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Sample records for lta pie results

  1. LTA Physics Design: Description of All MOX Pin LTA Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    In this document issued according to Work Release 02. P. 99-lb the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  2. LOTS of LTA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Current problems facing the logistical planner in utilizing the new ships of the modern, intermodal sea transportation systems in a logistics-over-the-shore (undeveloped) environment are described. Then the employment of two potential LTA vehicle systems are described and discussed as significant parts of possible solutions to this range of logistical problems. Vulnerability aspects of these LTA vehicles are also briefly addressed because of their possible employment near combat areas.

  3. LTA structures and materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art concerning structures and materials technology is reviewed. It is shown that many present materials developments resulting from balloon and aircraft research programs can be applied to new concepts in LTA vehicles. Both buoyant and semi-buoyant vehicles utilize similar approaches to solving structural problems and could involve pressurized non-rigid and unpressurized rigid structures. System designs common to both and vital to structural integrity include much of the past technology as well. Further research is needed in determination of structural loads, especially in future design concepts.

  4. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  5. LTA - Recent developments. [Lighter Than Air ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    NASA-sponsored studies of existing and new LTA missions showed that airships looked very promising for some two dozen civil and military applications. These include surveillance of rural and urban areas, in the form of forest and police patrols; transport of very heavy large-volume maritime, industrial, and military payloads; coastal patrol and sea control; seismographic surveys; air pollution monitoring; and moving goods to remote areas; along with a number of less important but still attractive missions. A figure of merit of productivity (payload weight, ton moles per hour) was used to compare airships of various type and size. In each case, this criterion established an index of efficiency for evaluating not only conceptual approaches but also modes of flight. Some, in part unexpected, results of these studies are described.

  6. LTA in the USA - Here's where it stands today. [lighter than air vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Lighter than air (LTA) vehicles were the first aircraft to fly and, until the disasters of the 1930s, were thought by many to be the primary mode of air transport. The history of LTA in the United States is briefly traced and the reasons for the current revival in interest are discussed. The focal point for this revival was the LTA Workshop hosted by M.I.T. under the joint sponsorship of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Navy, Federal Aviation Administration and Department of Transportation. The Workshop and its results are discussed in detail.

  7. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  8. Listeria monocytogenes MDR transporters are involved in LTA synthesis and triggering of innate immunity during infection

    PubMed Central

    Tadmor, Keren; Pozniak, Yair; Burg Golani, Tamar; Lobel, Lior; Brenner, Moran; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) transporters are known eponymously for their ability to confer resistance to various antimicrobial drugs. However, it is likely that this is not their primary function and that MDR transporters evolved originally to play additional roles in bacterial physiology. In Listeria monocytogenes a set of MDR transporters was identified to mediate activation of innate immune responses during mammalian cell infection. This phenotype was shown to be dependent on c-di-AMP secretion, but the physiological processes underlying this phenomenon were not completely resolved. Here we describe a genetic approach taken to screen for L. monocytogenes genes or physiological pathways involved in MDR transporter-dependent triggering of the type I interferon response. We found that disruption of L. monocytogenes lipoteichoic acid (LTA) synthesis results in enhanced triggering of type I interferon responses in infected macrophage cells yet does not impact bacterial intracellular growth. This innate immune response required the MDR transporters and could be recapitulated by exposing macrophage cells to culture supernatants derived from LTA mutant bacteria. Notably, we found that the MDR transporters themselves are required for full production of LTA, an observation that links MDR transporters to LTA synthesis for the first time. In light of our findings, we propose that the MDR transporters play a role in regulating LTA synthesis, possibly via c-di-AMP efflux, a physiological function in cell wall maintenance that triggers the host innate immune system. PMID:24611134

  9. PIES applications to NCSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, D. A.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A. H.

    1999-11-01

    The PIES ( Reiman, A. H., Greenside, H. S., Compt. Phys. Commun. 43), (1986) code will be used to evaluate the flux surface quality of NCSX. In addition, we have generalized the Cary-Hanson technique for minimizing vacuum islands to the case where finite pressure and current exist in the plasma. We will use this technique to develop trim coils and other methods for repairing broken flux surfaces if they are found in NCSX.

  10. Microbial spoilage of pre-cooked potato-topped pies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C J; Masters, F

    1988-03-01

    The ecological succession of bacteria which developed in pre-cooked potato-topped pies stored at two different temperatures was examined. Bacillus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus-Micrococcus spp. were the predominant organisms isolated from freshly prepared pies and those stored at 4 degrees and 37 degrees C. None of these groups of bacteria caused significant biodeterioration of pies held at 4 degrees C, but all groups grew well in pies stored at 37 degrees C and achieved counts of ca 10(8)/g of sample. Bacillus spp. were the first group to grow, followed by Streptococcus and Staphylococcus-Micrococcus spp. Growth which occurred at 37 degrees C did so at the expense of glucose, lactate accumulated and the pH of pie components decreased. Amylase activity detected in all pie components during storage was associated with the growth of Bacillus spp. and probably supplemented glucose already present in pies, by hydrolytic cleavage of potato, flour or binder starches. Spoilage caused by growth and activity of the bacteria isolated was not associated with visual signs of biodeterioration, nor production of 'off' odour usually associated with spoilage of meats. These results suggest that pre-cooked potato-topped pies held at inappropriate temperatures represent a potential public health risk.

  11. Polymorphisms of the LTA Gene May Contribute to the Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Liu, Runmei; Zhai, Hongxia; Li, Liang; Yin, Yaxin; Zhang, Jinjin; Xia, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The lymphotoxin-α (LTA), as one of the mediators of inflammation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI). Genetic association studies (GAS) that have investigated the association between three common polymorphisms (A252G, G10A and C804A) of the LTA gene and susceptibility to MI have produced contradictory and inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the association of these polymorphisms with susceptibility to MI. Methods A literature search for eligible GAS published before October 15, 2013 was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases. We performed a meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies with a total of 22,549 MI patients and 16,105 healthy controls. Results For LTA A252G, a borderline significant overall association was found, indicating that GG genotype may confer an increased susceptibility to MI compared to AA and AG genotypes. Based on an ethnicity stratification analysis, a significant association was observed in Asians, but not in Caucasians. For LTA G10A, no significant overall association was found. However, subgroup analysis based on ethnicity suggested that the 10A allele may confer a significant increased susceptibility to MI only in Asian populations. For LTA C804A, the combined results revealed a significantly increased susceptibility to MI for carriers of the 804A allele in both overall analysis and stratified analyses. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that LTA C804A may be associated with an increased susceptibility to MI, whereas LTA A252G and G10A may confer a significant increased susceptibility to MI only in Asians. Thus, these polymorphisms of the LTA gene can probably be used with other genetic markers together to identify individuals at high susceptibility to MI especially in Asians. PMID:24642747

  12. Free-boundary PIES Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, D. A.; Reiman, A. H.; Arndt, S. C.; Merkel, P. K.

    1998-11-01

    A new formulation of the free boundary problem for general three-dimensional configurations has been formulated for the PIES( Reiman, A. H., Greenside, H. S., Compt. Phys. Commun. 43), (1986). code. The new formulation is more flexible and is faster that the original formulation described in Merkel et al(Merkel, P., Johnson, J. L., Monticello, D.A., et al., Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research paper IAEA-CN-60 | D-P-II-10) (1994) . These advantages will be described and first results of the application of this new algorithm to W7-X and NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) configurations will be presented.

  13. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. Current LTA technology developments. [Lighter-Than-Air aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lighter-than-air aircraft (LTA) developments and research in the United States and other countries are reviewed. The emphasis in the U.S. is on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift, and on long endurance types for coastal maritime patrol. Design concepts include hybrids which combine heavier-than-air and LTA components and characteristics. Research programs are concentrated on aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and control of hybrid types.

  16. Identifying P-phase arrivals with noise: An improved Kurtosis method based on DWT and STA/LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Shang, Xueyi; Wang, Zewei; Dong, Longjun; Weng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    A discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and short time average to long time average (STA/LTA)-based Kurtosis algorithm (W-S/L-K method) is proposed to pick the arrival time of the P-phase; this method advantageously combines the outstanding ability of retrieving the P-phase arrival information from wavelet coefficients at high resolutions with inherent reliability in obtaining the P-phase arrival time using the STA/LTA picking method. The W-S/L-K method uses local maximum amplitudes and local kurtosis onsets from the wavelet detail components to determine the P-phase arrival times reliably and accurately. It was tested and verified using microseismic data collected from the Yongshaba mine. The results show that the W-S/L-K method's rates of picking errors smaller than 5 ms, 10 ms, and 15 ms were 58%, 86%, and 97.5%, respectively, and the W-S/L-K method was able to pick higher quality P-phase arrival times than those determined using the Kurtosis, Skewness, STA/LTA, Kurtosis + STA/LTA, and Skewness + STA/LTA methods. The proposed method provides a reliable technique for accurately picking P-phase arrival times, especially for signals with low signal to noise ratios (SNRs), heavy tails, and spikes. Moreover, it is able to detect pure noise.

  17. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  18. Thermo-nanoimprinted biomimetic probe for LPS and LTA immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Buchegger, Patricia; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Preininger, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    A complex prepolymerized film comprising monomers, cross-linkers, and initiator is usually used to create molecularly imprinted polymers. We herein exploit ready-to-use resist materials and link molecular surface imprinting with UV- and thermo-nanoimprinting techniques to create a sensor layer for the specific recognition of the bacterial surface markers lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). To account for the highly polar moieties of LPS and LTA, we evaluate different resist and stamp materials of distinct surface properties by AFM and molecularly imprinted sorbent assays. Thermo nanoimprinting of LPS and LTA micelles to Epon 1002F films exhibits excellent sensitivity of up to 13 times increased signals compared to those of the nonimprinted films and negligible cross-reaction with the tested nonspecific analyte. Additionally, the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermo nanoimprints is compared to conventional molecular surface imprints using a cocktail of acrylic monomers in QCM measurements. PMID:24392724

  19. Growth morphologies and optical properties of LTA single crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Ren, Miaojuan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Peiji

    2013-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the growth morphologies of l-threonine acetate (abbreviated as LTA) crystal. Spiral growth hillocks and typical step patterns are described and discussed. Nuclei with various shapes often distribute at the larger step terraces. Eventually, in order to investigate microscopic second order nonlinear optical properties of LTA crystals, the molecular dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), and first hyperpolarizability (β) were computed using a series of basis sets including polarized and diffuse functions at the framework of Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The study is helpful to the further development of l-threonine analogs with improved nonlinear optical properties.

  20. HREM of electron-beam-induced damage in L-Ta 2O 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T. R.

    1991-04-01

    Samples of L-Ta 2O 5 exposed to a high current density electron beam were observed by high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) to reduce to suboxide and metallic Ta phases. Data are presented for crystals aligned along [001], [020], [200], and [130], in which surface areas are seen to reduce to Ta 2O, TaO 2, bcc Ta, or a β-Ta phase via an amorphous intermediate phase. The driving force appears to involve desorption of oxygen stimulated by electronic transitions (DIET), and the possible involvement of the "infinitely adaptive nature" of the initial L-Ta 2O 5 structure in the damage process is discussed. Comparison of results obtained from an ultrahigh vacuum HREM to those from a conventional HREM suggests that contamination effects in lower vacuum systems influences the reliability of the results, especially in complex systems like Ta&1bO. Finally, the results follow a symmetry selection rule, which explains why L-Ta 2O 5 does not reduce to the monoxide phase as observed in similar experiments with TiO 2, V 2O 5, and Nb 2O 5.

  1. [Pie]: Re-Count and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The number [pie] [approximately] 3.14159 is defined to be the ratio C/d of the circumference C to the diameter d of any given circle. In this article, the author looks at some surprising and unexpected places where [pie] occurs, and then thinks about some ways of remembering all those digits in the expansion of [pie].

  2. The PIE Institute Project: Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). For the past three years, Inverness Research has served as the external evaluator for the PIE project. The authors' evaluation efforts have included extensive observation and documentation of PIE project activities; ongoing…

  3. Association between ANKK1 (rs1800497) and LTA (rs909253) Genetic Variants and Risk of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Arwa H.; Elhawary, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has assessed associations between schizophrenia and genetic variants of the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes among individuals of Middle Eastern ancestry. Here we present the first association study investigating the ANKK1 rs1800497 (T>C) and LTA rs909253 (A>G) single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an Egyptian population. Among 120 patients with DSM-IV and PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessments of schizophrenia and 100 healthy controls, we determined the genotypes for the polymorphisms using endonuclease digestion of amplified genomic DNA. Results confirmed previous findings from different ethnic populations, in that the rs1800497 and rs909253 polymorphisms were both associated with risk of schizophrenia. Differences between the genotypes of cases and controls were strongly significant (P = 0.0005 for rs1800497 and P = 0.001 for rs909253). The relative risk to schizophrenia was 1.2 (P = 0.01) for the C allele and 0.8 (P = 0.04) for the G allele. The CC, GG, and combined CC/AA genotypes were all more frequent in cases than in controls. These results support an association between ANKK1 and LTA genetic markers and vulnerability to schizophrenia and show the potential influence of just one copy of the mutant C or G allele in the Egyptian population. PMID:26114114

  4. Gene expression of 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of nephrotic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Menegatti, E; Roccatello, D; Fadden, K; Piccoli, G; De Rosa, G; Sena, L M; Rifai, A

    1999-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LT) of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway constitute a class of potent biological lipid mediators of inflammation implicated in the pathogenesis of different models of experimental glomerulonephritis. The key enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), catalyses oxygenation of arachidonic acid to generate the primary leukotriene LTA4. This LT, in turn, serves as a substrate for either LTA4 hydrolase, to form the potent chemoattractant LTB4, or LTC4 synthase, to produce the powerful vasoconstrictor LTC4. To investigate the potential role of LT in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome, we examined the gene expression of 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of 21 adult patients with nephrotic syndrome and 11 controls. The patients consisted of 11 cases of membranous nephropathy (MN), seven focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), two non-IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis and one minimal change disease. Total RNA purified from renal tissue was reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified with specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eight patients' renal tissue, four MN and four FSGS, co-expressed 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase. In situ hybridization analysis revealed 5-LO expression and distribution limited to the interstitial cells surrounding the peritubular capillaries. Comparative clinical and immunohistological data showed that these eight patients had impaired renal function and interstitial changes that significantly correlated with 5-LO expression. These findings suggest that leukotrienes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MN and FSGS. These results are also relevant to elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms which underlie progression to renal failure in these diseases. PMID:10337029

  5. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Airships 101: Rediscovering the Potential of Lighter-Than-Air (LTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Hochstetler, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of airships past, present, and future is provided in a Powerpoint-formatted presentation. This presentation was requested for transfer to the British MOD by Paul Espinosa of NASA Ames, Code PX. The presentation provides general information about airships divided into four main categories: the legacy of NASA Ames in LTA (Lighter-Than-Air), LTA taxonomy and theory, LTA revival and missions, and LTA research and technology.

  7. In-situ aging microwave heating synthesis of LTA zeolite layer on mesoporous TiO2 coated porous alumina support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Mirza A.; Patel, Faheemuddin; Alhooshani, Khalid; Muraza, Oki; Wang, Evelyn N.; Laoui, Tahar

    2015-12-01

    LTA zeolite layer was successfully grown on a superhydrophilic mesoporous titania layer coated onto porous α-alumina substrate. Mesoporous titania layer was formed as an intermediate bridge in the pore size variation between the macroporous α-alumina support and micro-porous LTA zeolite layer. In-situ aging microwave heating synthesis method was utilized to deposit the LTA zeolite layer. Mesoporous titania layer was pre-treated with UV photons and this was observed to have played a major role in improving the surface hydrophilicity of the substrate leading to formation of increased number of Ti-OH groups on the surface. This increase in Ti-OH groups enhanced the interaction between the synthesis gel and the substrate leading to strong attachment of the amorphous gel on the substrate, thus enhancing coverage of the LTA zeolite layer to almost the entire surface of the 1-inch (25.4 mm) diameter membrane. LTA zeolite layer was developed via in-situ aged under microwave irradiation to study the effect of synthesis parameters such as in-situ aging time and synthesis time on the formation of the LTA zeolite layer. Optimized process parameters resulted in the formation of crack-free porous zeolite layer yielding a zeolite-titania-alumina multi-layer membrane with a gradient in porosity.

  8. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Meat Pies from Retail Sale in England 2013.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, Jim; Aird, Heather; Charlett, Andre; Elviss, Nicola; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira; Willis, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp. including B. cereus (ISO 1737), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528), and aerobic colony counts (ACCs; ISO 4833). Microbiological quality was satisfactory in 94% of samples, borderline in 5%, and unsatisfactory in 1%. The proportion of pies from markets that were borderline or unsatisfactory significantly increased, and the proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory pies from supermarkets significantly decreased. Among the refrigerated (0 to 15°C) pies, microbiological quality significantly decreased in pies stored at >8°C and further significantly decreased at in pies stored at ambient temperature (>15 to 25°C). Samples collected at 25 to 40°C had the highest proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory results, but results improved in pies stored at >40°C. The most common cause for borderline or unsatisfactory results was elevated ACCs (5% of all samples). Within the individual microbiological parameters, borderline or unsatisfactory results resulted from elevated Enterobacteriaceae or Bacillus levels (10 samples for each), C. perfringens levels (2 samples), and S. aureus or E. coli levels (1 sample each). L. monocytogenes was recovered from one pie at <10 CFU/g. A literature review revealed a range of microbiological hazards responsible for food poisoning and meat pie consumption, and surveillance data from 1992

  9. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Meat Pies from Retail Sale in England 2013.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, Jim; Aird, Heather; Charlett, Andre; Elviss, Nicola; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira; Willis, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp. including B. cereus (ISO 1737), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528), and aerobic colony counts (ACCs; ISO 4833). Microbiological quality was satisfactory in 94% of samples, borderline in 5%, and unsatisfactory in 1%. The proportion of pies from markets that were borderline or unsatisfactory significantly increased, and the proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory pies from supermarkets significantly decreased. Among the refrigerated (0 to 15°C) pies, microbiological quality significantly decreased in pies stored at >8°C and further significantly decreased at in pies stored at ambient temperature (>15 to 25°C). Samples collected at 25 to 40°C had the highest proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory results, but results improved in pies stored at >40°C. The most common cause for borderline or unsatisfactory results was elevated ACCs (5% of all samples). Within the individual microbiological parameters, borderline or unsatisfactory results resulted from elevated Enterobacteriaceae or Bacillus levels (10 samples for each), C. perfringens levels (2 samples), and S. aureus or E. coli levels (1 sample each). L. monocytogenes was recovered from one pie at <10 CFU/g. A literature review revealed a range of microbiological hazards responsible for food poisoning and meat pie consumption, and surveillance data from 1992

  10. Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Spellman, Donald J; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel rod burnup of ~47.3 GWd/MTHM. As part of the fuel qualification process, five rods with varying burnups and initial plutonium contents were selected from one assembly and shipped to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for hot cell examination. ORNL has provided analytical support for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of these rods via extensive fuel performance modeling which has aided in instrument settings and PIE data interpretation. The results of these fuel performance simulations are compared in this paper with available PIE data.

  11. Periodic model of LTA framework containing various non-tetrahedral cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleżyński, A.; Mikuła, A.; Król, M.

    2016-03-01

    A simplified periodic model of Linde Type A zeolite (LTA) structure with various selected mono- and di-valent extra-framework cations was formulated. Ab initio calculations (geometry optimization and vibrational spectra calculations) using the proposed model were carried out by means of Crystal09 program. The resulting structures and simulated spectra were analyzed in detail and compared with the experimental ones. The presented results show that in most cases the proposed model agrees well with experimental results. Individual bands were assigned to respective normal modes of vibration and the changes resulting from the selective substitution of extra framework cations were described and explained.

  12. Genetic Variation on the BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA Region of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class III Associates with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Marchesani, Marja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Mäntylä, Päivi; Paju, Susanna; Buhlin, Kåre; Suominen, Anna L.; Contreras, Johanna; Knuuttila, Matti; Hernandez, Marcela; Huumonen, Sisko; Nieminen, Markku S.; Perola, Markus; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiology. We investigated whether human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms (6p21.3) are associated with periodontal parameters. Parogene 1 population samples (n = 169) were analyzed with 13,245 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MHC region. Eighteen selected SNPs (P ≤ 0.001) were replicated in Parogene 2 population samples (n = 339) and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 1,420). All subjects had a detailed clinical and radiographic oral health examination. Serum lymphotoxin-α (LTA) concentrations were measured in the Parogene populations, and the protein was detected in inflamed periodontal tissue. In the Parogene 1 population, 10 SNPs were associated with periodontal parameters. The strongest associations emerged from the parameters bleeding on probing (BOP) and a probing pocket depth (PPD) of ≥6 mm with the genes BAT1, NFKBIL1, and LTA. Six SNPs, rs11796, rs3130059, rs2239527, rs2071591, rs909253, and rs1041981 (r2, ≥0.92), constituted a risk haplotype. In the Parogene 1 population, the haplotype had the strongest association with the parameter BOP, a PPD of ≥6 mm, and severe periodontitis with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.63 (2.21 to 3.20), 2.90 (2.37 to 3.52), and 3.10 (1.63 to 5.98), respectively. These results were replicated in the other two populations. High serum LTA concentrations in the Parogene population were associated with the periodontitis risk alleles of the LTA SNPs (rs909253 and rs1041981) of the haplotype. In addition, the protein was expressed in inflamed gingival connective tissue. We identified a novel BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA haplotype as a significant contributor to the risk of periodontitis. The genetic polymorphisms in the MHC class III region may be functionally important in periodontitis susceptibility. PMID:24566624

  13. Effects of nonframework metal cations and phonon scattering mechanisms on the thermal transport properties of polycrystalline zeolite LTA films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, Abraham; Hudiono, Yeny; Graham, Samuel; Nair, Sankar

    2010-03-01

    We present a systematic study to investigate the effects of nonframework cations and the role of phonon scattering mechanisms on the thermal transport properties of zeolite LTA, via experiment and semiempirical lattice dynamics calculations. Our study is motivated by the increasing interest in accurate measurements and mechanistic understanding of the thermal transport properties of zeolite materials. The presence of a nanostructured pore network, extra-framework cations, and tunable framework structure and composition confer interesting thermophysical properties to these materials, making them a good model system to investigate thermal transport in complex materials. Continuous films of zeolite LTA with different nonframework cations (Na+, K+, and Ca+2) were synthesized and characterized. The thermal conductivity was measured using the three-omega method over a wide range of temperature (150-450 K). These are the first thermal conductivity measurements performed on bulk LTA, so they are more accurate than previous measurements, which involved the use of compacted zeolite powders. Our data showed significant dependence of the thermal conductivity on the extra-framework cations as well the temperature. The thermal conductivities of the zeolite LTA samples were modeled with the relaxation time approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation. The full phonon spectra for each type of LTA zeolite were calculated and used in conjunction with semiempirical relaxation time expressions to calculate the thermal conductivity. The results both validated, and suggested the limitations of, this modeling approach. Optical phonons dominated the thermal conductivity and boundarylike scattering was found to be the strongest phonon scattering mechanism, as also observed in MFI zeolite.

  14. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  15. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  16. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  17. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  18. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  19. Hybrid LTA vehicle controllability as affected by buoyancy ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. N.; Kubicki, P.; Tarczynski, T.; Fairbanks, A.; Piasecki, F. N.

    1979-01-01

    The zero and low speed controllability of heavy lift airships under various wind conditions as affected by the buoyancy ratio are investigated. A series of three hybrid LTA vehicls were examined, each having a dynamic thrust system comprised of four H-34 helicopters, but with buoyant envelopes of different volumes (and hence buoyancies), and with varying percentage of helium inflation and varying useful loads (hence gross weights). Buoyancy ratio, B, was thus examined varying from approximately 0.44 to 1.39. For values of B greater than 1.0, the dynamic thrusters must supply negative thrust (i.e. downward).

  20. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  1. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry... of quality for frozen cherry pie is as follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie is such that...

  2. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  3. Framework Stabilization of Si-Rich LTA Zeolite Prepared in Organic-Free Media

    SciTech Connect

    Conato, Marlon T.; Oleksiak, Matthew D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Motkuri, Radha K.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-10-16

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  4. Preparation and characterization of Na-LTA zeolite from Tunisian sand and aluminum scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tounsi, H.; Mseddi, S.; Djemel, S.

    2009-11-01

    Pure Na-A (LTA) zeolite has been prepared from aluminosilicate gel obtained by a mixture of metasilicate and aluminate solutions. Metasilicate sol; used as silica source; was prepared from an alkaline attack of Tunisian sand in an autoclave under agitation at 220 ∘C and pressure of 27 bar. The aluminate solution was obtained by dissolution of aluminium scraps in NaOH solution. The crystallization of Na-LTA zeolite is controlled by the alkalinity of the mixture and the reaction time. At 90 ∘C, well crystallized LTA have been obtained after 3h. The Zeolite LTA converts into the more stable HS after long reaction times according to Ostwald's law. The alkalinity of the reaction mixture changes the nature of the obtained zeolite. At lower NaOH concentration (0.1 M), Na-X zeolite was obtained; whereas the crystallization of LTA was promoted at higher NaOH concentration (3M).

  5. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  6. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  7. Role of LTA4H Polymorphism in Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Occurrence and Clinical Severity in Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Gopalan; Kavitha, Dhanasekaran; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Gil-Santana, Leonardo; Almeida-Junior, Jilson L.; Reddy, Sirasanambatti Devarajulu; Kumar, Marimuthu Makesh; Hemalatha, Haribabu; Jayanthi, Nagesh Nalini; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Krishnaraja, Raja; Prabhakar, Angamuthu; Manoharan, Tamizhselvan; Nithyananthan, Lokeswaran; Arjunan, Gunasundari; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory phenomenon complicating HIV management in coincidental tuberculosis (TB) infection, upon immune reconstitution driven by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H), an enzyme which converts LTA4 to LTB4, regulates the balance between the anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory LTB4, with direct implications in TB-driven inflammation. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LTA4H promoter which regulates its transcriptional activity (rs17525495) has been identified and described to impact clinical severity of TB presentation and response to corticosteroid therapy. Notably, the role of LTA4H on TB-IRIS has not been previously evaluated. Here, we performed an exploratory investigation testing the association of LTA4H polymorphism with respect to frequency of TB-IRIS occurrence and severity of TB-IRIS presentation in HIV-TB co-infected individuals. Methods Genotypic evaluation of the LTA4H enzyme from available samples was retrospectively correlated with clinical data captured in case sheets including IRIS details. The cohort included patients recruited from a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT0933790) of ART-naïve HIV+ patients with newly diagnosed rifampicin sensitive pulmonary TB in South India. Frequency of the wild type genotype (CC), as well as of the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) in the IRIS and non-IRIS patients was estimated. Comparative analyses were performed between wild genotype (CC) and the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) and tested for association between the LTA4H polymorphisms and IRIS incidence and clinical severity. Results A total of 142 eligible ART-naïve patients were included in the analyses. Eighty-six individuals exhibited the wild genotype (CC) while 56 had mutant genotypes (43-CT and only 13-TT). Variant allele frequency was 0.23 and 0.26 in non

  8. PIE preparation of the MEGAPIE target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuther, Michael; Wagner, Werner

    2012-12-01

    The MEGAPIE target, after successfully operating for 4 months at a beam power of 0.77 MW, is now being prepared for post irradiation examination PIE. The lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target was irradiated from August until December 2006, and in this period received a beam charge of 2.8 A h of 575 MeV protons. After that, the target was stored in the target storage facility of PSI, waiting for its post irradiation examination. In the meantime several campaigns of tests have been conducted by PSI and ZWILAG, the interim storage facility of Swiss nuclear power plants. In these tests the feasibility of the conditioning of the target and the extraction of sample material for the PIE has been proven. After transport to the hot cell facility at ZWILAG in June 2009, the dismantling of the MEGAPIE target started. It finally was cut into 21 pieces. Ten of these pieces will be shipped to the Hot Laboratory of PSI ('PSI hotlab') to extract samples from the structural materials as well as from the LBE. Currently it is foreseen that the sample extraction will start in the first half of 2011. The remaining parts of the MEGAPIE target were conditioned as radioactive waste. The present paper will mainly focus on the dismantling and first visual inspection of the MEGAPIE target. In addition an outlook on the PIE phase of MEGAPIE is given.

  9. PENG: a neural gas-based approach for pharmacophore elucidation. method design, validation, and virtual screening for novel ligands of LTA4H.

    PubMed

    Moser, Daniel; Wittmann, Sandra K; Kramer, Jan; Blöcher, René; Achenbach, Janosch; Pogoryelov, Denys; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2015-02-23

    The pharmacophore concept is commonly employed in virtual screening for hit identification. A pharmacophore is generally defined as the three-dimensional arrangement of the structural and physicochemical features of a compound responsible for its affinity to a pharmacological target. Given a number of active ligands binding to a particular target in the same manner, it can reasonably be assumed that they have some shared features, a common pharmacophore. We present a growing neural gas (GNG)-based approach for the extraction of the relevant features which we called PENG (pharmacophore elucidation by neural gas). Results of retrospective validation indicate an acceptable quality of the generated models. Additionally a prospective virtual screening for leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) inhibitors was performed. LTA4H is a bifunctional zinc metalloprotease which displays both epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activity. We could show that the PENG approach is able to predict the binding mode of the ligand by X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, we identified a novel chemotype of LTA4H inhibitors. PMID:25625859

  10. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  11. Truscon Steel products operated straight slide doors L.T.A. hangars from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Truscon Steel products operated straight slide doors L.T.A. hangars from U.S. Navy. Santa Ana, California. Drawing no. A-1872-1 1943 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H.

  13. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. 49 CFR 40.367 - Who initiates a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who initiates a PIE proceeding? 40.367 Section 40.367 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.367 Who initiates a PIE...

  15. Sex and the Cinema: What "American Pie" Teaches the Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Sharyn

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the wildly successful blockbuster "American Pie" teenpics, especially "American Pie 3--The Wedding". I argue that these films are specifically designed to appeal to teenage male audiences, and to provide lessons in sex and romance. Movies like this are especially important as they are experienced by far more teenagers than,…

  16. Comparison of the STA/LTA and power spectral density methods for microseismic event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Yoones; Van der Baan, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Robust event detection and picking is a prerequisite for reliable (micro-) seismic interpretations. Detection of weak events is a common challenge among various available event detection algorithms. In this paper we compare the performance of two event detection methods, the short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) method, which is the most commonly used technique in industry, and a newly introduced method that is based on the power spectral density (PSD) measurements. We have applied both techniques to a 1-hr long segment of the vertical component of some raw continuous data recorded at a borehole geophone in a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The PSD technique outperforms the STA/LTA technique by detecting a higher number of weak events while keeping the number of false alarms at a reasonable level. The time-frequency representations obtained through the PSD method can also help define a more suitable bandpass filter which is usually required for the STA/LTA method. The method offers thus much promise for automated event detection in industrial, local, regional and global seismological data sets.

  17. A LTA flight research vehicle. [technology assessment, airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nebiker, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Airship Flight Research Program is proposed. Major program objectives are summarized and a Modernized Navy ZPG3W Airship recommended as the flight test vehicle. The origin of the current interest in modern airship vehicles is briefly discussed and the major benefits resulting from the flight research program described. Airship configurations and specifications are included.

  18. Analysis of migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in response to LPS and LTA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim; Fiedler, Tomas; Peters, Kirsten

    2016-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue. Since bacterial infections are common complications in wound healing, bacterial pathogens and their components come into direct contact with MSC. The interaction with bacterial structures influences the proliferation, differentiation and migratory activity of the MSC, which might be of relevance during regeneration. Studies on MSC migration in response to bacterial components have shown different results depending on the cell type. Here, we analyzed the migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in response to the basic cell-wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. To this end, we used transwell and scratch assays, as well as a specific chemotaxis assay combined with live-cell imaging. We found no significant influence of LPS or LTA on the migration rate of adMSC in transwell or scratch assays. Furthermore, in the µ-slide chemotaxis assay, the stimulation with LPS did not exert any chemotactic effect on adMSC.

  19. Multimodal communication and spatial binding in pied currawongs (Strepera graculina).

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sarah R; Mackey, Erica; Tang, Laura; Smith, Brian R; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2008-10-01

    To make accurate assessments about their environment, animals must integrate a variety of sensory cues into a single unified percept. The effects of redundant multimodal signaling may be equivalent to the responses elicited by each individual cue, or enhanced when cues are combined. Binding of two seemingly coupled cues can persist despite small spatial and temporal discrepancies in signal presentation, a phenomenon termed the ventriloquist effect. Our study had two aims: first, to test the cognitive ability of a territorial, forest-dwelling bird to bind two spatially disparate cues; and second, to define the processing of the acoustic and visual cues as having either equivalent or enhanced effects when presented together. We broadcasted pied currawong (Strepera graculina) vocalizations alone or in the presence of a model currawong situated either adjacent to, or far away from a speaker, to free-living currawongs. The number of locomotive events and the average standard deviation in the distance from the speaker maintained by the focal currawong were greater in response to "far" than "close" treatments. Additionally, the average standard deviation of the distance to speaker for the uni-modal, speaker only treatment was similar to "far" responses. These findings support our hypothesis that currawongs cognitively bind two stimuli in close spatial proximity. In nature, this would result in an enhanced level of response toward territorial intruders. Our study was novel in its attempt to assess cognitive processes involved in the integration of spatially disparate bimodal signaling events in free-living birds.

  20. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  1. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  2. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  3. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  4. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  5. Personalized Information Environments: Do Public Libraries Want a Slice of the PIE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worcester, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of personalized information environments (PIEs) focuses on library personalized interfaces. Describes academic library PIEs and commercial sites, such as Amazon.com that use personalization; explores the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg's personalized interface; and discusses opportunities and challenges PIEs offer public…

  6. Structural study of sodium-type zeolite LTA by combination of Rietveld and maximum-entropy methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Izumi, F.; Kodaira, T. |

    1998-12-01

    The electron-density distribution in hydrated and dehydrated sodium-type zeolite LTA was visualized from X-ray powder diffraction data by combining Rietveld analysis and a maximum-entropy method. The X-ray diffraction data were analyzed on the basis of the composition Na{sub 95}Si{sub 97}Al{sub 95}O{sub 384} and a structural model (space group Fm{bar 3}c) obtained by the Rietveld refinement of time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data for the dehydrated sample. Weighted R factors, wR{sub F}, resulting from the analysis by the maximum-entropy method reached 1.15% for the hydrated sample and 0.99% for the dehydrated one. The number of water molecules per unit cell in the hydrated sample was estimated to be ca. 255 by electron-density analysis, agreeing well with ca. 248 determined by thermogravimetry. Adsorbed water molecules are situated beside Na{sup +} ions in electron-density maps. In contrast with the dehydrated sample, Na{sup +} ions in eight-membered rings were moved a little by introducing water into the {alpha}-cages.

  7. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  8. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  9. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  10. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  11. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  12. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  13. Two-Person Pie-Cutting: The Fairest Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbanel, Julius B.; Brams, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Barbanel, Brams, and Stromquist (in 2009) asked whether there exists a two-person moving-knife procedure that yields an envy-free, undominated, and equitable division of a pie. We present two procedures: One yields an envy-free, almost undominated, and almost equitable allocation, whereas the second yields an allocation with the two "almost"…

  14. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... weight of the washed and drained cherry content is not less than 25 percent of the weight of the pie when... blemished. (2) Compliance with the requirement for the weight of the washed and drained cherry content of... procedure: (i) Select a random sample from a lot: (a) At least 24 containers if they bear a...

  15. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight of the washed and drained cherry content is not less than 25 percent of the weight of the pie when... blemished. (2) Compliance with the requirement for the weight of the washed and drained cherry content of... procedure: (i) Select a random sample from a lot: (a) At least 24 containers if they bear a...

  16. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... weight of the washed and drained cherry content is not less than 25 percent of the weight of the pie when... blemished. (2) Compliance with the requirement for the weight of the washed and drained cherry content of... procedure: (i) Select a random sample from a lot: (a) At least 24 containers if they bear a...

  17. TNF and LTA gene, allele, and extended HLA haplotype associations with severe dengue virus infection in ethnic Thais.

    PubMed

    Vejbaesya, Sasijit; Luangtrakool, Panpimon; Luangtrakool, Komon; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Vaughn, David W; Endy, Timothy P; Mammen, Mammen P; Green, Sharone; Libraty, Daniel H; Ennis, Francis A; Rothman, Alan L; Stephens, Henry A F

    2009-05-15

    Severe dengue virus (DENV) infection is characterized by a cascade of cytokine production, including the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha). We have analyzed a variety of polymorphisms in the TNF and LTA genes of 435 ethnic Thais who had subclinical DENV infection, primary or secondary dengue fever (DF), or primary or secondary dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The TNF -238A polymorphism marking the TNF-4,LTA-3 haplotype occurred in a significantly greater number of patients with secondary DHF (20 [15.2%] of 132) than patients with secondary DF (7 [4.1%] of 169) (P < .001; P corrected by use of Bonferroni adjustment, .022; odds ratio, 4.13 [95% confidence interval, 1.59-11.17]). In a subset of patients, the LTA-3 haplotype was associated with in vivo intracellular production of LT-alpha and TNF-alpha during the acute viremic phase of infection. Two extended human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes containing TNF-4 and LTA-3, together with HLA-B48, HLA-B57, and HLA-DPB1*0501, were detected only in patients with secondary DHF. These observations indicate that polymorphism in functionally distinct MHC-encoded proteins contributes to the risk of developing severe secondary DENV infection and warrants further investigation.

  18. Decommissioning and PIE of the MEGAPIE spallation target

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Henry, J.; Wohlmuther, M.; Dai, Y.; Gavillet, D.; Hammer, B.; Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.; Thomsen, K.; Tuerler, A.; Wagner, W.; Gessi, A.; Guertin, A.; Konstantinovic, M.; Lindau, R.; Maloy, S.; Saito, S.

    2013-07-01

    A key experiment in the Accelerated Driven Systems roadmap, the MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) (1 MW) was initiated in 1999 in order to design and build a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, then to operate it into the Swiss spallation neutron facility SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute. The target has been designed, manufactured, and tested during integral tests, before irradiation carried out end of 2006. During irradiation, neutron and thermo hydraulic measurements were performed allowing deep interpretation of the experiment and validation of the models used during design phase. The decommissioning, Post Irradiation Examinations and waste management phases were defined properly. The phases dedicated to cutting, sampling, cleaning, waste management, samples preparation and shipping to various laboratories were performed by PSI teams: all these phases constitute a huge work, which allows now to perform post-irradiation examination (PIE) of structural material, irradiated in relevant conditions. Preliminary results are presented in the paper, they concern chemical characterization. The following radio-nuclides have been identified by γ-spectrometry: {sup 60}Co, {sup 101}Rh, {sup 102}Rh, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 172}Hf/Lu, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 194}Hg/Au, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi. For some of these nuclides the activities can be easily evaluated from γ-spectrometry results ({sup 207}Bi, {sup 194}Hg/Au), while other nuclides can only be determined after chemical separations ({sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 195}Au, {sup 129}I, {sup 36}Cl and α-emitting {sup 208-210}Po). The concentration of {sup 129}I is lower than expected. The chemical analysis already performed on spallation and corrosion products in the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) are very relevant for further applications of LBE as a spallation media and more generally as a coolant.

  19. Snail consumption and breeding performance of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) along a pollution gradient in the Middle Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Belskii, Eugen; Grebennikov, Maxim

    2014-08-15

    During the years 1989-91, 1997-2003, and 2005-07, we studied how emissions from the Middle Urals copper smelter affect snail availability and reproduction of free-living pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). We counted snail shells dropped in nests and analysed food samples of nestlings. Pied flycatchers brought to nestlings fewer shells in heavily polluted sites compared to background sites, resulting in reduced Ca intake. Species diversity of snails collected by birds decreased with decreasing distance from the pollution source. The pattern was the same both in deciduous and coniferous forests. In sites closest to the smelter, 20-50% of breeding females suffered from Ca deficiency, which resulted in an increased proportion of deserted clutches and clutches with defective eggshells. Number of fledglings per nest decreased in heavily polluted sites, especially in broods with decreased snail supply. This study demonstrated that pollution can cause both direct effect of toxicants to birds and indirect effects via reduced Ca availability.

  20. Nitrogen oxide reaction with six-atom silver clusters supported on LTA zeolite.

    PubMed

    Baldansuren, Amgalanbaatar; Eichel, Rüdiger-A; Roduner, Emil

    2009-08-21

    Silver containing catalysts were prepared by aqueous ion exchange of Ag(+) against Na(+) in an LTA zeolite. A well-defined paramagnetic cluster consisting of six equivalent silver nuclei was obtained after oxidation and hydrogen reduction. Continuous wave EPR demonstrates that the reduced Ag(6)(+) clusters are isolated and all silver atoms are close to equivalent. Upon addition of NO gas at room temperature, the spectrum of the Ag(6)(+) cluster disappears immediately. A new spectrum has the character of adsorbed NO. Its line is split by hyperfine interaction between the unpaired electron with (14)N of the adsorbed NO, and by the nuclear spin of one Ag nucleus to which NO is bound. The experimental isotropic hyperfine coupling a approximately 11.0 G is too large for being observed in the HYSCORE spectrum, but a small (14)N-hyperfine interaction is observed and assigned to a second nitrogen spin in the vicinity of the silver cluster. In the presence of trace oxygen NO transforms slowly into NO(2), but no further activity was observed at room temperature. The NO(2) molecule exhibits dynamics in the temperature range of 30 to 125 K. The rotational diffusion is axially symmetric about the molecular y axis of the adsorbed NO(2). Above 50 K, it becomes rapidly nearly isotropic. Analysis of the correlation time (tau(c)) derived from the EPR lineshapes provides the kinetic parameters, and an Arrhenius representation gives access to the activation energy for the rotational motion.

  1. OpenMP for 3D potential boundary value problems solved by PIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KuŻelewski, Andrzej; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is examination of an application of modern parallel computing technique OpenMP to speed up the calculation in the numerical solution of parametric integral equations systems (PIES). The authors noticed, that solving more complex boundary problems by PIES sometimes requires large computing time. This paper presents the use of OpenMP and fast C++ linear algebra library Armadillo for boundary value problems modelled by 3D Laplace's equation and solved using PIES. The testing example shows that the use of mentioned technologies significantly increases speed of calculations in PIES.

  2. The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

  3. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions.

    PubMed

    Berglund, A M M; Nyholm, N E I

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. PMID:21788063

  4. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    PubMed

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  5. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions.

    PubMed

    Berglund, A M M; Nyholm, N E I

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  6. No Humble Pie: The Origins and Usage of a Statistical Chart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Ian

    2005-01-01

    William Playfair's pie chart is more than 200 years old and yet its intellectual origins remain obscure. The inspiration likely derived from the logic diagrams of Llull, Bruno, Leibniz, and Euler, which were familiar to William because of the instruction of his mathematician brother John. The pie chart is broadly popular but--despite its common…

  7. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  8. 49 CFR 40.391 - What is the scope of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL... conduct and did not take action to correct it. (j) PIEs do not apply to drug and alcohol testing that DOT... these three cases, the scope of the PIE would include all aspects of R's services. Example 4 to §...

  9. 49 CFR 40.391 - What is the scope of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL... conduct and did not take action to correct it. (j) PIEs do not apply to drug and alcohol testing that DOT... these three cases, the scope of the PIE would include all aspects of R's services. Example 4 to §...

  10. 49 CFR 40.393 - How long does a PIE stay in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does a PIE stay in effect? 40.393 Section 40.393 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.393 How long does a PIE stay...

  11. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40.395 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE...

  12. Development of the Persistence in Engineering (PIE) Survey Instrument. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eris, Ozgur; Chen, Helen; Bailey, Tori; Engerman, Kimarie; Loshbaugh, Heidi; Griffin, Ashley; Lichtenstein, Gary; Cole, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The Persistence In Engineering (PIE) survey was developed to identify and characterize the fundamental factors that influence students' intentions to pursue an engineering degree over the course of their undergraduate career, and upon graduation, to practice engineering as a profession. The PIE survey is one of five data-gathering methods used in…

  13. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated

  14. Introducing a Framework for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughani, Bahram

    A desired outcome for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) education is preparing physics majors with an innovative and entrepreneurial mindset who are capable of opportunity recognition and adept in leveraging physics knowledge to address specific needs. Physics as a discipline is well-recognized to prepare students who become problem solvers and critical thinkers, gifted in dealing with abstract ideas and ambiguities in the context of complex and real-world problems. These characteristics when enhanced through appropriate combinations of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular programs can prepare physics majors for careers and future challenges that may involve translating physics knowledge into useful products and services either as part of a technical team within an organization or through startups. A viable PIE education model prepares graduates for various career paths in addition to the traditional options such as pursuing graduate studies or becoming a science teacher. Having a well-defined ``third option'' for physics will benefit the robustness of the physics discipline through recruitment and retention of prospective students who in principle are interested in physics as a subject, but in practice they may overlook physics as their preferred major primarily because they are uncertain about a viable career path based on an undergraduate physics education. The ''Pathways to Innovation'' at Loyola is established based on the program developed by VentureWell and Epicenter (NSF Supported).

  15. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2014-04-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a pie. The proposer suggests how to split the pie. The responder can either accept or reject the deal. If an agreement is not reached, neither player gets anything. Both game theory and evolutionary game theory predict the rational solution that the proposer offers the smallest possible share and the responder accepts it. Fairness thus requires additional mechanisms for natural selection to favor it. Studies to date assumed that individuals have competed for the fixed size of pies, in sharp contrast with real situations, where randomness is ubiquitous. Here we study the impact of random allocation of pies on the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms.

  16. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2014-04-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a pie. The proposer suggests how to split the pie. The responder can either accept or reject the deal. If an agreement is not reached, neither player gets anything. Both game theory and evolutionary game theory predict the rational solution that the proposer offers the smallest possible share and the responder accepts it. Fairness thus requires additional mechanisms for natural selection to favor it. Studies to date assumed that individuals have competed for the fixed size of pies, in sharp contrast with real situations, where randomness is ubiquitous. Here we study the impact of random allocation of pies on the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms.

  17. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? (a) Initiating officials have broad discretion in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding. (b) In exercising... in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  18. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? (a) Initiating officials have broad discretion in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding. (b) In exercising... in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  19. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? (a) Initiating officials have broad discretion in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding. (b) In exercising... in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  20. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? (a) Initiating officials have broad discretion in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding. (b) In exercising... in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  1. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? (a) Initiating officials have broad discretion in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding. (b) In exercising... in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  2. An Alpine-style Ordovician collision complex in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina: Record of subduction of Cuyania beneath the Famatina arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Staal, C. R.; Vujovich, G. I.; Currie, K. L.; Naipauer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Caucete Group and structurally overlying Pie de Palo Complex in western Argentina are characterised by two generations of west-verging folds and thrust-related shear zones, which formed under amphibolite facies conditions. The Caucete Group is separated from the Pie de Palo Complex by the Pirquitas thrust. These structures are interpreted to have formed as a result of a progressive deformation, generated during Middle Ordovician, underthrusting of the Laurentian-derived Cuyania microcontinent beneath the active Famatina margin. Geometrical relationships are most simply explained if the Pie de Palo Complex was basement to the Caucete Group prior to Ordovician orogenesis. We propose that this basement-cover relationship was established during Cambrian rifting of the Cuyania microcontinent from Laurentia. The Pirquitas fault may have been initiated during this extension prior to its long-lived remobilization as a thrust. We cannot rule out the possibility that the Pie de Palo Complex was exotic with respect to the Caucete Group, but for this to be possible we have to introduce an extra generation of structures, for which no evidence is preserved. The deformation was characterised by early strain localization followed by a more homogeneously distributed non-coaxial flow during F 2. Thermal softening probably dominated over fabric softening during this stage.

  3. Daily behaviour can differ between colour morphs of the same species: a study on circadian activity behaviour of grey and pied zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ila; Trivedi, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-05-01

    To investigate if the plumage colour mutation relates to circadian activity behaviour in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, wild type grey and pied mutant males were sequentially subjected for three weeks each to 12 h light:12 h darkness (12L:12D) and constant dim light (LL(dim)) condition. During the first 3 h of the 12 h day, pied finches were significantly greater active than grey finches. Also, as compared to grey, pied finches had longer activity duration in the day, with early activity onsets and late activity offsets. This was changed under free-running condition (LL(dim)), when the activity later in the subjective day (clock hour 9 and 11) was significantly greater in grey than in pied finches.Two colour morphs differed in daily activity profile, but not in the total daily activity or circadian rhythm period. Results suggest that greyzebra finches represent late chronotype, and could perhaps be better adapted to a seemingly stressful environment, such as low intensity LL(dim) in the present study.

  4. Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Jin; Yue, Jun; Liu, Lirong; Han, Min; Wang, Hongxiu

    2014-12-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. The CC and TT homozygotes of rs1978331 and rs2540474 were identified to have higher rates (P < 0.01) and be risk factors in the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.412; 95% CI = 1.104-1.804 and(OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.080-1.764). However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis subgroups. LTA4H gene were significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis and other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis except for pleural tuberculosis. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene may affect susceptibility to extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and change the risk of developing the disease in the Han nationality in the East China.

  5. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher A; Epperson, Megan L; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I; Fremont, Daved H

    2015-08-28

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection.

  6. Enlarging the Societal Pie Through Wise Legislation: A Psychological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jonathan; Bazerman, Max H; Shonk, Katherine

    2006-06-01

    We offer a psychological perspective to explain the failure of governments to create near-Pareto improvements. Our tools for analyzing these failures reflect the difficulties people have trading small losses for large gains: the fixed-pie approach to negotiations, the omission bias and status quo bias, parochialism and dysfunctional competition, and the neglect of secondary effects. We examine the role of human judgment in the failure to find wise trade-offs by discussing diverse applications of citizen and government decision making, including AIDS treatment, organ-donation systems, endangered-species protection, subsidies, and free trade. Our overall goal is to offer a psychological approach for understanding suboptimality in government decision making.

  7. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from periodontal pathogenic bacteria facilitate oncogenic herpesvirus infection within primary oral cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lu; DeFee, Michael R; Cao, Yueyu; Wen, Jiling; Wen, Xiaofei; Noverr, Mairi C; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains the most common tumor arising in patients with HIV/AIDS, and involvement of the oral cavity represents one of the most common clinical manifestations of this tumor. HIV infection incurs an increased risk for periodontal diseases and oral carriage of a variety of bacteria. Whether interactions involving pathogenic bacteria and oncogenic viruses in the local environment facilitate replication or maintenance of these viruses in the oral cavity remains unknown. In the current study, our data indicate that pretreatment of primary human oral fibroblasts with two prototypical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by oral pathogenic bacteria-lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), increase KSHV entry and subsequent viral latent gene expression during de novo infection. Further experiments demonstrate that the underlying mechanisms induced by LTA and/or LPS include upregulation of cellular receptor, increasing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activating intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK and NF-κB, and all of which are closely associated with KSHV entry or gene expression within oral cells. Based on these findings, we hope to provide the framework of developing novel targeted approaches for treatment and prevention of oral KSHV infection and KS development in high-risk HIV-positive patients.

  8. The Canonical Immediate Early 3 Gene Product pIE611 of Mouse Cytomegalovirus Is Dispensable for Viral Replication but Mediates Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Viral Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Rattay, Stephanie; Trilling, Mirko; Megger, Dominik A.; Sitek, Barbara; Meyer, Helmut E.; Hengel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transcription of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate early ie1 and ie3 is controlled by the major immediate early promoter/enhancer (MIEP) and requires differential splicing. Based on complete loss of genome replication of an MCMV mutant carrying a deletion of the ie3-specific exon 5, the multifunctional IE3 protein (611 amino acids; pIE611) is considered essential for viral replication. Our analysis of ie3 transcription resulted in the identification of novel ie3 isoforms derived from alternatively spliced ie3 transcripts. Construction of an IE3-hemagglutinin (IE3-HA) virus by insertion of an in-frame HA epitope sequence allowed detection of the IE3 isoforms in infected cells, verifying that the newly identified transcripts code for proteins. This prompted the construction of an MCMV mutant lacking ie611 but retaining the coding capacity for the newly identified isoforms ie453 and ie310. Using Δie611 MCMV, we demonstrated the dispensability of the canonical ie3 gene product pIE611 for viral replication. To determine the role of pIE611 for viral gene expression during MCMV infection in an unbiased global approach, we used label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to delineate pIE611-dependent changes of the MCMV proteome. Interestingly, further analysis revealed transcriptional as well as posttranscriptional regulation of MCMV gene products by pIE611. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses are pathogenic betaherpesviruses persisting in a lifelong latency from which reactivation can occur under conditions of immunosuppression, immunoimmaturity, or inflammation. The switch from latency to reactivation requires expression of immediate early genes. Therefore, understanding of immediate early gene regulation might add insights into viral pathogenesis. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate early 3 protein (611 amino acids; pIE611) is considered essential for viral replication. The identification of novel protein isoforms derived from alternatively spliced ie3

  9. Heat and Ice in Sermilik Fjord: Novel Observational Techniques Using PIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, M.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.

    2014-12-01

    A 1-year pilot experiment using pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) was conducted in Sermilik Fjord in eastern Greenland to test non-traditional methods for measuring the time-varying
heat content in high-latitude seas, shelves, and fjords and for detecting the presence of ice. PIES, which are installed on the seafloor below the reach of destructive iceberg keels, present
a promising and inexpensive way to improve understanding of fjord dynamics and shelf-fjord interactions and will increase long-term monitoring capabilities in high latitudes where
remoteness and harsh conditions hamper traditional in situ observation techniques. The use
of PIES to characterize variability at high latitudes is a novel application of an existing
technology, but rests on the same principle as the traditional blue-water uses for PIES: due
to the dependence of sound speed on temperature, the surface-to-bottom round-trip acoustic-travel-time associated with reflections between the PIES and the air-sea interface is an excellent proxy
for heat content in the intervening water column. Furthermore, since reflections from seawater-ice interfaces are also detected when ice
is present, PIES provide a means to characterize the ice component in high-latitude systems. The PIES deployed in Sermilik Fjord (August 2011 - September 2012) resolved changes in heat content at scales ranging from hourly to seasonal. Furthermore, during winter, the PIES logged about 300 iceberg detections and recorded a 2-week period of land-fast ice cover in March. The deepest icebergs in the fjord were found to have keel depths reaching to ~350 m and iceberg speeds averaged about 0.2 m/s but were as high as 0.5 m/s.

  10. Use of Formative Assessment, Self- and Peer-Assessment in the Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afitska, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on formative teacher assessment and feedback, learner self- and peer-assessment have been carried out in the field of Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) research over the last two decades. These studies investigated the above mentioned concepts from different perspectives (impact of assessment on learning,…

  11. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF 31 on the Top and Cut Surfaces of Southern Custard Pies

    PubMed Central

    Preonas, D. L.; Nelson, A. I.; Ordal, Z. John; Steinberg, M. P.; Wei, L. S.

    1969-01-01

    A Staphylococcus strain was inoculated on the top and cut surfaces of freshly baked Southern custard pies which were then packaged in a pasteboard carton and held at 30 C. Daily plate counts of surface sections 0.3 inch (0.76 cm) in thickness were made. The top surface inoculum showed a 24-hr lag time. This was due to the protective action of a top cakelike layer as shown by homogenization of the mix and coating of the surface. Substitution of all sweeteners with dextrose completely inhibited growth on the top surface. Further addition of dextrose to lower water activity (Aw) to 0.9 prevented growth on the cut surface as well, but such pies were organoleptically unacceptable. Growth on the top surface could also be prevented by 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g in combination with 100 μg of undissociated propionic acid per g in the baked pie. Growth on the cakelike top surface was always retarded longer than on the cut surface provided the packaging allowed evaporation of surface moisture. Reducing the Aw of a different type of cream pie to 0.907 prevented top surface growth. It was concluded that baked cream pies with a cakelike top layer could be marketed with a “refrigerate after opening” label, provided the package maintains the moisture gradient caused by the surface skin and either a combination of 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g and 100 μg undissociated propionic acid per g is present in the baked pie or the Aw of the baked pie is 0.920 or lower. Images PMID:5803631

  12. An Assessment of ORNL PIE Capabilities for the AGR Program Capsule Post Irradiation Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel

    2006-09-01

    ORNL has facilities and experienced staff that can execute +the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) task. While the specific PIE breakdown needs to be more formally defined, the basic outline is clear and the existing capabilities can be assessed within the needs of the tasks defined in the program plan. A one-to-one correspondence between the program plan tasks and the current ORNL PIE status was conducted and while some shortcomings were identified, the general capability is available. Specific upgrade needs were identified and reviewed. A path forward was formulated. Building 3525 is available for this work and this building is currently receiving renewed attention from management so that it will be in good working order prior to the expected PIE start date. This building is equipped with the tools necessary for PIEs of this nature, but the long hiatus in coated particle fuel work has left it with aging analysis tools. This report identified several of these tools and rough estimates of what would be required to update and replace them. In addition, other ORNL buildings are available to support Building 3525 in specialized tasks along with the normal laboratory infrastructure. Before the AGR management embarks on any equipment development effort, the PIE tasks should be updated against current program (modeling and data) needs and better defined so that the items to be measured, their measurement uncertainties, and thru-put needs can be reviewed. A Data Task Matrix (DTM) should be prepared so that the program data needs can be compared against the identified PIE tasks and what is practical in the hot cell environment to make sure nothing is overlooked. Finally, thought should be given to the development of standardized equipment designs between sites to avoid redundant design efforts and different measurement techniques. This is a potentially cost saving effort that can also avoid data inconsistencies.

  13. Snail consumption and breeding performance of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) along a pollution gradient in the Middle Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Belskii, Eugen; Grebennikov, Maxim

    2014-08-15

    During the years 1989-91, 1997-2003, and 2005-07, we studied how emissions from the Middle Urals copper smelter affect snail availability and reproduction of free-living pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). We counted snail shells dropped in nests and analysed food samples of nestlings. Pied flycatchers brought to nestlings fewer shells in heavily polluted sites compared to background sites, resulting in reduced Ca intake. Species diversity of snails collected by birds decreased with decreasing distance from the pollution source. The pattern was the same both in deciduous and coniferous forests. In sites closest to the smelter, 20-50% of breeding females suffered from Ca deficiency, which resulted in an increased proportion of deserted clutches and clutches with defective eggshells. Number of fledglings per nest decreased in heavily polluted sites, especially in broods with decreased snail supply. This study demonstrated that pollution can cause both direct effect of toxicants to birds and indirect effects via reduced Ca availability. PMID:24846405

  14. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Primate, the Pied Tamarin (Saguinus bicolor): Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni P; Santos, Wancley G; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed DNA at 9 microsatellite loci from hair samples of 73 pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) located in 3 urban forest fragments and a biological reserve in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The forest fragments had become isolated from the continuous forest 6-15 years prior to the time of sampling. Tests for reduction in population size showed that all groups from the urban forest fragments had undergone genetic bottlenecks. Pied tamarins in this region historically formed one biological population, and the fragments were connected by high levels of gene flow. These results indicate the need to implement a conservation plan that allows for connectivity between the urban fragments, as well as protection from further constriction. Such connectivity could be achieved via the creation and protection of corridors. In addition to the current population trends explained by anthropogenic actions, the species also shows a trend of long-term demographic decline that has resulted in approximately an order of magnitude decrease and began 13 thousand years ago.

  15. Application of large-scale computing infrastructure for diverse environmental research applications using GC3Pie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffioletti, Sergio; Dawes, Nicholas; Bavay, Mathias; Sarni, Sofiane; Lehning, Michael

    2013-04-01

    , execute location-based subroutines at each grid point and store the results back into the central repository for post-processing. An optional extension of this infrastructure will be to provide a 'ring buffer'-type database infrastructure, such that model results (e.g. test runs made to check parameter dependency or for development) can be visualised and downloaded after completion without submitting them to a permanent storage infrastructure. Data organization Data collected from sensors are archived and classified in distributed sites connected with an open-source software middleware, GSN. Publicly available data are available through common web services and via a cloud storage server (based on Swift). Collocation of the data and processing in the cloud would eventually eliminate data transfer requirements. Execution control logic Execution of the data analysis pipelines (for both the R-based analysis and the Alpine3D simulations) has been implemented using the GC3Pie framework developed by UZH. (https://code.google.com/p/gc3pie/). This allows large-scale, fault-tolerant execution of the pipelines to be described in terms of software appliances. GC3Pie also allows supervision of the execution of large campaigns of appliances as a single simulation. This poster will present the fundamental architectural components of the data analysis pipelines together with initial experimental results.

  16. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  17. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines. PMID:27376497

  18. The Revised-Perceived Illness Experience Scale (R-PIE): data from the Barretstown studies.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Gemma; Gormley, Michael; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The Perceived Illness Experience Scale (PIE) was developed to measure children's perception of their illness experience. In this article, the authors examine the previously uninvestigated factor structure of the PIE using the responses of 184 European children (mean age = 11.61 years, SD = 2.31) with life-threatening illnesses. The findings showed a 6-factor solution: (1) School/Peer Rejection, (2) Thinking About Illness, (3) Physical Appearance, (4) Interference With Activity, (5) Parental Responses, and (6) Manipulation. Children's mean scores on each subscale and for the composite Revised PIE (R-PIE) were generally low, suggesting that as a group, children do not perceive that their illness has an especially negative impact on their lives. There were differences between the children's mean scores on some subscales depending on their gender nationality grouping, and type of illness. These findings provide empirical support for the R-PIE and suggest its usefulness in measuring children's experience of different illnesses in multinational settings.

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  20. Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the Learner-Centered Information-Age Paradigm of Education: A Study to Improve the Design of the Functions and Features of PIES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) design theory is a design recommendation regarding the function and features of Learning Managements Systems (LMS) that can support the information-age learner-centered paradigm of education. The purpose of this study was to improve the proposed functions and features of the PIES design theory…

  1. On the Fair Division of Multiple Stochastic Pies to Multiple Agents within the Nash Bargaining Solution

    PubMed Central

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    The fair division of a surplus is one of the most widely examined problems. This paper focuses on bargaining problems with fixed disagreement payoffs where risk-neutral agents have reached an agreement that is the Nash-bargaining solution (NBS). We consider a stochastic environment, in which the overall return consists of multiple pies with uncertain sizes and we examine how these pies can be allocated with fairness among agents. Specifically, fairness is based on the Aristotle’s maxim: “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally, in proportion to the relevant inequality”. In this context, fairness is achieved when all the individual stochastic surplus shares which are allocated to agents are distributed in proportion to the NBS. We introduce a novel algorithm, which can be used to compute the ratio of each pie that should be allocated to each agent, in order to ensure fairness within a symmetric or asymmetric NBS. PMID:23024752

  2. 49 CFR 40.403 - Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must a service agent notify its clients when the... Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE? (a) As a service agent, if... clients, in writing, about the issuance, scope, duration, and effect of the PIE. You may meet...

  3. 49 CFR 40.403 - Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must a service agent notify its clients when the... Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE? (a) As a service agent, if... clients, in writing, about the issuance, scope, duration, and effect of the PIE. You may meet...

  4. 49 CFR 40.401 - How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... public about a PIE? 40.401 Section 40.401 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.401 How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE? (a) The Department maintains...

  5. Polluted environment and cold weather induce laying gaps in great tit and pied flycatcher.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2010-02-01

    We studied the occurrence of laying gaps in free-living populations of the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, and the great tit, Parus major, in a pollution gradient of a copper smelter in south-west Finland. Laying gaps were 2.8 times more common in F. hypoleuca than in P. major. The probability of laying gaps was highest in the heavily polluted zone and lowest in the unpolluted zone for both bird species. Cold weather at the time of laying increased the number of laying gaps in both species, but in P. major this effect was most pronounced in the heavily polluted environment. In the most heavily polluted environment the laying gaps were more likely to occur near the beginning of the laying sequence in both species. The laying gap probability increased with increasing laying date in P. major but not in F. hypoleuca. We suggest that the increased number of laying gaps in the polluted environment results from limited Ca availability and the interference of heavy metals with Ca metabolism in laying females. PMID:19784674

  6. Trade-offs between sexual advertisement and immune function in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    PubMed Central

    Kilpimaa, Janne; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Siitari, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Good genes models of sexual selection assume that sexual advertisement is costly and thus the level of advertisement honestly reveals heritable viability. Recently it has been suggested that an important cost of sexual advertisement might be impairment of the functioning of the immune system. In this field experiment we investigated the possible trade-offs between immune function and sexual advertisement by manipulating both mating effort and activity of immune defence in male pied flycatchers. Mating effort was increased in a non-arbitrary manner by removing females from mated males during nest building. Widowed males sustained higher haematocrit levels than control males and showed higher expression of forehead patch height, suggesting that manipulation succeeded in increasing mating effort. Males that were experimentally forced to increase mating effort had reduced humoral immune responsiveness compared with control males. In addition, experimental activation of immune defence by vaccination with novel antigens reduced the expression of male ornament dimensions. To conclude, our results indicate that causality behind the trade-off between immune function and sexual advertisement may work in both directions: sexual activity suppresses immune function but immune challenge also reduces sexual advertisement. PMID:15058434

  7. Nestling testosterone is associated with begging behaviour and fledging success in the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca

    PubMed Central

    Goodship, Nicola M; Buchanan, Katherine L

    2005-01-01

    Animal signals are hypothesized to be costly in order to honestly reflect individual quality. Offspring solicitation signals given by nestling birds are thought to have evolved to advertise either need or individual quality. We tested the potential role of testosterone (T) in controlling the intensity of these signals by measuring begging behaviour as: (i) duration of the begging display and (ii) maximum height of the begging stretch, and by sampling endogenous T levels in nestling blood. We tested nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) using well-established experimental paradigm involving transient food deprivation to encourage begging behaviour and then blood-sampled nestlings at the end of these tests for T levels. Our results show that individual nestlings with the most intense begging displays had the highest circulating levels of T immediately after testing. In addition, we found substantial differences between broods in terms of circulating T. Finally, we found evidence that broods with higher levels of T showed increased fledging success, indicating a benefit for increased T production in nestlings. The potential trade-offs involved in T-mediated begging behaviour are discussed. PMID:16519237

  8. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense insofar as nonsense is…

  9. Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, A.M.M. Sturve, J.; Foerlin, L.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2007-11-15

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  10. 49 CFR 40.409 - What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers? 40.409 Section 40.409 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions §...

  11. 49 CFR 40.363 - On what basis may the Department issue a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what basis may the Department issue a PIE? 40.363 Section 40.363 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.363 On what basis...

  12. 49 CFR 40.397 - When does the Director make a PIE decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When does the Director make a PIE decision? 40.397 Section 40.397 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.397 When does the Director...

  13. 49 CFR 40.383 - What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.383 Section 40.383 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions §...

  14. 49 CFR 40.377 - Who decides whether to issue a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who decides whether to issue a PIE? 40.377 Section 40.377 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.377 Who decides whether to...

  15. 49 CFR 40.405 - May the Federal courts review PIE decisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the Federal courts review PIE decisions? 40.405 Section 40.405 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.405 May the...

  16. 49 CFR 40.387 - What matters does the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What matters does the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE? 40.387 Section 40.387 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.387 What matters...

  17. 49 CFR 40.375 - How does the initiating official start a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the initiating official start a PIE proceeding? 40.375 Section 40.375 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.375 How does...

  18. 49 CFR 40.379 - How do you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.379 Section 40.379 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.379 How do you contest...

  19. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  20. Comparative performance evaluation of applying extended PIE technique to accelerate software testability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jun-Ru; Huang, Chin-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Jung; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2012-12-01

    The rapid development of technology provides high performance and reliability for the hardware system; based on this, software engineers can focus their developed software on more convenience and ultra-high reliability. To reach this goal, the testing stage of software development life cycle usually takes more time and effort due to the growing complexity of the software. How to build software that can be tested efficiently has become an important topic in addition to enhancing and developing new testing methods. Thus, research on software testability has been conducted and various methods have been developed. In the past, a dynamic technique for estimating program testability was proposed and called propagation, infection and execution (PIE) analysis. Previous research studies have shown that PIE analysis can complement software testing. However, this method requires a lot of computational overhead in estimating the testability of software components. In this article, we propose an extended PIE (EPIE) method to accelerate the conventional PIE analysis, based on generating group testability as a substitute for statement testability. Our proposed method can be systematically separated into three steps: breaking a program into blocks, dividing the blocks into groups and marking target statements. Experiments and evaluations with the Siemens suite, together with cost-effectiveness analysis, clearly show that the number of analysed statements can be effectively decreased, and the calculated values of testability are still acceptable.

  1. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  2. Adolescent Ambiguities in "American Pie": Popular Culture as a Resource for Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Proposes the need to critically incorporate popular culture into sex education efforts in order to develop programs that resonate with teens' experiences while allowing them to construct more equitable social relations. Illustrates how this might be done through an analysis of the recent teen film, "American Pie," identifying specific implications…

  3. Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

  4. Reading: Making It Personal Again--Now Serving PIE to Hungry Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nancy; Oleynik, Myra; Sacco, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Something wonderful happens when children are asked to choose their own books and are given ample time to read and discuss them. They become hungry readers with an appetite for books! This simple strategy was the basis for developing the program known as PIE (Personalized Independent Enrichment) and its recipe for reading success. The goal of the…

  5. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  6. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  7. Goal orientations in negotiations: the influence of goal orientations on fixed-pie perceptions and bargaining outcomes.

    PubMed

    Katz-Navon, Tal Y; Goldschmidt, Chanan

    2009-02-01

    As is the case for other achievement situations, people may approach negotiations emphasizing outcome and/or process goals. This paper examines the effects of process goal orientation (PGO) and outcome goal orientation (OGO) on individuals' fixed-pie perceptions and the negotiation of joint outcomes. Process and outcome goal orientations are associated with different personal beliefs about the world. We hypothesized that persons who are primarily oriented toward outcome goals, based on their fixed-entity perception of the world, would mainly concentrate on the final results or on the outcomes of the negotiation. They would tend to perceive negotiations as fixed, zero-sum, competitive situations, which have to be "won" by one of the parties at the expense of the other. On the other hand, we predicted that people who are strongly process-oriented, based on their malleable-entity perception of the world, would focus mainly on formulating and mastering the best strategies that lead to successful resolution of the negotiation. They would perceive positions to be "malleable" and, hence, would tend to perceive the negotiation as a non zero-sum situation. Additionally, the interaction between the two types of goal orientations and its effect on the parties' joint negotiation outcomes was examined. Results of two empirical studies indicated that OGO was significantly positively associated with fixed-pie bias (Study 1). The significant interaction between PGO and OGO (Study 2) demonstrated that a strong OGO combined with a strong PGO led to the best joint negotiation outcomes. Implications for goal orientation and negotiation theories are discussed.

  8. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for SO2, NO, CO2 on zeolites FAU and LTA.

    PubMed

    Yi, Honghong; Deng, Hua; Tang, Xiaolong; Yu, Qiongfen; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Haiyan

    2012-02-15

    In order to develop a single-step process for removing SO(2), NO, CO(2) in flue gas simultaneously by co-adsorption method. Pure component adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of SO(2), NO, and CO(2) on zeolite NaY, NaX, CaA were obtained respectively. Equilibrium data were analyzed by equilibrium model and Henry's law constant. The results suggest that Adsorption affinity follows the trend SO(2)>CO(2)>NO for the same adsorbent. Zeolite with stronger polar surface is a more promising adsorbent candidate. Kinetics behavior was investigated using the breakthrough curve method. The overall mass transfer coefficient and diffusivity factor were determined by a linear driving force model. The results are indicative of micropore diffusion controlling mechanism. NaY zeolite has the minimum resistance of mass transfer duo to the wide pore distribution and large pore amount. CaA zeolite exhibits the highest spatial hindered effect. Finally, co-adsorption effect of SO(2), NO, and CO(2) were investigated by multi-components breakthrough method. SO(2) and NO may form new adsorbed species, however, CO(2) presents a fast breakthrough. Chemical adsorption causes SO(2) transforms to SO(4)(2-), however, element N and C are not detected in adsorbed zeolites.

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering study of water in hydrated LTA-type zeolites.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Parker, Stewart F; Venuti, Valentina; Wanderlingh, Ulderico

    2006-01-26

    The vibrational dynamics of water molecules encapsulated in synthetic Na-A and Mg-exchanged A zeolites were studied versus temperature by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements (30-1200 cm(-1)) as a function of the induced ion-exchange percentage by using the indirect geometry tof spectrometer TOSCA at the ISIS pulse neutron facility (RAL, UK). The experimental INS spectra were compared with those of ice Ih to characterize the structural changes induced by confinement on the H2O hydrogen-bonded network. We observed, after increasing the Mg2+ content, a tendency of water molecules to restore the bulklike arrangements together with more hindered dynamics. These results are confirmed by the analysis of the evaluated one-phonon amplitude-weighted proton vibrational density of states aimed, in particular, to follow the evolution of the water molecules librational mode region.

  10. Mesoporous aluminosilicates assembled from dissolved LTA zeolite and triblock copolymer in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shunsuke; Okada, Hiroaki; Nakatani, Norihito; Maruo, Takanori; Nishiyama, Norikazu; Miyake, Yoshikazu

    2009-05-15

    Zeolite Na-A crystals dissolved in a HCl solution were used as a single-source of silicon and aluminum for the synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicates via a template-assisted method with an organic base tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH). Amphiphilic triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 (EO(106)PO(70)EO(106)) was used as template. Increasing the amount of TMAOH in the synthetic solution resulted in an increase in the aluminum content of the products. On the other hand, mesostructural periodicity was deteriorated with higher content of aluminum incorporated into the mesoporous framework. The samples with low Si/Al ratios less than 5 have wormhole-like pore structure, while the samples with Si/Al ratios more than 7 possess highly ordered mesoporous structure, a body-centered Im3m symmetry, with single crystal like morphology. The samples with Si/Al ratio of 7, which prepared at TMAOH molar concentration of 25 mM in the templating solution, possess BET surface area of 470 m(2)/g, pore size of 6.4 nm, and pore volume of 0.56 cm(3)/g. Aluminum atoms have successfully been incorporated in a tetra-coordinated position and remained stable even after calcination at 600 degrees C.

  11. The effects of selected modern technological concepts on the performance and handling characteristics of LTA vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazza, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an airship design sensitivity study are presented. A wide variety of airship design concepts, including the classical and high aero-lift augmented-hybrids are examined with regard to specific technological improvements, and consequent gains in performance, stability and control and flying qualities. Variations in size, payload, power required and airspeed are quantitatively analyzed for airships representing aero-to-buoyant lift ratios of zero to 3.0 over a range of technology improvements implying reduced drag, reduced structural weight fractions and lighter, more efficient propulsion systems. Qualitatively, future airships are discussed in terms of stability, control and flying qualities requirements dictated by projected demands for vastly improved operational effectiveness and ease of handling. Such topics include stability augmentation systems, load-alleviation systems and total computer state-sensing and controls management systems. It was shown that, for the most part, highly refined conventional designs offer attractive gains in both performance and ease of handling. Hybrid airships represent a good potential for missions requiring the transport of heavy payloads at higher airspeeds over shorter ranges without the capability for sustained hover and vertical flight.

  12. Testicular distribution and toxicity of a novel LTA4H inhibitor in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.D. La, D.

    2014-07-01

    JNJ 40929837, a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor in drug development, was reported to induce testicular toxicity in rats. The mechanism of toxicity was considered to be rodent specific and not relevant to humans. To further investigate this finding in rats, the distribution and toxicokinetics of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites, M1 and M2, were investigated. A quantitative whole body autoradiography study showed preferential distribution and retention of JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity in the testes consistent with the observed site of toxicity. Subsequent studies with unlabeled JNJ 40929837 showed different metabolite profiles between the plasma and testes. Following a single oral 50 mg/kg dose of JNJ 40929837, M2 was the primary metabolite in plasma whereas M1 was the primary metabolite in testes. The exposure of M1 was 386-fold higher in the testes compared to plasma whereas M2 had limited exposure in testes. Furthermore, the T{sub max} of M1 was 48 h in testes suggesting a large accumulation potential of this metabolite in testes compared to plasma. Following six months of repeated daily oral dosing, M1 accumulated approximately five-fold in the testes whereas the parent did not accumulate. These results indicate that the toxicokinetic profiles of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites in testes are markedly different compared to plasma and support the importance of understanding the toxicokinetic profiles of compounds and their metabolites in organs/tissues where toxicity is observed. - Highlights: • JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity preferentially distributed into testes • Primary metabolite flip-flop in plasma and testes • The primary metabolite in testes accumulated 5-fold but not parent.

  13. Results of Parametric Design Studies of MOX Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.; Bychkov, S.A.; Lazarenko, A.A.; Sidorenko, V.D.; Styrin, Y.A.

    1998-12-01

    The parametric studies of MOX LTA design have been executed to choose plutonium content in assembly zones for two options of MOX LTA: 3-zones and Island. For 3-zones (100% Plutonium) MOX LTA the fissile plutonium content composition of 4.2%/3,0%/2% has been chosen. MOX LTA of the chosen compositions has been studied by using multi-assembly configuration that allows investigating of influence of MOX LTA environment: uranium assemblies of different irradiation. Plutonium Island with 54 plutonium pins in the center of MOX LTA has been considered in two modifications: uniform island; and graded island with lower plutonium content in one peripheral row of pins. It is shown that plutonium content in the uniform island cannot exceed 2.7% because of adopted power peaking limitations and therefore this design seems unreasonable for practical use. For graded island the plutonium content composition 3.8%/2.8% with uranium environment of 3.7% U-235 has been chosen. Evolution of assembly power and burnup distributions, inter-pin power and isotopic distributions while fuel irradiating have been analyzed. In addition to the base uranium environment of 3.7%, a set of calculations has been executed for 4.4%. Most of the studies have been executed by the code TVS-M that is at the final stage of licensing and it is to be used in the nearest future as a base instrument for VVER core calculations while using both uranium and MOX fuel. So the obtained results must be considered as preliminary ones and they demand additional analysis and investigations.

  14. Territorial behaviour and hormones of pied flycatchers in optimal and suboptimal habitats.

    PubMed

    Silverin

    1998-10-01

    Since pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, breed at higher densities in deciduous forests than in coniferous forests, competition for territories is likely to be greater in the former, optimal habitat. I tested the hypotheses that males in a deciduous forest defend their newly established territories more intensely and have higher plasma levels of testosterone than males in a suboptimal coniferous forest. In the deciduous forest, breeding density was higher, egg laying started earlier and more fledglings were produced. Morphological characters such as wing length, plumage colour and the size of the white forehead patch did not differ consistently between males establishing territories in deciduous and coniferous forests. Before the nest-building period, males in the deciduous forest were heavier, and had significantly larger furcula fat depots. I tested territorial aggressiveness by exposing unmated territorial males to simulated territorial intrusions. A significantly higher proportion of territorial males in the deciduous forest physically attacked the intruder; those that did attack also attacked more frequently than did males in the coniferous forest. Furthermore, males in the deciduous forest stayed closer to the decoy, and were more restless during the simulated territorial intrusion. Males in the deciduous forest had higher plasma levels of testosterone and corticosterone than did males in the coniferous forest, but there was no difference in dihydrotestosterone levels. These hormonal differences are most likely to be the result of a higher intrusion rate and a higher population density in the deciduous forest. I conclude that prior ownership is a crucial factor in maintaining a territory, and that differences in aggressive motivation between unmated males in the deciduous and coniferous forests reflect the value of the nestboxes defended. The high testosterone levels observed in males from the deciduous forest are likely to be the physiological factor

  15. Synthesis and characterization of LTA nanozeolite using barley husk silica: Mercury removal from standard and real solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Dehnavi, Ahmad Roozbehani; Joorabdoozha, Amir

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Silica extraction from barley husk with high purity for the synthesis of A nanozeolite. ► Free template A nanozeolite synthesized via new source of silica at low temperature. ► Optimization of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratios, temperature and time of the synthesis. ► Utilizing of synthesized A nanozeolite for mercury removal from aqueous solutions. ► Mercury removal at optimized pH, contact time and adsorbent dose from real solution. - Abstract: In this study, synthesized Lined Type A (LTA) nanozeolite from barley husk silica (BHS) was used for mercury removal from standard and real aqueous solutions. The BHS in amorphous phase with 80% purity was extracted from barley husk ash (BHA), and used effectively as a new source of silica for the synthesis of NaA nanozeolite. The NaA nanocrystal in pure phase has been synthesized at low temperature, without adding any organic additives. The effects of heating time, reaction temperature, SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} mole ratios on the crystallization of NaA nanozeolite were studied. The adsorption capacity of mercury (II) was studied as a function of pH, contact time, and amount of adsorbent. The crystallization of NaA nanozeolite from BHS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and FTIR techniques. Moreover, concentration of Hg{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous solutions was analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy method (HG-AAS). The standard and real samples analysis showed that NaA nanozeolite is capable of Hg{sup 2+} ions removal from the aqueous solutions. Efficiency of mercury (II) adsorption from real solutions onto the nano-sized NaA zeolite was 98%.

  16. Precision Information Environment (PIE) for International Safeguards: Pre-Demonstration Development Use Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Henry, Michael J.

    2013-11-13

    In FY2013, the PIE International Safeguards team demonstrated our development progress to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) staff from the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24, our client) and the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22). Following the demonstration, the team was asked by our client to complete additional development prior to a planned demonstration at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), scheduled tentatively for January or spring of 2014. The team discussed four potential areas for development (in priority order), and will develop them as time and funding permit prior to an IAEA demonstration. The four capability areas are: 1. Addition of equipment manuals to PIE-accessible files 2. Optical character recognition (OCR) of photographed text 3. Barcode reader with information look-up from a database 4. Add Facilities to Data Model 5. Geospatial capabilities with information integration Each area will be described below in a use case.

  17. An Outbreak of Human Listeriosis in England between 2010 and 2012 Associated with the Consumption of Pork Pies.

    PubMed

    Awofisayo-Okuyelu, A; Arunachalam, N; Dallman, T; Grant, K A; Aird, H; McLauchlin, J; Painset, A; Amar, C

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in England affecting 14 people between 2010 and 2012 and linked to the consumption of pork pies was investigated. All 14 individuals were older than 55 years, 12 were men, and 10 reported the presence of an underlying condition. All were resident in or had visited either of two English regions and were infected with the same strain of Listeria monocytogenes. In interviews with 12 patients, 9 reported eating pork pies, and individuals that consumed pork pies were significantly more likely to be infected with an outbreak strain than were individuals with sporadic cases of listeriosis infections in England from 2010 to 2012. Pork pies were purchased from seven retailers in South Yorkshire or the East Midlands, and the outbreak strain was recovered from pork pies supplied by only the producer in South Yorkshire. The outbreak strain was also recovered from samples of finished product and from environmental samples collected from the manufacturer. The likely source of contamination was environmental sites within the manufacturing environment, and the contamination was associated with the process of adding gelatin to the pies after cooking. Inadequate temperature control and poor hygienic practices at one of the retailers were also identified as possible contributory factors allowing growth of the pathogen. Following improvements in manufacturing practices and implementation of additional control measures at the retailers' premises, L. monocytogenes was not recovered from subsequent food and environmental samples, and the outbreak strain was not detected in further individuals with listeriosis in England.

  18. Tunable PIE and synchronized gating detections by FastFLIM for quantitative microscopy measurements of fast dynamics of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Coskun, Ulas; Ferreon, Allan Chris; Barbieri, Beniamino; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff

    2016-03-01

    The crosstalk between two fluorescent species causes problems in fluorescence microscopy imaging, especially for quantitative measurements such as co-localization, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). In laser scanning confocal microscopy, the lasers can be switched on and off by acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) in the microsecond scale for alternative line scanning in order to avoid the crosstalk while minimizing the time delay between two lasers on the same pixel location. In contrast, the pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) technique synchronizes two pulsed lasers of different wavelengths in the nanosecond scale to enable measuring superfast dynamics of two fluorescent species simultaneously and yet quantitatively without the crosstalk contamination. This feature is critical for many cell biology applications, e.g. accurate determination of stoichiometry in FRET measurements for studying protein-protein interactions or cell signal events, detection of weaker bindings in FCCS by eliminating the false cross correlation due to the crosstalk. The PIE has been used with the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) electronics. Here, we describe a novel PIE development using the digital frequency domain (DFD) technique -- FastFLIM, which provides tunable PIE setups and synchronized gating detections, tailored and optimized to specific applications. A few PIE setups by FastFLIM and measurement examples are described. Combined with the sensitivity of Alba and Q2 systems, the PIE allowed us to quantitatively measure the fast dynamics of single molecules.

  19. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN A PIED TAMARIN (SAGUINUS BICOLOR).

    PubMed

    Barbon, Alberto Rodriguez; Ordóñez, Israel Alamilla; Haworth, Peter; Glendewar, Gale; Routh, Andrew; Pocknell, Ann

    2016-06-01

    An intact male pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor) presented with a hunched posture while moving, dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria. After diagnostic imaging assessment and prostate biopsy, benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed. Treatments with delmadinone acetate and osaterone caused clinical signs and hematuria to resolve temporarily for a variable period of time. Because of frequent recurrence, elective surgical castration was performed, leading to resolution of the clinical signs. PMID:27468035

  20. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Gerczak, Tyler J.

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  1. Comparison between urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 detection and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays for evaluating aspirin response in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jingwei; Chen, Xiahuan; Feng, Xueru; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, Meilin

    2015-10-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to compare between two established methods of aspirin response, urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11dhTXB2) and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays in elderly Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and to investigate the clinical significance of both methods in predicting cardiovascular events. Urinary 11dhTxB2 assay and arachidonic acid-induced (AA, 0.5mg/ml) platelet aggregation by Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTAAA) assay were measured to evaluate aspirin responses. High-on aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) was defined as urinary 11dhTxB2>1500pg/mg or AA-induced platelet aggregation≥15.22%-the upper quartile of our enrolled population. The two tests showed a poor correlation for aspirin inhibition (r=0.063) and a poor agreement in classifying HAPR (kappa=0.053). With a mean follow-up time of 12months, cardiovascular events occurred more frequently in HAPR patients who were diagnosed by LTA assay as compared with no-HAPR patients (22.5% versus 10.6%, P=0.039, OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.06-5.63). However, the HAPR status, as determined by urinary 11dTXB2 measurement, did not show a significant correlation with outcomes. PMID:26095809

  2. Comparison between urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 detection and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays for evaluating aspirin response in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jingwei; Chen, Xiahuan; Feng, Xueru; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, Meilin

    2015-10-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to compare between two established methods of aspirin response, urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11dhTXB2) and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays in elderly Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and to investigate the clinical significance of both methods in predicting cardiovascular events. Urinary 11dhTxB2 assay and arachidonic acid-induced (AA, 0.5mg/ml) platelet aggregation by Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTAAA) assay were measured to evaluate aspirin responses. High-on aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) was defined as urinary 11dhTxB2>1500pg/mg or AA-induced platelet aggregation≥15.22%-the upper quartile of our enrolled population. The two tests showed a poor correlation for aspirin inhibition (r=0.063) and a poor agreement in classifying HAPR (kappa=0.053). With a mean follow-up time of 12months, cardiovascular events occurred more frequently in HAPR patients who were diagnosed by LTA assay as compared with no-HAPR patients (22.5% versus 10.6%, P=0.039, OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.06-5.63). However, the HAPR status, as determined by urinary 11dTXB2 measurement, did not show a significant correlation with outcomes.

  3. Detection of rhodopsin dimerization in situ by PIE-FCCS, a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin self-associates in the plasma membrane. At low concentrations, the interactions are consistent with a monomer-dimer equilibrium (Comar et al., J Am Chem Soc 136(23):8342-8349, 2014). At high concentrations in native tissue, higher-order clusters have been observed (Fotiadis et al., Nature 421:127-128, 2003). The physiological role of rhodopsin dimerization is still being investigated, but it is clear that a quantitative assessment is essential to determining the function of rhodopsin clusters in vision. To quantify rhodopsin interactions, I will outline the theory and methodology of a specialized time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring membrane protein-protein interactions called pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS). The strength of this technique is its ability to quantify rhodopsin interactions in situ (i.e., a live cell plasma membrane). There are two reasons for restricting the scope to live cell membranes. First, the compositional heterogeneity of the plasma membrane creates a complex milieu with thousands of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate species. This makes it difficult to infer quaternary interactions from detergent solubilized samples or construct a model phospholipid bilayer that recapitulates all of the interactions present in native membranes. Second, organizational structure and dynamics is a key feature of the plasma membrane, and fixation techniques like formaldehyde cross-linking and vitrification will modulate the interactions. PIE-FCCS is based on two-color fluorescence imaging with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) (Becker et al., Rev Sci Instrum 70:1835-1841, 1999). By time-tagging every detected photon, the data can be analyzed as a fluorescence intensity distribution, fluorescence lifetime histogram, or fluorescence (cross-)correlation spectra (FCS/FCCS) (Becker, Advanced time-correlated single-photon counting techniques, Springer, Berlin, 2005). These

  4. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, David J.; Finch, Fiona M.; Bell, Matthew B. V.; Ridley, Amanda R.

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a ‘cheap’ advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners. PMID:26177094

  5. Joint effect of gene-physical activity and the interactions among CRP, TNF-α, and LTA polymorphisms on serum CRP, TNF-α levels, and handgrip strength in community-dwelling elders in Taiwan - TCHS-E.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Ing; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liao, Li-Na; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Hsiao, Jen-Hao; Meng, Nai-Hsin; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Wu, Fang-Yang; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses interactions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms with C-reactive protein (CRP) or lymphotoxin α (LTA) gene on serum CRP and TNF-α levels and handgrip strength. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs2794520, rs1205, rs1130864, rs1800947, and rs3093059 in CRP; rs1799964, rs1800629, and rs3093662 in TNF-α; and rs2239704, rs909253, and rs1041981 in LTA, were genotyped in 472 unrelated elders (mean age 73.8 years). Among elders with TNF-α rs1799964 AA genotype, adjusted mean difference for handgrip strength decreased by -2.60 (-4.82, -0.38) and -2.51 kg (-4.75, -0.28) for LTA rs909253 and rs1041981 in women and by -2.39 kg (-3.98, -0.81) for CRP rs3093059 in men. Among elders with TNF-α rs1799964 AA genotype, adjusted mean ratios for hs-CRP levels increased by 2.32 (1.38, 3.90) and 2.27 (1.35, 3.84) for both CRP rs909253 and rs1041981 in women. The A-A-C LTA haplotype was associated with TNF-α levels that were 1.55 times higher than those of the C-G-A haplotype (P = 0.005). The joint effects of SNPs (the rs1800947 or rs3093059 of CRP, rs1799964 or rs1800629 of TNF-α, and rs909253 or rs1041981 of LTA) and physical inactivity appeared to have greater magnitude of decreased handgrip strength than main effects of these SNPs and physical inactivity. Our data showed that significant interactions of TNF-αrs1799964 and LTA rs909253 were observed. Moreover, joint effects of these CRP, TNF-α, and LTA risk alleles with physical inactivity in elders were observed, suggesting that physical activity may modulate effects of genotypes on handgrip strength.

  6. The effects of sex, age and breeding success on breeding dispersal of pied flycatchers along a pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Ahola, Markus; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2008-08-01

    We modelled breeding dispersal of an insectivorous bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) around a point source of heavy metals (a copper smelter). We tested for the effects of sex, age, breeding success and environmental pollution on breeding dispersal distances of F. hypoleuca females and males. Unlike many earlier studies on breeding dispersal, we took into account distance-dependent sampling bias by including in our model the recapture probabilities at different distances from the site of origin. Our results show that F. hypoleuca females disperse much farther (on average 7.9 km) from their breeding sites than what was previously thought. In contrast, males only disperse short distances (on average 190 m). Breeding success affected female breeding dispersal distances depending on female age: young females moved on average 8 km from their previous breeding place irrespective of their breeding success, while old females only seemed to move this far when their fledgling production was good. Females successful in their breeding dispersed as far as less successful females, or, among old birds, even farther. Females which dispersed long distances produced more fledglings after the movement than those staying near their previous breeding site. Degree of environmental pollution had no effect on female or male breeding dispersal distances. A polluted and unproductive environment does not seem to stimulate F. hypoleuca parents to move to more profitable territories. PMID:18543001

  7. Effects of reduced lead deposition on pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings: tracing exposure routes using stable lead isotopes.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Asa M M; Klaminder, Jonatan; Nyholm, N Erik I

    2009-01-01

    To what extent the lead burden of birds living in strongly contaminated ecosystems is responding to decreased atmospheric lead deposition is not well known. In this study, we measured lead concentrations and stable lead isotope ratios (206pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) in liver and feces from pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) along a 90 km pollution gradient from the Rönnskär smelter in northern Sweden. Changes in lead concentration in the birds from 1984 to 2006 were used for assessing the recovery of the environment following reduced lead emissions at the smelter. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios were used to identify lead sources to the birds. Lead concentrations in liver and feces have decreased since the 1980s, typically by 9-15% (liver) and 18-40% (feces) as a result of a 98% emission reduction. This relatively weak recovery is explained by a transfer of old lead contaminants accumulated in soil to the birds via their prey, which was evident by a 206Pb/207Pb ratio in liver tissue (1.15 +/- 0.01) that overlapped with the ratio in ants (1.16 +/- 0.01) and organic soil horizon (1.17 +/- 0.01) rather than the current atmospheric lead pollution (1.11 +/- 0.01). Our findings suggest that insectivorous birds living around smelters may remain contaminated decades after ceased emissions.

  8. The PIES2012 Code for Calculating 3D Equilibria with Islands and Stochastic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, Donald; Reiman, Allan; Raburn, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We have made major modifications to the PIES 3D equilibrium code to produce a new version, PIES2012. The new version uses an adaptive radial grid for calculating equilibrium currents. A subset of the flux surfaces conform closely to island separatrices, providing an accurate treatment of the effects driving the neoclassical tearing mode. There is now a set of grid surfaces that conform to the flux surfaces in the interiors of the islands, allowing the proper treatment of the current profiles in the islands, which play an important role in tearing phenomena. We have verified that we can introduce appropriate current profiles in the islands to suppress their growth, allowing us to simulate situations where islands are allowed to grow at some rational surfaces but not others. Placement of grid surfaces between islands is guided by the locations of high order fixed points, allowing us to avoid spectral polution and providing a more robust, and smoother convergence of the code. The code now has an option for turning on a vertical magnetic field to fix the position of the magnetic axis, which models the horizontal feedback positioning of a tokamak plasma. The code has a new option for using a Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov scheme for convergence. The code now also contains a model that properly handles stochastic regions with nonzero pressure gradients. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  10. 49 CFR 40.381 - What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE? 40.381 Section 40.381 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions §...

  11. 49 CFR 40.407 - May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated? 40.407 Section 40.407 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.407 May a...

  12. A Comparison of Learning Management Systems in a School District: Searching for the Ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Zahide; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Kwon, Seolim; Kageto, Yuichi; Shao, Zihang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of several learning management systems (LMS), their benefits, and their limitations in relation to the desired characteristics of an ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the information age. A qualitative research design was used. The participants of the study were teachers, administrators, and…

  13. 49 CFR 40.373 - Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating official give the service agent an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating official give the service agent an opportunity to correct problems? 40.373 Section 40.373... official give the service agent an opportunity to correct problems? (a) If you are a service agent,...

  14. Oxidative Stress in Early Life: Associations with Sex, Rearing Conditions, and Parental Physiological Traits in Nestling Pied Flycatchers.

    PubMed

    López-Arrabé, Jimena; Cantarero, Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Palma, Antonio; Moreno, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Conditions experienced during juvenile development can affect the fitness of an organism. During early life, oxidative stress levels can be particularly high as a result of the increased metabolism and the relatively immature antioxidant system of the individual, and this may have medium- and long-term fitness consequences. Here we explore variation in levels of oxidative stress measured during early life in relation to sex, rearing conditions (hatching date and brood size), and parental condition and levels of oxidative markers in a wild population of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) followed for 2 yr. A marker of total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and total levels of glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells, as well as a marker of oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]), were assessed simultaneously. Our results show that nestling total GSH levels were associated with parental oxidative status, correlating negatively with maternal MDA and positively with total GSH levels of both parents, with a high estimated heritability. This suggests that parental physiology and genes could be determinants for endogenous components of the antioxidant system of the offspring. Moreover, we found that total GSH levels were higher in female than in male nestlings and that hatching date was positively associated with antioxidant defenses (higher TAS and total GSH levels). These results suggest that different components of oxidative balance are related to a variety of environmental and intrinsic--including parental--influencing factors. Future experimental studies must disentangle the relative contribution of each of these on nestling oxidative status and how the resulting oxidative stress at early phases shape adult phenotype and fitness.

  15. Newcastle disease in a zoo affecting demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J

    1981-07-01

    Newcastle disease virus could be isolated from demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. All of these birds died without prominent symptoms and had no typical pathological lesions. Identification and characterisation studies of the viruses were performed in CEF cultures and embryos. Serological cross reactions could be detected between NDV strain B1 and the new isolates by haemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction tests. Electron microscopic examination revealed particles with paramyxovirus morphology. Inoculation of susceptible cockerels resulted in severe clinical symptoms and mortality. The distribution of lesions in the digestive tract indicates that the isolated viruses are of the velogenic viscerotropic type.

  16. Tuberculose du médio-pied, une localisation inhabituelle: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Hachimi, Hicham; Tahiri, Latifa; Kadi, Nadira; Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid; Harzy, Taoufik

    2012-01-01

    La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire représente 2 à 5% de l’ensemble des tuberculoses, la localisation au médio-pieds est rare. Nous en rapportons le cas d’une patiente âgée de 18 ans, qui présente depuis 2 ans des douleurs du médio-pied droit inflammatoires avec tuméfactio, La radiographie a montré des géodes et des érosions des os naviculaire et cunéiformes. L’IRM a orienté vers le dignostic de tuberculose confirm par biospie et étude anathomopathologique. C’est pourquoi devant tout tableau clinique traînant ou devant toute lésion osseuse suspecte ou de présentation atypique le diagnostic de tuberculose doit être évoqué afin d’éviter un retard diagnostique. PMID:22593789

  17. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    2016-04-01

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal flights were estimated to be part of non-stop flights of mostly 40-60 h. In spring, birds flew across the Sahara, while autumn migration probably circumpassed part of the desert, through a long oversea flight. Our data contradict claims that passerines cross the Sahara by intermittent flight and daytime resting. The frequent occurrence of long non-stop flights to cross the desert shows migrants' physiological abilities and poses the question why this would not be the general migration strategy to cross the Sahara.

  18. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  19. A New Method To Determine In Vivo Interactomes Reveals Binding of the Legionella pneumophila Effector PieE to Multiple Rab GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Mousnier, Aurélie; Schroeder, Gunnar N.; Stoneham, Charlotte A.; So, Ernest C.; Garnett, James A.; Yu, Lu; Matthews, Steve J.; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, uses the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate more than 300 effectors into host cells, where they subvert host cell signaling. The function and host cell targets of most effectors remain unknown. PieE is a 69-kDa Dot/Icm effector containing three coiled-coil (CC) regions and 2 transmembrane (TM) helices followed by a fourth CC region. Here, we report that PieE dimerized by an interaction between CC3 and CC4. We found that ectopically expressed PieE localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induced the formation of organized smooth ER, while following infection PieE localized to the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). To identify the physiological targets of PieE during infection, we established a new purification method for which we created an A549 cell line stably expressing the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA and infected the cells with L. pneumophila expressing PieE fused to a BirA-specific biotinylation site and a hexahistidine tag. Following tandem Ni2+ nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and streptavidin affinity chromatography, the effector-target complexes were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This revealed interactions of PieE with multiple host cell proteins, including the Rab GTPases 1a, 1b, 2a, 5c, 6a, 7, and 10. Binding of the Rab GTPases, which was validated by yeast two-hybrid binding assays, was mediated by the PieE CC1 and CC2. In summary, using a novel, highly specific strategy to purify effector complexes from infected cells, which is widely applicable to other pathogens, we identified PieE as a multidomain LCV protein with promiscuous Rab GTPase-binding capacity. PMID:25118235

  20. Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation.

    PubMed

    Burger, Claudia; Belskii, Eugen; Eeva, Tapio; Laaksonen, Toni; Mägi, Marko; Mänd, Raivo; Qvarnström, Anna; Slagsvold, Tore; Veen, Thor; Visser, Marcel E; Wiebe, Karen L; Wiley, Chris; Wright, Jonathan; Both, Christiaan

    2012-07-01

    1. Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, such trophic interactions are likely to differ between habitats, resulting in differential susceptibility of populations to increases in spring temperatures. A mismatch between breeding phenology and food abundance might be mitigated by dietary changes, but few studies have investigated this phenomenon. Here, we present data on nestling diets of nine different populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, across their breeding range. This species has been shown to adjust its breeding phenology to local climate change, but sometimes insufficiently relative to the phenology of their presumed major prey: Lepidoptera larvae. In spring, such larvae have a pronounced peak in oak habitats, but to a much lesser extent in coniferous and other deciduous habitats. 2. We found strong seasonal declines in the proportions of caterpillars in the diet only for oak habitats, and not for the other forest types. The seasonal decline in oak habitats was most strongly observed in warmer years, indicating that potential mismatches were stronger in warmer years. However, in coniferous and other habitats, no such effect of spring temperature was found. 3. Chicks reached somewhat higher weights in broods provided with higher proportions of caterpillars, supporting the notion that caterpillars are an important food source and that the temporal match with the caterpillar peak may represent an important component of reproductive success. 4. We suggest that pied flycatchers breeding in oak habitats have greater need to adjust timing of breeding to rising spring temperatures, because of the strong seasonality in their food. Such between-habitat differences can have

  1. Coupling of PIES 3-D Equilibrium Code and NIFS Bootstrap Code with Applications to the Computation of Stellarator Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, D. A.; Reiman, A. H.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.

    1997-11-01

    The existence of bootstrap currents in both tokamaks and stellarators was confirmed, experimentally, more than ten years ago. Such currents can have significant effects on the equilibrium and stability of these MHD devices. In addition, stellarators, with the notable exception of W7-X, are predicted to have such large bootstrap currents that reliable equilibrium calculations require the self-consistent evaluation of bootstrap currents. Modeling of discharges which contain islands requires an algorithm that does not assume good surfaces. Only one of the two 3-D equilibrium codes that exist, PIES( Reiman, A. H., Greenside, H. S., Compt. Phys. Commun. 43), (1986)., can easily be modified to handle bootstrap current. Here we report on the coupling of the PIES 3-D equilibrium code and NIFS bootstrap code(Watanabe, K., et al., Nuclear Fusion 35) (1995), 335.

  2. The strategy for numerical solving of PIES without explicit calculation of singular integrals in 2D potential problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szerszeń, Krzysztof; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a strategy for numerical solving of parametric integral equation system (PIES) for 2D potential problems without explicit calculation of singular integrals. The values of these integrals will be expressed indirectly in terms of easy to compute non-singular integrals. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is investigated with the example of potential problem modeled by the Laplace equation. The strategy simplifies the structure of the program with good the accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  3. Miniature Gas Chromatograph (GC): Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES) Instrument for the Trace Analyses of Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    In situ exploration of the solar system to identify its early chemistry as preserved in icy bodies and to look for compelling evidence of astrobiology will require new technology for chemical analysis. Chemical measurements in space flight environments highlight the need for a high level of positive identification of chemical compounds, since re-measurement by alternative techniques for confirmation will not be feasible. It also may not be possible to anticipate all chemical species that are observed, and important species may be present only at trace levels where they can be masked by complex chemical backgrounds. Up to now, the only techniques providing independent sample identification of GC separated components across a wide range of chemical species have been Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS). We describe here the development of a versatile and robust miniature GC detector based on Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES), for use with miniature GC systems being developed for planetary missions. PIES identifies the sample molecule through spectra related to its ionization potential. The combination of miniature GC technology with the primary identification capabilities of PIES provides an analytical approach ideal for planetary analyses.

  4. Syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur pied malformé (à propos d'un cas)

    PubMed Central

    Benbella, Imane; Khalki, Hanane; Lahmadi, Khalid; Kouara, Sara; Abbadi, Abderrahim; Er-rami, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de larva migrans cutanée est une dermite sous cutanée causée par des larves d'ankylostomes d'animaux en impasse parasitaire chez l'homme. L'infestation transcutanée est favorisée par le contact avec le sol contaminé par les larves du parasite. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 15 mois, originaire de Guinée-Bissau, atteint d'un syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur un pied malformé. Cette malformation sous forme d'une syndactylie associée à une tuméfaction du pied, était à l'origine d'un retard d'acquisition de la station debout. De même, on a rapporté une notion de pieds nus, vue la difficulté de chausser le pied malformé du patient. Tous ces facteurs auraient contribués à favoriser l'infestation du malade par les larves du nématode. PMID:27217876

  5. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a 'pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers 'filling' and amino-functionalized graphene 'crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm(-2)) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g(-1) (4.7 mAh cm(-2)) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm(-2)) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm(-2) by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm(-2). PMID:26608228

  6. The why of practice: utilizing PIE to analyze social work practice in Australian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, David; Joubert, Lynette; Holland, Lucy; Posenelli, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This research used a collaborative approach to gain a comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the breadth and depth of the social work role in health care. Data was collected from individual interviews with all employed hospital social workers (N = 120) across five Melbourne, Australia health networks about their most recently completed case. This data was coded using a revised version of the Karls and Wandrei (1994) Person-in-Environment (PIE) tool to retrospectively analyze the reasons for social work involvement over the course of the case. The findings demonstrate that the hospital social work role is multidimensional across a number of domains but centers predominantly on assisting clients and their significant others with issues of altered social roles and functioning; particularly in relation to role responsibility, dependency, and managing associated role-change losses. The findings of this study will assist hospital social workers, managers, and academics to better describe and effectively undertake this complex work. These findings will also assist in the development of professional training and education to up-skill social workers who operate within this complex setting.

  7. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-11-26

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a 'pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers 'filling' and amino-functionalized graphene 'crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm(-2)) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g(-1) (4.7 mAh cm(-2)) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm(-2)) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm(-2) by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm(-2).

  8. In-depth survey report of P-I-E Nationwide, Inc. , Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Zaebst, D.D.

    1989-07-01

    A study was conducted at the P-I-E Nationwide terminal, Jacksonville, Florida as part of a larger effort to determine whether persons exposed to diesel aerosol as part of their job continued to have an elevated risk of contracting lung cancer after controlling for tobacco smoking and to determine relative exposures to diesel aerosol among the four major presumably exposed job groups: road drivers, local drivers, dock workers, and mechanics. This dock operated 24 hours a day on three shifts. Seven tow motor trucks were located on the dock, six diesel powered, one propane powered. Sampling conducted at the site indicated that most jobs had low level exposures on the order of 6 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/m{sup 3}). Geometric mean exposures to submicrometer elemental carbon ranged from a low of 4.1 microg/m{sup 3} in mechanics working primarily in the repair shop to 25.4 microg/m{sup 3} in the dock workers driving diesel powered lift trucks. Only the dock workers had exposures to elemental carbon which were substantially above the concentrations determined from highway area samples. The principal source of the dock workers' exposures was diesel emissions from the fork lift trucks operated on the docks.

  9. Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird's song

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Hollis; Scharff, Constance; Rothenberg, David; Parra, Lucas C.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the temporal regularity of singing performance. We found that different phrase types often share motifs (notes or stereotyped groups of notes). These shared motifs reappeared in strikingly regular temporal intervals across different phrase types, over hundreds of phrases produced without interruption by each bird. We developed a statistical estimate to quantify the degree to which phrase transition structure is optimized for maximizing the regularity of shared motifs. We found that transition probabilities between phrase types tend to maximize regularity in the repetition of shared motifs, but only in birds of high repertoire complexity. Conversely, in birds of low repertoire complexity, shared motifs were produced with less regularity. The strong correlation between repertoire complexity and motif regularity suggests that birds possess a mechanism that regulates the temporal placement of shared motifs in a manner that takes repertoire complexity into account. We discuss alternative musical, mechanistic and ecological explanations to this effect. PMID:27703699

  10. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a ‘pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers ‘filling' and amino-functionalized graphene ‘crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm−2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g−1 (4.7 mAh cm−2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm−2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm−2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm−2. PMID:26608228

  11. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R; Townsend, Simon W

    2016-05-24

    Language's expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a "mobbing sequence," potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  12. Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Siitari, Heli; Slater, Fred M; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-02-01

    Carotenoids in the egg yolks of birds are considered to be important antioxidants and immune stimulants during the rapid growth of embryos. Yolk carotenoid composition is strongly affected by the carotenoid composition of the female's diet at the time of egg formation. Spatial and temporal differences in carotenoid availability may thus be reflected in yolk concentrations. To assess whether yolk carotenoid concentrations or carotenoid profiles show any large-scale geographical trends or differences among habitats, we collected yolk samples from 16 European populations of the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. We found that the concentrations and proportions of lutein and some other xanthophylls in the egg yolks decreased from Central Europe northwards. The most southern population (which is also the one found at the highest altitude) also showed relatively low carotenoid levels. Concentrations of β-carotene and zeaxanthin did not show any obvious geographical gradients. Egg yolks also contained proportionally more lutein and other xanthophylls in deciduous than in mixed or coniferous habitats. We suggest that latitudinal gradients in lutein and xanthophylls reflect the lower availability of lutein-rich food items in the northern F. hypoleuca populations and in montane southern populations, which start egg-laying earlier relative to tree phenology than the Central European populations. Similarly, among-habitat variation is likely to reflect the better availability of lutein-rich food in deciduous forests. Our study is the first to indicate that the concentration and profile of yolk carotenoids may show large-scale spatial variation among populations in different parts of the species' geographical range. Further studies are needed to test the fitness effects of this geographical variation.

  13. Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, P K; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, A V; Belskii, E; Berg, P R; Both, C; Buggiotti, L; Bureš, S; Burgess, M D; Bushuev, A V; Krams, I; Moreno, J; Mägi, M; Nord, A; Potti, J; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkiä, P M; Sætre, G-P; Winkel, W; Primmer, C R

    2012-04-01

    The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed 2 of 14 loci to show significantly elevated signals of divergence. The first of these, the follistatin gene, is expressed in the developing feather bud and is found in pathways with genes that determine the structure of feathers and may thus be important in generating variation in structural colouration. The second is a gene potentially underlying the ability to detect this variation: SWS1 opsin. These two loci were most differentiated in two Spanish pied flycatcher populations, which are also among the populations that have the highest UV reflectance. The follistatin and SWS1 opsin genes thus provide strong candidates for future investigations on the molecular basis of adaptively significant traits and their co-evolution.

  14. Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, P K; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, A V; Belskii, E; Berg, P R; Both, C; Buggiotti, L; Bureš, S; Burgess, M D; Bushuev, A V; Krams, I; Moreno, J; Mägi, M; Nord, A; Potti, J; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkiä, P M; Sætre, G-P; Winkel, W; Primmer, C R

    2012-01-01

    The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed 2 of 14 loci to show significantly elevated signals of divergence. The first of these, the follistatin gene, is expressed in the developing feather bud and is found in pathways with genes that determine the structure of feathers and may thus be important in generating variation in structural colouration. The second is a gene potentially underlying the ability to detect this variation: SWS1 opsin. These two loci were most differentiated in two Spanish pied flycatcher populations, which are also among the populations that have the highest UV reflectance. The follistatin and SWS1 opsin genes thus provide strong candidates for future investigations on the molecular basis of adaptively significant traits and their co-evolution. PMID:22027894

  15. Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Kerstin; Schwenk, Klaus; Both, Christiaan; Canal, David; Johansson, Ulf S; van der Mije, Steven; Töpfer, Till; Päckert, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phenology to the ongoing advance of food peaks within their breeding area and consequently suffered local population declines. We address the question whether this population decline led to a loss of genetic variation, using two neutral marker sets (mitochondrial control region and microsatellites), and one potentially selectively non-neutral marker (avian Clock gene). We report temporal changes in genetic diversity in extant populations and biological archives over more than a century, using samples from sites differing in the extent of climate change. Comparing genetic differentiation over this period revealed that only the recent Dutch population, which underwent population declines, showed slightly lower genetic variation than the historic Dutch population. As that loss of variation was only moderate and not observed in all markers, current gene flow across Western and Central European populations might have compensated local loss of variation over the last decades. A comparison of genetic differentiation in neutral loci versus the Clock gene locus provided evidence for stabilizing selection. Furthermore, in all genetic markers, we found a greater genetic differentiation in space than in time. This pattern suggests that local adaptation or historic processes might have a stronger effect on the population structure and genetic variation in the pied flycatcher than recent global climate changes. PMID:24363905

  16. Occupancy and habitat use of the Least Bittern and Pied-billed Grebe in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darrah, A.J.; Krementz, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and the Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) are secretive marsh bird species that breed in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River Valleys. Marsh bird surveys were conducted on public and private wetlands in this region during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007. Detection probability (????) and site occupancy probability (????) were estimated for each species separately for each year. Candidate models including sampling and habitat covariates were compared using AICc to determine what variables had the greatest influence on ???? and ????. Average ???? for Least Bitterns was 0.29 in 2006 and 0.18 in 2007, and varied throughout the 2007 survey season. Average ???? for Pied-billed Grebes was 0.44 in 2006 and 0.22 in 2007, and an observer effect was found in 2007. Overall ???? for Least Bitterns was 0.17 in 2006 and 0.14 in 2007. Least Bittern occupancy was positively related to tall emergent vegetation cover in both years and to water-vegetation interspersion in 2007, and was negatively related to woody vegetation cover in 2007. Overall ???? for Pied-billed Grebes was 0.21 in 2006 and 0.31 in 2007. Pied-billed Grebe occupancy was negatively related to woody vegetation cover in both years, and was positively related to areas of open water in 2006. Land managers targeting these species should provide wetlands free from woody vegetation with extensive areas of open water for Pied-billed Grebes, and tall emergent vegetation interspersed with small pools of water for Least Bitterns.

  17. Occupancy and habitat use of the Least Bittern and Pied-Billed Grebe in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and the Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) are secretive marsh bird species that breed in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River Valleys. Marsh bird surveys were conducted on public and private wetlands in this region during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007. Detection probability (ῥ) and site occupancy probability (ψ) were estimated for each species separately for each year. Candidate models including sampling and habitat covariates were compared using AIC(c) to determine what variables had the greatest influence on ῥ and ψ. Average ῥ for Least Bitterns was 0.29 in 2006 and 0.18 in 2007, and varied throughout the 2007 survey season. Average ψ for Pied-billed Grebes was 0.44 in 2006 and 0.22 in 2007, and an observer effect was found in 2007. Overall ψ for Least Bitterns was 0.17 in 2006 and 0.14 in 2007. Least Bittern occupancy was positively related to tall emergent vegetation cover in both years and to water-vegetation interspersion in 2007, and was negatively related to woody vegetation cover in 2007. Overall ψ for Pied-billed Grebes was 0.21 in 2006 and 0.31 in 2007. Pied-billed Grebe occupancy was negatively related to woody vegetation cover in both years, and was positively related to areas of open water in 2006. Land managers targeting these species should provide wetlands free from woody vegetation with extensive areas of open water for Pied-billed Grebes, and tall emergent vegetation interspersed with small pools of water for Least Bitterns.

  18. A novel putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) in the hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: cloning and up-regulated expression after the injection of LPS and LTA.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Chung, J Sook

    2012-03-01

    The full-length cDNA encoding a putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) was isolated from the hemocytes of Callinectes sapidus using 5' and 3' RACEs. The open reading frame for CasLpR contains a precursor of putative CasLpR consisting of 1710 amino acid residues including 22 amino acid residues of the signal peptide (22 amino acids). Mature CasLpR (1688 amino acids with 5.6% of phosphorylation sites) has multiple, putative functional domains: five low-density lipoprotein receptor domains in the N-terminus, and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolysis site domain and a 7 transmembrane receptor (secretin family) domain in the C-terminus. To date, there are no proteins with a similar domain structure in the GenBank. The expression pattern of CasLpR was exclusive in hemocytes among all tested tissues obtained from a juvenile female at intermolt stage: brain, eyestalk ganglia, pericardial organs, and thoracic ganglia complex (nervous system); hepatopancreas (digestive system); heart, artery and hemocytes (circulatory system); gill and antennal gland (excretory system), hypodermis; and Y-organ (endocrine organ). There was no CasLpR expression in the ovary of an adult female. A putative function of CasLpR was examined after challenges of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in vivo using qRT-PCR assays. Animals at 24 h after injection of LPS or LTA up-regulated the expression of CasLpR in hemocytes by ∼3.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to the controls that received saline injection. LPS challenge also caused the greatest increment (∼55 folds) of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression in these samples. These data indicate that putative CasLpR and CasHsp90 may be involved in the defense system or the stress response of C. sapidus.

  19. What happens in an estuary doesn't stay there: patterns of biotic connectivity resulting from long term ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Kennedy, Christina G.; Deegan, Linda A.; Smith, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The paucity of data on migratory connections and an incomplete understanding of how mobile organisms use geographically separate areas have been obstacles to understanding coastal dynamics. Research on acoustically tagged striped bass (Morone saxatilis) at the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) Long Term Ecological Research site, Massachusetts, documents intriguing patterns of biotic connectivity (i.e., long-distance migration between geographically distinct areas). First, the striped bass tagged at PIE migrated southward along the coast using different routes. Second, these tagged fish exhibited strong fidelity and specificity to PIE. For example, across multiple years, tagged striped bass resided in PIE waters for an average of 1.5-2.5 months per year (means: 51-72 days; range 2-122 days), left this estuary in fall, then returned in subsequent years. Third, this specificity and fidelity connected PIE to other locations. The fish exported nutrients and energy to at least three other coastal locations through biomass added as growth. These results demonstrate that what happens in an individual estuary can affect other estuaries. Striped bass that use tightly connected routes to feed in specific estuaries should have greater across-system impacts than fish that are equally likely to go anywhere. Consequently, variations in when, where, and how fish migrate can alter across-estuary impacts.

  20. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  1. A new dual-frequency liquid crystal lens with ring-and-pie electrodes and a driving scheme to prevent disclination lines and improve recovery time.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C-P

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern.

  2. A new dual-frequency liquid crystal lens with ring-and-pie electrodes and a driving scheme to prevent disclination lines and improve recovery time.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C-P

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern. PMID:22163906

  3. A New Dual-Frequency Liquid Crystal Lens with Ring-and-Pie Electrodes and a Driving Scheme to Prevent Disclination Lines and Improve Recovery Time

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C.-P.

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern. PMID:22163906

  4. Isospora hypoleucae sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidian parasite found in the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    PubMed

    Dolnik, O V; von Rönn, J A C; Bensch, S

    2009-07-01

    A new Coccidia species is reported from the natural population of Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in northern Germany. Sporulated oocysts were found in faeces from 6 of 8 sampled adults. The spherical oocysts of the new Isospora species have a brownish, smooth, bi-layered wall. Average size of sporulated oocysts was 19.4 x 19.3 microm (17.5-22.8 microm x 17.5-22.8 microm ) with a shape index (length/width) of 1.0. The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle or residuum, but enclose several small polar granules that often cluster into 2-3 dumbbell-shaped formations. Sporocysts are slightly elongated, rounded at the end opposite the Stieda body, 15.3 microm x 9.2 microm in size (13.8-16.1 microm x 8.5-10.3 microm ), and have a shape index of 1.7 (1.6-1.8). The Stieda body has a prominent knob-like cap, whereas the substieda body is absent. Sporocysts contain a small compact sporocyst residuum and 4 sporozoites. COI haplotypes identical to those isolated from faecal oocysts were PCR amplified from the blood of 13-day-old nestlings, suggesting that the newly described species has extra-intestinal stages in blood. This represents the first description of a new avian Isospora species supported by molecular sequence data from the same oocysts that are described morphologically. PMID:19450377

  5. SplicePie: a novel analytical approach for the detection of alternative, non-sequential and recursive splicing.

    PubMed

    Pulyakhina, Irina; Gazzoli, Isabella; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Verwey, Nisha; den Dunnen, Johan T; den Dunnen, Johan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Laros, Jeroen F J

    2015-07-13

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism present in eukaryotic cells to obtain a wide range of transcripts and protein isoforms from a relatively small number of genes. The mechanisms regulating (alternative) splicing and the paradigm of consecutive splicing have recently been challenged, especially for genes with a large number of introns. RNA-Seq, a powerful technology using deep sequencing in order to determine transcript structure and expression levels, is usually performed on mature mRNA, therefore not allowing detailed analysis of splicing progression. Sequencing pre-mRNA at different stages of splicing potentially provides insight into mRNA maturation. Although the number of tools that analyze total and cytoplasmic RNA in order to elucidate the transcriptome composition is rapidly growing, there are no tools specifically designed for the analysis of nuclear RNA (which contains mixtures of pre- and mature mRNA). We developed dedicated algorithms to investigate the splicing process. In this paper, we present a new classification of RNA-Seq reads based on three major stages of splicing: pre-, intermediate- and post-splicing. Applying this novel classification we demonstrate the possibility to analyze the order of splicing. Furthermore, we uncover the potential to investigate the multi-step nature of splicing, assessing various types of recursive splicing events. We provide the data that gives biological insight into the order of splicing, show that non-sequential splicing of certain introns is reproducible and coinciding in multiple cell lines. We validated our observations with independent experimental technologies and showed the reliability of our method. The pipeline, named SplicePie, is freely available at: https://github.com/pulyakhina/splicing_analysis_pipeline. The example data can be found at: https://barmsijs.lumc.nl/HG/irina/example_data.tar.gz. PMID:25800735

  6. SplicePie: a novel analytical approach for the detection of alternative, non-sequential and recursive splicing.

    PubMed

    Pulyakhina, Irina; Gazzoli, Isabella; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Verwey, Nisha; den Dunnen, Johan T; den Dunnen, Johan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Laros, Jeroen F J

    2015-07-13

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism present in eukaryotic cells to obtain a wide range of transcripts and protein isoforms from a relatively small number of genes. The mechanisms regulating (alternative) splicing and the paradigm of consecutive splicing have recently been challenged, especially for genes with a large number of introns. RNA-Seq, a powerful technology using deep sequencing in order to determine transcript structure and expression levels, is usually performed on mature mRNA, therefore not allowing detailed analysis of splicing progression. Sequencing pre-mRNA at different stages of splicing potentially provides insight into mRNA maturation. Although the number of tools that analyze total and cytoplasmic RNA in order to elucidate the transcriptome composition is rapidly growing, there are no tools specifically designed for the analysis of nuclear RNA (which contains mixtures of pre- and mature mRNA). We developed dedicated algorithms to investigate the splicing process. In this paper, we present a new classification of RNA-Seq reads based on three major stages of splicing: pre-, intermediate- and post-splicing. Applying this novel classification we demonstrate the possibility to analyze the order of splicing. Furthermore, we uncover the potential to investigate the multi-step nature of splicing, assessing various types of recursive splicing events. We provide the data that gives biological insight into the order of splicing, show that non-sequential splicing of certain introns is reproducible and coinciding in multiple cell lines. We validated our observations with independent experimental technologies and showed the reliability of our method. The pipeline, named SplicePie, is freely available at: https://github.com/pulyakhina/splicing_analysis_pipeline. The example data can be found at: https://barmsijs.lumc.nl/HG/irina/example_data.tar.gz.

  7. Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) Experiment Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Laura A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Campion, Scott D.; Faust, Jessica A.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Hayden, William L.; Lowman, Andrew E.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Petrone, Peter P., III

    2004-01-01

    The Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) was created to develop and test wavefront sensing and control algorithms and software for the segmented James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Last year, we changed the system configuration from three sparse aperture segments to a filled aperture with three pie shaped segments. With this upgrade we have performed experiments on fine phasing with line-of-sight and segment-to-segment jitter, dispersed fringe visibility and grism angle;. high dynamic range tilt sensing; coarse phasing with large aberrations, and sampled sub-aperture testing. This paper reviews the results of these experiments.

  8. 49 CFR 40.365 - What is the Department's policy concerning starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... practice of testing errors that result in the cancellation of tests. (As a general matter of policy, the... significant uncorrected errors in the collection process; (6) For a laboratory, MRO or C/TPA, failing or... properly conduct the selection process for random testing)....

  9. 49 CFR 40.365 - What is the Department's policy concerning starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... practice of testing errors that result in the cancellation of tests. (As a general matter of policy, the... significant uncorrected errors in the collection process; (6) For a laboratory, MRO or C/TPA, failing or... properly conduct the selection process for random testing)....

  10. 49 CFR 40.365 - What is the Department's policy concerning starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... practice of testing errors that result in the cancellation of tests. (As a general matter of policy, the... significant uncorrected errors in the collection process; (6) For a laboratory, MRO or C/TPA, failing or... properly conduct the selection process for random testing)....

  11. 49 CFR 40.365 - What is the Department's policy concerning starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... practice of testing errors that result in the cancellation of tests. (As a general matter of policy, the... significant uncorrected errors in the collection process; (6) For a laboratory, MRO or C/TPA, failing or... properly conduct the selection process for random testing)....

  12. MOX Average Power Test 30 GWd/MT PIE: Quick Look

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, RN

    2001-02-14

    This report summarizes the early results of the post irradiation examination of the 30 GWd/MT MOX Average Power Test Capsules (numbers 3 and 10). The purpose of this preliminary examination is to document and monitor the progress of the MOX Average Power Test Irradiation. The capsules and their fuel pins were found to be in excellent condition. Measurement of the fission gas release fraction (about 1.50 to 2.26%), preliminary fuel stack gamma scan measurements, and preliminary fuel pin diameter measurements indicate that the fuel is behaving as expected.

  13. A patient with phonologic alexia can learn to read "much" from "mud pies"

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M.; Oliver, Robyn T.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2008-01-01

    People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al (2002) reported a successful treatment for phonologic alexia that paired problematic functors and verbs with easily read relays that were homophonous nouns (e.g. "be" paired with "bee"). The current study evaluates the efficacy of pairing problematic grammatical words with relays that share initial phonemes, but vary in the relationship of their final phonemes. Results showed that reading of target grammatical words improved to criterion level (90% accuracy over two consecutive probes) in all experimental conditions with shared phonology, but remained far below criterion level in control conditions. There was a significant correlation between degree of phonologic relatedness and error rate. Maintenance of the treatment effect was poor as assessed by traditional measurement, however a dramatic savings during relearning was demonstrated during a subsequent treatment phase. The finding that reading can be re-organized by pairing target words not only with homophones, but with other phonologically related relays, suggests that this approach could be applied to a wide corpus of words and, therefore, potentially be of great use clinically. We suggest, within a connectionist account, that the treatment effect results from relays priming the initial phonologic units of the targets. PMID:18513760

  14. Not as easy as pie. Disentangling the theoretical and applied components of children's health knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Simone P; Gordon, Cameron L; McCullough, Mary Beth

    2011-04-01

    While there has been substantial research on children's dietary habits and physical activity level, there has been little work linking children's understanding of these concepts and how they apply them. This study aims to elucidate the association between two concepts that have not been distinguished in previous work; theoretical and applied health knowledge. Four-year-old children completed measures of theoretical and applied health knowledge regarding vegetables, fatty foods, physical, and sedentary activities. Results indicate that children's theoretical and applied health knowledge are distinct concepts that are positively associated. That is, children who accurately identify the relative health of foods and activities are more likely to be able to select foods and activities that promote their body's health.

  15. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2002-11-01

    In the initial months of the Korean War, very high numbers of psychological casualties occurred among American troops, 250 per 1,000 per annum. Initially, these men were evacuated to Japan or the United States, and very few of them were returned to duty. Then the principles of early and far-forward treatment, learned in the previous world wars, were reinstituted. Up to 80% of neuropsychiatric casualties were returned to duty. During and after the war, the prisoners of war were believed to have been "brainwashed," have "give-it-upitis," and exhibit apathy and depression. Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies. PMID:12448614

  16. Disuniting uniformity: a pied cladistic canvas of mtDNA haplogroup H in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Roostalu, Urmas; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Tambets, Kristiina; Reidla, Maere; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Parik, Jüri; Pennarun, Erwan; Laos, Sirle; Lunkina, Arina; Golubenko, Maria; Barac, Lovorka; Pericic, Marijana; Balanovsky, Oleg P; Gusar, Vladislava; Khusnutdinova, Elsa K; Stepanov, Vadim; Puzyrev, Valery; Rudan, Pavao; Balanovska, Elena V; Grechanina, Elena; Richard, Christelle; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Chaventré, André; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel N; Claustres, Mireille; Gölge, Mukaddes; Mikerezi, Ilia; Usanga, Esien; Villems, Richard

    2004-11-01

    It has been often stated that the overall pattern of human maternal lineages in Europe is largely uniform. Yet this uniformity may also result from an insufficient depth and width of the phylogenetic analysis, in particular of the predominant western Eurasian haplogroup (Hg) H that comprises nearly a half of the European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pool. Making use of the coding sequence information from 267 mtDNA Hg H sequences, we have analyzed 830 mtDNA genomes, from 11 European, Near and Middle Eastern, Central Asian, and Altaian populations. In addition to the seven previously specified subhaplogroups, we define fifteen novel subclades of Hg H present in the extant human populations of western Eurasia. The refinement of the phylogenetic resolution has allowed us to resolve a large number of homoplasies in phylogenetic trees of Hg H based on the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) of mtDNA. As many as 50 out of 125 polymorphic positions in HVS-I were found to be mutated in more than one subcluster of Hg H. The phylogeographic analysis revealed that sub-Hgs H1*, H1b, H1f, H2a, H3, H6a, H6b, and H8 demonstrate distinct phylogeographic patterns. The monophyletic subhaplogroups of Hg H provide means for further progress in the understanding of the (pre)historic movements of women in Eurasia and for the understanding of the present-day genetic diversity of western Eurasians in general.

  17. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  18. Sweetie Pie Thornless Blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Sweetie Pie’ is a new thornless blackberry (Rubus L. subg. Watson) cultivar developed and released by the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory. ‘Sweetie Pie’ is a vigorous, semi-erect blackberry that produces moderate yields of sweet high quality fruit having excellent flavor, ...

  19. Slicing the pie.

    PubMed

    Standish, J D

    1996-01-01

    Case rate contracts take the onus of dividing payment from the insurer and places it on the provider. There are a number of methods which can be used to respond to this challenge. One method which has a number of significant advantages is the floating conversion factor reimbursement method. It is based on a very simple concept, is transparent and delivers the market reality of the plan performance directly to participating physicians, without any convoluted calculations or cushions in between. A withhold can be added to this method, though it is unnecessary. A profit/loss sharing plan with the hospital can be helpful in completing the alignment of incentives. PMID:10160194

  20. Sharing Smaller Pies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Tom

    This paper details the unfavorable predicament of the United States as a consequence of using much of its own non-renewable material and energy resources. As a consequence, the United States will soon be subject to the political and economic conditions imposed upon it by other nations. The United States must begin to implement adjustments to the…

  1. Basic relationships for LTA technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to airship performance is presented. Static lift equations are shown which, when combined with power requirements for conventional airships, allow parametric studies of range, payload, speed and airship size. It is shown that very large airships are required to attain reasonable speeds at transoceanic ranges.

  2. LOCA Simulation in the National Research Universal Reactor Program Postirradiation Examination Results for the Third Materials Experiment (MT-3) - Second Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, J. H.

    1985-06-01

    A series of in-reactor experiments were conducted using full-length 32-rod pressurized water reactor (PWR} fuel bundles as part of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA} Simulation Program by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The third materials test (MT-3} was the sixth experiment in a series of thermalhydraulic and materials deformation/rupture experiments conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The MT-3 experiment was jointly funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) with the main objective of evaluating ballooning and rupture during active two-phase cooling at elevated temperatures. All 12 test rods in the center of the 32-rod bundle failed with an average peak strain of 55.4%. At the request of the UKAEA, a destructive postirradiation examination (PIE) was performed on 7 of the 12 test rods. The results of this examination were presented in a previous report. Subsequently, and at the request of UKAEA, PIE was performed on three additional rods along with further examination of one of the previously examined rods. Information obtained from the PIE included cladding thickness measurements, cladding metallography, and particle size analysis of the fractured fuel pellets. This report describes the additional PIE work performed and presents the results of the examinations.

  3. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Pierret, C; Maunoury, L; Biri, S; Pacquet, J Y; Tuske, O; Delferriere, O

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  4. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Biri, S.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Tuske, O.; Delferriere, O.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  5. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Biri, S.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Tuske, O.; Delferriere, O.

    2008-02-15

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  6. Long-term recovery of clutch size and egg shell quality of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a metal polluted area.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2015-06-01

    We explored if breeding parameters and egg shell quality of an insectivorous passerine, pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, have fully recovered after c.a. 99% decrease in dust emissions from a non-ferrous smelter in the course of the 23 year study period. Some potentially important population characteristics (density, phenology, age) and environmental variables (habitat, inter-specific competition) were taken into account in the analysis. We found marked increase in reproductive parameters (egg shell quality, clutch size, hatchability, and fledgling number) in the metal polluted area especially in 1990's when metal-rich dust emissions from the smelter were markedly reduced. Still clutch sizes and fledgling numbers remain below the levels of the reference area. There is currently very little evidence of direct toxic effects of metals in our study population but full recovery of breeding parameters may not be reached until the full recovery of food chains, which is likely to be a slow process.

  7. Towards the simplification of MHC typing protocols: targeting classical MHC class II genes in a passerine, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) has drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists due to its importance in crucial biological processes, such as sexual selection and immune response in jawed vertebrates. However, the characterization of classical MHC genes subjected to the effects of natural selection still remains elusive in many vertebrate groups. Here, we have tested the suitability of flanking intron sequences to guide the selective exploration of classical MHC genes driving the co-evolutionary dynamics between pathogens and their passerine (Aves, Order Passeriformes) hosts. Findings Intronic sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 were isolated from different species using primers sitting on conserved coding regions of MHC class II genes (β chain). Taking the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca as an example, we demonstrate that careful primer design can evade non-classical MHC gene and pseudogene amplification. At least four polymorphic and expressed loci were co-replicated using a single pair of primers in five non-related individuals (N = 28 alleles). The cross-amplification and preliminary inspection of similar MHC fragments in eight unrelated songbird taxa suggests that similar approaches can also be applied to other species. Conclusions Intron sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 may assist the specific investigation of classical MHC class II B genes in species characterized by extensive gene duplication and pseudogenization. Importantly, the evasion of non-classical MHC genes with a more specific function and non-functional pseudogenes may accelerate data collection and diminish lab costs. Comprehensive knowledge of gene structure, polymorphism and expression profiles may be useful not only for the selective examination of evolutionarily relevant genes but also to restrict chimera formation by minimizing the number of co-amplifying loci. PMID:20815923

  8. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  9. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  10. Is TV a Pied Piper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dorothy H.

    1974-01-01

    Explores the possible influences of commercial and educational television on young children's imaginative play, intellectual development and behavior. Commercialism, learning readiness, television's unique mode of communication, and the child's sensory experiences while viewing are considered from the standpoint of developmental needs. (SDH)

  11. Segmentation: Slicing the Urban Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Explains market segmentation and defines undifferentiated, concentrated, and differentiated marketing strategies. Describes in detail the marketing planning process at the Metropolitan Community Colleges. Focuses on the development and implementation of an ongoing recruitment program designed for the market segment composed of business employees.…

  12. Quels agents incriminés dans les mycoses du pied ? Enquête auprès des diabétiques consultant au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Chegour, Hakima; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Tali, Abdelali; Zoughaghi, Laila; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Les infections mycosiques du pied constituent un motif fréquent de consultation chez les diabétiques, le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant les lésions cutanéomuqueuses. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier la flore mycologique locale responsable des lésions du pied chez le diabétique et déterminer les facteurs favorisant la survenue de mycoses. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale intéressant des diabétiques suivis en consultation; un prélèvement mycologique, avec examen direct et culture, a été réalisé devant toute suspicion clinique de lésion mycosique. Quatre-vingt-deux patients ont été inclus. L'hémoglobine glycosylée moyenne a été de9,2% ± 2,23. Un intertrigo inter orteil a été noté dans 90,2% des cas; l'examen mycologique était positif dans 64,8% des cas, avec 18 cas de Trichophyton rubrum et 11 cas de Candida albicans. Une atteinte unguéale a été suspectée chez 65,9% patients; la culture a mis en évidence un Trichosporon pathogène chez sept patients, un Candida albicansdans six cas, un Trichophyton rubrum dans quatre cas, avec trois cas de Trichophyton mentagrophytes et deux cas de Scytalidium dimidiatum. L’étude analytique, après confirmation mycologique, en fonction des principales caractéristiques des patients a montré que l'atteinte mycosique du pied est significativement corrélée au déséquilibre glycémique. Ce travail a montré la prédominance du Trichophyton rubrum dans les lésions d'intertrigo inter orteil et du Trichosporon dans les onychomycoses, avec une prédominance globale plus globale plus élevée du TR. PMID:25170372

  13. Validation environment for AIPS/ALS: Implementation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Zary; Siewiorek, Daniel; Caplan, Eddie; Chung, Alan; Czeck, Edward; Vrsalovic, Dalibor

    1990-01-01

    The work is presented which was performed in porting the Fault Injection-based Automated Testing (FIAT) and Programming and Instrumentation Environments (PIE) validation tools, to the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) in the context of the Ada Language System (ALS) application, as well as an initial fault free validation of the available AIPS system. The PIE components implemented on AIPS provide the monitoring mechanisms required for validation. These mechanisms represent a substantial portion of the FIAT system. Moreover, these are required for the implementation of the FIAT environment on AIPS. Using these components, an initial fault free validation of the AIPS system was performed. The implementation is described of the FIAT/PIE system, configured for fault free validation of the AIPS fault tolerant computer system. The PIE components were modified to support the Ada language. A special purpose AIPS/Ada runtime monitoring and data collection was implemented. A number of initial Ada programs running on the PIE/AIPS system were implemented. The instrumentation of the Ada programs was accomplished automatically inside the PIE programming environment. PIE's on-line graphical views show vividly and accurately the performance characteristics of Ada programs, AIPS kernel and the application's interaction with the AIPS kernel. The data collection mechanisms were written in a high level language, Ada, and provide a high degree of flexibility for implementation under various system conditions.

  14. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  15. Aerocrane: A hybrid LTA aircraft for aerial crane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. G., Jr.; Doolittle, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerocrane, a hybrid aircraft, combines rotor lift with buoyant lift to offer VTOL load capability greatly in excess of helicopter technology while eliminating the airship problem of ballast transfer. In addition, the Aerocrane concept sharply reduces the mooring problem of airships and provides 360 deg vectorable thrust to supply a relatively large force component for control of gust loads. Designed for use in short range, ultra heavy lift missions, the Aerocrane operates in a performance envelope unsuitable for either helicopters or airships. Basic design considerations and potential problem areas of the concept are addressed.

  16. Apport de l’écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs dans la prise en charge du pied diabétique à l'hôpital Saint-Jean de Dieu de Thiès (Sénégal)

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Aliou Amadou; Affangla, Désiré Alain; Dione, Jean-Michel; Akpo, Géraud; Mbengue, Marie; Ka, Mamadou Mourtalla; Diop, Bernard Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le pied diabétique se définit comme l'ensemble des manifestations trophiques du pied survenant chez le diabétique par atteinte nerveuse, artérielle et ou infectieuse. Le pied diabétique est un problème majeur de santé publique à l’échelle mondiale avec un taux d'amputation de membres inférieurs très élevé. L’écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs est de nos jours incontournable dans la prise en charge du pied diabétique. Le but de cette étude est de montrer la place prépondérante qu'occupe l’écho-doppler artériel dans le bilan lésionnel du pied diabétique. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective monocentrique incluant 46 patients sur une période de 24 mois, de mars 2012 à mars 2014 à l'hôpital Saint-Jean de Dieu, un des deux hôpitaux de référence de la région de Thiès, doté depuis juillet 2011 d'un centre moderne de traitement du diabète et des maladies cardio-métaboliques (Diabcarmet). Dans les critères d'inclusion, nous avons sélectionné tous les patients diabétiques adressés pour un écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs dans le cadre d'une prise en charge du pied diabétique. Etaient exclus de l’étude, les patients artéritiques non-diabétiques et les patients diabétiques asymptomatiques référés pour un bilan écho-doppler de routine. Résultats Le sex-ratio était de 1.42 (27 hommes pour 19 femmes). L’âge moyen des patients était de 62,86 ans avec des extrêmes de 23 et 88 ans. 60% des patients (n=28) étaient âgés entre 50 et 70 ans. Le diabète de type 2 était retrouvé chez 95% des patients (n=44) alors que le diabète de type 1 représentait 5% (n=2). La moyenne d’évolution du diabète était estimée à 8 ans, avec des extrêmes de 2 et 20 ans. On notait une atteinte du pied droit chez 24 patients, une atteinte du pied gauche chez 18 patients et une atteinte bilatérale chez 4 patients. La plupart du temps, les lésions du pied diabétique survenaient

  17. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte; Dupont Søgaard, Mia; Kaever, Volkhard; Siljamäki, Pia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Varmanen, Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase) gene arise spontaneously in an S. aureus mutant lacking the ClpX chaperone. A wide variety of ltaS mutations were selected, and among these, a substantial portion resulted in premature stop codons and other changes predicted to abolish LtaS synthesis. Consistent with this assumption, the clpX ltaS double mutants did not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement defects of an LTA-depleted strain, while other phenotypes typical of LTA-negative S. aureus mutants, including increased cell size and decreased autolytic activity, are retained. In conclusion, our results indicate that LTA has an essential role in septum placement that can be bypassed by inactivating the ClpX chaperone. PMID:27507828

  18. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  19. Structure–Function Relationship of Cytokine Induction by Lipoteichoic Acid fromStaphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Morath, Siegfried; Geyer, Armin; Hartung, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) have been proposed as putative Gram-positive immunostimulatory counterparts to Gram-negative lipopolysaccharides. However, LTA from Staphylococcus aureus, the clinically most frequent Gram-positive pathogen, was inactive after purification. Here, a novel isolation procedure to prepare pure (>99%) biologically active LTA, allowing the first structural analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, is described. A comparison with LTA purified by standard techniques revealed that alanine substituents are lost during standard purification, resulting in attenuated cytokine induction activity. In line with this finding, hydrolysis of alanine substituents of active LTA decimated cytokine induction. LTA represents a major immunostimulatory component of S. aureus. PMID:11157059

  20. Effects of dabigatran on the cellular and protein phase of coagulation in patients with coronary artery disease on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Results from a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Cho, Jung Rae; King, Rhodri; Phoenix, Fladia; Bhatti, Mona; DeGroat, Christopher; Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Zenni, Martin M; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the effects of adding an oral anticoagulant in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and clopidogrel represent the most broadly utilised oral anticoagulant and P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, respectively. However, VKAs can interfere with clopidogrel metabolism via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system which in turn may result in an increase in platelet reactivity. Dabigatran is a direct acting (anti-II) oral anticoagulant which does not interfere with CYP and has favourable safety and efficacy profiles compared with VKAs. The pharmacodynamic (PD) effects on platelet reactivity and clot kinetic of adjunctive dabigatran therapy in patients on DAPT are poorly explored. In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled PD study, patients (n=30) on maintenance DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel were randomised to either dabigatran 150 mg bid or placebo for seven days. PD testing was performed before and after treatment using four different assays exploring multiple pathways of platelet aggregation and fibrin clot kinetics: light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetric assays. There were no differences in multiple measures of platelet reactivity investigating purinergic and non-purinergic signaling pathways assessed by LTA, MEA and TEG platelet mapping. Dabigatran significantly increased parameters related to thrombin activity and thrombus generation, and delayed fibrin clot formation, without affecting clot structure or fibrinolysis. In conclusion, in patients on DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, adjunctive dabigatran therapy is not associated with modulation of profiles of platelet reactivity as determined by several assays assessing multiple platelet signalling pathways. However, dabigatran significantly interferes with parameters related to thrombin activity and delays fibrin clot formation

  1. Motherhood, Apple Pie, and Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    2005-01-01

    A good Little League baseball coach will analyze a pitcher's performance and develop an individual prescription based on that analysis. Just as all pitchers do not receive the same remedies from high-quality coaches, the author believes, neither should all students. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) stands as the imposing batter to many teachers and…

  2. Trash Pie: Is Your School Serving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Krista M.; Curran, Mary Carla

    2010-01-01

    In observation of Earth Day, third-grade students were invited to examine what they contribute to the landfill and learn new ways they could help protect the environment. In this lesson, students collected, evaluated, and displayed data comparing the trash generated by home-lunch versus school-lunch students. Students interpreted their findings…

  3. Of stewardship, motherhood and apple pie.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is universally agreed to be desirable, but optimal models for stewardship remain uncertain. UK stewardship targets the particular antibiotic families-cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones-blamed for the selection of Clostridium-difficile-associated disease. To balance this there have been dramatic increases in the use of penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. By channelling selection pressure in this way, we hazard destroying the utility of these antibiotic classes in turn, as happened with gonorrhoea where penicillins, fluoroquinolones and cefixime were sequentially lost as therapies. Strikingly, in context, almost all carbapenemase-producers are highly resistant to penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, which may select for them. There is an urgent need to explore an alternative stewardship model, seeking to limit total antibiotic use but to maintain heterogeneity in what is used, avoiding concentrated selection pressure. There is also a great need to improve and accelerate diagnostics for infection and resistance, reducing or removing the need for protracted empirical treatment with broad-spectrum agents.

  4. HTR-2014 Paper Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2001-10-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict fission product release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of fission products in the compacts outside of the SiC layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of these fission products was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed silicon carbide (SiC) layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of about two, corresponding to an over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of about 100. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by an average of about an order of magnitude, which could additionally be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 30%. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-estimated by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from intact particles varied considerably from compact to compact, making it difficult to assess the effective over-estimation of the diffusivities. Furthermore, the release of strontium from particles with failed SiC is difficult to observe experimentally due to the release from intact particles, preventing any conclusions to be made on the accuracy or validity of the

  5. Comparative analysis of the localization of lipoteichoic acid in Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, S J; Johnston, B P

    1987-01-01

    The cellular locations of deacylated lipoteichoic acid (dLTA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) were examined in late-exponential-phase cells of a serotype III strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) isolated from an infant with late-onset meningitis and compared with a fresh clinical isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]). LTA and dLTA were found to be associated with the protoplast membranes of both organisms, with only dLTA found in mutanolysin cell wall digests. Both organisms released dLTA during growth, but only the GAS released substantial levels of LTA into the culture medium. However, penicillin treatment (5 micrograms/ml for 60 min) of GBS resulted in the recovery of LTA in cell wall digests as well as in the culture medium. These results suggest that under normal growth conditions, the hydrophobic region (glycolipid) of LTA remains associated with the cytoplasmic membrane of GBS and unavailable for hydrophobic interactions at the cell surface with epithelial cells. In contrast, release of LTA into the environment by the GAS allows the fatty acid moieties to interact with hydrophobic domains on the surface of epithelial cells. These results may help explain the marked differences in the specificity of binding between these two major streptococcal pathogens for human fetal and adult epithelial cells. PMID:3308704

  6. Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bor-Ren; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Tseng, Wen-Pei; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Chingju; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2013-05-15

    We investigated the interaction between proinflammatory and inflammatory responses caused by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in primary cultured microglial cells and BV-2 microglia. LTA induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels increase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, LTA also increased nitric oxide (NO) and PGE{sub 2} production in microglia. Administration of TLR2 antagonist effectively inhibited LTA-induced NO, iNOS, and COX-2 expression. Moreover, treatment of cells with LTA caused a time-dependent activation of ERK, p38, JNK, as well as AKT. We also found that LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation were attenuated by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, LTA-enhanced HO-1 expression was attenuated by p38 and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Treatment of cells with NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors antagonized LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. However, only NF-κB inhibitors reduced LTA-induced HO-1 expression in microglia. Furthermore, stimulation of cells with LTA also activated IκBα phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser{sup 536}, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, LTA-induced increases of κB-DNA and AP-1-DNA binding activity were inhibited by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. HO-1 activator CoPP IX dramatically reversed LTA-induced iNOS expression. Our results provided mechanisms linking LTA and inflammation/anti-inflammation, and indicated that LTA plays a regulatory role in microglia activation. - Highlights: • LTA causes an increase in iNOS, COX-2, and HO-1 expression in microglia. • LTA induces iNOS and COX-2 expression through TLR-2/NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. • HO-1 expression is regulated through p38, JNK, PI3K/AKT and AP-1 pathways. • Induced HO-1 reduces LTA-induced iNOS expression. • LTA plays a regulatory role on inflammatory/anti-inflammatory responses.

  7. Seasonal migration to high latitudes results in major reproductive benefits in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jason W.; Bell, James R.; Burgin, Laura E.; Reynolds, Donald R.; Pettersson, Lars B.; Hill, Jane K.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Thomas, Jeremy A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of the population dynamics of long-range insect migrants, and it has been suggested that the annual journeys of billions of nonhardy insects to exploit temperate zones during summer represent a sink from which future generations seldom return (the “Pied Piper” effect). We combine data from entomological radars and ground-based light traps to show that annual migrations are highly adaptive in the noctuid moth Autographa gamma (silver Y), a major agricultural pest. We estimate that 10–240 million immigrants reach the United Kingdom each spring, but that summer breeding results in a fourfold increase in the abundance of the subsequent generation of adults, all of which emigrate southward in the fall. Trajectory simulations show that 80% of emigrants will reach regions suitable for winter breeding in the Mediterranean Basin, for which our population dynamics model predicts a winter carrying capacity only 20% of that of northern Europe during the summer. We conclude not only that poleward insect migrations in spring result in major population increases, but also that the persistence of such species is dependent on summer breeding in high-latitude regions, which requires a fundamental change in our understanding of insect migration. PMID:22927392

  8. Seasonal migration to high latitudes results in major reproductive benefits in an insect.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Bell, James R; Burgin, Laura E; Reynolds, Donald R; Pettersson, Lars B; Hill, Jane K; Bonsall, Michael B; Thomas, Jeremy A

    2012-09-11

    Little is known of the population dynamics of long-range insect migrants, and it has been suggested that the annual journeys of billions of nonhardy insects to exploit temperate zones during summer represent a sink from which future generations seldom return (the "Pied Piper" effect). We combine data from entomological radars and ground-based light traps to show that annual migrations are highly adaptive in the noctuid moth Autographa gamma (silver Y), a major agricultural pest. We estimate that 10-240 million immigrants reach the United Kingdom each spring, but that summer breeding results in a fourfold increase in the abundance of the subsequent generation of adults, all of which emigrate southward in the fall. Trajectory simulations show that 80% of emigrants will reach regions suitable for winter breeding in the Mediterranean Basin, for which our population dynamics model predicts a winter carrying capacity only 20% of that of northern Europe during the summer. We conclude not only that poleward insect migrations in spring result in major population increases, but also that the persistence of such species is dependent on summer breeding in high-latitude regions, which requires a fundamental change in our understanding of insect migration.

  9. Seasonal migration to high latitudes results in major reproductive benefits in an insect.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Bell, James R; Burgin, Laura E; Reynolds, Donald R; Pettersson, Lars B; Hill, Jane K; Bonsall, Michael B; Thomas, Jeremy A

    2012-09-11

    Little is known of the population dynamics of long-range insect migrants, and it has been suggested that the annual journeys of billions of nonhardy insects to exploit temperate zones during summer represent a sink from which future generations seldom return (the "Pied Piper" effect). We combine data from entomological radars and ground-based light traps to show that annual migrations are highly adaptive in the noctuid moth Autographa gamma (silver Y), a major agricultural pest. We estimate that 10-240 million immigrants reach the United Kingdom each spring, but that summer breeding results in a fourfold increase in the abundance of the subsequent generation of adults, all of which emigrate southward in the fall. Trajectory simulations show that 80% of emigrants will reach regions suitable for winter breeding in the Mediterranean Basin, for which our population dynamics model predicts a winter carrying capacity only 20% of that of northern Europe during the summer. We conclude not only that poleward insect migrations in spring result in major population increases, but also that the persistence of such species is dependent on summer breeding in high-latitude regions, which requires a fundamental change in our understanding of insect migration. PMID:22927392

  10. Decreased metal accumulation in passerines as a result of reduced emissions.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Åsa M M; Rainio, Miia J; Eeva, Tapio

    2012-06-01

    Technological advances in industrial processes have resulted in reduced atmospheric emissions from metal industries all over the globe, but the response of the environment is not well known. The authors studied metal (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Se) accumulation in passerine birds (pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, and great tit, Parus major) following almost 20 years of reduced metal emissions from the largest nonferrous smelter in Finland. Close to the industry, emission reductions resulted in reduced exposure to several of the elements and, more importantly, reduced accumulation by 58 to 95% in liver tissue. Albeit showing significant tissue reductions, nestlings had elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium close to the industry. Single-element concentrations were below critical levels associated with subclinical effects, but the mixture of toxic elements indirectly affected health and reproduction. Our study indicates that in environments with moderate duration of industrial activity, impact, and soil pollution, metal accumulation in organisms can decrease relatively rapidly when atmospheric emissions are reduced.

  11. Experimental Results on the Centipede Game in Normal Form: An Investigation on Learning.

    PubMed

    Nagel; Tang

    1998-06-01

    We analyze behavior of an experiment on the centipede game played in the reduced normal form. In this game two players decide simultaneously when to split a pie which increases over time. The subjects repeat this game 100 times against randomly chosen opponents. We compare several static models and quantitative learning models, among them a quantal response, model reinforcement models and fictitious play. Furthermore, we structure behavior from period to period according to a simple cognitive process, called learning direction theory. We show that there is a significant difference in behavior from period to period whether a player has decided to split the pie before or after the opponent. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. A practical concept for powered or tethered weight-lifting LTA vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balleyguier, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    A concept for a multi-hull weightlifting airship is presented. The concept is based upon experience in the design and handling of gas-filled balloons for commercial purposes, it was first tested in April, 1972. In the flight test, two barrage balloons were joined side-by-side, with an intermediate frame, and launched in captive flight. The success of this flight test led to plans for a development program calling for a powered, piloted prototype, a follow-on 40 ton model, and a 400 ton transport model. All of these airships utilize a tetrehedric three-line tethering method for loading and unloading phases of flight, which bypasses many of the difficulties inherent in the handling of a conventional airship near the ground. Both initial and operating costs per ton of lift capability are significantly less for the subject design than for either helicopters or airships of conventional mono-hull design.

  13. The technology assessment of LTA aircraft systems. [hybrid airships for passenger and cargo transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advantages of conventional small and large airships over heavier than air aircraft are reviewed and the need for developing hybrid aircraft for passenger and heavy charge transport is assessed. Performance requirements and estimated operating costs are discussed for rota-ships to be used for short distance transportation near large cities as well as for airlifting civil engineering machinery and supplies for the construction of power stations, dams, tunnels, and roads in remote areas or on isolated islands.

  14. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  15. HTR 2014 Paper - Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 safety tests

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise P. Collin

    2001-10-01

    Safety tests were conducted on fourteen fuel compacts from AGR-1, the first irradiation experiment of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program, at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 1800°C to determine fission product release at temperatures that bound reactor accident conditions. The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, strontium, and krypton from fuel compacts containing tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles during the safety tests, and the predicted values were compared with experimental results. Preliminary comparisons between PARFUME predictions and post-irradiation examination (PIE) results of the safety tests show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of these fission products, which is largely attributed to an over-estimation of the diffusivities used in the modeling of fission product transport in TRISO-coated particles. Correction factors to these diffusivities were assessed for silver and cesium in order to enable a better match between the modeling predictions and the safety testing results. In the case of strontium, correction factors could not be assessed because potential release during the safety tests could not be distinguished from matrix content released during irradiation. In the case of krypton, all the coating layers are partly retentive and the available data did not allow to determine their respective retention powers, hence preventing to derive any correction factors.

  16. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  17. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  18. Recent results from TRISTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    1997-01-01

    TRISTAN results on {gamma}{gamma} physics from 1994 to 1995 are reviewed in this report. We have systematically investigated jet production, the {gamma}-structure function, and charm pair production in {gamma}{gamma} processes. The results are discussed, and future prospects are presented.

  19. Your Kidney Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Important Tests Blood Pressure Serum Albumin Bicarbonate Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Potassium Calcium Phosphorus Results Goal: Your ... level in your blood. BUN checks how much urea, a waste product, is in your blood. Potassium ...

  20. Electroweak results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Waters

    2004-06-02

    Inclusive W and Z production cross-sections have been measured by CDF and certain electroweak parameters extracted with high precision from these measurements. New results on diboson production at the Tevatron are also presented.

  1. Results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.B.

    1983-05-01

    The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

  2. Unfavorable results in replantation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abraham G.

    2013-01-01

    Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation) has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them. PMID:24501462

  3. Recent results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Takikawa, K.; CDF

    1998-02-15

    We first present recent CDF results on the top quark, covering the measurement of the t{anti t} production cross section and the top quark mass, the observation of hadronic W decays in top events, the measurement of V{sub tb}, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, and kinematical properties of t{anti t} production. Then we present one topic from CDF exotic physics results, i.e., the search for first-generation leptoquarks, and one topic from CDF B physics results, i.e., the measurement of time-dependent B{sup 0}-{anti B}{sup 0} mixing. Finally we conclude by briefly mentioning the prospects for Run II.

  4. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or color additives as..., when used in amounts reasonably required to accomplish their intended effect, are regarded as suitable... other abnormality. A cherry showing skin discoloration (other than scald) having an aggregate...

  5. Telescopes on the Moon or pie in the sky?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    1992-01-01

    The question is examined of whether it makes sense to believe that there will one day be an interferometric array of telescopes on the Moon. The question is really one of national commitment to a lunar base, since it is not likely that a scientific undertaking of this magnitude would occur in the absence of permanent human presence on the Moon. A discussion is also given of the real possibility if the exploration of space should be a multinational effort.

  6. Recurrent Education: "Apple Pie" ...or..."Atomic Bomb"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, William L.

    The author conceptualizes recurrent education as organized, structured, institutionally sponsored learning activities with intentional outcomes, which are distributed over the life span of the individual in a recurring way. Some problems to which recurrent education proposes solutions include: alienation at the inter-generational level,…

  7. Improving Relationships: Serving up a Slice of "Enemy Pie"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, P. Cougar; McIntyre, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The "14 Characteristics of Effective Health Education Curricula" identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health promote teaching ideas designed to personalize information and engage students through activities which are both student centered and interactive. Effective health education efforts…

  8. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants. PMID:26154266

  9. Innovation, Motherhood, and Apple Pie. Brown Center Letters on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover

    2009-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 authorized the Secretary of Education to establish a $650 million Innovation Fund to expand the work of schools that have made gains in closing achievement gaps. With growing discussion and considerable money heading in the direction of innovation, Grover "Russ" Whitehurst provides recommendations…

  10. "Cutting it" means slicing up the patient pie.

    PubMed

    Sheth, J N

    1985-01-01

    This article has attempted to demonstrate why market segmentation will become increasingly prevalent in the health care industry. It has also suggested how segmentation can be extremely useful to health care practitioners. Finally, it has described three customer characteristics (demographics, psycho-graphics, and usage patterns) as a basis for segmenting the market. Three marketing practices (competitive positioning, full line versus specialty, and payment plans) as the bases for market segmentation have also been identified. PMID:10281272

  11. Teaching Rhythmic Movement to Children: "Chock-Let Pie"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Martin, Ellen H.; Gibson, Gary S.

    2005-01-01

    It is doubtful that any teacher would question the value of rhythmic movement in a physical education program. The benefits of being able to move rhythmically and to keep a beat are numerous. First, children with rhythm have an increased kinesthetic awareness of their body in motion and stillness. As most physical activities have an inherent…

  12. Dividing up the pie: Whales, fish, and humans as competitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Steele, John H.; Ballerini, Tosca; Gaichas, Sarah K.; Ainley, David G.

    2013-09-01

    Similarly structured food web models of four coastal ecosystems (Northern California Current, Central Gulf of Alaska, Georges Bank, southwestern Antarctic Peninsula) were used to investigate competition among whales, fishes, pinnipeds, and humans. Two analysis strategies simulated the effects of historic baleen and odontocete whale abundances across all trophic levels: food web structure scenarios and time-dynamic scenarios. Direct competition between whales and commercial fisheries is small at current whale abundances; whales and fisheries each take similar proportions of annual pelagic fish production (4-7%). Scenarios show that as whale populations grow, indirect competition between whales and fish for zooplankton would more likely impact fishery production than would direct competition for fish between whales and commercial fisheries. Increased baleen whale abundance would have greater and broader indirect effects on upper trophic levels and fisheries than a similar increase in odontocete abundance. Time-dynamic scenarios, which allow for the evolution of compensatory mechanisms, showed more modest impacts than structural scenarios, which show the immediate impacts of altered energy pathways. Structural scenarios show that in terms of energy availability, there is potential for large increases in whale abundance without major changes to existing food web structures and without substantial reduction of fishery production. For each ecosystem, a five-fold increase in baleen whale abundance could be supported with minor disruptions to existing energy flow pathways. However, such an increase would remain below historical population levels for many cetaceans. A larger expansion (20X) could be accommodated only with large reductions in energy flow to competitor groups. The scope for odontocete expansion varies between ecosystems but may be more restricted than the scope for baleen expansion because they feed at higher, less productive trophic levels. Egestion: unassimilated consumption, feces; directed to detritus pools. Metabolism: basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and activity costs in terms of ammonium excretion NH4+; directed to recycled nutrient pools. Predation: a production term; production directed to grazing or predation by other functional groups. “Other” mortality: a production term; “other” mortality is unconsumed production; principally unconsumed phytoplankton; directed to detritus pools. Export (losses): a production term; export of plankton and pelagic detritus by physical transport; export losses are handled as a reduction of group transfer efficiency (the fraction of consumption that is passed to higher trophic level groups through grazing or predation). “Consumption” for phytoplankton is the uptake of new nitrate NO3- input and recycled ammonium NH4+ produced by consumer metabolism. Nitrate input was rescaled to carbon based upon the Redfield ratio (6.625 mmole C mmole N-1) and to wet weight based upon the estimated carbon content of fish (8.8 mg wet weight mg C-1) (Steele et al., 2007).The E2E trophic network matrices for each region are provided as Supplementary material. The E2E network models for the Northern California Current (NCC), Central Gulf of Alaska (CGoA), and southwestern Antarctic Peninsula (sWAP) ecosystems were derived following the techniques of Steele and Ruzicka (2011) from solutions for biomasses, consumption rates, and predation pressure upon each functional group calculated using ECOPATH algorithms (Christensen and Walters, 2004). The NCC model was modified from Ruzicka et al. (2012), the CGoA model was modified as noted in the Supplementary material from the full Gulf of Alaska model documented in Aydin et al. (2007), and the sWAP model was modified from Ballerini et al. (submitted for publication). A quantitative assessment of the Georges Bank (GB) food web is given in Steele et al. (2007) and Collie et al. (2009). Top predators (seabirds, baleen whales, odontocetes) were implicit in the original GB model. These components have now been explicitly defined using information from Link et al. (2006) to provide estimates of the abundance, diets, and consumption rates of birds and mammals on Georges Bank. (ECOPATH parameters and diet matrices for all four regional models are provided in the Supplementary material).Each regional model was developed by a different team of researchers with different emphasis of purpose but was re-structured so that each shared similar functional group aggregations. Functional groups were aggregated using production-weighted mean values of physiological parameters and diets and the sums of group biomasses and fishery harvests. Model currencies also differed between regional models: wet weight biomass (NCC, CGoA), nitrogen biomass (GB), and carbon biomass (sWAP). However, all analyses are expressed as comparable dimensionless metrics: relative changes in production rate (E2E network scenarios) and relative changes in biomass (time-dynamic scenarios).

  13. The Humble Pie--Half-Baked or Well Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Neville; Mashhoudy, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    This article re-examines the much maligned piechart and provides justification for its use. It identifies common pitfalls when drawing piecharts in Microsoft Excel and offers advice on how to avoid them. (Contains 6 figures and 5 tables.)

  14. Copyright Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Hope R.

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of copyright concerns that was conducted by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Areas addressed include video and television; copyright legislation; printed materials; music; audiovisual materials; and computer software. A checklist of proper copyright procedures is included. (six references)…

  15. QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, R.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    Results are presented for hadronic jet and direct photon production at {radical}{bar s} = 1800 GeV. The data are compared with next-to-leading QCD calculations. A new limit on the scale of possible composite structure of the quarks is also reported. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  16. BABAR B Decay Results

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, David B

    2002-03-14

    Data from the first run of the BABAR detector at the PEP II accelerator are presented. Measurements of many rare B decay modes are now possible using the large data sets currently being collected by BABAR. An overview of analysis techniques and results on data collected in 2000 are described.

  17. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  18. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  19. New Results from Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, M.

    2004-06-01

    An overview is given of selected recent HERMES results obtained from measurements performed during the first running period of HERA. These topics include inclusive g1(x)-measurements with a NLO QCD analysis, polarized quark distribution extraction, b1(x)-measurement, double spin asymmetries in vector meson production, ρ0-nuclear transparency and finally quark fragmentation in nuclei.

  20. [The applicability of results].

    PubMed

    Marín-León, I

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate aim of the critical reading of medical literature is to use the scientific advances in clinical practice or for innovation. This requires an evaluation of the applicability of the results of the studies that have been published, which begins with a clear understanding of these results. When the studies do not provide sufficient guarantees of rigor in design and analysis, the conditions necessary for the applicability of the results are not met; however, the fact that the results are reliable is not enough to make it worth trying to use their conclusions. This article explains how carrying out studies in experimental or artificial conditions often moves them away from the real conditions in which they claim to apply their conclusions. To evaluate this applicability, the article proposes evaluating a set of items that will enable the reader to determine the likelihood that the benefits and risks reported in the studies will yield the least uncertainty in the clinical arena where they aim to be applied.

  1. Management Values Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara; Payne, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Describes results of a survey conducted to compare values of members of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) with managers in business and industry. Issues discussed include job satisfaction, opportunities for advancement, attitudes toward management, and salary; a summary of each value system is provided. (LRW)

  2. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  3. Implementation Challenges and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirk; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the online and f2f summer algebra courses that were delivered in summers 2011 and 2012. These data will be used to frame the impact results presented in an earlier paper. In particular, the paper will provide a detailed picture of how the online course was structured and the types of supports provided to…

  4. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  5. Dosimetric results on EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Detector packages were exposed on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) as part of the Biostack experiment inside the Exobiology and Radiation Assembly (ERA) and at several locations around EURECA. The packages consist of different plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's). Evaluation of these detectors yields data on absorbed dose and particle and LET spectra. Preliminary results of absorbed dose measurements in the EURECA dosimeter packages are reported and compared to results of the LDEF experiments. The highest dose rate measured on EURECA is 63.3 plus or minus 0.4 mGy d(exp -1) behind a shielding thickness of 0.09 g cm(exp -2) in front of the detector package.

  6. Latest results from Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauber, Jan; sSubmitted Planck Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This talk will present an overview of the most recent Planck data and results, with emphasis on polarization.The use of CMB polarization data from Planck confirms the best-fit Lambda-CDM model obtained with Planck temperature-only data, and improves the accuracy with which cosmological parameters are determined. The most recent results based on polarized E-mode and B-mode CMB power spectra at large angular scales will be presented, and their implications for the epoch of reionization and primordial gravitational waves.In this talk I will also present the latest analysis of polarized diffuse galactic foreground emissions based on Planck data. Both the synchrotron and dust emission maps obtained from Planck reveal new facets of the galactic interstellar medium. In particular dust emission holds the promise of providing a model of the large-scale 3D shape of the Galactic magnetic field, as well as its small scale behavior.

  7. Dosimetric results on EURECA

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, G.

    1995-02-01

    Detector packages were exposed on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) as part of the Biostack experiment inside the Exobiology and Radiation Assembly (ERA) and at several locations around EURECA. The packages consist of different plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD`s). Evaluation of these detectors yields data on absorbed dose and particle and LET spectra. Preliminary results of absorbed dose measurements in the EURECA dosimeter packages are reported and compared to results of the LDEF experiments. The highest dose rate measured on EURECA is 63.3 plus or minus 0.4 mGy d(exp -1) behind a shielding thickness of 0.09 g cm(exp -2) in front of the detector package.

  8. Titan - Some new results

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.; Gautier, D.

    1989-01-01

    New analyses of Voyager spectra of Titan have led to improvements in the determination of abundances of minor constituents as a function of latitude and altitude. Ground-based microwave observations have extended the Voyager results for HCN, and have demonstrated that CO is mysteriously deficient in the stratosphere. The origin of the CH4, CO, and N2 in Titan's atmosphere is still unresolved. Both primordial and evolutionary sources are compatible with the available evidence. 21 refs.

  9. Recent VERITAS results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, D.

    2014-04-01

    VERITAS is an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes near Tucson, Arizona and is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of very high energy (VHE: > 100 GeV) gamma rays. The scientific reach of VERITAS covers the study of both extragalactic and Galactic objects as well as the search for astrophysical dark matter. In these proceedings we will discuss the status of VERITAS operations and upgrades and present a selection of recent results.

  10. PDX experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, D.; Arunasalam, V.; Barnes, C.

    1981-01-01

    The main objectives of the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX) are to: (1) determine the effectiveness of poloidal divertors in controlling impurities in high temperature plasmas, (2) use the poloidal divertor to provide clean plasmas for confinement and high beta studies, and (3) investigate the effect of cross-section shaping on plasma confinement and MHD properties. In this paper, we report the results obtained during initial divertor operation of the PDX.

  11. Space Shuttle radargrammetry results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, F.; Domik, G.; Raggam, J.; Cimino, J.; Kobrick, M.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results on the radargrammetric processing of SIR-A and SIR-B data are presented. Radargrammetric processing was applied to images of the Trinity National Forest in Northern California, the islands of Cephalonia, Ithaka, and Sardegna, Mt. Shasta, and Cordon La Grasa, Argentina. The preliminary processing of the SIR-A and SIR-B data has produced digital elevation models, stereo models, and a contour map.

  12. GIRAFFE test results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H.

    1996-03-01

    A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

  13. Certification of computational results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptually novel and powerful technique to achieve fault detection and fault tolerance in hardware and software systems is described. When used for software fault detection, this new technique uses time and software redundancy and can be outlined as follows. In the initial phase, a program is run to solve a problem and store the result. In addition, this program leaves behind a trail of data called a certification trail. In the second phase, another program is run which solves the original problem again. This program, however, has access to the certification trail left by the first program. Because of the availability of the certification trail, the second phase can be performed by a less complex program and can execute more quickly. In the final phase, the two results are compared and if they agree the results are accepted as correct; otherwise an error is indicated. An essential aspect of this approach is that the second program must always generate either an error indication or a correct output even when the certification trail it receives from the first program is incorrect. The certification trail approach to fault tolerance is formalized and realizations of it are illustrated by considering algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, and shortest path. Cases in which the second phase can be run concurrently with the first and act as a monitor are discussed. The certification trail approach are compared to other approaches to fault tolerance.

  14. The Viking biology results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of the purposes and the results from the Viking Biology experiments is presented, in the expectation that the lessons learned from this mission will be useful in planning future approaches to the biological exploration of Mars. Since so little was then known about potential micro-environments on Mars, three different experiments were included in the Viking mission, each one based on different assumptions about what Martian organisms might be like. In addition to the Viking Biology Instrument (VBI), important corollary information was obtained from the Viking lander imaging system and from the molecular analysis experiments that were conducted using the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument. No biological objects were noted by the lander imaging instrument. The GCMS did not detect any organic compounds. A description of the tests conducted by the Gas Exchange Experiment, the Labeled Release experiment, and the Pyrolytic Release experiment is given. Results are discussed. Taken as a whole, the Viking data yielded no unequivocal evidence for a Martian biota at either landing site. The results also revealed the presence of one or more reactive oxidants in the surface material and these need to be further characterized, as does the range of micro-environments, before embarking upon future searches for extant life on Mars.

  15. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  16. Pressure locking test results

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  17. Pressure locking test results

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-06-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  18. SPEAR results, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Scharre, D.L.

    1981-09-01

    New results from SPEAR on the inclusive photon spectrum at the psi' and on J/psi radiative transitions are presented. Evidence for an eta/sub c/' candidate is observed in the psi' inclusive photon spectrum at a mass M = 3592 +- 5 MeV. A new resonance, the theta(1640) which is observed to decay into eta eta, has been seen in radiative transitions from the J/psi. The spin-parity of the l(1440), previously observed in J/psi radiative transitions and originally identified as the E(1420), has been determined to be 0/sup -/.

  19. Recent result from RENO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunkwan; RENO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation (RENO) started data-taking from August, 2011 and has measured the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 by observing the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Antineutrinos from the six reactors at Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant in Korea are detected and compared by the two identical detectors located in the near and far distances from the reactor array center. We present new results on precisely measured sin 22θ13 value and |Δm2 ee| based on spectral analysis using the 800 days of data sample, which are taken from August, 2011 to Dec., 2013.

  20. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  1. Recent BABAR Results

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2015-04-29

    We present herein the most recent BABAR results on direct CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xsγ, on partial branching fraction and CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xs+-, on a search for B → π/ηℓ+- decays, on a search for lepton number violation in B+ → X-+ℓ'+ modes and a study of B0 →ωω and B0 → ωφ decays.

  2. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  3. Spacelab Science Results Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  4. Latest Double Chooz results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasserre, Thierry; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    I report the latest results from the Double Chooz experiment on the θ13 neutrino mixing angle. Two detectors are located at distances of 400 m and 1050 m from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power station (France) to measure the disappearance of electron antineutrinos. The far detector has been taking data since 2011, accumulating a live time of 467.90 days (66.5 GW-ton-year). In this article we focus on the latest measurement using neutrino-induced neutron capture on hydrogen. A new analysis improved the signal efficiency and reduced the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties, leading to sin2 2θ 13 = 0.095+0.039 -0.038. When combined with the Gadolinium-based analysis this leads to sin2 2θ13 = 0.088+0.33 -0.033. The distortion from the prediction above a visible energy of 4 MeV is confirmed. The near detector started data taking in 2014 and first results shall be reported in 2016.

  5. Unfavourable results in pollicisation

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Nehete, Sushil; Garude, Kirti; Mehta, Rujuta

    2013-01-01

    Pollicisation of the index finger is perhaps one of the most complex and most rewarding operations in hand and plastic surgery. It however has a steep learning curve and demands very high skill levels and experience. There are multiple pitfalls and each can result in an unfavourable result. In essence we need to: Shorten the Index, recreate the carpo metacarpal joint from the metacarpo phalangeal (MP) joint, rotate the digit by about 120° for pulp to pulp pinch, palmarly abduct by 40-50° to get a new first web gap, Shorten and readjust the tension of the extensors, re attach the intrinsics to form a thenar eminence capable of positioning the new thumb in various functional positions and finally close the flaps forming a new skin envelope. The author has performed over 75 pollicisations personally and has personal experience of some of the issues raised there. The steps mentioned therefore are an algorithm for helping the uninitiated into these choppy waters. PMID:24501467

  6. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC. PMID:22253245

  7. First results from CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy

    2011-10-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS superconducting linac facility aims at providing low energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics, astrophysics and application issues. These beams are obtained from fission fragments of a 1 Ci 252Cf source, thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge breed to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. The method described is fast and universal and short-lived isotope yield scale essentially with Californium fission yields. The facility is now commissioned and operating with a 100 mCi source which has yielded extracted low-energy mass separated radioactive beams at intensities in excess of 100000 ions per second. Radioactive beams have been charge bred with an efficiency of up to 12% and reaccelerated to 6 MeV/u. Commissioning results, together with the results from first astrophysics experiments at CARIBU using the beams from the 100 mCi source will be presented. The final 1 Ci source is currently under fabrication and is expected to be installed by the end of the year. This work was supported by the US DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. Changes in Caenorhabditis elegans immunity and Staphylococcal virulence factors during their interactions.

    PubMed

    JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Prithika, Udayakumar; Lavanya, Nehru; Sekar, Chinnathambi; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2015-03-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a model system for the study of host-pathogen interactions. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is one of the major virulent and immunostimulatory components found in gram positive bacteria. The current study used LTA isolated from Staphylococcus aureus and pathogenic and non-pathogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis. The overall physiological assays revealed that LTA exposed C. elegans show a significant reduction in the life span, production of eggs and progenies. To understand the involvement of innate immune specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes was studied during Staphylococcal LTA exposures. qPCR analysis indicated an upregulation of antimicrobial peptides during LTA exposures. To understand the involvement of LTA and other virulent genes during infection, the regulation of LTA synthase and a few virulence genes was monitored during host exposure. The qPCR analyses indicated the upregulation of ltaS and other virulence genes (atoxin, sak, ssaA and fbe) during infection. Ability of the pathogens to modify their internal machinery during host presence was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltametric analyses. The FTIR results indicated distinct alterations of peaks from Staphylococcal LTA composition between control and the host exposed. Further, EIS and CV data displayed clear differences between the host exposed Staphylococcal samples compared to their respective unexposed controls. The pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains showed different types of regulations and interactions during host exposures. The observed modifications clearly suggest that the Gram positive pathogen changes its LTA production and possibly the structure to cause a severe pathogenic effect on an interacting host.

  9. Purification of lipoteichoic acid by chromatography in water-organic solvent systems.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, S L; Stinson, M W; Millar, S J; Cohen, R E

    1986-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), extracted from Streptococcus mutans 10449 by hot aqueous phenol, was partially purified by Sepharose 6B column chromatography in 0.01 M sodium acetate, pH 6.0, containing 0.25 M sodium chloride and 0.001 M EDTA. Nucleic acid and polysaccharide were precipitated from the LTA-containing column peak by the addition of 2 volumes of chloroform-methanol (1:5). The resulting single-phase chloroform-methanol-water (1:5:3) supernatant contained LTA and small amounts of several contaminating substances as indicated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and chemical analyses. LTA was purified further by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, using a concentration gradient of sodium chloride in chloroform-methanol-water (1:5:3). Two column peaks of LTA were found to contain phosphate, glycerol, glucose, and fatty acids at molar ratios of 1:1:0.11:0.10 and 1:1:0.09:0.04, respectively. The LTA polymers contained 18 and 22 repeating units of unsubstituted glycerophosphate and two glucose residues. The LTA in one column peak had two fatty acids per molecule, whereas that in the second peak contained only one. The yield of LTA was 1.68 mg per g of cell dry weight or 65 mg per g of phenol-water-extracted material. The specific activity of the LTA preparation was increased 128-fold by the purification scheme as determined by a erythrocyte-binding assay. Reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography may be used for rapid separation of LTA molecules containing different numbers of acyl groups. PMID:3943892

  10. Recent results from LHCf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menjo, H.; Adriani, O.; Berti, E.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W. C.; Zhou, Q.

    2015-08-01

    The LHCf experiment is one of the LHC forward experiments. The aim of LHCf is to provide critical calibration data of hadronic intraction models used in air shower simulations. The LHCf has completed the operations for p-p collisions with a collision energy of √s = 0.9 and 7 TeV p-p in 2010 and for p-Pb collisions with a collision energy per nucleon of √sNN = 5.02. The recent LHCf result of forward neutron energy spectra at 7 TeV p-p collision and forward π0 spectra at p-Pb collisions are presented in this paper.

  11. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  12. Top physics: CDF results

    SciTech Connect

    K. Bloom

    2004-06-23

    The top quark plays an important role in the grand scheme of particle physics, and is also interesting on its own merits. We present recent results from CDF on top-quark physics based on 100-200 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data. We have measured the t{bar t} cross section in different decay modes using several different techniques, and are beginning our studies of top-quark properties. New analyses for this conference include a measurement of {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in the lepton-plus-jets channel using a neural net to distinguish signal and background events, and measurements of top-quark branching fractions.

  13. Spacelab Science Results Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1999-08-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  14. EIGER characterization results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinapoli, Roberto; Bergamaschi, Anna; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Horisberger, Roland; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Tinti, Gemma

    2013-12-01

    Characterization and performance measurements have been done on several EIGER detector systems, produced with chips coming from two different lots, both with a lab X-ray source and at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). Results on the detector calibration, electronic noise, threshold dispersion, minimum achievable energy threshold, maximum detectable incoming photon flux and maximum frame rate are presented. An EIGER module is constructed from a ∼4×8 cm2 monolithic silicon sensor bump-bonded to 2 ×4 readout chips and contains 0.5 Mpixel. The first EIGER 500 K systems have been produced and images taken with these detectors are shown. Modules can be tiled together to form large area detectors; both a 9 Mpixel and a 16 Mpixel systems are at present under development for the coherent small angle X-ray scattering and protein crystallography beamlines of the SLS.

  15. Undulator Transportation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Horton, Nick; Kharakh, David; Levashov, Yurii; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Poling, Ben; Reese, Ed; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    A test was performed to determine whether transporting and handling the undulators makes any changes to their properties. This note documents the test. No significant changes to the test undulator were observed. After the LCLS undulators are tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF), they must be transported to storage buildings and transported to the tunnel. It has been established that the undulators are sensitive to temperature. We wish to know whether the undulators are also sensitive to the vibrations and shocks of transportation. To study this issue, we performed a test in which an undulator was measured in the MMF, transported to the tunnel, brought back to the MMF, and re-measured. This note documents the test and the results.

  16. Fish community results

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Scott, E.M. Jr.; Brown, A.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA in cooperation with Valley states, operates a water resource monitoring program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring will target the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening, Benthic macroinvertebrates, and Fish. Reservoir fisheries monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass, Fish Tissue Contamination, Fish Community Monitoring, and Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fish community monitoring and fish health assessments.

  17. Recent Results from Phobos

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Edmundo; Betts, R. R.; Garcia, E.; Halliwell, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Sagerer, J.; Smith, C. E.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; George, N.; Hauer, M.; Holzman, B.; Pak, R.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.

    2007-02-12

    The PHOBOS detector is one of four heavy ion experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper we will review some of the results of PHOBOS from the data collected in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies up to 200 GeV. Evidence is found of the formation of a very high energy density and highly interactive system, which can not be described in terms of hadrons, and has a relatively low baryon density. There is evidence that the system formed is thermalized to a certain degree. Scaling with the number of participants and extended longitudinal scaling behavior are also observed in distributions of produced charged particles.

  18. FIRE Science Results 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, David S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program formed in 1984 to increase the basic understanding of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems, to develop realistic parameterizations for these systems, and to validate and improve ISCCP cloud product retrievals. Presentations of results culminating the first 5 years of FIRE research activities were highlighted. The 1986 Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO), the 1987 Marine Stratocumulus IFO, the Extended Time Observations (ETO), and modeling activities are described. Collaborative efforts involving the comparison of multiple data sets, incorporation of data measurements into modeling activities, validation of ISCCP cloud parameters, and development of parameterization schemes for General Circulation Models (GCMs) are described.

  19. Results from SNO

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Yuen-dat

    2001-10-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is an underground heavy water Cherenkov detector for studying solar neutrinos. SNO is capable of performing both flavor sensitive and flavor blind measurements of the solar neutrino flux. The first charged current (CC) measurement is found to be: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) = 1.75 {+-} 0.07(stat.){sub -0.11}{sup +0.12}(sys.) {+-} 0.05 (theor.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the elastic scattering fluxes (ES) is: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup ES}({nu}{sub x}) = 2.39 {+-} 0.34(stat.){sub -0.14}{sup +0.16} (sys.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) result, when combined with the high statistics elastic scattering (ES) measurement from Super-Kamiokande, provide a strong evidence for solar neutrino flavor transformation (3.3{sigma}). The deduced total solar neutrino flux is in good agreement with standard solar model predictions. No significant distortion in the energy spectrum is observed.

  20. Hyperthermia quality assurance results.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, P N; Saylor, T K; Matloubieh, A Y; Paliwal, B R

    1988-01-01

    The Hyperthermia Physics Center (HPC), under contract with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), has conducted review-type quality assurance (QA) measurements at the five Hyperthermia Equipment Evaluation Centers involved in evaluating the clinical efficacy of a variety of devices for delivering heat treatments to deep-seated human tumours. A summary of the QA protocol, results, testing procedures, standards, criteria, conclusions and recommendations are presented in this paper. The QA review measurements indicate (a) that 81.5 per cent of temperatures surveyed were within the 0.2 degrees C HPC criterion (91 per cent were within 0.4 degrees C), (b) that only 66 per cent of power indications were within the 10 per cent criterion, (c) that the heat patterns in a phantom produced by the BSD Annular Phased Array (AA) had significant variability, (d) that each treatment facility had at least a few potentially occupiable locations where the maximum permissible American National Standards Institute standards of electromagnetic leakage were exceeded, and (e) that these levels of accuracy and safety were achieved only after stringent inhouse QA efforts. From the combined data, it is concluded that the temperature accuracy in this cooperative trial was sufficient to justify a common analysis of clinical data as presented in this series. Also, stringent quality control of every parameter must continue to be stressed in all future hyperthermia trials.

  1. ALICE TPC commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. T.; Alice Tpc Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE is a dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN LHC aiming to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. A lead-lead collision might produce several 10 00 new particles. Detailed study of the event requires precise measurements of the particle tracks. A 90 m3 Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with more than 500 000 read-out pads was built as the main central barrel tracker. Collisions can be recorded at a rate of up to about 1 kHz. The front-end electronics, designed from FPGAs and custom ASICs, performs shaping, amplification, digitisation and digital filtering of the signals. The data are forwarded to DAQ via 216 1.25 Gb/s fibre-optical links. Configuration, control and monitoring is done by an embedded Linux system on the front-end electronics. Before production runs with beam, extensive commissioning using tracks from cosmics and from the laser system as well as clusters from radioactive krypton gas is needed. Extensive results have been obtained with respect to the performance of the TPC including its sub-systems.

  2. ESR teleradiology survey: results.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    With recent developments of teleradiology technology and services, it has become necessary to better evaluate its extent and use among different countries in Europe. With this goal in mind, the ESR launched two specific surveys intended to gather the current state of adoption and implementation of teleradiology in clinical practice. A special focus on differentiating between insourcing teleradiology services among partners of the same organisation and outsourcing to external services was an essential part of the design of these surveys. The first survey was addressed to 44 national societies of different countries in Europe, while the second survey was intended for all practicing radiologist ESR members. While the results of these surveys reported here may provide a wealth of information to better understand the trends in adoption of teleradiology in Europe, they only represent a snapshot at a certain point in time. The rapid development of telecommunication tools as well as a fundamental change in practice and healthcare economics will certainly influence these observations in the upcoming years. These data, however, will provide objective and relevant parameters for supporting the efforts of experts and policy makers in promoting appropriate criteria and guidelines for adequate use of teleradiology in clinical practice. Main Messages • Understand concepts and challenges of teleradiology • Provide insight into current trends and solutions for teleradiology • Compare differences in teleradiolgy strategies between countries in Europe • Establish a reference on statistical data of usage of teleradiology in Europe. PMID:27188379

  3. Results from hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pondrom, L.G. )

    1990-12-14

    The present status of hadron collider physics is reviewed. The total cross section for {bar p} + p has been measured at 1.8 TeV: {sigma}{sub tot} = 72.1 {plus minus} 3.3 mb. New data confirm the UA2 observation of W/Z {yields} {bar q}q. Precision measurements of M{sub W} by UA2 and CDF give an average value M{sub W} = 80.13 {plus minus} 0.30 GeV/c{sup 2}. When combined with measurements of M{sub Z} from LEP and SLC this number gives sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} = 0.227 {plus minus} 0.006, or m{sub top} = 130{sub {minus}60}{sup +40} GeV/c{sup 2} from the EWK radiative correction term {Delta}r. Evidence for hadron colliders as practical sources of b quarks has been strengthened, while searches for t quarks have pushed the mass above M{sub W}: m{sub top} > 89 GeV/c{sup 2} 95% cl (CDF Preliminary). Searches beyond the standard model based on the missing E{sub T} signature have not yet produced any positive results. Future prospects for the discovery of the top quark in the range m{sub top} < 200 GeV/c{sup 2} look promising. 80 refs., 35 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. New results from Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.

    2003-04-01

    We have measured the CP violation parameters in B° decays to the following CP eigenstates: (c overlinec)K s, J/ψK L, J/ψK -0, π +π -, θK s, η/K sand K +K -K s, using data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e +e - collider. One of the angles of the CKM unitality triangle, θ1, has been determined using 78 fb -1 as sin 2 θ1 = 0.719 ± 0.074 ± 0.035. The large Aππ is an indication of direct CP violation in B meson decay. The SθK, Sη' K are SKKK are all consistent with sin 2 θ1 within 3σ. We also present the first measurement o the inclusive branching fraction for the electroweak penguin decay B → Xsℓ +ℓ -. The results on the branching fraction, dilepton and recoil mass spectra are in agreement with the Standard Model expectations.

  5. Simpler images, better results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton

    1999-03-01

    The very rapid development of optical technology has followed a pattern similar to that of nuclear magnetic resonance: first, spectroscopy and then imaging. The accomplishments in spectroscopy have been significant--among them, early detection of hematomas and quantitative oximetry (assuming that time and frequency domain instruments are used). Imaging has progressed somewhat later. The first images were obtained in Japan and USA a few years ago, particularly of parietal stimulation of the human brain. Since then, rapid applications to breast and limb, together with higher resolution of the brain now make NIR imaging of functional activation and tumor detection readily available, reliable and affordable devices. The lecture has to do with the applications of imaging to these three areas, particularly to prefrontal imaging of cognitive function, of breast tumor detection, and of localized muscle activation in exercise. The imaging resolution achievable in functional activation appears to be FWHM of 4 mm. The time required for an image is a few seconds or even much less. Breast image detection at 50 microsecond(s) ec/pixel results in images obtainable in a few seconds or shorter times (bandwidths of the kHz are available). Finally, imaging of the body organs is under study in this laboratory, particularly in the in utero fetus. It appears that the photon migration theory now leads to the development of a wide number of images for human subject tissue spectroscopy and imaging.

  6. CTF Challenge: Result Summary

    PubMed Central

    Marabini, Roberto; Carragher, Bridget; Chen, Shaoxia; Chen, James; Cheng, Anchi; Downing, Kenneth H.; Frank, Joachim; Grassucci, Robert A.; Heymann, J. Bernard; Jiang, Wen; Jonic, Slavica; Liao, Hstau Y.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Patwari, Shail; Piotrowski, Angela L.; Quintana, Adrian; Sorzano, Carlos O.S.; Stahlberg, Henning; Vargas, Javier; Voss, Neil R.; Chiu, Wah; Carazo, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Image formation in bright field electron microscopy can be described with the help of the contrast transfer function (CTF). In this work the authors describe the “CTF Estimation Challenge”, called by the Madrid Instruct Image Processing Center (I2PC) in collaboration with the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) at Houston. Correcting for the effects of the CTF requires accurate knowledge of the CTF parameters, but these have often been difficult to determine. In this challenge, researchers have had the opportunity to test their ability in estimating some of the key parameters of the electron microscope CTF on a large micrograph data set produced by well-known laboratories on a wide set of experimental conditions. This work presents the first analysis of the results of the CTF Estimation Challenge, including an assessment of the performance of the different software packages under different conditions, so as to identify those areas of research where further developments would be desirable in order to achieve high-resolution structural information. PMID:25913484

  7. Databases for LDEF results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the team supporting the LDEF Systems and Materials Special Investigative Groups is to develop databases of experimental findings. These databases identify the hardware flown, summarize results and conclusions, and provide a system for acknowledging investigators, tracing sources of data, and future design suggestions. To date, databases covering the optical experiments, and thermal control materials (chromic acid anodized aluminum, silverized Teflon blankets, and paints) have been developed at Boeing. We used the Filemaker Pro software, the database manager for the Macintosh computer produced by the Claris Corporation. It is a flat, text-retrievable database that provides access to the data via an intuitive user interface, without tedious programming. Though this software is available only for the Macintosh computer at this time, copies of the databases can be saved to a format that is readable on a personal computer as well. Further, the data can be exported to more powerful relational databases, capabilities, and use of the LDEF databases and describe how to get copies of the database for your own research.

  8. Results of hip resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Favetti, Fabio; Casella, Filippo; Papalia, Matteo; Panegrossi, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Background The renewed popularity of resurfacing hip arthroplasty in the last 10 years has generated a remarkable quantity of scientific contributions based on mid- and short-term follow-up. More than one paper has reported a consistent early revision rate as a consequence of biological or biomechanical failure. Two major complications are commonly described with resurfacing implants: avascular necrosis and femoral-neck fracture. A close relationship between these two events has been suggested, but not firmly demonstrated, whereas cementing technique seems to be better understood as potential cause of failure. Methods We performed an in vitro study in which four different resurfacing implants were evaluated with a simulated femoral head, two types of cement, (low and high viscosity) and two cementing techniques: direct (cement apposition directly on the femoral head) and indirect (cement poured into the femoral component). Results High-viscosity cement showed homogeneous distribution over the entire femoral head. Low-viscosity cement showed a massive polar concentration with insufficient, if not absent, distribution in the equatorial zone. Conclusion Polar cement concentration could be a risk factor for early implant failure due to two effects on the femoral head: biological (excessive local exothermic reaction could cause osteocyte necrosis) and biomechanical (which could lead to uneven load distribution on the femoral head). PMID:21234563

  9. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  10. Overview of MAST results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bigelow, T.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, P.; Carr, M.; Caughman, J.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W. A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Diallo, A.; Dickinson, D.; Diem, S.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fox, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gibson, K.; Graves, J.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawke, J.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Holgate, J.; Horacek, J.; Howard, J.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Leggate, H.; Lilley, M.; Lipschultz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A. W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O'Brien, M.; O'Gorman, T.; Ono, Y.; Oliver, H.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Podesta, M.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ren, Y.; Roach, C.; Robinson, J.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Storrs, J.; Takase, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, D.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Walkden, N.; Wilson, H.; Wyk, L. V.; Yamada, T.; Zoletnik, S.; MAST; MAST Upgrade Teams

    2015-10-01

    The Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) programme is strongly focused on addressing key physics issues in preparation for operation of ITER as well as providing solutions for DEMO design choices. In this regard, MAST has provided key results in understanding and optimizing H-mode confinement, operating with smaller edge localized modes (ELMs), predicting and handling plasma exhaust and tailoring auxiliary current drive. In all cases, the high-resolution diagnostic capability on MAST is complemented by sophisticated numerical modelling to facilitate a deeper understanding. Mitigation of ELMs with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidal mode number nRMP = 2, 3, 4, 6 has been demonstrated: at high and low collisionality; for the first ELM following the transition to high confinement operation; during the current ramp-up; and with rotating nRMP = 3 RMPs. nRMP = 4, 6 fields cause less rotation braking whilst the power to access H-mode is less with nRMP = 4 than nRMP = 3, 6. Refuelling with gas or pellets gives plasmas with mitigated ELMs and reduced peak heat flux at the same time as achieving good confinement. A synergy exists between pellet fuelling and RMPs, since mitigated ELMs remove fewer particles. Inter-ELM instabilities observed with Doppler backscattering are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations of micro-tearing modes in the pedestal. Meanwhile, ELM precursors have been strikingly observed with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) measurements. A scan in beta at the L-H transition shows that pedestal height scales strongly with core pressure. Gyro-Bohm normalized turbulent ion heat flux (as estimated from the BES data) is observed to decrease with increasing tilt of the turbulent eddies. Fast ion redistribution by energetic particle modes depends on density, and access to a quiescent domain with ‘classical’ fast ion transport is found above a critical density. Highly efficient electron Bernstein wave current drive (1 A W-1) has been achieved

  11. Overview of MAST results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counsell, G. F.; Akers, R. J.; Appel, L. C.; Applegate, D.; Axon, K. B.; Baranov, Y.; Brickley, C.; Bunting, C.; Buttery, R. J.; Carolan, P. G.; Challis, C.; Ciric, D.; Conway, N. J.; Cox, M.; Cunningham, G.; Darke, A.; Dnestrovskij, A.; Dowling, J.; Dudson, B.; Dunstan, M. R.; Delchambre, E.; Field, A. R.; Foster, A.; Gee, S.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Helander, P.; Hender, T. C.; Hole, M.; Howell, D. H.; Joiner, N.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Lehane, I. P.; Lisgo, S.; Lloyd, B.; Lott, F.; Maddison, G. P.; Manhood, S. J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G. J.; McClements, K. G.; Meyer, H.; Morris, A. W.; Nelson, M.; O'Brien, M. R.; Patel, A.; Pinfold, T.; Preinhaelter, J.; Price, M. N.; Roach, C. M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Sharapov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stammers, K.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tabasso, A.; Tallents, S.; Taylor, D.; Tournianski, M. R.; Turner, A.; Turri, G.; Valovic, M.; Volpe, F.; Voss, G.; Walsh, M. J.; Watkins, J. R.; Wilson, H. R.; Wisse, M.; MAST, the; NBI; ECRH Teams

    2005-10-01

    . Early edge localized mode activity on MAST is associated with the formation of narrow filamentary structures following field lines in the edge. These filaments rotate toroidally with the edge plasma and, away from the X-points, accelerate radially outwards from the edge up to 20 cm. Studies of disruptions on MAST demonstrate a complex evolution of core energy loss and resultant divertor power loads, including phases where the target heat flux width is broadened by a factor of 8. Observations of energetic particle modes driven by super-Alfvénic beam ions provide support for a model for the non-linear evolution of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) forming Bernstein-Green-Krushal waves. The AE activity reduces to low levels with increasing β. Plasma start-up without a central solenoid and in a manner compatible with future large spherical tokamak (ST) devices has been demonstrated using breakdown at a quadrupole magnetic null. Closed flux surface plasmas with peak plasma currents up to 370 kA have been generated and sustained for 0.3 s. New error field correction coils have extended the operational space for low density plasmas and enabled scaling studies of error field induced locked mode formation in the ST.

  12. Assembly of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei: mutants deficient in the D-alanyl ester content of this amphiphile

    SciTech Connect

    Ntamere, A.S.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

    1987-04-01

    D-Alanyl-lipoteichoic acid (D-alanyl-LTA) from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 contains a poly(glycerophosphate) moiety that is acylated with D-alanyl ester residues. The physiological function of these residues is not well understood. Five mutant strains of this organism that are deficient in the esters of this amphiphile were isolated and characterized. When compared with the parent, strains AN-1 and AN-4 incorporated less than 10% of D-(/sup 14/C)alanine into LTA, whereas AN-2, AN-3, and AN-5 incorporated 50%. The synthesis of D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA was virtually absent in the first group and was approximately 30% in the second group. The mutant strains synthesized and selected the glycolipid anchor for LTA assembly. In addition, all of the strains synthesized the poly(glycerophosphate) moiety of LTA to the same extent as did the parent or to a greater extent. It was concluded that the membranes from the mutant strains AN-1 and AN-4 are defective for D-alanylation of LTA even though acceptor LTA is present. Mutant strains AN-2 and AN-3 appear to be partially deficient in the amount of the D-alanine-activating enzyme. Aberrant morphology and defective cell separation appear to result from this deficiency in D-alanyl ester content.

  13. Lactobacillus sakei lipoteichoic acid inhibits MMP-1 induced by UVA in normal dermal fibroblasts of human.

    PubMed

    You, Ga-Eun; Jung, Bong-Jun; Kim, Hye-Rim; Kim, Han-Geun; Kim, Tae-Rahk; Chung, Dae-Kyun

    2013-10-28

    Human skin is continuously exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging. UVA increases the activity of MMP-1 in dermal fibroblasts through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38, signaling. The irradiation of keratinocytes by UVA results in the secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the stimulation of MMP-1 in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a component of the cell wall of gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. of bacteria. LTA is well known as an anti-inflammation molecule. LTA of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum has an anti-photoaging effect, but the potential anti-photoaging effect of the other bacteria has not been examined to date. The current study showed that L. sakei LTA (sLTA) has an immune modulating effect in human monocyte cells. Our object was whether inhibitory effects of sLTA on MMP-1 are caused from reducing the MAPK signal in NHDFs. It inhibits MMP-1 and MAPK signaling induced by UVA in NHDFs. We also confirmed effects of sLTA suppressing TNF-α inducing MMP-1 in NHDFs. PMID:23851272

  14. Preliminary Results from the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Kiser, Eric; Palomeras, Imma; Zelt, Colin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steve; Harder, Steven; Creagar, Kenneth; Vidale, John; Abers, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    iMUSH (imaging Magma Under Saint Helens) is a US NSF sponsored multi-disciplinary investigation of Mount Saint Helens (MSH), currently the most active volcano in the Cascades arc in the northwestern United States. The project consists of active and passive seismic experiments, extensive magnetotelluric sounding, and geological/geochemical studies involving scientists at 7 institutions in the U.S. and Europe. The long-term goal of the seismic project is to combine analysis of the active source data with that of data from the 70 element broadband seismograph operating from summer 2014 until 2016. Combining seismic and MT analyses with other data, we hope to image the MSH volcanic plumbing system from the surface to the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we describe preliminary results of the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, conducted in July and August 2014. The active source experiment consisted of twenty-three 454 or 908 kg weight shots recorded by ~3500 seismographs deployed at ~6,000 locations. Of these instruments, ~900 Nodal Seismic instruments were deployed continuously for two weeks in an areal array within 10 km of the MSH summit. 2,500 PASSCAL Texan instruments were deployed twice for five days in 3 areal arrays and 2 dense orthogonal linear arrays that extended from MSH to distances > 80 km. Overall the data quality from the shots is excellent. The seismograph arrays also recorded dozens of micro-earthquakes beneath the MSH summit and along the MSH seismic zone, and numerous other local and regional earthquakes. In addition, at least one low frequency event beneath MSH was recorded during the experiment. At this point we have begun various types of analysis of the data set: We have determined an average 1D Vp structure from stacking short-term/long-term average ratios, we have determined the 2-D Vp structure from ray-trace inversions along the two orthogonal profiles (in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions), and we have made low-fold CMP stacks of the

  15. Comparison of laser transit anemometry data analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Gartrell, Luther R.

    1991-01-01

    Two techniques for the extraction of two-dimensional flow information from laser transit anemometry (LTA) data sets are presented and compared via a simulation study and experimental investigation. The methods are a probability density function (PDF) estimation technique and a marginal distribution analysis technique. The simulation study builds on the results of previous work and provides a quantification of the accuracy of both techniques for various LTA data acquisition scenarios. The experimental comparison consists of using an LTA system to survey the flow downstream of a turbulence generator in a small low-speed wind tunnel. The collected data sets are analyzed and compared.

  16. Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid suppresses Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Jintaek; Baik, Jung Eun; Kim, Kyoung Whun; Kang, Seok-Seong; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Jin; Kim, Hyun Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Periodontitis is caused by multi-bacterial infection and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Enterococcus faecalis are closely associated with inflammatory periodontal diseases. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa.LPS) and lipoteichoic acid of E. faecalis (Ef.LTA) are considered to be major virulence factors evoking inflammatory responses, their combinatorial effect on the induction of chemokines has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the interaction between Aa.LPS and Ef.LTA on IL-8 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Aa.LPS, but not Ef.LTA, substantially induced IL-8 expression at the protein and mRNA levels. Interestingly, Ef.LTA suppressed Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression without affecting the binding of Aa.LPS to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Ef.LTA reduced Aa.LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, including ERK, JNK and p38 kinase. Furthermore, Ef.LTA inhibited the Aa.LPS-induced transcriptional activities of the activating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappa B transcription factors, all of which are known to regulate IL-8 gene expression. Ef.LTA augmented the expression of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), a negative regulator of TLR intracellular signaling pathways, in the presence of Aa.LPS at both the mRNA and protein levels. Small interfering RNA silencing IRAK-M reversed the attenuation of Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression by Ef.LTA. Collectively, these results suggest that Ef.LTA down-regulates Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression in human PDL cells through up-regulation of the negative regulator IRAK-M.

  17. Staphylococcal LTA-Induced miR-143 Inhibits Propionibacterium acnes-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Skin.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhiheng; Liu, Kewei; Wu, Yelin; Jiang, Deming; Lai, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) plays a critical role in modulating cutaneous inflammatory responses in skin. Although S. epidermidis has been shown to co-colonize with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in acne lesions, it is unclear whether S. epidermidis is involved in the regulation of P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we demonstrated that S. epidermidis inhibited P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. P. acnes induced the expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α via the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 in both keratinocytes and mouse ears. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid activated TLR2 to induce miR-143 in keratinocytes, and miR-143, in turn, directly targeted 3' UTR of TLR2 to decrease the stability of TLR2 mRNA and then decreased TLR2 protein, thus inhibiting P. acnes-induced proinflammatory cytokines. The inhibitory effect of miR-143 was further confirmed in vivo as the administration of miR-143 antagomir into mouse ears abrogated the inhibitory effect of lipoteichoic acid on P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits P. acnes-induced inflammation via the induction of miR-143, and suggest that local modulation of inflammatory responses by S. epidermidis at the site of acne vulgaris might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy for management of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  18. Feasibility study of applying laminar flow control to an lta vehicle. Final report. [Lighter than air vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, D.J.; Ozgur, S.A.; Haigh, W.W.

    1980-04-01

    The feasibility of applying laminar boundary-layer control with body shaping to a high altitude, Lighter-Than-Air vehicle was investigated. Solar-radiation-induced surface heating was shown to have a destablizing effect on laminar flow and caused the laminar flow to break down on regions of the vehicle surface exposed to high levels of solar radiation. Aerodynamic drag estimates were made for the vehicle. Surface waviness and roughness criteria for achieving laminar flow were determined.

  19. Staphylococcal LTA-Induced miR-143 Inhibits Propionibacterium acnes-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Skin.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhiheng; Liu, Kewei; Wu, Yelin; Jiang, Deming; Lai, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) plays a critical role in modulating cutaneous inflammatory responses in skin. Although S. epidermidis has been shown to co-colonize with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in acne lesions, it is unclear whether S. epidermidis is involved in the regulation of P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we demonstrated that S. epidermidis inhibited P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. P. acnes induced the expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α via the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 in both keratinocytes and mouse ears. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid activated TLR2 to induce miR-143 in keratinocytes, and miR-143, in turn, directly targeted 3' UTR of TLR2 to decrease the stability of TLR2 mRNA and then decreased TLR2 protein, thus inhibiting P. acnes-induced proinflammatory cytokines. The inhibitory effect of miR-143 was further confirmed in vivo as the administration of miR-143 antagomir into mouse ears abrogated the inhibitory effect of lipoteichoic acid on P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits P. acnes-induced inflammation via the induction of miR-143, and suggest that local modulation of inflammatory responses by S. epidermidis at the site of acne vulgaris might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy for management of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:26739093

  20. Development of Commercial-Length Nuclear Fuel Post-Irradiation Examination Capabilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Spellman, Donald J; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Chesser, Joel B; Morris, Robert Noel

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Fissile Materials Disposition Program is pursuing disposal of surplus weapons-usable plutonium by reactor irradiation as the fissile constituent of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Lead test assemblies (LTAs) have been irradiated for approximately 36 months in Duke Energy s Catawba-1 nuclear power plant. Per the MOX fuel qualification plan, destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) are to be performed on second-cycle rods (irradiated to an average burnup of approximately 42 GWd/MTHM). These LTA bundles are planned to be returned to the reactor and further irradiated to approximately 52 GWd/MTHM. Nondestructive and destructive PIEs of these commercially irradiated weapons-derived MOX fuel rods will be conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL). PIE began in early 2009. In order to support the examination of the irradiated full-length (~3.66 m) MOX fuel rods, ORNL in 2004 began to develop the necessary infrastructure and equipment for the needed full-scope PIE capabilities. The preparations included modifying the IFEL building to handle a commercial spent-fuel shipping cask; procurement of cask-handling equipment and a skid to move the cask inside the building; development of in-cell handling equipment for cask unloading; and design, fabrication, and testing of the automated, state-of-the-art PIE examination equipment. This paper describes these activities and the full-scope PIE capabilities available at ORNL for commercial full-length fuel rods.

  1. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part II: Interpretation of the experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, R.; Barrachin, M.; Ducher, R.; Gavillet, D.; De Bremaecker, A.

    2014-10-01

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO2 fuel bundle and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 mm and 900 mm) of the test section previously reported are interpreted in the present paper. Solid state interactions between fuel and cladding have been compared with the characteristics of interaction identified in the previous separate-effect tests. Corium resulting from the interaction between fuel and cladding was formed. The uranium concentration in the corium is compared to analytical tests and a scenario for the corium formation is proposed. The analysis showed that, despite the rather low fuel burn up, the conditions of temperature and oxygen potential reached during the starvation phase are able to give an early very significant release fraction of caesium. A significant part (but not all) of the molybdenum was segregated at grain boundaries and trapped in metallic inclusions from which they were totally removed in the final part of the experiment. During the steam starvation phase, the conditions of oxygen potential were favourable for the formation of simple Ba and BaO chemical forms but the temperature was too low to provoke their volatility. This is one important difference with out-of-pile experiments such as VERCORS for which only a combination of high temperature and low oxygen potential induced a significant barium release. Finally another significant difference with analytical out-of-pile experiments comes from the formation of foamy zones due to the fission gas presence in FPT2-type experiments which give an additional possibility for the formation of stable fission product compounds.

  2. RESULTATIVE VERBS AND OTHER PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASHIMOTO, ANNE YUE

    THE SO-CALLED RESULTATIVE VERBS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THE RESULTATIVE VERBS ARE GENERALLY CONSIDERED AS CONSISTING OF TWO COMPONENTS--A VERBAL COMPONENT FOLLOWED BY A RESULTATIVE OR DIRECTIONAL COMPLEMENT. OTHER PROBLEMS RELATED TO COMPLEMENTS ARE ALSO TOUCHED UPON, FOR EXAMPLE,…

  3. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results.

    PubMed

    Bhangoo, Kulwant S

    2013-05-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  4. The cytotoxic activity of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor is inhibited by leukotriene A4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Menard, A; Papini, E; Mock, M; Montecucco, C

    1996-01-01

    The lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis is central to the pathogenesis of anthrax. Its mechanism of action is still unknown. Recently, on the basis of sequence similarities, we suggested that lethal factor might act similarly to leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4), a bifunctional enzyme also endowed with a metallopeptidase activity. Here we show that some inhibitors of the LTA4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase activities of LTA4 hydrolase also affect the cytotoxicity of the anthrax lethal factor on macrophage cell lines, without interfering with the ability of the lethal factor to enter cells. These results support the proposal that anthrax lethal factor might display in the cytosol of intoxicated cells a peptidase activity similar to that of LTA4 hydrolase. PMID:8973585

  5. The cell wall component lipoteichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus induces chemokine gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    KIKU, Yoshio; NAGASAWA, Yuya; TANABE, Fuyuko; SUGAWARA, Kazue; WATANABE, Atsushi; HATA, Eiji; OZAWA, Tomomi; NAKAJIMA, Kei-ichi; ARAI, Toshiro; HAYASHI, Tomohito

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of bovine mastitis, but its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the immune or inflammatory response of SA mastitis, we investigated the gene expression profile in bovine mammary epithelial cells stimulated with LTA alone or with formalin-killed SA (FKSA) using cap analysis of gene expression. Seven common differentially expressed genes related to immune or inflammatory mediators were up-regulated under both LTA and FKSA stimulations. Three of these genes encode chemokines (IL-8, CXCL6 and CCL2) functioning as chemoattractant molecules for neutrophils and macrophages. These results suggest that the initial inflammatory response of SA infection in mammary gland may be related with LTA induced chemokine genes. PMID:27211287

  6. Exploring Web Search Results Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Bramer, Max

    As the number of documents on the web has proliferated, the low precision of conventional web search engines and the flat ranked search results presentation make it difficult for users to locate specific information of interest. Grouping web search results into a hierarchy of topics provides an alternative to the flat ranked list and facilitates searching and browsing. In this paper, we present a brief survey of previous work on web search results clustering and existing commercial search engines using this technique, discuss two key issues of web search results clustering: cluster summarisation and evaluation and propose some directions for future research.

  7. ISOCAM experiment cryogenic test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sa, L.; Collaudin, B.

    The thermal requirements for ISOCAM, an IR camera to be mounted aboard the ISO satellite, are reviewed, and model predictions are matched with test results. The degree of model validation suggested by analytical prediction vs test results is described. Predictions of thermal conduction through mounting screws, from ball bearings, and of the heat distribution in the rotor and stator of a cryogenic stepper motor correlate well with actual test results. It is shown that ISOCAM meets the thermal requirements necessary for successful on-orbit operation. The model predicted such phenomena as 'chopped' motor function and the twofold increase in temperature resulting from continuous motor operation.

  8. Top physics results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Vickey, Trevor; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2005-05-01

    The most recent results on top quark physics at CDF are reported. Measurements of cross-section and mass are presented, and the status of single top quark production searches are discussed. The results obtained from probing various top quark properties are also presented.

  9. Latest Electroweak Results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The latest results in electroweak physics from proton anti-proton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron recorded by the CDF detector are presented. The results provide constraints on parton distribution functions, the mass of the Higgs boson and beyond the Standard Model physics.

  10. Project "Freestyle": National Sites Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick

    Project "Freestyle" involved the development of prototypical television and print materials intended to combat sex-role stereotyping in career-related attitudes of nine to twelve-year-old children. This paper summarizes the results of the field evaluation of three pilot programs. With the aid of graphs, it reports the results in the following…

  11. Contradictory results in interferon research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several reports on immunologically related interferon research, both in the areas of basic science and clinical research, are briefly reviewed, and it is noted that in many cases the results obtained are contradictory. It is argued, however, that the contradictory results are not surprising since interferon is a biological response modifier and has been known to produce opposite results even when the same interferon prepartion is used. It is emphasized that dosage, timing, route, and other experimental conditions are essential factors in planning immunological studies with interferon. Careful planning of future experiments with interferon should be required to prevent the possible generation of effects that are opposite to those expected.

  12. Pentaquarks: the latest experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    M. Battaglieri; R. De Vita; Valery Kubarovsky

    2006-01-01

    After the claim of the possible discovery of a pentaquark state, many experiments reported positive and negative results opening a discussion about the pentaquark existence. New experiments with high resolution and high statistics are needed in the reaction channels and for the kinematics of the positive results to solve the controversy. Jefferson Lab started a comprehensive program to search for pentaquark in photoproduction at threshold on proton and deuteron targets, collecting more than 10 times the existing statistics. The first experiment on the proton (g11) just finished to analyze the data, and the first results of the pentaquark search are reported here.

  13. Some recent results from ICARUS

    SciTech Connect

    Farnese, Christian

    2015-07-15

    ICARUS T600 is the largest Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) ever built. Thanks to the excellent spatial and calorimetric resolutions and the three-dimensional visualization capabilities ICARUS T600 represents a major milestone towards the realization of future LAr detectors for neutrino physics and for the search of rare events. Three new important results from the analysis of the events collected by this detector will be here shortly presented: in particular the new improved results on the electron neutrino search, the results on the determination of the muon momentum using the Multiple Scattering and the new LAr purification methods and improvements of the electron lifetime.

  14. Interpreting Results from Multiscore Batteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Describes the role of information on score reliabilities, significance of score differences, intercorrelations of scores, and differential validity of score patterns on the interpretation of results from multiscore batteries. (Author)

  15. Results of Neptunium Disposal Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2003-10-07

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of neptunium solution from H-Canyon Tank 16.4 and the properties of the resulting slurry. This work investigated slurry properties from a single neutralization protocol and limited storage times.

  16. Results on hard diffractive production

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K.

    1995-07-01

    The results of experiments at hadron colliders probing the structure of the pomeron through hard diffraction are reviewed. Some results on deep inelastic diffractive scattering obtained a HERA are also discussed and placed in perspective. By using a properly normalized pomeron flux factor in single diffraction dissociation, as dictated by unitarity, the pomeron emerges as a combination of valence quark and gluon color singlets in a ratio suggested by asymptopia.

  17. Selection of LHCb Physics Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2013-05-01

    LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the LHC searching for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements of CP-violating observables and the study of very rare decays of beauty- and charm-flavoured hadrons. In this article a selection of recent LHCb results is presented. Unless otherwise stated, the results are based on an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 accumulated during the year 2011 at √s = 7 TeV.

  18. Electroweak results from the tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electroweak results are presented from the CDF and DO experiments based on data collected in recent runs of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurements include the mass and width of the W boson, the production cross sections of the W and Z bosons, and the W charge asymmetry. Additional results come from studies of events with pairs of electroweak gauge bosons and include limits on anomalous couplings.

  19. Results from Neutrino Oscillations Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis

    2010-09-10

    The interpretation of the results of early solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations has been verified by several recent experiments using both, natural and man-made sources. The observations provide compelling evidence in favor of the existence of neutrino masses and mixings. These proceedings give a general description of the results from neutrino oscillation experiments, the current status of the field, and some possible future developments.

  20. New CDF results on diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mesropian, Christina; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-12-01

    We report new diffraction results obtained by the CDF collaboration in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at {radical}s=1.96 TeV. The first experimental evidence of exclusive dijet and diphoton production is presented. The exclusive results are discussed in context of the exclusive Higgs production at LHC. We also present the measurement of the Q{sup 2} and t dependence of the diffractive structure function.

  1. TCIQ: An identification by intensity and frequency of potent testing cues in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermis, William J.

    Everyone experiences some anxiety while taking an examination. High-test-anxious (HTA) and low-test-anxious (LTA) students are described by two characteristic differences: frequency and intensity of anxious responses and attentional direction to testing cues. The purposes of this study were threefold: (1) to report potent testing cues (i.e., 90% response agreement for both intensity and frequency) that were identified by HTA and LTA students; (2) to report differences between HTA and LTA students for frequencies and intensities of responses to testing cues; and (3) to report differences between HTA and LTA students of attentional direction to testing cues. A pool of 396 males and females who were enrolled in physical geology completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A random sample consisting of 93 HTA and 40 LTA subjects completed the Test Cues Identification Questionnaire (TCIQ). The TCIQ consists of 28 disruptive items and 27 helpful items. Subjects responded with both frequency and intensity ratings for all of the 55 items in the TCIQ. Results revealed that 22 items were viewed by subjects as potent testing cues. Empirical evidence obtained did not support previous theoretical reports of differences between HTA and LTA students for either frequency and intensity of anxious responses or attentional direction to the set of disruptive and helpful testing cues. Although test anxiousness did not appear to be associated with those two characteristics differences, a discriminant analysis revealed 24 items in the TCIQ which significantly, 2 (24) = 47.59, p < 0.004, separated HTA and LTA subjects responses. Apparently, HTA and LTA students differ in their responses to specific disruptive and helpful cues but not in their responses to the set of testing cues as was previously postulated.

  2. Delayed circulatory failure due to the induction of nitric oxide synthase by lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    De Kimpe, S J; Hunter, M L; Bryant, C E; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effect of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, a micro-organism without endotoxin, on haemodynamics and induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the anaesthetized rat. 2. Intravenous injection of LTA (10 mg kg-1) resulted in a decrease in blood pressure from 123 +/- 1 mmHg to 83 +/- 7 mmHg after 270 min (P < 0.001) and a reduction of the pressor response to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1) from 33 +/- 1 mmHg.min to 23 +/- 3 mmHg.min after 270 min (P < 0.05). 3. The delayed circulatory failure (hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity) caused by LTA was prevented by pretreatment of rats with dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1, 60 min prior to LTA) or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10 mg kg-1 h-1, i.v. infusion starting 30 min prior to LTA). 4. In contrast, treatment of rats with polymyxin B (0.05 mg kg-1), an agent which binds endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS), did not affect the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. Polymyxin B, however, attenuated the hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline afforded by endotoxaemia (2 mg kg-1 LPS, i.v.) for 270 min. 5. The delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA was associated with a time-dependent increase in (i) the expression of iNOS protein in the lung (Western blot analysis), and (ii) iNOS activity. This increase in iNOS protein and activity was prevented by pretreatment of LTA-rats with dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6 PMID:7542534

  3. [Extreme results in electrolyte determination].

    PubMed

    Vogt, W; Oesterle, B

    1992-01-01

    Besides statistical quality control, quality control based on patient specimens is an important tool for quality enhancement and thus for an increased diagnostic certainty in laboratory medicine. One of three possibilities of plausibility judgement is the control of extreme results, that is alert and absurd value check. The aim of our study was to look for extremely high or low findings of the most frequently examined clinical-chemical parameters, to scrutinize their validity according to clearly defined criteria and to find out the underlying actual clinical situations and diseases. In this publication only the results for the electrolytes are discussed. Retrospectively the most extreme values of all results for serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations of a 21-month interval were extracted in a large university hospital. The clinical situation was then evaluated by reading the medical reports of these patients. The validity of the findings was judged by previously defined criteria and rated as confirmed, questionable and not confirmed. In all cases the survival time was determined. The most extreme confirmed results were for sodium 191 and 100 mmol/l, for potassium 9.0 and 1.3 mmol/l and for chloride 138 and 65 mmol/l. All these findings were compatible with life, at least for several hours. Even if it is probably impossible to give generally valid extreme ranges. Nevertheless our results should certainly have practical importance in absurd and alert value check. PMID:1502820

  4. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M. I. R.; Argüeso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mak, D. S. Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H. S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vassallo, T.; Vibert, L.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which is dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013. In February 2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy, and modified gravity, and new results on low-frequency Galactic foregrounds.

  5. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bourdin, H.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Carvalho, P.; Casale, M.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Falgarone, E.; Falvella, M. C.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Frommert, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Galli, S.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A.; Räth, C.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.

    2014-11-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck data, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25σ. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations (σ8) derived from

  6. Data Mining Citizen Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discovery from big data is enabled through multiple channels, including data mining (through the application of machine learning algorithms) and human computation (commonly implemented through citizen science tasks). We will describe the results of new data mining experiments on the results from citizen science activities. Discovering patterns, trends, and anomalies in data are among the powerful contributions of citizen science. Establishing scientific algorithms that can subsequently re-discover the same types of patterns, trends, and anomalies in automatic data processing pipelines will ultimately result from the transformation of those human algorithms into computer algorithms, which can then be applied to much larger data collections. Scientific discovery from big data is thus greatly amplified through the marriage of data mining with citizen science.

  7. ACTS: Technology Description and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald; Gargione, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The ACTS Project was originated at NASA Glenn Research Center in the early 1980's to sponsor the development and application of technology that was intended to be used by the private sector. The program was formulated with the underlying philosophy of maintaining US leadership in satellite communications while focusing technology development for efficient use of the frequency spectrum. This report chronicles the execution and results of the program from the perspective of its technology managers, from inception through hardware and system development to on-orbit experiments and demonstrations of the technology. The first eight sections of the report discuss programmatic background, the specific satellite and ground terminal technology and the results generated by the program including industry relevance. A federally funded program of this type attracted strong advocates and adversaries and the resulting impact on the project schedule is also discussed. The last two sections are a list of useful acronyms and extensive references.

  8. KC-135 winglet flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Three KC-135 winglet configurations were flight tested for cant/incidence angles of 15 deg/-4 deg, 15 deg/-2 deg, and 0 deg/-4 deg, as well as the basic wing. The flight results for the 15 deg/-4 deg and basic wing configurations confirm the wind tunnel predicted 7% incremental decrease in total drag at cruise conditions. The 15 deg/-4 configuration flight measured wing and winglet pressure distributions, loads, stability and control, flutter, and buffet also correlate well with predicted values. The only unexpected flight results as compared with analytical predictions is a flutter speed decrease for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration. The 15 deg/-2 deg configuration results show essentially the same incremental drag reduction as the 15 deg/-4 deg configuration; however, the flight loads are approximately 30% higher for the 15 deg/-2 deg configuration. The drag data for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration show only a flight drag reduction.

  9. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  10. Implications of Results from the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program on Licensing of Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti

    2001-10-01

    The high level of safety of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs is achieved by passively maintaining core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all envisioned accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude relative to other reactor types but is predicated on exceptionally high coated-particle fuel fabrication quality and excellent fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program decided to qualify for uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) TRISO coated-particle fuel in an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic modular HTGR options. By using a mixture of uranium oxide and uranium carbide, the kernel composition is engineered to minimize CO formation and fuel kernel migration, which is key to maintain to fuel integrity at the higher burnups, temperatures, and temperature gradients anticipated in prismatic HTGRs. Fuel fabrication conducted at both laboratory and engineering scale has demonstrated the ability to fabricate high quality UCO TRISO fuel with very low defects. The first irradiation (AGR 1) exposed about 300,000 TRISO fuel particles to a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA, a peak fast-neutron fluence of about 4.3 × 1025 n/m2, and a maximum time-averaged fuel temperature of about 1,200°C without a single particle failure. The very low release of key metallic fission products (except silver) measured in post-irradiation examination (PIE) confirms the excellent performance measured under irradiation. Very low releases have been measured in accident simulation heatup testing (''safety testing'') after hundreds of hours at 1600 and 1700°C and no particle failures (no noble gas release measured) have been observed. Even after hundreds of hours at 1800°C, the releases are still very low

  11. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from

  12. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts andmore » fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  13. CDF results on electroweak physics

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, H.J.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    The second major run of the {bar p}p Fermilab Tevatron collider has just ended on June 1. The CDF detector has accumulated almost five times the data sample of its previous 1988--1989 run. We present new results on the ratio of W to Z boson production cross-sections and on the charge asymmetry in W decay. We give a progress report on the measurement of the W mass. New results from the 1988--1989 data on Drell-Yan production and on W {gamma} production are also presented.

  14. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  15. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  16. Recent results from hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, H.J. )

    1990-12-10

    This is a summary of some of the many recent results from the CERN and Fermilab colliders, presented for an audience of nuclear, medium-energy, and elementary particle physicists. The topics are jets and QCD at very high energies, precision measurements of electroweak parameters, the remarkably heavy top quark, and new results on the detection of the large flux of B mesons produced at these machines. A summary and some comments on the bright prospects for the future of hadron colliders conclude the talk. 39 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. CDF experimental results on diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2009-04-01

    Experimental results on diffraction from the Fermilab Tevatron collider obtained by the CDF experiment are reviewed and compared. We report on the diffractive structure function obtained from dijet production in the range 0 < Q{sup 2} < 10,000 GeV{sup 2}, and on the |t| distribution in the region 0 < |t| < 1 GeV{sup 2} for both soft and hard diffractive events up to Q{sup 2} {approx} 4,500 GeV{sup 2}. Results on single diffractive W/Z production, forward jets, and central exclusive production of both dijets and diphotons are also presented.

  18. Supersymmetry results at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Manca, Giulia; /Liverpool U.

    2005-05-01

    The Run II physics programme of the Tevatron is proceeding with more than 300 pb{sup -1} of analysis quality data, collected at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Searches for supersymmetric particles are starting to set new limits, improving over the LEP and Run I results and exploring new regions of parameter space. They present recent results in Supersymmetry with the upgraded CDF and D0 detectors and give some prospects for the future of these searches.

  19. Tau physics results from SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, M.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-10

    Results on {tau} physics at SLD are presented. They are based on 4,316 {tau}-pair events selected from a 150 k Z{sup 0} data sample collected at the SLC. These results include measurements of the {tau} lifetime ({tau}{sub r} = 288.1 {+-} 6.1 {+-} 3.3 fs), the {tau} Michel parameters ({rho} = 0.71 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04, {zeta} = 1.03 {+-} 0.36 {+-} 0.05, and {zeta}{delta} = 0.84 {+-} 0.27 {+-} 0.05), and the {tau} neutrino helicity (h{sub {nu}} = {minus}0.81 {+-} 0.18 {+-} 0.03).

  20. Lipoteichoic Acid Isolated from Weissella cibaria Increases Cytokine Production in Human Monocyte-Like THP-1 Cells and Mouse Splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Lee, Yoon-Doo; Park, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Seongjae; Lee, Youn-Woo; Jeon, Boram; Jagdish, Deepa; Kim, Hangeun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-07-28

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have beneficial effects on intestinal health and skin diseases. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, is known to induce the production of several cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 and affect the intestinal microflora, anti-aging, sepsis, and cholesterol level. In this study, Weissella cibaria was isolated from Indian dairy products, and we examined its immune-enhancing effects. Live and heatkilled W. cibaria did not induce the secretion of immune-related cytokines, whereas LTA isolated from W. cibaria (cLTA) significantly increased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. cLTA increased the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappalight-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases in THP-1 cells. The secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 was also increased in the cLTA-treated mouse splenocytes. These results suggest that cLTA, but not W. cibaria whole cells, has immune-boosting potential and can be used to treat immunosuppression diseases. PMID:27012236

  1. Light Transmission Aggregometry Does Not Correlate With the Severity of δ-Granule Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Woods, Gary M; Kudron, Elizabeth L; Davis, Kyle; Stanek, Joseph; Kerlin, Bryce A; O'Brien, Sarah H

    2016-10-01

    Delta-granule platelet storage pool deficiency (δ-PSPD) is a poorly studied bleeding diathesis resulting from either decreased granule content or decreased average number of platelet δ-granules. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is commonly used to evaluate for δ-PSPD and platelet electron microscopy (EM) is used to confirm the diagnosis. Currently, little data exist examining the relationship between the likelihood of abnormal platelet aggregation findings, severity of δ-granule deficiency on platelet EM, and severity of bleeding symptoms in patients with δ-PSPD. Patients diagnosed with δ-PSPD by platelet EM who also underwent LTA testing were identified at a single institution for correlation between severity of bleeding, average number of platelet δ-granules, and number of agonist abnormalities on LTA. No statistically significant association was identified between the average number of δ-granules per platelet and likelihood of an abnormal LTA. LTA abnormalities were quite varied and only 50% diagnosed with δ-PSPD on EM had abnormal aggregation testing. Also, no correlation was seen between the number of clinical bleeding symptoms, number of average δ-granules per platelet, and the number of LTA agonist abnormalities. Our findings highlight the difficulties inherent in the laboratory evaluation of platelet function.

  2. Recent Results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Demorden, L.

    1998-06-01

    We review recent results from fixed-target and collider experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron. Among the topics discussed are jet production rates, {alpha}{sub S} measurements, the {anti d}/{anti u} ratio in the proton sea, diffraction, heavy quark physics and leptoquark searches.

  3. Cuesta College School Performance Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta Coll., San Luis Obispo, CA.

    This Cuesta College (California) document identifies key institutional effectiveness indicators that are used to assess institutional performance on specified educational processes. The key process of instruction/learning is measured through student performance results such as: (1) transfer rate (University of California/California State…

  4. Results from the HARP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicioni, E.

    2008-07-01

    Hadron production is a key ingredient for precise prediction of atmospheric ν fluxes, characterization of accelerator ν beams, and quantification of π production and capture for ν-factory designs. HARP at the CERN PS was the first hadron production experiment designed on purpose to match all these requirements. We briefly describe here its most recent results.

  5. State Test Results Are Predictable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-school, community demographic and family-level variables have an important influence on student achievement as measured by large-scale standardized tests. Studies described here demonstrated that about half of the test score is accounted for by variables outside the control of teachers and school administrators. The results from these…

  6. 51-A V1103 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counts, B.

    1984-01-01

    The following are test results from the performance sections of the 51-A V1103.03 conducted on October 31,1984. During this checkout, an astronaut commented that the O2 actuator on SEMU 1052 (PLSS 1007) seemed stiffer to operate than the other two units.

  7. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  8. The Latest Results from DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) successfully launched on Dec.17, 2015 is the first Chinese astronomical satellite that can measure 2 GeV-10 TeV electrons and gamma-rays with unprecedented energy resolution. In this talk I will introduce the design, the beam-test, the on-orbit calibration and some preliminary results of DAMPE.

  9. The Planck Mission: Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Bersanelli

    2012-03-07

    The ESA Planck space mission, launched on May 14, 2009, is dedicated to high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the first light of the universe, both in temperature and polarization. The satellite observes the full sky from a far-Earth orbit with two cryogenic instruments in the 30-850 GHz range at the focal plane of a 1.5-meter telescope. The primary objective of Planck is to measure with unprecedented precision the key cosmological parameters and to provide accurate tests of physics in the early universe. Planck has recently completed the fifth full-sky survey. The data analysis is underway. The first cosmology results are expected in early 2013 while a number of astrophysical results have been recently delivered to the community, including galactic and extragalactic astrophysics and a rich catalogue of radio and infrared sources. These results demonstrate the excellent in-orbit performance of the instruments and give excellent prospects for the forthcoming cosmological results.

  10. Recent diffractive results from HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkárová, Alice

    2016-07-01

    The diffractive dijet cross sections for photoproduction and deep inelastic scattering were studied and compared with theoretical NLO QCD predictions. The results of exclusive dijet production were compared to predictions from models which are based on different assumptions about the nature of diffractive exchange. Isolated prompt photons in diffractive photoproduction produced inclusively or together with a jet were studied for the first time.

  11. Optical Telescope Design Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the results of a study conducted from Nov 2012-Apr 2013 to develop a telescope design for a space-based gravitational wave detector. The telescope is needed for efficient power delivery but since it is directly in the beam path, the design is driven by the requirements for the overall displacement sensitivity of the gravitational wave observatory. Two requirements in particular, optical pathlength stability and scattered light performance, are beyond the usual specifications for good image quality encountered in traditional telescopic systems. An important element of the study was to tap industrial expertise to develop an optimized design that can be reliably manufactured. Key engineering and design trade-offs and the sometimes surprising results will be presented.

  12. CMS results on multijet correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Safronov, Grigory

    2015-04-10

    We present recent CMS measurements on multijet correlations using forward and low-p{sub T} jets, focusing on searches for BFKL and saturation phenomena. In pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV, azimuthal correlations in dijets separated in rapidity by up to 9.4 units were measured. The results are compared to BFKL- and DGLAP-based predictions. In pp collisions at √(s)=8 TeV, cross sections for jets with p{sub T} > 21 GeV and |y| < 4.7, and for track-jets with p{sub T} > 1 GeV (minijets) are presented. The minijet results are sensitive to the bound imposed by the total inelastic cross section, and are compared to various models for taming the growth of the 2 → 2 cross section at low p{sub T}.

  13. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  14. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Aburashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Gusev, A.O.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shalagin, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Nico, J.S.; Teasdale, W.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Wildenhain, P.W.; Elliott, S.R.; Cherry, M.L.

    1995-07-10

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sup +21}{sub {minus}18}(stat){sup +5}{sub {minus}7}(sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sup +13}{sub {minus}12}(stat){sup +5}{sub {minus}7}(sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  16. Top physics results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Gervasio; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2005-05-01

    The top quark is by far the most massive fundamental particle observed so far, and the study of its properties is interesting for several reasons ranging from its possible special role in electroweak symmetry breaking to its sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model. They present recent top physics results from CDF based on 160-320 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The t{bar t} cross section and the top mass have been measured in different decay channels and using different methods. they have searched for evidence of single top production, setting upper limits on its production rate. Other results shown in this conference include studies of the polarization of W bosons from top decays, a search for charged Higgs decaying from top, and a search for additional heavy t' quarks.

  17. Surveyor 3 Preliminary Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Surveyor III soft-landed on the Moon at 00:04 GMT on April 20, 1967. Data obtained have significantly increased our knowledge of the Moon. The Surveyor III spacecraft was similar to Surveyor I; the only major change in scientific instrumentation was the addition of a soil mechanics surface sampler. Surveyor III results at this preliminary evaluation of data give valuable information about the relation between the surface skin of under-dense material responsible for the photometric properties and the deeper layers of material whose properties resemble those of ordinary terrestrial soils. In addition, they provide new insight into the relation between the general lunar surface as seen by Surveyor I and the interior of a large subdued crater. The new results have also contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of downhill transport. Many critical questions cannot, however, be answered until final reduction of experimental data.

  18. Forget about data, deliver results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Roland

    2015-12-01

    High-energy astrophysics space missions have pioneered and demonstrated the power of legacy data sets for generating new discoveries, especially when analysed in ways original researchers could not have anticipated. The only way to ensure that the data of present observatories can be effectively used in the future is to allow users to perform on-the-fly data analysis to produce straightforwardly scientific results for any sky position, time and energy intervals without requiring mission specific software or detailed instrumental knowledge. Providing a straightforward interface to complex data and data analysis makes the data and the process of generating science results available to the public and higher education and promotes the visibility of the investment in science to the society. This is a fundamental step to transmit the values of science and to evolve towards a knowledge society.

  19. CMS results on multijet correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, Grigory

    2015-04-01

    We present recent CMS measurements on multijet correlations using forward and low-pT jets, focusing on searches for BFKL and saturation phenomena. In pp collisions at √{s }=7 TeV, azimuthal correlations in dijets separated in rapidity by up to 9.4 units were measured. The results are compared to BFKL- and DGLAP-based predictions. In pp collisions at √{s }=8 TeV, cross sections for jets with pT > 21 GeV and |y| < 4.7, and for track-jets with pT > 1 GeV (minijets) are presented. The minijet results are sensitive to the bound imposed by the total inelastic cross section, and are compared to various models for taming the growth of the 2 → 2 cross section at low pT.

  20. Recent DIII-D results

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, P.I.

    1994-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent DIII-D experimental results and the development of the relevant hardware systems. The DIII-D program focuses on divertor solutions for next generation tokamaks such as International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), and on developing configurations with enhanced confinement and stability properties that will lead to a more compact and economical fusion reactor. The DIII-D program carries out this research in an integrated fashion.

  1. A-3 scientific results - extragalactic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the HEAO A-3 experiment are summarized. Specific contributions of the experiment to extragalactic astronomy are emphasized. The discovery of relatively condensed X-ray emission in the cores of those clusters of galaxies which are dominated by a giant elliptical or cD galaxy, the discovery of extended X-ray emitting plasma in groups of galaxies, and the demonstration that BL Lac objects are a class of X-ray sources are among the topics discussed.

  2. SPQR -- Spectroscopy: Prospects, Questions & Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Michael R.

    2014-06-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in mapping out the spectrum of hadrons over the past decade with plans to make further advances in the decade ahead. Baryons and mesons, both expected and unexpected, have been found, the results of precision experiments often with polarized beams, polarized targets and sometimes polarization of the final states. All these hadrons generate poles in the complex energy plane that are consequences of strong coupling QCD. They reveal how this works.

  3. Recent QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Huston, J. |; CDF Collaboration

    1994-01-01

    CDF has recently concluded a very successful 1992--93 data run in which an integrated luminosity of 21.3 pb {sup {minus}1} was written to tape. The large data sample allows for a greater discovery potential for new phenomena and for better statistical and systematic precision in analysis of conventional physics. This paper summarizes some of the new results from QCD analyses for this run.

  4. Physics results from polarized DIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-03-23

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections.

  5. Measuring the results of faith.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T

    1996-09-20

    Guiding patients to health takes more than technological wizardry, wonder drugs, and pleasantly decorated surroundings. In fact, to an increasing number of institutions, faith is the missing ingredient. Faith in a higher power. Faith in oneself. Faith in the possibilities for recovery. Welcome, then, to the new high-tech, high-touch world, where pastoral care meets managed care. The results may startle you. PMID:8924945

  6. Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  7. Open cherry picker simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  8. Top quark results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present the latest results on the top quark obtained by the CDF experiment using a data sample of about 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We briefly describe the candidate events selection and then discuss the production cross section determination and the mass measurement. The study of two new decay channels (all hadronic and ``tau dilepton``) is also reported.

  9. Electroweak results from D0

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.; D0 Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    Preliminary results from D0 are presented on properties of the W{sup {plus_minus}} and Z{sup 0} electroweak gauge bosons, using final states containing electrons and muons. In particular, preliminary measurements of the W{sup {plus_minus}} and Z{sup 0} production cross sections with decay into final states containing electrons are shown and a status report on the determination of M{sub w}/M{sub z} is given.

  10. Cassini Imaging Results at Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEwen, A.; Turtle, E.; Perry J.; Fussner, S.; Porco, C.; West, R.; Johnson, T.; Collins, G.; DelGenio, T.; Barbara, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images show striking albedo markings on the surface of Titan. In equatorial regions the albedo patterns have high contrast and exhibit prominent lineaments and linear/angular boundaries suggestive of tectonic influences or fracturing of brittle surficial materials. There are intriguing dark curving lines near the south pole. Here we present several working hypotheses to explain these patterns. We also briefly summarize atmospheric science results.

  11. Heavy Flavour results from Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Borissov, G.; /Lancaster U.

    2012-06-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments finalize the analysis of their full statistics collected in the p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper presents several new results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy b- and c-quarks obtained by both collaborations. These results include the search for the rare decays B{sup 0}, B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} (CDF), the study of CP asymmetry in B{sub s} {yields} J{psi}{phi} decay (CDF, D0), the measurement of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry (D0), the measurement of CP asymmetry in D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays (CDF), and the new measurement of the B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching fraction (CDF). Both experiments still expect to produce more results on the properties of heavy flavours.

  12. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 safety tests

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    Safety tests were conducted on fourteen fuel compacts from AGR-1, the first irradiation experiment of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program, at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 1800°C to determine fission product release at temperatures that bound reactor accident conditions. The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, strontium, and krypton from fuel compacts containing tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles during the safety tests, and the predicted values were compared with experimental results. Preliminary comparisons between PARFUME predictions and post-irradiation examination (PIE) results of the safety tests show different trends in the prediction of the fractional release depending on the species, and it leads to different conclusions regarding the diffusivities used in the modeling of fission product transport in TRISO-coated particles: • For silver, the diffusivity in silicon carbide (SiC) might be over-estimated by a factor of at least 102 to 103 at 1600°C and 1700°C, and at least 10 to 102 at 1800°C. The diffusivity of silver in uranium oxy-carbide (UCO) might also be over-estimated, but the available data are insufficient to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn. • For cesium, the diffusivity in UCO might be over-estimated by a factor of at least 102 to 103 at 1600°C, 105 at 1700°C, and 103 at 1800°C. The diffusivity of cesium in SiC might also over-estimated, by a factor of 10 at 1600°C and 103 at 1700°C, based upon the comparisons between calculated and measured release fractions from intact particles. There is no available estimate at 1800°C since all the compacts heated up at 1800°C contain particles with failed SiC layers whose release dominates the release from intact particles. • For strontium, the diffusivity in SiC might be over-estimated by a factor of 10 to 102 at 1600 and 1700°C, and 102 to 103 at 1800°C. These

  13. Some Recent Results with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Maurik Holtrop

    2010-10-01

    The CLAS is a multipurpose, large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, instrumented with detector systems sensitive to charged and neutral particles. The experimental program at CLAS is aimed at furthering our understanding of hadronic and nuclear physics, through electron and photon scattering experiments, which cover a large range of topics, including meson and baryon spectroscopy, nucleon structure through elastic and deep inelastic scattering, nuclear transparency, nuclear correlations and nuclear structure. This talk will briefly describe the detector and the collaboration that uses it and will highlight some recent results.

  14. Electroweak results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1995-10-01

    Results from the CDF and D{O} experiments are presented on properties of the W{plus_minus} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons using final states containing electrons and muons based on large integrated luminosities. In particular, measurements of the W{plus_minus} and Z{sup 0} production cross sections, the W-charge asymmetry and the CDF measurement of the W-mass are summarized. Gauge boson self interactions axe measured by studying di-gauge boson production and limits on anomalous gauge boson couplings axe discussed.

  15. The first results from MAXIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, George F.

    2001-02-01

    This talk reviews the first results from MAXIMA and the scientific implications of the combined MAXIMA and BOOMERANG data sets. The key piece of science is that both experiments independently observe the first acoustic peak in CMB angular power spectrum at a value ~200 and with a width which are compatible with a flat universe and inflation. Both experiments also observe a positive signal which is lower than that previously expected for the second acoustic peak region. A natural economical explanation is that the density of baryons is slightly but noticeably higher than that determined through Big Bang Nucleosynthesis theory. .

  16. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  17. Lightcurve Results for Eleven Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartrelle, Gordon M.

    2012-04-01

    Differential photometry techniques were used to develop lightcurves, rotation periods and amplitudes for eleven main-belt asteroids: 833 Monica, 962 Aslog, 1020 Arcadia, 1082 Pirola, 1097 Vicia, 1122 Lugduna, 1145 Robelmonte, 1253 Frisia, 1256 Normannia, 1525 Savolinna, and 2324 Janice. Ground-based observations from Badlands Observatory (BLO) in Quinn, SD, as well as the University of North Dakota Observatory (UND) in Grand Forks, ND, provided the data for the project. A search of the asteroid lightcurve database (LCDB) did not reveal any previously reported results for seven of the eleven targets in this study.

  18. Results from the HARP Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanesi, M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Hadron production is a key ingredient in many aspects of ν physics. Precise prediction of atmospheric ν fluxes, characterization of accelerator ν beams, quantification of π production and capture for ν-factory designs, all of these would profit from hadron production measurements. HARP at the CERN PS was the first hadron production experiment designed on purpose to match all these requirements. It combines a large, full phase space acceptance with low systematic errors and high statistics. HARP was operated in the range from 3 GeV to 15 GeV. We briefly describe here the most recent results.

  19. Results from the HARP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanesi, M. G.

    2007-06-01

    Hadron production is a key ingredient in many aspects of ν physics. Precise prediction of atmospheric ν fluxes, characterization of accelerator ν beams, quantification of π production and capture for ν-factory designs, all of these would profit from hadron production measurements. HARP at the CERN PS was the first hadron production experiment designed on purpose to match all these requirements. It combines a large, full phase space acceptance with low systematic errors and high statistics. HARP was operated in the range from 3 GeV to 15 GeV. We briefly describe here the most recent results.

  20. Data bases for LDEF results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) carried 57 experiments and 10,000 specimens for some 200 LDEF experiment investigators. The external surface of LDEF had a large variety of materials exposed to the space environment which were tested preflight, during flight, and post flight. Thermal blankets, optical materials, thermal control paints, aluminum, and composites are among the materials flown. The investigations have produced an abundance of analysis results. One of the responsibilities of the Boeing Support Contract, Materials and Systems Special Investigation Group, is to collate and compile that information into an organized fashion. The databases developed at Boeing to accomplish this task is described.

  1. Implicit Media Knowledge Experiments & Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Muy-Chu; Germaneau, Alexis

    2011-08-01

    Implicit Media Knowledge aims to provide relevant information related to visual media without effort. It is based on the analysis of media usage from several users (e.g. a community). Algorithms based on clustering methods that extract relevant information (e.g. tags, taxonomy trees) related to a media from its usage are detailed. To validate our new approach, we propose to apply our concept and algorithms on a specific media use such as the analysis of how multiple users organize their media files. Significant results of two experiments will be highlighted. Perspectives of our work will be finally presented.

  2. Preliminary neural response telemetry results.

    PubMed

    Cullington, H

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the neural response telemetry (NRT) results obtained from the first 30 patients tested at this centre. One hundred per cent of patients tested intra-operatively had NRT responses on at least one electrode; this compared to 82.4% of patients tested post-operatively. Reasonable correlations existed between post-operative NRT thresholds and psychophysical threshold and comfort levels, although there was too much variability for the data to be used to set these parameters directly. Post-operative NRT thresholds were always at levels audible to patients.

  3. Results from IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, Tyce

    2016-04-01

    Data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have revealed the existence of a flux of high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin, which is observed in a number of analyses spanning different energy ranges, fields of view, and neutrino flavors. The current data are consistent with an isotropic, equal-flavor flux described by a simple power law spectrum, but deviations from this simple model cannot yet be constrained with high precision. The existing observations in this area are reviewed, along with recent results on dark matter searches and observations of cosmic rays.

  4. Results from the HARP Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Catanesi, M. G.

    2008-02-21

    Hadron production is a key ingredient in many aspects of {nu} physics. Precise prediction of atmospheric {nu} fluxes, characterization of accelerator {nu} beams, quantification of {pi} production and capture for {nu}-factory designs, all of these would profit from hadron production measurements. HARP at the CERN PS was the first hadron production experiment designed on purpose to match all these requirements. It combines a large, full phase space acceptance with low systematic errors and high statistics. HARP was operated in the range from 3 GeV to 15 GeV. We briefly describe here the most recent results.

  5. Double Chooz and recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meregaglia, A.; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The reactor bar{{ν}}e^{} disappearance experiment Double Chooz, located in France near the power plant of Chooz, has as main goal the measurement of the θ_{{13}}^{} mixing angle. For the first time, in 2011, the experimental results gave an indication for a non-zero value of such an oscillation parameter. The mixing angle was successively measured using only the far detector finding the best fit value of sin2(2 θ_{{13}}^{}) = 0.090+0.033-0.029 . The near detector started data taking in December 2014 and it will allow to reduce the systematic errors so far dominated by the reactor flux uncertainty. In this paper a review of the experiment is presented focusing on the so-called Gadolinium-III results (DOUBLE CHOOZ COLLABORATION (ABE Y. et al.), JHEP, 10 (2014) 086; 02 (2015) 074). Furthermore additional physics measurements are presented such as the capability of Double Chooz to identify the ortho-positronium state on event by event basis.

  6. REMS Wind Sensor Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Torre Juarez, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Navarro, S.; Marin, M.; Torres, J.; Rafkin, S. C.; Newman, C. E.; Pla-García, J.

    2015-12-01

    The REMS instrument is part of the Mars Science Laboratory payload. It is a sensor suite distributed over several parts of the rover. The wind sensor, which is composed of two booms equipped with a set of hot plate anemometers, is installed on the Rover Sensing Mast (RSM). During landing most of the hot plates of one boom were damaged, most likely by the pebbles lifted by the Sky Crane thruster. The loss of one wind boom necessitated a full review of the data processing strategy. Different algorithms have been tested on the readings of the first Mars year, and these results are now archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS), The presentation will include a description of the data processing methods and of the resulting products, including the typical evolution of wind speed and direction session-by-session, hour-by-hour and other kinds of statistics . A review of the wind readings over the first Mars year will also be presented.

  7. Space expectations: Latest survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, David; Swan, Cathy; Swan, Peter; Woods, Arthur

    2010-11-01

    At the 59th IAC in Glasgow, a paper was presented describing two studies being carried out by Commission VI of the International Academy of Astronautics on the impact of space activities upon society. One of these studies sought to discover the hopes, aspirations and expectations of those outside the space field - the person in the street - regarding space activities. The paper reviewed the thought processes and decisions leading up to the commencement of the survey, documented the reasoning behind the questions which the public were; described the efforts to translate the questionnaire into the six Unesco languages to achieve wider participation, and provided an overview of results to date. This present paper provides an update on this Space Expectations survey as the study comes to a close. The paper briefly discusses the addition of new languages for the questionnaire and the drive to make the survey better known and encourage participation worldwide, before going on to provide a detailed analysis of the latest results of opinions. Insights include respondent's thoughts regarding the visions and costs of space activities, how much people feel part of them and whether and how they would like to be more involved.

  8. Heel pain--operative results.

    PubMed

    Baxter, D E; Thigpen, C M

    1984-01-01

    In 6 years through 1982, the authors performed 34 operative cases in 26 patients with recalcitrant heel pain. The operative procedure involves an isolated neurolysis of the mixed nerve supplying the abductor digiti quinti muscle as it passes beneath the abductor hallucis muscle and beneath the medial ridge of the calcaneus. The deep fascia of the abductor hallucis muscle is released routinely, and an impinging heel spur or tight plantar fascia is partially removed or released if it is causing entrapment of the nerve. The biomechanical pathogenesis of heel pain in relation to pes planus and pes cavus predisposing to an entrapment neuropathy is described, and the anatomy of the heel in relation to the nerve distribution is clarified and well illustrated. Of the 34 operated heels, 32 had good results and two had poor results. Heel pain can cause total disability in the working population and may jeopardize one's employment or professional athletic career. The authors believe operative treatment has a place in the care of recalcitrant heel pain and that an entrapment neuropathy is an etiological factor in heel pain.

  9. Wake Vortex Algorithm Scoring Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, R. E.; Delisi, D. P.; Hinton, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report compares the performance of two models of trailing vortex evolution for which interaction with the ground is not a significant factor. One model uses eddy dissipation rate (EDR) and the other uses the kinetic energy of turbulence fluctuations (TKE) to represent the effect of turbulence. In other respects, the models are nearly identical. The models are evaluated by comparing their predictions of circulation decay, vertical descent, and lateral transport to observations for over four hundred cases from Memphis and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airports. These observations were obtained during deployments in support of NASA's Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The results of the comparisons show that the EDR model usually performs slightly better than the TKE model.

  10. Research Results and Information Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

  11. Data Assimilation Results from PLASMON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Lichtenberger, J.; Duffy, J.; Friedel, R. H.; Clilverd, M.; Heilig, B.; Vellante, M.; Manninen, J. K.; Raita, T.; Rodger, C. J.; Collier, A.; Reda, J.; Holzworth, R. H.; Ober, D. M.; Boudouridis, A.; Zesta, E.; Chi, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    VLF and magnetometer observations can be used to remotely sense the plasmasphere. VLF whistler waves can be used to measure the electron density and magnetic Field Line Resonance (FLR) measurements can be used to measure the mass density. In principle it is then possible to remotely map the plasmasphere with a network of ground-based stations which are also less expensive and more permanent than satellites. The PLASMON project, funded by the EU FP-7 program, is in the process of doing just this. A large number of ground-based observations will be input into a data assimilative framework which models the plasmasphere structure and dynamics. The data assimilation framework combines the Ensemble Kalman Filter with the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model. In this presentation we will describe the plasmasphere model, the data assimilation approach that we have taken, PLASMON data and data assimilation results for specific events.

  12. Results from Antarctic optical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eather, R.H.

    1988-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations carried out in the past decade on the upper atmosphere and the magnetosphere of Antarctica, using ground-based optical techniques, such as all-sky cameras, spectral imaging, photometry, and interferometry. Special attention is given to studies conducted by the United States, United Kingdom, Australian, French, Japanese, New Zealand, South African, and Japanese teams in Antarctica, that contributed to the information in the areas of dayside aurora, auroral conjugacy, thermospheric dynamics, and wave-particle interactions. The advantages obtained by the use of monochromatic imaging devices are discussed; this technique, used in conjunction with various detectors and sophisticated image-processing methods is considered to be the instrumentation of choice for future optical studies of upper atmosphere. 75 references.

  13. Current MINOS Neutrino Oscillation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; /Minnesota U., Duluth

    2009-07-01

    The MINOS experiment is now making precise measurements of the {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillations seen in atmospheric neutrinos, tests possible disappearance to sterile {nu} by measuring the neutral current flux, and has extended our reach towards the so far unseen {theta}{sub 13} by looking for {nu}{sub e} appearance in the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. It does so by using the intense, well-understood NuMI neutrino beam created at Fermilab and observing it 735km away at the Soudan Mine in Northeast Minnesota. High-statistics studies of the neutrino interactions themselves and the cosmic rays seen by the MINOS detectors have also been made. Results from MINOS first three years of operations will be presented.

  14. SPA Meteor Section Results: 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair

    2013-08-01

    Information extracted from analyses carried out by the SPA Meteor Section from 2007 is presented and discussed. Events covered include: the radio Quadrantid maximum on January 4; a bright fireball seen from parts of England and imaged from the Netherlands at 19h56m UT on February 6, for which an approximate trajectory was established; radio results from the Lyrids in late April; the Perseid near-peak activity from August and a note on some daylight Perseid observing from Britain using thermal imagers; the radio α-Aurigid maximum on September 1; the Orionid return, which again provided enhanced activity over several consecutive dates in October for visual and radio observers; the radio Leonids, although the probably main peak found visually on November 19 was not recorded thus due to its timing; the typically protracted Geminid maximum period around December 13-15 as observed visually and by radio; and the Ursid outburst, primarily as detected by radio on December 22.

  15. First results on fast baking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentin, B.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J. P.

    2006-07-01

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120 °C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q0 is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the “fast baking” (145 °C/3 h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to: time reduction and possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  16. Monsoon '90 - Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Guerra, Abel G.

    1992-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  17. Monsoon 1990: Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J.; Dubois, Pascale; Guerra, Abel

    1991-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  18. Airfreight forecasting methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A series of econometric behavioral equations was developed to explain and forecast the evolution of airfreight traffic demand for the total U.S. domestic airfreight system, the total U.S. international airfreight system, and the total scheduled international cargo traffic carried by the top 44 foreign airlines. The basic explanatory variables used in these macromodels were the real gross national products of the countries involved and a measure of relative transportation costs. The results of the econometric analysis reveal that the models explain more than 99 percent of the historical evolution of freight traffic. The long term traffic forecasts generated with these models are based on scenarios of the likely economic outlook in the United States and 31 major foreign countries.

  19. Recent results from telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum (XMAX) are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20∘ radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 σ. The measured ⟨XMAX⟩ is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 1018.2 eV-1019.2 eV.

  20. TFTR D-T results

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, D.M.

    1995-03-01

    Temperatures, densities and confinement of deuterium plasmas confined in tokamaks have been achieved within the last decade that are approaching those required for a D-T reactor. As a result, the unique phenomena present in a D-T reactor plasma can now be studied in the laboratory. Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been the first magnetic fusion experiments to study plasmas with reactor fuel concentrations of tritium. The injection of {approximately} 20 MW of tritium and 14 MW of deuterium neutral beams into the TFTR produced a plasma with a T/D density ratio of {approximately} 1 and yielded a maximum fusion power of {approximately} 9.2 MW. The fusion power density in the core of the plasma was {approximately} 1.8 MW m{sup {minus}3} approximating that expected in a D-T fusion reactor. A TFTR plasma with T/D density ratio of {approximately} 1 was found to have {approximately} 20% higher energy confinement time than a comparable D plasma, indicating a confinement scaling with average ion mass, A, of {tau}{sub E} {approximately} A{sup 0.6}. The core ion temperature increased from 30 keV to 37 keV due to a 35% improvement of ion thermal conductivity. Using the electron thermal conductivity from a comparable deuterium plasma, about 50% of the electron temperature increase from 9 keV to 10.6 keV can be attributed to electron heating by the alpha particles. The {approx} 5% loss of alpha particles was consistent with classical first orbit loss without anomalous effects. Initial measurements have been made of the confined energetic alphas and the resultant alpha ash density.

  1. Huygens GCMS Results from Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Demick, Jaime; Kasprzak, Wayne; Atreya, Sushil; Owen, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Huygens Probe executed a successful entry, descent and impact on the Saturnian moon of Titan on January 14, 2005. The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) instrument conducted isotopic and compositional measurements throughout the two and one half hour descent from 146 km altitude, and on the surface for 69 minutes until loss of signal from the orbiting Cassini spacecraft. The GCMS incorporated a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system. The gas sampling system provided continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns, a chemical scrubber and a hydrocarbon enrichment cell. The GCMS gas inlet was heated to prevent condensation, and to evaporate volatiles from the surface after impact. Data products from the GCMS included altitude profiles of the major atmospheric constituents dinitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4), isotope ratios of 14N/15N, 12C/13C, and D/H, mole fractions of radiogenic argon (40Ar) and primordial argon (36Ar), and upper limits on the mole fractions of neon, krypton and xenon, which were found to be absent. Surface measurements confirmed the presence of ethane (C2H6) and cyanogen (C2N2). Later data products expanded atmospheric profiles to include the surface response of C2N2. C2H6, acetylene (C2H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). More recent results include the profiles of benzene (C6H6) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The GCMS data are being further analyzed to obtain higher precision results and to identify other trace species ion the atmosphere and evaporating from the surface.

  2. Recent results from the Microscopic Imagers on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ashley, J. W.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI), designed to simulate a geologist’s hand lens. The fixed-focus MI is mounted on the instrument arm and can resolve objects 0.1 mm in size or larger. Spirit MI observations of the rocks on “Home Plate” continue to be consistent with a volcaniclastic origin. A total of 124 individual soil samples were analyzed using MI images acquired between landing and Sol 1980, including 28 bedforms, 35 composite soils, 49 unstructured soils, and 6 trenches including natural vertical exposures and those dug by Spirit’s wheels. Six outcrops and rocks were also analyzed as plausible source areas for the spherules and other particles observed in the soil around Home Plate, or when associated with large patches of soils. The rocks on Home Plate were covered by enough dust that RAT brushing was required to allow textures to be seen by the MI, such as the dark, moderately sorted and rounded grains (lapilli?) of the rock “Pecan Pie.” The MI also monitored the MER magnets and solar panels at the 2008 winter haven on the north side of Home Plate. After solar power was sufficient to allow Spirit to drive again, the MI was used to examine the silica-rich rock “Stapledon” just north of Home Plate. The texture of Stapledon appears similar to that seen in the silica-rich rocks on the east side of Home Plate, suggestive of secondary mineralization through precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. While plans for extracting Spirit from the sands of “Troy” are being made, the MI has been extensively used to examine the rocks and soils accessible to the instrument arm. These data show that moderately sorted, salty aggregate soils at depth are overlain by a thin crust near the present surface. These observations, along with MI images showing Spirit’s underbelly, are being used to inform extraction testing in the MER testbed at JPL. While the MI was not designed to take images of

  3. Comparative Soot Diagnostics: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1997-01-01

    detected and suppressed. Prior to CSD, no combustion-generated particulate samples had been collected near the flame zone for well-developed microgravity flames. All of the extant data either came from drop tower tests and therefore only corresponded to the early stages of a fire or were collected far from the flame zone. The fuel sources in the drop tower tests were restricted to laminar gas-jet diffusion flames and very rapidly overheated wire insulation. The gas-jet tests indicated, through thermophoretic sampling, (2) that soot primaries and aggregates (groups of primary particles) in low-gravity may be significantly larger than those in normal gravity (1-g). This raises new scientific questions about soot processes as well as practical issues for particulate size sensitivity and detection alarm threshold levels used in on-orbit smoke detectors. Preliminary tests in the 2.2 second drop tower suggest that particulate generated by overheated wire insulation may be larger in low-g than in 1-g. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids downstream of the fire region in the Wire Insulation Flammability experiment as well as visual observation of long string-like aggregates, further confirm this suggestion. The combined impact of these limited results and theoretical predictions is that, as opposed to extrapolation from l-g data, direct knowledge of low-g combustion particulate is needed for more confident design of smoke detectors for spacecraft. This paper describes the operation and preliminary results of the CSD, a project conceived and developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The CSD flight experiment was conducted in the Middeck Glovebox Facility (MGBX) on USMP-3. The project is support by NASA Headquarters Microgravity Science and Applications Division and Code Q. The results presented here are from the microgravity portion of the experiment, including the temporal response of the detectors and average sizes of the primary and aggregate particles captured on the

  4. Geophysical Model Research and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Flanagan, M

    2004-07-07

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics: (1) a priori geophysical models, (2) surface wave models, (3) receiver function derived profiles, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. The first, a priori models, can be used to predict a host of geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. Use of these models is particularly important in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, where data of direct measurements might not exist. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the Western Eurasia and North Africa (WENA) model which has been evaluated using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis (Pasyanos et al., 2004). We have joined this model with our Yellow Sea - Korean Peninsula (YSKP) model and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) East Asia model to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. Secondly, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. We are also using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In a collaborative project with Ammon, et al., they have been focusing on stations throughout western Eurasia and North Africa, while we have been focusing on LLNL deployments in the Middle East, including Kuwait, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates. Finally, we have been

  5. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-07-24

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 {+-} 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 {+-} 0.0112) E+04 {micro}g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 {+-} 0.786 wt % or (1.40 {+-} 0.104) E+05 {micro}g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 {+-} 0

  6. FlareLab: early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwisch, H.; Kempkes, P.; Mackel, F.; Stein, H.; Tenfelde, J.; Arnold, L.; Dreher, J.; Grauer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The FlareLab experiment at Bochum University has been constructed to generate and investigate plasma-filled magnetic flux tubes similar to arch-shaped solar prominences, which often result in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In its first version, the device has been used to reproduce and extend previous studies of Bellan et al (1998 Phys. Plasmas 5 1991). Here the plasma source consists of two electrodes, which can be connected to a 1.0 kJ capacitor bank, and of a horseshoe magnet, which provides an arch-shaped guiding field. The discharge is ignited in a cloud of hydrogen gas that has been puffed into the space above the electrodes. In the first few microseconds the plasma current rises at a rate of several kA µs-1, causing the plasma column to pinch along the guiding B-field and to form an expanding loop structure. The observed dynamics of the magnetic flux tubes is analysed by means of three-dimensional MHD simulations in order to determine the influence of parameters like the initial magnetic field geometry on magnetic stability. At present, FlareLab is redesigned to mimic a model that was proposed by Titov and Démoulin (1999 Astron. Astrophys. 351 707) to investigate twisted magnetic configurations in solar flares.

  7. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.; Duennebier, F. K.

    2011-12-01

    The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) was installed 6 June 2011, extending power, network communications and timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4726 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. The system was installed using ROV Jason operated from the R/V Kilo Moana. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated temporal dynamics in biology, physics, and chemistry since 1988. HOT conducts near monthly ship-based sampling and makes continuous observations from moored instruments to document and study climate and ecosystem variability over semi-diurnal to decadal time scales. The cabled observatory system will provide the infrastructure for continuous, interactive ocean sampling enabling new measurements as well as a new mode of ocean observing that integrates ship and cabled observations. The ACO is a prototypical example of a deep observatory system that uses a retired first-generation fiber-optic telecommunications cable. Sensors provide live video, sound from local and distant sources, and measure currents, pressure, temperature, and salinity. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed.

  8. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-12-17

    Objective The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  9. Drillhole results to be discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Vattenfall, the Swedish State Power Board, is searching for a predicted reservoir of abiogenic methane beneath the floor of a meteorite crater in central Sweden. Some of the early scientific results from the drilling project at the Siljan Ring impact structure will be presented on Thursday, May 21, at the 1987 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md.Thomas Gold of Cornell University (Ithaca, N.Y.) has predicted that large amounts of methane from deep within the earth may move closer to the surface beneath sites where large meteorites have hit the earth, such as the Siljan Ring structure (Eos, July 9, 1985, p. 537). The site is known for its gas seeps, according to Paul Westcott of the Gas Research Institute (GRI, in Chicago, Ill.). The institute is putting up 15% of the costs of the drillhole in return for access to samples and data. Seismic surveys at the site revealed horizontal structures in the granite, which may suggest the presence of gas-liquid interfaces, Westcott said.

  10. Unfavourable results in craniofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Craniofacial surgery is one of the newer subspecialties of plastic surgery and owes its birth to the pioneering work of Paul Tessier in the late sixties. Since then this challenging specialty work has been taken up by many centres around the word including India. Initial reports in late eighties and early nineties showed morbidity and mortality ranging from 1.6% to 4.3%. However over past few decades, with improved instrumentations, safer anaesthesia and cumulative experience of surgeons the morbidity and mortality has been brought down to as low as 0.1% in many centres in USA. In our centre at Post-graduate Institute, Chandigarh, the mortality rate is about 0.8% (4 out of 480 cases). The learning curve in this surgery is rather steep but with experience and a well-coordinated team work, results in this complex subspecialty can be improved. The infection is a major cause for worry but can be easily prevented by sound surgical principles and placing a vascularised tissue barrier between the extradural space and the nasopharynx/sinus mucosa. PMID:24501456

  11. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  12. Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study: results.

    PubMed

    Buelke-Sam, J; Kimmel, C A; Adams, J; Nelson, C J; Vorhees, C V; Wright, D C; St Omer, V; Korol, B A; Butcher, R E; Geyer, M A

    1985-01-01

    Behavioral measures used in the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study (CBTS) were negative geotaxis (PNDs 7-10), olfactory discrimination (PNDs 9-11), auditory startle habituation (PNDs 18-19 and 57-58), 1-hr activity (PNDs 21, 60, 100 and 120), 23-hr activity (PND 100), activity following a pharmacological challenge (PND 120), and an operant, discrete trial visual discrimination task. Maternal and offspring body weights and the appearance of certain physical landmarks of development were also monitored. The design of the CBTS allowed evaluation of the reproducibility and detection sensitivity of these behavioral test methods, as well as the impact of early testing experience on later behavioral assessment, offspring sex differences in response levels and variability, and the contribution of litter-to-litter and animal-to-animal variation to behavioral measures in a standardized test protocol. The results obtained in this test system are discussed in relation to each of these factors and to the degree of overt toxicity obtained using prenatal treatment with 0, 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine sulfate, SC, on gestation days 12-15 (Study 1) or methylmercuric chloride, 0, 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg by gavage, on gestation days 6-9 (Study 2).

  13. SPA Meteor Section Results: 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair

    2010-12-01

    A summary of the main analyzed results and other information provided to the SPA Meteor Section from 2006 is presented and discussed. Events covered include: the radio Quadrantid maximum on January 3/4; an impressive fireball seen from parts of England, Belgium and the Netherlands at 22h53m51s UT on July 18, which was imaged from three EFN stations as well; the Southern delta-Aquarid and alpha-Capricornid activity from late July and early August; the radio Perseid maxima on August 12/13; confirmation that the October 5/6 video-meteor outburst was not observed by radio; visual and radio findings from the strong, bright-meteor, Orionid return in October; another impressive UK-observed fireball on November 1/2, with an oil painting of the event as seen from London; the Leonids, which produced a strong visual maximum around 04h-05h UT on November 18/19 that was recorded much less clearly by radio; radio and visual reports from the Geminids, with a note regarding NASA-observed Geminid lunar impact flashes; and the Ursid outburst recorded by various techniques on December 22.

  14. Preliminary results of ANAIS-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2014-04-01

    The ANAIS (Annual Modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as a target, divided into 20 modules, each coupled to two photomultipliers. Two NaI(Tl) crystals of 12.5 kg each, grown by Alpha Spectra from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, form the ANAIS-25 set-up. The background contributions are being carefully studied and preliminary results are presented: their natural potassium content in the bulk has been quantified, as well as the uranium and thorium radioactive chains presence in the bulk through the discrimination of the corresponding alpha events by PSA, and due to the fast commissioning, the contribution from cosmogenic activated isotopes is clearly identified and their decay observed along the first months of data taking. Following the procedures established with ANAIS-0 and previous prototypes, bulk NaI(Tl) scintillation events selection and light collection efficiency have been also studied in ANAIS-25.

  15. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, Roland

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ∼My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  16. Results from the NEXT Protogypes

    DOE PAGES

    Oliveira, C A.B.

    2013-10-04

    NEXT-100 is an electroluminescent high pressure Time Projection Chamber currently under construction. It will search for the neutrino-less double beta decay in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. NEXT-100 aims to achieve nearly intrinsic energy resolution and to highly suppress background events by taking advantage of the unique properties of xenon in the gaseous phase as the detection medium. In order to prove the principle of operation and to study which are the best operational conditions, two prototypes were constructed: NEXT-DEMO and NEXT-DBDM. In this study we present the latest results from both prototypes. We report the improvement in termsmore » of light collection (~ 3x) achieved by coating the walls of NEXT-DEMO with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB), the outstanding energy resolution of 1% (Full Width Half Maximum) from NEXT-DBDM as well as the tracking capabilities of this prototype (2.1 mm RMS error for point-like depositions) achieved by using a square array of 8 x 8 SiPMs.« less

  17. Visible Nulling Coronagraph Testbed Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker; Woodruff, Robert; Vasudevan, Gopal; Rizzo, Maxime; Thompson, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept study and a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC would provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F stars, observed the inner spatial structure and colors of inner Spitzer selected debris disks. EPIC would be launched to heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5-year mission lifetime. The starlight suppression approach consists of a visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) that enables starlight suppression in broadband light from 480-960 nm. To demonstrate the VNC approach and advance it's technology readiness we have developed a laboratory VNC and have demonstrated white light nulling. We will discuss our ongoing VNC work and show the latest results from the VNC testbed.

  18. Results from Long Baseline Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messier, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of neutrino mass in 1998 spawned a world-wide effort to better understand neutrino properties using neutrinos from the Sun, the atmosphere, reactors, and from accelerators. Neutrino experiments based at the world's accelerators have been an important component of this program as the proton accelerators provide a nearly pure beam of muon neutrinos at selected energies with which to study neutrino oscillations of muon flavor to other flavors. The underlying structure of the neutrino masses and mixings are revealed through the study of the frequency and amplitude of the flavor oscillations. The smallness of the neutrino mass splittings (~= 0 . 05 eV) means that phase differences between the mass eigenstates accumulate very slowly requiring these experiments to be conducted over great distances ranging from 250 km to 810 km separation between source and detector. Currently there are three long-baseline experiments underway, T2K at the J-PARC facility in Japan, and MINOS+ and NOvA underway at Fermilab in the United States. In this talk, I will review the fundamental physics probed by these experiments, how the experimental setups probe this physics, and summarize the recent results with a particular emphasis on the newest experiment, NOvA.

  19. [Mortality results in SENTIERI Project].

    PubMed

    Pirastu, R; Zona, A; Ancona, C; Bruno, C; Fano, V; Fazzo, L; Iavarone, I; Minichilli, F; Mitis, F; Pasetto, R; Comba, P

    2011-01-01

    SENTIERI Project (Mortality study of residents in Italian polluted sites) studies mortality of residents in 44 sites of national interest for environmental remediation (Italian polluted sites, IPS). The epidemiological evidence of the causal association between causes of death and exposures was a priori classified into one of these three categories: Sufficient (S), Limited (L) and Inadequate (I). In these sites various environmental exposures are present. Asbestos (or asbestiform fibres as in Biancavilla) has been the motivation for defining six sites as IPSs (Balangero, Emarese, Casale Monferrato, Broni, Bari-Fibronit, Biancavilla). In five of these, increases in malignant neoplasm or pleura mortality are detected; in four of them, results are consistent in both genders. In six other sites (Pitelli, Massa Carrara, Aree del Litorale Vesuviano, Tito, "Aree industriali della Val Basento", Priolo), where other sources of environmental pollution in addition to asbestos are reported, mortality from malignant neoplasm of pleura is increased in both genders in Pitelli, Massa Carrara, Priolo, "Litorale vesuviano". In the time span 1995-2002, a total of 416 extra cases of malignant neoplasm of pleura are detected in the twelve asbestos-polluted sites. Asbestos and pleural neoplasm represent an unique case. Unlike mesothelioma, most causes of death analyzed in SENTIERI have multifactorial etiology; furthermore, in most IPSs multiple sources of different pollutants are present, sometimes concurrently with air pollution from urban areas: in these cases, drawing conclusions on the association between environmental exposures and specific health outcomes might be complicated. Notwithstanding these difficulties, in a number of cases an etiological role could be attributed to some environmental exposures. The attribution could be possible on the basis of increases observed in both genders and in different age classes, and the exclusion of a major role of occupational exposures was

  20. An overview of FTU results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, P.; Alessi, E.; Amicucci, L.; Angelini, B.; Apicella, M. L.; Apruzzese, G.; Artaserse, G.; Barbato, E.; Belli, F.; Bertocchi, A.; Bin, W.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Briguglio, S.; Bruschi, A.; Calabrò, G.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Centioli, C.; Cesario, R.; Cianfarani, C.; Cirant, S.; Crisanti, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; De Angeli, M.; De Angelis, R.; Di Matteo, L.; Di Troia, C.; Esposito, B.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Fogaccia, G.; Frigione, D.; Fusco, V.; Gabellieri, L.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Giovannozzi, E.; Granucci, G.; Grossetti, G.; Grosso, G.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Iannone, F.; Krivska, A.; Kroegler, H.; Lazzaro, E.; Lontano, M.; Maddaluno, G.; Marchetto, C.; Marinucci, M.; Marocco, D.; Mazzitelli, G.; Mazzotta, C.; Milovanov, A.; Minelli, D.; Mirizzi, F. C.; Moro, G. A.; Napoli, F.; Nowak, S.; Orsitto, F. P.; Pacella, D.; Panaccione, L.; Panella, M.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Podda, S.; Pizzuto, A.; Pucella, G.; Ramogida, G.; Ravera, G.; Romano, A.; Sozzi, C.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.; Viola, B.; Vitale, V.; Vlad, G.; Zanza, V.; Zerbini, M.; Zonca, F.; Aquilini, M.; Cefali, P.; Di Ferdinando, E.; Di Giovenale, S.; Giacomi, G.; Gravanti, F.; Grosso, A.; Mellera, V.; Mezzacappa, M.; Pensa, A.; Petrolini, P.; Piergotti, V.; Raspante, B.; Rocchi, G.; Sibio, A.; Tilia, B.; Torelli, C.; Tulli, R.; Vellucci, M.; Zannetti, D.

    2013-10-01

    Since the 2010 IAEA-FEC Conference, FTU has exploited improvements in cleaning procedures and in the density control system to complete a systematic exploration of access to high-density conditions in a wide range of plasma currents and magnetic fields. The line-averaged densities at the disruptive limit increased more than linearly with the toroidal field, while no dependence on plasma current was found; in fact, the maximum density of 4.3 × 1020 m-3 was reached at B = 8 T even at the minimum current of 0.5 MA, corresponding to twice the Greenwald limit. The lack of plasma current dependence was due to the increase in density peaking with the safety factor. Experiments with the 140 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system were focused on the sawtooth (ST) period control and on the commissioning of a new launcher with real-time steering capability that will act as the front-end actuator of a real-time system for ST period control and tearing mode stabilization. Various ECRH and electron cyclotron current-drive modulation schemes were used; with the fastest one, the ST period synchronized with an 8 ms modulation period. The observed period variations were simulated using the JETTO code with a critical shear model for the crash trigger. The new launcher was of the plug-in type, allowing quick insertion and connection to the transmission line. Both beam characteristics and steering speed were in line with design expectation. Experimental results on the connection between improved coupling of lower hybrid waves in high-density plasmas and reduced wave spectral broadening were interpreted by fully kinetic, non-linear model calculations. A dual-frequency, time-of-flight diagnostic for the measurement of density profiles was developed and successfully tested. Fishbone-like instabilities driven by energetic electrons were simulated by the hybrid MHD-gyrokinetic XHMGC code.

  1. Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy: Long term results

    PubMed Central

    Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Karabulut, Gamze; Çelik, Burcu; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy (TRC-DCR) surgery in patients with epiphora due to primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) at second year follow-up. Methods In this retrospective, interventional study, 33 eyes of 29 patients, with epiphora due to PANDO, are included. Lower eyelid conjunctiva is incised at vestibulum inferomedially to access the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Bone is perforated with burr and rongeurs and saccal and nasal flaps are anastomosed. Conjunctival wound edges are apposed and left unsutured. Intraoperative difficulties, surgical time and complications are noted. Average follow-up time was 2 years. Anatomical success was defined as patent lacrimal passages upon irrigation and functional success was defined as relief of epiphora. Results In nineteen (57.6%) eyes the surgeries were completed with the anterior and the posterior flaps sutured. In eight eyes (24.2%) only anterior flaps could be sutured. In 6 eyes (18.2%), the surgical procedure was converted to external dacryocystorhinostomy since the nasal mucosa could not be exposed adequately via transconjunctival route. The mean surgical time was 65.1 min. One patient had a millimeter long lower eyelid margin laceration in one eye (3.7%) intraoperatively due to traction for visualization of the operative site. Epiphora resolved in 25 of 27 eyes (92.5%) in whom TRC-DCR could be completed. Epiphora and failure to irrigation were noted in two eyes (7.4%) at the postoperative 4th and 8th months, respectively and required reoperation. No complications occurred, except granuloma formation at the conjunctival incision site in three eyes (11.1%). Epiphora resolved in all the six eyes of patients who underwent an external DCR (100%). Conclusion Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy is a scarless dacryocystorhinostomy technique which is performed without endoscope and/or laser assistance, with 92.5% success rate comparable to external DCR at

  2. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohm, H.; Angioni, C.; Arslanbekov, R.; Atanasiu, C.; Becker, G.; Becker, W.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Bolshukhin, D.; Bolzonella, T.; Borrass, K.; Brambilla, M.; Braun, F.; Buhler, A.; Carlson, A.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Eich, T.; Engelhardt, K.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Faugel, H.; Finken, K. H.; Foley, M.; Franzen, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gafert, J.; Fournier, K. B.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Goodman, T.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hartmann, D.; Heger, B.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Hohenöcker, H.; Horton, L. D.; Igochine, V.; Jacchia, A.; Jakobi, M.; Jenko, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Keller, A.; Kendl, A.; Kim, J.-W.; Kirov, K.; Kochergov, R.; Kollotzek, H.; Kraus, W.; Krieger, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lang, P. T.; Lasnier, C.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Leonard, A. W.; Leuterer, F.; Lohs, A.; Lorenz, A.; Lorenzini, R.; Maggi, C.; Maier, H.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Mantica, P.; Maraschek, M.; Martines, E.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Merkl, D.; Mertens, V.; Monaco, F.; Mück, A.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Na, Y.-S.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Nguyen, F.; Nishijima, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nunes, I.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S. D.; Poli, E.; Proschek, M.; Pugno, R.; Quigley, E.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Ryter, F.; Saarelma, S.; Sandmann, W.; Savtchkov, A.; Sauter, O.; Schade, S.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schwarz, E.; Schweinzer, J.; Schweizer, S.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Sips, A. C. C.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tabasso, A.; Tanga, A.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Urano, H.; Varela, P.; Vollmer, O.; Wagner, D.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Westerhof, E.; Wolf, R.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yoon, S.-W.; Yu, Q.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent results from the ASDEX Upgrade experimental campaigns 2001 and 2002 are presented. An improved understanding of energy and particle transport emerges in terms of a 'critical gradient' model for the temperature gradients. Coupling this to particle diffusion explains most of the observed behaviour of the density profiles, in particular, the finding that strong central heating reduces the tendency for density profile peaking. Internal transport barriers (ITBs) with electron and ion temperatures in excess of 20 keV (but not simultaneously) have been achieved. By shaping the plasma, a regime with small type II edge localized modes (ELMs) has been established. Here, the maximum power deposited on the target plates was greatly reduced at constant average power. Also, an increase of the ELM frequency by injection of shallow pellets was demonstrated. ELM free operation is possible in the quiescent H-mode regime previously found in DIII-D which has also been established on ASDEX Upgrade. Regarding stability, a regime with benign neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) was found. During electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) stabilization of NTMs, bgrN could be increased well above the usual onset level without a reappearance of the NTM. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and ECCD have also been used to control the sawtooth repetition frequency at a moderate fraction of the total heating power. The inner wall of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel has increasingly been covered with tungsten without causing detrimental effects on the plasma performance. Regarding scenario integration, a scenario with a large fraction of noninductively driven current (geq50%), but without ITB has been established. It combines improved confinement (tgrE/tgrITER98 ap 1.2) and stability (bgrN les 3.5) at high Greenwald fraction (ne/nGW ap 0.85) in steady state and with type II ELMy edge and would offer the possibility for long pulses with high fusion power at reduced current in ITER.

  3. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

  4. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  5. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  6. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting." PMID:22287807

  7. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting."

  8. Pluto System Surface Composition Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, R. P.; Cook, J. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Earle, A. M.; Ennico, K.; Jennings, D. E.; Howett, C. J. A.; Linscott, I. R.; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Parker, A. H.; Parker, J. Wm; Protopapa, S.; Reuter, D. C.; Singer, K. N.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    This talk will present an overview of surface composition discoveries from New Horizons' exploration of the Pluto system. The emphasis will be on results that could only have been obtained thanks to the uniquely high spatial resolution provided by a spacecraft visit. The Ralph instrument is New Horizons' primary tool for investigating surface compositions in the Pluto system. Ralph consists of a near-infrared spectral imager sharing a 75 mm aperture telescope assembly with a color CCD camera system. The Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) component of Ralph provides spectral coverage from 1.25 - 2.5 µm, at a resolving power (λ/Δλ) of 240. Ices such as CH4, N2, CO, CO2, C2H6, NH3, and H2O have uniquely diagnostic absorption bands in this wavelength region. The Multi-spectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) has 7 CCD arrays of which 4 have interference filters affixed directly on the focal plane. The filters pass wavelengths ranging from 400 through 975 nm, sensitive to coloration by tholin-type materials as well as a weak CH4 ice absorption band at 890 nm. Both Ralph components are usually operated in a scanning mode, rotating the spacecraft about its Z axis to sweep Ralph's field of view across the scene such that each point in the scene is eventually imaged at each wavelength. The width of the scanned region is 0.9 degrees divided into 256 spatial pixels for LEISA and 5.7 degrees spanned by 5000 pixels for MVIC. Over the course of the summer 2015 flyby, numerous Ralph observations targeted the various bodies in the Pluto system. As of late 2015, transmission of the data to Earth continues, but already a number of spectacular data sets are available for analysis, including LEISA scans of Pluto at 6 to 7 km/pixel and of Charon at 3 km/pixel, as well as MVIC scans of Pluto at 700 m/pixel and of Charon at 5 km/pixel. This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons Project.

  9. [Results for SHEBA/FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Research Laboratory's Radiation Measurement System (RAMS) was on the NCAR C-130 aircraft in May and July 1998, collecting radiometric data on the science flights conducted in the vicinity of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) ship. These measurements were part of the FIRE Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE ACE). Analysis of some of the data focused on the absorption, reflection, and transmittance of Arctic clouds, especially compared to model results. In order to assess the absorption of solar radiation by the clear and cloudy atmosphere in the Arctic the measurements from the radiometers were combined in pairs of above-cloud segments and below-cloud segments. To get these pairs, the data for all sixteen of the flights (8 in May and 8 in July) were examined for occurrences of low-altitude segments in proximity to high-altitude segments. The low-altitude data are then treated as measurements of the bottom of a layer and the high-altitude data are taken as measurements of the top of the layer. With measurements of the upwelling and downwelling irradiances above and below a layer one can determine the reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance of the layer. Attachment: Doelling, D.R., P. Minnis, D.A. Spangenberg, V. Chakrapani, A. Mahesh, S.K. Pope, and F.P.J. Valero, Cloud radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere during FIRE ACE derived from AVHRR data, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 15,279-15,296,2001. Minnis, P., D.R. Doelling, D.A. Spangenberg, A. Mahesh, S.K. Pope, and F.P.J. Valero, AVHRR-derived cloud radiative forcing over the ARM NSA and SHEBA site during FIRE ACE, abstract submitted to the ARM Science Team Meeting, San Antonio, TX, M a . 13-17,2000. Pope, S.K., and F.P.J. Valero, Measured and modeled radiometric fluxes in the Arctic during FIRE-ACE, presented as a poster at the American Geophysical Union meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 13-17, 1999. Pope, S.K., and F.P.J. Valero, Measured and modeled radiometric fluxes in the Arctic

  10. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, O.; Bosch, H.-S.; Günter, S.; Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Krieger, K.; Lackner, K.; Mertens, V.; Neu, R.; Ryter, F.; Schweinzer, J.; Stäbler, A.; Suttrop, W.; Wolf, R.; Asmussen, K.; Bard, A.; Becker, G.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Borrass, K.; Braams, B.; Brambilla, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Braun, F.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brückner, R.; Brüsehaber, B.; Büchl, K.; Buhler, A.; Callaghan, H. P.; Carlson, A.; Coster, D. P.; Cupido, L.; de Peña Hempel, S.; Dorn, C.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Engelhardt, W.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Feist, H.-U.; Franzen, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Fussmann, G.; Gafert, J.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Gubanka, E.; Gude, A.; Haas, G.; Hallatschek, K.; Hartmann, D.; Heinemann, B.; Herppich, G.; Herrmann, W.; Hofmeister, F.; Holzhauer, E.; Jacobi, D.; Kakoulidis, M.; Karakatsanis, N.; Kardaun, O.; Khutoretski, A.; Kollotzek, H.; Kötterl, S.; Kraus, W.; Kurzan, B.; Kyriakakis, G.; Lang, P. T.; Lang, R. S.; Laux, M.; Lengyel, L. L.; Leuterer, F.; Lorenz, A.; Maier, H.; Manso, M.; Maraschek, M.; Markoulaki, M.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P. J.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Merkel, R.; Meskat, J. P.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Napiontek, B.; Neu, G.; Neuhauser, J.; Niethammer, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S.; Raupp, G.; Reinmüller, K.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Röhr, H.; Roth, J.; Salzmann, H.; Sandmann, W.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schlögl, D.; Schmidtmann, K.; Schneider, H.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schweizer, S.; Schwörer, R. R.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Speth, E.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Thoma, A.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Tsois, N.; Ullrich, W.; Ulrich, M.; Varela, P.; Verbeek, H.; Vollmer, O.; Wedler, H.; Weinlich, M.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Wunderlich, R.; Xantopoulos, N.; Yu, Q.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.; Zohm, H.; Zouhar, M.

    1999-09-01

    The closed ASDEX Upgrade Divertor II, `LYRA', is capable of handling heating powers of up to 20 MW or P/R of 12 MW/m, owing to a reduction of the maximum heat flux to the target plates by more than a factor of 2 compared with the open Divertor I. This reduction is caused by high radiative losses from carbon and hydrogen inside the divertor region and is in agreement with B2-EIRENE modelling predictions. At medium densities in the H mode, the type I ELM behaviour shows no dependence on the heating method (NBI, ICRH). ASDEX Upgrade-JET dimensionless identity experiments showed compatibility of the L-H transition with core physics constraints, while in the H mode confinement, inconsistencies with the invariance principle were established. At high densities close to the Greenwald density, the MHD limited edge pressures, the influence of divertor detachment on separatrix parameters and increasing edge transport lead to limited edge densities and finally to temperatures below the critical edge temperatures for H mode. This results in a drastic increase of the H mode threshold power and an upper H mode density limit with gas puff refuelling. The H mode confinement degradation approaching this density limit is caused by the ballooning mode limited edge pressures and `stiff' temperature profiles relating core and edge temperatures. Repetitive high field side pellet injection allows for H mode operation well above the Greenwald density; moreover, higher confinement than with gas fuelling is found up to the highest densities. Neoclassical tearing modes limit the achievable β depending on the collisionality at the resonant surface. In agreement with the polarization current model, the onset β is found to be proportional to the ion gyroradius in the collisionless regime, while higher collisionalities are stabilizing. The fractional energy loss connected with saturated modes at high pressures is about 25%. A reduction of neoclassical mode amplitude and an increase of β have

  11. An overview of KSTAR results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Jong-Gu; Oh, Y. K.; Yang, H. L.; Park, K. R.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, W. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, S. G.; Na, H. K.; Kwon, M.; Lee, G. S.; Ahn, H. S.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bae, Y. S.; Bak, J. G.; Bang, E. N.; Chang, C. S.; Chang, D. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Cho, K. W.; Cho, M. H.; Choi, M.; Choe, W.; Choi, J. H.; Chu, Y.; Chung, K. S.; Diamond, P.; Delpech, L.; Do, H. J.; Eidietis, N.; England, A. C.; Ellis, R.; Evans, T.; Choe, G.; Grisham, L.; Gorelov, Y.; Hahn, H. S.; Hahn, S. H.; Han, W. S.; Hatae, T.; Hillis, D.; Hoang, T.; Hong, J. S.; Hong, S. H.; Hong, S. R.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Hwang, Y. S.; Hyatt, A.; Ida, K.; In, Y. K.; Ide, S.; Jang, Y. B.; Jeon, Y. M.; Jeong, J. I.; Jeong, N. Y.; Jeong, S. H.; Jin, J. K.; Joung, M.; Ju, J.; Kawahata, K.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, Hee-Su; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Jong-Su; Kim, Jung-Su; Kim, J. H.; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, K. J.; Kim, K. P.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, S. T.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. O.; Ko, J. S.; Ko, W. H.; Kogi, Y.; Kolemen, E.; Kong, J. D.; Kwak, S. W.; Kwon, J. M.; Kwon, O. J.; Lee, D. G.; Lee, D. R.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. D.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. I.; Lee, S. M.; Lee, T. G.; Lee, W.; Lee, W. L.; Lim, D. S.; Litaudon, X.; Lohr, J.; Mueller, D.; Moon, K. M.; Na, D. H.; Na, Y. S.; Nam, Y. U.; Namkung, W.; Narihara, K.; Oh, S. T.; Oh, D. G.; Ono, T.; Park, B. H.; Park, D. S.; Park, G. Y.; Park, H.; Park, H. T.; Park, J. K.; Park, J. S.; Park, M. K.; Park, S. H.; Park, S.; Park, Y. M.; Park, Y. S.; Parker, R.; Rhee, D. R.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sakamoto, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Seo, D. C.; Seo, S. H.; Seol, J. C.; Shi, Y. J.; Son, S. H.; Song, N. H.; Suzuki, T.; Terzolo, L.; Walker, M.; Wallace, G.; Watanabe, K.; Wang, S. J.; Woo, H. J.; Woo, I. S.; Yagi, M.; Yu, Y. W.; Yamada, I.; Yonekawa, Y.; Yoo, C. M.; You, K. I.; Yoo, J. W.; Yun, G. S.; Yu, M. G.; Yoon, S. W.; Xiao, W.; Zoletnik, S.; the KSTAR Team

    2013-10-01

    Since the first H-mode discharges in 2010, the duration of the H-mode state has been extended and a significantly wider operational window of plasma parameters has been attained. Using a second neutral beam (NB) source and improved tuning of equilibrium configuration with real-time plasma control, a stored energy of Wtot ˜ 450 kJ has been achieved with a corresponding energy confinement time of τE ˜ 163 ms. Recent discharges, produced in the fall of 2012, have reached plasma βN up to 2.9 and surpassed the n = 1 ideal no-wall stability limit computed for H-mode pressure profiles, which is one of the key threshold parameters defining advanced tokamak operation. Typical H-mode discharges were operated with a plasma current of 600 kA at a toroidal magnetic field BT = 2 T. L-H transitions were obtained with 0.8-3.0 MW of NB injection power in both single- and double-null configurations, with H-mode durations up to ˜15 s at 600 kA of plasma current. The measured power threshold as a function of line-averaged density showed a roll-over with a minimum value of ˜0.8 MW at \\bar{n}_e\\sim 2\\times 10^{19}\\,m^{-3} . Several edge-localized mode (ELM) control techniques during H-mode were examined with successful results including resonant magnetic perturbation, supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), vertical jogging and electron cyclotron current drive injection into the pedestal region. We observed various ELM responses, i.e. suppression or mitigation, depending on the relative phase of in-vessel control coil currents. In particular, with the 90° phase of the n = 1 RMP as the most resonant configuration, a complete suppression of type-I ELMs was demonstrated. In addition, fast vertical jogging of the plasma column was also observed to be effective in ELM pace-making. SMBI-mitigated ELMs, a state of mitigated ELMs, were sustained for a few tens of ELM periods. A simple cellular automata (‘sand-pile’) model predicted that shallow deposition near the pedestal

  12. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, O.; Arslanbekov, R.; Atanasiu, C.; Bard, A.; Becker, G.; Becker, W.; Beckmann, M.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bilato, R.; Bolshukin, D.; Borrass, K.; Bosch, H.-S.; Braams, B.; Brambilla, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Braun, F.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brückner, R.; Brüsehaber, B.; Büchl, K.; Buhler, A.; Bürbaumer, H.; Carlson, A.; Ciric, M.; Conway, G.; Coster, D. P.; Dorn, C.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Engelhardt, W.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Faugel, H.; Foley, M.; Franzen, P.; Fu, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gafert, J.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Gubanka, E.; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hartmann, D.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Hohenöcker, H.; Horton, L.; Hu, L.; Jacobi, D.; Jakobi, M.; Jenko, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kendl, A.; Kim, J.-W.; Kirov, K.; Kochergov, R.; Kollotzek, H.; Kraus, W.; Krieger, K.; Kurzan, B.; Kyriakakis, G.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lang, R. S.; Laux, M.; Lengyel, L.; Leuterer, F.; Lorenz, A.; Maier, H.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Maraschek, M.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P. J.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Meo, F.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Meskat, J. P.; Monk, R.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nunes, I.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S.; Poli, E.; Pugno, R.; Raupp, G.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Riondato, S.; Rohde, V.; Röhr, H.; Roth, J.; Ryter, F.; Salzmann, H.; Sandmann, W.; Sarelma, S.; Schade, S.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schlögl, D.; Schmidtmann, K.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schweinzer, J.; Schweizer, S.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Sips, A.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tabasso, A.; Tanga, A.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Tsois, N.; Ullrich, W.; Ulrich, M.; Varela, P.; Vollmer, O.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Wolf, R.; Wolfrum, E.; Wunderlich, R.; Xantopoulos, N.; Yu, Q.; Zarrabian, M.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.; Zeiler, A.; Zohm, H.

    2001-10-01

    Ion and electron temperature profiles in conventional L and H mode on ASDEX Upgrade are generally stiff and limited by a critical temperature gradient length ∇T/T as given by ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. ECRH experiments indicate that electron temperature (Te) profiles are also stiff, as predicted by electron temperature gradient turbulence with streamers. Accordingly, the core and edge temperatures are proportional to each other and the plasma energy is proportional to the pedestal pressure for fixed density profiles. Density profiles are not stiff, and confinement improves with density peaking. Medium triangularity shapes (δ<0.45) show strongly improved confinement up to the Greenwald density nGW and therefore higher βvalues, owing to increasing pedestal pressure, and H mode density operation extends above nGW. Density profile peaking at nGW was achieved with controlled gas puffing rates, and first results from a new high field side pellet launcher allowing higher pellet velocities are promising. At these high densities, small type II ELMs provide good confinement with low divertor power loading. In advanced scenarios the highest performance was achieved in the improved H mode with HL-89PβN approx 7.2 at δ = 0.3 for five confinement times, limited by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) at low central magnetic shear (qmin approx 1). The T profiles are still governed by ITG and trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence, and confinement is improved by density peaking connected with low magnetic shear. Ion internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges - mostly with reversed shear (qmin>1) and L mode edge - achieved HL-89P <= 2.1 and are limited to βN <= 1.7 by internal and external ideal MHD modes. Turbulence driven transport is suppressed, in agreement with the E × B shear flow paradigm, and core transport coefficients are at the neoclassical ion transport level, where the latter was established by Monte Carlo simulations. Reactor relevant ion

  13. Recent Opportunity Microscopic Imager Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Yingst, R.; Team, A.

    2013-12-01

    Opportunity. The extremely soft bedrock exposed at a Whitewater Lake outcrop target dubbed 'Azilda' is mostly fine-grained, with dispersed 2-5 mm-diameter spherules and resistant veins. This target was easily abraded by the RAT, exposing a sandstone-like texture, but the sorting of grains is difficult to determine at MI resolution. Darker, erosion-resistant veneers, similar to desert varnishes on Earth, appear to record aqueous alteration that post-dates the formation of the Ca sulfate veins; they likely contain the nontronite that is observed by CRISM in this area. The inferred neutral pH and relatively low temperature of the fluids involved in these phases of alteration would have provided a habitable environment for life if it existed on Mars at that time. Because Opportunity can no longer directly sense phyllosilicate mineralogy with the MiniTES or Mössbauer spectrometers, it is focusing on characterizing the chemistry with the APXS and texture with the MI of potential phyllosilicate host rocks. The Athena MI continues to return useful images of Mars that are being used to study the textures of rocks and soils at Endeavour crater. Exploration by Opportunity continues, with the rover approaching 'Solander Point' and more exposures of phyllosilicates detected from orbit; the latest MI results will be presented at the conference.

  14. SMOS first results over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Waldteufel, Philippe; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mamhoodi, Ali; Delwart, Steven; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    retrieve soil moisture over fairly large and thus inhomogeneous areas. The retrieval is carried out at nodes of a fixed Earth surface grid. To achieve this purpose, after checking input data quality and ingesting auxiliary data, the retrieval process per se can be initiated. This cannot be done blindly as the direct model will be dependent upon surface characteristics. It is thus necessary to first assess what is the dominant land use of a node. For this, an average weighing function (MEAN_WEF) which takes into account the "antenna"pattern is run over the high resolution land use map to assess the dominant cover type. This is used to drive the decision tree which, step by step, selects the type of model to be used as per surface conditions. All this being said and done the retrieval procedure starts if all the conditions are satisfied, ideally to retrieve 3 parameters over the dominant class (the so-called rich retrieval). If the algorithm does not converge satisfactorily, a new trial is made with less floating parameters ("poorer retrieval") until either results are satisfactory or the algorithm is considered to fail. The retrieval algorithm also delivers whenever possible a dielectric constant parameter (using the-so called cardioid approach). Finally, once the retrieval converged, it is possible to compute the brightness temperature at a given fixed angle (42.5°) using the selected forward models applied to the set of parameters obtained at the end of the retrieval process. So the output product of the level 2 soil moisture algorithm should be node position, soil moisture, dielectric constants, computed brightness temperature at 42.5°, flags and quality indices. During the presentation we will describe in more details the algorithm and accompanying work in particular decision tree principle and characteristics, the auxiliary data used and the special and "exotic"cases. We will also be more explicit on the algorithm validation and verification through the data

  15. Status of Transuranic Bearing Metallic Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Hayes; Bruce Hilton; Heather MacLean; Debbie Utterbeck; Jon Carmack; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2009-09-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the metallic fuel development under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The metallic fuel development program includes fuel fabrication, characterization, advanced cladding research, irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination (PIE). The focus of this paper is on the recent irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor and some PIE results from these tests.

  16. PU Disposition in Russian VVERs: Physics Studies of Lead Test Assembly Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.J.

    2000-05-07

    As part of Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) physics support was given to the design of a MOX lead test assembly (LTA) for use in Russian VVER nuclear reactors. This paper discusses some of the pertinent findings and assessments for two distinct LTA designs for weapons-grade (WG) Pu dispositioning in Russian VVER-1000 nuclear reactors. The two assessed MOX LTA designs are the graded-zone full MOX LTA and the Island LTA (2 central zones of MOX pins surrounded by UO{sub 2} pins). The process of optimizing the graded Pu-content by zone in the fuel assembly is discussed. Eigenvalue and power peaking comparisons are made as a function of fuel burnup. Zero-power reactivity effects were calculated for the different LTA options. For the ORNL results, the n,{gamma}-transport lattice physics code HELIOS-1.4 was used with nuclear data libraries (based on ENDF/B-VI) in 89 and 190 neutron energy groups. Some comparisons are made between the ORNL HELIOS results and corresponding Russian LTA calculations by the RRC-KI (Kurchatov Institute) using the code TVS-M. Also in this paper, pertinent results are discussed from a study of void reactivity effects for LEU, RG MOX and WG MOX fuels in PWR and VVER-1000 nuclear reactors. These void reactivity calculations were performed for a large range of LEU enrichments (2-20 wt% {sup 235}U), and large ranges of Pu-content (2-20 wt% Pu) in RG and WG MOX fuel.

  17. Novel Innate Immune Genes Regulating the Macrophage Response to Gram Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alper, Scott; Warg, Laura A; De Arras, Lesly; Flatley, Brenna R; Davidson, Elizabeth J; Adams, Jenni; Smith, Keith; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L; McCray, Paul B; Pedersen, Brent S; Schwartz, David A; Yang, Ivana V

    2016-09-01

    Host variation in Toll-like receptors and other innate immune signaling molecules alters infection susceptibility. However, only a portion of the variability observed in the innate immune response is accounted for by known genes in these pathways. Thus, the identification of additional genes that regulate the response to Gram positive bacteria is warranted. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from 43 inbred mouse strains were stimulated with lipotechoic acid (LTA), a major component of the Gram positive bacterial cell wall. Concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α were measured. In silico whole genome association (WGA) mapping was performed using cytokine responses followed by network analysis to prioritize candidate genes. To determine which candidate genes could be responsible for regulating the LTA response, candidate genes were inhibited using RNA interference (RNAi) and were overexpressed in RAW264.7 macrophages. BMMs from Bdkrb1-deficient mice were used to assess the effect of Bdkrb1 gene deletion on the response to LTA, heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae, and heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus WGA mapping identified 117 loci: IL-6 analysis yielded 20 loci (average locus size = 0.133 Mb; 18 genes), IL-12 analysis produced 5 loci (0.201 Mb average; 7 genes), and TNF-α analysis yielded 92 loci (0.464 Mb average; 186 genes of which 46 were prioritized by network analysis). The follow-up small interfering RNA screen of 71 target genes identified four genes (Bdkrb1, Blnk, Fbxo17, and Nkx6-1) whose inhibition resulted in significantly reduced cytokine production following LTA stimulation. Overexpression of these four genes resulted in significantly increased cytokine production in response to LTA. Bdkrb1-deficient macrophages were less responsive to LTA and heat-killed S. aureus, validating the genetic and RNAi approach to identify novel regulators of the response to LTA. We have identified four innate immune response genes that

  18. Design of a modular tetrameric scaffold for the synthesis of membrane-localized D-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 entry

    PubMed Central

    Francis, J. Nicholas; Redman, Joseph S.; Eckert, Debra M.; Kay, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The highly conserved HIV-1 gp41 “pocket” region is a promising target for inhibiting viral entry. PIE12-trimer is a protease-resistant trimeric D-peptide inhibitor that binds to this pocket and potently blocks HIV entry. PIE12-trimer also possesses a reserve of binding energy that provides it with a strong genetic barrier to resistance (“resistance capacitor”). Here we report the design of a modular scaffold employing PEGs of discrete lengths for the efficient optimization and synthesis of PIE12-trimer. This scaffold also allows us to conjugate PIE12-trimer to several membrane-localizing cargoes, resulting in dramatically improved potency and retention of PIE12-trimer’s ability to absorb the impact of resistance mutations. This scaffold design strategy should be of broad utility for the rapid prototyping of multimeric peptide inhibitors attached to potency- or pharmacokinetic-enhancing groups. PMID:22545664

  19. Characterization of multiple platelet activation pathways in patients with bleeding as a high-throughput screening option: use of 96-well Optimul assay

    PubMed Central

    Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Chan, Melissa V.; Lundberg, Martina H.; Morgan, Neil V.; Bem, Danai; Nisar, Shaista P.; Leo, Vincenzo C.; Jones, Matthew L.; Mundell, Stuart J.; Daly, Martina E.; Mumford, Andrew D.; Warner, Timothy D.; Watson, Steve P.; Watson, Steve P.; Mumford, Andrew D.; Mundell, Stuart J.; Gissen, Paul; Daly, Martina E.; Lester, Will; Clark, Justin; Williams, Mike; Motwani, Jayashree; Marshall, Dianne; Nyatanga, Priscilla; Mann, Pat; Kirwan, Julie; Wilde, Jonathan; Dunkley, Tracey; Greenway, April; Makris, Michael; Pavord, Sue; Dattani, Rashesh; Grimley, Gerry Dolan Charlotte; Stokley, Simone; Astwood, Emma; Chang, Cherry; Foros, Merri; Trower, Linda; Thachil, Jecko; Hay, Charlie; Pike, Gill; Will, Andrew; Grainger, John; Foulkes, Matt; Fareh, Mona; Talks, Kate; Biss, Tina; Kesteven, Patrick; Hanley, John; Vowles, Julie; Basey, Lesley; Barnes, Michelle; Collins, Peter; Rayment, Rachel; Alikhan, Raza; Morris, Ana Guerrero Rebecca; Mansell, Dianne; Toh, Cheng Hock; Martlew, Vanessa; Murphy, Elaine; Lachmann, Robin; Rose, Peter; Chapman, Oliver; Lokare, Anand; Marshall, Kathryn; Khan, Naseem; Keeling, David; Giangrande, Paul; Austin, Steve; Bevan, David; Alamelu, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Up to 1% of the population have mild bleeding disorders, but these remain poorly characterized, particularly with regard to the roles of platelets. We have compared the usefulness of Optimul, a 96-well plate-based assay of 7 distinct pathways of platelet activation to characterize inherited platelet defects in comparison with light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Using Optimul and LTA, concentration-response curves were generated for arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, epinephrine, Thrombin receptor activating-peptide, U46619, and ristocetin in samples from (1) healthy volunteers (n = 50), (2) healthy volunteers treated with antiplatelet agents in vitro (n = 10), and (3) patients with bleeding of unknown origin (n = 65). The assays gave concordant results in 82% of cases (κ = 0.62, P < .0001). Normal platelet function results were particularly predictive (sensitivity, 94%; negative predictive value, 91%), whereas a positive result was not always substantiated by LTA (specificity, 67%; positive predictive value, 77%). The Optimul assay was significantly more sensitive at characterizing defects in the thromboxane pathway, which presented with normal responses with LTA. The Optimul assay is sensitive to mild platelet defects, could be used as a rapid screening assay in patients presenting with bleeding symptoms, and detects changes in platelet function more readily than LTA. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as #ISRCTN 77951167. PMID:24408324

  20. Impurity and defect interactions during laser thermal annealing in Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, R.; Impellizzeri, G.; Piccinotti, D.; La Magna, A.; Fortunato, G.; De Salvador, D.; Carnera, A.; Portavoce, A.; Mangelinck, D.; Privitera, V.; Napolitani, E.

    2016-01-01

    The microscopic mechanisms involving dopants, contaminants, and defects in Ge during pulsed melting laser thermal annealing (LTA) are investigated in detail. Samples both un-implanted and implanted with As or B are processed by LTA as well as characterized in terms of chemical (1D and 3D), electrical, and strain profiling. The clustering of As is directly measured by 3D chemical profiling and correlated with its partial electrical activation along with a reduction of the lattice strain induced by As atoms. A semi-quantitative microscopic model involving the interaction with mobile As-vacancy (AsV) complexes is proposed to describe the clustering mechanism. Boron is shown to follow different clustering behavior that changes with depth and marked by completely different strain levels. Oxygen penetrates from the surface into all the samples as a result of LTA and, only in un-implanted Ge, it occupies an interstitial position inducing also positive strain in the lattice. On the contrary, data suggest that the presence of As or B forces O to assume different configurations with negligible strain, through O-V or O-B interactions for the two dopant species, respectively. These data suggest that LTA does not inject a significant amount of vacancies in Ge, at variance with Si, unless As atoms or possibly other n-type dopants are present. These results have to be carefully considered for modeling the LTA process in Ge and its implementation in technology.

  1. Lipoteichoic acid is an important microbe-associated molecular pattern of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used as immunomodulatory agents. Yet detailed molecular knowledge on the immunomodulatory molecules of these bacteria is lagging behind. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is considered a major microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) of Gram-positive bacteria. However, many details and quantitative data on its immune signalling capacity are still unknown, especially in beneficial bacteria. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dltD mutant of the model probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), having modified LTA molecules, has an enhanced probiotic efficacy in a DSS-induced colitis model as compared to wild-type. Results In this study, the importance of D-alanylated and acylated LTA for the pro-inflammatory activity of LGG was studied in vitro. Purified native LTA of LGG wild-type exhibited a concentration-dependent activation of NF-κB signalling in HEK293T cells after interaction with TLR2/6, but not with TLR2 alone. Chemical deacylation of LTA interfered with the TLR2/6 interaction, while a moderate effect was observed with chemical dealanylation. Similarly, the dltD mutant of LGG exhibited a significantly reduced capacity to activate TLR2/6-dependent NF-κB signalling in a HEK293T reporter cell line compared to wild-type. In addition, the dltD mutant of LGG showed a reduced induction of mRNA of the chemokine IL-8 in the Caco-2 epithelial cell line compared to wild-type. Experiments with highly purified LTA of LGG confirmed that LTA is a crucial factor for IL-8 mRNA induction in Caco-2 epithelial cells. Chemical dealanylation and deacylation reduced IL-8 mRNA expression. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that LTA of LGG is a crucial MAMP with pro-inflammatory activities such as IL-8 induction in intestinal epithelial cells and NF-κB induction in HEK293T cells via TLR2/6 interaction. The lipid chains of LGG LTA are needed for these activities, while also the D-alanine substituents are important, especially

  2. Bacterial Lipoteichoic Acid Enhances Cryosurvival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Scull, Erin; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. We show that lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a biopolymer in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can be added to B. subtilis cultures and increase freeze tolerance. At 1% w/v, LTA enables a 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% w/v glycerol as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. In the absence of added LTA or glycerol, a very small number of B. subtilis cells survive freezing. This suggests that an innate freeze tolerance mechanism exists. While cryoprotection can be provided by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), our data demonstrate a role for LTA in cryoprotection. Currently, the exact mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. However, low temperature microscopy data show small ice crystals aligned along channels of liquid water. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could protect liquid water within biofilms and planktonic bacteria, augmenting the role of brine while also raising the possibility for survival without brine present. PMID:25477208

  3. Current and emerging approaches for evaluating platelet disorders.

    PubMed

    Podda, G; Femia, E A; Cattaneo, M

    2016-05-01

    Platelets play a central role in physiological hemostasis and also in pathological thrombosis. It is well established that congenital or acquired abnormalities of platelet function are associated with a heightened risk of bleeding of variable severity and excessive hemorrhage after surgery or trauma. Several kinds of different platelet function tests have been developed over the years to identify or diagnose platelet function disorders. The use of these tests for the assessment of thrombotic risk or for monitoring the effects of drugs inhibiting platelet function is not well established. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is the gold standard for the study of patients with defects of platelet function. Its results are affected by several pre-analytical and analytical variables. The Subcommittee on Platelet Physiology of the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis published official guidelines for the standardization of the variables affecting LTA, which should be followed to harmonize the procedures across different laboratories worldwide. The lumi-aggregometer, a modification of LTA that measures platelet secretion in parallel with aggregation, is preferable to LTA for diagnosing inherited defects of platelet function, because it is more sensitive to the most common disorders, which are characterized by abnormalities of platelet secretion. LTA (or lumi-aggregometry) is useful as a first screening test of patients with the clinical suspicion of defects of platelet function, because it helps to provide an interim diagnostic hypothesis, which can then be confirmed or discounted using appropriate and specific tests. PMID:27426860

  4. Digital Revolution or Digital Divide: Will Rural Teachers Get a Piece of the Professional Development Pie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadley, Tania

    2010-01-01

    In order to sustain the rural education community, access to high quality professional development opportunities must become a priority. Teachers in rural areas face many challenges in order to access professional learning equitable to their city counterparts. In the current climate, the Federal government of Australia is committed to initiatives…

  5. Getting a Piece of the Pie: Schools Need to Be Proactive, Flexible When Pursuing Stimulus Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    On February 17, 2009, in the midst of economic turmoil and one of the worst recessions since the Great Depression, President Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This law is intended to: (1) promote job preservation and creation; (2) invest in infrastructure projects; (3) increase economic efficiency;…

  6. Act Now to Transform School Systems. 2011 PIE Network Summit Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Baroody, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S.'s educational system is at a crossroads. Preparing every student for college and careers in the information age requires that school districts invest more and differently in teaching effectiveness, time, individual attention, and information systems. But even before a decline in revenue, district leaders face automatic increases in…

  7. 49 CFR 40.387 - What matters does the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What matters does the Director decide concerning a... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.387 What matters does... complete information needed for a decision, the Director may remand the matter to the initiating...

  8. Payments for Improved Ecostructure (PIE): Funding for the Coexistence of Humans and Wolves in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hiedanpää, Juha; Kalliolevo, Hanna; Salo, Matti; Pellikka, Jani; Luoma, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a source of concern and a cause of damage to people's livelihoods. In Finland, as in most countries, actual damages are compensated according to the real lost value. However, often, the suffered damages are larger than what is compensated, and worries and fears are not accounted for at all. The purpose of our transdisciplinary action research is to contribute to the process of modifying the scientific, administrative, and everyday habits of mind in order to meet the practical prerequisites of living with the wolf. In 2014, we planned and participated in a process designed to update Finland's wolf population management plan. During our study, we applied e-deliberation, conducted a national wolf survey, and organized solution-oriented workshops in wolf territory areas around Finland. By applying abductive reasoning, we illustrate the basic features of an economic scheme that would help finance and coordinate practical modifications to the ecological, economic, and institutional circumstances and settings in wolf territory areas. The potential economic instrument is based on payments for improved ecostructures. In our paper, we describe the organization, functioning, and financing of this instrument in detail. PMID:27329113

  9. 49 CFR 40.361 - What is the purpose of a public interest exclusion (PIE)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation employers and employees from serious noncompliance with DOT drug and alcohol testing rules, the... punishment. (d) Nothing in this subpart precludes a DOT agency or the Inspector General from taking...

  10. Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop Summary to Support the Implementation Plan for PIE Thermal Conductivity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David

    2015-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and associated nuclear fuels programs have invested heavily over the years in infrastructure and capability development. With the current domestic and international need to develop Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF), increasing importance is being placed on understanding fuel performance in irradiated conditions and on the need to model and validate that performance to reduce uncertainty and licensing timeframes. INL’s Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop was organized to identify the capability needed by the various nuclear programs and list the opportunities to meet those needs. In addition, by the end of fiscal year 2015, the decision will be made on the initial thermal properties instruments to populate the shielded cell in the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  11. It's as Academic as American Economic Pie: Admissions Standards and Big-Time College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Praises Lee Sigelman's article and uses it as a starting point for a discussion of the political economy of collegiate sports. Provides a brief historical perspective and suggests socioeconomic reasons for the racial divisions between various sports. Concludes with suggestions for areas of future research. (MJP)

  12. Diversity [Activities]: The Social Justice Turning Initiative; Culture Shock; Pieces of the Pie; Pictures of Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Collard, Mark; Bigman, Lisa; Kilty, Katie; Chappelle, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes four diversity-related group activities for adolescents or adults, used in adventure- and experiential-education settings. Includes target group, group size, time and space requirements, activity level, props, instructions, and tips for post-activity group reflection and processing. The activities are concerned with social-justice…

  13. 49 CFR 40.365 - What is the Department's policy concerning starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.365... constitutes a conflict of interest under this part (e.g., a laboratory that derives a financial benefit...

  14. Rethinking the Teacher Quality Challenge. 2011 PIE Network Summit Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2011-01-01

    American schools are in a constant, unending race to recruit and then retain some 300,000 teachers annually. Given that U.S. colleges issue a grand total of perhaps 1.5 million four-year diplomas a year across all majors and disciplines, even non-mathematicians can see that the K-12 schools are seeking to recruit about one in five new college…

  15. [STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT PIE OF MURCIA].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Zamora, Salvador; Frutos, María José; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2015-12-01

    Objetivos: mejorar la composición nutritiva y las características saludables del pastel de carne de Murcia (PCM), manteniendo sus apreciadas cualidades organolépticas y el diseño de un PCM funcional, mediante la adición de un ingrediente natural rico en fuctooligosacáridos. Métodos: mediante cambios relacionados con el tipo y cantidad de algunos de sus ingredientes se han elaborado diversas formulaciones del PCM (PCM saludable y PCM funcional). Se ha determinado la composición nutritiva, el valor calórico, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la calidad de la grasa. Además, se han valorado diversos atributos sensoriales y la aceptación global utilizando una escala descriptiva hedónica de nueve puntos. Resultados y discusión: el PCM saludable presenta un menor contenido de energía (15,4%), grasa total (39%), grasa saturada (48%) y sal (45%), así como una disminución de la potencial capacidad aterogénica (27%), trombogénica (30%) e hipercolesterolémica (30%) que el PCM tradicional. De las cuatro cantidades ensayadas (2,5, 5, 10 y 15%), solo la sustitución del 2,5 y 5% del ingrediente funcional no disminuyeron la aceptación global del PCM funcional, en comparación con el PCM tradicional. Conclusiones: los cambios en la formulación han mejorado la composición nutritiva y las características saludables del PCM tradicional, manteniendo sus cualidades organolépticas. El PCM funcional, elaborado con el ingrediente funcional al 5%, representa una mejora factible en las características funcionales del alimento estudiado. Estas estrategias contribuyen a mantener este tipo de alimentos tradicionales y a evitar la pérdida en la cultura, identidad y herencia gastronómica de España en general y de la Región de Murcia en particular.

  16. Location, Location, Location! Identifying Materials in a Pie-Shaped Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Roxanne Myers

    2005-01-01

    Librarians often face challenges in library configuration and lack of space, collection management, and ease of use. This article briefly describes the challenges and solutions to managing a divided education collection at a comprehensive state university, part of which is housed in the center core of a round building. (Contains 2 figures and 5…

  17. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir las características de un producto típico de la gastronomía murciana, determinar su valor nutritivo y energético, analizar su perfil de ácidos grasos y la calidad de su grasa. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron 24 muestras de Pastel de carne de Murcia, procedentes de los seis establecimientos de mayor venta en la Región. (Cuatro unidades por establecimiento). Mediante los métodos oficiales de análisis de alimentos se determinaron los contenidos de humedad, proteína, grasa, carbohidratos, fibra y minerales, el valor energético, el perfil de ácidos grasos (Método de Folch et al. 1957) y la calidad de la grasa. Todos los análisis se realizaron por triplicado. Resultados y discusión: El peso medio fue de 192,3 ± 11,8 g, y en él se diferenciaron tres partes (base, relleno y tapa de hojaldre). Todos sus ingredientes fueron materias primas naturales: harina de trigo, manteca de cerdo, carne picada de ternera, rodajas de huevo cocido y de chorizo, agua y especias (sal, pimienta, ajo, pimentón y nuez moscada). La mayoría de sus atributos organolépticos son debidos al tipo y cantidad de la grasa, manteca de cerdo. El resto de atributos los aporta la combinación de los otros ingredientes y particularmente la formulación de las especias. Por su contenido en proteínas (11,0%), este producto puede sustituir a otros platos a base de carne, e incorporarlo a una dieta equilibrada, pero teniendo en cuenta su contenido en grasa (17,3%) y su aporte energético (317 kcal/100 g). A diferencia de otros muchos productos actuales de pastelería, éste no contiene ácidos grasos trans. Conclusiones: El estudio revela que el producto analizado sigue siendo, en el momento actual, un alimento artesanal, y ofrece información fiable y representativa del valor nutritivo y energético del pastel de carne de Murcia, un producto típico de la gastronomía de la Región de Murcia.

  18. How about another piece of pie: the allusional pretense theory of discourse irony.

    PubMed

    Kumon-Nakamura, S; Glucksberg, S; Brown, M

    1995-03-01

    The allusional pretense theory claims that ironic remarks have their effects by alluding to a failed expectation. In normal conversation, this is accomplished by violating pragmatic rules of discourse, usually the maxim of sincerity. Such violations simultaneously draw a listener's attention to the failed expectation and express the speaker's attitude (normally but not necessarily negative) toward the failed expectation. Using a variety of utterance types, 3 experiments tested the theory. The first experiment, using 4 speech act types, showed that both insincerity and allusion were perceived far more frequently in ironically intended utterances than in literally intended ones. The second experiment demonstrated that the negative attitudes frequently expressed with ironic utterances are a function of the relative frequency of positive versus negative expectations and not an intrinsic characteristic of discourse irony per se. The third experiment found that over-polite requests are more likely to be used ironically than under-polite ones, presumably because the former can serve a speaker's politeness considerations while simultaneously conveying both an intended request and the speaker's attitude. It was concluded that irony is used primarily to express a speaker's attitude toward the referent of the ironic utterance, while simultaneously fulfilling other goals as well, such as to be humorous, to make a situation less face threatening, and to serve politeness considerations.

  19. Muskox Milk, Ptarmigan Pie and Other Northern Delicacies (Kids Can Cook): Guide to Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide for parents and teachers encourages the use of foods in children's learning activities, especially foods that are harvested in the Northwest Territories of Canada and that play a role in health maintenance. The activities also provide an opportunity for children to experience new foods. Sections in the guide discuss: (1) nutrition,…

  20. PIE-R[superscript 2]: The Area of a Circle and Good Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.; Allday, R. Allan

    2008-01-01

    When teachers consider behavior management issues in the classroom, they often focus primarily on student behavior. Nevertheless, managing inappropriate student behavior can often be improved by altering teacher behavior. Discussed in the present article are four components of teacher behavior that can lead to more effective management of student…