce Medium.

    PubMed

    Fornefeld, Eva; Schierstaedt, Jasper; Jechalke, Sven; Grosch, Rita; Schikora, Adam; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. In addition, its persistence can be influenced by preadaptation before the introduction into the environment. In order to study how preadaptation changes the survival of Salmonella in soil and therefore its potential to colonize the phytosphere, we developed a new medium based on lettuce material [lettuce medium (LM)]. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 was used as a model for Salmonella in this study. LT2 was inoculated into soil microcosms after pregrowth in Luria Bertani (LB) broth or in LM. Survival of LT2 in soil was monitored over 56 days by plate counts and quantification of the Typhimurium-specific gene STM4497 using qPCR in total community DNA for which primers and TaqMan probe were designed in this study. Significantly enhanced persistence was observed for LT2 pregrown in LM compared to LT2 pregrown in LB, indicating a preadaptation effect. Surprisingly, no improved survival could be observed for S. Typhimurium strain 14028s and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg after pregrowth on LM. This indicates a high strain specificity of preadaptation. Results from previous studies suggested that biofilm formation could enhance the survival of human pathogens in various environments and might contribute to enhanced survival on plants. In vitro biofilm assays with several Salmonella strains revealed a strain-specific effect of LM on the biofilm formation. While LM significantly improved the biofilm formation of S. Senftenberg, the biofilm formation of LT2 was better in LB. This indicates that the better survival of LM-pregrown LT2 in soil was not linked to an improved ability to form biofilms but was likely due to other factors. Most importantly, this study showed that the medium used to pregrow Salmonella can influence its survival in soil and its biofilm formation which might influence the fate of Salmonella in soil.

  18. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  19. From the ashes: JVLA observations of water fountain nebula candidates show the rebirth of IRAS 18455+0448

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Amiri, N.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Tafoya, D.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The class of water fountain nebulae is thought to represent the stage of the earliest onset of collimated bipolar outflows during the post-asymptotic giant branch phase. They thus play a crucial role in the study of the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). To date, 14 water fountain nebulae have been identified. The identification of more sources in this unique stage of stellar evolution will enable us to study the origin of bipolar PNe morphologies in more detail. Aims: Water fountain candidates can be identified based on the often double peaked 22 GHz H2O maser spectrum with a large separation between the maser peaks (often >100 km s-1). However, even a fast bipolar outflow will only have a moderate velocity extent in its maser spectrum when located close to the plane of the sky. In this project we aim to enhance the water fountain sample by identifying objects whose jets are aligned close to the plane of the sky. Methods: We present the results of seven sources observed with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) that were identified as water fountain candidates in an Effelsberg 100 m telescope survey of 74 AGB and early post-AGB stars. Results: We find that our sample of water fountain candidates displays strong variability in their 22 GHz H2O maser spectra. The JVLA observations show an extended bipolar H2O maser outflow for one source, the OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448. This source was previously classified as a dying OH/IR star based on the exponential decrease of its 1612 MHz OH maser and the lack of H2O masers. We therefore also re-observed the 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz OH masers. We confirm that the 1612 MHz masers have not reappeared and find that the1665/1667 MHz masers have decreased in strength by several orders of magnitude during the last decade. The JVLA observations also reveal a striking asymmetry in the red-shifted maser emission of IRAS 19422+3506. Conclusions: The OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448 is confirmed to be a new addition to the

  20. CysLT(1)R antagonists inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21(WAF/Cip1) (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells.

  1. CysLT1R Antagonists Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Xenograft Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21WAF/Cip1 (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells. PMID:24039952

  2. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains among Youth and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. METHODS We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 5 participants disagreed their tap water was safe and nearly 2 in 5 disagreed school water fountains were clean and safe. Perceived tap water risk was more prevalent among non-Hispanic (NH) blacks (26.4%) and Hispanics (28.3%) compared to NH whites (14.7%, p < .001) and more prevalent among lower income youth. Negative water fountain perceptions were more common among high school age youth. Perceived tap water risk was not associated with SSB intake (odds ratio (OR) = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.5) or water intake (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.1). Negative water fountain perceptions were associated with SSB intake only among Hispanics (race/ethnicity interaction p < .001; OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.6) but were not associated with water intake. CONCLUSION Negative perceptions of tap water and water fountains among youth are common and should be considered in efforts to provide water in schools. PMID:24443781

  3. Broadening and shifting of Bragg reflections of nanoscale-microtwinned LT-Ni3Sn2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leineweber, Andreas; Krumeich, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The effect of nanoscale microtwinning of long-range ordered domains in LT-Ni3Sn2 on its diffraction behaviour was studied by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy. LT-Ni3Sn2 exhibits a Ni2In/NiAs-type structure with a superstructure breaking the symmetry relative to the hexagonal high-temperature (HT) to the orthorhombic low-temperature (LT) phase, implying three different twin-domain orientations. The microstructure was generated by annealing HT-Ni3Sn2 considerably below the order-disorder transition temperature, establishing the LT phase avoiding too much domain coarsening. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals domain sizes of 100-200 Å compatible with the Scherrer broadening of the superstructure reflections recorded by X-ray diffraction. Whereas the orthorhombic symmetry of the LT phase leads in powder-diffraction patterns from coarse-domain size material to splitting of the fundamental reflections, this splitting does not occur for the LT-Ni3Sn2 with nanoscale domains. Instead, a (pseudo)hexagonal indexing is possible giving hexagonal lattice parameters, which are, however, incompatible with the positions of the superstructure reflections. This can be attributed to interference between X-rays scattered by the differently oriented, truly orthorhombic domains leading to merging of the fundamental reflections. These show pronounced anisotropic microstrain-like broadening, where the integral breadths ? on the reciprocal d-spacing scale of a series of higher order reflection increase in a non-linear fashion with upward curvature with the reciprocal d-spacings ? of these reflections. Such a type of unusual microstrain broadening appears to be typical for microstructures which are inhomogeneous on the nanoscale, and in which the structural inhomogeneities lead to small phase shifts of the scattered radiation from different locations (e.g. domains).

  4. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH PAN-STARRS1 AND WISE. II. L/T TRANSITION ATMOSPHERES AND YOUNG DISCOVERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Redstone, Joshua; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P.; Metcalfe, N.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of brown dwarfs from L to T spectral types is one of the least understood aspects of the ultracool population, partly for lack of a large, well-defined, and well-characterized sample in the L/T transition. To improve the existing census, we have searched ≈28,000 deg{sup 2} using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveys for L/T transition dwarfs within 25 pc. We present 130 ultracool dwarf discoveries with estimated distances ≈9–130 pc, including 21 that were independently discovered by other authors and 3 that were previously identified as photometric candidates. Seventy-nine of our objects have near-IR spectral types of L6–T4.5, the most L/T transition dwarfs from any search to date, and we have increased the census of L9–T1.5 objects within 25 pc by over 50%. The color distribution of our discoveries provides further evidence for the “L/T gap,” a deficit of objects with (J − K){sub MKO} ≈ 0.0–0.5 mag in the L/T transition, and thus reinforces the idea that the transition from cloudy to clear photospheres occurs rapidly. Among our discoveries are 31 candidate binaries based on their low-resolution spectral features. Two of these candidates are common proper motion companions to nearby main sequence stars; if confirmed as binaries, these would be rare benchmark systems with the potential to stringently test ultracool evolutionary models. Our search also serendipitously identified 23 late-M and L dwarfs with spectroscopic signs of low gravity implying youth, including 10 with vl-g or int-g gravity classifications and another 13 with indications of low gravity whose spectral types or modest spectral signal-to-noise ratio do not allow us to assign formal classifications. Finally, we identify 10 candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMG) with spectral types L7–T4.5, including three showing spectroscopic signs of low gravity. If confirmed, any of these would be among the coolest known YMG members

  5. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA) Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels.

    PubMed

    Carsella, James S; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Bonetti, Sandra J; Crans, Debbie C

    2017-04-30

    The environmental levels of selenium (Se) are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries-Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek-located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA). There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca(2+), Mg(2+), SeO₄(2-), SeO₃(2-) and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO₄. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca(2+) ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg(2+) level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg(2+) the Ca(2+) would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg(2+) is thus to raise the Ca(2+) levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca(2+) levels.

  6. Fountain streaming contributes to fast tip-growth through regulating the gradients of turgor pressure and concentration in pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, ShaoBao; Liu, Han; Feng, ShangSheng; Lin, Min; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-03-29

    Fountain streaming is a typical microfluidic pattern in plant cells, especially for cells with a high aspect ratio such as pollen tubes. Although it has been found that fountain streaming plays crucial roles in the transport of nutrients and metabolites, the positioning of organelles and the mixing of cytoplasms, its implications for the fast tip growth of pollen tubes remain a mystery. To address this, based on the observations of asiatic lily Lilium Casablanca, we developed physical models for reverse fountain streaming in pollen tubes and solved the hydrodynamics and advection-diffusion dynamics of viscous Stokes flow in the shank and apical region of pollen tubes. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrated that the gradients of turgor pressure and concentration of wall materials along the length of pollen tubes provide undamped driving force and high-efficiency materials supply, which are supposed to contribute to the fast tip-growth of pollen tubes. The sample experimental results show that the tip-growth will be abnormal when the gradients of turgor pressure change under osmotic stress induced by different concentrations of PEG-6000 (a dehydrant).

  7. Investigation of Volcanic Seismo-Acoustic Signals: Applying Subspace Detection to Lava Fountain Activity at Etna Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciotto, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Cannata, A.; Arrowsmith, S.; Privitera, E.; Gresta, S.

    2011-12-01

    The current eruption of Mount Etna, which began in January, 2011, has produced numerous energetic episodes of lava fountaining, which have bee recorded by the INGV seismic and acoustic sensors located on and around the volcano. The source of these events was the pit crater on the east flank of the Southeast crater of Etna. Simultaneously, small levels of activity were noted in the Bocca Nuova as well, prior to its lava fountaining activity. We will present an analysis of seismic and acoustic signals related to the 2011 activity wherein we apply the method of subspace detection to determine whether the source exhibits a temporal evolution within or between fountaining events, or otherwise produces repeating, classifiable events occurring through the continuous explosive degassing. We will examine not only the raw waveforms, but also spectral variations in time as well as time-varying statistical functions such as signal skewness and kurtosis. These results will be compared to straightforward cross-correlation analysis. In addition to classification performance, the subspace method has promise to outperform standard STA/LTA methods for real-time event detection in cases where similar events can be expected.

  8. Periglacial Features in the Paleoequatorial Fountain Formation (Permo-Pennsylvanian), Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, D. E.; Soreghan, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    The Fountain Formation, along the east flank of the Front Range, Colorado, comprises coarse clastics shed as an alluvial wedge off the Ancestral Front range during the Ancestral Rocky Mountains orogeny. Locally, bedding-plane exposures within the Fountain exhibit a distinct geometric pattern composed of white, erosionally resistant ridges 2-10 cm wide and 13-61 cm deep rimming red polygons 15-76 cm across with depth-to-width ratios averaging 5.80. Both the white and the red lithologies comprise very poorly sorted, coarse arkose. However, in thin section, the white lithology exhibits a silicified micro-brecciated texture whereas the red lithology exhibits a diamictite texture with clasts suspended in a muddy matrix comprising ~25% of the rock. FTIR analysis of the <62 micron fraction (matrix) indicates that, relative to one another, the white lithology contains more quartz, whereas the red lithology contains more clay minerals. In addition to the polygons, downwardly tapering, clastic wedges occur locally. The wedges are 10-32 cm in width, penetrate to depths of 41- >220 cm, and have depth-to-width ratios averaging 4.31. Most wedges taper to a single terminus, but some splay downward. Granular to coarse arkosic sandstone fills wedges and locally exhibits a faint vertical foliation; laminae within host strata commonly bend upward adjacent to wedge edges. These preliminary data are most consistent with the hypothesis that both features relate to thermal contraction wherein the polygonal features represent fossil patterned ground and the clastic wedges record ice-wedge or seasonal frost crack casts. The color contrast is a diagenetic enhancement, the result of bleaching of the original polygonal surface by reducing fluids channeled by permeability contrasts between the muddy arkose (red) and the granule fills (now white). Contractional polygonal fractures have been related to (1) desiccation in an arid environment with either mud or evaporites providing cohesion and (2

  9. OBR-1-1/Fizika-LT(Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-24

    ISS019-E-010226 (24 April 2009) --- Cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 19/20 commander, holds the OBR-1-1/?Fizika-LT? (Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) educational experiment, also called ?UFO?, in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. The OBR-1-1 is part of the OBRAZOVANIE (Education) suite of three educational demonstrations of physics in microgravity.

  10. LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) TECHNOLOGY - ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3®) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. This evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and fi...

  11. LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) TECHNOLOGY - ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3®) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. This evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and fi...

  12. Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.

    2008-12-01

    Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with

  13. TSH-Based Protocol, Tablet Instability, and Absorption Effects on L-T4 Bioequivalence

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Background FDA Guidance for pharmacokinetic (PK) testing of levothyroxine (L-T4) for interbrand bioequivalence has evolved recently. Concerns remain about efficacy and safety of the current protocol, based on PK analysis following supraphysiological L-T4 dosing in euthyroid volunteers, and recent recalls due to intrabrand manufacturing problems also suggest need for further refinement. We examine these interrelated issues quantitatively, using simulated what-if scenarios testing efficacy of a TSH-based protocol and tablet stability and absorption, to enhance precision of L-T4 bioequivalence methods. Methods We use an updated simulation model of human thyroid hormone regulation quantified and validated from data that span a wide range of normal and abnormal thyroid system function. Bioequivalence: We explored a TSH-based protocol, using normal replacement dosing in simulated thyroidectomized patients, switching brands after 8 weeks of full replacement dosing. We simulated effects of tablet potency differences and intestinal absorption differences on predicted plasma TSH, T4, and triiodothyronine (T3) dynamics. Stability: We simulated effects of potency decay and lot-by-lot differences in realistic scenarios, using actual tablet potency data spanning 2 years, comparing the recently reduced 95–105% FDA-approved potency range with the original 90–110% range. Results A simulated decrease as small as 10–15% in L-T4 or its absorption generated TSH concentrations outside the bioequivalence target range (0.5–2.5 mU/L TSH), whereas T3 and T4 plasma levels were maintained normal. For a 25% reduction, steady-state TSH changed 300% (from 1.5 to 6 mU/L) compared with <25% for both T4 and T3 (both within their reference ranges). Stability: TSH, T4, and T3 remained within normal ranges for most potency decay scenarios, but tablets of the same dose strength and brand were not bioequivalent between lots and between fresh and near-expired tablets. Conclusions A

  14. IRAS 18113-2503: THE WATER FOUNTAIN WITH THE FASTEST JET?

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Jose F.; Guerrero, MartIn A.; Ricardo Rizzo, J.; Suarez, Olga; Miranda, Luis F.

    2011-09-20

    We present Expanded Very Large Array water maser observations at 22 GHz toward the source IRAS 18113-2503. Maser components span over a very high velocity range of {approx_equal} 500 km s{sup -1}, the second largest found in a Galactic maser, only surpassed by the high-mass star-forming region W49N. Maser components are grouped into a blueshifted and a redshifted cluster, separated by 0.''12. Further mid-IR and radio data suggest that IRAS 18113-2503 is a post-asymptotic giant branch star, thus a new bona fide member of the rare class of 'water fountains' (WFs). It is the evolved object with the largest total velocity spread in its water masers and with the highest velocity dispersion within its redshifted and blueshifted lobes ({approx_equal} 170 km s{sup -1}). The large total velocity range of emission probably indicates that IRAS 18113-2503 has the fastest jet among the known WF stars. On the other hand, the remarkably high velocity dispersion within each lobe may be interpreted in terms of shocks produced by an episode of mass ejection whose velocity increased up to very high values or, alternatively, by projection effects in a jet with a large opening angle and/or precessing motions.

  15. Lonely drinking fountains and comforting coolers: paradoxes of water value and ironies of water use.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Martha

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses ethnographically on Americans and technologies of drinking water, as tokens of and vehicles for health, agency, and surprising kinds of community. Journalists and water scholars have argued that bottled water is a material concomitant of privatization and alienation in U.S. society. But, engaging Latour, this research shows that water technologies and the groups they assemble, are plural. Attention to everyday entwining of workplace lives with drinking fountains, single-serve bottles, and spring water coolers shows us several different quests, some individualized, some alienated, but some seeking health via public, collective care, acknowledgment of stakeholding, and community organizing. Focused on water practices on a college campus, in the roaring 1990s and increasingly sober 2000s in the context of earlier U.S. water histories of inclusion and exclusion, I draw on ethnographic research from the two years that led up to the recession and the presidential election of 2008. I argue for understanding of water value through attention to water use, focusing both on the social construction of water and the use of water for social construction.

  16. Aerosol formation in basaltic lava fountaining: Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Martin, Robert S.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-10-01

    A short-lived episode of basaltic lava fountaining at Eyjafjallajökull volcano (March - April 2010) produced a low-altitude, ash-poor plume. We measured the composition of aerosol particles (sampled using a cascade impactor and filter packs), gases (sampled using filter packs), and volatile species scavenged by scoria and external water in order to investigate the formation and speciation of near-source aerosol (<2 min from emission). Samples were analyzed for volatile species (S, Cl and F) and metals (Na, K, Ca and Mg). The aerosol mass showed two unusual features: the prevalent size mode was finer than typically found in volcanic plumes (˜0.2μm, compared to >0.4 μm), and its composition was dominated by chloride rather than sulfate. We used two thermodynamic equilibrium models (E-AIM and HSC Chemistry v5.1) to show that the formation of particulate Cl- by condensation of HCl gas is more responsive to changes in ambient temperature than the oxidation of SO2 to SO42-, so that a low SO42-/Cl- ratio in aerosol particles is characteristic of volcanic emissions in cold climates. Field measurements suggested that the efficiency of SO2 to SO42- conversion inside the vent increased with lower explosivity. Volatiles adsorbed on the surface of scoria had significantly higher SO42-/halogen molar ratios than the aerosol samples. Several potential explanations for these differences are discussed.

  17. UTC(OP) based on LNE-SYRTE atomic fountain primary frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovera, G. D.; Bize, S.; Chupin, B.; Guéna, J.; Laurent, Ph; Rosenbusch, P.; Uhrich, P.; Abgrall, M.

    2016-06-01

    UTC(OP), the French national realization of the international coordinated universal time, was redesigned and rebuilt. The first step was the implementation in October 2012 of a new algorithm based on a H-maser and on atomic fountain data. Thanks to the new implementation, the stability of UTC(OP) was dramatically improved and UTC(OP) competes with the best time scales available today. Then the hardware generation and distribution of the UTC(OP) physical signals were replaced. Part of the new hardware is composed of commercial devices, but the key elements were specifically developed. One of them is a special switch that allows the UTC(OP) signals to be derived from one of two time scales, based on two different H-masers, which are generated simultaneously. This insures the continuity of the UTC(OP) signal even when a change of the reference H-maser is required. With the new hardware implementation, UTC(OP) is made available through three coherent signals: 100 MHz, 10 MHz and 1 PPS. For more than 3 years, UTC(OP) remained well below 10 ns close to UTC, with a difference even less than 5 ns if we except a short period around MJD 56650.

  18. Do water fountain jets really indicate the onset of the morphological metamorphosis of circumstellar envelopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Imai, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale bipolar jets with short dynamical ages from 'water-fountain' (WF) sources are regarded as an indication of the onset of circumstellar envelope morphological metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. Such a process usually happens at the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. However, recent studies found that WFs could be AGB stars or even early planetary nebulae. This fact prompted the idea that WFs may not necessarily be objects at the beginning of the morphological transition process. In the present work, we show that WFs could have different envelope morphologies by studying their spectral energy distribution profiles. Some WFs have spherical envelopes that resemble usual AGB stars, while others have aspherical envelopes, which are more common to post-AGB stars. The results imply that WFs may not represent the earliest stage of morphological metamorphosis. We argue further that the dynamical age of a WF jet, which can be calculated from maser proper motions, may not be the real age of the jet. The dynamical age cannot be used to justify the moment when the envelope begins to become aspherical, nor to tell the concrete evolutionary status of the object. A WF jet could be the innermost part of a larger well-developed jet, which is not necessarily a young jet.

  19. Advances in 133Cs Fountains: Control of the Cold Collision Shift and Observation of Feshbach Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Bize, S.; Marion, H.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Vian, C.; Rosenbusch, P.; Pereira dos Santos, F.; Wolf, P.; Abgrall, M.; Maksimovic, I.; Gruenert, J.; Santarelli, G.; Laurent, P.; Clairon, A.; Luiten, A.; Tobar, M.; Kokkelmans, S.; Salomon, C.

    2005-05-05

    This paper describes the work performed at BNM-SYRTE (Observatoire de Paris) over the past few years toward the improvement and the use of microwave frequency standards using laser-cooled atoms. First, recent improvements of the 133Cs and 87Rb atomic fountains are described. An important advance is the achievement of a fractional frequency instability of 1.6 x 10-14{tau}-1/2 where {tau} is the measurement time in seconds, thanks to the routine use of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator as an ultra-stable local frequency reference. The second advance is a powerful method to control the frequency shift due to cold collisions. These two advances lead to a frequency stability of 2 x 10-16 at 50,000 s for the first time for primary standards. In addition, these clocks realize the SI second with an accuracy of 7 x 10-16, one order of magnitude below that of uncooled devices.

  20. Galactic fountains and outflows in star forming dwarf galaxies: ISM expulsion and chemical enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melioli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the impact of supernova feedback in gas-rich dwarf galaxies experiencing a low-to-moderate star formation rate, typical of relatively quiescent phases between starbursts. We calculated the long term evolution of the ISM and the metal-rich SN ejecta using 3D hydrodynamical simulations, in which the feedback energy is deposited by SNII exploding in distinct OB associations. We found that a circulation flow similar to galactic fountains is generally estabilished, with some ISM lifted at heights of one to few kpc above the galactic plane. This gas forms an extra-planar layer, which falls back to the plane in about 108 yr, once the star formation stops. Very little or no ISM is expelled outside the galaxy system for the considered SFRs, even though in the most powerful model the SN energy is comparable to the gas binding energy. The metal-rich SN ejecta is instead more vulnerable to the feedback and we found that a significant fraction (25-80%) is vented in the intergalactic medium, even for low SN rate. About half of the metals retained by the galaxy are located far (z > 500 pc) from the galactic plane. Moreover, our models indicate that the circulation of the metal-rich gas out from and back to the galactic disk is not able to erase the chemical gradients imprinted by the (centrally concentrated) SN explosions.

  1. Short-term effects of military fog oil on the fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola).

    PubMed

    Ryan, T A; Kohl, A N; Soucek, D J; Smith, T S; Brandt, T M; Bonner, T H; Cropek, D M

    2013-11-01

    Toxicity tests evaluated chronic and sublethal effects of fog oil (FO) on a freshwater endangered fish. FO is released during military training as an obscurant smoke that can drift into aquatic habitats. Fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, of four distinct life stages were exposed under laboratory conditions to three forms of FO. FO was vaporized into smoke and allowed to settle onto water, violently agitated with water, and dosed onto water followed by photo-oxidization by ultraviolet irradiation. Single smoke exposures of spawning adult fish did not affect egg production, egg viability, or adult fish survival in 21-day tests. Multiple daily smoke exposures induced mortality after 5 days for larvae fish. Larvae and juvenile fish were more sensitive than eggs in 96-h lethal concentration (LC50) tests with FO–water mixtures and photo-oxidized FO. Water-soluble FO components photo-modified by ultraviolet radiation were the most toxic, thus indicating the value of examining weathering and aging of chemicals for the best determination of environmental impact.

  2. The Fountain of Health: Bringing Seniors’ Mental Health Promotion into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Thoo, Vanessa; Freer, Janya; Cassidy, Keri-Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Background The Fountain of Health (FoH) initiative offers valuable evidence-based mental health knowledge and provides clinicians with evaluated tools for translating knowledge into practice, in order to reduce seniors’ risks of mental disorders, including dementia. Methods A presentation on mental health promotion and educational materials were disseminated to mental health clinicians including physicians and other allied health professionals either in-person or via tele-education through a provincial seniors’ mental health network. Measures included: 1) a tele-education quality evaluation form, 2) a knowledge transfer questionnaire, 3) a knowledge translation-to-practice evaluation tool, and 4) a quality assurance questionnaire. Results A total of 74 mental health clinicians received the FoH education session. There was a highly significant (p < .0001) difference in clinicians’ knowledge transfer questionnaire scores pre- and post-educational session. At a two-month follow-up, 19 (25.7%) participants completed a quality assurance questionnaire, with all 19 (100%) of respondents stating they would positively recommend the FoH information to colleagues and patients. Eleven (20.4%) translation-to-practice forms were also collected at this interval, tracking clinician use of the educational materials. Conclusions The use of a formalized network for knowledge transfer allows for education and evaluation of health-care practitioners in both acquisition of practical knowledge and subsequent clinical behavior change. PMID:26740830

  3. High Velocity Precessing Jet from the Water Fountain IRAS 18286-0959 Revealed by VLBA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco; Nakashima, J.; Imai, H.; Deguchi, S.; Diamond, P. J.; Kwok, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the multi-epoch VLBA observations of 22.2GHz water maser emission associated with the "water fountain" star IRAS 18286-0959. The detected maser emission are distributed in the velocity range from -50km/s to 150km/s. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (namely, jet 1) extended from southeast to northwest direction, and the rest of the features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a "double-helix" pattern which lies across 200 milliarcseconds (mas). The maser features are reasonably fit by a model consisting of two precessing jets. The velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138km/s and 99km/s, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years, and for jet 2 it is about 73 years. We propose that the appearance of two jets observed are the result of a single driving source with a significant proper motion. This research was supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists from the Ministry 9 of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for Promotion Science.

  4. An efficient algorithm for encoding and decoding of raptor codes over the binary erasure channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya-Hang; Cheng, Bo-Wen; Zou, Guang-Nan; Wen, Wei-Ping; Qing, Si-Han

    2009-12-01

    As the most advanced rateless fountain codes, Systematic Raptor codes has been adopted by the 3GPP standard as a forward error correction scheme in Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS). It has been shown to be an efficient channel coding technique which guarantees high symbol diversity in overlay networks. The 3GPP standard outlined a time-efficient maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding scheme that can be implemented using Gaussian elimination. But when the number of encoding symbols grows large, Gaussian elimination need to deal with a large matrix with O (K3) binary arithmetic operations, so the larger K becomes, the worse ML decoding scheme performs. This paper presents a better time-efficient encoding and decoding scheme while maintaining the same symbol recoverable performance, this encoding and decoding scheme is named Rapid Raptor Code. It will be shown that the proposed Rapid Raptor code Scheme significantly improves traditional Raptor codes' efficiency while maintaining the same performance.

  5. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  6. A large multi-pathogen gastroenteritis outbreak caused by drinking contaminated water from antique neighbourhood fountains, Erzurum city, Turkey, December 2012.

    PubMed

    Sezen, F; Aval, E; Ağkurt, T; Yilmaz, Ş; Temel, F; Güleşen, R; Korukluoğlu, G; Sucakli, M B; Torunoğlu, M A; Zhu, B-P

    2015-03-01

    We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak in Erzurum city, Turkey in December 2012 to identify its cause and mode of transmission. We defined a probable case as onset of diarrhoea (⩾3 episodes/day) or vomiting, plus fever or nausea or abdominal pain during 19-27 December, 2012 in an Erzurum city resident. In a case-control study we compared exposures of 95 randomly selected probable cases and 95 neighbourhood-matched controls. We conducted bacterial culture and real-time multiplex PCR for identification of pathogens. During the week before illness onset, 72% of cases and 15% of controls only drank water from antique neighbourhood fountains; conversely, 16% of cases and 65% of controls only drank bottled or tap water (adjusted odds ratio 20, 95% confidence interval 4·6-84, after controlling for age and sex using conditional logistic regression). Of eight stool specimens collected, two were positive for Shigella sonnei, one for astrovirus, one for astrovirus and norovirus, and one for astrovirus and rotavirus. Water samples from the fountains had elevated total coliform (38-300/100 ml) and Escherichia coli (22-198/100 ml) counts. In conclusion, drinking contaminated fountain water caused this multi-pathogen outbreak. Residents should stop drinking water from these fountains, and clean water from the water treatment plant should be connected to the fountains.

  7. Evaluation of fecal contamination by human and ruminant sources in upper Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2007-2008, by using multiple lines of evidence:

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Fountain Creek is a high-gradient stream on the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The headwaters of Fountain Creek drain Pikes Peak, a major destination for tourism. Fountain Creek is a drinking-water source for the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado, and is used for irrigation, recreation, and other purposes between Colorado Springs and the confluence with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado. In 2008, Fountain Creek was placed on the Colorado 303(d) list of impaired streams because of fecal contamination. Colorado uses a 30-day geometric mean standard of 126 Escherichia coli per 100 milliliters as its management goal for recreational waters. The objective of this study was to identify major sources of Escherichia coli in upper Fountain Creek during exceedances of the State recreational water standard. To meet this objective, a new approach was developed and tested that uses genetic marker analysis for microbial source tracking, along with other information, to evaluate potential contributions of fecal contamination from various sources.

  8. Drag coefficient and plant form response to wind speed in three plant species: Burning Bush (Euonymus alatus), Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens glauca.), and Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, J. A.; Nickling, W. G.; King, J.

    2002-12-01

    Whole-plant drag coefficients (Cd) for three plant species: Burning Bush (Euonymus alatus), Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens glauca.), and Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum) in five different porosity configurations were developed from force versus wind speed data collected with a force balance in a recirculating wind tunnel. The average Cd for the Burning Bush, Colorado Spruce, and Fountain Grass in their untrimmed forms were 0.42 (±0.03), 0.39 (±0.04), and 0.34 (±0.06), respectively. Drag curves (Cd versus flow Reynolds number (Re) function) for the Burning Bush and Colorado Spruce were found to exhibit, for the lower porosity configurations, a rise to a maximum around flow Reynolds numbers (Re = ρuhh/ν) of 2 × 105. Fountain Grass Cd was shown to be dependent upon Re to values >5 × 105. The Burning Bush and Colorado Spruce plants reduced their drag, upon reaching their maxima, by decreasing their frontal area and increasing their porosity. Maximum Cd for these plants occurred at optical porosities of ˜0.20. The Fountain Grass reduced drag at high Re by decreasing frontal area and porosity. The mechanism of drag reduction in Fountain Grass was continual reconfiguration to a more aerodynamic form as evidenced by continual reduction of Cd with Re.

  9. Petrographical records of multiple fluid-infiltration during HP-LT metamorphism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the subduction zone, flow of slab-derived fluids enriched in Si, Al, Na, and Ca enhances metamorphic + metasomatic reactions and precipitation of HP-LT minerals, and in some cases, the intraslab flow causes extensive elemental leaching (cf., Spandler & Pirard 2013). How does HP-LT rocks and minerals record subduction-zone fluid flow? Syn-metamorphic vein networks consisting of HP-LT minerals have been known in various blueschist- and low-temperature eclogites. The monomineralic and bimineralic veins includes a wide variety of HP-LT minerals: metamorphic pyroxenes, phengite, hydrous Ca-Al-silicate, and even rare garnet and rutile; oscillatory and sector zonings with resorption are common, suggesting precipitation from aqueous fluids. Natural observations imply that brittle fracturing and fluid infiltration during blueschist-to-eclogite-facies metamorphism are common phenomenon in the subducting oceanic crust attending progressive eclogitization. Another peculiar example of HP-LT rock preserving evidence of multiple fluid-infiltration is "lawsonitite", which is a metasomatic rock consisting of ~70-90 vol% lawsonite. Lawsonitite from the South Motagua Mélange consists principally of fluid precipitates and represents the extreme of lithological variation of "P-type" jadeitite (Tsujimori & Harlow 2012; Flores et al. 2013). Lawsonites show sector- and oscillatory-growth zoning on a millimeter to submicrometer scale. The rock shows millimeter-scale flow paths of Cr-rich fluids cross-cutting lawsonite crystals; the texture indicates that the fluid infiltration occurred after lawsonite crystallization/precipitation. The Cr-rich fluid flow-paths follow the track of Cr-bearing pinkish locally metasomatized lawsonite with inclusions of Cr-rich (kosmochloric) jadeite and Cr-rich phengite. These microtextures and mineral compositions indicate a chronological sequence of fluid infiltration events: lawsonite grains precipitated from subduction-zone aqueous fluids within

  10. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  11. EXPLORATION OF A RELIC CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE IN THE ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' SOURCE IRAS 18286-0959

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Kwok, Sun; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J. E-mail: junichi@hku.hk E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk E-mail: diamond@skatelescope.org

    2013-07-01

    The water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 (I18286) was reported as an object exhibiting highly collimated, double-helix stellar jets traced by the H{sub 2}O maser emission. Using the European VLBI Network, we measured the absolute coordinates of the 1612 MHz OH maser emission in I18286, which is very likely associated with a relic of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) developed in the asymptotic giant branch stage of the central star. The location of the OH maser is near the center of the H{sub 2}O maser feature cluster, where one of the originating points of the two jets is located. We also mapped 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission in this object using the Very Long Baseline Array in the seasons of 2006-2007 as well as 2008-2009. In the first three epochs in 2006-2007, we detected at least 90 maser features per epoch. In six epochs in 2008-2009, when the observation data had already been published and analyzed to identify the double-helix jets, we newly identified 14 proper motions of H{sub 2}O maser features which could not be measured in the previous analysis due to their short lifetimes. In this paper, together with the OH maser emission, we focus on ''outlier'' H{sub 2}O maser features, which exhibit slow expansion velocities (V{sub exp} {approx}< 30 km s{sup -1}) and are likely associated with either the relic CSE or an equatorial flow of I18286. They were marginally distinguishable from the maser features associated with the jets in I18286.

  12. The absorption and emission spectrum of radiative cooling galactic fountain gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Robert A.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    We have calculated the time-dependent, nonequilibrium thermal and ionization history of gas cooling radiatively from 10(exp 6) K in a one-dimensional, planar, steady-state flow model of the galactic fountain, including the effects of radiative transfer. Our previous optically thin calculations explored the effects of photoionization on such a flow and demonstrated that self-ionization was sufficient to cause the flow to match the observed galactic halo column densities of C 4, Si 4, and N 5 and UV emission from C 4 and O 3 in the constant density (isochoric) limit, which corresponded to cooling regions homogeneous on scales D less than or approximately equal to 1 kpc. Our new calculations which take full account of radiative transfer confirm the importance of self-ionization in enabling such a flow to match the data but allow a much larger range for cooling region sizes, i.e. D(sub 0) greater than or approximately equal to 15 pc. For an initial flow velocity v(sub 0) approximately equal to 100 km/s, comparable to the sound speed of a 10(exp 6) K gas, the initial density is found to be n(sub h,0) is approximately 2 x 10(exp -2) cm(exp -3), in reasonable agreement with other observation estimates, and D(sub 0) is approximately equal to 40 pc. We also compare predicted H(alpha) fluxes, UV line emission, and broadband x-ray fluxes with observed values. One dimensional numerical hydrodynamical calculations including the effects of radiative cooling are also presented.

  13. Probing the atmosphere of a transiting ocean world: are there ice fountains on Europa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, William

    2013-10-01

    It is of extreme interest to NASA and the scientific community to confirm the presence of plumes of water ice venting from the polar regions of Europa. Roth et al 2014 presented evidence, based on line emission imaging of the dissociation products of water, that such plumes exist. We were awarded three orbits in Cycle 21 to pursue a completely independent approach to imaging the Europa exosphere, including a search for Enceladus-like plumes. In the FUV, Jupiter provides a uniformly illuminating backlight screen against which absorption by Europa's exosphere can be imaged as it transits Jupiter. The spatial resolution of HST is high in the FUV and molecular cross-sections are high. We request six additional STIS orbits, and two WFC3 orbits to provide sensitive limits on the absorbing column density and on entrained dusty particulates. Roth et al seek line emission at apoapsis and periapsis. We will span a range between these limits, closer to apoapsis where plumes are predicted. With the additional orbits we double our S/N and gain a factor of two in detectable column density, seek the scientific gold standard of reproducibility with multiple datasets, and provide a completely independent, contemporaneous {crucial when probing a transient phenomenon} validation of the line-emission approach. Our observations so far provide fascinating hints, but require confirmation through repeats and improved S/N. With a concerted effort, we have the opportunity to conclusively and unequivocally establish the presence of ice fountains on Europa. If they arise from the deep ocean, we have gained access to probably the most astrobiologically interesting location in the Solar System.

  14. Lava discharge during Etna's January 2011 fire fountain tracked using MSG-SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Harris, Andrew; Calvari, Sonia; Labazuy, Philippe; Guéhenneux, Yannick; Donnadieu, Franck; Valade, Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Etna's January 2011 eruption provided an excellent opportunity to test the ability of Meteosat Second Generation satellite's Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) sensor to track a short-lived effusive event. The presence of lava fountaining, the rapid expansion of lava flows, and the complexity of the resulting flow field make such events difficult to track from the ground. During the Etna's January 2011 eruption, we were able to use thermal data collected by SEVIRI every 15 min to generate a time series of the syn-eruptive heat flux. Lava discharge waxed over a ~1-h period to reach a peak that was first masked from the satellite view by a cold tephra plume and then was of sufficient intensity to saturate the 3.9-μm channel. Both problems made it impossible to estimate time-averaged lava discharge rates using the syn-eruptive heat flux curve. Therefore, through integration of data obtained by ground-based Doppler radar and thermal cameras, as well as ancillary satellite data (from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), we developed a method that allowed us to identify the point at which effusion stagnated, to allow definition of a lava cooling curve. This allowed retrieval of a lava volume of ~1.2 × 106 m3, which, if emitted for 5 h, was erupted at a mean output rate of ~70 m3 s-1. The lava volume estimated using the cooling curve method is found to be similar to the values inferred from field measurements.

  15. On Recombination among In(2L)t, α-Gpdh and Adh in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Malpica, J.-M.; Vassallo, J. M.; Frías, A.; Fuentes-Bol, F.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence and patterns of linkage disequilibrium between an inversion and allozymic loci within it or nearby have been used in attempts to discriminate among different hypotheses for the maintenance of variability. The interpretation of the data on the best-documented case, that of the nonrandom association between In(2L)t and α-Gpdh or Adh in the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster , has been done on the basis that recombination between α-Gpdh and Adh is almost entirely due to the recombination between In(2L)t and the locus within it (α-Gpdh), the recombination between the inversion and the nearby locus (Adh) being negligible. In this paper, we show that the pattern of recombination is just the opposite. PMID:3030880

  16. The chromosomal nature of LT-II enterotoxins solved: a lambdoid prophage encodes both LT-II and one of two novel pertussis-toxin-like toxin family members in type II enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB5 toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins. PMID:26755534

  17. The chromosomal nature of LT-II enterotoxins solved: a lambdoid prophage encodes both LT-II and one of two novel pertussis-toxin-like toxin family members in type II enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB(5) toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins.

  18. OBR-1-1/Fizika-LT(Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-24

    ISS019-E-010081 (24 April 2009) --- Cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 19/20 commander, is pictured near the OBR-1-1/?Fizika-LT? (Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) educational experiment, also called ?UFO?, floating freely in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. The OBR-1-1 is part of the OBRAZOVANIE (Education) suite of three educational demonstrations of physics in microgravity.

  19. OBR-1-1/Fizika-LT(Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-24

    ISS019-E-010230 (24 April 2009) --- Cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 19/20 commander, is pictured near the OBR-1-1/?Fizika-LT? (Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) educational experiment, also called ?UFO?, floating freely in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. The OBR-1-1 is part of the OBRAZOVANIE (Education) suite of three educational demonstrations of physics in microgravity.

  20. After 23 years the yellow symbiotic star LT Del is again in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Ochner, P.; Dallaporta, S.; Belligoli, R.

    2017-05-01

    The ANS Collaboration photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of symbiotic stars has detected LT Del (= Hen 2-467 = PK 063-12.1 = StHa 179) in outburst. This is the first recorded outburst since the last one of 1994-1995, which was discovered by Passuello et al. (1994, IAUC 6065) and described by Arkhipova et al. (1995a, ALett 21, 339; 1995b, ALett 21, 391).

  1. Restaurant outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a decorative fountain: an environmental and case-control study

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, Rosalyn E; Kightlinger, Lon; Werpy, Matthew C; Brown, Ellen; Stevens, Valerie; Hepper, Clark; Keane, Tim; Benson, Robert F; Fields, Barry S; Moore, Matthew R

    2007-01-01

    Background From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from emergency department records and matched on underlying illness. We collected information about activities of case-patients and controls during the 14 days before symptom onset. Environmental samples (n = 291) were cultured for Legionella. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared using monoclonal antibody subtyping and sequence based typing (SBT). Results Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have passed through several city areas that contained or were adjacent to areas with cooling towers positive for Legionella. Six of 11 case-patients (matched odds ratio (mOR) 32.7, 95% CI 4.7-∞) reported eating in Restaurant A versus 0 controls. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from four clinical specimens: 3 were Benidorm type strains and 1 was a Denver type strain. Legionella were identified from several environmental sites including 24 (56%) of 43 cooling towers tested, but only one site, a small decorative fountain in Restaurant A, contained Benidorm, the outbreak strain. Clinical and environmental Benidorm isolates had identical SBT patterns. Conclusion This is the first time that small fountain without obvious aerosol-generating capability has been implicated as the source of a LD outbreak. Removal of the fountain halted transmission. PMID:17688692

  2. Hypothyroid Patients Encoding Combined MCT10 and DIO2 Gene Polymorphisms May Prefer L-T3 + L-T4 Combination Treatment - Data Using a Blind, Randomized, Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Carlé, Allan; Faber, Jens; Steffensen, Rudi; Laurberg, Peter; Nygaard, Birte

    2017-07-01

    In previous studies, around half of all hypothyroid patients preferred levo-thyroxine (L-T4) + levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3) combination therapy, 25% preferred T4, and 25% had no preference. The reason for this is yet to be explored. A total of 45 overtly autoimmune, hypothyroid patients - now euthyroid on ≥6 months' L-T4 therapy - participated in a prospective, double-blind, cross-over study. The patients were randomized into 2 groups of either 3 continuous months' L-T4 therapy followed by 3 months' combination therapy or vice versa. In all periods, 50 μg L-T4 was blindly replaced by either (identical) 50 μg L-T4 or by 20 μg T3. L-T4 was hereafter adjusted to obtain normal serum TSH values. We investigated 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the type II iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) gene (rs225014 (Thr92Ala), rs225015, and rs12885300 (ORFa-Gly3Asp)) and 1 SNP on the cellular membrane transport-facilitating monocarboxylate transporter (MCT10) gene (rs17606253), and asked in which of the 2 treatment periods patients felt better (i.e., which treatment was preferred). 27 out of 45 patients (60%) preferred the combination therapy. Two polymorphisms (rs225014 (DIO2, Thr92Ala) and rs17606253 (MCT10)) were combined yielding 3 groups: none vs. 1 of 2 vs. both SNPs present, and 42 vs. 63 vs. 100% of our patients in the 3 groups preferred the combined treatment (Jongheere-Terpstra trend test, p = 0.009). The present study indicates that the combination of polymorphisms in DIO2 (rs225014) and MCT10 (rs17606253) enhances hypothyroid patients' preference for L-T4 + L-T3 replacement therapy. In the future, combination therapy may be restricted or may be even recommended to individuals harbouring certain polymorphisms.

  3. Effects of land use on water quality of the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chafin, Daniel T.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer in 1988 and 1989 as part of the Toxic-Waste Ground-Water Contamination Program. These data indicate that dissolved solids, most major ions, fluoride, ammonium, boron, lithium, selenium, and strontium were more concentrated in the agricultural land-use area than in the upgradient urban land-use area. Nitrate and phosphate had significantly larger concentrations, and volatile organic compounds had significantly greater detection frequencies in the urban land-use area.

  4. Between history, art and medicine: the Dresden-Friedrichstadt hospital, its Neptune fountain and connections to Vienna.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Hunger, Sabine; Koch, André; França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello; Fioranelli, Massimo; Roccia, Maria Grazia

    2017-07-25

    The Dresden-Friedrichstadt hospital originated from Marcolini's summer palace. It was founded in 1845 and opened in 1849. It is a place where history and art of European importance mixes with technical and medical innovations. We reflect on the meetings of Napoleon Bonaparte and Metternich in 1812, the creation of the famous Neptune fountain by Longuelune and Matielli and two outstanding physicians of the 19(th) century, the surgeon Eduard Zeis, who coined the medical term "plastic surgery", and Maximilian Nitze, inventor of the first "modern" cystoscope and the father of urology.

  5. Testing Local Position Invariance with Four Cesium-Fountain Primary Frequency Standards and Four NIST Hydrogen Masers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.; Parker, T. E.; Radnaev, A. G.; Dudin, Y. O.

    2007-02-16

    We report the most sensitive tests to date of the assumption of local position invariance (LPI) underlying general relativity, based on a 7 yr comparison of cesium and hydrogen atomic clocks (frequency standards). The latest results place an upper limit that is over 20 times smaller than the previous most sensitive tests; this is consistent with the null shift predicted by LPI. The result is based on precise comparisons of frequencies of four hydrogen masers maintained by NIST, with four independent Cs fountain clocks--one at NIST and three in Europe--as the Sun's gravitational potential at Earth's surface varies due to Earth's orbital eccentricity.

  6. Testing local position invariance with four cesium-fountain primary frequency standards and four NIST hydrogen masers.

    PubMed

    Ashby, N; Heavner, T P; Jefferts, S R; Parker, T E; Radnaev, A G; Dudin, Y O

    2007-02-16

    We report the most sensitive tests to date of the assumption of local position invariance (LPI) underlying general relativity, based on a 7 yr comparison of cesium and hydrogen atomic clocks (frequency standards). The latest results place an upper limit that is over 20 times smaller than the previous most sensitive tests; this is consistent with the null shift predicted by LPI. The result is based on precise comparisons of frequencies of four hydrogen masers maintained by NIST, with four independent Cs fountain clocks--one at NIST and three in Europe--as the Sun's gravitational potential at Earth's surface varies due to Earth's orbital eccentricity.

  7. CysLT1R downregulation reverses intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced memory impairment via modulation of neuroinflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arijit; Chen, Fang; Wu, Feng; Tang, Su-Su; Hu, Mei; Long, Yan; Sun, Hong-Bin; Kong, Ling-Yi; Hong, Hao

    2017-02-06

    Our previous studies showed that cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor 1 (CysLT1R) is upregulated in amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and that administration of CysLT1R antagonists such as pranlukast or montelukast can ameliorate memory impairment in mice. In the current study, we sought to explore the role of CysLT1R in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (STZ-ICV)-induced mouse model of memory impairment and neuroinflammation through shRNA-mediated knockdown of CysLT1R and also its pharmacological blockade by pranlukast. ICR mice were infused with STZ (3.0mg/kg) by a single bilateral stereotaxic ICV microinjection followed by administration of CysLT1R-shRNA (intra-hippocampal) or pranlukast (intragastric, IG). After 21days, a set of behavioral and biochemical tests were performed in order to assess the degree of memory impairment and neuroinflammation in mice. STZ-infused mice spent less time in the target quadrant of Morris water maze test and took more time to find the shock-free arm in modified Y-maze test, which were rescued in the CysLT1R-knockdowned or pranlukast-treated mice. STZ-induced memory impairment was also accompanied by an elevated level of hippocampal CysLT1R, microglial activation, increased IL-1β, and TNF-α. Such elevation of these factors was found to be mediated through the classical NF-κB pathway and administration of CysLT1R-shRNA or pranlukast for 21days reversed all these parameters, suggesting a role of CysLT1R in STZ-induced memory deficit and neuroinflammation.

  8. MaLT - Combined Motor and Language Therapy Tool for Brain Injury Patients Using Kinect.

    PubMed

    Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra

    2017-03-23

    The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility

  9. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  10. Characterization of LT GaAs carrier lifetime in multilayer GaAs epitaxial wafers by the transient reflectivity technique

    SciTech Connect

    McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.S.; Campbell, A.B.; Knudson, A.R.; Buchner, S.; Ikossi-Anastasiou, K.; Moss, S.C.; Engelhardt, D.; Childs, T.

    1997-12-01

    A methodology for determining the carrier lifetime of LT GaAs buffer layers in GaAs multilayer wafers utilizing the femtosecond transient reflectivity technique is introduced. Experimental results and computer simulations performed as a function of the LT GaAs growth temperature are presented for the multilayer GaAs structures that are used for device fabrication. The markedly non-exponential nature of the measured transients is a consequence of the multilayer structure of the wafers. The carrier lifetime measurements are correlated with available SEU data measured for structures fabricated with LT GaAs buffers with different growth temperatures.

  11. Progression in the Fountain Pen Approach: From 2D Writing to 3D Free-Form Micro/Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Je, Jung Ho; Kim, Jong-Man; Jaworski, Justyn

    2017-01-01

    The fountain pen approach, as a means for transferring materials to substrates, has shown numerous incarnations in recent years for creating 2D micro/nanopatterns and even generating 3D free-form nanostructures using a variety of material "inks". While the idea of filled reservoirs used to deliver material to a substrate via a capillary remains unchanged since antiquity, the advent of precise micromanipulation systems and functional material "inks" allows the extension of this mechanism to more high-tech applications. Herein, the recent growth in meniscus guided fountain pen approaches for benchtop micro/nanofabrication, which has occurred in the last decade, is discussed. Particular attention is given to the theory, equipment, and experimentation encompassing this unique direct writing approach. A detailed exploration of the diverse ink systems and functional device applications borne from this strategy is put forth to reveal its rapid expansion to a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. As such, this informative review is provided for researchers considering adoption of this recent advancement of a familiar technology.

  12. Deep into the Water Fountains. The case of IRAS 18043-2116

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, A. F.; Tafoya, D.; García López, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Rodríguez, L. F.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The formation of large-scale (hundreds to a few thousands of AU) bipolar structures in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars is poorly understood. The shape of these structures, which is traced by emission from fast molecular outflows, suggests that the dynamics at the innermost regions of these CSEs does not depend only on the energy of the radiation field of the central star. Aims: Multi-frequency observations toward a group of post-AGB sources known as Water Fountain (WF) nebulae can help to constrain the nature of the mechanism responsible for the launching and collimation of the fast molecular outlflows traced by high-velocity features of H2O maser emission. Methods: Deep into the WFs is an observational project based on the results of programs carried out with three telescope facilities: the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), and the Very Large Telescope (SINFONI-VLT). Results: Here we report the results of the observations toward the WF nebula IRAS 18043-2116: detection of radio continuum emission in the frequency range 1.5-8.0 GHz, H2O maser spectral features and radio continuum emission detected at 22 GHz, and H2 ro-vibrational emission lines detected at the near infrared. Conclusions: The high-velocity H2O maser spectral features and the shock-excited H2 emission could be produced in molecular layers that are swept up as a consequence of the propagation of a jet-driven wind. Using the derived H2 column density, we estimated a molecular mass-loss rate on the order of 10-9 M⊙ yr-1. On the other hand, if the radio continuum flux is generated as a consequence of the propagation of a thermal radio jet, the mass-loss rate associated with the outflowing ionized material is on the order of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1. A rotating disk could be a plausible explanation for the mass-loss rates we estimated.

  13. A Tripartite Fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B, of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin, Inhibit Adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 Fimbriae, and Protect Pigs against K88ac/Heat-Labile Toxin Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT192) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  14. Survey of A{sub LT'} asymmetries in semi-exclusive electron scattering on He4 and C12

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Protopopescu; et. Al.

    2005-02-21

    Single spin azimuthal asymmetries A{sub LT'} were measured at Jefferson Lab using 2.2 and 4.4 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C targets in the CLAS detector. A{sub LT'} is related to the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse interference and in quasifree nucleon knockout it provides an unambiguous signature for final state interactions (FSI). Experimental values of A{sub LT'} were found to be below 5%, typically |A{sub LT'}| < 3% for data with good statistical precision. Optical Model in Eikonal Approximation (OMEA) and Relativistic Multiple-Scattering Glauber Approximation (RMSGA) calculations are shown to be consistent with the measured asymmetries.

  15. Report on 27th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT27), Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, John; Kono, Kimitoshi

    2014-12-01

    The following is an extract from the Activity Report to the IUPAP General Assembly, November 2014 by Commision C5 (Low Temperature Physics). It provides an overview of LT27, reflecting the most important and recent developments.

  16. DNA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Torney, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated

  17. CysLT2 receptor activation is involved in LTC4-induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sekioka, Tomohiko; Kadode, Michiaki; Yonetomi, Yasuo; Kamiya, Akihiro; Fujita, Manabu; Nabe, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2017-01-05

    CysLT1 receptors are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the functional roles of CysLT2 receptors in this condition have not been determined. The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model of CysLT2 receptor-mediated LTC4-induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs and use this model to clarify the mechanism underlying response to such trapping. Because LTC4 is rapidly converted to LTD4 by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) under physiological conditions, S-hexyl GSH was used as a γ-GTP inhibitor. In anesthetized artificially ventilated guinea pigs with no S-hexyl GSH treatment, i.v. LTC4-induced bronchoconstriction was almost completely inhibited by montelukast, a CysLT1 receptor antagonist, but not by BayCysLT2RA, a CysLT2 receptor antagonist. The inhibitory effect of montelukast was diminished by treatment with S-hexyl GSH, whereas the effect of BayCysLT2RA was enhanced with increasing dose of S-hexyl GSH. Macroscopic and histological examination of lung tissue isolated from LTC4-/S-hexyl-GSH-treated guinea pigs revealed air-trapping expansion, particularly at the alveolar site. Inhaled LTC4 in conscious guinea pigs treated with S-hexyl GSH increased both airway resistance and airway hyperinflation. On the other hand, LTC4-induced air-trapping was only partially suppressed by treatment with the bronchodilator salmeterol. Although montelukast inhibition of LTC4-induced air-trapping was weak, treatment with BayCysLT2RA resulted in complete suppression of this air-trapping. Furthermore, BayCysLT2RA completely suppressed LTC4-induced airway vascular hyperpermeability. In conclusion, we found in this study that CysLT2 receptors mediate LTC4-induced bronchoconstriction and air-trapping in S-hexyl GSH-treated guinea pigs. It is therefore believed that CysLT2 receptors contribute to asthmatic response involving air-trapping.

  18. Sigma Theta Tau, DAaL/Texas Nurse Association, 2017 South Texas Nurse Imagemaker, Lt Col Jacqueline Killian

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-28

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGYU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 18 APR2017 1. Your paper, entitled Sigma Theta Tau, DAaL/Texas Nurses Association , 2017...submitted for review and approval.) 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Sigma Theta Tau, D AaL ffexas N urses Association , 2017 South...of 3 Pages Sigma Theta Tau, DAaL/Texas Nurses Association , 2017 South Texas Nurse lmagemaker, Lt Col Jacqueline Killian Lt Col Jacqueline Killian

  19. A role for inflammatory mediators in heterologous desensitization of CysLT1 receptor in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Capra, Valérie; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Barbieri, Silvia; Rovati, G. Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LT) are rapidly generated at sites of inflammation and, in addition to their role in asthma, rhinitis, and other immune disorders, are increasingly regarded as significant inflammatory factors in cancer, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular diseases. We recently demonstrated that in monocyte/macrophage–like U937 cells, extracellular nucleotides heterologously desensitize CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R)-induced Ca2+ transients. Given that monocytes express a number of other inflammatory and chemoattractant receptors, this study was aimed at characterizing transregulation between these different stimuli. We demonstrate that in U937 cells and in primary human monocytes, a series of inflammatory mediators activating Gi-coupled receptor (FPR1, BLT1) desensitize CysLT1R-induced Ca2+ response unidirectionally through activation of PKC. Conversely, PAF-R, exclusively coupled to Gq, cross-desensitizes CysLT1R without the apparent involvement of any kinase. Interestingly, Gs-coupled receptors (β2AR, H1/2R, EP2/4R) are also able to desensitize CysLT1R response through activation of PKA. Heterologous desensitization seems to affect mostly the Gi-mediated signaling of the CysLT1R. The hierarchy of desensitization among agonists may be important for leukocyte signal processing at the site of inflammation. Considering that monocytes/macrophages are likely to be the major source of cysteinyl-LT in many immunological and inflammatory processes, shedding light on how their receptors are regulated will certainly help to better understand the role of these cells in orchestrating this complex network of integrated signals. PMID:19965602

  20. Hotspots in Fountains on the Sun's Surface Help Explain Coronal Heating Mystery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image release January 6, 2010 Caption: Spicules on the sun, as observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These bursts of gas jet off the surface of the sun at 150,000 miles per hour and contain gas that reaches temperatures over a million degrees. GREENBELT, Md. -- Observations from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Japanese satellite Hinode show that some gas in the giant, fountain-like jets in the sun's atmosphere known as spicules can reach temperatures of millions of degrees. The finding offers a possible new framework for how the sun's high atmosphere gets so much hotter than the surface of the sun. What makes the high atmosphere, or corona, so hot – over a million degrees, compared to the sun surface's 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit -- remains a poorly understood aspect of the sun's complicated space weather system. That weather system can reach Earth, causing auroral lights and, if strong enough, disrupting Earth's communications and power systems. Understanding such phenomena, therefore, is an important step towards better protecting our satellites and power grids. "The traditional view is that all the heating happens higher up in the corona," says Dean Pesnell, who is SDO's project scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "The suggestion in this paper is that cool gas is being ejected from the sun's surface in spicules and getting heated on its way to the corona." Spicules were first named in the 1940s, but were hard to study in detail until recently, says Bart De Pontieu of Lockheed Martin's Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif. who is the lead author on a paper on this subject in the January 7, 2011 issue of Science magazine. In visible light, spicules can be seen to send large masses of so-called plasma – the electromagnetic gas that surrounds the sun – up through the lower solar atmosphere or photosphere. The amount of material sent up is stunning, some 100 times as much as streams away from

  1. Identification of a umuDC locus in Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.; Eisenstadt, E. )

    1989-07-01

    The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli is required for efficient mutagenesis by UV light and many other DNA-damaging agents. The existence of a umuDC analog in Salmonella typhimurium has been questioned. With DNA probes to the E. coli umuD and umuC genes, we detected, by Southern blot hybridization, sequences similar to both of these genes in S. typhimurium LT2. We also confirmed that the presence of cloned E. coli umuD enhances the UV mutability and resistance of S. typhimurium. Our data strongly suggest that S. typhimurium contains a functional umuDC operon.

  2. Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: CF-2-LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J E; Smith, J T; Mathis, M V

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the measurements and results of the Core Flood Tank 1A level monitor CF-2-LT2. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading which implied it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it were properly functioning.

  3. Otoprotective effects of ethosuximide in NOD/LtJ mice with age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sang, Lu; Zheng, Tihua; Min, Lingqian; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiufang; Entenman, Shami; Su, Yipeng; Zheng, Qingyin

    2017-07-01

    Despite long-term efforts to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for age-related hearing loss (AHL), there is currently no available treatment strategy able to provide a cure. Apoptotic cell death, including that of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea has been proposed to be the classic theory behind the development of AHL. As calcium signaling plays key roles in signal transduction in apoptosis, in this study, we selected ethosuximide, which is able to block T-type calcium (Ca2+ion) channels, suppressing Ca2+. We hypothesized that the apoptotic pathway may be blocked through the inhibition of T-type Ca2+ channels in cochlear cells in NOD/LtJ mice. NOD/LtJ mice were divided into 2 groups as follows: the ethosuximide-treated and untreated (control) groups. Ethosuximide was administered by intraperitoneal injection every other day from post-natal day seven (P7) until the mice were 8 weeks of age. Following treatment, auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) thresholds and distortion product oto-acoustic emission (DPOAE) of the mice in the 2 groups were measured at different time points. Morphometric analysis and the expression of genes involved in the T-type Ca2+-mediated apoptotic pathway were monitored. The ABR and DPOAE results revealed that the NOD/LtJ mice exhibited early-onset and rapidly progressive AHL. A histological examination revealed that hair cell degeneration coincided with the progression of hearing loss. Hair cell and SGN was were significantly lower and auditory function was significantly improved in the ethosuximide-treated group compared to the untreated group. Our data thus indicate that ethosuximide prevents the degeneration of cochlear cells by regulating the expression of genes in apoptotic pathways. Our findings suggest that activating the T-type Ca2+ channel and downstream genes may be key pathological mechanisms responsible for AHL in NOD/LtJ mice.

  4. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  5. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of US Water Sys...

  6. Dynamics of a lava fountain revealed by geophysical, geochemical and thermal satellite measurements: The case of the 10 April 2011 Mt Etna eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Caltabiano, T.; Currenti, G.; Del Negro, C.; Gambino, S.; Ganci, G.; Giammanco, S.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Salerno, G.; Spampinato, S.; Boschi, E.

    2011-12-01

    Geophysical (tilt, seismic tremor and gravity signals), geochemical (crater SO2 flux) and infrared satellite measurements are presented and discussed to track the temporal evolution of the lava fountain episode occurring at Mt Etna volcano on 10 April 2011. The multi-disciplinary approach provides insight into a gas-rich magma source trapped in a shallow storage zone inside the volcano edifice. This generated the fast ascending gas-magma dispersed flow feeding the lava fountain and causing the depressurization of a deeper magma storage. Satellite thermal data allowed estimation of the amount of erupted lava, which, summed to the tephra volume, yielded a total volume of erupted products of about 1 × 106 m3. Thanks to the daylight occurrence of this eruptive episode, the SO2 emission rate was also estimated, showing a degassing cycle reaching a peak of 15,000 Mg d-1 with a mean daily value of ˜5,700 Mg d-1. The SO2 data from the previous fountain episode on 17-18 February to 10 April 2011, yielded a cumulative degassed magma volume of about ˜10.5 × 106 m3, indicating a ratio of roughly 10:1 between degassed and erupted volumes. This volumetric balance, differently from those previously estimated during different styles of volcanic activities with long-term (years) recharging periods and middle-term (weeks to months) effusive eruptions, points toward the predominant role played by the gas phase in generating and driving this lava fountain episode.

  7. Quality of water in the alluvial aquifer and tributary alluvium of the Fountain Creek valley, southwestern El Paso County, Colorado, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer in Fountain Creek Valley between Colorado Springs and Widefield is the source for several public water-supply systems. Since 1981, concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (nitrate) have exceeded the drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter in several areas of the aquifer. Water-quality data collected quarterly from August 1991 through October 1992 from a network of 63 wells were used to define the spatial and temporal variability of dissolved- oxygen, dissolved-solids, major ions, and nitrogen concentrations in the aquifer. Ground water generally was well oxygenated in the main body of the aquifer, but anoxic conditions occurred near the interface of the aquifer and Fountain Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally were larger, and nitrate concentrations generally were smaller near Fountain Creek than in the main body of the aquifer. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally decreased and nitrate concentrations generally increased with distance from the creek. Ground-water flow toward Fountain Creek and relatively small dissolved-solids concentrations in the main body of the aquifer indicated that the primary source of recharge to the aquifer was surface recharge from precipitation and lawn irrigation. Natural soil nitrogen, lawn fertilizers, and leakage from industrial-waste lagoons seem to be major sources of nitrate in ground water.

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of US Water Sys...

  9. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to

  10. A new intense lava fountain episode at Voragine crater (Mt. Etna): the event of 3 December 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Bonadonna, Costanza; Cioni, Raffaello; Cristaldi, Antonio; Pascual, Aurélie Joy; Russo, Alessandro; Scollo, Simona

    2016-04-01

    On 3 December 2015 Voragine crater, one of the five summit craters of Mt. Etna (Italy), produced a powerful lava fountain. The last paroxysmal episodes from this crater had occurred on July 1998 and September 1999; both events had been very intense, the first one classified as subPlinian and the latter causing significant disruption to road traffic due dense tephra sedimentation. Afterward, the Voragine entered in a period of relative quiescence interrupted by short events of Strombolian activity and weak ash emissions. In August 2015 the crater resumed its activity with discontinuous ash puffs that were followed by periods of relatively intense ash blasts in September. In October, this activity was clearly replaced by weak, pulsating Strombolian explosions confined inside the crater, which was several tens of meter deep. Gradually the Strombolian blasts became more continuous and intense and lapilli started to sediment around the crater rim. In the night between 2 and 3 December, the increase of seismic tremor coevally to the Strombolian activity heralded the lava fountain episode. During the paroxysm, that lasted around 40 minutes, vigorous magma jets were also produced by the adjacent Bocca Nuova summit crater, contributing to form a unique eruption column up to at least 7-8 km above the volcano and dispersed to the NE. Lighting was recurrently observed inside the column. Field survey, carried out between 3 and 5 December from a distance of 5 km from the vent, allowed to map the fallout dispersal and collect tephra samples. Estimation of uncertainty associated with ash sampling were also performed. Due to low-intense winds, the fallout mostly affected the area close to the volcanic slopes, but it also reached both the Tyrrhenian Sea to the N and the Ionian Sea to the E, more than 100 km of distance from the crater. Measurements of shape and density on the largest clasts collected within the first km from the Voragine were performed. Furthermore, we measured the

  11. A laser-cooled cesium fountain frequency standard and a measurement of the frequency shift due to ultra-cold collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibble, Kurt; Kasapi, Steven; Chu, Steven

    1993-01-01

    A frequency standard based on an atomic fountain of cesium atoms may have an accuracy of 10(exp -16) due to longer interaction times and smaller anticipated systematic errors. All of the known systematic effects that now limit the accuracy of the Cs frequency standard increase either linearly or as some higher power of the atom's velocity. The one systematic frequency shift which is dramatically different is the frequency shift due to the collisions between the laser cooled atoms. At a temperature of a few micro-K, the de Broglie wavelength (lambda(sub deB) = h/p, where h is Planck's constant and p is the momentum of the atom) is much larger than the scale of the interatomic potential. Under these conditions the collision cross sections can be as large as (lambda(sub deB)(sup 2))/Pi and the frequency shift due to these collisions was recently calculated. In our Cs atomic fountain, we laser cooled and trapped 10(exp 10) Cs atoms in 0.4 s. By shifting the frequencies of the laser beams, the atoms were launched upwards at 2.5 m/s and a fraction of the atoms were optically pumped into the F=3 ground state. The unwanted atoms in the F=4 ground state were removed from the fountain with radiation pressure from a laser beam tuned to excite only those atoms. The Cs atoms in the F=3 state traveled ballistically upwards, were excited by the microwave cavity, and then returned back through the same cavity in the atomic fountain configuration. By varying the cold atom density, a density dependent shift of -12.9 +/- 0.7 mHz or -1.4 x 10-12 for an average fountain density of (2.7 +/- 1.5) 10(exp 9) atoms/cm(sup 3) was measured.

  12. FOREWORD: 27th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT27)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, Esteban

    2014-12-01

    The Low Temperature Physics Conference is an international event held every three years, under the auspices of the IUPAP through its Commission C5 on Low Temperature Physics. These conferences aim at the exchange of information and views among the members of the international scientific community in the general field of Low Temperature Physics, promoting the excellence of invited and contributed presentations. It is a tradition that LT offers updates on the various topics, provided by the highest representatives of the field, as well as oral and poster contributions in the different areas. LT27 was the first conference of the series that took place in South America. It was therefore a particular challenge for us and it is a source of pride to present these Proceedings as proof of the wonderful scientific atmosphere at the meeting. We wish to acknowledge our host institutions, sponsors, and the many people whose work made this meeting possible. Our appreciation goes to all of them, as well as to speakers and attendants.

  13. Resonant cavities for efficient LT-GaAs photoconductors operating at λ = 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billet, M.; Latzel, P.; Pavanello, F.; Ducournau, G.; Lampin, J.-F.; Peytavit, E.

    2016-10-01

    We show that photoconductors based on low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) can be efficiently operated by 1.55 μm telecom wavelength by using metallic mirror based optical cavities. Two different semi-transparent front mirrors are compared: the first one is a thin gold layer, whereas the second one consists of a gold grating. Light absorption in grating mirror based optical cavities is numerically, analytically, and experimentally investigated allowing for an appropriate optical design. We show a 3 times improvement of the LT-GaAs photoconductor photoresponse by using, as front mirror, the gold grating once compared with the thin gold layer. It reaches around 0.5 mA/W under continuous wave, whereas a transient photoresistivity (Ron) as low as 5 Ω is deduced from dc photocurrents measured under femtosecond pulsed laser excitation. This work paves the way to efficient and reliable optoelectronics systems for GHz or THz waves sampling driven by 1.55 μm pulsed lasers widely available.

  14. Upward Bound: An Untapped Fountain Of Youth Wanting To Learn About Math And Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, L. C.; Svelling, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    , physics, math, and engineering. In addition, learning science through inquiry and experimentation lends tangible examples to abstract principles. Our curricula (available on-line for sharing) are comprised of (1) modular classroom lesson plans, (2) teacher tutorials, and (3) hands-on laboratory experiments. Each set of summer classes has a theme; the first set of summer classes centered on factors that affect climate on any planet. For example, students measured solar activity by counting sunspots and learned about the greenhouse effect by conducting experiments with colored bottles. The second summer focused on how the electromagnetic spectrum is fundamental to remote sensing. During our summer 2009 program the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter launched, and with its many instruments served as a shining example of how the electromagnetic spectrum is used to study planetary bodies. Thus, NASA archived and student-collected data sets used in a PBL setting provide the basic foundation for helping students learn science and math concepts, while the UB programs ensure sustainability by providing a fountain of youth who want to learn.

  15. Inactivation of TNF/LT locus alters mouse metabolic response to concentrated ambient PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ziying; Chen, Minjie; Zhou, Huifen; Tharakan, Anui; Wang, Xiaoke; Qiu, Lianglin; Liang, Shuai; Qin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yuhao; Wang, Wanjun; Xu, Yanyi; Ying, Zhekang

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. This is widely believed to be attributable to PM2.5 exposure-induced pulmonary and subsequent systemic inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), lymphotoxin α (LTα), and lymphotoxin β (LTβ) are three homologous pro-inflammatory cytokines, each with both unique and redundant activities in inflammation. Their role in PM2.5 exposure-induced inflammation and adverse cardiometabolic effects has to be determined. LTα/TNFα/LTβ triple-knockout (TNF/LT KO) and wildtype (WT) mice were exposed to concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) for 5 months. Lung pathological analysis revealed that TNF/LT deficiency reduced CAP exposure-induced pulmonary inflammation. However, glucose homeostasis assessments showed that TNF/LT deficiency significantly aggravated CAP exposure-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Consistent with glucose homeostasis assessments, CAP exposure significantly increased the body weight and adiposity of TNF/LT KO but not WT mice. In contrast to its body weight effects, CAP exposure reduced food intake of WT but not TNF/LT KO mice. On the other hand, CAP exposure induced marked fat droplet accumulation in brown adipose tissues of WT mice and significantly decreased their uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression, and these effects were markedly exacerbated in TNF/LT KO mice. The present study suggests that TNF/LT deficiency influences PM2.5 exposure-induced response of energy metabolism through alterations in both food intake and energy expenditure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation-Based e-Learning Tools for Science,Engineering, and Technology Education(SimBeLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Doyle V.; Cherner, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The focus of Project SimBeLT is the research, development, testing, and dissemination of a new type of simulation-based integrated e-learning set of modules for two-year college technical and engineering curricula in the areas of thermodynamics, fluid physics, and fiber optics that can also be used in secondary schools and four-year colleges. A collection of sophisticated virtual labs is the core component of the SimBeLT modules. These labs will be designed to enhance the understanding of technical concepts and underlying fundamental principles of these topics, as well as to master certain performance based skills online. SimBeLT software will help educators to meet the National Science Education Standard that "learning science and technology is something that students do, not something that is done to them". A major component of Project SimBeLT is the development of multi-layered technology-oriented virtual labs that realistically mimic workplace-like environments. Dynamic data exchange between simulations will be implemented and links with instant instructional messages and data handling tools will be realized. A second important goal of Project SimBeLT labs is to bridge technical skills and scientific knowledge by enhancing the teaching and learning of specific scientific or engineering subjects. SimBeLT builds upon research and outcomes of interactive teaching strategies and tools developed through prior NSF funding (http://webphysics.nhctc.edu/compact/index.html) (Project SimBeLT is partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-0603277)

  17. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  18. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  19. Decadal evolution of a degassing magma reservoir unravelled from fire fountains produced at Etna volcano (Italy) between 1989 and 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniolle, Sylvie; Gaudemer, Yves

    2012-04-01

    Between 1989 and 2001, five eruptions at Etna displayed a regular alternation between repose periods and episodes rich in gas, termed quasi-fire fountains and consisting of a series of Strombolian explosions sometimes leading to a fire fountain. This behaviour results from the coalescence of a foam layer trapped at the top of the reservoir which was periodically rebuilt prior to each episode (Vergniolle and Jaupart, J Geophys Res 95:2793-2809, 1990). Visual observations of fire fountains are combined with the foam dynamics to estimate the five degassing parameters characteristic of the degassing reservoir, i.e. the number of bubbles, gas volume fraction, bubble diameter, reservoir thickness and reservoir volume. The study of decadal cycles of eruptive patterns (Allard et al., Earth Sci Rev 78:85-114, 2006) suggests that the first eruption with fire fountains occurred in 1995 while the last one happened in 2001. The number of bubbles and the gas volume fraction increase smoothly from the beginning of the cycle (1995) to its end (2001). The increasing number of bubbles per cubic metre, from 0.61-20×105 to 0.1-3.4×109, results from cooling of the magma within the reservoir. The simultaneously decreasing bubble diameter, from 0.67-0.43 to 0.30-0.19 mm, is related to the decreasing amount of dissolved volatiles. Meanwhile, the thickness and the volume of the degassing reservoir diminish, from values typical of the magma reservoir to values characteristic of a very thin bubbly layer, marking the quasi-exhaustion of volatiles. The magma reservoir has a slender vertical shape, with a maximum thickness of 3,300-8,200 m and a radius of 240 m (Vergniolle 2008), making its detection from seismic studies difficult. Its volume, at most 0.58-1.4 km3, is in agreement with geochemical studies (0.5 km3) (Le Cloarec and Pennisi, J Volcanol Geotherm Res 108:141-155, 2001). The time evolution of both the total gas volume expelled per eruption, and the inter-eruptive gas flux results

  20. Imaging and spectroscopy of secondary electrons from AlN and β-SiAlON ceramics using fountain detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yujin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Kimura, Takashi; Iwai, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the bright contrast of insulating ceramics in secondary electron (SE) image taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the low-pass secondary electron signals and images of conductive AlN and insulating β-SiAlON powders taken by fountain detector (FD) were inspected. It was found that the background component of β-SiAlON is originally strong. This component may come from the SE acceleration according to the charging. The low energy SEs of 5-20 eV were strong in AlN particles. According to the wide acceptance angle of FSED, we could not detect clear energy shift in SE spectra. These observations suggest that the bright contrast of insulating materials is not an intrinsic character of insulators but the SE3 contribution.

  1. Testing Periodic Local Position Invariance Using Long-Term Comparison of the Syrte Atomic Fountains and H-Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, M. E.; Stanwix, P. L.; McFerran, J. J.; Guena, J.; Abgrall, M.; Bize, S.; Clairon, A.; Laurent, Ph.; Rosenbusch, P.; Rovera, D.; Santarelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    The frequencies of Cs and Rb fountain clocks have been compared to various H-masers to search for periodic changes correlated with the gravitational potential and boost with respect to the cosmic microwave background. The data span about eight years and the main sources of long-term noise are the offsets and linear drifts associated with the H-masers. To circumvent these effects we apply a numerical derivative to the data, which significantly reduces the standard error. We determine a limit for the Local Position Invariance (LPI) coefficient with respect to gravity to be 4.8×10-6 and 10-5 for a Cs-H and Rb-H comparison, respectively. From the same data the boost LPI coefficients were measured to parts in 1011. From these results and others, independent limits on all coefficients of the boost violation vector with respect to fundamental constant invariance were determined to parts in 1010.

  2. Measurement of the blackbody radiation shift of the {sup 133}Cs hyperfine transition in an atomic fountain

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Lorini, Luca; Micalizio, Salvatore; Godone, Aldo

    2004-09-01

    We used a Cs fountain to measure the Stark shift of the ground-state hyperfine transition frequency in cesium (9.2 GHz) due to the electric field of the blackbody radiation. The relative shift at 300 K deduced from our measurements, including the leading and the second-order term in temperature, is (-1.45{+-}0.09)x10{sup -14} and agrees with our recent theoretical evaluation (-1.51{+-}0.07)x10{sup -14} [Micalizio et al. Phys. Rev. A 69, 053401 (2004)]. These values differ from that currently used (-1.735{+-}0.003)x10{sup -14}, with significant implications on frequency standards accuracy, on clocks comparison and on a variety of high-precision physics tests, such as the time stability of fundamental constants.

  3. Tianma 65-m telescope detection of new OH maser features towards the water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Yang, Kai; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Wu, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Rong-Bin; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Wang, Jin-Qing; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Ye; Yung, Bosco H. K.

    2017-07-01

    We report the results of the OH maser observation towards the water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 using the newly built Shanghai Tianma 65-m Radio Telescope. We observed the three OH ground state transition lines at frequencies of 1612, 1665 and 1667 MHz. Comparing with the spectra of previous observations, we find new maser spectral components at velocity channels largely shifted from the systemic velocity: the velocity offsets of the newly found components lie in the range 20-40 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity. Besides maser variability, another possible interpretation for the newly detected maser features is that part of the molecular gas in the circumstellar envelope is accelerated. The acceleration is probably caused by the passage of a high-velocity molecular jet, which has been detected in previous Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations in the H2O maser line.

  4. High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bize, S.; Sortais, Y.; Santos, M. S.; Mandache, C.; Clairon, A.; Salomon, C.

    1999-03-01

    We describe the operation of a laser-cooled rubidium 87Rb frequency standard. We present a new measurement of the 87Rb hyperfine frequency with a 1.3 × 10-14 relative accuracy, by comparison with a Cs fountain primary standard. The measured 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting is ν87 = 6 834 682 610.90429(9) Hz. This value differs from previously published values (see Essen L., Hope E. G. and Sutcliffe D., Nature 189 1961 298; Penselin S., Moran T., Cohen W. and Wscinkler G., Phys. Rev. 127 1962 524; Arditi M. and Cerez P. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-21 1972 391) by about 2 - 3 Hz and is 104 times more accurate. Because of the low collisional shift in 87Rb, future improvements may lead to a stability of 1 × 10-14τ-1/2 and a relative accuracy in the 10-17 range.

  5. Determination of microbial quality and plasmid-mediated multidrug resistant bacteria in fountain drinking water sources in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akturk, Sayim; Dincer, Sadik; Toroglu, Sevil

    2012-11-01

    The bacterial contamination as the total aerobic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliform numbers were determined and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in seasonally collected water samples from fifteen different stations placed in Adana-Tufanbeyli road line during March 2008 - January 2009. In addition, antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were examined against frequently used antibiotics, and analyzed plasmid DNAof multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) isolates. Total aerobic bacteria in fountain water samples was determined as 3 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) and total and fecal coliforms were determined 460 MPN/100 ml. Results obtained from biochemical analysis showed that 121 of the isolates were Proteus vulgaris, 69 Escherichia coli, 51 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 28 Citrobacter spp. According to these results, the existence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in stations 2 and 10, and Streptococcus faecalis in stations 11 and 15 respectively were confirmed. Clostridium perfringens was not detected in water samples. A total of 273 isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by agar disc diffusion methods. A total of sixteen antibiotics were used for determination of antibiotic resistance of isolates. Resistance to bacitracin, vancomycine, cephalothin and ampicillin was detected in 77, 77, 63 and 50%, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) value > or = 0.25 was determined in 68.4% of identified 273 isolates and meaning of this percentage were resistant to four and more antibiotics. Plasmid DNA was isolated from 22 isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 taken randomly by agarose-gel electrophoresis, some of them contain a high-molecular weight plasmid DNA. Highlight of our study that the appearance of potential antibiotic resistances in fountain drinking water requires increased surveillance for risk assessment and prevention strategies to protect public health.

  6. Repeated detection of microbes in beverages dispensed from soda fountain machines and the effect of flushing on microbial density.

    PubMed

    Godard, Renee D; Sharma, Puja; Wagner, Carlie Jo; Wilson, C Morgan; Fleming-Haddock, Amie; Beach, Rebecca L

    2013-05-15

    Few studies have examined patterns of microbial contamination in soda fountain beverages. In this study, patterns of microbial contamination in beverages dispensed from soda fountain machines (SFMs) sampled in June 2009 and then again 13 months later were compared. Over 70% of beverages contained microbes in both years, suggesting that contamination of beverages dispensed from SFMs can continue for long periods of time. In addition, the impact of disinfecting the dispensing nozzles and plastic tubing of SFMs, as well as the impact of machine use on microbial contamination was assessed. Managers from 26 establishments (fast-food and convenience stores) were interviewed about their SFM disinfecting practices and no correlation was found between the self-reported disinfecting practices and levels of microbial contamination in beverages dispensed from SFMs. Furthermore, in a direct study of two SFMs with an established disinfecting regimen, CFU/mL in beverages increased significantly immediately after disinfecting of plastic tubing yet returned to pre-disinfecting concentrations within 11 days. These results suggest that disinfecting may disturb microbial communities, resulting in increased planktonic microbes, but not the ultimate removal of communities themselves. Additionally, samples of a sugar and a diet soda were collected from 15 different SFMs before and after dispensing of ~0.95 L (the approximate size of a large beverage cup). Samples collected before dispensing this volume had significantly higher microbial counts than those collected after, suggesting that planktonic microbes in the beverage lines had been reduced by flushing. As there are currently no regulations regarding the disinfecting of SFM tubing or periodic inspections of beverages dispensed from SFMs, it would be valuable for consumers to encourage increased surveillance of SFMs, and to dispense some beverage before filling their cups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hawaiian fissure fountains 1: decoding deposits-episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcheta, C.E.; Houghton, B.F.; Swanson, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deposits from episode 1 of the 1969–1974 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provide an exceptional opportunity to study processes of low intensity Hawaiian fissure fountains. Episode 1 lava flows passed through dense forest that had little impact on flow dynamics; in contrast, the pattern of spatter preservation was strongly influenced by the forest (through the formation of tree molds) and the preexisting topography. A low, near-continuous spatter rampart is present upwind and upslope, on the north side of the fissure. Most of the pyroclastic products, however, fell downwind to the south of the fissure, but little was preserved due to two processes: (1) incorporation of proximal spatter in rheomorphic lava flows 10–20 m from the vents, and (2) the downslope transport of cooler spatter falling on top of these flows beyond 20 m from vent. The lava flow field itself shows a complex history. Initially, discharge from the fissure exceeded the transport capacity of the southern drainage pathways, and lava ponded dynamically to a maximum height of 4 m for 40–120 min, until fountains began to decline. During declining discharge, lava flowed both southward away from the fissure and increasingly back into the vents. There is a clear “lava-shed” or delineation between where lava drained northwards back into the fissure, and where it continued flowing to the south. The 1969 deposits suggest that care is needed when products of less well-documented eruptions are analyzed, as postdepositional transport of spatter may preclude the formation of classic paired (symmetrical) ramparts.

  8. Nature's Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Vanessa J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2008-10-01

    We propose that the mathematical structures related to the `universal rewrite system' define a universal process applicable to Nature, which we may describe as `Nature's code'. We draw attention here to such concepts as 4 basic units, 64- and 20-unit structures, symmetry-breaking and 5-fold symmetry, chirality, double 3-dimensionality, the double helix, the Van der Waals force and the harmonic oscillator mechanism, and our explanation of how they necessarily lead to self-aggregation, complexity and emergence in higher-order systems. Biological concepts, such as translation, transcription, replication, the genetic code and the grouping of amino acids appear to be driven by fundamental processes of this kind, and it would seem that the Platonic solids, pentagonal symmetry and Fibonacci numbers have significant roles in organizing `Nature's code'.

  9. Show Code.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    "Let's get one thing straight: there is no such thing as a show code," my attending asserted, pausing for effect. "You either try to resuscitate, or you don't. None of this halfway junk." He spoke so loudly that the two off-service consultants huddled at computers at the end of the unit looked up… We did four rounds of compressions and pushed epinephrine twice. It was not a long code. We did good, strong compressions and coded this man in earnest until the end. Toward the final round, though, as I stepped up to do compressions, my attending looked at me in a deep way. It was a look in between willing me as some object under his command and revealing to me everything that lay within his brash, confident surface but could not be spoken. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. Adjustment of L-T4 substitutive therapy in pregnant women with subclinical, overt or post-ablative hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Verga, Uberta; Bergamaschi, Silvia; Cortelazzi, Donatella; Ronzoni, Stefania; Marconi, Anna Maria; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo

    2009-05-01

    Maternal hyperthyrotropinaemia is associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Physiological changes during pregnancy require an increased production of thyroid hormones (or an increase in daily substitutive doses of L-T4 in hypothyroid patients) to meet the maternal and foetal needs. The aim of the study was to evaluate variations of substitutive L-T4 doses that are able to maintain serum TSH between 0.5 and 2.5 mU/l in pregnant women with subclinical- (SH), overt- (OH) and post-ablative (PH) hypothyroidism. This was a retrospective study on hypothyroid pregnant women referred to the out-patient department between January 2004 and December 2006. A total of 185 pregnant women were studied during gestation; 155 patients (76 SH, 52 OH, 27 PH) were already on L-T4 before conception and 30 (SH) started L-T4 therapy during gestation. Thyroid function and body weight were evaluated every 4-6 weeks. In the group of patients already treated before conception, 134 (86.5%) increased L-T4 doses during gestation one or more times, eight (6%) reached a definitive therapeutic dosage within the 12th week of pregnancy, 64 (47.8%) within the 20th week and 62 (46.2%) within the 31st week. This initial L-T4 increase at the first evaluation during pregnancy was 22.9 +/- 9.8 microg/day. The final L-T4 doses were significantly different depending on the aetiology, being 101.0 +/- 24.6 microg/day in SH, 136.8 +/- 30.4 microg/day in OH and 159.0 +/- 24.6 microg/day in PH. The per cent increase of L-T4, expressed as Delta% of absolute dose, was +70% in SH, +45% in OH and +49% in PH as compared to baseline dose. In SH patients diagnosed during gestation, the starting L-T4 dose was higher than L-T4 dose before pregnancy of SH patients already treated (75.4 +/- 14.5 and 63.2 +/- 20.1 microg/day, respectively), whereas the final doses were similar. L-T4 dose was increased one or more times in 24 patients (80%), 8 reached the definitive dosage within the second

  11. Early long-term L-T3 replacement rescues mitochondria and prevents ischemic cardiac remodelling in rats.

    PubMed

    Forini, Francesca; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Ardehali, Hossein; Pucci, Angela; Cecchetti, Federica; Ghanefar, Mohsen; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Ichikawa, Yoshihiko; Nannipieri, Monica; Recchia, Fabio A; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2011-03-01

    3,5,3'-Levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3) is essential for DNA transcription, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, but its circulating levels rapidly decrease after myocardial infarction (MI). The main aim of our study was to test whether an early and sustained normalization of L-T3 serum levels after MI exerts myocardial protective effects through a mitochondrial preservation. Seventy-two hours after MI induced by anterior interventricular artery ligation, rats were infused with synthetic L-T3 (1.2 μg/kg/day) or saline over 4 weeks. Compared to saline, L-T3 infusion restored FT3 serum levels at euthyroid state (3.0 ± 0.2 versus 4.2 ± 0.3 pg/ml), improved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (39.5 ± 2.5 versus 65.5 ± 6.9%), preserved LV end-systolic wall thickening in the peri-infarct zone (6.34 ± 3.1 versus 33.7 ± 6.21%) and reduced LV infarct-scar size by approximately 50% (all P < 0.05). Moreover, L-T3 significantly increased angiogenesis and cell survival and enhanced the expression of nuclear-encoded transcription factors involved in these processes. Finally, L-T3 significantly increased the expression of factors involved in mitochondrial DNA transcription and biogenesis, such as hypoxic inducible factor-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, in the LV peri-infarct zone. To further explore mechanisms of L-T3 protective effects, we exposed isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes to H(2)O(2) and found that L-T3 rescued mitochondrial biogenesis and function and protected against cell death via a mitoKATP dependent pathway. Early and sustained physiological restoration of circulating L-T3 levels after MI halves infarct scar size and prevents the progression towards heart failure. This beneficial effect is likely due to enhanced capillary formation and mitochondrial protection.

  12. THE HAWAII INFRARED PARALLAX PROGRAM. I. ULTRACOOL BINARIES AND THE L/T TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.

    2012-08-01

    We present the first results from our high-precision infrared (IR) astrometry program at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We measure parallaxes for 83 ultracool dwarfs (spectral types M6-T9) in 49 systems, with a median uncertainty of 1.1 mas (2.3%) and as good as 0.7 mas (0.8%). We provide the first parallaxes for 48 objects in 29 systems, and for another 27 objects in 17 systems, we significantly improve upon published results, with a median (best) improvement of 1.7 times (5 times). Three systems show astrometric perturbations indicative of orbital motion; two are known binaries (2MASS J0518-2828AB and 2MASS J1404-3159AB) and one is spectrally peculiar (SDSS J0805+4812). In addition, we present here a large set of Keck adaptive optics imaging that more than triples the number of binaries with L6-T5 components that have both multi-band photometry and distances. Our data enable an unprecedented look at the photometric properties of brown dwarfs as they cool through the L/T transition. Going from Almost-Equal-To L8 to Almost-Equal-To T4.5, flux in the Y and J bands increases by Almost-Equal-To 0.7 mag and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 mag, respectively (the Y- and J-band 'bumps'), while flux in the H, K, and L' bands declines monotonically. This wavelength dependence is consistent with cloud clearing over a narrow range of temperature, since condensate opacity is expected to dominate at 1.0-1.3 {mu}m. Interestingly, despite more than doubling the near-IR census of L/T transition objects, we find a conspicuous paucity of objects on the color-magnitude diagram just blueward of the late-L/early-T sequence. This 'L/T gap' occurs at (J - H){sub MKO} 0.1-0.3 mag, (J - K){sub MKO} = 0.0-0.4 mag, and implies that the last phases of cloud evolution occur rapidly. Finally, we provide a comprehensive update to the absolute magnitudes of ultracool dwarfs as a function of spectral type using a combined sample of 314 objects.

  13. Polarized Structure Function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for $p({\\vec e},e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Raue, Brian; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Carman, Daniel; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anciant, Eric; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asavapibhop, Burin; Asryan, Gegham; Audit, Gerard; Auger, Thierry; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Casey, Liam; Cetina, Catalina; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dragovitsch, Peter; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girard, Pascal; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gothe, Ralf; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hu, Jicun; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, Konstantin; MacCormick, Marion; Manak, Joseph; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Peterson, Gerald; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Sayre, Donald; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Shafi, Aziz; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Simionatto, Sebastio; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Taylor, Shawn; Tedeschi, David; Thoma, Ulrike; Thompson, Richard; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Wang,

    2008-06-01

    The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.

  14. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  15. Polarized structure function σLT' for H1(e→,e'K+)Λ in the nucleon resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseripour, R.; Raue, B. A.; Carman, D. S.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Baillie, N.; Ball, J. P.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Blaszczyk, L.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchigny, S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Careccia, S. L.; Casey, L.; Cetina, C.; Chen, S.; Cheng, L.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Coltharp, P.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; Dale, D.; Dashyan, N.; Masi, R. De; Vita, R. De; Sanctis, E. De; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Dennis, L.; Deur, A.; Dhuga, K. S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedotov, G.; Feldman, G.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Funsten, H.; Garçcon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kalantarians, N.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kossov, M.; Krahn, Z.; Kramer, L. H.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, M.; Manak, J. J.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McAleer, S.; McKinnon, B.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mibe, T.; Mikhailov, K.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrow, S. A.; Moteabbed, M.; Mueller, J.; Munevar, E.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Paterson, C.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Sayre, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sharov, D.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stokes, B. E.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thompson, R.; Tkabladze, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2008-06-01

    The first measurements of the polarized structure function σLT' for the reaction H1(e→,e'K+)Λ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to W=2.05 GeV for central values of Q2 of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV2, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. σLT' is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and nonresonant processes. The results for σLT' are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for σLT, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in σLT' is observed in the high Q2 data at W≈1.9 GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.

  16. Validation of Turbulence Models for the Beggar Code in Unsteady Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    the operation of Beggar and Magdi Rizk and Alex Dobrinski for their insight into the the Beggar code. I would like to thank LtCol Raymond Maple for his...1995-1691. June 1995. 30. Rizk, Magdi , et al. “Beggar - A Store Separation Predictive Tool.” AIAA 32nd Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit . Number

  17. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  18. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  19. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  20. Inducible pathway is required for mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Orrego, C.; Eisenstadt, E.

    1987-06-01

    UV mutability of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was eliminated in the presence of a multicopy plasmid carrying the Escherichia coli lexA/sup +/ gene. This result suggests that inducible, SOS-like functions are required for UV mutagenesis in S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium strains carrying either point or deletion mutations in topA had previously been shown to lose their mutability by UV or methyl methanesulfonate. Mitomycin C induction of the Phi(mucB'-lacZ') fusion (a DNA damage-inducible locus carried on plasmid pSE205) in S. typhimurium topA was normal, suggesting that RecA is activated in topA mutants. These observations lead the authors deduce that S. typhimurium has at least one DNA damage-inducible locus in addition to recA that is required for UV mutability.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen substrate utilization by archival Salmonella typhimurium LT2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Breca S; Edwards, Kelly K; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2002-09-08

    A collection of over 20,000 Salmonella typhimurium LT2 mutants, sealed for four decades in agar stabs, is a unique resource for study of genetic and evolutionary changes. Previously, we reported extensive diversity among descendants including diversity in RpoS and catalase synthesis, diversity in genome size, protein content, and reversion from auxotrophy to prototrophy. Extensive and variable losses and a few gains of catabolic functions were observed by this standardized method. Thus, 95 catabolic reactions were scored in each of three plates in wells containing specific carbon and nitrogen substrates. While the phenotype microarray did not reveal a distinct pattern of mutation among the archival isolates, the data did confirm that various isolates have used multiple strategies to survive in the archival environment. Data from the MacConkey plates verified the changes in carbohydrate metabolism observed in the Biolog system.

  2. A direct probe of cloud holes at the L/T transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buenzli, Esther

    2014-10-01

    Understanding cloud formation, evolution and dispersal is one of the biggest challenges in the field of substellar atmospheres. At the transition from L to T type brown dwarfs, thick silicate and iron clouds disappear below the visible photosphere and the spectra are altered dramatically despite little change in effective temperature. Observed strengthening of the FeH band through the transition has indicated an opening of cloud holes rather than gradual sinking of the clouds. This view has been supported by the discovery of brown dwarfs with photometric variability attributed to patchy cloud cover. However, our recent spectral variability observations have complicated the picture because patchy cloud models with cloud holes currently cannot reproduce the color variations and spectral variability signatures. Whether this implies an absence of cloud holes (in contradiction to the interpretation of the observed strengthening of FeH) or is because models neglect other mechanisms that can affect the colors (eg temperature anomalies) remains unclear. Here, we propose WFC3/G102 spectral variability observations of the very nearby L/T transition benchmark binary Luhman 16AB, the only known variable brown dwarfs in a binary system. These observations target the FeH band. As the FeH molecule contains the cloud forming atom Fe, it is a direct tracer of the cloud holes. By comparing the variability amplitude in the FeH band with the surrounding continuum, as well as between the L and T component at different stages of cloud evolution, we will obtain direct evidence whether the formation of cloud holes is indeed the driving mechanism behind cloud dispersal at the L/T transition.

  3. Source process of cyclic fire fountaining at Mt. Etna in 2000: a multidsciplinary study of the June 14 (63rd) event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.; Alparone, S.; Andronico, D.; Burton, M.; Lodato, L.; Murè, F.; Zgroi, T.

    2003-04-01

    From 26 January to 29 August 2000, Southeast crater of Etna (SEC, 3250 ma.s.l.) was the site of 66 paroxysmal fire fountaining events whose remarkable periodicity and reproducible eruptive pattern indicate a cyclic source mechanism operating in a magma feeding system of quite stable geometry. We have investigated this source mechanism in light of data for the whole series of events [1] and, in particular, of a detailed multi-disciplinary study of the 63rd (14 June) event [2]. Like previous ones, this event involved aseismic, precursory extrusion of degassed lava (10 hours), then growing Strombolian activity and lava effusion (1.5 h) and, finally, 40 minutes of 300 to 600 m high fire fountaining paroxysm that ended abruptly. The synchronous evolutions of volcanic tremor and eruptive activity evidences a main control of the seismic signal by the shallow conduit flow dynamics, even though a deepening of the tremor source (deeper magma effervescence and flow) is indicated during the eruption climax. Combining the erupted amounts of dense magma and gas, geochemical data for the erupted lavas, the chemistry of fountain gases measured for the first time on Etna using remote FTIR spectrometry, and the dynamics of the phenomena we show that periodical accumulation and collapse of a gas bubble foam layer at the base of SEC conduit was the most likely process responsible of the June 14 eruption and other fountaining events at SEC in 2000. The mean gas accumulation rate prior to the June 14 event is assessed at 35 kg.s-1. The different data types allow us to provide quantitative constraints upon the geometry of SEC feeding system (conduit height and width, size of the magma reservoir) and its evolution with time. We propose that the 2000 fountain series was triggered by the input of primitive volatile-rich melt into a permanent reservoir of moderate size that contained more evolved and partly degassed magma left after the previous 1998-99 SEC activity. Turbulent plumes, magma

  4. Measurement of the polarized structure function σLT' for pion electroproduction in the Roper-resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, K.; Smith, L. C.; Aznauryan, I. G.; Burkert, V. D.; Egiyan, H.; Minehart, R.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Baillie, N.; Ball, J. P.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barrow, S.; Batourine, V.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchigny, S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bueltmann, S.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Chen, S.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Coltharp, P.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Cummings, J. P.; Sanctis, E. De; Devita, R.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Dennis, L.; Deur, A.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Donnelly, J.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Farhi, L.; Fatemi, R.; Fedotov, G.; Feldman, G.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Forest, T. A.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gaff, S. J.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Juengst, H. G.; Kelley, J. H.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Lee, T.; Livingston, K.; Lukashin, K.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; Maximon, L. C.; McAleer, S.; McKinnon, B.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Morrow, S. A.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stokes, B. E.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tkabladze, A.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.

    2005-11-01

    The polarized longitudinal-transverse structure function σLT' measures the interference between real and imaginary amplitudes in pion electroproduction and can be used to probe the coupling between resonant and nonresonant processes. We report new measurements of σLT' in the N(1440)1/2+ (Roper) resonance region at Q2=0.40 and 0.65GeV2 for both the π0p and π+n channels. The experiment was performed at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using longitudinally polarized electrons at a beam energy of 1.515 GeV. Complete angular distributions were obtained and are compared to recent phenomenological models. The σLT'(π+n) channel shows a large sensitivity to the Roper-resonance multipoles M1- and S1- and provides new constraints on models of resonance formation.

  5. LT175 is a novel PPARα/γ ligand with potent insulin-sensitizing effects and reduced adipogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Federica; Giudici, Marco; Mitro, Nico; Maschi, Omar; Guerrini, Uliano; Rando, Gianpaolo; Maggi, Adriana; Cermenati, Gaia; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Pochetti, Giorgio; Lavecchia, Antonio; Caruso, Donatella; De Fabiani, Emma; Bamberg, Krister; Crestani, Maurizio

    2014-03-07

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Ongoing drug discovery programs aim to develop dual PPARα/γ agonists devoid of the side effects of the marketed antidiabetic agents thiazolidinediones and the dual agonists glitazars. Recently, we described a new dual PPARα/γ ligand, LT175, with a partial agonist profile against PPARγ and interacting with a newly identified region of the PPARγ-ligand binding domain (1). Here we show that LT175 differentially activated PPARγ target genes involved in fatty acid esterification and storage in 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes. This resulted in a less severe lipid accumulation compared with that triggered by rosiglitazone, suggesting that LT175 may have a lower adipogenic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, in vivo administration of LT175 to mice fed a high-fat diet decreased body weight, adipocyte size, and white adipose tissue mass, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, LT175 significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and increased circulating adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that the compound improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the peculiar interaction of LT175 with PPARγ affected the recruitment of the coregulators cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR1), fundamentals for the PPARγ-mediated adipogenic program. In conclusion, our results describe a new PPAR ligand, modulating lipid and glucose metabolism with reduced adipogenic activity, that may be used as a model for a series of novel molecules with an improved pharmacological profile for the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes.

  6. LT175 Is a Novel PPARα/γ Ligand with Potent Insulin-sensitizing Effects and Reduced Adipogenic Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Gilardi, Federica; Giudici, Marco; Mitro, Nico; Maschi, Omar; Guerrini, Uliano; Rando, Gianpaolo; Maggi, Adriana; Cermenati, Gaia; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Pochetti, Giorgio; Lavecchia, Antonio; Caruso, Donatella; De Fabiani, Emma; Bamberg, Krister; Crestani, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Ongoing drug discovery programs aim to develop dual PPARα/γ agonists devoid of the side effects of the marketed antidiabetic agents thiazolidinediones and the dual agonists glitazars. Recently, we described a new dual PPARα/γ ligand, LT175, with a partial agonist profile against PPARγ and interacting with a newly identified region of the PPARγ-ligand binding domain (1). Here we show that LT175 differentially activated PPARγ target genes involved in fatty acid esterification and storage in 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes. This resulted in a less severe lipid accumulation compared with that triggered by rosiglitazone, suggesting that LT175 may have a lower adipogenic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, in vivo administration of LT175 to mice fed a high-fat diet decreased body weight, adipocyte size, and white adipose tissue mass, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, LT175 significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and increased circulating adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that the compound improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the peculiar interaction of LT175 with PPARγ affected the recruitment of the coregulators cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR1), fundamentals for the PPARγ-mediated adipogenic program. In conclusion, our results describe a new PPAR ligand, modulating lipid and glucose metabolism with reduced adipogenic activity, that may be used as a model for a series of novel molecules with an improved pharmacological profile for the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24451380

  7. Immunostimulant patches containing Escherichia coli LT enhance immune responses to DNA- and recombinant protein-based Alzheimer's disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Davtyan, Hayk; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Hovakimyan, Armine; Petrushina, Irina; Yu, Jianmei; Flyer, David; Madsen, Peter Juul; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Cribbs, David H; Agadjanyan, Michael G

    2014-03-15

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) using vaccination strategies must overcome the obstacle of achieving adequate responses to vaccination in the elderly. Here we demonstrate for the first time that application of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin adjuvant-laden immunostimulatory patches (LT-IS) dramatically enhances the onset and magnitude of immune responses to DNA- and protein-based vaccines for Alzheimer's disease following intradermal immunization via gene gun and conventional needles, respectively. Our studies suggest that the immune activation mediated by LT-IS offers improved potency for generating AD-specific vaccination responses that should be investigated as an adjuvant in the clinical arena.

  8. Dimorphic HT- and LT-TbTiGe: Electronic and magnetic structures and bonding properties from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Chevalier, Bernard; Etourneau, Jean

    2016-01-01

    TbTiGe intermetallic compound is characterized by temperature dimorphism with different but related crystal structures with ferromagnetic high temperature (HT) form versus antiferromagnetic low temperature (LT) form. Such different structure properties and magnetic behaviors have been addressed based on DFT computations of cohesive energies, charge transfers, mechanical and chemical properties of the two structures. This is particularly illustrated by harder and less ductile LT-form with stronger Ti-Ge bond and larger charge transfer from Tb and Ti on one hand and Ge on the other hand.

  9. Lung Type 2 innate lymphoid cells express CysLT1R that regulates Th2 cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Taylor A.; Khorram, Naseem; Lund, Sean; Mehta, Amit Kumar; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysteinyl leukotrienes contribute to asthma pathogenesis, in part through CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R). Recently discovered lineage-negative type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) potently produce IL-5 and IL-13. Objectives We hypothesized that lung ILC2 may be activated by leukotrienes through CysLT1R. Methods ILC2 (Thy 1.2+ lineage-negative lymphocytes) and CysLT1R were detected in the lungs of WT, STAT6−/−, and RAG2−/− mice by flow cytometry. Levels of Th2 cytokines were measured in purified lung ILC2 stimulated with leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in the presence or absence of the CysLT1R antagonist montelukast. Calcium influx was measured by Fluo-4 intensity. Intranasal LTD4 and LTE4 were administered to naive mice and levels of ILC2 IL-5 production determined. Finally, LTD4 was co-administered with Alternaria repetitively to RAG2−/− mice (have ILC2) and IL-7R−/− mice (lack ILC2) and total ILC2 numbers, proliferation (Ki-67+) and BAL eosinophils measured. Results CysLT1R was expressed on lung ILC2 from WT, RAG2−/−, and STAT6−/−naïve and Alternaria-challenged mice. In vitro, LTD4 induced ILC2 to rapidly generate high levels of IL-5 and IL-13 within six hours of stimulation. Interestingly, LTD4, but not IL-33, induced high levels of IL-4 by ILC2. LTD4 administered in-vivo rapidly induced ILC2 IL-5 production that was significantly reduced by montelukast pre-treatment. Finally, LTD4 potentiated Alternaria-induced eosinophilia as well as ILC2 accumulation and proliferation. Conclusions We present novel data that CysLT1R is expressed on ILC2 and LTD4 potently induces CysLT1R-dependent ILC2 production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Additionally, LTD4 potentiates Alternaria-induced eosinophilia and ILC2 proliferation and accumulation. PMID:23688412

  10. Description and User Manual for a Web-Based Interface to a Transit-Loss Accounting Program for Monument and Fountain Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Krammes, Gary S.; Beal, Vivian J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 with the following objectives: (1) Apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise an existing accounting program for Fountain Creek to easily incorporate ongoing and future changes in management of return flows of reusable water, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program and develop a Web-based interface to the integrated program that incorporates simple and reliable data entry that is automated to the fullest extent possible. This report describes the results of completing objectives (2), (3), and (4) of that study. The accounting program for Monument Creek was developed first by (1) using the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek as a prototype, (2) incorporating the transit-loss results from a stream-aquifer modeling analysis of Monument Creek, and (3) developing new output reports. The capabilities of the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek then were incorporated into the program for Monument Creek and the output reports were expanded to include Fountain Creek. A Web-based interface to the new transit-loss accounting program then was developed that provided automated data entry. An integrated system of 34 nodes and 33 subreaches was integrated by combining the independent node and subreach systems used in the previously completed stream-aquifer modeling studies for the Monument and Fountain Creek reaches. Important operational criteria that were implemented in the new transit-loss accounting program for Monument and Fountain Creeks included the following: (1) Retain all the reusable water-management capabilities incorporated into the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek; (2) enable daily accounting and transit

  11. Operation of NIM5 fountain with 1.5x10-15 uncertainty and design of new NIM6 in NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Liu, N.; Liu, K.; Chen, W.; Suo, R.; Li, Tianchu

    2016-06-01

    The cesium fountain primary frequency standard NIM5 started to operate since 2008 and started to report to BIPM since 2014. The major constrains of NIM5 is a relatively large background signal at the detection and microwave leakages due to the Ramsey cavity. A new fountain clock NIM6 is under construction. Besides some improvements on the vacuum system, a new Ramsey cavity and a microwave synthesizer are made to reduce the Type B uncertainty. Another feature of NIM6 is collecting atoms from a MOT loading optical molasses to get more atoms with a more uniform density distribution. With a new frequency synthesizer based on cryogenic sapphire oscillator (CSO), NIM6 is aiming to reach the quantum projection noise, thus leading to a reduced Type A uncertainty compared with NIM5.

  12. Eruption dynamics and degassing histories of high fountaining episodes of the Pu`u `O`o eruption in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea, 1983-1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, S. J.; Carey, R.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.; Orr, T. R.; Patrick, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Between January 1983 and July 1986, activity at Kilauea was localised at Pu`u `O`o in the East Rift Zone. During this time activity was characterised by short (0.2 to 16 days), high intensity fountaining episodes of varying heights, which were separated by lengthy repose periods (10 to 50 days). Microtextural analysis of juvenile pyroclasts produced by eruptions such as these can be highly valuable in providing information on the nature of the evolution of the magma's volatiles in the shallow conduit. The growing literature on microtextural analysis of the vesicles in basaltic pyroclasts suggests that variations in eruption form, duration and intensity is controlled by the degassing and outgassing of the magma, and in variations in the timing and extent of the nucleation, growth and coalescence of bubbles in the magma and the degree in which they are mechanically coupled to the melt (Stovall et al. 2011, Parcheta et al. 2013). We have collected samples from three high fountaining episodes that were well characterised by Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff at the time of the eruption. These episodes produced fountains with heights between 391-445 m, and volumes of 1.1x107 m3 and 1.7x107 m3 of lava (bulk volume). We describe here microtextural characteristics and matrix glass volatile contents of pyroclasts erupted from the three episodes and we couple this data together with multidisciplinary geophysical and visual datasets collected by HVO staff. The combination of quantitative vesicle microtextures and syn-eruptive volatiles within groundmass glass permit us to quantify the degassing histories of magma erupted in each eruptive episode. This data will be combined with visual observations of fountain height and geophysical data (geodetic and seismic) in order to better define the factors that govern the variations in the eruption intensity of Hawaiian volcanism.

  13. Testing local position and fundamental constant invariance due to periodic gravitational and boost using long-term comparison of the SYRTE atomic fountains and H-masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, M. E.; Stanwix, P. L.; McFerran, J. J.; Guéna, J.; Abgrall, M.; Bize, S.; Clairon, A.; Laurent, Ph.; Rosenbusch, P.; Rovera, D.; Santarelli, G.

    2013-06-01

    The frequencies of three separate Cs fountain clocks and one Rb fountain clock have been compared to various hydrogen masers to search for periodic changes correlated with the changing solar gravitational potential at the Earth and boost with respect to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. The data sets span over more than 8 yr. The main sources of long-term noise in such experiments are the offsets and linear drifts associated with the various H-masers. The drift can vary from nearly immeasurable to as high as 1.3×10-15 per day. To circumvent these effects, we apply a numerical derivative to the data, which significantly reduces the standard error when searching for periodic signals. We determine a standard error for the putative local position invariance coefficient with respect to gravity for a Cs-fountain H-maser comparison of |βH-βCs|≤4.8×10-6 and |βH-βRb|≤10-5 for a Rb-Fountain H-maser comparison. From the same data, the putative boost local position invariance coefficients were measured to a precision of up to parts in 1011 with respect to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. By combining these boost invariance experiments to a cryogenic sapphire oscillator vs H-maser comparison, independent limits on all nine coefficients of the boost-violation vector with respect to fundamental constant invariance, Bα, Be, and Bq (fine structure constant, electron mass, and quark mass, respectively), were determined to a precision of parts up to 1010.

  14. Products of Submarine Fountains and Bubble-burst Eruptive Activity at 1200 m on West Mata Volcano, Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Rubin, K. H.; Keller, N. S.

    2009-12-01

    An eruption was observed and sampled at West Mata Volcano using ROV JASON II for 5 days in May 2009 during the NSF-NOAA eruption response cruise to this region of suspected volcanic activity. Activity was focused near the summit at the Prometheus and Hades vents. Prometheus erupted almost exclusively as low-level fountains. Activity at Hades cycled between vigorous degassing, low fountains, and bubble-bursts, building up and partially collapsing a small spatter/scoria cone and feeding short sheet-like and pillow flows. Fire fountains at Prometheus produced mostly small primary pyroclasts that include Pele's hair and fluidal fragments of highly vesicular volcanic glass. These fragments have mostly shattered and broken surfaces, although smooth spatter-like surfaces also occur. As activity wanes, glow in the vent fades, and denser, sometimes altered volcanic clasts are incorporated into the eruption. The latter are likely from the conduit walls and/or vent-rim ejecta, drawn back into the vent by inrushing seawater that replaces water entrained in the rising volcanic plume. Repeated recycling of previously erupted materials eventually produces rounded clasts resembling beach cobbles and pitted surfaces on broken phenocrysts of pyroxene and olivine. We estimate that roughly 33% of near vent ejecta are recycled. Our best sample of this ejecta type was deposited in the drawer of the JASON II ROV during a particularly large explosion that occurred during plume sampling immediately above the vent. Elemental sulfur spherules up to 5 mm in diameter are common in ejecta from both vents and occur inside some of the lava fragments Hades activity included dramatic bubble-bursts unlike anything previously observed under water. The lava bubbles, sometimes occurring in rapid-fire sequence, collapsed in the water-column, producing fragments that are quenched in less than a second to form Pele's hair, limu o Pele, spatter-like lava blobs, and scoria. All are highly vesicular

  15. Trends in precipitation and streamflow and changes in stream morphology in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 1939-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The Fountain Creek watershed, located in and along the eastern slope of the Front Range section of the southern Rocky Mountains, drains approximately 930 square miles of parts of Teller, El Paso, and Pueblo Counties in eastern Colorado. Streamflow in the watershed is dominated by spring snowmelt runoff and storm runoff during the summer monsoon season. Flooding during the 1990?s has resulted in increased streambank erosion. Property loss and damage associated with flooding and bank erosion has cost area residents, businesses, utilities, municipalities, and State and Federal agencies millions of dollars. Precipitation (4 stations) and streamflow (6 stations) data, aerial photographs, and channel reconnaissance were used to evaluate trends in precipitation and streamflow and changes in channel morphology. Trends were evaluated for pre-1977, post-1976, and period-of-record time periods. Analysis revealed the lack of trend in total annual and seasonal precipitation during the pre-1977 time period. In general, the analysis also revealed the lack of trend in seasonal precipitation for all except the spring season during the post-1976 time period. Trend analysis revealed a significant upward trend in long-term (period of record) total annual and spring precipitation data, apparently due to a change in total annual precipitation throughout the Fountain Creek watershed. During the pre-1977 time period, precipitation was generally below average; during the post- 1976 time period, total annual precipitation was generally above average. During the post- 1976 time period, an upward trend in total annual and spring precipitation was indicated at two stations. Because two of four stations evaluated had upward trends for the post-1976 period and storms that produce the most precipitation are isolated convection storms, it is plausible that other parts of the watershed had upward precipitation trends that could affect trends in streamflow. Also, because of the isolated nature of

  16. Hump-shaped 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectra in K-feldspar and evidence for Cretaceous authigenesis in the Fountain Formation near Eldorado Springs, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnock, Andrew C.; van de Kamp, Peter C.

    1999-12-01

    The Fountain Formation near Eldorado Springs, CO, USA, shows evidence of alteration by hydrothermal fluids that precipitated authigenic potassium feldspar (adularia) as rims on detrital feldspars and as interstitial cement deposits. Detailed 40Ar/ 39Ar step-heating experiments of samples from the Fountain Formation reveal age spectra having a characteristic hump at laboratory temperatures between 900 and 1080°C. The humps appear to be related to the presence of adularia. Laser analyses of small grains of adularia indicate that the hump can be physically dissected, unlike age gradients found in igneous feldspars. Such behavior is consistent with the mixing of gas from two or more generations of K-feldspar, each having unique diffusion properties. The feldspars studied here indicate that two pulses of ˜150°C hydrothermal fluids migrated through the Fountain Formation at 135 and 94 Ma, prior to the main phase of Laramide tectonic activity in the region. The limited occurrence of authigenic cements suggests that reactivation of the underlying Precambrian Idaho Springs-Ralston Creek shear zone was significant enough to heat and mobilize large quantities of meteoric fluids. In addition, these data also suggest that Cretaceous movements along the Transcontinental Arch, correlated with stratigraphic events, began approximately 40 million years earlier than previously thought.

  17. A reconnaissance water-quality appraisal of the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer between Colorado Springs and Pueblo, Colorado, including trace elements and organic constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug; Edelmann, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the hydrology and chemical quality of water in the stream-aquifer system along Fountain Creek and relates groundwater quality to land use, water use, and wastewater discharges. The alluvial aquifer, which is underlain by shale bedrock, is transmissive, extensively pumped, and primarily is recharged by Fountain Creek and irrigation-return flow. Groundwater flows south about 20 ft/day, average residence time is less than 10 yr. Land use primarily is urban in the northern one-third and agricultural in the southern two-thirds of the area. Major ions, boron, iron, lithium, selenium, strontium, and uranium increased in concentration downgradient. The largest concentrations of nitrogen and detergents were in the northern end of the area because of recharge of sewage effluent in Fountain Creek. Other trace elements usually were present in concentrations less than 20 mg/L. Volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 11 of 20 wells sampled. Samples from 4 of the 20 wells were analyzed for semivolatile organics using a closed-loop stripping technique, which detected additional compounds at nanogram/L concentrations. (USGS)

  18. Estimating eruption temperature from thermal emission spectra of lava fountain activity in the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) volcano lava lake: Implications for observing Io's volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, A.G.; Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution temperature measurements of the active lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to derive requirements for measuring eruption temperatures at Io's volcanoes. Lava lakes are particularly attractive targets because they are persistent in activity and large, often with ongoing lava fountain activity that exposes lava at near-eruption temperature. Using infrared thermography, we find that extracting useful temperature estimates from remote-sensing data requires (a) high spatial resolution to isolate lava fountains from adjacent cooler lava and (b) rapid acquisition of multi-color data. Because existing spacecraft data of Io's volcanoes do not meet these criteria, it is particularly important to design future instruments so that they will be able to collect such data. Near-simultaneous data at more than two relatively short wavelengths (shorter than 1 ??m) are needed to constrain eruption temperatures. Resolving parts of the lava lake or fountains that are near the eruption temperature is also essential, and we provide a rough estimate of the required image scale. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Estimating eruption temperature from thermal emission spectra of lava fountain activity in the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) volcano lava lake: Implications for observing Io's volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Ashley G.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution temperature measurements of the active lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to derive requirements for measuring eruption temperatures at Io's volcanoes. Lava lakes are particularly attractive targets because they are persistent in activity and large, often with ongoing lava fountain activity that exposes lava at near-eruption temperature. Using infrared thermography, we find that extracting useful temperature estimates from remote-sensing data requires (a) high spatial resolution to isolate lava fountains from adjacent cooler lava and (b) rapid acquisition of multi-color data. Because existing spacecraft data of Io's volcanoes do not meet these criteria, it is particularly important to design future instruments so that they will be able to collect such data. Near-simultaneous data at more than two relatively short wavelengths (shorter than 1 μm) are needed to constrain eruption temperatures. Resolving parts of the lava lake or fountains that are near the eruption temperature is also essential, and we provide a rough estimate of the required image scale.

  20. Cusp Ion Fountain Observations from the e-POP Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) with DMSP and RISR-N conjunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Low-energy (<10 eV) ion upflows associated with ambipolar ion acceleration in the cusp/cleft and polar cap regions are investigated using conjunctions of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite, the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N) and the DMSP satellites in June 2014. e-POP encountered the cusp/cleft ion fountain at 10-14 MLT and around 1000 km altitude during these experiments. Such intermediate-altitude observations of ion upflow have been sampled only rarely by previous satellite missions and ground-based radars. The Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) onboard e-POP measures two-dimensional ion distribution functions with a frame rate of 100 images per second, from which, high-precision energy and angle information of entering ions can be inferred. Large field-aligned ion bulk flow velocities (2.5 km/s) are estimated from the angle information with a resolution of the order of 25 m/s. The ion velocities were, in general, upward in the cusp region and downward in the polar cap region. The ion temperatures have been resolved by investigating the slop shape of the distribution function. It has been found that only weak perpendicular (to B) heating occurred during these events, which when combined with the simultaneous soft electron precipitation observed by the DMSP SSJ/4 instrument, suggests that ambipolar electric fields play a dominant role in accelerating ions upward at and below 1000 km. Also, structured DC field-aligned currents derived from the magnetic field instrument (MGF) onboard e-POP are found to be well-correlated with upflow velocities. In addition, ion composition information is available from e-POP's ion mass spectrometer (IRM). Oxygen ions (O+) were found to dominate (85%) in the identified events, accompanied by a small fraction (15%) of hydrogen ions (H+) and helium ions (He+). We will compare these in situ measurements with RISR-N observations in order to further our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for, and

  1. Improving the method of low-temperature anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (LT-AMS) measurements in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the limitations of the method of low-temperature anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (LT-AMS) measurements in air and presents technical improvements that significantly reduce the instrumental drift and measurement errors. We analyzed the temperature profile of porous chalk core after cooling in liquid nitrogen and found that the average temperature of the sample during the LT-AMS measurement in air is higher than 77K and close to 92K. This analysis indicates that the susceptibility of the paramagnetic minerals are amplified by a factor ˜3.2 relative to that of room temperature AMS (RT-AMS). In addition, it was found that liquid nitrogen was absorbed in the samples during immersing and contributed diamagnetic component of ˜-9 × 10-6 SI to the total mean susceptibility. We showed that silicone sheet placed around and at the bottom of the measuring coil is an effective thermal protection, preventing instrument drift by the cold sample. In this way, the measuring errors of LT-AMS reduced to the level of RT-AMS, allowing accurate comparison with standard AMS measurements. We examined the applicability of the LT-AMS measurements on chalk samples that consist <5% (weight) of paramagnetic minerals and showed that it helps to efficiently enhance the paramagnetic fabric. The present study offers a practical approach, which can be applied to various types of rocks to better delineate the paramagnetic phase using conventional equipment.

  2. Pathological and gene expression analysis of a polygenic diabetes model, NONcNZO10/LtJ mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tsuyoshi; Yoshitomi, Tomomi; Inoue, Minoru; Iigo, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Koji; Kubota, Kazuishi; Shinagawa, Akira

    2017-09-20

    The NONcNZO10/LtJ mouse is a polygenic model of type-2 diabetes (T2D) that shows moderate obesity and diabetes, and is regarded as a good model reflective of the conditions of human T2D. In this study, we analyzed pathological changes of pancreases with the progress of time by using histopathology and gene expression analysis, including microRNA. A number of gene expression changes associated with decreased insulin secretion (possibly regulated by miR-29a/b) were observed, and zinc homeostasis (Slc30a8, Mt1 and Mt2) or glucose metabolism (Slc2a2) was suggested as being the candidate mechanism of pancreas failure in NONcNZO10/LtJ mice. These results demonstrate NONcNZO10/LtJ mice have a complex pathogenic mechanism of diabetes, and moreover, this fundamental information of NONcNZO10/LtJ mice would offer the opportunity for research and development of a novel antidiabetic drug. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel leptin receptor mutation in NOD/LtJ mice suppresses type 1 diabetes progression: II. Immunologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Chen, Yi-Guang; Chen, Jing; Reifsnyder, Peter C; Serreze, David V; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Rodriguez, Michelle; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A; Leiter, Edward H

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we identified in normally type 1 diabetes-prone NOD/LtJ mice a spontaneous new leptin receptor (LEPR) mutation (designated Lepr(db-5J)) producing juvenile obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. This early type 2 diabetes syndrome suppressed intra-islet insulitis and permitted spontaneous diabetes remission. No significant differences in plasma corticosterone, splenic CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell percentages, or functions of CD3(+) T-cells in vitro distinguished NOD wild-type from mutant mice. Yet splenocytes from hyperglycemic mutant donors failed to transfer type 1 diabetes into NOD.Rag1(-/-) recipients over a 13-week period, whereas wild-type donor cells did so. This correlated with significantly reduced (P < 0.01) frequencies of insulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein-reactive CD8(+) T-effector clonotypes in mutant mice. Intra-islet insulitis was also significantly suppressed in lethally irradiated NOD-Lepr(db-5J)/Lt recipients reconstituted with wild-type bone marrow (P < 0.001). In contrast, type 1 diabetes eventually developed when mutant marrow was transplanted into irradiated wild-type recipients. Mitogen-induced T-cell blastogenesis was significantly suppressed when splenic T-cells from both NOD/Lt and NOD-Lepr(db-5J)/Lt donors were incubated with irradiated mutant peritoneal exudate cells (P < 0.005). In conclusion, metabolic disturbances elicited by a type 2 diabetes syndrome (insulin and/or leptin resistance, but not hypercorticism) appear to suppress type 1 diabetes development in NOD-Lepr(db-5J)/Lt by inhibiting activation of T-effector cells.

  4. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  5. AT-RvD1 Promotes Resolution of Inflammation in NOD/ShiLtJ mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Shuen; Maruyama, Christina L.; Easley, Justin T.; Trump, Bryan G.; Baker, Olga J.

    2017-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by diminished secretory function of the exocrine glands. Treatments for hyposalivation are limited to the use of saliva substitutes and medications that provide only temporary relief. In light of the high degree of need and the limitations of current therapies, development of alternative treatments to restore functioning is essential. Resolvins (Rv), which are highly potent lipid mediators, offer a viable alternative for better treating inflammatory diseases such as SS. The goal of this study was to determine whether systemic preventive treatment with Aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) reduces inflammation and preserves secretory functioning in NOD/ShiLtJ SS-like mice. Our results indicate that systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 diminishes the progression of the disease in salivary epithelium from female mice as follows: (a) improves secretory function, (b) reduces pro-inflammatory molecule gene expression, (c) increases anti-inflammatory molecule gene expression and (d) induces M2 macrophage polarization. Finally, AT-RvD1 decreases lymphocytic infiltration into the salivary glands when used with small doses of the steroid, dexamethasone, and promotes the tissue healing process. PMID:28361884

  6. Low Q2 Measurement of g2p and the LT Spin Polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Slifer

    2009-07-01

    JLab has been at the forefront of a program to measure the nucleon spin-dependent structure functions over a wide kinematic range, and data of unprecedented quality has been extracted in all three experimental halls. Moments of these quantities have proven to be powerful tools to test QCD sum rules and provide benchmark tests of Lattice QCD and Chiral Perturbation Theory. Precision measurements of $g_{1,2}^n$ and $g_1^p$ have been performed as part of the highly successful `extended GDH program', but data on the $g_2^p$ structure function remain scarce. We discuss here JLab experiment E08-027, which will measure quantity $g_2^p$ in the resonance region at low $Q^2$. These data will be used to test the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule and to extract the higher moments $\\delta_{LT}^p(Q^2)$ and $\\overline{d}_2^p(Q^2)$. Data in the $Q^2$ range $0.02

  7. Acute and chronic bioeffects of single and multiple doses of piezoelectric shockwaves (EDAP LT.01).

    PubMed

    Ryan, P C; Jones, B J; Kay, E W; Nowlan, P; Kiely, E A; Gaffney, E F; Butler, M R

    1991-02-01

    Piezoelectric second generation lithotriptors are an established means of administering extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) enabling treatment to be performed without anaesthesia or analgesia, but higher shockwave doses and multiple or staged treatment are frequently required. The bioeffects of this modality of ESWL, therefore, require further assessment. Seven experimental groups of adult male rabbits were treated using the EDAP LT.01 in order to determine the acute and chronic bioeffects of clinical dose, excess dose, divided excess dose, high frequency and multiple treatment (X10) piezoelectric shockwaves (PSW). Renal function was measured before and after treatment using mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3) scans. Gross and histological morphological changes were assessed at one and 30 days following application of PSW. Application of single clinical dose PSW was not associated with any significant functional or morphological renal injury. Excess dose PSW caused transient gross renal contusion, which resolved in the majority of animals with no persistent microscopic abnormality. Divided excess dose PSW resulted in no gross or microscopic damage. High frequency PSW was associated with mild histological abnormality. Multiple PSW treatments caused small discrete fibrotic lesions in all cases, without any change in renal function.

  8. Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Sauvager, F; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Colwell, R R; Cormier, M

    2006-11-01

    S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic acid concentration of 7 mg/l. In SEW, at peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg/l, the cells were nonculturable (VNC), but retained virulence as demonstrated by invasion assays of HeLa cells. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) resulted in bacterial death, i.e. substrate non-responsive cells. Despite morphological alterations of the bacteria after peracetic acid treatment, visualized by transmission electronic microscopy, conservation of both adhesive and invasive capacities was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to 0-15 mg/l peracetic acid. Public health professionals need to recognize that peracetic acid-treated Salmonella is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entering and recovering from the viable but nonculturable state, and may remain virulent after a stay in SEW followed by peracetic acid treatment.

  9. Identification of oxygen-rich late/post-asymptotic giant branch stars and water fountains via maser and infrared criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Henkel, Christian; Hsia, Chih-Hao

    2016-07-01

    The transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB phases holds the key to our understanding of the late-stage metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. In particular, high velocity jets forming during this phase are suggested to contribute significantly to the shaping of planetary nebulae. For oxygen-rich stars, the rare “water fountains (WFs)” have been regarded as representative objects in this phase, and it is important to identify more of them for further studies. Here we briefly report the results of our latest OH and H2O maser surveys in which a new WF candidate (IRAS 19356+0754) was found. We also performed radiative transfer modelling on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of all known WFs. It is concluded that WFs might in fact not be the transitional objects, as opposed to previous belief. WFs could be AGB or post-AGB stars with no obvious similarities amongst their SEDs. Further efforts are still needed to improve the identification criteria.

  10. Environments of deposition of coal balls, cuticular shale and gray shale floras in Fountain and Parke counties, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, D.L.; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The western part of Indiana is included in the Illinois basin whose coal content is confined to the central Pennsylvania series. The authors make a detailed examination of the coal deposits of the region of the Roaring Creek Mine, Parke County and the region of the Maple Grove Mine, Fountain Country, focusing especial attention on questions of stratigraphy, palinology, coal petrography, paleobotany with the establishment of the species composition of the coal-forming plants and determination of the conditions for their growth, as well as the quality of the coals. The two studies regions are characterized by considerable differences in the coals and the surrounding deposits. In the opinion of the authors, the deposits in the region of Roaring Creek are formations of the upper delta with characteristic interrelationship with the overlying and underlying rocks, reduced content of sulfur in the coals and definite species composition of the paleoflora. On the contrary, the deposits in the region of Maple-Grove can be viewed as lower delta for which the listed signs have a different nature. With comparison of the conditions for sedimentation in the two regions, differences are also found in the quantity of atmospheric precipitation. This also has a definite influence on the nature of the forming deposits.

  11. HIGH VELOCITY PRECESSING JETS FROM THE WATER FOUNTAIN IRAS 18286-0959 REVEALED BY VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J.

    2011-11-10

    We report the results of multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array observations of the 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission associated with the 'water fountain' IRAS 18286-0959. We suggest that this object is the second example of a highly collimated bipolar precessing outflow traced by H{sub 2}O maser emission, the other is W 43A. The detected H{sub 2}O emission peaks are distributed over a velocity range from -50 km s{sup -1} to 150 km s{sup -1}. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (jet 1) extended southeast to northwest; the remaining features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a 'double-helix' pattern which lies across {approx}200 mas. The maser distribution is reasonably fit by a model consisting of two bipolar precessing jets. The three-dimensional velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138 km s{sup -1} and 99 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years. For jet 2, three possible models are tested and they give different values for the kinematic parameters. We propose that the appearance of two jets is the result of a single driving source with significant proper motion.

  12. CO J = 3-2 Emission from the ``Water Fountain'' Sources IRAS 16342-3814 and IRAS 18286-0959

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; He, Jin-Hua; Nakashima, Jun-Ichi Ukita, Nobuharu; Deguchi, Shuji; Koning, Nico

    2009-12-01

    We observed CO J = 3-2 emission from ``water-fountain'' sources, which exhibit high-velocity collimated stellar jets traced by H2O maser emission, with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. We detected CO emission from two sources: IRAS 16342-3814 and IRAS 18286-0959. The IRAS 16342-3814 CO emission exhibits a spectrum that could be well fit to a Gaussian profile, rather than to a parabolic profile, with a velocity width (FWHM) of 158±6km s-1 and an intensity peak at VLSR = 50±2 km s-1. The mass-loss rate of the star is estimated to be ˜2.9 × 10-5Modot yr-1. Our morpho-kinematic models suggest that the CO emission is optically thin, and associated with a bipolar outflow rather than with a (cold and relatively small) torus. The IRAS 18286-0959 CO emission has a velocity width (FWHM) of 3.0±0.2 km s-1, smaller than typically seen in AGB envelopes. The narrow velocity width of the CO emission suggests that it originates from either an interstellar molecular cloud or a slowly-rotating circumstellar envelope that harbors the H2O maser source.

  13. From Documentation Images to Restauration Support Tools: a Path Following the Neptune Fountain in Bologna Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Ballabeni, M.; Bertacchi, S.; Fallavollita, F.; Foschi, R.; Gaiani, M.

    2017-05-01

    The sixteenth-century Fountain of Neptune is one of Bologna's most renowned landmarks. During the recent restoration activities of the monumental sculpture group, consisting in precious marbles and highly refined bronzes with water jets, a photographic campaign has been carried out exclusively for documentation purposes of the current state of preservation of the complex. Nevertheless, the highquality imagery was used for a different use, namely to create a 3D digital model accurate in shape and color by means of automated photogrammetric techniques and a robust customized pipeline. This 3D model was used as basic tool to support many and different activities of the restoration site. The paper describes the 3D model construction technique used and the most important applications in which it was used as support tool for restoration: (i) reliable documentation of the actual state; (ii) surface cleaning analysis; (iii) new water system and jets; (iv) new lighting design simulation; (v) support for preliminary analysis and projectual studies related to hardly accessible areas; (vi) structural analysis; (vii) base for filling gaps or missing elements through 3D printing; (viii) high-quality visualization and rendering and (ix) support for data modelling and semantic-based diagrams.

  14. A FaeG-FedF-LT192 fusion elicits protective anti-adhesin and antitoxin antibodies against porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing anti-adhesin (anti-K88 & anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT & anti-ST) 5 immunity would provide ...

  15. Using the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory LT-MDL to Evaluate and Analyze Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    2008-01-01

    A long-term method detection level (LT-MDL) and laboratory reporting level (LRL) are used by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) when reporting results from most chemical analyses of water samples. Changing to this method provided data users with additional information about their data and often resulted in more reported values in the low concentration range. Before this method was implemented, many of these values would have been censored. The use of the LT-MDL and LRL presents some challenges for the data user. Interpreting data in the low concentration range increases the need for adequate quality assurance because even small contamination or recovery problems can be relatively large compared to concentrations near the LT-MDL and LRL. In addition, the definition of the LT-MDL, as well as the inclusion of low values, can result in complex data sets with multiple censoring levels and reported values that are less than a censoring level. Improper interpretation or statistical manipulation of low-range results in these data sets can result in bias and incorrect conclusions. This document is designed to help data users use and interpret data reported with the LTMDL/ LRL method. The calculation and application of the LT-MDL and LRL are described. This document shows how to extract statistical information from the LT-MDL and LRL and how to use that information in USGS investigations, such as assessing the quality of field data, interpreting field data, and planning data collection for new projects. A set of 19 detailed examples are included in this document to help data users think about their data and properly interpret lowrange data without introducing bias. Although this document is not meant to be a comprehensive resource of statistical methods, several useful methods of analyzing censored data are demonstrated, including Regression on Order Statistics and Kaplan-Meier Estimation. These two statistical methods handle complex

  16. Circulating concentrations of free thyroxine after an oral intake of liquid LT4 taken either during fasting conditions or at breakfast.

    PubMed

    Marina, Michela; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Aloe, Rosalia; Gnocchi, Cecilia; Ceresini, Graziano

    2017-01-16

    Liquid levothyroxine (LT4) given at breakfast normalizes TSH in hypothyroid patients. However, a few studies are available on circulating free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations after liquid vs solid LT4 preparations. During an "ad interim" analysis on serum FT4 after 200 mcg liquid LT4 consumption while fasting in thyroidectomized thyroid cancer patients, we found that seven subjects fortuitously took liquid LT4 at breakfast. As established in the original protocol, serum FT4 was measured both at baseline as well as at 3 and 4 hours after solid or liquid LT4 consumption. We compared serum profile of FT4 in these subjects with those obtained in other subjects participating in the same study who took liquid LT4 (n. 7 subjects) or solid LT4 (n. 7 subjects) while fasting. The percentage increase of circulating FT4 was calculated at the above reported peak-times over the baseline values. Circulating FT4 increased of about 40% in each group of subjects at both the 3rd and the 4th hour with no difference between these two time points in either group. The maximum FT4 % increase, irrespective of the time point, was 44.62 ± 3.05 (Mean ± SE), 44.84 ± 5.43, and 43.83 ± 1.30 after fasting solid, fasting liquid, and breakfast liquid LT4 consumption, respectively, with no differences among the three groups. Circulating FT4 obtained after 3 and 4 hours from the ingestion of 200 mcg liquid LT4 is not influenced by meal and is comparable with that observed after solid LT4 preparations ingested while fasting.

  17. The Tricarballylate Utilization (tcuRABC) Genes of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Schwem, Brian E.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2004-01-01

    The genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encoding functions needed for the utilization of tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source were identified and their locations in the chromosome were established. Three of the tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes, tcuABC, are organized as an operon; a fourth gene, tcuR, is located immediately 5′ to the tcuABC operon. The tcuABC operon and tcuR gene share the same direction of transcription but are independently transcribed. The tcuRABC genes are missing in the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. The tcuR gene is proposed to encode a regulatory protein needed for the expression of tcuABC. The tcuC gene is proposed to encode an integral membrane protein whose role is to transport tricarballylate across the cell membrane. tcuC function was sufficient to allow E. coli K-12 to grow on citrate (a tricarballylate analog) but not to allow growth of this bacterium on tricarballylate. E. coli K-12 carrying a plasmid with wild-type alleles of tcuABC grew on tricarballylate, suggesting that the functions of the TcuABC proteins were the only ones unique to S. enterica needed to catabolize tricarballylate. Analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of the TcuAB proteins suggest that TcuA is a flavoprotein, and TcuB is likely anchored to the cell membrane and probably contains one or more Fe-S centers. The TcuB protein is proposed to work in concert with TcuA to oxidize tricarballylate to cis-aconitate, which is further catabolized via the Krebs cycle. The glyoxylate shunt is not required for growth of S. enterica on tricarballylate. A model for tricarballylate catabolism in S. enterica is proposed. PMID:14996793

  18. HST SPECTRAL MAPPING OF L/T TRANSITION BROWN DWARFS REVEALS CLOUD THICKNESS VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Apai, Daniel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Buenzli, Esther; Burrows, Adam; Reid, Iain Neill

    2013-05-10

    Most directly imaged giant exoplanets are fainter than brown dwarfs with similar spectra. To explain their relative underluminosity, unusually cloudy atmospheres have been proposed. However, with multiple parameters varying between any two objects, it remained difficult to observationally test this idea. We present a new method, sensitive time-resolved Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy, to study two rotating L/T transition brown dwarfs (2M2139 and SIMP0136). The observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved mapping of the cloud decks of the brown dwarfs. The data allow the study of cloud structure variations while other parameters are unchanged. We find that both brown dwarfs display variations of identical nature: J- and H-band brightness variations with minimal color and spectral changes. Our light curve models show that even the simplest surface brightness distributions require at least three elliptical spots. We show that for each source the spectral changes can be reproduced with a linear combination of only two different spectra, i.e., the entire surface is covered by two distinct types of regions. Modeling the color changes and spectral variations together reveal patchy cloud covers consisting of a spatially heterogeneous mix of low-brightness, low-temperature thick clouds and brighter, thin, and warm clouds. We show that the same thick cloud patches seen in our varying brown dwarf targets, if extended to the entire photosphere, predict near-infrared colors/magnitudes matching the range occupied by the directly imaged exoplanets that are cooler and less luminous than brown dwarfs with similar spectral types. This supports the models in which thick clouds are responsible for the near-infrared properties of these ''underluminous'' exoplanets.

  19. The Tricarballylate utilization (tcuRABC) genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey A; Horswill, Alexander R; Schwem, Brian E; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2004-03-01

    The genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encoding functions needed for the utilization of tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source were identified and their locations in the chromosome were established. Three of the tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes, tcuABC, are organized as an operon; a fourth gene, tcuR, is located immediately 5' to the tcuABC operon. The tcuABC operon and tcuR gene share the same direction of transcription but are independently transcribed. The tcuRABC genes are missing in the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. The tcuR gene is proposed to encode a regulatory protein needed for the expression of tcuABC. The tcuC gene is proposed to encode an integral membrane protein whose role is to transport tricarballylate across the cell membrane. tcuC function was sufficient to allow E. coli K-12 to grow on citrate (a tricarballylate analog) but not to allow growth of this bacterium on tricarballylate. E. coli K-12 carrying a plasmid with wild-type alleles of tcuABC grew on tricarballylate, suggesting that the functions of the TcuABC proteins were the only ones unique to S. enterica needed to catabolize tricarballylate. Analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of the TcuAB proteins suggest that TcuA is a flavoprotein, and TcuB is likely anchored to the cell membrane and probably contains one or more Fe-S centers. The TcuB protein is proposed to work in concert with TcuA to oxidize tricarballylate to cis-aconitate, which is further catabolized via the Krebs cycle. The glyoxylate shunt is not required for growth of S. enterica on tricarballylate. A model for tricarballylate catabolism in S. enterica is proposed.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine cascade and lethality in LT alpha/TNF alpha-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, F.; Fitting, C.; Tracey, K. J.; Cavaillon, J. M.; Dautry, F.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is often considered the main proinflammatory cytokine induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and consequently the critical mediator of the lethality associated with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used mice carrying a deletion of both the lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) and TNF-alpha genes to assess the role of TNF in the cytokine cascade and lethality induced by LPS. RESULTS: Initial production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10 is comparable in wild-type and mutant mice. However, at later times, expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-10 is prolonged, whereas that of IL-6 decreases in mutant mice. Expression of IFN-gamma is almost completely abrogated in mutants, which is in agreement with a more significant alteration of the late phase of the cytokine cascade. We measured similar LD50 (600 micrograms) for the intravenous injection of LPS in mice of the three genotypes (+/+, +/-, -/-), demonstrating that the absence of TNF does not confer long-term protection from lethality. However, death occurred much more slowly in mutant mice, who were protected more efficiently from death by CNI 1493, an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production, than were wild-type mice. DISCUSSION: Thus, while TNF-alpha is not required for the induction of these cytokines by LPS, it modulates the kinetics of their expression. The lethality studies simultaneously confirm a role for TNF as a mediator of early lethality and establish that, in the absence of these cytokines, other mediators take over, resulting in the absence of long-term protection from LPS toxicity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:9440119

  1. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-11-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  2. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  3. Homotopy perturbation method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM) for solving Lane-Emden type differential equations (LETDEs).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.

  4. Free-space terahertz radiation from a LT-GaAs-on-quartz large-area photoconductive emitter.

    PubMed

    Bacon, David R; Burnett, Andrew D; Swithenbank, Matthew; Russell, Christopher; Li, Lianhe; Wood, Christopher D; Cunningham, John; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul; Freeman, Joshua R

    2016-11-14

    We report on large-area photoconductive terahertz (THz) emitters with a low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) active layer fabricated on quartz substrates using a lift-off transfer process. These devices are compared to the same LT-GaAs emitters when fabricated on the growth substrate. We find that the transferred devices show higher optical-to-THz conversion efficiencies and significantly larger breakdown fields, which we attribute to reduced parasitic current in the substrate. Through these improvements, we demonstrate a factor of ~8 increase in emitted THz field strength at the maximum operating voltage. In addition we find improved performance when these devices are used for photoconductive detection, which we explain through a combination of reduced parasitic substrate currents and reduced space-charge build-up in the device.

  5. Enhanced ionic conductivity of co-doped ceria-carbonate nano composite electrolyte material for LT-SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramana, Kasarapu; Madhuri, Chittimadula; Reddy, C. Vishnuvardhan

    2017-05-01

    Co-doped ceria Ce0.8Sm0.1Y0.12-δ and co-doped ceria-carbonate nano composite Ce0.8Sm0.1Y0.1O2-δ - (Na-K)2CO3 used as electrolytes in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) were synthesized. Structural and morphological studies were characterized by XRD and SEM. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out by using Impedance Spectroscopy in the temperature range of 100 to 500°C. It was observed that the co-doped ceria-carbonate Nano composite material exhibited high ionic conductivity than that of co-doped ceria making it useful as promising electrolyte material for LT-SOFCs.

  6. The Legacy of Genetic Analysis Advances Contemporary Research with Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Valley

    2017-04-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 became standard organisms for genetic analysis during the Truman administration. Half a century later, genetic analysis with these strains had become an art form, interpreted through 23 articles in the ambitious two-volume masterpiece edited by the late Fred Neidhardt and colleagues. These legacy articles now are available through EcoSal Plus, so as to inform and inspire contemporary genetic analyses in these standard organisms and their relatives.

  7. THE ORIGIN OF THE HOT GAS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: TESTING GALACTIC FOUNTAIN MODELS' X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin; Hill, Alex S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2015-02-20

    We test the X-ray emission predictions of galactic fountain models against XMM-Newton measurements of the emission from the Milky Way's hot halo. These measurements are from 110 sight lines, spanning the full range of Galactic longitudes. We find that a magnetohydrodynamical simulation of a supernova-driven interstellar medium, which features a flow of hot gas from the disk to the halo, reproduces the temperature but significantly underpredicts the 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness of the halo (by two orders of magnitude, if we compare the median predicted and observed values). This is true for versions of the model with and without an interstellar magnetic field. We consider different reasons for the discrepancy between the model predictions and the observations. We find that taking into account overionization in cooled halo plasma, which could in principle boost the predicted X-ray emission, is unlikely in practice to bring the predictions in line with the observations. We also find that including thermal conduction, which would tend to increase the surface brightnesses of interfaces between hot and cold gas, would not overcome the surface brightness shortfall. However, charge exchange emission from such interfaces, not included in the current model, may be significant. The faintness of the model may also be due to the lack of cosmic ray driving, meaning that the model may underestimate the amount of material transported from the disk to the halo. In addition, an extended hot halo of accreted material may be important, by supplying hot electrons that could boost the emission of the material driven out from the disk. Additional model predictions are needed to test the relative importance of these processes in explaining the observed halo emission.

  8. The analysis of fountain pen inks by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet/visible absorbance and laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Rohde, E; Vogt, C; Heineman, W R

    1998-01-01

    Information on the identity of inks adds to the circumstantial evidence in legal cases involving fraudulent documents. In combination with optical methods, multiple thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is currently the analytical tool used by forensic chemists to separate, compare and distinguish inks based on their dye composition. In our studies, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the analysis of water-soluble fountain pen inks. Inks are complex mixtures of synthetic organic and inorganic dyes, surfactants, resins and other components. The investigations included the development of an electrophoretic separation method, the optimization of an extraction procedure for inks from paper as well as the evaluation of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) absorbance and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for the analysis of inks by CE. Good results for the separation of 17 blue and black inks of different manufacturers and countries of origin were obtained with 100 mM borate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 20% methanol. The electropherograms of the inks and their extracts from paper showed patterns that were in most cases distinctly different from each other. Ultraviolet/visible scans can be used to compare spectra of the separated main and trace components of inks. Fluorescence detection at different excitation and emission wavelengths was more sensitive, but added to the complexity of the electropherograms due to the excitation of coextracted fluorescing paper components. The resolution power of CE combined with the information content provided by the detection modes investigated prove CE to be a powerful tool for the identification of water-soluble inks used on paper documents.

  9. Development of a high-performance composite cathode for LT-SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Wook

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) has drawn considerable attention for decades due to its high efficiency and low pollution, which is made possible since chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy through the system without combustion. However, successful commercialization of SOFC has been delayed due to its high production cost mainly related with using high cost of interconnecting materials and the other structural components required for high temperature operation. This is the reason that intermediate (IT) or low temperature (LT)-SOFC operating at 600~800°C or 650°C and below, respectively, is of particular significance because it allows the wider selection of cheaper materials such as stainless steel for interconnects and the other structural components. Also, extended lifetime and system reliability are expected due to less thermal stress through the system with reduced temperature. More rapid start-up/shut-down procedure is another advantage of lowering the operating temperatures. As a result, commercialization of SOFC will be more viable. However, there exists performance drop with reduced operating temperature due to increased polarization resistances from the electrode electrochemical reactions and decreased electrolyte conductivity. Since ohmic polarization of the electrolyte can be significantly reduced with state-of-the art thin film technology and cathode polarization has more drastic effect on total SOFC electrochemical performance than anode polarization as temperature decreases, development of the cathode with high performance operating at IT or LT range is thus essential. On the other hand, chemical stability of the cathode and its chemical compatibility with the electrolyte should also be considered for cathode development since instability and incompatibility of the cathode will also cause substantial performance loss. Based on requirements of the cathode mentioned above, in this study, several chemico-physical approaches were

  10. An In Silico Insight into Novel Therapeutic Interaction of LTNF Peptide-LT10 and Design of Structure Based Peptidomimetics for Putative Anti-Diabetic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Sonali Gopichand; Deobagkar, Deepti Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Factor (LTNF) obtained from Opossum serum (Didephis virginiana) is known to exhibit toxin-neutralizing activity for envenomation caused by animals, plants and bacteria. Small synthetic peptide- LT10 (10mer) derived from N-terminal fraction of LTNF exhibit similar anti-lethal and anti-allergic property. In our in silico study, we identified Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE) as a potential target of LT10 peptide followed by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies which revealed relatively stable interaction of LT10 peptide with IDE. Moreover, their detailed interaction analyses dictate IDE-inhibitory interactions of LT10 peptide. This prediction ofLT10 peptide as a novel putative IDE-inhibitor suggests its possible role in anti-diabetic treatment since IDE- inhibitors are known to assist treatment of Diabetes mellitus by enhancing insulin signalling. Furthermore, series of structure based peptidomimetics were designed from LT10 peptide and screened for their inhibitory interactions which ultimately led to a small set of peptidomimetic inhibitors of IDE. These peptidomimetic thus might provide a new class of IDE-inhibitors, those derived from LT10 peptide. PMID:25816209

  11. The Collaborative Lithium Trials (CoLT): specific aims, methods, and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Findling, Robert L; Frazier, Jean A; Kafantaris, Vivian; Kowatch, Robert; McClellan, Jon; Pavuluri, Mani; Sikich, Linmarie; Hlastala, Stefanie; Hooper, Stephen R; Demeter, Christine A; Bedoya, Denise; Brownstein, Bernard; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita

    2008-01-01

    Background Lithium is a benchmark treatment for bipolar illness in adults. However, there has been relatively little methodologically stringent research regarding the use of lithium in youth suffering from bipolarity. Methods Under the auspices of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA), a Written Request (WR) pertaining to the study of lithium in pediatric mania was issued by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in 2004. Accordingly, the NICHD issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) soliciting submissions to pursue this research. Subsequently, the NICHD awarded a contract to a group of investigators in order to conduct these studies. Results The Collaborative Lithium Trials (CoLT) investigators, the BPCA-Coordinating Center, and the NICHD developed protocols to provide data that will: (1) establish evidence-based dosing strategies for lithium; (2) characterize the pharmacokinetics and biodisposition of lithium; (3) examine the acute efficacy of lithium in pediatric bipolarity; (4) investigate the long-term effectiveness of lithium treatment; and (5) characterize the short- and long-term safety of lithium. By undertaking two multi-phase trials rather than multiple single-phase studies (as was described in the WR), the feasibility of the research to be undertaken was enhanced while ensuring all the data outlined in the WR would be obtained. The first study consists of: (1) an 8-week open-label, randomized, escalating dose Pharmacokinetic Phase; (2) a 16-week Long-Term Effectiveness Phase; (3) a 28-week double-blind Discontinuation Phase; and (4) an 8-week open-label Restabilization Phase. The second study consists of: (1) an 8-week, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled Efficacy Phase; (2) an open-label Long-Term Effectiveness lasting either 16 or 24 weeks (depending upon blinded treatment assignment during the Efficacy Phase); (3) a 28-week double

  12. A comparison of ground-based and satellite-derived radiative heat flux at Mt Etna: the 12 August lava fountain case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Gaetana; Calvari, Sonia; James, Mike; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The recent eruptive activity at Mt Etna has been characterized by quiet frequent, intermittent episodes of lava fountains associated with small lava flow output, occurring especially at the SE Crater. During 2011, 18 paroxysmal lava fountains were produced by a new cone, named "Sturiale Cone", on the east flank of the SE Crater. Given the high hazard posed by this activity, and the need of improving detection, description and knowledge of these events, remote monitoring through fixed cameras and satellites has becoming crucial, especially using thermal sensors. We here focus on the 12 August 2011 episode, the strongest of the lava fountains occurred in 2011, and also the best monitored, given the clear sky, absence of clouds, and possibility to collect also images from a close-up view. We disposed of a total of 8 fixed cameras working around the volcano, three of them offering a thermal view of the episode. Moreover, as satellite observations, we could use the complete data set from the SEVIRI sensor, which has a temporal resolution of 15 minutes. To compare the field- and satellite-derived radiative heat flux curves, thermal images were registered by taking into account a DEM, the GPS camera position, the relative camera rotations and first order lens distortion parameters. Moreover, it was performed a pixel by pixel correction from path length and atmospheric effects. Finally, a temperature threshold was fixed to identify the active lava area and the amount of heat lost by radiation from all the pixels covered by lava was computed. SEVIRI data were analyzed by the HOTSAT thermal monitoring system. Through automatic hot-spot detection algorithm based on dynamic thresholds, we are able to provide an estimate of the radiant heat flux for each thermally anomalous pixel and possibly convert it into time averaged discharge rate. Preliminary results showed a good agreement on timing, shape and amplitude of the radiative heat flux time series between thermal camera and

  13. Improved Frequency Measurement of the 1S0-3P0 Clock Transition in 87Sr Using a Cs Fountain Clock as a Transfer Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Takehiko; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takumi; Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ikegami, Takeshi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Inaba, Hajime; Okubo, Sho; Yasuda, Masami; Hong, Feng-Lei; Onae, Atsushi; Hosaka, Kazumoto

    2015-11-01

    We performed an absolute frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P0 transition in 87Sr with a fractional uncertainty of 1.2 × 10-15, which is less than one-third that of our previous measurement. A caesium fountain atomic clock was used as a transfer oscillator to reduce the uncertainty of the link between a strontium optical lattice clock and the SI second. The absolute value of the transition frequency is 429 228 004 229 873.56(49) Hz.

  14. Homological stabilizer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  15. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  16. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  17. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  18. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  19. To Code or Not To Code?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Brian; Sandhu, Parveen; Lacorte, Manel; Gourlay, Lesley

    1998-01-01

    This article considers arguments for and against the use of coding systems in classroom-based language research and touches on some relevant considerations from ethnographic and conversational analysis approaches. The four authors each explain and elaborate on their practical decision to code or not to code events or utterances at a specific point…

  20. Bare Code Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, Jean J.

    1980-05-01

    The Bare code system will be used, in every market and supermarket. The code, which is normalised in US and Europe (code EAN) gives informations on price, storage, nature and allows in real time the gestion of theshop.

  1. Characterization and analysis of temporal and spatial variations in habitat and macroinvertebrate community structure, Fountain Creek basin, Colorado Springs and vicinity, Colorado, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, James F.

    2002-01-01

    The Fountain Creek Basin in and around Colorado Springs, Colorado, is affected by various land- and water-use activities. Biological, hydrological, water-quality, and land-use data were collected at 10 sites in the Fountain Creek Basin from April 1998 through April 2001 to provide a baseline characterization of macroinvertebrate communities and habitat conditions for comparison in subsequent studies; and to assess variation in macroinvertebrate community structure relative to habitat quality. Analysis of variance results indicated that instream and riparian variables were not affected by season, but significant differences were found among sites. Nine metrics were used to describe and evaluate macroinvertebrate community structure. Statistical analysis indicated that for six of the nine metrics, significant variability occurred between spring and fall seasons for 60 percent of the sites. Cluster analysis (unweighted pair group method average) using macroinvertebrate presence-absence data showed a well-defined separation between spring and fall samples. Six of the nine metrics had significant spatial variation. Cluster analysis using Sorenson?s Coefficient of Community values computed from macroinvertebrate density (number of organisms per square meter) data showed that macroinvertebrate community structure was more similar among tributary sites than main-stem sites. Canonical correspondence analysis identified a substrate particle-size gradient from site-specific species-abundance data and environmental correlates that decreased the 10 sites to 5 site clusters and their associated taxa.

  2. The transition of spatter to lava-like body in lava fountain deposits: features and examples from the Cabezo Segura volcano (Calatrava, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Sánchez, M.; Sarrionandia, F.; Arostegui, J.; Eguiluz, L.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2012-05-01

    The Cabezo Segura II volcanic cone (Calatrava volcanic province, Iberian microplate) comprises proximal wall deposits with a well defined crater wall unconformity and crater-fill deposits. The complex volcanic succession, that shows evidence of several eruptive episodes, was built by magmatic and hydrovolcanic explosions of different styles (Strombolian, Hawaiian, sub-Plinian and phreato-Strombolian) generated from a multiple feeder ultrabasic dyke. Intra-crater rock units at the volcano summit include spatter deposits together with up to 10 m thick and more than 200 m long lava-like bodies. Geological logs for the main lava-like bodies define a characteristic facies model that involves a central lava-like mass which grades vertically into a transition zone of apparently coherent spatter, then dense spatter and, finally, into vuggy spatter deposits. These units are inferred to have formed during pulsating lava fountain-type explosive eruptions; the depicted facies distribution being the result of progressive increase in welding grade and densification of the spatter in response to variations in the accumulation rate. Their field features may be used as a guide for the precise identification of vent sites in deposits of Hawaiian eruptions. Also, structures like those here recognised, that might have survived in lava-like flows, could be of help to identify when lava-producing eruptions represented an explosive Hawaiian event (lava fountains) and not a purely effusive event.

  3. TLR2-dependent modulation of dendritic cells by LT-IIa-B5, a novel mucosal adjuvant derived from a type II heat-labile enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Masso-Welch, Patricia; Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D.

    2011-01-01

    A host of human pathogens invades the body at mucosal surfaces. Yet, strong, protective mucosal immune responses directed against those pathogens routinely cannot be induced without the use of adjuvants. Although the strongest mucosal adjuvants are members of the family of HLTs, the inherent toxicities of HLT holotoxins preclude their clinical use. Herein, it is shown that LT-IIa-B5 enhances mucosal immune responses by modulating activities of DCs. i.n. immunization of mice with OVA in the presence of LT-IIa-B5 recruited DCs to the NALT and significantly increased uptake of OVA by those DCs. Furthermore, LT-IIa-B5 increased expression of CCR7 by DCs, which mediated enhanced migration of the cells from the NALT to the draining CLNs. LT-IIa-B5 also enhanced maturation of DCs, as revealed by increased surface expression of CD40, CD80, and CD86. Ag-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation was augmented in the CLNs of mice that had received i.n. LT-IIa-B5. Finally, when used as an i.n. adjuvant, LT-IIa-B5 dramatically increased the levels of OVA-specific salivary IgA and OVA-specific serum IgG. Strikingly, each of the activities induced by LT-IIa-B5 was strictly TLR2-dependent. The data strongly suggest that the immunomodulatory properties of LT-IIa-B5 depend on the productive modulation of mucosal DCs. Notably, this is the first report for any HLT to demonstrate in vivo the elicitation of strong, TLR2-dependent modulatory effects on DCs with respect to adjuvanticity. PMID:21791597

  4. Dendritic cell secretion of IL-15 is induced by recombinant huCD40LT and augments the stimulation of antigen-specific cytolytic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kuniyoshi, J S; Kuniyoshi, C J; Lim, A M; Wang, F Y; Bade, E R; Lau, R; Thomas, E K; Weber, J S

    1999-04-10

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells which stimulate strong proliferative and cytolytic T cell responses. Stimulation of CD40 on dendritic cells by its ligands and anti-CD40 antibodies induces maturation and enhances DC stimulatory ability. In order to understand the mechanism by which ligand:CD40 interactions augment DC function, we assessed the role of T cell stimulatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-15 in the function of DC stimulated with soluble trimeric CD40L, a recombinant fusion protein incorporating three covalently linked extracellular CD40L domains (huCD40LT). Peripheral blood derived DC treated with huCD40LT and/or IFN-gamma were used to stimulate T cell responses in vitro to specific antigens. DC treated with huCD40LT or IFN-gamma/huCD40LT stimulated enhanced T cell proliferation to CASTA, a soluble protein from C. albicans, induced T cells with augmented antigen-specific lysis, and increased the yield of antigen-specific IFN-gamma-producing T cells. IL-15 production by DC was enhanced in cultures treated with huCD40LT and correlated with expansion of antigen-specific cytolytic T cells. Addition of a neutralizing anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody inhibited the expansion of viral and tumor antigen-specific T cells stimulated by IFN-gamma and huCD40LT-treated DC. In contrast, this enhanced stimulatory ability of DC did not appear to depend on synthesis of IL-12 since huCD40LT treatment stimulated the generation of antigen-specific cytokine producing and cytolytic T cells without increased IL-12 production. Addition of anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody did not inhibit expansion of these cells. These data suggest that production of IL-15 but not IL-12 is an important factor in the enhanced immunostimulatory ability of huCD40LT-treated DC.

  5. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-05-15

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  6. Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median

  7. Development of a candidate stabilizing formulation for bulk storage of a double mutant heat labile toxin (dmLT) protein based adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Vishal M; Sahni, Neha; Hickey, John M; Robertson, George A; Middaugh, C Russell; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B

    2017-10-04

    This work describes the formulation design and development of a novel protein based adjuvant, a double mutant of heat labile toxin (dmLT), based on knowledge of the protein's structural integrity and physicochemical degradation pathways. Various classes of pharmaceutical excipients were screened for their stabilizing effect on dmLT during exposure to thermal and agitation stresses as monitored by high throughput analytical assays for dmLT degradation. Sucrose, phosphate, sodium chloride, methionine and polysorbate-80 were identified as potential stabilizers that protected dmLT against either conformational destabilization, aggregation/particle formation or chemical degradation (e.g., Met oxidation and Lys glycation). Different combinations and concentrations of the selected stabilizers were then evaluated to further optimize dmLT stability while maintaining pharmaceutically acceptable ranges of solution pH and osmolality. The effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on the physical stability of candidate bulk formulations was also examined. Increasing the polysorbate-80 concentration to 0.1% in the lead candidate bulk formulation mitigated the loss of protein mass during FT. This formulation development study enabled the design of a new bulk formulation of the dmLT adjuvant and provides flexibility for future use in combination with a variety of different vaccine dosage forms with different antigens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. PcLT, a novel C-type lectin from Procambarus clarkii, is involved in the innate defense against Vibrio alginolyticus and WSSV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan-Dan; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jing-You; Meng, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Lectins play important roles in the innate immunity. In this work, a C-type lectin, PcLT, was obtained from Procambarus clarkii which contained a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with the ability to bind to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated PcLT was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas and the mRNA was markedly upregulated by V. alginolyticus and WSSV challenge, although a slight difference in timing was observed. The study also revealed upregulation of the mRNA expression and activity of immunological factors, peroxinectin, phenoloxidase, and superoxide dismutase in hemolymph in response to recombinant PcLT (rPcLT). Moreover, rPcLT also enhanced the phagocytosis, facilitated the subsequent clearance of V. alginolyticus and prolonged the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. These results suggested that PcLT not only served as a pathogen recognition receptor (PRR), but also functioned as an immune modulator, participating in host defense against invaders.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of MSC and MSC-Derived Osteoblasts on Resomer® LT706 and PCL: Impact of Biomaterial Substrate on Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Neuss, Sabine; Denecke, Bernd; Gan, Lin; Lin, Qiong; Bovi, Manfred; Apel, Christian; Wöltje, Michael; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Salber, Jochen; Knüchel, Ruth; Zenke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a particularly attractive cell type for bone tissue engineering because of their ex vivo expansion potential and multipotent differentiation capacity. MSC are readily differentiated towards mature osteoblasts with well-established protocols. However, tissue engineering frequently involves three-dimensional scaffolds which (i) allow for cell adhesion in a spatial environment and (ii) meet application-specific criteria, such as stiffness, degradability and biocompatibility. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we analysed two synthetic, long-term degradable polymers for their impact on MSC-based bone tissue engineering: PLLA-co-TMC (Resomer® LT706) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Both polymers enhance the osteogenic differentiation compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) as determined by Alizarin red stainings, scanning electron microscopy, PCR and whole genome expression analysis. Resomer® LT706 and PCL differ in their influence on gene expression, with Resomer® LT706 being more potent in supporting osteogenic differentiation of MSC. The major trigger on the osteogenic fate, however, is from osteogenic induction medium. Conclusion This study demonstrates an enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSC on Resomer® LT706 and PCL compared to TCPS. MSC cultured on Resomer® LT706 showed higher numbers of genes involved in skeletal development and bone formation. This identifies Resomer® LT706 as particularly attractive scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21935359

  10. CysLT1 leukotriene receptor antagonists inhibit the effects of nucleotides acting at P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mamedova, Liaman; Capra, Valérie; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Ferrario, Silvia; Fumagalli, Marta; Abbracchio, Maria P.; Rovati, G. Enrico; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Montelukast and pranlukast are orally active leukotriene receptor antagonists selective for the CysLT1 receptor. Conversely, the hP2Y1,2,4,6,11,12,13,14 receptors represent a large family of GPCRs responding to either adenine or uracil nucleotides, or to sugar-nucleotides. Montelukast and pranlukast were found to inhibit nucleotide-induced calcium mobilization in a human monocyte-macrophage like cell line, DMSO-differentiated U937 (dU937). Montelukast and pranlukast inhibited the effects of UTP with IC50 values of 7.7 and 4.3 μM, respectively, and inhibited the effects of UDP with IC50 values of 4.5 and 1.6 μM, respectively, in an insurmountable manner. Furthermore, ligand binding studies using [3H]LTD4 excluded the possibility of orthosteric nucleotide binding to the CysLT1 receptor. dU937 cells were shown to express P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y13 and P2Y14 receptors. Therefore, these antagonists were studied functionally in a heterologous expression system for the human P2Y receptors. In 1321N1 astrocytoma cells stably expressing human P2Y1,2,4,6 receptors, CysLT1 antagonists inhibited both the P2Y agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. IC50 values at P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors were <1 μM. In control astrocytoma cells expressing an endogenous M3 muscarinic receptor, 10 μM montelukast had no effect on the carbachol-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+. These data demonstrated that CysLT1 receptor antagonists interact functionally with signaling pathways of P2Y receptors, and this should foster the study of possible implications for the clinical use of these compounds in asthma or in other inflammatory conditions. PMID:16280122

  11. Femtosecond probe-probe transmission studies of LT-grown GaAs near the band edge

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H.B.; Bello, A.F.; Erskine, D.J.; Dinh, L.N.; Bennahmias, M.J.; Perry, M.D.; Ditmire, T.R.; Mariella, R.P. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    We have studied the near-edge optical response of a LT-grown GaAs sample which was deposited at 300{degrees}C on a Si substrate, and then annealed at 600{degrees}C. The Si was etched away to leave a 1 micron free standing GaAs film. Femtosecond transmission measurements were made using an equal pulse technique at four wavelengths between 825 and 870 nm. For each wavelength we observe both a multipicosecond relaxation time, as well as a shorter relaxation time which is less than 100 femtoseconds.

  12. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group, initiated a study of groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and loading of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium to Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, to improve understanding of sources and processes affecting loading of these constituents to streams in the Arkansas River Basin. Fourteen monitoring wells were installed in a series of three transects across Fountain Creek near Pueblo, and temporary streamgages were established at each transect to facilitate data collection for the study. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was characterized by using hydrogeologic mapping, groundwater and stream-surface levels, groundwater and stream temperatures, vertical hydraulic-head gradients and ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hyporheic zone, and streamflow mass-balance measurements. Water quality was characterized by collecting periodic samples from groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone for analysis of dissolved solids, selenium, uranium, and other selected constituents and by evaluating the oxidation-reduction condition for each groundwater sample under different hydrologic conditions throughout the study period. Groundwater loads to Fountain Creek and in-stream loads were computed for the study area, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium were evaluated on the basis of geology, geochemical conditions, land and water use, and evapoconcentration.During the study period, the groundwater-flow system generally contributed flow to Fountain Creek and its hyporheic zone (as a single system) except for the reach between the north and middle transects. However, the direction of flow between the stream, the hyporheic zone, and the near-stream aquifer was variable in response to streamflow and stage. During periods of low streamflow, Fountain Creek generally gained flow from

  13. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  14. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  15. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  16. Application of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for accurate identification of Legionella spp. Isolated from municipal fountains in Chengdu, China, based on 16S rRNA, mip, and rpoB genes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wang; Xu, Ying; Chen, Da-Li; Xu, Jia-Nan; Tian, Yu; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease; LD) is a form of severe pneumonia caused by species of Legionella bacteria. Because inhalation of Legionella-contaminated aerosol is considered the major infection route, routine assessments of potential infection sources such as hot water systems, air-conditioner cooling water, and municipal fountains are of great importance. In this study, we utilized in vitro culture and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) targeting 16S rRNA, mip, rpoB, and mip-rpoB concatenation to isolate and identify Legionella spp. from 5 municipal fountains in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China. Our results demonstrated that 16S rRNA was useful for initial identification, as it could recognize isolates robustly at the genus level, while the genes mip, rpoB, and mip-rpoB concatenation could confidently discriminate Legionella species. Notably, the three subspecies of L. pneumophila could be distinguished by the analysis based on rpoB. The serotyping result of strain CD-1 was consistent with genetic analysis based on the concatenation of mip and rpoB. Despite regular maintenance and sanitizing methods, 4 of the 5 municipal fountains investigated in this study were positive for Legionella contamination. Thus, regularly scheduled monitoring of municipal fountains is urgently needed as well as vigilant disinfection. Although the application of MLSA for inspection of potential sites of infection in public areas is not standard procedure, further investigations may prove its usefulness.

  17. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  18. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  19. Evaluation of Metal Halide, Plasma, and LED Lighting Technologies for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Light (H 2 LT)

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, L. B.; Donohoe, S. P.; Jones, M. H.; ...

    2015-04-22

    This article reports on the testing and comparison of a prototype hydrogen fuel cell light tower (H2LT) and a conventional diesel-powered metal halide light trailer for use in road maintenance and construction activities. The prototype was originally outfitted with plasma lights and then with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Light output and distribution, lighting energy efficiency (i.e., efficacy), power source thermal efficiency, and fuel costs are compared. The metal halide luminaires have 2.2 and 3.1 times more light output than the plasma and LED luminaires, respectively, but they require more power/lumen to provide that output. The LED luminaires have 1.6 timesmore » better light efficacy than either the metal halide or plasma luminaires. The light uniformity ratios produced by the plasma and LED towers are acceptable. The fuel cell thermal efficiency at the power required to operate the plasma lights is 48%, significantly higher than the diesel generator efficiency of 23% when operating the metal halide lights. Due to the increased efficiency of the fuel cell and the LED lighting, the fuel cost per lumen-hour of the H2LT is 62% of the metal halide diesel light tower assuming a kilogram of hydrogen is twice the cost of a gallon of diesel fuel.« less

  20. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of a D-superfamily conotoxin Lt28.1 with previously undescribed cysteine pattern.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhang, Kejun; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Ting; Yu, Shuo; Dai, Qiuyun; Liu, Zhuguo

    2017-08-01

    As a class of peptides with 10 cysteine residues (-C-CC-C-CC-C-C-C-C-), D-superfamily conotoxins (D-conotoxins) can specifically act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). According to the conserved signal peptides of D-conotoxins, seven D-conotoxin precursor sequences with a previously undescribed Cys arrangement (-C-C-C-CC-C-C-C-C-C-) were identified by PCR-RACE methodology in the present study. The alignment of sequences revealed that signal peptide regions were same as D-VxXXA from Conus vexillum, and their mature peptides were almost different from the D-conotoxins. Analyses of the evolutionary tree demonstrated that they had low homology to those reported conotoxins with 10 cysteine residues (less than 35%) and lied in a separate branch in the evolutionary tree. Furthermore, a previously undescribed D-superfamily conotoxin Lt28.1 was further expressed in Pichia pastoris and then functionally characterized. The results showed that the recombinant Lt28.1 targeted α9α10 nAChRs but not other nAChRs subtypes. These findings defined a new branch of D-superfamily and expanded our knowledge of targets and potential application of D-conotoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron reduction by the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a under subsurface pressure and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Picard, Aude; Testemale, Denis; Wagenknecht, Laura; Hazael, Rachael; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms influence biogeochemical cycles from the surface down to the depths of the continental rocks and oceanic basaltic crust. Due to the poor recovery of microbial isolates from the deep subsurface, the influence of physical environmental parameters, such as pressure and temperature, on the physiology and metabolic potential of subsurface inhabitants is not well constrained. We evaluated Fe(III) reduction rates (FeRRs) and viability, measured as colony-forming ability, of the deep-sea piezophilic bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a over a range of pressures (0-125 MPa) and temperatures (4-37∘C) that included the in situ habitat of the bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediments at 4500 m depth below sea level. S. profunda LT13a was active at all temperatures investigated and at pressures up to 120 MPa at 30∘C, suggesting that it is well adapted to deep-sea and deep sedimentary environments. Average initial cellular FeRRs only slightly decreased with increasing pressure until activity stopped, suggesting that the respiratory chain was not immediately affected upon the application of pressure. We hypothesize that, as pressure increases, the increased energy demand for cell maintenance is not fulfilled, thus leading to a decrease in viability. This study opens up perspectives about energy requirements of cells in the deep subsurface.

  2. Iron reduction by the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a under subsurface pressure and temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Aude; Testemale, Denis; Wagenknecht, Laura; Hazael, Rachael; Daniel, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms influence biogeochemical cycles from the surface down to the depths of the continental rocks and oceanic basaltic crust. Due to the poor recovery of microbial isolates from the deep subsurface, the influence of physical environmental parameters, such as pressure and temperature, on the physiology and metabolic potential of subsurface inhabitants is not well constrained. We evaluated Fe(III) reduction rates (FeRRs) and viability, measured as colony-forming ability, of the deep-sea piezophilic bacterium Shewanella profunda LT13a over a range of pressures (0–125 MPa) and temperatures (4–37∘C) that included the in situ habitat of the bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediments at 4500 m depth below sea level. S. profunda LT13a was active at all temperatures investigated and at pressures up to 120 MPa at 30∘C, suggesting that it is well adapted to deep-sea and deep sedimentary environments. Average initial cellular FeRRs only slightly decreased with increasing pressure until activity stopped, suggesting that the respiratory chain was not immediately affected upon the application of pressure. We hypothesize that, as pressure increases, the increased energy demand for cell maintenance is not fulfilled, thus leading to a decrease in viability. This study opens up perspectives about energy requirements of cells in the deep subsurface. PMID:25653646

  3. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning.

  4. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  5. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  6. Laser Soap Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which…

  7. Laser Soap Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which…

  8. Fountain of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2004-01-01

    Ponce de Laon describes his experience of watching different films at different stages of life from 1971 when he was at the age of nine. From these experiences he choose his own career as a scholar and as a director of the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center.

  9. A Portable Rubidium Fountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    and K. Gibble, 2004, “Phase variations in microwave cavities for atomic clocks,” Metrologia , 41, 376-378. [7] S. R. Jefferts, J. H. Shirley, N...phase errors in atomic clocks,” Metrologia , 47, 534-551. 42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 320

  10. DANIEL: A computer code for high-speed dusty gas flows with multiple particle sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.

    1989-05-01

    This report describes a calculational model for nonreacting high-speed gas-particle flow dynamics. Differential equations are derived for a compressible, polytropic dusty gas with suspended larger particles. Dust is described as rigid particles small enough to maintain temperature and velocity equilibrium with the clean gas. The larger particles are rigid, noncolliding spheres of various sizes having velocities and temperatures significantly different from those of the gas. Exchange terms are included in the differential equations to account for momentum and energy transfer between the dusty gas and the particles. An explicit, Eulerian numerical algorithm approximates the solution of the differential equations. This algorithm is used to simulate volcanic pyroclastic fountaining. The numerical technique produces plausible volcanic eruption models. These results support the appropriateness of further code development, including adaptation to low flow speeds, turbulence transport and diffusion, and swirl. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  12. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  13. Definitive airway management of patients presenting with a pre-hospital inserted King LT(S)-D laryngeal tube airway: a historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Arun; Garcia-Marcinkiewicz, Annery G; Brown, Daniel R; Brown, Michael J; Diedrich, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The King LT(S)-D laryngeal tube (King LT) has gained popularity as a bridge airway for pre-hospital airway management. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the use of the King LT and its associated airway outcomes at a single Level 1 trauma centre. The data on all adult patients presenting to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota with a King LT in situ from July 1, 2007 to October 10, 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Data collected and descriptively analyzed included patient demographics, comorbidities, etiology of respiratory failure, airway complications, subsequent definitive airway management technique, duration of mechanical ventilation, and status at discharge. Forty-eight adult patients met inclusion criteria. The most common etiology for respiratory failure requiring an artificial airway was cardiac arrest [28 (58%) patients] or trauma [9 (19%) patients]. Four of the nine trauma patients had facial trauma. Surgical tracheostomy was the definitive airway management technique in 14 (29%) patients. An airway exchange catheter, direct laryngoscopy, and video laryngoscopy were used in 11 (23%), ten (21%), and ten (21%) cases, respectively. Seven (78%) of the trauma patients underwent surgical tracheostomy compared with seven (18%) of the medical patients. Adverse events associated with King LT use occurred in 13 (27%) patients, with upper airway edema (i.e., tongue engorgement and glottic edema) being most common (19%). In this study of patients presenting to a hospital with a King LT, the majority of airway exchanges required an advanced airway management technique beyond direct laryngoscopy. Upper airway edema was the most common adverse observation associated with King LT use.

  14. Spindle assembly checkpoint-related meiotic defect in oocytes from LT/Sv mice has cytoplasmic origin and diminishes in older females.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Steffen; Król, Marzena; Polanski, Zbigniew

    2012-09-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures proper segregation of chromosomes by delaying anaphase onset until all kinetochores are properly attached to the spindle microtubules. Oocytes from the mouse strain LT/Sv arrest at the first meiotic metaphase (MI) due to, as reported recently, enormously prolonged activity of the SAC. We compared the dynamics of cyclin B1-GFP degradation, the process which is a measure of the SAC activity, in chromosomal and achromosomal halves of LT/Sv oocytes. In chromosome-containing oocyte halves arrested at MI, cyclin B1-GFP was not degraded indicating active SAC. However, in the halves lacking chromosomes, which is a condition precluding the SAC function, degradation always occurred confirming that MI arrest in LT/Sv oocytes is SAC dependent. Transferring the germinal vesicle (GV) from LT/Sv oocytes into the enucleated oocytes from wild-type mice resulted in the progression through meiosis one, indicating that a SAC-activating defect in LT/Sv oocytes is cytoplasmic, yet can be rescued by foreign cytoplasm. These results may help to define the etiology of the human infertility related to the oocyte MI arrest, indicating the involvement of the SAC as likely candidate, and point to GV transfer as the possible therapy. Finally, we found that majority of oocytes isolated from old LT/Sv mice complete the first meiosis. Reciprocal transfers of the GV between the oocytes from young and old LT/Sv females suggest that the factor(s) responsible for the reversal of the phenotype in oocytes from old mice is located both in the GV and in the cytoplasm.

  15. Alkaline pH Is a signal for optimal production and secretion of the heat labile toxin, LT in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lucia; Ali, Zahra Bagher; Nygren, Erik; Wang, Zhiyun; Karlsson, Stefan; Zhu, Baoli; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Sjöling, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause secretory diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic areas. ETEC spreads through the fecal-oral route. After ingestion, ETEC passes through the stomach and duodenum before it colonizes the lower part of the small intestine, exposing bacteria to a wide range of pH and environmental conditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of external pH and activity of the Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) on the regulation of production and secretion of heat labile (LT) enterotoxin. ETEC strain E2863wt and its isogenic mutant E2863ΔCRP were grown in LBK media buffered to pH 5, 7 and 9. GM1 ELISA, cDNA and cAMP analyses were carried out on bacterial pellet and supernatant samples derived from 3 and 5 hours growth and from overnight cultures. We confirm that CRP is a repressor of LT transcription and production as has been shown before but we show for the first time that CRP is a positive regulator of LT secretion both in vitro and in vivo. LT secretion increased at neutral to alkaline pH compared to acidic pH 5 where secretion was completely inhibited. At pH 9 secretion of LT was optimal resulting in 600 percent increase of secreted LT compared to unbuffered LBK media. This effect was not due to membrane leakage since the bacteria were viable at pH 9. The results indicate that the transition to the alkaline duodenum and/or exposure to high pH close to the epithelium as well as activation of the global transcription factor CRP are signals that induce secretion of the LT toxin in ETEC.

  16. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz mineralization and repeated fragmentation along the Fountain Range Fault (Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, Lina; Blenkinsop, Tom; Heuss, Soraya; Ord, Alison; Kruhl, Jörn H.

    2015-04-01

    In large-scale fault zones fracture networks are commonly generated by high volumes of pressurized fluids, followed by quartz precipitation. In this way large amounts of quartz are formed as microcrystalline masses and as complex vein systems, with partly highly different textures, as a result of different formation processes. Based on field and microstructural data and the quantification of vein patterns, the spatial and temporal connection between fragmentation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Fountain Range Fault at Fountain Springs was investigated. Dextral strike-slip led to up to 25 km horizontal displacement along the fault. Due to various fragmentation and quartz formation processes, a ca. 100 m high, 80 - 100 m wide and km-long quartz ridge with numerous vein systems and variable microfabrics was formed. Locally, lenses of highly altered metamorphic wall-rocks occur in the quartz zone. Where exposed, the contact to wall rocks is sharp. Millimetre- to decimetre-thick quartz veins penetrate the wall-rocks only within metre distance from the contact. Several clearly distinguishable fine-grained reddish, brownish to dark and pigment-rich quartz masses form up to 50 m wide and up to several 100 m long steep lenses that build the major part of the silicified fault zone. A chronology can be established. Some of these lenses are oriented slightly oblique to the general trend of the quartz zone, in agreement with the supposed dextral strike slip along the fault. Numerous generations of typically µm-cm thick quartz veins transect the microcrystalline quartz masses and, locally, form anisotropic networks. In the quartz masses, angular fragments often composed of quartz with, again, internal fragmentation structures, indicate earlier fracturing and silicification events. Within the veins, quartz forms geodes, locally filled with fine-grained reddish quartz and palisade structures with feathery textures and fluid-inclusion zoning

  17. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  18. Simulations of the Cleft Ion Fountain outflows resulting from the passage of Storm Enhanced Density (SED) plasma flux tubes through the dayside cleft auroral processes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, James; Zeng, Wen

    2007-10-01

    Foster et al. [2002] reported elevated ionospheric density regions convected from subauroral plasmaspheric regions toward noon, in association with convection of plasmaspheric tails. These Storm Enhanced Density (SED) regions could supply cleft ion fountain outflows. Here, we will utilize our Dynamic Fluid Kinetic (DyFK) model to simulate the entry of a high-density ``plasmasphere-like'' flux tube entering the cleft region and subjected to an episode of wave-driven transverse ion heating. It is found that the O^+ ion density at higher altitudes increases and the density at lower altitudes decreases, following this heating episode, indicating increased fluxes of O^+ ions from the ionospheric source gain sufficient energy to reach higher altitudes after the effects of transverse wave heating. Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, A. J. Coster, J. Goldstein, and F. J. Rich, Ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric tails, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(13), 1623, doi:10.1029/2002GL015067, 2002.

  19. Summary of water-quality data, October 1987 through September 1997, for Fountain and Monument Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossong, Clifford R.

    2001-01-01

    Fountain and Monument Creeks, which drain parts of El Paso and Pueblo Counties in Colorado, have been sampled systematically by the U.S. Geological Survey for many years to obtain records of water-quality properties and constituents; the data are stored in the National Water Inventory System. Statistical summaries of these data indicate that they have spatial and temporal trends. Comparison of water-quality data to in-stream regulatory standards, some of which were calculated in this report, indicate that some exceedances are widespread in the system and that some occur locally. Nonparametric tests to quantitatively detect monotonic trends in water-quality data indicate that many water-quality properties and constituents do not have significant monotonic trends; detected trends were mostly downward.

  20. Evidence of a shallow persistent magmatic reservoir from joint inversion of gravity and ground deformation data: The 25-26 October 2013 Etna lava fountaining event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Filippo; Currenti, Gilda; Palano, Mimmo; Pepe, Antonio; Pepe, Susi

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the volcanic processes leading to the 25-26 October 2013 lava fountain at Mount Etna, we jointly investigated gravity, GPS, and DInSAR measurements covering the late-June to early-November time interval. We used finite element modeling to infer a shallow magmatic reservoir which (i) inflated since July 2013, (ii) fed the volcanic activity at the summit craters during 25-26 October, and (iii) deflated due to magma drainage related to this volcanic activity. We suggested that this reservoir belongs to a shallow volume, which is located beneath the summit area and is replenished by magma rising from deep reservoirs and fed the short-term volcanic activity, representing a persistent shallow magmatic plumbing system of Etna. In addition, the model results show that there is a large discrepancy between the erupted and shallow reservoir deflation volumes, which could be reasonably attributable to a highly compressible volatile-rich magma.

  1. Photogrammetry Driven Tools to Support the Restoration of Open-Air Bronze Surfaces of Sculptures: AN Integrated Solution Starting from the Experience of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Basilissi, W.; Rivaroli, L.

    2017-02-01

    Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact's surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-based solution to support restorers in the open-air bronze artwork cleaning from corrosion and weathering decay. The solution allows the conservators to assess in real time and with a high level of fidelity in colour and shape, the `surfaces' to be cleaned before, during and after the clear-out treatment. The solution besides allows an effective and valuable support tool for restorers to identify the original layer of the bronze surface, developed and validated during the ongoing restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna.

  2. PM10 measurements in urban settlements after lava fountain episodes at Mt Etna, Italy: pilot test to assess volcanic ash hazard on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, D.; Del Carlo, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we focus on the potential risks caused by the sub-10 micron fraction of volcanic ash (particulate matter: PM10) after the basaltic explosive eruptions from Mt Etna volcano (Italy), which have dramatically increased in frequency over the last 20 years. We present results deriving from the study of the ash concentration in the air following the lava fountain episode from the New South-East Crater of Etna on 15 November 2011, which caused tephra fallout over the eastern slope of the volcano. Short-duration tests of PM10 measurements were carried out at three different sites using a TSI® DustTrakTM aerosol monitor a few hours after the end of the eruption, and readouts of the air quality were repeated at the same sites a month later without volcanic activity. Furthermore, ash samples were characterized by grain-size, componentry, morphological and petro-chemical analyses. By comparing PM10 levels measured a few hours after the 15 November lava fountain and on 15 December, we found that relatively low amounts (500-1500 g m-2) of tephra fallout cause high levels of PM10 in the air. This is because the coarse particles, like basaltic ash, are readily broken up by traffic and hence remobilized into the air, due to their intrinsic, physical and morphological features. We believe that in the future the impact from ash fallout in the Etnean territory should receive proper attention in order to avoid potential health problems; this may be achieved by accomplishing simple but effective actions, first and foremost the prompt removal of the ash deposits from the urbanized areas.

  3. PM10 measurements in urban settlements after lava fountain episodes at Mt. Etna, Italy: pilot test to assess volcanic ash hazard to human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, D.; Del Carlo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a preliminary study on the potential risks caused by the sub-10 µm fraction of volcanic ash (particulate matter, PM10) after the basaltic explosive eruptions from Mt. Etna volcano (Italy), which have dramatically increased in frequency over the last 20 years. We present results deriving from the study of the ash concentration in the air following the lava fountain episode from the New Southeast Crater of Etna on 15 November 2011, which caused tephra fallout over the eastern slope of the volcano. Short-duration tests of PM10 measurements were carried out at three different sites using a TSI® DustTrakTM aerosol monitor a few hours after the end of the eruption, and readouts of the air quality were repeated at the same sites a month later without volcanic activity. Furthermore, ash samples were characterized by grain size, componentry and morphological and petrochemical analyses. By comparing PM10 levels measured a few hours after the 15 November lava fountain and on 15 December, we found that relatively low amounts (500-1500 g m-2) of tephra fallout cause high levels of PM10 in the air. This is because the coarse particles, particularly basaltic ash, are readily broken up by traffic and hence remobilized into the air. We believe the impact from ash fallout in the Etnean territory should receive greater attention, especially regarding potential health problems. Simple but effective actions can be implemented to reduce eventual risks, first and foremost the prompt removal of the ash deposits from the urbanized areas.

  4. What is Code Biology?

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Marcello

    2017-10-06

    Various independent discoveries have shown that many organic codes exist in living systems, and this implies that they came into being during the history of life and contributed to that history. The genetic code appeared in a population of primitive systems that has been referred to as the common ancestor, and it has been proposed that three distinct signal processing codes gave origin to the three primary kingdoms of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. After the genetic code and the signal processing codes, on the other hand, only the ancestors of the eukaryotes continued to explore the coding space and gave origin to splicing codes, histone code, tubulin code, compartment codes and many others. A first theoretical consequence of this historical fact is the idea that the Eukarya became increasingly more complex because they maintained the potential to bring new organic codes into existence. A second theoretical consequence comes from the fact that the evolution of the individual rules of a code can take an extremely long time, but the origin of a new organic code corresponds to the appearance of a complete set of rules and from a geological point of view this amounts to a sudden event. The great discontinuities of the history of life, in other words, can be explained as the result of the appearance of new codes. A third theoretical consequence comes from the fact that the organic codes have been highly conserved in evolution, which shows that they are the great invariants of life, the sole entities that have gone intact through billions of years while everything else has changed. This tells us that the organic codes are fundamental components of life and their study - the new research field of Code Biology - is destined to become an increasingly relevant part of the life sciences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of sealing and brine distribution at grain boundaries in natural fine-grained Halite (Qum Kuh salt fountain, Central Iran): implications for rheology of salt extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; de Bresser, J. H. P.

    2010-05-01

    When grain boundary movement is stopped, surface energy related forces reassert themselves driving the system to its equilibrium conditions ([2], [6], [7], [8]). This could result in growth of islands and shrinking of channels and hence in healing the boundary by internal redistribution of fluid and solid in the contact region. Such islands are proposed to grow preferentially close to the contact rim and promote the healing of the grain-grain contact, which in turn prevents transport in or out the boundary region and thus traps the fluids in isolated inclusions. This contribution is focused on observation of grain boundary microstructures in natural mylonitic rocksalt collected from the distal part of Kum-Quh salt fountain (central Iran) in order to give unprecedented insight of grain boundary microstructures using argon-beam cross-sectioning to prepare high quality polished surfaces suitable for high-resolution SEM imaging. The possibility to use our SEM under cryogenic conditions allows also imaging the in-situ distribution of fluids. Results show that brine at grain boundaries occurs as thick layers (> µm in scale) corresponding to cross-sectioned wetted triple junction tubes, as filling at triple junction and as array of isolated fluids inclusions at grain-grain contacts. Close observations at islands contacts suggest the presence of a very thin fluid film (<100 nm). The most remarkable is evidence for sealing of pore space appearing as subhedral crystals filling the void space and decoupled from surrounding crystals by a thin brine layer. In parallel to this microstructural study, we deformed the same samples in order to simulate the simple shear flow at very low mean stress as in the salt fountain. First results suggest a complicated rheology. Samples loaded at σ < 0.7 MPa show no measurable deformation in a month, indicating strain rates less than 10-12 s-1 though, in fully activated pressure-solution (PS) creep, strain rates of several orders of magnitude

  6. Molecular modeling, simulation and virtual screening of MurD ligase protein from Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Samal, Himanshu Bhusan; Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2015-01-01

    The Mur enzymes of the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway constitute ideal targets for the design of new classes of antimicrobial inhibitors in Gram-negative bacteria. We built a homology model of MurD of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 using MODELLER (9v12) software. 'The homology model was subjected to energy minimization by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study with GROMACS software for a simulation time of 20 ns in water environment. The model was subjected for virtual screening study from the Zinc Database using Dockblaster software. Inhibition assay for the best inhibitor, 3-(amino methyl)-n-(4-methoxyphenyl) aniline, by flow cytometric analysis revealed the effective inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Results from this study provide new insights for the molecular understanding and development of new antibacterial drugs against the pathogen.

  7. Metamorphic evolution of LT-UHP eclogite from the south Dabie orogen, central China: An insight from phase equilibria modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chunjing; Cui, Ying; Tian, Zuolin

    2015-11-01

    Low-temperature ultrahigh pressure (LT-UHP) eclogites from the south Dabie orogen are distributed in the Zhujiachong and Anqiling zones and their peak mineral assemblages and P-T paths are still disputable. The rocks consist commonly of garnet, omphacite, epidote, phengite, amphibole, quartz/coesite and rutile with or without glaucophane, kyanite, talc and paragonite. Garnet porphyroblasts in the representative sample (D901) from the Zhujiachong zone exhibit core-mantle zoning with slightly increasing pyrope (Xpy) and decreasing grossular (Xgr) contents, and mantle-rim zoning with rapidly increasing Xpy and decreasing Xgr. Garnet shows diverse rim compositions which can be classified into group-1 that show high Xpy and low Xgr values, being an indicative character of LT-UHP eclogite, and group-2 that show lower Xpy and higher Xgr than in group-1. Phengite shows higher Si contents in the Anqiling zone than in the Zhujiachong zone. Epidote, paragonite and amphibole usually occur as porphyroblasts that contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and rutile. Pseudosections calculated using THERMOCALC for the representative samples suggest that the mineral assemblage in the pressure peak stage would be garnet + omphacite + lawsonite + talc + phengite + coesite in the model system. In this assemblage, Xpy steadily increases as temperature rises and Si in phengite increases with pressure rising, whereas Xgr is very insensitive as pressure changes. The peak P-T conditions for low-T UHP eclogites can be determined using the isopleths of maximum Xpy and Si in phengite in P-T pseudosections. Using this approach, the peak P-T conditions of eclogite were estimated to be ∼30 kbar/615 °C for the representative sample in the Zhujiachong zone, and ∼32 kbar/623 °C or ∼36 kbar/640 °C for samples in the Anqiling zone. The pre-peak prograde metamorphic evolution during subduction was modeled according to the garnet growth zoning in sample D901, where the core-mantle zoning

  8. Discovery of a visual T-dwarf triple system and binarity at the L/T transition

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Scholz, Alexander

    2013-11-20

    We present new high contrast imaging of eight L/T transition brown dwarfs (BDs) using the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope. One of our targets, the T3.5 dwarf 2MASS J08381155+1511155, was resolved into a hierarchal triple with projected separations of 2.5 ± 0.5 AU and 27 ± 5 AU for the BC and A(BC) components, respectively. Resolved OSIRIS spectroscopy of the A(BC) components confirms that all system members are T dwarfs. The system therefore constitutes the first triple T-dwarf system ever reported. Using resolved photometry to model the integrated-light spectrum, we infer spectral types of T3 ± 1, T3 ± 1, and T4.5 ± 1 for the A, B, and C components, respectively. The uniformly brighter primary has a bluer J – K{sub s} color than the next faintest component, which may reflect a sensitive dependence of the L/T transition temperature on gravity, or alternatively divergent cloud properties among components. Relying on empirical trends and evolutionary models we infer a total system mass of 0.034-0.104 M {sub ☉} for the BC components at ages of 0.3-3 Gyr, which would imply a period of 12-21 yr assuming the system semimajor axis to be similar to its projection. We also infer differences in effective temperatures and surface gravities between components of no more than ∼150 K and ∼0.1 dex. Given the similar physical properties of the components, the 2M0838+15 system provides a controlled sample for constraining the relative roles of effective temperature, surface gravity, and dust clouds in the poorly understood L/T transition regime. For an age of 3 Gyr we estimate a binding energy of ∼20 × 10{sup 41} erg for the wide A(BC) pair, which falls above the empirical minimum found for typical BD binaries, and suggests that the system may have been able to survive a dynamical ejection during formation. Combining our imaging survey results with previous work we find an observed binary fraction of 4/18 or 22{sub −8}{sup +10}% for unresolved spectral types

  9. A new HG/LT-GC/ICP-MS multi-element speciation technique for real samples in different matrices.

    PubMed

    Grüter, U M; Kresimon, J; Hirner, A V

    2000-09-01

    An improved speciation technique is presented for metal(loid)organic compounds, enabling identification and quantification of species from twelve elements: germanium, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, tin, antimony, tellurium, iodine, tungsten, mercury, lead and bismuth. At this time it is possible to identify 29 species with boiling points between -88.5 degrees C and 250 C in gaseous, liquid and solid samples in a few minutes. This study shows as an example results from measurements of soil samples from municipal waste deposits. The HG/LT-GC/ICP-MS-(hydride generation/low temperature-gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) apparatus contains a home-built gas chromatograph that enables satisfactory separation of various species with a boiling point difference of > or = 14 degrees C. The absolute detection limits for the elements mentioned above were below 0.7 pg.

  10. Chemopreventive potential of in vitro fermented nuts in LT97 colon adenoma and primary epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Schlörmann, Wiebke; Lamberty, Julia; Lorkowski, Stefan; Ludwig, Diana; Mothes, Henning; Saupe, Christian; Glei, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Due to their beneficial nutritional profile the consumption of nuts contributes to a healthy diet and might reduce colon cancer risk. To get closer insights into potential mechanisms, the chemopreventive potential of different in vitro fermented nut varieties regarding the modulation of genes involved in detoxification (CAT, SOD2, GSTP1, GPx1) and cell cycle (p21, cyclin D2) as well as proliferation and apoptosis was examined in LT97 colon adenoma and primary epithelial colon cells. Fermentation supernatants (FS) of nuts significantly induced mRNA expression of CAT (up to 4.0-fold), SOD2 (up to 2.5-fold), and GSTP1 (up to 2.3-fold), while GPx1 expression was significantly reduced by all nut FS (0.8 fold on average). Levels of p21 mRNA were significantly enhanced (up to 2.6-fold), whereas all nut FS significantly decreased cyclin D2 expression (0.4-fold on average). In primary epithelial cells, expression of CAT (up to 3.5-fold), GSTP1 (up to 3.0-fold), and GPx1 (up to 3.9-fold) was increased, whereas p21 and cyclin D2 levels were not influenced. Nut FS significantly inhibited growth of LT97 cells and increased levels of early apoptotic cells (8.4% on average) and caspase 3 activity (4.6-fold on average), whereas caspase 3 activity was not modulated in primary colon cells. The differential modulation of genes involved in detoxification and cell cycle together with an inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in adenoma cells might contribute to chemopreventive effects of nuts regarding colon cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Misclassification errors from postal code-based geocoding to assign census geography in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Mikiko; Kephart, George

    2016-12-27

    Postal codes are often the only available geographic identifiers in many sources of health data in Canada. In order to conduct geographic analyses, postal codes are routinely geocoded to census geography to link to ecological data. Despite common use of this method, the extent of geographic misclassification errors is poorly understood. We estimated misclassification errors in the geocoding of postal codes to assign census geography in Nova Scotia, Canada. We examined differences between counts and match rates for postal-code geocoded and actual locations of buildings in Nova Scotia at two census administrative area levels: dissemination areas (DAs) and census subdivisions (CSDs). Actual locations were based on the data collected by the provincial government containing actual latitude/longitude of buildings. Variation in misclassification by rurality, using Statistics Canada's classification, was also assessed. Outside two urban areas (Halifax Metro and Sydney) which had &lt;10% differences in counts, many DAs had >30% differences. Match rates showed similar patterns, with the vast majority of non-urban DAs having &lt;40% match rates. Even in major urban areas, 10% of DAs had large misclassification errors. Misclassification errors at the CSD level were still too great to estimate counts or rates without further area aggregation. Routine use of postal code geocoding should be replaced with geocoding of location information using additional identifiers such as civic addresses or latitude and longitude. If data holders did this in-house before providing data to researchers, the accuracy and capacity of geographic analysis would be enhanced while protecting confidentiality.

  12. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  13. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  14. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  15. Cellulases and coding sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  16. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  17. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  18. Practices in Code Discoverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, P.; Allen, A.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to develop ways in which information about astrophysics codes can be shared. We also discuss why some scientist coders resist sharing or publishing their codes, the reasons for and importance of overcoming this resistance, and alert the community to a reworking of one of the first attempts for sharing codes, the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). We discuss the implementation of the ASCL in an accompanying poster paper. We suggest that code could be given a similar level of referencing as data gets in repositories such as ADS.

  19. Double-Spin Asymmetry A{sub LT} for Polarized Drell-Yan Process in pp-bar Collisions: Wandzura-Wilczek Contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuji; Yoshida, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-04

    The longitudinal-transverse spin asymmetry A{sub LT} in the polarized Drell-Yan process depends on twist-3 quark distributions of nucleon. In addition to the contributions associated with the twist-3 operators, these distributions contain the 'Wandzura-Wilczek (WW)' part, which is determined by a certain integral of twist-2 distributions. The recently obtained empirical information on the transversity allows a realistic estimate of the WW contribution to A{sub LT} for the polarized pp-bar collisions. Our results indicate that rather large A{sub LT}({approx}10%) can be observed in the proposed spin experiments at GSI, with novel pattern as a function of dilepton mass compared with A{sub TT} and A{sub LL}.

  20. STEEP32 computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerke, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

  1. Cross section for the process. pi. sup +. pi minus. r arrow. pi0. pi0. in the c. m. s. energy region 0. 55 lt M lt 2 GeV from the reaction. pi. sup minus p r arrow. pi0. pi0. n at 39. 1 GeV/ c

    SciTech Connect

    Apokin, V.D.; Arestov, Y.I.; Belikov, N.I.; Borisov, N.S.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Grachev, O.A.; Derevshchikov, A.A.; Kazarinov, Y.M.; Liburg, M.Y.; Matafonov, V.N.; and others

    1989-02-01

    The total cross section for the process {pi}{sup +}{pi{minus}}{r arrow}{pi0}{pi0} in the dipion mass region 0.55{lt}{ital M}{lt}2.0 GeV is determined from the peripheral transitions {pi}{sup {minus}}{r arrow}{pi0}{pi0} in carbon and propanediol targets at an initial {pi}{sup {minus}}-meson momentum 39.1 GeV/{ital c}.

  2. Clonal relatedness of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing LT and CS17 isolated from children with diarrhoea in La Paz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Claudia; Klena, John D; Nicklasson, Matilda; Iniguez, Volga; Sjöling, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of traveller's and infantile diarrhoea in the developing world. ETEC produces two toxins, a heat-stable toxin (known as ST) and a heat-labile toxin (LT) and colonization factors that help the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized a subset of ETEC clinical isolates recovered from Bolivian children under 5 years of age using a combination of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, virulence typing, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance test patterns in order to determine the genetic background of ETEC strains circulating in Bolivia. We found that strains expressing the heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin and colonization factor CS17 were common and belonged to several MLST sequence types but mainly to sequence type-423 and sequence type-443 (Achtman scheme). To further study the LT/CS17 strains we analysed the nucleotide sequence of the CS17 operon and compared the structure to LT/CS17 ETEC isolates from Bangladesh. Sequence analysis confirmed that all sequence type-423 strains from Bolivia had a single nucleotide polymorphism; SNP(bol) in the CS17 operon that was also found in some other MLST sequence types from Bolivia but not in strains recovered from Bangladeshi children. The dominant ETEC clone in Bolivia (sequence type-423/SNP(bol)) was found to persist over multiple years and was associated with severe diarrhoea but these strains were variable with respect to antimicrobial resistance patterns. The results showed that although the LT/CS17 phenotype is common among ETEC strains in Bolivia, multiple clones, as determined by unique MLST sequence types, populate this phenotype. Our data also appear to suggest that acquisition and loss of antimicrobial resistance in LT-expressing CS17 ETEC clones is more dynamic than acquisition or loss of virulence factors.

  3. Clonal Relatedness of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Strains Expressing LT and CS17 Isolated from Children with Diarrhoea in La Paz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Rodas, Claudia; Klena, John D.; Nicklasson, Matilda; Iniguez, Volga; Sjöling, Åsa

    2011-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of traveller's and infantile diarrhoea in the developing world. ETEC produces two toxins, a heat-stable toxin (known as ST) and a heat-labile toxin (LT) and colonization factors that help the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized a subset of ETEC clinical isolates recovered from Bolivian children under 5 years of age using a combination of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, virulence typing, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance test patterns in order to determine the genetic background of ETEC strains circulating in Bolivia. We found that strains expressing the heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin and colonization factor CS17 were common and belonged to several MLST sequence types but mainly to sequence type-423 and sequence type-443 (Achtman scheme). To further study the LT/CS17 strains we analysed the nucleotide sequence of the CS17 operon and compared the structure to LT/CS17 ETEC isolates from Bangladesh. Sequence analysis confirmed that all sequence type-423 strains from Bolivia had a single nucleotide polymorphism; SNPbol in the CS17 operon that was also found in some other MLST sequence types from Bolivia but not in strains recovered from Bangladeshi children. The dominant ETEC clone in Bolivia (sequence type-423/SNPbol) was found to persist over multiple years and was associated with severe diarrhoea but these strains were variable with respect to antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusion/Significance The results showed that although the LT/CS17 phenotype is common among ETEC strains in Bolivia, multiple clones, as determined by unique MLST sequence types, populate this phenotype. Our data also appear to suggest that acquisition and loss of antimicrobial resistance in LT-expressing CS17 ETEC clones is more dynamic than acquisition or loss of virulence factors. PMID:22140423

  4. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  5. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  6. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  7. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  8. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  9. Vesicle microtexture analysis and eruption dynamics of selected high fountaining episodes at Pu`u `Ō`ō, Kīlauea volcano, Hawai`i between 1985-1986.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, S. J.; Carey, R.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; McPhie, J.

    2015-12-01

    The early phases of the ongoing eruption of Pu`u `Ō`ō in the East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kīlauea on Hawai`i provide a unique opportunity to study the vesicle microtexture of tephra from five high (≥200m) Hawaiian fountaining events, from a single vent, over a prolonged period of time. The high Hawaiian fountains erupted at Pu`u `Ō`ō varied in height from 200 m up to a maximum of 467 m, during which the shallow conduit at Pu`u `Ō`ō remained stable. We conducted microtextural analysis of pyroclasts from five high (264 to 391 m) Hawaiian fountaining episodes at Kīlauea, Episodes 32, 37, 40, 44 and 45, erupted from the Pu`u `Ō`ō vent between 1985 and 1986 in order to constrain the parameters that lead to large variations in fountain height of Hawaiian fountains at Pu`u `Ō`ō. Our results show that pyroclasts from a single episode can vary greatly in texture (from bubbly to foamy) and have vesicle volume densities (Nmv) that vary by an order of magnitude. This range in vesicle texture and population is due to extensive growth and coalescence of vesicles within the eruption jet post-fragmentation, resulting in the observed vesicle texture not being wholly indicative of the syn-fragmentation vesicle population. Only four pyroclasts were found to have textures that are interpreted to be indicative of the vesicle population at the moment of fragmentation, all of which have bubbly texture, high density, high Nmv, and low vesicle-to-melt ratio (VG/VL). Due to the paucity of pyroclasts representative of syn-eruption vesiculation processes, comparison of shallow conduit dynamics across episodes can only be qualitative observations, which suggest the ascending melt is thermally and mechanically heterogeneous on a small scale during Hawaiian-style fountaining. This highlights the importance for detailed micro-scale qualitative textural observations on pyroclasts with end-member densities, as well as modal densities, when carrying out vesicle microtexture analysis. This

  10. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  11. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  12. Coding for Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  13. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  14. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  15. Defeating the coding monsters.

    PubMed

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  16. Tectonic Origin of Serpentinites on Syros, Greece: Geochemical Signatures of Seafloor Serpentinization Preserved in the HP/LT Subduction Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raia, N. H.; Cooperdock, E. H. G.; Barnes, J.; Stockli, D. F.; Schwarzenbach, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks are commonly found in exhumed HP/LT subduction complexes, but their tectonic origins (i.e., setting of serpentinization) are difficult to decipher due to extensive alteration. Growing literature and geochemical datasets demonstrate that immobile elements (REE, HFSE) in serpentinites can retain magmatic signatures indicative of the tectonic setting of parent peridotite, while fluid-mobile elements and stable isotopic signatures shed light on the fluids causing serpentinization. This study combines whole-rock trace and major element geochemistry, stable isotope (δD and δO) analyses with petrographic observation to determine the tectonic origin of ultramafic rocks in the HP/LT Aegean subduction complex. The best-preserved HP rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) are found on Syros, Greece, where serpentinized ultramafic rocks within the CBU are closely associated with metamorphosed remnants of subducted oceanic crust. All samples are completely serpentinized, lacking relict pyroxene or spinel grains, with typical assemblages consisting of serpentine, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and minor carbonate. The serpentinizing fluid was characterized using stable isotopes. δD and δO values of bulk-rock serpentinite powders and chips, respectively, suggest seafloor serpentinites hydrated by seawater at low T, typical of alteration at mid-ocean ridges and hyper-extended margins (δD = -64 to -33‰ and δO = 5.2 to 9.0‰). To fingerprint a tectonic origin, whole rock serpentinite REE patterns are compared to a global database of whole rock serpentinite analyses from fore-arc mantle wedge, mid-ocean ridge, and hyper-extended margin tectonic settings. Whole rock major element, trace element, and REE analyses are consistent with limited melt extraction, flat REE patterns (LaN/SmN = 0.2-2.6, SmN/YbN = 0.3-3.5; N= C1 normalized), and do not show pronounced Eu anomalies. These data are consistent with abyssal peridotites derived from hyper

  17. 75 FR 73156 - The Amended Designation of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT, LeT), aka Lashkar-e-Toiba, aka Lashkar-i-Taiba...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Amended Designation of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT, LeT), aka Lashkar-e-Toiba, aka Lashkar-i-Taiba, aka al Mansoorian, aka al Mansooreen, aka Army of the Pure, aka Army of the Righteous, aka Army of the Pure...

  18. Impact of apple polyphenols on GSTT2 gene expression, subsequent protection of DNA and modulation of proliferation using LT97 human colon adenoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miene, Claudia; Klenow, Stefanie; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Richling, Elke; Glei, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Apple extract (AE) enhances expression of glutathione S-transferases (e.g., GSTT2) in human colon cells (LT97). Therefore, aim of the present study was to identify functional consequences of GSTT2 induction by AE and to determine the relation of AE effects to isolated compounds. Polyphenol composition of AE was analyzed. LT97 cells were treated with AE or synthetic polyphenol mixture (SPM) under conditions that induced GSTT2, and challenged with GSTT2-2 substrate cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) to determine DNA damage using comet assay. Modulation of GSTT2 expression (real-time PCR) was reassessed, and the influence on cell proliferation and pro-oxidative potential of AE and SPM were assessed to understand additional mechanisms. Induction of GSTT2 by AE was accompanied by protection of LT97 cells from CumOOH-induced genotoxicity. Although SPM was unable to reflect AE-specific bioactivity related to GSTT2 modulation and anti-genotoxicity, inhibition of LT97 cell proliferation by SPM was comparable. Storage of AE caused changes in phenolic composition along with loss of activity regarding GSTT2 induction and amplified growth inhibition. At the applied concentrations, no H(2)O(2) formation was detectable with any of the substances. AE can protect against oxidatively induced DNA damage. Nevertheless, chemopreventive effects of AE strongly depend on the specific composition, which is modified by storage.

  19. [Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) control].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B.) microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration) LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time) LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5x10(6), 10(7), 5x10(7), 10(8), 5x10(8) and 10(9) conidia.mL(-1)) to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5x10(9) conidia.mL(1). The LC50 and LC90 were 3x10(7) and 5x10(8) respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  20. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  1. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  2. Rewriting the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takahito; Lajoie, Marc J; Englert, Markus; Söll, Dieter

    2017-09-08

    The genetic code-the language used by cells to translate their genomes into proteins that perform many cellular functions-is highly conserved throughout natural life. Rewriting the genetic code could lead to new biological functions such as expanding protein chemistries with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) and genetically isolating synthetic organisms from natural organisms and viruses. It has long been possible to transiently produce proteins bearing ncAAs, but stabilizing an expanded genetic code for sustained function in vivo requires an integrated approach: creating recoded genomes and introducing new translation machinery that function together without compromising viability or clashing with endogenous pathways. In this review, we discuss design considerations and technologies for expanding the genetic code. The knowledge obtained by rewriting the genetic code will deepen our understanding of how genomes are designed and how the canonical genetic code evolved.

  3. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  4. Breaking the Neural Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This seedling proposed to use advanced imaging techniques to break the neuronal code that links the firing of neurons in...Report: Breaking the Neural Code Report Title This seedling proposed to use advanced imaging techniques to break the neuronal code that links the...generating a closed-loop on-line experimental platform. We have completed all proposed tasks of the seedling and successfully completed preliminary

  5. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  6. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  7. Ptolemy Coding Style

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-05

    Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ptolemy Coding Style 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...constraints, so such constraints are not new to the academic community. This document describes the coding style used in Ptolemy II, a package with

  8. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  9. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  10. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  11. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  12. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  13. Urban-Related Environmental Variables and Their Relation with Patterns in Biological Community Structure in the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Evans, Erin E.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to evaluate the influence of urbanization on stream ecosystems. To accomplish this task, invertebrate, fish, stream discharge, habitat, water-chemistry, and land-use data were collected from 13 sites in the Fountain Creek basin from 2003 to 2005. The Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate hydrologic indices known to be related to urbanization. Response of stream hydrology to urbanization was evident among hydrologic variables that described stormflow. These indices included one measurement of high-flow magnitude, two measurements of high-flow frequency, and one measurement of stream flashiness. Habitat and selected nonstormflow water chemistry were characterized at each site. Land-use data were converted to estimates of impervious surface cover and used as the measure of urbanization annually. Correlation analysis (Spearman?s rho) was used to identify a suite of nonredundant streamflow, habitat, and water-chemistry variables that were strongly associated (rho > 0.6) with impervious surface cover but not strongly related to elevation (rho < 0.60). An exploratory multivariate analysis (BIO-ENV, PRIMER ver 6.1, Plymouth, UK) was used to create subsets of eight urban-related environmental variables that described patterns in biological community structure. The strongest and most parsimonious subset of variables describing patterns in invertebrate community structure included high flood pulse count, lower bank capacity, and nutrients. Several other combinations of environmental variables resulted in competing subsets, but these subsets always included the three variables found in the most parsimonious list. This study found that patterns in invertebrate community structure from 2003 to 2005 in the Fountain Creek basin were associated with a variety of environmental characteristics influenced by urbanization. These patterns were explained by a combination of

  14. Catalytic preference of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 sialidase for N-acetylneuraminic acid residues over N-glycolylneuraminic acid residues.

    PubMed

    Minami, Akira; Ishibashi, Sayaka; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Ishitsubo, Erika; Hori, Takanori; Tokiwa, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Risa; Ieno, Daisuke; Otsubo, Tadamune; Matsuda, Yukino; Sai, Saki; Inada, Mari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In a comparison of sialidase activities toward N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), we found that Salmonella typhimurium LT2 sialidase (STSA) hardly cleaved 4-methylumbelliferyl Neu5Gc (4MU-Neu5Gc). The k cat/K m value of STSA for 4MU-Neu5Gc was found to be 110 times lower than that for 4-methylumbelliferyl Neu5Ac (4MU-Neu5Ac). Additionally, STSA had remarkably weak ability to cleave α2-3-linked-Neu5Gc contained in gangliosides and equine erythrocytes. In silico analysis based on first-principle calculations with transition-state analogues suggested that the binding affinity of Neu5Gc2en is 14.3 kcal/mol more unstable than that of Neu5Ac2en. The results indicated that STSA preferentially cleaves Neu5Ac residues rather than Neu5Gc residues, which is important for anyone using this enzyme to cleave α2-3-linked sialic acids.

  15. Improvised design of THz spectrophotometer using LT-GaAs photoconductive antennas, pyroelectric detector and band-pass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottamchetty, V.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the improvised design of LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna and pyroelectric detector-based terahertz (THz) spectrophotometer by introducing band-pass filters. The spectrophotometer provides direct optical/absorption information of materials in THz domain without using any signal processing devices (such as lock-in amplifier) and delay arrangement, etc., which are required in conventional THz spectrometer. Moreover, obtained absorption results from spectrometer are less affected by laser fluctuations and inherent noises of the detector. The laser pulses of duration 15 fs at 80 MHz repetition rate are utilized in this spectrometer to generate THz radiation with good conversion efficiency ( η) of the order 3 × 10-3. In addition, emphasis is also given to understand the effect of single- and two-photon absorption on generated THz power with respect to incident laser power density. Absorption properties of packing materials such as paper, Teflon, transparency and rubber (eraser) sheets are investigated in terms of their attenuation coefficients and absorbance at 0.5 and 1.5 THz region in our newly designed THz spectrophotometer. Our study demonstrates the significant information about their attenuation coefficients lying between 300 and 5000 dB/m. The attenuation in THz power has been measured as a function of the paper thickness (0.3-1.5 mm). The obtained results show the exponential growth in absorption with respect to paper thickness.

  16. Purification of heavy metal loaded wastewater from electroplating industry under synthesis of delafossite (ABO2) by "Lt-delafossite process".

    PubMed

    John, Melanie; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Ullrich, Aladin; Rettenwander, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In this study we present a new, environmental friendly and economic method, called Lt-delafossite process to treat industrial wastewater (initial Cu(2+)-concentrations of 1-15.6 g/l) by subsequent synthesis of nano-crystalline (doped) delafossite (CuFeO2) solely by precipitation and ageing at temperatures between 50 °C and 90 °C. The reached water purification rates are exclusively ≥99.99% for both wastewater models and wastewaters from electroplating industry. We succeeded to synthesize a mixture of 3R and 2H delafossite at 50 °C after 90 h and ≥70 °C after 16 h of ageing directly from industrial wastewater without any additional phases. In all cases green rust (GR), a Fe(II-III) layered double hydroxysulphate, Cu2O (cuprite) and Fe10O14(OH)2 (ferrihydrite) precipitates first. During ageing of the residues the metastable phases transform to delafossite. The residues are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, VFTB and Mößbauer measurements.

  17. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions.

  18. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  19. Insurance billing and coding.

    PubMed

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  20. Coding Acoustic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boyang; Tang, Kun; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Zhengyou; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Coding acoustic metasurfaces can combine simple logical bits to acquire sophisticated functions in wave control. The acoustic logical bits can achieve a phase difference of exactly π and a perfect match of the amplitudes for the transmitted waves. By programming the coding sequences, acoustic metasurfaces with various functions, including creating peculiar antenna patterns and waves focusing, have been demonstrated.