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Sample records for lta pie results

  1. LTA Physics Design: Description of All MOX Pin LTA Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    In this document issued according to Work Release 02. P. 99-lb the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  2. Results of PIE of experimental (U-Mo)-based LEU disperse fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Vatulin, A.; Dobrikova, I.; Suprun, V.; Petrov, Y.; Trifonov, Y.; Alexandrov, V.; Ijutov, A.; Novoselov, A.; Starkov, V.; Shishin, V.; Yakovlev, V.

    2008-07-15

    Performed in frames of Russian RERTR Program were post-irradiation examinations of 12 types of disperse (U-Mo)-based fuel compositions in Al matrix. The goal of the work was to substantiate serviceability of the new fuel compositions being developed for utilization in Russian-built pool-type research reactors. Among the methods of PIE used in this work were visual examination, gamma-scanning, optical metallography, SEM, X-ray analysis and some others. The present paper is dedicated to an analysis of the main results of PIE completed so far. Special attention has been paid to the parameters affecting formation of interaction layer between fuel granules and matrix Al. (author)

  3. LOTS of LTA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Current problems facing the logistical planner in utilizing the new ships of the modern, intermodal sea transportation systems in a logistics-over-the-shore (undeveloped) environment are described. Then the employment of two potential LTA vehicle systems are described and discussed as significant parts of possible solutions to this range of logistical problems. Vulnerability aspects of these LTA vehicles are also briefly addressed because of their possible employment near combat areas.

  4. Lea's Pies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a pie company owner to develop an inexpensive container that would protect pies and keep them in a near frozen condition for shipping in 48 hours. A NASA engineer made a thermal barrier envelope from a metalized mylar called 'space blanket material,' developed during the Apollo era. The envelope protects the pies from heat transfer. Pictured, a NASA engineer removes the temperature logger from a pecan pie shipped to him in a prototype envelope.

  5. Lea's Pies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a pie company owner to develop an inexpensive container that would protect pies and keep them in a near frozen condition for shipping in 48 hours. A NASA engineer made a thermal barrier envelope from a metalized mylar called 'space blanket material,' developed during the Apollo era. The envelope protects the pies from heat transfer. Pictured, a NASA engineer removes the temperature logger from a pecan pie shipped to him in a prototype envelope.

  6. Multi-PIE.

    PubMed

    Gross, Ralph; Matthews, Iain; Cohn, Jeff; Kanade, Takeo; Baker, Simon

    2010-05-01

    A close relationship exists between the advancement of face recognition algorithms and the availability of face databases varying factors that affect facial appearance in a controlled manner. The CMU PIE database has been very influential in advancing research in face recognition across pose and illumination. Despite its success the PIE database has several shortcomings: a limited number of subjects, single recording session and only few expressions captured. To address these issues we collected the CMU Multi-PIE database. It contains 337 subjects, imaged under 15 view points and 19 illumination conditions in up to four recording sessions. In this paper we introduce the database and describe the recording procedure. We furthermore present results from baseline experiments using PCA and LDA classifiers to highlight similarities and differences between PIE and Multi-PIE.

  7. LTA structures and materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art concerning structures and materials technology is reviewed. It is shown that many present materials developments resulting from balloon and aircraft research programs can be applied to new concepts in LTA vehicles. Both buoyant and semi-buoyant vehicles utilize similar approaches to solving structural problems and could involve pressurized non-rigid and unpressurized rigid structures. System designs common to both and vital to structural integrity include much of the past technology as well. Further research is needed in determination of structural loads, especially in future design concepts.

  8. Basic relationships for LTA economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Operating costs based on data of actual and proposed airships for conventional lighter than air craft (LTA) are presented. An economic comparison of LTA with the B-47F is included, and possible LTA economic trends are discussed.

  9. First results of the 74-MHz Very Large Array-Pie Town link. Hercules A at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizani, Nectaria A. B.; Cohen, A.; Kassim, N. E.

    2005-04-01

    We present the results of the first successful observations of the Pie Town link with the Very Large Array at 74 MHz on Hercules A. The improvement in resolution from 25 to 10 arcsec resolves the helical- and ring-like features seen at higher frequencies. We also present new high dynamic range images of this powerful radio galaxy at 325 MHz. Our low-frequency observations confirm the multiple outburst interpretation of the spectral index differences at high frequencies. A comparison between our radio and ROSAT X-ray data does not reveal any association between the X-ray emission from the cluster and the radio lobes. There are no extra regions of radio emission at 74 MHz.

  10. LTA structures and materials technology. [airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art concerning structures and materials technology is reviewed. It is shown that many present materials developments resulting from balloon and aircraft research programs can be applied to new concepts in LTA vehicles. Both buoyant and semi-buoyant vehicles will utilize similar approaches to solving structural problems and could involve pressurized non-rigid and unpressurized rigid structures. System designs common to both and vital to structural integrity will include much of the past technology as well. Further research is needed in determination of structural loads, especially in future design concepts.

  11. Experimentally activated immune defence in female pied flycatchers results in reduced breeding success.

    PubMed

    Ilmonen, P; Taarna, T; Hasselquist, D

    2000-04-07

    Traditional explanations for the negative fitness consequences of parasitism have focused on the direct pathogenic effects of infectious agents. However, because of the high selection pressure by the parasites, immune defences are likely to be costly and trade off with other fitness-related traits, such as reproductive effort. In a field experiment, we immunized breeding female flycatchers with non-pathogenic antigens (diphtheria-tetanus vaccine), which excluded the direct negative effects of parasites, in order to test the consequences of activated immune defence on hosts' investment in reproduction and self-maintenance. Immunized females decreased their feeding effort and investment in self-maintenance (rectrix regrowth) and had lower reproductive output (fledgling quality and number) than control females injected with saline. Our results reveal the phenotypic cost of immune defence by showing that an activated immune system per se can lower the host's breeding success. This may be caused by an energetic or nutritional trade-off between immune function and physical workload when feeding young or be an adaptive response to 'infection' to avoid physiological disorders such as oxidative stress and immunopathology.

  12. LTA - Recent developments. [Lighter Than Air ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    NASA-sponsored studies of existing and new LTA missions showed that airships looked very promising for some two dozen civil and military applications. These include surveillance of rural and urban areas, in the form of forest and police patrols; transport of very heavy large-volume maritime, industrial, and military payloads; coastal patrol and sea control; seismographic surveys; air pollution monitoring; and moving goods to remote areas; along with a number of less important but still attractive missions. A figure of merit of productivity (payload weight, ton moles per hour) was used to compare airships of various type and size. In each case, this criterion established an index of efficiency for evaluating not only conceptual approaches but also modes of flight. Some, in part unexpected, results of these studies are described.

  13. LTA - Recent developments. [Lighter Than Air ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    NASA-sponsored studies of existing and new LTA missions showed that airships looked very promising for some two dozen civil and military applications. These include surveillance of rural and urban areas, in the form of forest and police patrols; transport of very heavy large-volume maritime, industrial, and military payloads; coastal patrol and sea control; seismographic surveys; air pollution monitoring; and moving goods to remote areas; along with a number of less important but still attractive missions. A figure of merit of productivity (payload weight, ton moles per hour) was used to compare airships of various type and size. In each case, this criterion established an index of efficiency for evaluating not only conceptual approaches but also modes of flight. Some, in part unexpected, results of these studies are described.

  14. 1981 LTA technology assessment - Past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashford, R. L.; Levitt, B. B.; Mayer, N. J.; Vocar, J. M.; Woodward, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    A four-part presentation is made of (1) lessons learned from the design and operation of the 'classic' airships of the 1920s and 30s, with respect to such issues as construction, propulsion, control, instrumentation, ground handling, habitability, aerodynamics, and structure and construction; (2) lessons learned from the development of such specialized lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts as metal-clad airships, semi-buoyant lifting bodies, experimental, sport and commercial free balloons, high-altitude platforms, and tethered aerostats; (3) the current status of LTA technology in various countries, with emphasis on significant developments in configuration, dynamics, control, structures, materials, and propulsion; and (4) a projection of future trends. It is concluded that socio-economic factors will strongly influence and encourage LTA development in the 1990s.

  15. Defective Reduction in Frozen Pie Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooted, Oranuch; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-06-01

    The frozen pie production has a lot of defects resulting in high production cost. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique has been applied to improve the frozen pie process. Pareto chart is also used to determine the major defects of frozen pie. There are 3 main processes that cause the defects which are the 1st freezing to glazing process, the forming process, and the folding process. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) obtained from FMEA is analyzed to reduce the defects. If RPN of each cause exceeds 45, the process will be considered to be improved and selected for the corrective and preventive actions. The results showed that RPN values decreased after the correction. Therefore, the implementation of FMEA technique can help to improve the performance of frozen pie process and reduce the defects approximately 51.9%.

  16. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  17. Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.

  18. LTA measurements on shuttle cleaning nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A laser transit anemometer was used to make flow field velocity measurements on a supersonic air/water cleaning nozzle used to clean liquid oxygen shuttle components at Kennedy Space Center. The velocity along the centerline of the nozzle was characterized by the LTA system and compared with CFD calculations to ascertain the optimum distance the nozzle should be placed from the liquid oxygen part for maximum cleaning..

  19. Periodic modeling of zeolite Ti-LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Roldan, Alberto; Ngoepe, Phuti E.; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2017-08-01

    We have proposed a combination of density functional theory calculations and interatomic potential-based simulations to study the structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of pure-silica zeolite Linde Type A (LTA), as well as two titanium-doped compositions. The energetics of the titanium distribution within the zeolite framework suggest that the inclusion of a second titanium atom with configurations Ti-(Si0)-Ti, Ti-(Si1)-Ti, and Ti-(Si2)-Ti is more energetically favorable than the mono-substitution. Infra-red spectra have been simulated for the pure-silica LTA, the single titanium substitution, and the configurations Ti-(Si0)-Ti and Ti-(Si2)-Ti, comparing against experimental benchmarks where available. The energetics of the direct dissociation of water on these Lewis acid sites indicate that this process is only favored when two titanium atoms form a two-membered ring (2MR) sharing two hydroxy groups, Ti-(OH2)-Ti, which suggests that the presence of water may tune the distribution of titanium atoms within the framework of zeolite LTA. The electronic analysis indicates charge transfer from H2O to the Lewis acid site and hybridization of their electronic states.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes MDR transporters are involved in LTA synthesis and triggering of innate immunity during infection

    PubMed Central

    Tadmor, Keren; Pozniak, Yair; Burg Golani, Tamar; Lobel, Lior; Brenner, Moran; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) transporters are known eponymously for their ability to confer resistance to various antimicrobial drugs. However, it is likely that this is not their primary function and that MDR transporters evolved originally to play additional roles in bacterial physiology. In Listeria monocytogenes a set of MDR transporters was identified to mediate activation of innate immune responses during mammalian cell infection. This phenotype was shown to be dependent on c-di-AMP secretion, but the physiological processes underlying this phenomenon were not completely resolved. Here we describe a genetic approach taken to screen for L. monocytogenes genes or physiological pathways involved in MDR transporter-dependent triggering of the type I interferon response. We found that disruption of L. monocytogenes lipoteichoic acid (LTA) synthesis results in enhanced triggering of type I interferon responses in infected macrophage cells yet does not impact bacterial intracellular growth. This innate immune response required the MDR transporters and could be recapitulated by exposing macrophage cells to culture supernatants derived from LTA mutant bacteria. Notably, we found that the MDR transporters themselves are required for full production of LTA, an observation that links MDR transporters to LTA synthesis for the first time. In light of our findings, we propose that the MDR transporters play a role in regulating LTA synthesis, possibly via c-di-AMP efflux, a physiological function in cell wall maintenance that triggers the host innate immune system. PMID:24611134

  1. The lta4h Locus Modulates Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection in Zebrafish and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David M.; Vary, Jay C.; Ray, John P.; Walsh, Gregory S.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Bang, Nguyen D.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Khadge, Saraswoti; King, Mary-Claire; Hawn, Thomas R.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces varied early outcomes, ranging from resistance to infection to progressive disease. Here we report results from a forward genetic screen in zebrafish larvae that identify multiple mutant classes with distinct patterns of innate susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum. A hypersusceptible mutant maps to the lta4h locus encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant and proinflammatory eicosanoid. lta4h mutations confer hypersusceptibility independent of LTB4 reduction, by redirecting eicosanoid substrates to anti-inflammatory lipoxins. The resultant anti-inflammatory state permits increased mycobacterial proliferation by limiting production of tumor necrosis factor. In humans, we find that protection from both tuberculosis and multibacillary leprosy is associated with heterozygosity for LTA4H polymorphisms that have previously been correlated with differential LTB4 production. Our results suggest conserved roles for balanced eicosanoid production in vertebrate resistance to mycobacterial infection. PMID:20211140

  2. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  3. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  4. Discovery of the cell-penetrating function of A2 domain derived from LTA subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Guo, Hua; Zheng, Wenyun; Zhang, Na; Wang, Tianwen; Wang, Ping; Ma, Xingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is a protein toxin produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). As a bacterial toxin, LT holotoxin can enter intestinal epithelial cells and cause diarrhea. In addition, LT is also a powerful mucosal adjuvant capable of enhancing the strong immune responses to co-administered antigens. However, the LT immunological mechanism is still not clear in some aspects, especially with the respect to how the LTA subunit functions alone. Here, we discovered that the A2 domain of LTA could carry a fluorescent protein into cells, whose function is similar to a cell-penetrating peptide. The transmembrane-transporting ability of the A2 domain is non-specific in its cell-penetrating function, which was shown through testing with different cell types. Moreover, the LTA2 fusion protein penetrated a fluorescently labeled cell membrane that identified LTA2 internalization through membrane transport pathways, and showed it finally localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, low-temperature stress and pharmacological agent treatments showed that the LTA2 internalization route is a temperature-dependent process involving the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the macropinocytosis pathways. These results could explain the internalization of the LTA subunit alone without the LTB pentamer, contributing to a better understanding of LTA working as a mucosal adjuvant; they also suggest that the A2 domain could be used as a novel transport vehicle for research and treatment of disease.

  5. Identifying P-phase arrivals with noise: An improved Kurtosis method based on DWT and STA/LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Shang, Xueyi; Wang, Zewei; Dong, Longjun; Weng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    A discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and short time average to long time average (STA/LTA)-based Kurtosis algorithm (W-S/L-K method) is proposed to pick the arrival time of the P-phase; this method advantageously combines the outstanding ability of retrieving the P-phase arrival information from wavelet coefficients at high resolutions with inherent reliability in obtaining the P-phase arrival time using the STA/LTA picking method. The W-S/L-K method uses local maximum amplitudes and local kurtosis onsets from the wavelet detail components to determine the P-phase arrival times reliably and accurately. It was tested and verified using microseismic data collected from the Yongshaba mine. The results show that the W-S/L-K method's rates of picking errors smaller than 5 ms, 10 ms, and 15 ms were 58%, 86%, and 97.5%, respectively, and the W-S/L-K method was able to pick higher quality P-phase arrival times than those determined using the Kurtosis, Skewness, STA/LTA, Kurtosis + STA/LTA, and Skewness + STA/LTA methods. The proposed method provides a reliable technique for accurately picking P-phase arrival times, especially for signals with low signal to noise ratios (SNRs), heavy tails, and spikes. Moreover, it is able to detect pure noise.

  6. Pie de Palo, Argentina: A cataclastic diapir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2009-03-01

    The term cataclastic diapirism is proposed for the low-temperature extrusion of highly fractured rocks through more competent strata to produce domed topographies at the surface. The process is illustrated by reference to the geomorphology, neotectonics and microseismicity of the Pie de Palo, an elongated ridge in the western Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina composed of shattered and sheared Lower Palaeozoic rocks and subject to coseismic uplift. The Pie de Palo is conventionally interpreted as a fault-driven basement fold linked to low-angle eastward subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America; the diapiric model implies instead that deformation is powered by regional compression from west-verging, near-surface, crustal shortening which results ultimately from Atlantic spreading.

  7. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  8. The PIE Institute Project: Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). For the past three years, Inverness Research has served as the external evaluator for the PIE project. The authors' evaluation efforts have included extensive observation and documentation of PIE project activities; ongoing…

  9. [Pie]: Re-Count and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The number [pie] [approximately] 3.14159 is defined to be the ratio C/d of the circumference C to the diameter d of any given circle. In this article, the author looks at some surprising and unexpected places where [pie] occurs, and then thinks about some ways of remembering all those digits in the expansion of [pie].

  10. Association between ANKK1 (rs1800497) and LTA (rs909253) Genetic Variants and Risk of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Arwa H.; Elhawary, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has assessed associations between schizophrenia and genetic variants of the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes among individuals of Middle Eastern ancestry. Here we present the first association study investigating the ANKK1 rs1800497 (T>C) and LTA rs909253 (A>G) single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an Egyptian population. Among 120 patients with DSM-IV and PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessments of schizophrenia and 100 healthy controls, we determined the genotypes for the polymorphisms using endonuclease digestion of amplified genomic DNA. Results confirmed previous findings from different ethnic populations, in that the rs1800497 and rs909253 polymorphisms were both associated with risk of schizophrenia. Differences between the genotypes of cases and controls were strongly significant (P = 0.0005 for rs1800497 and P = 0.001 for rs909253). The relative risk to schizophrenia was 1.2 (P = 0.01) for the C allele and 0.8 (P = 0.04) for the G allele. The CC, GG, and combined CC/AA genotypes were all more frequent in cases than in controls. These results support an association between ANKK1 and LTA genetic markers and vulnerability to schizophrenia and show the potential influence of just one copy of the mutant C or G allele in the Egyptian population. PMID:26114114

  11. Gene expression of 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of nephrotic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Menegatti, E; Roccatello, D; Fadden, K; Piccoli, G; De Rosa, G; Sena, L M; Rifai, A

    1999-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LT) of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway constitute a class of potent biological lipid mediators of inflammation implicated in the pathogenesis of different models of experimental glomerulonephritis. The key enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), catalyses oxygenation of arachidonic acid to generate the primary leukotriene LTA4. This LT, in turn, serves as a substrate for either LTA4 hydrolase, to form the potent chemoattractant LTB4, or LTC4 synthase, to produce the powerful vasoconstrictor LTC4. To investigate the potential role of LT in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome, we examined the gene expression of 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of 21 adult patients with nephrotic syndrome and 11 controls. The patients consisted of 11 cases of membranous nephropathy (MN), seven focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), two non-IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis and one minimal change disease. Total RNA purified from renal tissue was reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified with specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eight patients' renal tissue, four MN and four FSGS, co-expressed 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase. In situ hybridization analysis revealed 5-LO expression and distribution limited to the interstitial cells surrounding the peritubular capillaries. Comparative clinical and immunohistological data showed that these eight patients had impaired renal function and interstitial changes that significantly correlated with 5-LO expression. These findings suggest that leukotrienes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MN and FSGS. These results are also relevant to elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms which underlie progression to renal failure in these diseases. PMID:10337029

  12. Airships 101: Rediscovering the Potential of Lighter-Than-Air (LTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Hochstetler, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of airships past, present, and future is provided in a Powerpoint-formatted presentation. This presentation was requested for transfer to the British MOD by Paul Espinosa of NASA Ames, Code PX. The presentation provides general information about airships divided into four main categories: the legacy of NASA Ames in LTA (Lighter-Than-Air), LTA taxonomy and theory, LTA revival and missions, and LTA research and technology.

  13. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Meat Pies from Retail Sale in England 2013.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, Jim; Aird, Heather; Charlett, Andre; Elviss, Nicola; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira; Willis, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp. including B. cereus (ISO 1737), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528), and aerobic colony counts (ACCs; ISO 4833). Microbiological quality was satisfactory in 94% of samples, borderline in 5%, and unsatisfactory in 1%. The proportion of pies from markets that were borderline or unsatisfactory significantly increased, and the proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory pies from supermarkets significantly decreased. Among the refrigerated (0 to 15°C) pies, microbiological quality significantly decreased in pies stored at >8°C and further significantly decreased at in pies stored at ambient temperature (>15 to 25°C). Samples collected at 25 to 40°C had the highest proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory results, but results improved in pies stored at >40°C. The most common cause for borderline or unsatisfactory results was elevated ACCs (5% of all samples). Within the individual microbiological parameters, borderline or unsatisfactory results resulted from elevated Enterobacteriaceae or Bacillus levels (10 samples for each), C. perfringens levels (2 samples), and S. aureus or E. coli levels (1 sample each). L. monocytogenes was recovered from one pie at <10 CFU/g. A literature review revealed a range of microbiological hazards responsible for food poisoning and meat pie consumption, and surveillance data from 1992

  15. Al Pie De La Letra

    PubMed Central

    Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ethnic minorities are at higher stroke risk than non-Hispanic whites yet are less likely to have optimal vascular risk factor control. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive strategies for enhancing vascular risk reduction in minority patients with stroke. This study aimed to develop a postdischarge report card to boost treatment adherence among elderly Spanish-speaking patients with stroke within an urban health system. Methods This study included a total of 13 Spanish-only speaking participants aged ≥60 years discharged from a local government hospital in Los Angeles within 18 months of an index ischemic stroke and 6 caregivers engaged in focus groups and interviews. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 care providers and 9 administrators at the hospital. Framework analysis examined the data and elicited themes to adapt a pre-existing patient report card tool. Results Spontaneously using the same phrase, “Al pie de la letra,” several participants expressed a need to follow medical instructions accurately to prevent recurrent stroke and identified barriers/facilitators for doing so. They made comments about the pre-existing report card, advising several changes, including the clarification of phrases, and written instructions to explain the need for the card and how to fill it out. The providers and administrators recommended avenues for successfully using the card at the hospital. A new report card was created that incorporated all major perspectives. Conclusions Crafting a culturally sensitive tool for promoting treatment adherence in elderly Spanish-only-speaking patients with stroke within an urban health system using a participatory methodology is feasible. The efficacy of this new report card should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:20167904

  16. Revised numerical wrapper for PIES code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald

    2015-11-01

    A revised external numerical wrapper has been developed for the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (PIES code), which is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present. The numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg-Marquardt backtracking algorithm. The details of the numerical wrapper and several sample results are presented.

  17. Phase selection controlled by sodium ions in the synthesis of FAU/LTA composite zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Linyan; Xie, Sujuan; Wang, Qingxia; Liu, Shenglin; Xu, Longya

    2009-01-01

    Zeolite faujasite (FAU), Linde type A (LTA) and FAU/LTA composite have been synthesized using tetramethylammonium cation (TMA+) as template, by adjusting only the concentration of Na+ ions in the initial solution (1.00 Al2O3 4.36 SiO2 : 2.39 (TMA)2 O : β Na2 O : 249.00H2 O). Na+ ions alter the phase composition of the product more than TMA+ or OH− ions. When Na2 O concentration [Na2 O] increases from 0.024 to 0.168, the product gradually changes from pure FAU to pure LTA via the formation of FAU/LTA composite with increasing LTA fraction. Interestingly, the induction periods of FAU and LTA in the FAU/LTA composite zeolite ([Na2 O] is 0.072) are both 13 h, quite different from the induction periods of their individual pure phases—45 h for FAU and 4 h for LTA. During the crystallization, the LTA/(FAU + LTA) fraction in the composite zeolite decreases in a nearly linear fashion. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicate some difference between the properties of the FAU/LTA composite zeolite and of the mechanical mixture. PMID:27877264

  18. Phase selection controlled by sodium ions in the synthesis of FAU/LTA composite zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linyan; Xie, Sujuan; Wang, Qingxia; Liu, Shenglin; Xu, Longya

    2009-01-01

    Zeolite faujasite (FAU), Linde type A (LTA) and FAU/LTA composite have been synthesized using tetramethylammonium cation (TMA +) as template, by adjusting only the concentration of Na + ions in the initial solution (1.00 Al2 O3 4.36 SiO2 : 2.39 (TMA)2 O : β Na2 O : 249.00H2 O). Na + ions alter the phase composition of the product more than TMA+ or OH- ions. When Na2 O concentration [Na2 O] increases from 0.024 to 0.168, the product gradually changes from pure FAU to pure LTA via the formation of FAU/LTA composite with increasing LTA fraction. Interestingly, the induction periods of FAU and LTA in the FAU/LTA composite zeolite ([Na2 O] is 0.072) are both 13 h, quite different from the induction periods of their individual pure phases—45 h for FAU and 4 h for LTA. During the crystallization, the LTA/(FAU + LTA) fraction in the composite zeolite decreases in a nearly linear fashion. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicate some difference between the properties of the FAU/LTA composite zeolite and of the mechanical mixture.

  19. Phase selection controlled by sodium ions in the synthesis of FAU/LTA composite zeolite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linyan; Xie, Sujuan; Wang, Qingxia; Liu, Shenglin; Xu, Longya

    2009-02-01

    Zeolite faujasite (FAU), Linde type A (LTA) and FAU/LTA composite have been synthesized using tetramethylammonium cation (TMA(+)) as template, by adjusting only the concentration of Na(+) ions in the initial solution (1.00 Al2O3 4.36 SiO2 : 2.39 (TMA)2 O : β Na2 O : 249.00H2 O). Na(+) ions alter the phase composition of the product more than TMA(+) or OH(-) ions. When Na2 O concentration [Na2 O] increases from 0.024 to 0.168, the product gradually changes from pure FAU to pure LTA via the formation of FAU/LTA composite with increasing LTA fraction. Interestingly, the induction periods of FAU and LTA in the FAU/LTA composite zeolite ([Na2 O] is 0.072) are both 13 h, quite different from the induction periods of their individual pure phases-45 h for FAU and 4 h for LTA. During the crystallization, the LTA/(FAU + LTA) fraction in the composite zeolite decreases in a nearly linear fashion. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicate some difference between the properties of the FAU/LTA composite zeolite and of the mechanical mixture.

  20. Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Spellman, Donald J; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel rod burnup of ~47.3 GWd/MTHM. As part of the fuel qualification process, five rods with varying burnups and initial plutonium contents were selected from one assembly and shipped to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for hot cell examination. ORNL has provided analytical support for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of these rods via extensive fuel performance modeling which has aided in instrument settings and PIE data interpretation. The results of these fuel performance simulations are compared in this paper with available PIE data.

  1. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  2. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  3. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  4. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by...

  5. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by...

  6. Genetic Variation on the BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA Region of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class III Associates with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Marchesani, Marja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Mäntylä, Päivi; Paju, Susanna; Buhlin, Kåre; Suominen, Anna L.; Contreras, Johanna; Knuuttila, Matti; Hernandez, Marcela; Huumonen, Sisko; Nieminen, Markku S.; Perola, Markus; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiology. We investigated whether human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms (6p21.3) are associated with periodontal parameters. Parogene 1 population samples (n = 169) were analyzed with 13,245 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MHC region. Eighteen selected SNPs (P ≤ 0.001) were replicated in Parogene 2 population samples (n = 339) and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 1,420). All subjects had a detailed clinical and radiographic oral health examination. Serum lymphotoxin-α (LTA) concentrations were measured in the Parogene populations, and the protein was detected in inflamed periodontal tissue. In the Parogene 1 population, 10 SNPs were associated with periodontal parameters. The strongest associations emerged from the parameters bleeding on probing (BOP) and a probing pocket depth (PPD) of ≥6 mm with the genes BAT1, NFKBIL1, and LTA. Six SNPs, rs11796, rs3130059, rs2239527, rs2071591, rs909253, and rs1041981 (r2, ≥0.92), constituted a risk haplotype. In the Parogene 1 population, the haplotype had the strongest association with the parameter BOP, a PPD of ≥6 mm, and severe periodontitis with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.63 (2.21 to 3.20), 2.90 (2.37 to 3.52), and 3.10 (1.63 to 5.98), respectively. These results were replicated in the other two populations. High serum LTA concentrations in the Parogene population were associated with the periodontitis risk alleles of the LTA SNPs (rs909253 and rs1041981) of the haplotype. In addition, the protein was expressed in inflamed gingival connective tissue. We identified a novel BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA haplotype as a significant contributor to the risk of periodontitis. The genetic polymorphisms in the MHC class III region may be functionally important in periodontitis susceptibility. PMID:24566624

  7. Growth morphologies and optical properties of LTA single crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Ren, Miaojuan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Peiji

    2013-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the growth morphologies of l-threonine acetate (abbreviated as LTA) crystal. Spiral growth hillocks and typical step patterns are described and discussed. Nuclei with various shapes often distribute at the larger step terraces. Eventually, in order to investigate microscopic second order nonlinear optical properties of LTA crystals, the molecular dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), and first hyperpolarizability (β) were computed using a series of basis sets including polarized and diffuse functions at the framework of Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The study is helpful to the further development of l-threonine analogs with improved nonlinear optical properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Airship logistics: The LTA vehicle; a total cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Design considerations for logistics are dealt with as they pertain to the large rigid LTA vehicle as either a commercial or military cargo carrier. Pertinent factors discussed are: (1) the basic mission; (2) types of payload; (3) the payload space in regards to configuration and sizing, its capacity, and its loadability. A logistic capability comparison of selected cargo airships versus jumbo jets is also made.

  9. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  10. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  11. Post irradiation effects (PIE) in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Lowry, L.; Barnes, C.; Zakharia, M.; Agarwal, S.; Rax, B.

    1991-01-01

    Post-irradiation effects (PIE) ranging from normal recovery to catastrophic failure have been observed in integrated circuits during the PIE period. Data presented show failure due to rebound after a 10 krad(Si) dose. In particular, five device types are investigated with varying PIE response. Special attention has been given to the HI1-507A analog multiplexer because its PIE response is extreme. X-ray diffraction has been uniquely employed to measure physical stress in the HI1-507A metallization. An attempt has been made to show a relationship between stress relaxation and radiation effects. All data presented support the current MIL-STD Method 1019.4 but demonstrate the importance of performing PIE measurements, even when mission doses are as low as 10 krad(Si).

  12. Post irradiation effects (PIE) in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Lowry, L.; Barnes, C.; Zakharia, M.; Agarwal, S.; Rax, B.

    1991-01-01

    Post-irradiation effects (PIE) ranging from normal recovery to catastrophic failure have been observed in integrated circuits during the PIE period. Data presented show failure due to rebound after a 10 krad(Si) dose. In particular, five device types are investigated with varying PIE response. Special attention has been given to the HI1-507A analog multiplexer because its PIE response is extreme. X-ray diffraction has been uniquely employed to measure physical stress in the HI1-507A metallization. An attempt has been made to show a relationship between stress relaxation and radiation effects. All data presented support the current MIL-STD Method 1019.4 but demonstrate the importance of performing PIE measurements, even when mission doses are as low as 10 krad(Si).

  13. Polypropylene glycol is a selective binding inhibitor for LTA and other structurally related TLR2 agonists.

    PubMed

    Draing, Christian; Traub, Stephanie; Deininger, Susanne; Mang, Philippa; Möller, Heiko M; Manso, Miguel; Rossi, Francois; Morath, Siegfried; Hartung, Thomas; von Aulock, Sonja

    2008-03-01

    Polypropylene glycol (PPG) is commonly added to bacterial cultures to avoid foaming. However, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from bacteria grown with PPG lacked cytokine-inducing potency in human blood. We tested the blocking efficacy of several glycols on the cytokine response to staphylococcal LTA in human blood. PPG 1200 was the most potent inhibitor tested, shown for TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TGF-beta induction, and displayed no cytotoxic effects. TNF induction by Staphylococcus aureus or by Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 agonists (di- and triacylated lipopeptides and LTA) was also inhibited by PPG 1200, but not that induced by Escherichia coli or TLR4 agonists. In flow cytometric studies, PPG-carrying nanobeads bound more rhodamine-labeled LTA than those with glycerol. Additionally, the methyl group peak in the (1)H-NMR of LTA shifted after incubation with increasing PPG 1200 concentrations. Sequential incubation of polystyrene plates with LTA, then PPG 1200 and then blood, with washing steps in between, showed that LTA-induced TNF release was inhibited. But when PPG 1200 was pre-incubated with blood that was washed before LTA was added, TNF induction was not repressed, demonstrating that PPG binds LTA and not cellular structures. In summary, PPG 1200 is a novel inhibitor of cytokine induction by TLR2 agonists, which interferes directly with the ligands.

  14. The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Maarten; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-05-01

    A general concept for thinking about causality facilitates swift comprehension of results, and the vocabulary that belongs to the concept is instrumental in cross-disciplinary communication. The causal pie model has fulfilled this role in epidemiology and could be of similar value in evolutionary biology and ecology. In the causal pie model, outcomes result from sufficient causes. Each sufficient cause is made up of a "causal pie" of "component causes". Several different causal pies may exist for the same outcome. If and only if all component causes of a sufficient cause are present, that is, a causal pie is complete, does the outcome occur. The effect of a component cause hence depends on the presence of the other component causes that constitute some causal pie. Because all component causes are equally and fully causative for the outcome, the sum of causes for some outcome exceeds 100%. The causal pie model provides a way of thinking that maps into a number of recurrent themes in evolutionary biology and ecology: It charts when component causes have an effect and are subject to natural selection, and how component causes affect selection on other component causes; which partitions of outcomes with respect to causes are feasible and useful; and how to view the composition of a(n apparently homogeneous) population. The diversity of specific results that is directly understood from the causal pie model is a test for both the validity and the applicability of the model. The causal pie model provides a common language in which results across disciplines can be communicated and serves as a template along which future causal analyses can be made.

  15. Hybrid LTA vehicle controllability as affected by buoyancy ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. N.; Kubicki, P.; Tarczynski, T.; Fairbanks, A.; Piasecki, F. N.

    1979-01-01

    The zero and low speed controllability of heavy lift airships under various wind conditions as affected by the buoyancy ratio are investigated. A series of three hybrid LTA vehicls were examined, each having a dynamic thrust system comprised of four H-34 helicopters, but with buoyant envelopes of different volumes (and hence buoyancies), and with varying percentage of helium inflation and varying useful loads (hence gross weights). Buoyancy ratio, B, was thus examined varying from approximately 0.44 to 1.39. For values of B greater than 1.0, the dynamic thrusters must supply negative thrust (i.e. downward).

  16. The Personal Impact of Epilepsy Scale (PIES).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert S; Nune, George; Roberts, Sanford E; Cramer, Joyce A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of epilepsy is manifest by effects related to seizures and side effects of therapy and comorbidities such as depression. This report describes the development of a brief patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument, the Personal Impact of Epilepsy Scale (PIES), to measure the influence of epilepsy overall and in each of these domains. Instrument development followed standard procedures and an FDA Guidance. People with epilepsy were surveyed with open-ended questions to derive major themes of their concerns, resulting in 4 key areas: seizures, side effects, comorbidities, and overall quality of life (QOL). A preliminary set of 152 questions was based on these themes and completed by 50 patients, age 42.7 (range: 21-71) years, concurrent with comparator instruments, including the NH Seizure Severity Scale (NHSSS), the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP), the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31) scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Epilepsy Foundation Depression: A Checklist. A multiple regression model indicated which PIES measures were associated with scores from the comparator instruments. Questions in each of the domains were selected for correlations and nonduplication. Test-retest consistency at a 3-day interval was completed by 38 subjects and a final set of questions constructed. The final question set comprised 25 items: 9 about characteristics of seizures, 7 about medication side effects, 8 about comorbidities, and 1 about overall quality of life. All items had 5 response choices (0-4), with higher scores reflecting more negative status. A total of 46 subjects completed the 25 questions. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, indicating good internal consistency. Each of the three domains correlated well with the overall QOL item. The questions pertaining to seizures correlated with the NHSSS, the side effect questions with the LAEP, and the comorbidity questions with the QOLIE-31. The PIES provides a simple, brief PRO measure as a profile of

  17. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  18. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  19. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  20. Fully Copper-Exchanged High-Silica LTA Zeolites as Unrivaled Hydrothermally Stable NH3 -SCR Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Taekyung; Ahn, Nak Ho; Seo, Seungwan; Cho, Jung; Kim, Hyojun; Jo, Donghui; Park, Gi Tae; Kim, Pyung Soon; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bruce, Elliott L; Wright, Paul A; Nam, In-Sik; Hong, Suk Bong

    2017-03-13

    Diesel engine technology is still the most effective solution to meet tighter CO2 regulations in the mobility and transport sector. In implementation of fuel-efficient diesel engines, the poor thermal durability of lean nitrogen oxides (NOx ) aftertreatment systems remains as one major technical hurdle. Divalent copper ions when fully exchanged into high-silica LTA zeolites are demonstrated to exhibit excellent activity maintenance for NOx reduction with NH3 under vehicle simulated conditions even after hydrothermal aging at 900 °C, a critical temperature that the current commercial Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst cannot overcome owing to thermal deactivation. Detailed structural characterizations confirm the presence of Cu(2+) ions only at the center of single 6-rings that act not only as a catalytically active center, but also as a dealumination suppressor. The overall results render the copper-exchanged LTA zeolite attractive as a viable substitute for Cu-SSZ-13.

  1. Framework stabilization of Si-rich LTA zeolite prepared in organic-free media.

    PubMed

    Conato, Marlon T; Oleksiak, Matthew D; Peter McGrail, B; Motkuri, Radha K; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-07

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  2. Framework Stabilization of Si-Rich LTA Zeolite Prepared in Organic-Free Media

    SciTech Connect

    Conato, Marlon T.; Oleksiak, Matthew D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Motkuri, Radha K.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-10-16

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  3. LTA application of a long trailing wire high speed/low weight reeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werb, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    The successful development of a unique yet simple reeling system for handling long trailing tensile members at high speeds is described. This high speed when combined with the system simplicity, low weight and effective motive power consumption make this reeling system particularly attractive to LTA planners and designers for numerous LTA missions.

  4. The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Wensink, Maarten; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-01-01

    A general concept for thinking about causality facilitates swift comprehension of results, and the vocabulary that belongs to the concept is instrumental in cross-disciplinary communication. The causal pie model has fulfilled this role in epidemiology and could be of similar value in evolutionary biology and ecology. In the causal pie model, outcomes result from sufficient causes. Each sufficient cause is made up of a “causal pie” of “component causes”. Several different causal pies may exist for the same outcome. If and only if all component causes of a sufficient cause are present, that is, a causal pie is complete, does the outcome occur. The effect of a component cause hence depends on the presence of the other component causes that constitute some causal pie. Because all component causes are equally and fully causative for the outcome, the sum of causes for some outcome exceeds 100%. The causal pie model provides a way of thinking that maps into a number of recurrent themes in evolutionary biology and ecology: It charts when component causes have an effect and are subject to natural selection, and how component causes affect selection on other component causes; which partitions of outcomes with respect to causes are feasible and useful; and how to view the composition of a(n apparently homogeneous) population. The diversity of specific results that is directly understood from the causal pie model is a test for both the validity and the applicability of the model. The causal pie model provides a common language in which results across disciplines can be communicated and serves as a template along which future causal analyses can be made. PMID:24963386

  5. Optimization studies of a multikilowatt PIE CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, A. K.; Seguin, H. J. J.; Seguin, V. A.

    1986-02-01

    Detailes of an investigation of the operational performance of a 10 kW CW PIE CO2 laser are presented. The results obtained from the experiment, successfully scaled by an order of magnitude from an earlier proof-of-principle device, clearly document that the PIE excitation process can be effectively utilized in the design of very large volumen lasers. Optimization data further reveal that overall wallplug efficiency is commensurate with that obtained from E-beam sustained lasers; but at far less complexity and cost. As such, this relatively simple and reliable nonself-sustained excitation process appears attractive commercial for the development of very large and cost effective CW CO2 lasers.

  6. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-04-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. PMID:24533796

  8. 49 CFR 40.367 - Who initiates a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who initiates a PIE proceeding? 40.367 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.367 Who initiates a PIE proceeding? The following DOT officials may initiate a PIE proceeding: (a) The drug and alcohol program manager...

  9. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  10. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    PubMed Central

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic. PMID:28303931

  11. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic.

  12. The Mini-Casebook--Easy As Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Hal; Sweet, Charlie

    2003-01-01

    Presents a casebook on the song "American Pie" that considers how to define the parameters of short narrative. Describes the creation of an end-of-term cumulative writing project that the authors have successfully employed for the last decade. Discusses how they put together a casebook that teaches the necessary research skills. (SG)

  13. Variants in LTA, TNF, IL1B and IL10 genes associated with the clinical course of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Jaimes, Fabián A; Rugeles, Maria T; López, Juan Álvaro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Velilla, Paula A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between some SNPs of the TNF, LTA, IL1B and IL10 genes with cytokine concentrations and clinical course in Colombian septic patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study to genotype 415 septic patients and 205 patients without sepsis for the SNPs -308(G/A) rs1800629 of TNF; +252 (G/A) rs909253 of LTA; -511(A/G) rs16944 and +3953(C/T) rs1143634 of IL1B; and -1082(A/G) rs1800896, -819(C/T) rs1800871 and -592(C/A) rs1800872 of IL10. The association of theses SNPs with the following parameters was evaluated: (1) the presence of sepsis; (2) severity and clinical outcomes; (3) APACHE II and SOFA scores; and (4) procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor, lymphotoxin alpha, interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 10 plasma concentrations. We found an association between the SNP LTA +252 with the development of sepsis [OR 1.29 (1.00-1.68)]; the SNP IL10 -1082 with sepsis severity [OR 0.53 (0.29-0.97)]; the TNF -308 with mortality [OR 0.33 (0.12-0.95)]; and the IL10 -592 and IL10 -1082 with admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) [OR 3.36 (1.57-7.18)] and [OR 0.18 (0.04-0.86)], respectively. None of the SNPs were associated with cytokine levels, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein serum concentrations, nor with APACHE II and SOFA scores. Our results suggest that these genetic variants play an important role in the development of sepsis and its clinical course.

  14. Role of LTA4H Polymorphism in Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Occurrence and Clinical Severity in Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Gopalan; Kavitha, Dhanasekaran; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Gil-Santana, Leonardo; Almeida-Junior, Jilson L.; Reddy, Sirasanambatti Devarajulu; Kumar, Marimuthu Makesh; Hemalatha, Haribabu; Jayanthi, Nagesh Nalini; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Krishnaraja, Raja; Prabhakar, Angamuthu; Manoharan, Tamizhselvan; Nithyananthan, Lokeswaran; Arjunan, Gunasundari; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory phenomenon complicating HIV management in coincidental tuberculosis (TB) infection, upon immune reconstitution driven by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H), an enzyme which converts LTA4 to LTB4, regulates the balance between the anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory LTB4, with direct implications in TB-driven inflammation. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LTA4H promoter which regulates its transcriptional activity (rs17525495) has been identified and described to impact clinical severity of TB presentation and response to corticosteroid therapy. Notably, the role of LTA4H on TB-IRIS has not been previously evaluated. Here, we performed an exploratory investigation testing the association of LTA4H polymorphism with respect to frequency of TB-IRIS occurrence and severity of TB-IRIS presentation in HIV-TB co-infected individuals. Methods Genotypic evaluation of the LTA4H enzyme from available samples was retrospectively correlated with clinical data captured in case sheets including IRIS details. The cohort included patients recruited from a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT0933790) of ART-naïve HIV+ patients with newly diagnosed rifampicin sensitive pulmonary TB in South India. Frequency of the wild type genotype (CC), as well as of the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) in the IRIS and non-IRIS patients was estimated. Comparative analyses were performed between wild genotype (CC) and the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) and tested for association between the LTA4H polymorphisms and IRIS incidence and clinical severity. Results A total of 142 eligible ART-naïve patients were included in the analyses. Eighty-six individuals exhibited the wild genotype (CC) while 56 had mutant genotypes (43-CT and only 13-TT). Variant allele frequency was 0.23 and 0.26 in non

  15. PIE: an online prediction system for protein-protein interactions from text.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Soo-Jin; Sriram, Ram; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2008-07-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) extraction has been an important research topic in bio-text mining area, since the PPI information is critical for understanding biological processes. However, there are very few open systems available on the Web and most of the systems focus on keyword searching based on predefined PPIs. PIE (Protein Interaction information Extraction system) is a configurable Web service to extract PPIs from literature, including user-provided papers as well as PubMed articles. After providing abstracts or papers, the prediction results are displayed in an easily readable form with essential, yet compact features. The PIE interface supports more features such as PDF file extraction, PubMed search tool and network communication, which are useful for biologists and bio-system developers. The PIE system utilizes natural language processing techniques and machine learning methodologies to predict PPI sentences, which results in high precision performance for Web users. PIE is freely available at http://bi.snu.ac.kr/pie/.

  16. Direct Logistic Fuel JP-8 Conversion in a Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-09

    Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA- SOFC ) Prepared By CellTech Power , LLC, 131 Flanders Road, MA, 01581 April, 2008 Final Report Contract... REPORT Direct Logistic Fuel JP-8 Conversion in a Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA- SOFC ) 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This...logistic fuel only. The aim of this program was to advance LTA- SOFC technology with respect to direct conversion of JP-8. U 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  17. A revolutionary and operational tethered aerostat system illustrating new LTA technology. [for ground-air-ground communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menke, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An operational tethered aerostat system, which demonstrates utility of LTA systems, is described. It was made possible by development of a reliable tethered aerostat that is used to support broadcast equipment at an altitude of 10,000 feet. Two elements of the TCOM system, the aerostat and mooring station, are particularly relevant to the LTA Workshop. They demonstrate the feasibility of using LTA vehicles in real, operational, all-weather applications and, in addition, illustrate an advance in the overall technology base of LTA. The aerostat and the mooring station, including their technical design features and demonstrated performance characteristics, are described.

  18. Asymmetric enrichment of PIE-1 in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote mediated by binary counterdiffusion.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brian R; Perkins, Edward M; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Sun, Sean X; Wirtz, Denis

    2009-02-23

    To generate cellular diversity in developing organisms while simultaneously maintaining the developmental potential of the germline, germ cells must be able to preferentially endow germline daughter cells with a cytoplasmic portion containing specialized cell fate determinants not inherited by somatic cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germline inheritance of the protein PIE-1 is accomplished by first asymmetrically localizing the protein to the germplasm before cleavage and subsequently degrading residual levels of the protein in the somatic cytoplasm after cleavage. Despite its critical involvement in cell fate determination, the enrichment of germline determinants remains poorly understood. Here, combining live-cell fluorescence methods and kinetic modeling, we demonstrate that the enrichment process does not involve protein immobilization, intracellular compartmentalization, or localized protein degradation. Instead, our results support a heterogeneous reaction/diffusion model for PIE-1 enrichment in which the diffusion coefficient of PIE-1 is reversibly reduced in the posterior, resulting in a stable protein gradient across the zygote at steady state.

  19. PIE preparation of the MEGAPIE target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuther, Michael; Wagner, Werner

    2012-12-01

    The MEGAPIE target, after successfully operating for 4 months at a beam power of 0.77 MW, is now being prepared for post irradiation examination PIE. The lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target was irradiated from August until December 2006, and in this period received a beam charge of 2.8 A h of 575 MeV protons. After that, the target was stored in the target storage facility of PSI, waiting for its post irradiation examination. In the meantime several campaigns of tests have been conducted by PSI and ZWILAG, the interim storage facility of Swiss nuclear power plants. In these tests the feasibility of the conditioning of the target and the extraction of sample material for the PIE has been proven. After transport to the hot cell facility at ZWILAG in June 2009, the dismantling of the MEGAPIE target started. It finally was cut into 21 pieces. Ten of these pieces will be shipped to the Hot Laboratory of PSI ('PSI hotlab') to extract samples from the structural materials as well as from the LBE. Currently it is foreseen that the sample extraction will start in the first half of 2011. The remaining parts of the MEGAPIE target were conditioned as radioactive waste. The present paper will mainly focus on the dismantling and first visual inspection of the MEGAPIE target. In addition an outlook on the PIE phase of MEGAPIE is given.

  20. Graphic displays: the effects of orientation on the tangible perception of histograms and pie charts.

    PubMed

    Painter, J; Pring, L

    2000-09-01

    Two studies designed to investigate the ability of blind subjects to interpret tangible graphic displays of data at varying degrees of orientation are reported. In the first experiment visually handicapped children were required to interpret histograms and pie charts presented at two different orientations. Horizontally oriented histograms were found to have a significant advantage over vertically oriented histograms, but there was no effect of orientation on pie charts. In the second study horizontally and vertically oriented histograms were again compared using a subject sample comprised only of congenitally or very early blind children. The results confirmed the superiority of horizontally presented histograms over the more common vertical display.

  1. Gain and saturation parameters of a multikilowatt PIE CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikumb, S. K.; Seguin, H. J. J.; Seguin, V. A.; Reshef, H.

    1987-07-01

    Details of an experimental investigation of the small signal gain and saturation parameter of a 10 kW CW photoinitiated, impulse-enhanced, electrically excited (PIE) CO2 laser are presented. Measurements were made as a function of several device operational conditions, such as gas pressure, input electrical power, pulser ionization, and flow velocity. Gain profiles were also obtained, both from anode to cathode, and in the direction of gas flow. The results document the effectiveness of the PIE excitation technique, while providing detailed information on the gain medium. Such data are essential to the design of an efficient optical extraction system.

  2. Stability and transitions in posttraumatic growth trajectories among cancer patients: LCA and LTA analyses.

    PubMed

    Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Saltzman, Leia Y; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Perry, Shlomit; Ziv, Yuval; Ginat-Frolich, Rivkah; Stemmer, Salomon M

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the current study were to identify (a) different post cancer treatment adaptation profiles; (b) factors that predict these adaptation profiles; and (c) transitions in post cancer-treatment adaptation profiles and trajectories in a sample (N = 198) of female breast cancer patients over a 2-year period. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to idenitfy profiles of post cancer treatment adaptation, based on a combined pattern of responses to observable indicators of distress, coping strategies, and posttraumatic growth. latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to track trajectories, based on the probabilities of transitions among latent classes. Four postcancer treatment adaptation profiles were found: (a) distressed, (b) resistant, (c) constructive growth, and (d) struggling growth. The majority of transitions between different adaptation profiles occurred between 6 and 12 months after treatment. These findings offer theoretical and practice implications regarding posttraumatic growth in breast-cancer patients by distinguishing between profiles of adaptation and highlights a previously unidentified profile-struggling growth. These results contribute to the theoretical understanding of the complex relationship between growth, distress, and coping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  4. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  5. Sex and the Cinema: What "American Pie" Teaches the Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Sharyn

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the wildly successful blockbuster "American Pie" teenpics, especially "American Pie 3--The Wedding". I argue that these films are specifically designed to appeal to teenage male audiences, and to provide lessons in sex and romance. Movies like this are especially important as they are experienced by far more teenagers than,…

  6. Sex and the Cinema: What "American Pie" Teaches the Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Sharyn

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the wildly successful blockbuster "American Pie" teenpics, especially "American Pie 3--The Wedding". I argue that these films are specifically designed to appeal to teenage male audiences, and to provide lessons in sex and romance. Movies like this are especially important as they are experienced by far more teenagers than,…

  7. SNPs in PTGS2 and LTA Predict Pain and Quality of Life in Long Term Lung Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Sarah M.; Gonzalez, Brian D.; Clark, Matthew M.; Patten, Christi; Felten, Sara; Liu, Heshan; Li, Yafei; Sloan, Jeff; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Lung cancer survivors report the lowest quality of life relative to other cancer survivors. Pain is one of the most devastating, persistent, and incapacitating symptoms for lung cancer survivors. Prevalence rates vary with 80–100% of survivors experiencing cancer pain and healthcare costs are five times higher in cancer survivors with uncontrolled pain. Cancer pain often has a considerable impact on quality of life among cancer patients and cancer survivors. Therefore, early identification, and treatment is important. Although recent studies have suggested a relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several cytokine and inflammation genes with cancer prognosis, associations with cancer pain are not clear. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to identify SNPs related to pain in long term lung cancer survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Lung Cancer Cohort upon diagnosis of their lung cancer. 1149 Caucasian lung cancer survivors, (440 surviving < 3 years; 354 surviving 3–5 years; and 355 surviving> 5 years) completed study questionnaires and had genetic samples available. Ten SNPS from PTGS2 and LTA genes were selected based on the serum literature. Outcomes included pain, and quality of life as measured by the SF-8. RESULTS Of the 10 SNPs evaluated in LTA and PTGS2 genes, 3 were associated with pain severity (rs5277; rs1799964), social function (rs5277) and mental health (rs5275). These results suggested both specificity and consistency of these inflammatory gene SNPs in predicting pain severity in long term lung cancer survivors. CONCLUSION These results provide support for genetic predisposition to pain severity and may aid in identification of lung cancer survivors at high risk for morbidity and poor QOL. PMID:22464751

  8. Comparative analysis of isotopic composition of spent fuel from Takahama-3 PWR PIE database using TRIPOLI-PEPIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. K.

    2006-07-01

    Evaluation of isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel is essential for reactor physics and fuel cycle back-end applications. A TRIPOLI-PEPIN coupled depletion code, TR4PEP, has been developed to meet these requirements. It combines the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code, TRIPOLI4.3 [1] and the point depletion code, PEPIN-2 [2], to perform the burnup dependent material data calculation. The depletion calculation flow of TR4PEP code has been presented on a previous study. Its application on PWR UO{sub 2} and MOX spent fuel has been validated against several international numerical benchmarks. Compared to industry standard deterministic cell codes and other Monte Carlo based depletion codes, TR4PEP deep-burn depletion calculations have shown satisfactory results. [3] In addition to the numerical benchmarks, the analysis of available post irradiation examination (PIE) results by TR4PEP is also important The PIE results at fuel assembly level are accessible only from spent fuel reprocessing plant and these data are not easy to use for code validation due to the dissolution of several assemblies in the same time. The PIE results at fuel pellet level depend not only on the method for the isotopic measurements but also on the irradiation environment and history. A free access PIE database on isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel is obtainable from OECD/NEA. [4] Both PWR and BWR PIE data at fuel pellet level are taken into account in this database but the only 17 x 17 type PWR fuel available in this database is from Takahama-3 PIE results. To validate TR4PEP with Takahama-3 PIE results, two irradiated UO{sub 2} samples, SF95-4 from fuel assembly NT3G23 and SF97-5 from NT3G24, are considered in this study. Both samples have an initial {sup 235}U enrichment of 4.11 wt% and their burnup are respectively 36.69 and 47.03 GWd/t. Comparative analysis of isotopic composition from SF95-4 and SF97-5 including 19 actinides from {sup 234}U to {sup 247}Cm and 18

  9. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  10. 49 CFR 40.379 - How do you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.379... issuance of a PIE? (a) If you receive a NOPE, you may contest the issuance of the PIE. (b) If you want to contest the proposed PIE, you must provide the Director information and argument in opposition to...

  11. 49 CFR 40.377 - Who decides whether to issue a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who decides whether to issue a PIE? 40.377 Section... a PIE? (a) The ODAPC Director, or his or her designee, decides whether to issue a PIE. If a designee... determination about whether to start a PIE proceeding. (c) There is a “firewall” between the initiating...

  12. 49 CFR 40.363 - On what basis may the Department issue a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what basis may the Department issue a PIE? 40... the Department issue a PIE? (a) If you are a service agent, the Department may issue a PIE concerning... also may issue a PIE if you have failed to cooperate with DOT agency representatives...

  13. Social suppliers: Exploring the cultural contours of the performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) market among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Katinka; Mulrooney, Kyle J D

    2017-02-01

    This paper explores the understudied phenomenon of performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) markets by examining the structure and formation of the market for PIEDs among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium. This article specifically seeks to account for individual reasons and motivations for dealing PIEDs within these bodybuilding subcultures. Understanding illicit PIED markets is important for policy decisions as knowledge on the production and distribution of these substances may assist in designing law enforcement efforts, harm reduction initiatives and treatment options. This article draws on two years of fieldwork in various bodybuilding settings, 47 semi-structured interviews with individuals who are directly or indirectly involved in the PIED market and 64 PIED dealing cases initiated by criminal justice agencies in the Netherlands and Belgium. The data indicates that PIED dealing groups and individuals are often driven by motivations stemming from their social and cultural embeddedness in the bodybuilding subculture. Specifically, these PIED dealers are 'over-socialized' into the structure and culture of bodybuilding and follow the cultural scripts that come with their group affiliation and organization. As a result of the cultural context in which these transactions occur, PIED dealing networks among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium are more likely to consist of friends or 'friends of friends' tied together by threads of collective meaning found within the bodybuilding subculture. We argue that efforts seeking to explain the structure, formation and motivations of illicit PIED dealing must learn to appreciate how culture mediates structural forces and thereby influences individual and collective action. Policy makers, health care professionals and other relevant parties should consider a plurality of factors (social, economic and cultural) when designing and evaluating PIED-related interventions such as law enforcement efforts, harm

  14. Inhibition of transcription by the Caenorhabditis elegans germline protein PIE-1: genetic evidence for distinct mechanisms targeting initiation and elongation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dolan; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, specification of the germ lineage depends on PIE-1, a maternal protein that blocks mRNA transcription in germline blastomeres. Studies in mammalian cell culture have suggested that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb, a kinase that phosphorylates serine 2 in the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) repeats of RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. We have tested this hypothesis using an in vivo complementation assay for PIE-1 function. Our results support the view that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb using the CTD-like motif YAPMAPT. This activity is required to block serine 2 phosphorylation in germline blastomeres, but unexpectedly is not essential for transcriptional repression or specification of the germline. We find that sequences outside of the YAPMAPT are required to inhibit serine 5 phosphorylation, and that this second inhibitory mechanism is essential for transcriptional repression and specification of the germ lineage. Our results suggest that PIE-1 uses partially redundant mechanisms to block transcription by targeting both the initiation and elongation phases of the transcription cycle.

  15. Characterisation of TNF block haplotypes affecting the production of TNF and LTA.

    PubMed

    Tan, J H; Temple, S E L; Kee, C; Waterer, G W; Tan, C R T; Gut, I; Price, P

    2011-02-01

    Polymorphisms in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (particularly TNF and adjacent genes) associate with several immunopathological diseases and with susceptibility to pneumonia. The MHC is characterised by strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), so identification of loci affecting disease must be based on haplotypes. We have defined 31 tumour necrosis factor (TNF) block haplotypes (denoted FV1-31) in Caucasians, Asians and Australian Aboriginals. This study correlates the carriage of TNF block haplotypes with TNF and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) protein production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 205 healthy Caucasian subjects, following in vitro stimulation with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae; gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (E. coli; gram-negative bacteria) or TNF over 4, 8 and 24 h. Fifteen haplotypes were present at >1%, accounting for 94.5% of the cohort. The haplotypes were grouped into five families based on common alleles. Following stimulation, cells from carriers of the FV10 haplotype (family 2) produced less LTA compared with non-FV10 carriers. Carriers of the FV18 haplotype (family 4) produced more LTA than other donors. Induction of TNF by S. pneumoniae following 24 h stimulation was also greater in donors with FV18. The FV18 haplotype associated with the 44.1 MHC ancestral haplotype (HLA-A2, -C5, -B44, -DRB1*0401 and -DQB1*0301) that has few disease associations. FV16 occurred in the 8.1 MHC haplotype (HLA-A2, B8, DR3) that is associated with multiple immunopathological diseases. FV16 did not affect TNF or LTA levels. The findings suggest that many genetic variations critical in vivo are not effectively modelled by short-term cultures.

  16. LUNAR MODULE TEST ARTICLE [LTA] [2R] IS MOVED FOR MATING TO LUNAR MODULE ADAPTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Lunar Module Test Article [LTA] 2R, for the second Saturn V mission, is being moved from the low bay of the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building for mating with the spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter. The second Saturn V [502], except for a different lunar return trajectory, will be a repeat of the Apollo 4 unmanned Earth orbital flight of a high apogee for systems testing using several propulsion system burns and a heat shield test at lunar re-entry speed.

  17. Comparison of the STA/LTA and power spectral density methods for microseismic event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Yoones; Van der Baan, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Robust event detection and picking is a prerequisite for reliable (micro-) seismic interpretations. Detection of weak events is a common challenge among various available event detection algorithms. In this paper we compare the performance of two event detection methods, the short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) method, which is the most commonly used technique in industry, and a newly introduced method that is based on the power spectral density (PSD) measurements. We have applied both techniques to a 1-hr long segment of the vertical component of some raw continuous data recorded at a borehole geophone in a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The PSD technique outperforms the STA/LTA technique by detecting a higher number of weak events while keeping the number of false alarms at a reasonable level. The time-frequency representations obtained through the PSD method can also help define a more suitable bandpass filter which is usually required for the STA/LTA method. The method offers thus much promise for automated event detection in industrial, local, regional and global seismological data sets.

  18. Crystal structures of Sr-diphylloaluminosilicates synthesized from LTA and FAU zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedić, Bojana; Kremenović, Aleksandar; Dimitrijević, Radovan; Dondur, Vera

    2008-02-01

    Crystal structures of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate phases are solved and refined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data by Rietveld method in trigonal space group P3¯c1 (No. 165) and hexagonal space group P6 3/ mcm (No. 193), respectively. The stoichiometric phase is synthesized from the Sr-LTA zeolite, whereas the non-stoichiometric phase is prepared from the Sr-FAU zeolite by thermal treatment. Structural models described in the space group P3¯c1 are refined to the agreement factors: Rexp = 3.32, Rp = 6.63, Rwp = 9.27, RB = 3.70 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate LTA and Rexp = 3.64, Rp = 7.06, Rwp = 10.1, RB = 3.76 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate FAU. Structural models described in the space group P6 3/ mcm are refined to the agreement factors: Rexp = 3.32, Rp = 6.50, Rwp = 9.10, RB = 3.40 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate LTA and Rexp = 3.64, Rp = 6.92, Rwp = 9.90, RB = 3.55 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate FAU. Vacancies in the positions occupied by the Sr 2+ ions are characteristic of the Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate FAU structure.

  19. First Images from the 74 MHz VLA - Pie Town Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, W. M.; Cohen, A. S.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2005-12-01

    A 74 MHz (4m wavelength) receiver has now been added to the VLBA antenna at Pie Town, bringing the full resolving power of the VLA + Pie Town Link to this low frequency. With baselines up to 73 km, corresponding to resolutions of ˜10 arcsec, and sensitivities ˜20 mJy bm-1, the first observations shown here have achieved by far the highest resolution and sensitivity of any images at this frequency to date.

  20. A LTA flight research vehicle. [technology assessment, airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nebiker, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Airship Flight Research Program is proposed. Major program objectives are summarized and a Modernized Navy ZPG3W Airship recommended as the flight test vehicle. The origin of the current interest in modern airship vehicles is briefly discussed and the major benefits resulting from the flight research program described. Airship configurations and specifications are included.

  1. Analysis of migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in response to LPS and LTA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim; Fiedler, Tomas; Peters, Kirsten

    2016-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue. Since bacterial infections are common complications in wound healing, bacterial pathogens and their components come into direct contact with MSC. The interaction with bacterial structures influences the proliferation, differentiation and migratory activity of the MSC, which might be of relevance during regeneration. Studies on MSC migration in response to bacterial components have shown different results depending on the cell type. Here, we analyzed the migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in response to the basic cell-wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. To this end, we used transwell and scratch assays, as well as a specific chemotaxis assay combined with live-cell imaging. We found no significant influence of LPS or LTA on the migration rate of adMSC in transwell or scratch assays. Furthermore, in the µ-slide chemotaxis assay, the stimulation with LPS did not exert any chemotactic effect on adMSC.

  2. Low pH Environmental Stress Inhibits LPS and LTA-Stimulated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stanley F.; Fung, Christopher; Helinski, Jadwiga D.; Alluri, Ravi; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric aspiration increases the risks for developing secondary bacterial pneumonia. Cytokine elaboration through pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) is an important mechanism in initiating innate immune host response. Effects of low pH stress, a critical component of aspiration pathogenesis, on the PRR pathways were examined, specifically toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and TLR4, using isolated rat alveolar macrophages (aMØs). We assessed the ability of aMØs after brief exposure to acidified saline to elaborate proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) stimulation, known ligands of TLR4 and TLR2, respectively. Low pH stress reduced LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine release (CINC-1, MIP-2, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IFN-β). LPS and LTA increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations while Ca2+ chelation by BAPTA decreased LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine responses. BAPTA blocked the effects of low pH stress on most of LPS-stimulated cytokines but not of LTA-stimulated responses. In vivo mouse model demonstrates suppressed E. coli and S. pneumoniae clearance following acid aspiration. In conclusion, low pH stress inhibits antibacterial cytokine response of aMØs due to impaired TLR2 (MyD88 pathway) and TLR4 signaling (MyD88 and TRIF pathways). The role of Ca2+ in low pH stress-induced signaling is complex but appears to be distinct between LPS- and LTA-mediated responses. PMID:24288685

  3. Bacteriological Studies on Meat Pies and Frozen Prepared Dinners

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, D. C.; Tittiger, F.

    1971-01-01

    A bacteriological survey of meat pies, frozen prepared dinners and entrees indicated that their bacterial populations were related to the components, the environment and handling in manufacture. Results were correlated with microbiological examinations of ingredients, line samples and plant environmental samples. Total bacterial counts, coliform counts and Staphylococcus counts of the finished product were low. Coliform organisms found were primarily Aerobacter spp. originating with the frozen vegetables. Enterococci were also found in the frozen vegetables and finished product. Both enterococci and Aerobacter organisms were recovered from the plant environment where they appeared to multiply. Many of the plant personnel carried coagulase-positive staphylococci in the throat or nasal cavity, and this was indicated as a possible source for these organisms found in low numbers in the finished product. Cooking of the products produced sterility except for the survival of some spore forming Bacillus spp. The presence of a poultry slaughtering operation adjacent to the manufacturing area was considered to contribute to microbial contamination of the air in the plant. PMID:4251416

  4. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official bears...

  5. 49 CFR 40.409 - What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the issuance of a PIE mean to... What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers? (a) As an employer, you are deemed to have notice of the issuance of a PIE when it appears on the List mentioned in § 40.401(a) or the...

  6. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding... concurrence, settle a PIE proceeding....

  7. 49 CFR 40.383 - What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.383 Section 40.383 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE? (a) DOT conducts PIE proceedings in a...

  8. 49 CFR 40.397 - When does the Director make a PIE decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When does the Director make a PIE decision? 40.397... a PIE decision? The Director makes his or her decision within 60 days of the date when the record of a PIE proceeding is complete (including any meeting with the Director and any additional...

  9. Personalized Information Environments: Do Public Libraries Want a Slice of the PIE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worcester, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of personalized information environments (PIEs) focuses on library personalized interfaces. Describes academic library PIEs and commercial sites, such as Amazon.com that use personalization; explores the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg's personalized interface; and discusses opportunities and challenges PIEs offer public…

  10. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  11. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  12. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  13. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  14. Highly oriented, neutral and cation-free AlPO4 LTA: from a seed crystal monolayer to a molecular sieve membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aisheng; Caro, Jürgen

    2011-04-14

    An oriented, neutral and cation-free AlPO(4) LTA molecular sieve membrane with high hydrogen selectivity was prepared on porous α-Al(2)O(3) supports through secondary growth of a highly oriented AlPO(4) LTA monolayer.

  15. Two-Person Pie-Cutting: The Fairest Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbanel, Julius B.; Brams, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Barbanel, Brams, and Stromquist (in 2009) asked whether there exists a two-person moving-knife procedure that yields an envy-free, undominated, and equitable division of a pie. We present two procedures: One yields an envy-free, almost undominated, and almost equitable allocation, whereas the second yields an allocation with the two "almost"…

  16. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  17. Two-Person Pie-Cutting: The Fairest Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbanel, Julius B.; Brams, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Barbanel, Brams, and Stromquist (in 2009) asked whether there exists a two-person moving-knife procedure that yields an envy-free, undominated, and equitable division of a pie. We present two procedures: One yields an envy-free, almost undominated, and almost equitable allocation, whereas the second yields an allocation with the two "almost"…

  18. Loading density dependence of ferromagnetic properties in potassium clusters arrayed in a simple cubic structure in zeolite LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takehito; Ikemoto, Yuka; Nozue, Yasuo

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic properties are investigated for potassium clusters arrayed in zeolite LTA. The potassium loading density per cluster, n, is changed up to 7.2 per cluster. The n-dependence of the Curie constant and the magnetization are measured in detail. Possible origins of ferromagnetic properties are discussed.

  19. The effect of extra framework species on the intrinsic negative thermal expansion property of zeolites with the LTA topology.

    PubMed

    Carey, Thomas; Corma, Avelino; Rey, Fernando; Tang, Chiu C; Hriljac, Joseph A; Anderson, Paul A

    2012-06-14

    X-Ray powder diffraction studies have been used to measure the thermal expansion properties of three zeolites with the LTA topology and provide details of the underlying structural changes. Siliceous ITQ-29 and dehydrated and hydrated silver zeolite A have large negative, moderate negative and positive thermal expansion coefficients, respectively.

  20. High performance zeolite LTA pervaporation membranes on ceramic hollow fibers by dipcoating-wiping seed deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengbao; Ge, Qinqin; Shao, Jia; Yan, Yushan

    2009-05-27

    We demonstrate for the first time that by one single hydrothermal synthesis a zeolite LTA membrane with a high flux of 9.0 kg/m(2) h and high water/ethanol separation factor of 10,000 could be formed on a ceramic hollow fiber that is known for its ability to form a compact module. The flux is the highest reported in the literatures. A novel seeding method, dipcoating-wiping, is key to obtaining zeolite membranes with high separation performance because it reproducibly produces a uniform and trace seed layer on the support. This new seeding method is expected to have serious implications for making defect-free zeolite films and membranes for many applications. The membranes reported here have the potential to solve the key problems that have prevented zeolite membranes from widespread use for biofuel production.

  1. Optical and structural studies of CuI clusters in zeolites LTA and FAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Takuji

    2006-05-01

    CuI clusters were incorporated into α-cages and supercages of zeolites LTA and FAU, respectively, with various loading densities. From the powder XRD measurement of CuI clusters in FAU, it can be concluded that CuI clusters with homogeneous size were distributed in the cages. In case of using FAU as a host, when the loading density became close to the maximum, photo absorption intensity gradually decreased. A polariton effect, i.e. photo excited energy transfers among the clusters, may play an important role on this phenomenon. Cu and I atoms of bulk CuI crystal have tetrahedral chemical bondings. Supercages of FAU have an arrangement of a diamond structure. Coincidence on the symmetry of the chemical bondings in the CuI clusters and the arrangement of the clusters in the supercages may be the origin of a highly ordered state of CuI clusters and will enhance the polariton effect.

  2. 49 CFR 40.407 - May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or... agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated? (a) Yes, as a service agent concerning whom the Department has issued a PIE, you may request that the Director terminate a PIE or reduce its duration...

  3. Decommissioning and PIE of the MEGAPIE spallation target

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Henry, J.; Wohlmuther, M.; Dai, Y.; Gavillet, D.; Hammer, B.; Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.; Thomsen, K.; Tuerler, A.; Wagner, W.; Gessi, A.; Guertin, A.; Konstantinovic, M.; Lindau, R.; Maloy, S.; Saito, S.

    2013-07-01

    A key experiment in the Accelerated Driven Systems roadmap, the MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) (1 MW) was initiated in 1999 in order to design and build a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, then to operate it into the Swiss spallation neutron facility SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute. The target has been designed, manufactured, and tested during integral tests, before irradiation carried out end of 2006. During irradiation, neutron and thermo hydraulic measurements were performed allowing deep interpretation of the experiment and validation of the models used during design phase. The decommissioning, Post Irradiation Examinations and waste management phases were defined properly. The phases dedicated to cutting, sampling, cleaning, waste management, samples preparation and shipping to various laboratories were performed by PSI teams: all these phases constitute a huge work, which allows now to perform post-irradiation examination (PIE) of structural material, irradiated in relevant conditions. Preliminary results are presented in the paper, they concern chemical characterization. The following radio-nuclides have been identified by γ-spectrometry: {sup 60}Co, {sup 101}Rh, {sup 102}Rh, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 172}Hf/Lu, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 194}Hg/Au, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi. For some of these nuclides the activities can be easily evaluated from γ-spectrometry results ({sup 207}Bi, {sup 194}Hg/Au), while other nuclides can only be determined after chemical separations ({sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 195}Au, {sup 129}I, {sup 36}Cl and α-emitting {sup 208-210}Po). The concentration of {sup 129}I is lower than expected. The chemical analysis already performed on spallation and corrosion products in the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) are very relevant for further applications of LBE as a spallation media and more generally as a coolant.

  4. Comparison of a Waveform Cross Correlation Detection Method to a Traditional STA/LTA Picker: Application to the Crooked Lake Sequence Near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, D. W.; Spriggs, N.

    2014-12-01

    Waveform cross correlation, or template matching as it is sometimes called, has long been known to be an effective method for finding occurrences of a known repeating signal within a waveform. Because seismic signals are rarely known a priori, waveform cross correlation is not often used as a detection method for seismic networks. However, past studies (e.g. Gibbons and Ringdal, 2006) have shown that cross correlation can be effective in identifying events with similar locations and focal mechanisms (and thus waveforms) to a pre-existing template. Because induced seismicity often satisfies these requirements the method is well-suited to induced seismicity monitoring. We apply the method of waveform cross correlation to a sequence of events between Nov. 29, 2013 and Dec. 13, 2013 occurring at Crooked Lake near Fox Creek, Alberta. These events are believed to be attributable to injection activities in the area. A total of 24 events were detected using traditional STA/LTA triggering methods. The largest event, measured at local magnitude 3.9, is used as a template to identify other events. We compare the effectiveness of the traditional STA/LTA detection method to the cross correlation technique. With a modest correlation threshold we identify all 24 of the original events and an additional 89 new events for a total of 113 events identified by waveform cross correlation. We estimate the magnitude of completeness using the maximum curvature method (Wiemer and Wyss, 2000) and compare the result for the STA/LTA catalogue and the cross correlation catalogue. We find that the magnitude of completeness is about 0.8 magnitude units lower for the cross correlation catalogue. We explore the possibility of determining a probability density function to describe the values of observed correlation between a template and a seismic signal and reconcile theoretical expectations with empirical data. We further suggest a trigger threshold for cross correlation detection algorithms

  5. Effect of TNF and LTA polymorphisms on biological markers of response to oxidative stimuli in coal miners: a model of gene-environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nadif, R; Jedlicka, A; Mintz, M; Bertrand, J; Kleeberger, S; Kauffmann, F

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Interaction between genetic background and oxidative environmental stimuli in the pathogenesis of human lung disease has been largely unexplored. Methods: A prospective epidemiological study was undertaken in 253 coal miners. Intermediate quantitative phenotypes of response to oxidant exposure, including erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase activities, were studied. Oxidant exposures studied were smoking habits and cumulative dust exposure assessed by job history and ambient measures. Disease phenotypes included subclinical computed tomography score at the first survey and x ray profusion grades twice, five years apart, to assess established coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Miners were genotyped for common functional polymorphisms in the gene for tumour necrosis factor α (TNF) and lymphotoxin α (LTA), two proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Results: Regarding gene-environment interaction on intermediate phenotypes, results showed interaction of a promoter polymorphism at the –308 position in TNF with occupational exposure on erythrocyte GSH-Px activity with a significant association in those with high exposure (p=0.003), whereas no association was observed among those with low exposure (interaction p=0.06). Regarding gene intermediate phenotype interaction on clinical outcome, results showed an association of CWP prevalence with an NcoI polymorphism in LTA in those with low catalase activity (p=0.05), whereas no association was observed in those with high activity (interaction p=0.03). No other significant association was observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that interactions of genetic background with environmental exposure and intermediate response phenotypes are important components in the pathogenesis of CWP. PMID:12566517

  6. [The Projet PIE: a promising strategy to reach elders with a mental health problem].

    PubMed

    Nour, Kareen; Brown, Brita; Moscovitz, Nona; Hébert, Marijo; Regenstreif, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Approximately fifty percent of older adults with a mental health problem do not receive services. A proactive outreach strategy, Project PIE (Prevention-Intervention-Education) relies upon the assistance of non-traditional referral sources, namely community liaisons, to identify and refer to the CSSS vulnerable or isolated elders with a mental health problem. An evaluation of this project reveals encouraging results. The project appears useful, relevant and efficient to detect elders with a mental health problem and offer the required assistance. This project also appears to be a means to foster social solidarity.

  7. OpenMP for 3D potential boundary value problems solved by PIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KuŻelewski, Andrzej; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is examination of an application of modern parallel computing technique OpenMP to speed up the calculation in the numerical solution of parametric integral equations systems (PIES). The authors noticed, that solving more complex boundary problems by PIES sometimes requires large computing time. This paper presents the use of OpenMP and fast C++ linear algebra library Armadillo for boundary value problems modelled by 3D Laplace's equation and solved using PIES. The testing example shows that the use of mentioned technologies significantly increases speed of calculations in PIES.

  8. Microbial phenomics information extractor (MicroPIE): a natural language processing tool for the automated acquisition of prokaryotic phenotypic characters from text sources.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jin; Moore, Lisa R; Blank, Carrine E; Wu, Elvis Hsin-Hui; Ackerman, Marcia; Ranade, Sonali; Cui, Hong

    2016-12-13

    The large-scale analysis of phenomic data (i.e., full phenotypic traits of an organism, such as shape, metabolic substrates, and growth conditions) in microbial bioinformatics has been hampered by the lack of tools to rapidly and accurately extract phenotypic data from existing legacy text in the field of microbiology. To quickly obtain knowledge on the distribution and evolution of microbial traits, an information extraction system needed to be developed to extract phenotypic characters from large numbers of taxonomic descriptions so they can be used as input to existing phylogenetic analysis software packages. We report the development and evaluation of Microbial Phenomics Information Extractor (MicroPIE, version 0.1.0). MicroPIE is a natural language processing application that uses a robust supervised classification algorithm (Support Vector Machine) to identify characters from sentences in prokaryotic taxonomic descriptions, followed by a combination of algorithms applying linguistic rules with groups of known terms to extract characters as well as character states. The input to MicroPIE is a set of taxonomic descriptions (clean text). The output is a taxon-by-character matrix-with taxa in the rows and a set of 42 pre-defined characters (e.g., optimum growth temperature) in the columns. The performance of MicroPIE was evaluated against a gold standard matrix and another student-made matrix. Results show that, compared to the gold standard, MicroPIE extracted 21 characters (50%) with a Relaxed F1 score > 0.80 and 16 characters (38%) with Relaxed F1 scores ranging between 0.50 and 0.80. Inclusion of a character prediction component (SVM) improved the overall performance of MicroPIE, notably the precision. Evaluated against the same gold standard, MicroPIE performed significantly better than the undergraduate students. MicroPIE is a promising new tool for the rapid and efficient extraction of phenotypic character information from prokaryotic taxonomic

  9. Corticosterone metabolites in blue tit and pied flycatcher droppings: effects of brood size, ectoparasites and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Elisa; Merino, Santiago; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Tomás, Gustavo; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Osorno, José Luis; Kuchar, Alexandra; Möstl, Erich

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of birds induces the secretion of corticosterone (CORT) as a response to different ecological variables. In this study we tested experimentally if manipulations of brood size or ectoparasitism led to subsequent differences in the concentration of excreted CORT metabolites of adult and nestling blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). No significant effect of the manipulation of brood size was detected in adults or nestlings. No significant effect of ectoparasitism was detected in males or nestlings, although females from uninfested nests showed lower concentrations of excreted CORT metabolites. In addition, we analysed if weather conditions had an influence on the concentration of excreted CORT metabolites of blue tits and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in the same forest. We detected no effect of weather conditions on adults, but nestlings of both species showed a negative correlation between their excreted CORT metabolites and the average mean temperatures they were subjected to during their growth. This effect was not found in blue tits in a colder year, suggesting that the sensitivity of the HPA axis to ambient temperature may be subjected to interannual variation. Moreover, we found a positive effect of the maximum temperature on the day of sampling on the concentration of CORT metabolites of blue tit nestlings in one of the years. These results suggest that weather conditions may act as environmental stressors to which the HPA axis of blue tit and pied flycatcher nestlings may be sensitive.

  10. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    PubMed

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  11. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions.

    PubMed

    Berglund, A M M; Nyholm, N E I

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  12. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  13. 49 CFR 40.409 - What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ensure that any service agents you are using or planning to use are not subject to a PIE. (b) As an employer who is using a service agent concerning whom a PIE is issued, you must stop using the services of the service agent no later than 90 days after the Department has published the decision in the Federal...

  14. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  15. 49 CFR 40.393 - How long does a PIE stay in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does a PIE stay in effect? 40.393 Section... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.393 How long does a PIE stay in effect? (a) In the NOPE (see § 40.375(b)(5)), the initiating official proposes the duration of the...

  16. 49 CFR 40.387 - What matters does the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposed PIE? 40.387 Section 40.387 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE? (a) Following the service agent's response (see § 40... from the service agent (see § 40.379(b)(1)) or on his or her own motion, the Director may dismiss a...

  17. 49 CFR 40.405 - May the Federal courts review PIE decisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the Federal courts review PIE decisions? 40.405 Section 40.405 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... courts review PIE decisions? The Director's decision is a final administrative action of the...

  18. Development of the Persistence in Engineering (PIE) Survey Instrument. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eris, Ozgur; Chen, Helen; Bailey, Tori; Engerman, Kimarie; Loshbaugh, Heidi; Griffin, Ashley; Lichtenstein, Gary; Cole, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The Persistence In Engineering (PIE) survey was developed to identify and characterize the fundamental factors that influence students' intentions to pursue an engineering degree over the course of their undergraduate career, and upon graduation, to practice engineering as a profession. The PIE survey is one of five data-gathering methods used in…

  19. No Humble Pie: The Origins and Usage of a Statistical Chart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Ian

    2005-01-01

    William Playfair's pie chart is more than 200 years old and yet its intellectual origins remain obscure. The inspiration likely derived from the logic diagrams of Llull, Bruno, Leibniz, and Euler, which were familiar to William because of the instruction of his mathematician brother John. The pie chart is broadly popular but--despite its common…

  20. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the Director's...

  1. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the Director's...

  2. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the Director's...

  3. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated

  4. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2014-04-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a pie. The proposer suggests how to split the pie. The responder can either accept or reject the deal. If an agreement is not reached, neither player gets anything. Both game theory and evolutionary game theory predict the rational solution that the proposer offers the smallest possible share and the responder accepts it. Fairness thus requires additional mechanisms for natural selection to favor it. Studies to date assumed that individuals have competed for the fixed size of pies, in sharp contrast with real situations, where randomness is ubiquitous. Here we study the impact of random allocation of pies on the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms.

  5. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a pie. The proposer suggests how to split the pie. The responder can either accept or reject the deal. If an agreement is not reached, neither player gets anything. Both game theory and evolutionary game theory predict the rational solution that the proposer offers the smallest possible share and the responder accepts it. Fairness thus requires additional mechanisms for natural selection to favor it. Studies to date assumed that individuals have competed for the fixed size of pies, in sharp contrast with real situations, where randomness is ubiquitous. Here we study the impact of random allocation of pies on the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:24686840

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Adam P.; Morris, Robert H.; Newton, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. PMID:28239124

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Adam P; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2013-08-28

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment.

  8. Introducing a Framework for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughani, Bahram

    A desired outcome for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) education is preparing physics majors with an innovative and entrepreneurial mindset who are capable of opportunity recognition and adept in leveraging physics knowledge to address specific needs. Physics as a discipline is well-recognized to prepare students who become problem solvers and critical thinkers, gifted in dealing with abstract ideas and ambiguities in the context of complex and real-world problems. These characteristics when enhanced through appropriate combinations of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular programs can prepare physics majors for careers and future challenges that may involve translating physics knowledge into useful products and services either as part of a technical team within an organization or through startups. A viable PIE education model prepares graduates for various career paths in addition to the traditional options such as pursuing graduate studies or becoming a science teacher. Having a well-defined ``third option'' for physics will benefit the robustness of the physics discipline through recruitment and retention of prospective students who in principle are interested in physics as a subject, but in practice they may overlook physics as their preferred major primarily because they are uncertain about a viable career path based on an undergraduate physics education. The ''Pathways to Innovation'' at Loyola is established based on the program developed by VentureWell and Epicenter (NSF Supported).

  9. 49 CFR 40.401 - How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... public about a PIE? 40.401 Section 40.401 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE? (a) The Department maintains a.... (b) When the Director issues a PIE, he or she adds to the List the name and address of the...

  10. An Alpine-style Ordovician collision complex in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina: Record of subduction of Cuyania beneath the Famatina arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Staal, C. R.; Vujovich, G. I.; Currie, K. L.; Naipauer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Caucete Group and structurally overlying Pie de Palo Complex in western Argentina are characterised by two generations of west-verging folds and thrust-related shear zones, which formed under amphibolite facies conditions. The Caucete Group is separated from the Pie de Palo Complex by the Pirquitas thrust. These structures are interpreted to have formed as a result of a progressive deformation, generated during Middle Ordovician, underthrusting of the Laurentian-derived Cuyania microcontinent beneath the active Famatina margin. Geometrical relationships are most simply explained if the Pie de Palo Complex was basement to the Caucete Group prior to Ordovician orogenesis. We propose that this basement-cover relationship was established during Cambrian rifting of the Cuyania microcontinent from Laurentia. The Pirquitas fault may have been initiated during this extension prior to its long-lived remobilization as a thrust. We cannot rule out the possibility that the Pie de Palo Complex was exotic with respect to the Caucete Group, but for this to be possible we have to introduce an extra generation of structures, for which no evidence is preserved. The deformation was characterised by early strain localization followed by a more homogeneously distributed non-coaxial flow during F 2. Thermal softening probably dominated over fabric softening during this stage.

  11. Daily behaviour can differ between colour morphs of the same species: a study on circadian activity behaviour of grey and pied zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ila; Trivedi, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-05-01

    To investigate if the plumage colour mutation relates to circadian activity behaviour in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, wild type grey and pied mutant males were sequentially subjected for three weeks each to 12 h light:12 h darkness (12L:12D) and constant dim light (LL(dim)) condition. During the first 3 h of the 12 h day, pied finches were significantly greater active than grey finches. Also, as compared to grey, pied finches had longer activity duration in the day, with early activity onsets and late activity offsets. This was changed under free-running condition (LL(dim)), when the activity later in the subjective day (clock hour 9 and 11) was significantly greater in grey than in pied finches.Two colour morphs differed in daily activity profile, but not in the total daily activity or circadian rhythm period. Results suggest that greyzebra finches represent late chronotype, and could perhaps be better adapted to a seemingly stressful environment, such as low intensity LL(dim) in the present study.

  12. Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Jin; Yue, Jun; Liu, Lirong; Han, Min; Wang, Hongxiu

    2014-12-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. The CC and TT homozygotes of rs1978331 and rs2540474 were identified to have higher rates (P < 0.01) and be risk factors in the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.412; 95% CI = 1.104-1.804 and(OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.080-1.764). However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis subgroups. LTA4H gene were significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis and other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis except for pleural tuberculosis. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene may affect susceptibility to extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and change the risk of developing the disease in the Han nationality in the East China.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia in free-living pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Vela, Ana I; Lobato, Elisa; Briones, Victor; Moreno, Juan

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella and Yersinia are important enteropathogens in poultry and can affect birds of all ages, including embryos. These food-borne zoonotic enteropathogens are of great economic and medical concern worldwide and are intensely studied in poultry. Information regarding the prevalence of these bacteria in wild birds is scarce and biased toward avian species ecologically linked to humans, which have often been incriminated as both reservoirs and disseminators of these enteropathogens. The prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia recovered from both the feces and eggs in a population of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in nest-boxes in central Spain was evaluated. Salmonella arizonae was recovered from the feces of one female but was not recovered from eggs. Yersinia was not detected in either the feces or eggs. These results may suggest that Salmonella and Yersinia may be uncommon in this population studied and may indicate that these birds are unlikely reservoirs of Salmonella and Yersinia.

  14. Variable step size and order strategy for delay differential equations in PIE(CIE)s mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Nurul Huda Abdul; Majid, Zanariah Abdul

    2014-12-01

    This article deals with the strategy of variable step size and variable order implementation that has been formulated for solving first order of delay differential equations. This strategy is adapted in PIE(CIE)s mode which is generally based on predictor-corrector scheme in multistep block method of order 4 to 9 with s is for convergence test. The purpose here is to enhance the efficiency of the developed predictor-corrector algorithm in the capability to vary automatically not only for the step size, but the order of the method employed as well. All order and coefficients are stored in the code in order to avoid an expensive computational work. The delay argument would be evaluated using Newton divided-difference interpolation at which the points involved would be similar to the current order of the method. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented strategy and comparison is made with the existing results.

  15. Statement-Pie: a strategy to improve the paragraph writing skills of adolescents with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wallace, G W; Bott, D A

    1989-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching a metacognitive text structure strategy upon the paragraph writing skills of eighth-grade students with learning disabilities. The technique, called Statement-Pie (Hanau, 1974), teaches students to understand the relationship of supporting details to a main idea. Four students were taught to use an outline as a paragraph planning guide, which they then used to convert information into written expository paragraphs. All subjects reached instructional outcome criterion on the writing of comparison/contrast and sequence paragraphs. One week after reaching mastery in the special education classroom, students generalized their paragraph writing skills to other teachers and to different classrooms. The results of this investigation indicate that when provided with direct, intensive instruction in a text structure strategy, adolescents with learning disabilities can improve their skills in paragraph writing.

  16. Neuroaxonal Dystrophy in a Flock of Pied Imperial Pigeons (Ducula bicolor).

    PubMed

    Barrows, M; Killick, R; Day, C; Saunders, R; Baiker, K; Ressel, L; Denk, D

    2017-05-01

    Five juvenile pied imperial pigeons (Ducula bicolor) presented with neurological signs including torticollis, ataxia and poor flying ability. All were humanely destroyed and submitted for post-mortem examination. Microscopically, the most significant findings were in the brain and spinal cord. Spheroid formation was evident within the medulla, pons, diencephalon, cortical grey and subcortical white matter, spinal cord white and grey matter and the granular and molecular cell layers of the cerebellum. There was no evidence of associated inflammation. Immunohistochemistry revealed positive labelling within the spheroids for S100 axons and phosphorylated neurofilaments including SMI31, neurofilament cocktail and microtubule-associated protein 2. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the light microscopical findings of frequent axonal spheroids. These results are consistent with neuroaxonal dystrophy, which has not been described previously in pigeons. This highlights the importance of considering neuroaxonal dystrophy in juvenile birds with neurological signs. A genetic basis is suspected in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher A; Epperson, Megan L; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I; Fremont, Daved H

    2015-08-28

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection.

  18. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christopher A.; Epperson, Megan L.; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection. PMID:26343707

  19. Incorporation of AgI clusters into the cages of zeolites LTA and FAU observed by optical spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Takuji; Takeo, Harutoshi

    1999-02-01

    The loading of AgI into the cages of zeolites LTA and FAU was performed by vapor-phase adsorption. The successful incorporation of AgI clusters into the cages was confirmed by optical absorption spectra and X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Large blue shifts of the absorption edges were observed in the spectra of adsorbed AgI to both zeolites, compared with the lowest excited state of AgI in the bulk. The present observation of the shift implies that a strong quantum confinement in the photoexcited state of AgI occurs, which leads to the conclusion that AgI clusters have been formed in the cages. In the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of AgI-loaded LTA, superlattice reflection peaks are observed which cannot be assigned either to the reflection of LTA or the AgI in the bulk.

  20. Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Periodontal Pathogenic Bacteria Facilitate Oncogenic Herpesvirus Infection within Primary Oral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lu; DeFee, Michael R.; Cao, Yueyu; Wen, Jiling; Wen, Xiaofei; Noverr, Mairi C.; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) remains the most common tumor arising in patients with HIV/AIDS, and involvement of the oral cavity represents one of the most common clinical manifestations of this tumor. HIV infection incurs an increased risk for periodontal diseases and oral carriage of a variety of bacteria. Whether interactions involving pathogenic bacteria and oncogenic viruses in the local environment facilitate replication or maintenance of these viruses in the oral cavity remains unknown. In the current study, our data indicate that pretreatment of primary human oral fibroblasts with two prototypical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by oral pathogenic bacteria–lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), increase KSHV entry and subsequent viral latent gene expression during de novo infection. Further experiments demonstrate that the underlying mechanisms induced by LTA and/or LPS include upregulation of cellular receptor, increasing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activating intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK and NF-κB, and all of which are closely associated with KSHV entry or gene expression within oral cells. Based on these findings, we hope to provide the framework of developing novel targeted approaches for treatment and prevention of oral KSHV infection and KS development in high-risk HIV-positive patients. PMID:24971655

  1. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Conductivity Measurements on Hydrated and Alkali-metal Intercalated Zeolite LTA and FAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Wada, Noboru

    2007-03-01

    Zeolite LTA and FAU films were made from zeolite powders using a hydrothermal method. Electrical conductivity measurement were performed on the zeolite films in temperature range between 180 K and 430 K, using an LCR meter with the sweeping frequency varied from 20 to 1 MHz and drawing the Cole-Cole plots. The resistivities of both hydrated LTA and FAU zeolites increased with increasing the sample temperature from RT to 430 K, which might be caused by loss of water molecules from the pores of zeolite crystals. Also, the resistivities increased with decreasing the sample temperature from RT to 180 K, probably caused by freezing of water molecules in the zeolite. When the dehydrated zeolite samples were intercalated with alkali metals (Rb and K), the resistivities of the samples did not vary much at RT. However, the resistivities of the intercalated zeolite films decreased drastically by four orders of magnitude when the sample temperature was varied from RT to 180 K. We speculate that the dynamics of alkali atoms in the zeolite pores (electron-phonon scattering) may be responsible for the drastic change in the electrical conductivity.

  2. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the...

  3. Percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release of extension contracture of the knee.

    PubMed

    Liu, H X; Wen, H; Hu, Y Z; Yu, H C; Pan, X Y

    2014-05-01

    To release extension contracture of the knee, the authors used a minimally invasive technique: percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release. Percutaneous pie-crusting release was performed using an 18-gauge needle to puncture the stiff fibrous band of the distal and lateral quadriceps tendon under maximum knee flexion. Quadriceps contracture was gradually released by multiple needle punctures. A knee brace was prescribed for one week and knee flexion exercises were performed on the first postoperative day. This technique was performed in seven post-traumatic stiff knees and five stiff total knee arthroplasties. Mean maximum flexion increased from 37° preoperatively to 50° after arthrolysis and 107(o) after pie-crusting. At a mean follow-up of eight months, mean maximum flexion was 103°. There were no major complications. The technique of quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release is a simple, minimally invasive and effective treatment for knee extension contracture.

  4. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Kongprom, Urarikha; Manathamkamon, Darika; Wanpradab, Sunan; Sangarang, Satean

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two related issues of the captive breeding and reintroduction of the Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in order to increase its population in the natural habitats. Oriental pied hornbills were bred in Khao Kheow Open Zoo. Three pairs were separated and kept in breeding cages. Females occupied artificial nests between February and April 2005-2007. Eggs were laid and incubated between February and March each year from 2005 to 2007. Nestlings hatched in late March and left the nest in late April 2005-2007. Each breeding pair was fed with approximately 400 g of food each day. All three pairs reproduced resulting in mature offspring of seven in 2005, six in 2006, and five in 2007. Four of sixteen 3-year-old birds were randomly selected and equipped with a GPS receiver on their backs. Activities of the birds attached and unattached with GPS were not significantly different. The first two birds (one female, one male with GPS) were reintroduced on August 5, 2006, and another nine birds (four birds with GPS) were reintroduced on December 26, 2006. The average home range of these reintroduced birds was 0.13 km(2) . Their foods consisted of wild plants and animals in the home range. The first reintroduced pair was able to breed naturally by laying and hatching eggs in an artificial nest. Two juveniles left the nest in April 2008. These results indicate that both captive breeding and reintroduction are potentially important ways to increase the population of the Oriental pied hornbill in natural habitats. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Report on FY16 Low-dose Metal Fuel Irradiation and PIE

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Philip D.

    2016-09-01

    This report gives an overview of the efforts into the low-dose metal fuel irradiation and PIE as part of the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) milestone M3FT-16OR020303031. The current status of the FCT and FCRP irradiation campaigns are given including a description of the materials that have been irradiated, analysis of the passive temperature monitors, and the initial PIE efforts of the fuel samples.

  6. Heat and Ice in Sermilik Fjord: Novel Observational Techniques Using PIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, M.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.

    2014-12-01

    A 1-year pilot experiment using pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) was conducted in Sermilik Fjord in eastern Greenland to test non-traditional methods for measuring the time-varying
heat content in high-latitude seas, shelves, and fjords and for detecting the presence of ice. PIES, which are installed on the seafloor below the reach of destructive iceberg keels, present
a promising and inexpensive way to improve understanding of fjord dynamics and shelf-fjord interactions and will increase long-term monitoring capabilities in high latitudes where
remoteness and harsh conditions hamper traditional in situ observation techniques. The use
of PIES to characterize variability at high latitudes is a novel application of an existing
technology, but rests on the same principle as the traditional blue-water uses for PIES: due
to the dependence of sound speed on temperature, the surface-to-bottom round-trip acoustic-travel-time associated with reflections between the PIES and the air-sea interface is an excellent proxy
for heat content in the intervening water column. Furthermore, since reflections from seawater-ice interfaces are also detected when ice
is present, PIES provide a means to characterize the ice component in high-latitude systems. The PIES deployed in Sermilik Fjord (August 2011 - September 2012) resolved changes in heat content at scales ranging from hourly to seasonal. Furthermore, during winter, the PIES logged about 300 iceberg detections and recorded a 2-week period of land-fast ice cover in March. The deepest icebergs in the fjord were found to have keel depths reaching to ~350 m and iceberg speeds averaged about 0.2 m/s but were as high as 0.5 m/s.

  7. Use of Formative Assessment, Self- and Peer-Assessment in the Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afitska, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on formative teacher assessment and feedback, learner self- and peer-assessment have been carried out in the field of Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) research over the last two decades. These studies investigated the above mentioned concepts from different perspectives (impact of assessment on learning,…

  8. An Assessment of ORNL PIE Capabilities for the AGR Program Capsule Post Irradiation Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel

    2006-09-01

    ORNL has facilities and experienced staff that can execute +the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) task. While the specific PIE breakdown needs to be more formally defined, the basic outline is clear and the existing capabilities can be assessed within the needs of the tasks defined in the program plan. A one-to-one correspondence between the program plan tasks and the current ORNL PIE status was conducted and while some shortcomings were identified, the general capability is available. Specific upgrade needs were identified and reviewed. A path forward was formulated. Building 3525 is available for this work and this building is currently receiving renewed attention from management so that it will be in good working order prior to the expected PIE start date. This building is equipped with the tools necessary for PIEs of this nature, but the long hiatus in coated particle fuel work has left it with aging analysis tools. This report identified several of these tools and rough estimates of what would be required to update and replace them. In addition, other ORNL buildings are available to support Building 3525 in specialized tasks along with the normal laboratory infrastructure. Before the AGR management embarks on any equipment development effort, the PIE tasks should be updated against current program (modeling and data) needs and better defined so that the items to be measured, their measurement uncertainties, and thru-put needs can be reviewed. A Data Task Matrix (DTM) should be prepared so that the program data needs can be compared against the identified PIE tasks and what is practical in the hot cell environment to make sure nothing is overlooked. Finally, thought should be given to the development of standardized equipment designs between sites to avoid redundant design efforts and different measurement techniques. This is a potentially cost saving effort that can also avoid data inconsistencies.

  9. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF 31 on the Top and Cut Surfaces of Southern Custard Pies

    PubMed Central

    Preonas, D. L.; Nelson, A. I.; Ordal, Z. John; Steinberg, M. P.; Wei, L. S.

    1969-01-01

    A Staphylococcus strain was inoculated on the top and cut surfaces of freshly baked Southern custard pies which were then packaged in a pasteboard carton and held at 30 C. Daily plate counts of surface sections 0.3 inch (0.76 cm) in thickness were made. The top surface inoculum showed a 24-hr lag time. This was due to the protective action of a top cakelike layer as shown by homogenization of the mix and coating of the surface. Substitution of all sweeteners with dextrose completely inhibited growth on the top surface. Further addition of dextrose to lower water activity (Aw) to 0.9 prevented growth on the cut surface as well, but such pies were organoleptically unacceptable. Growth on the top surface could also be prevented by 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g in combination with 100 μg of undissociated propionic acid per g in the baked pie. Growth on the cakelike top surface was always retarded longer than on the cut surface provided the packaging allowed evaporation of surface moisture. Reducing the Aw of a different type of cream pie to 0.907 prevented top surface growth. It was concluded that baked cream pies with a cakelike top layer could be marketed with a “refrigerate after opening” label, provided the package maintains the moisture gradient caused by the surface skin and either a combination of 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g and 100 μg undissociated propionic acid per g is present in the baked pie or the Aw of the baked pie is 0.920 or lower. Images PMID:5803631

  10. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF31 on the top and cut surfaces of Southern custard pies.

    PubMed

    Preonas, D L; Nelson, A I; Ordal, Z J; Steinberg, M P; Wei, L S

    1969-07-01

    A Staphylococcus strain was inoculated on the top and cut surfaces of freshly baked Southern custard pies which were then packaged in a pasteboard carton and held at 30 C. Daily plate counts of surface sections 0.3 inch (0.76 cm) in thickness were made. The top surface inoculum showed a 24-hr lag time. This was due to the protective action of a top cakelike layer as shown by homogenization of the mix and coating of the surface. Substitution of all sweeteners with dextrose completely inhibited growth on the top surface. Further addition of dextrose to lower water activity (Aw) to 0.9 prevented growth on the cut surface as well, but such pies were organoleptically unacceptable. Growth on the top surface could also be prevented by 80 mug of undissociated sorbic acid per g in combination with 100 mug of undissociated propionic acid per g in the baked pie. Growth on the cakelike top surface was always retarded longer than on the cut surface provided the packaging allowed evaporation of surface moisture. Reducing the Aw of a different type of cream pie to 0.907 prevented top surface growth. It was concluded that baked cream pies with a cakelike top layer could be marketed with a "refrigerate after opening" label, provided the package maintains the moisture gradient caused by the surface skin and either a combination of 80 mug of undissociated sorbic acid per g and 100 mug undissociated propionic acid per g is present in the baked pie or the Aw of the baked pie is 0.920 or lower.

  11. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Primate, the Pied Tamarin (Saguinus bicolor): Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni P; Santos, Wancley G; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed DNA at 9 microsatellite loci from hair samples of 73 pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) located in 3 urban forest fragments and a biological reserve in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The forest fragments had become isolated from the continuous forest 6-15 years prior to the time of sampling. Tests for reduction in population size showed that all groups from the urban forest fragments had undergone genetic bottlenecks. Pied tamarins in this region historically formed one biological population, and the fragments were connected by high levels of gene flow. These results indicate the need to implement a conservation plan that allows for connectivity between the urban fragments, as well as protection from further constriction. Such connectivity could be achieved via the creation and protection of corridors. In addition to the current population trends explained by anthropogenic actions, the species also shows a trend of long-term demographic decline that has resulted in approximately an order of magnitude decrease and began 13 thousand years ago. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Nicolas W J; Morath, Siegfried; Alexander, Christian; Hamann, Lutz; Hartung, Thomas; Zähringer, Ulrich; Göbel, Ulf B; Weber, Joerg R; Schumann, Ralf R

    2003-05-02

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) derived from Streptococcus pneumoniae, purified employing a chloroform/methanol protocol, and from Staphylococcus aureus, prepared by the recently described butanol extraction procedure, was investigated regarding its interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -4, and MD-2. LTA from both organisms induced cytokine synthesis in human mononuclear phagocytes. Activation was LBP- and CD14-dependent, and formation of complexes of LTA with LBP and soluble CD14 as well as catalytic transfer of LTA to CD14 by LBP was verified by PhastGel(TM) native gel electrophoresis. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293/CD14 cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were responsive to LTA only after transfection with TLR-2. Additional transfection with MD-2 did not affect stimulation of these cells by LTA. Our data suggest that innate immune recognition of LTA via LBP, CD14, and TLR-2 represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of systemic complications in the course of infectious diseases brought about by the clinically most important Gram-positive pathogens. However, the involvement of TLR-4 and MD-2 in this process was ruled out.

  13. Application of large-scale computing infrastructure for diverse environmental research applications using GC3Pie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffioletti, Sergio; Dawes, Nicholas; Bavay, Mathias; Sarni, Sofiane; Lehning, Michael

    2013-04-01

    , execute location-based subroutines at each grid point and store the results back into the central repository for post-processing. An optional extension of this infrastructure will be to provide a 'ring buffer'-type database infrastructure, such that model results (e.g. test runs made to check parameter dependency or for development) can be visualised and downloaded after completion without submitting them to a permanent storage infrastructure. Data organization Data collected from sensors are archived and classified in distributed sites connected with an open-source software middleware, GSN. Publicly available data are available through common web services and via a cloud storage server (based on Swift). Collocation of the data and processing in the cloud would eventually eliminate data transfer requirements. Execution control logic Execution of the data analysis pipelines (for both the R-based analysis and the Alpine3D simulations) has been implemented using the GC3Pie framework developed by UZH. (https://code.google.com/p/gc3pie/). This allows large-scale, fault-tolerant execution of the pipelines to be described in terms of software appliances. GC3Pie also allows supervision of the execution of large campaigns of appliances as a single simulation. This poster will present the fundamental architectural components of the data analysis pipelines together with initial experimental results.

  14. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Development and psychometric characteristics of the pediatric inpatient experience survey (PIES).

    PubMed

    Ziniel, Sonja I; Connor, Jean A; Graham, Dionne; Kupiec, Jennifer Koch; Rauscher, Nina A; Growdon, Amanda S; Berger, Anne; Jenkins, Kathy J; Harris, Sion Kim

    2016-04-01

    To study the psychometric properties of the Pediatric Inpatient Experience Survey (PIES), a mail and phone survey for parent reporting of family-centered aspects of inpatient care experiences. Two waves of cross-sectional survey data were collected by mail and phone in 2009 to design a measurement instrument with good psychometric characteristics. Additional cross-sectional data from a mail administration in 2011 confirmed the measurement domains. Free-standing pediatric hospital in the northeastern USA. A convenience sample of English-speaking parents of hospitalized children, stratified by patient type (medical versus surgical) and previous stays at this hospital (yes versus no), constituted the instrument design phase. Four hundred and seventy-nine (63%) of those approached agreed to participate and were randomly assigned to mail or phone survey administration. Four hundred and one of these respondents completed the first wave of the survey and 354 respondents completed the second wave. A shortened instrument was mailed to parents randomly selected from patient discharge records. Data from 929 parents (response rate: 36.2%) were used for confirmatory analysis of the created measurement domains. The main outcome measures of this psychometric validation study were individual item performance, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. The resulting survey includes 61 items with 35 rating items with satisfactory test-retest reliability loading on eight domains. The factor structure was supported by Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis. The survey supported construct validity in distinguishing between medical versus surgical and first time versus previous hospital stay groups known to differ with regard to satisfaction. Comparing mail and phone administrations, differences in scores were exacerbated in domain scores and showed the need for mode adjustment. PIES shows satisfactory test-retest reliability, internal consistency

  16. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  17. Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the Learner-Centered Information-Age Paradigm of Education: A Study to Improve the Design of the Functions and Features of PIES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) design theory is a design recommendation regarding the function and features of Learning Managements Systems (LMS) that can support the information-age learner-centered paradigm of education. The purpose of this study was to improve the proposed functions and features of the PIES design theory…

  18. Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the Learner-Centered Information-Age Paradigm of Education: A Study to Improve the Design of the Functions and Features of PIES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) design theory is a design recommendation regarding the function and features of Learning Managements Systems (LMS) that can support the information-age learner-centered paradigm of education. The purpose of this study was to improve the proposed functions and features of the PIES design theory…

  19. Contributions from Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, Ole A.; Chami, Malik; Doxaran, David

    2012-04-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the international conference Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010 organized by Sequoia Scientific, Inc., and the Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV) on 15-17 November 2010 in Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, and guest-edited by Ole Mikkelsen, Malik Chami and David Doxaran. PiE was initiated in 2008, in order to promote and further our understanding of the importance of suspended particulate matter (SPM) for a very wide range of processes in the aquatic environment—from optics and acoustics, over sediment transport, to the global carbon balance. The papers in this special issue are in particular concerned with the interaction between SPM and water optical properties, as well as how to use optical proxy measurements to understand SPM processes. The next PiE conference is scheduled for 17-19 October 2012 in Barcelona, Spain.

  20. On the Fair Division of Multiple Stochastic Pies to Multiple Agents within the Nash Bargaining Solution

    PubMed Central

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    The fair division of a surplus is one of the most widely examined problems. This paper focuses on bargaining problems with fixed disagreement payoffs where risk-neutral agents have reached an agreement that is the Nash-bargaining solution (NBS). We consider a stochastic environment, in which the overall return consists of multiple pies with uncertain sizes and we examine how these pies can be allocated with fairness among agents. Specifically, fairness is based on the Aristotle’s maxim: “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally, in proportion to the relevant inequality”. In this context, fairness is achieved when all the individual stochastic surplus shares which are allocated to agents are distributed in proportion to the NBS. We introduce a novel algorithm, which can be used to compute the ratio of each pie that should be allocated to each agent, in order to ensure fairness within a symmetric or asymmetric NBS. PMID:23024752

  1. Principal angles separate subject illumination spaces in YDB and CMU-PIE.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, J Ross; Draper, Bruce A; Chang, Jen-Mei; Kirby, Michael; Kley, Holger; Peterson, Chris

    2009-02-01

    The theory of illumination subspaces is well developed and has been tested extensively on the Yale Face Database B (YDB) and CMU-PIE (PIE) data sets. This paper shows that if face recognition under varying illumination is cast as a problem of matching sets of images to sets of images, then the minimal principal angle between subspaces is sufficient to perfectly separate matching pairs of image sets from nonmatching pairs of image sets sampled from YDB and PIE. This is true even for subspaces estimated from as few as six images and when one of the subspaces is estimated from as few as three images if the second subspace is estimated from a larger set (10 or more). This suggests that variation under illumination may be thought of as useful discriminating information rather than unwanted noise.

  2. Progress on accelerated calculation of 3D MHD equilibrium with the PIES code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald

    2016-10-01

    Continuing progress has been made in accelerating the 3D MHD equilibrium code, PIES, using an external numerical wrapper. The PIES code (Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver) is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present; the numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg backtracking algorithm. The wrapper has recently been improved by automation which combines the preexisting backtracking algorithm with insights gained from the stability of the Picard algorithm traditionally used with PIES. Improved progress logging and stopping criteria have also been incorporated in to the numerical wrapper.

  3. 49 CFR 40.403 - Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must a service agent notify its clients when the... Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE? (a) As a service agent, if... clients, in writing, about the issuance, scope, duration, and effect of the PIE. You may meet this...

  4. 49 CFR 40.381 - What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information do you present to contest the... What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE? (a) As a service agent who wants to contest a proposed PIE, you must present at least the following information to the Director: (1...

  5. The application of the Galerkin method to solving PIES for Laplace's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bołtuć, Agnieszka; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the application of the Galerkin method to solving the parametric integral equation system (PIES) on the example of Laplace's equation. The main aim of the paper is the analysis of the effectiveness of two methods for PIES solving: the collocation method and the Galerkin method. Researches were performed on two examples with analytical solutions. Tests concern mainly the accuracy of obtained numerical solutions and their stability. For both analyzed methods calculations were made with the various number of expressions in the approximation series, whilst in the collocation method two variants of the arrangement of collocation points were considered. We also compared the complexity of both methods using the execution time.

  6. In-Situ Detection of Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris: The Pie Experiment On MIR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Maag, C. R.; Durin, C.

    During the last few years, investigation of impact features found on material retrieved after exposure to space for a long period of time, in low earth orbits, has provided us with a great deal of data on the particulate environment, either natural or man-made. The PIE detection device presented here has been deployed outside the Kvant-2 module attached to the Russian MIR station, between June 1996 and April 1997. Part of the experiment uses a detection technique similar to the one used in previous experiments flown on LDEF and MIR. Passive sensors are composed primarly of stacked thin metal foils (gold and aluminium). According to the size of the particles, they are either decelerated or fragmented upon high velocity impact. The size of holes or impact craters give information on the size or shape of the impacting particles. Samples have been retrieved for laboratory analysis. Comparison with data from LDEF, EuReCa, HST and previous experiments on MIR provides insight in the long term evolution of small particle population and in the debris environment of a permanently manned station. Some of the samples show evidence of secondary impact cratering: an attempt is made to locate the origin of the primary impact site. Some results about the possible origin of the impactors are provided by the chemical identification of particle remnants inside the craters

  7. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report.

    PubMed

    Bronchud, Miguel H; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-12-13

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural "placental immune-editing switch" mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting).

  8. Female pied flycatchers trade between male quality and mating status in mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Slagsvold, T.; Drevon, T.

    1999-01-01

    According to mate choice theory, females should consider both male quality and mating status when choosing a mate. In birds, strong experimental evidence indicates that females prefer males with elaborate traits. No comparable evidence exists to determine whether females take male mating status into account or how they may trade between male quality and male mating status. We studied mate choice of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in outdoor aviaries where the effect of territory quality could be eliminated and where we could control which males were mated and which were unmated. We used male plumage colour as our measure of male quality. In the aviaries, focal females could easily compare males and assess their plumage colour and mating status, and resident females were prevented from attacking prospecting females because of separation in different compartments. The study provided evidence for a trade-off in mate choice. Females may compromise by choosing an already mated male if he is more brightly coloured and, presumably, of higher quality than available unmated males. The study did not support the idea that polygyny is based on male deception of females, but the results were consistent with the female aggression hypothesis.

  9. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report

    PubMed Central

    Bronchud, Miguel H.; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural “placental immune-editing switch” mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting). PMID:27852037

  10. Is the pie-crusting technique safe for MCL release in varus deformity correction in total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R Michael; Daluga, Andrew T; Sturgis, Lindsey A; Lieberman, Jay R

    2013-09-01

    Established for lateral release in TKA, the pie-crusting technique has not been studied for the medial collateral ligament (MCL). In cadaveric knees the MCL was release with a pie-crusting technique in one and traditional technique in the contralateral knee. Along with a control group, each MCL was subjected to mechanical testing. The stiffness, force and stress required to cause ligament elongation were less in the pie-crusting group (p < 0.05) compared to the control group, but were not statistically different than the traditional group. The pie-crusting group demonstrated a characteristic "stair-step" failure mode at the joint line, whereas the traditional group failed elastically at the tibial insertion. MCL pie-crusting is likely technique dependent since failure occurs within the ligament itself and further study is warranted.

  11. Theoretical modeling of optical properties of Ag8 and Ag14 silver clusters embedded in an LTA sodalite zeolite cavity.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-10-07

    Optical properties of silver Ag(n) nanoclusters are demonstrated to be dependent on their size, structure and charge state. It is found that when being contained in the sodalite cavity of LTA zeolite the tetradecanuclear hexacation silver cluster Ag14(6+) is stable. Its lower-lying states and optical spectrum are theoretically determined using the quantum chemical TD-DFT method. Its ground state possesses an outer-shell electron configuration of A1g(2)T2g(6) mimicking the s(2)p(6) valence of noble gas atoms. These frontier orbitals are constructed from 5s,5p(Ag)-AOs with contributions from framework oxygen atoms. Light absorption of Ag14(6+) embedded in the sodalite cage which is characterized by strong peaks centered at 331 and 476 nm (transitions 5s,p(Ag) → 5s,p(Ag)) leads to much longer wavelength emission. The sodalite cage, as a container, stabilizes the central Ag14(6+) cluster by electrostatic attraction. The absorption spectrum of the isovalent neutral Ag8 cluster embedded inside the same sodalite cavity is also simulated using TD-DFT and CASPT2 methods. This absorption spectrum which is similar to that of the Ag14(6+) cluster has two absorption bands in the near UV and visible regions.

  12. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  13. 49 CFR 40.375 - How does the initiating official start a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the initiating official start a PIE proceeding? 40.375 Section 40.375 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.375 How does the initiating official start a...

  14. Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

  15. Preschool Instruction for the Exceptional (PIE) Project Report: 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccoricco, Edward A.; And Others

    Presented is the 1976-77 project report containing descriptions and evaluations of the five accomplished goals of the Preschool Instruction for the Exceptional (PIE) program which has provided services for 54 New Jersey students (3 to 5-years old). Described and discussed are the following objectives: (1) identification and diagnosis of preschool…

  16. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  17. EZDRAW. An Interactive Computer Graphics Program to Design Bar, Line, or Pie Graphs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Figure Page 1 EZDRAW System Configuration . . . . . . . . . )15 2 Representation of EZDRAW Levels by Menus . .16 * 3 GRAFMAKER Design...Graph . . . .. . . .. 47 8 EZDRAW Pie Graph ... 48 * 9 Main Module .. . . . . . .. B-2 10 Starting EZDR A’. . .. . . . .. B- 3 11 Initializing EZDRAW...Design Attributes . . . . A- 3 II EZDRAW Variables .......... ........ C-1 III EZDRAW Subroutines ..... .............. .D-1 IV DI-3000 Subroutines

  18. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  19. 49 CFR 40.391 - What is the scope of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... “fatal flaws” in tests. Alternatively, X received a correction notice pointing out these problems in its... verifying tests positive. When it received a correction notice, Y immediately dismissed the erring MRO. In... issues a PIE with respect to Service Agent Z. Z provides services for DOT-regulated transportation...

  20. Slicing the Attitude Pie: A Validity and Reliability Study of a New Attitude Assessment Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James T.; Cappella, Joseph N.

    This paper introduces a new measure of attitude, the "attitude pie," which attempts to separate true neutrality from degree of indifference while providing an evaluation score on the issue being judged. A large reliability-validity study involving ten attitude traits, four different methods, and over one hundred subjects at three different times…

  1. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  2. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  3. Adolescent Ambiguities in "American Pie": Popular Culture as a Resource for Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Proposes the need to critically incorporate popular culture into sex education efforts in order to develop programs that resonate with teens' experiences while allowing them to construct more equitable social relations. Illustrates how this might be done through an analysis of the recent teen film, "American Pie," identifying specific implications…

  4. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  5. Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berglund, A M M; Sturve, J; Förlin, L; Nyholm, N E I

    2007-11-01

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  6. Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, A.M.M. Sturve, J.; Foerlin, L.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2007-11-15

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  7. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense…

  8. Children and Drug Education: The P.I.E.D. Pipers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloss, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Developing coping skills for preventing substance abuse and promoting interaction and role modeling among older and younger children were the goals of the P.I.E.D. (People Involved in Education about Drugs) Pipers project. Nurses taught content to student trainees who presented information to peers and younger children. (SK)

  9. Reading: Making It Personal Again--Now Serving PIE to Hungry Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nancy; Oleynik, Myra; Sacco, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Something wonderful happens when children are asked to choose their own books and are given ample time to read and discuss them. They become hungry readers with an appetite for books! This simple strategy was the basis for developing the program known as PIE (Personalized Independent Enrichment) and its recipe for reading success. The goal of the…

  10. prepare_taxa_charts.py: A Python program to automate generation of publication ready taxonomic pie chart images from QIIME.

    PubMed

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary.py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary.py, it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts.py, to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary.py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  11. Combining MFD and PIE for accurate single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Sikor, Martin; Kalinin, Stanislav; Mokranjac, Dejana; Seidel, Claus A M; Lamb, Don C

    2012-03-01

    Single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) experiments using single-molecule burst analysis on a confocal microscope are an ideal tool to measure inter- and intramolecular distances and dynamics on the nanoscale. Different techniques have been developed to maximize the amount of information available in spFRET burst analysis experiments. Multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) is used to monitor a variety of fluorescence parameters simultaneously and pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) employs direct excitation of the acceptor to probe its presence and photoactivity. To calculate accurate FRET efficiencies from spFRET experiments with MFD or PIE, several calibration measurements are usually required. Herein, we demonstrate that by combining MFD with PIE information regarding all calibration factors as well as an accurate determination of spFRET histograms can be performed in a single measurement. In addition, the quality of overlap of the different detection volumes as well as the detection of acceptor photophysics can be investigated with MFD-PIE. Bursts containing acceptor photobleaching can be identified and excluded from further investigation while bursts that contain FRET dynamics are unaffected by this analysis. We have employed MFD-PIE to accurately analyze the effects of nucleotides and substrate on the interdomain separation in DnaK, the major bacterial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The interdomain distance increases from 47 Å in the ATP-bound state to 84 Å in the ADP-bound state and slightly contracts to 77 Å when a substrate is bound. This is in contrast to what was observed for the mitochondrial member of the Hsp70s, Ssc1, supporting the notion of evolutionary specialization of Hsp70s for different cellular functions in different organisms and cell organelles.

  12. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  13. Results of Parametric Design Studies of MOX Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.; Bychkov, S.A.; Lazarenko, A.A.; Sidorenko, V.D.; Styrin, Y.A.

    1998-12-01

    The parametric studies of MOX LTA design have been executed to choose plutonium content in assembly zones for two options of MOX LTA: 3-zones and Island. For 3-zones (100% Plutonium) MOX LTA the fissile plutonium content composition of 4.2%/3,0%/2% has been chosen. MOX LTA of the chosen compositions has been studied by using multi-assembly configuration that allows investigating of influence of MOX LTA environment: uranium assemblies of different irradiation. Plutonium Island with 54 plutonium pins in the center of MOX LTA has been considered in two modifications: uniform island; and graded island with lower plutonium content in one peripheral row of pins. It is shown that plutonium content in the uniform island cannot exceed 2.7% because of adopted power peaking limitations and therefore this design seems unreasonable for practical use. For graded island the plutonium content composition 3.8%/2.8% with uranium environment of 3.7% U-235 has been chosen. Evolution of assembly power and burnup distributions, inter-pin power and isotopic distributions while fuel irradiating have been analyzed. In addition to the base uranium environment of 3.7%, a set of calculations has been executed for 4.4%. Most of the studies have been executed by the code TVS-M that is at the final stage of licensing and it is to be used in the nearest future as a base instrument for VVER core calculations while using both uranium and MOX fuel. So the obtained results must be considered as preliminary ones and they demand additional analysis and investigations.

  14. A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    The pied woodpecker assemblage historically included the widespread genera Picoides and Dendrocopos. The assignment of species to either of these two genera has for long puzzled systematists due to their overall plumage similarity. Recent molecular studies not only suggested that both of these genera are not monophyletic, but also that four other genera, the African Dendropicos the South American Veniliornis and two Asian monospecific genera (Hypopicus and Sapheopipo) are nested within the Dendrocopos-Picoides clade. Yet, our current understanding of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group is still very partial because several distinctive Old World species that have been assigned to different genera throughout their taxonomic history have not been sampled yet. Here, using DNA sequence data gathered from four loci, we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic Pied Woodpeckers to understand the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Eurasian species with respect to African and New World lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed nine strongly supported clades within the Dendropicini. Noticeably, two species that had disputed affinities at the genus level clustered in clades with species from the same biogeographical region: the Brown-backed Woodpecker (D. obsoletus) is nested in Dendropicos and the Arabian Woodpecker (D. dorae) is related to two Eurasian species, the Brown-fronted (D. auriceps) and Middle-spotted woodpeckers (D. medius). The nine clades have a strong biogeographic component and very few dispersal event among bioregions occurred. For example, the African species formed a clade, suggesting that only one dispersal event is needed to explain the presence of Dendropicini in Africa. Based on our phylogenetic results, we propose a new classification of the Dendropicini that recognizes nine genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Demographic Divergence History of Pied Flycatcher and Collared Flycatcher Inferred from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Burri, Reto; Olason, Pall I.; Kawakami, Takeshi; Smeds, Linnéa; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Profound knowledge of demographic history is a prerequisite for the understanding and inference of processes involved in the evolution of population differentiation and speciation. Together with new coalescent-based methods, the recent availability of genome-wide data enables investigation of differentiation and divergence processes at unprecedented depth. We combined two powerful approaches, full Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis (ABC) and pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent modeling (PSMC), to reconstruct the demographic history of the split between two avian speciation model species, the pied flycatcher and collared flycatcher. Using whole-genome re-sequencing data from 20 individuals, we investigated 15 demographic models including different levels and patterns of gene flow, and changes in effective population size over time. ABC provided high support for recent (mode 0.3 my, range <0.7 my) species divergence, declines in effective population size of both species since their initial divergence, and unidirectional recent gene flow from pied flycatcher into collared flycatcher. The estimated divergence time and population size changes, supported by PSMC results, suggest that the ancestral species persisted through one of the glacial periods of middle Pleistocene and then split into two large populations that first increased in size before going through severe bottlenecks and expanding into their current ranges. Secondary contact appears to have been established after the last glacial maximum. The severity of the bottlenecks at the last glacial maximum is indicated by the discrepancy between current effective population sizes (20,000–80,000) and census sizes (5–50 million birds) of the two species. The recent divergence time challenges the supposition that avian speciation is a relatively slow process with extended times for intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers to evolve. Our study emphasizes the importance of using genome-wide data to

  16. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for SO2, NO, CO2 on zeolites FAU and LTA.

    PubMed

    Yi, Honghong; Deng, Hua; Tang, Xiaolong; Yu, Qiongfen; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Haiyan

    2012-02-15

    In order to develop a single-step process for removing SO(2), NO, CO(2) in flue gas simultaneously by co-adsorption method. Pure component adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of SO(2), NO, and CO(2) on zeolite NaY, NaX, CaA were obtained respectively. Equilibrium data were analyzed by equilibrium model and Henry's law constant. The results suggest that Adsorption affinity follows the trend SO(2)>CO(2)>NO for the same adsorbent. Zeolite with stronger polar surface is a more promising adsorbent candidate. Kinetics behavior was investigated using the breakthrough curve method. The overall mass transfer coefficient and diffusivity factor were determined by a linear driving force model. The results are indicative of micropore diffusion controlling mechanism. NaY zeolite has the minimum resistance of mass transfer duo to the wide pore distribution and large pore amount. CaA zeolite exhibits the highest spatial hindered effect. Finally, co-adsorption effect of SO(2), NO, and CO(2) were investigated by multi-components breakthrough method. SO(2) and NO may form new adsorbed species, however, CO(2) presents a fast breakthrough. Chemical adsorption causes SO(2) transforms to SO(4)(2-), however, element N and C are not detected in adsorbed zeolites. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inelastic neutron scattering study of water in hydrated LTA-type zeolites.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Parker, Stewart F; Venuti, Valentina; Wanderlingh, Ulderico

    2006-01-26

    The vibrational dynamics of water molecules encapsulated in synthetic Na-A and Mg-exchanged A zeolites were studied versus temperature by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements (30-1200 cm(-1)) as a function of the induced ion-exchange percentage by using the indirect geometry tof spectrometer TOSCA at the ISIS pulse neutron facility (RAL, UK). The experimental INS spectra were compared with those of ice Ih to characterize the structural changes induced by confinement on the H2O hydrogen-bonded network. We observed, after increasing the Mg2+ content, a tendency of water molecules to restore the bulklike arrangements together with more hindered dynamics. These results are confirmed by the analysis of the evaluated one-phonon amplitude-weighted proton vibrational density of states aimed, in particular, to follow the evolution of the water molecules librational mode region.

  18. The effects of selected modern technological concepts on the performance and handling characteristics of LTA vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazza, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an airship design sensitivity study are presented. A wide variety of airship design concepts, including the classical and high aero-lift augmented-hybrids are examined with regard to specific technological improvements, and consequent gains in performance, stability and control and flying qualities. Variations in size, payload, power required and airspeed are quantitatively analyzed for airships representing aero-to-buoyant lift ratios of zero to 3.0 over a range of technology improvements implying reduced drag, reduced structural weight fractions and lighter, more efficient propulsion systems. Qualitatively, future airships are discussed in terms of stability, control and flying qualities requirements dictated by projected demands for vastly improved operational effectiveness and ease of handling. Such topics include stability augmentation systems, load-alleviation systems and total computer state-sensing and controls management systems. It was shown that, for the most part, highly refined conventional designs offer attractive gains in both performance and ease of handling. Hybrid airships represent a good potential for missions requiring the transport of heavy payloads at higher airspeeds over shorter ranges without the capability for sustained hover and vertical flight.

  19. Testicular distribution and toxicity of a novel LTA4H inhibitor in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.D. La, D.

    2014-07-01

    JNJ 40929837, a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor in drug development, was reported to induce testicular toxicity in rats. The mechanism of toxicity was considered to be rodent specific and not relevant to humans. To further investigate this finding in rats, the distribution and toxicokinetics of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites, M1 and M2, were investigated. A quantitative whole body autoradiography study showed preferential distribution and retention of JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity in the testes consistent with the observed site of toxicity. Subsequent studies with unlabeled JNJ 40929837 showed different metabolite profiles between the plasma and testes. Following a single oral 50 mg/kg dose of JNJ 40929837, M2 was the primary metabolite in plasma whereas M1 was the primary metabolite in testes. The exposure of M1 was 386-fold higher in the testes compared to plasma whereas M2 had limited exposure in testes. Furthermore, the T{sub max} of M1 was 48 h in testes suggesting a large accumulation potential of this metabolite in testes compared to plasma. Following six months of repeated daily oral dosing, M1 accumulated approximately five-fold in the testes whereas the parent did not accumulate. These results indicate that the toxicokinetic profiles of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites in testes are markedly different compared to plasma and support the importance of understanding the toxicokinetic profiles of compounds and their metabolites in organs/tissues where toxicity is observed. - Highlights: • JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity preferentially distributed into testes • Primary metabolite flip-flop in plasma and testes • The primary metabolite in testes accumulated 5-fold but not parent.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of LTA nanozeolite using barley husk silica: Mercury removal from standard and real solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Dehnavi, Ahmad Roozbehani; Joorabdoozha, Amir

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Silica extraction from barley husk with high purity for the synthesis of A nanozeolite. ► Free template A nanozeolite synthesized via new source of silica at low temperature. ► Optimization of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratios, temperature and time of the synthesis. ► Utilizing of synthesized A nanozeolite for mercury removal from aqueous solutions. ► Mercury removal at optimized pH, contact time and adsorbent dose from real solution. - Abstract: In this study, synthesized Lined Type A (LTA) nanozeolite from barley husk silica (BHS) was used for mercury removal from standard and real aqueous solutions. The BHS in amorphous phase with 80% purity was extracted from barley husk ash (BHA), and used effectively as a new source of silica for the synthesis of NaA nanozeolite. The NaA nanocrystal in pure phase has been synthesized at low temperature, without adding any organic additives. The effects of heating time, reaction temperature, SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} mole ratios on the crystallization of NaA nanozeolite were studied. The adsorption capacity of mercury (II) was studied as a function of pH, contact time, and amount of adsorbent. The crystallization of NaA nanozeolite from BHS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and FTIR techniques. Moreover, concentration of Hg{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous solutions was analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy method (HG-AAS). The standard and real samples analysis showed that NaA nanozeolite is capable of Hg{sup 2+} ions removal from the aqueous solutions. Efficiency of mercury (II) adsorption from real solutions onto the nano-sized NaA zeolite was 98%.

  1. Arthroscopic trans-portal deep medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    PubMed

    Atoun, Ehud; Debbi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Weiler, Andreas; Debbi, Eytan; Rath, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Arthroscopic treatments of meniscal injuries of the knee are among the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus might be challenging, especially in patients with tight medial compartments. In these cases instrument manipulation in an attempt to reach the posterior horn of the meniscus can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury because of the narrow medial joint space. A transcutaneous medial collateral ligament (MCL) pie-crusting release facilitates expansion of the medial joint space in a case of a tight medial compartment. Nevertheless, it might cause injury to the superficial MCL, infection, and pain and injury to the saphenous nerve because of multiple needle punctures of the skin. We describe an inside-out, arthroscopic deep MCL pie-crusting release, which allows access to the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  2. Precision Information Environment (PIE) for International Safeguards: Pre-Demonstration Development Use Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Henry, Michael J.

    2013-11-13

    In FY2013, the PIE International Safeguards team demonstrated our development progress to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) staff from the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24, our client) and the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22). Following the demonstration, the team was asked by our client to complete additional development prior to a planned demonstration at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), scheduled tentatively for January or spring of 2014. The team discussed four potential areas for development (in priority order), and will develop them as time and funding permit prior to an IAEA demonstration. The four capability areas are: 1. Addition of equipment manuals to PIE-accessible files 2. Optical character recognition (OCR) of photographed text 3. Barcode reader with information look-up from a database 4. Add Facilities to Data Model 5. Geospatial capabilities with information integration Each area will be described below in a use case.

  3. Tunable PIE and synchronized gating detections by FastFLIM for quantitative microscopy measurements of fast dynamics of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Coskun, Ulas; Ferreon, Allan Chris; Barbieri, Beniamino; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff

    2016-03-01

    The crosstalk between two fluorescent species causes problems in fluorescence microscopy imaging, especially for quantitative measurements such as co-localization, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). In laser scanning confocal microscopy, the lasers can be switched on and off by acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) in the microsecond scale for alternative line scanning in order to avoid the crosstalk while minimizing the time delay between two lasers on the same pixel location. In contrast, the pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) technique synchronizes two pulsed lasers of different wavelengths in the nanosecond scale to enable measuring superfast dynamics of two fluorescent species simultaneously and yet quantitatively without the crosstalk contamination. This feature is critical for many cell biology applications, e.g. accurate determination of stoichiometry in FRET measurements for studying protein-protein interactions or cell signal events, detection of weaker bindings in FCCS by eliminating the false cross correlation due to the crosstalk. The PIE has been used with the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) electronics. Here, we describe a novel PIE development using the digital frequency domain (DFD) technique -- FastFLIM, which provides tunable PIE setups and synchronized gating detections, tailored and optimized to specific applications. A few PIE setups by FastFLIM and measurement examples are described. Combined with the sensitivity of Alba and Q2 systems, the PIE allowed us to quantitatively measure the fast dynamics of single molecules.

  4. [Genetic mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to leukemia in Ayrshire and black pied cattle breeds determined by allelic distribution of gene Bola-DRB3].

    PubMed

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Sulimova, G E

    2003-03-01

    In the herds of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds of Russian selection, comparative analysis of allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 was performed in animal groups with different status of persistent lymphocytosis (PL) caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Alleles were typed by PCR-RFLP. Different spectra of BoLA-DRB3 alleles mediating susceptibility and resistance to leukemia were detected in the studied breeds. The role of amino acid motives in beta 1 domain of BoLA-DRB3 antigens was confirmed: ER (in positions 70-71), in resistance to leukemia and VDTY and VDTV (75-78), in susceptibility to leukemia. The nucleotide sequence of allele BoLA-DRB3.2*7 with deletion of codon 65, which resulted in the changed conformation of the corresponding antigen molecule, was associated with resistance to PL. Cows of Black Pied and Ayrshire breeds with genotypes coding VDTY/VDTV (RR = 11.67, P = 0.014) and VDTY/VDTY (RR = 4.71, P = 0.022), respectively, were shown to be susceptible to PL. The role of heterozygosity level was demonstrated (estimated by BoLA-DRB3 alleles and by amino acid motives in positions 75-78 of the antigen) as an unspecific factor of resistance to PL. The lowest heterozygosity level by amino acid motives (75-78) was revealed in PL animals, for which sample inbreeding coefficients were detected: F = 0.324 and F = 0.084 in Ayrshire and Black Pied breeds, respectively.

  5. "Operation Pied Piper": a psychoanalytic narrative of authority in a time of war.

    PubMed

    Farley, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The evacuation of British children during World War II is read alongside the legend of the "Pied Piper" after which the mass migration was officially named. While virtually every British account of World War II makes mention of the evacuation, most are silent on the question of its ominous title: "Operation Pied Piper." This paper traces the legend's key theme - on influencing and being influenced - as it surfaces in the writing of one child analyst and one social worker charged with the responsibility of leading a family of five hostels for British youth. At a time when Hitler's deadly regime reached unprecedented heights across the Channel, the legend of the "Pied Piper" becomes a highly suggestive metaphor for thinking about D. W. Winnicott and Clare Britton's writing on what authority could mean in the face of leadership gone terribly wrong. Quite another, profoundly intimate loss of leadership haunts their words as well: Sigmund Freud, in exile from Hitler's Europe and leader of the psychoanalytic movement, died in London just weeks after the first wave of Blitz evacuations. It is in this context that Winnicott and Britton articulated a theory of authority that could address the losses of history without at the same time demanding the loss of the mind.

  6. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Gerczak, Tyler J.

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  7. African departure rather than migration speed determines variation in spring arrival in pied flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    Properly timed spring migration enhances reproduction and survival. Climate change requires organisms to respond to changes such as advanced spring phenology. Pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca have become a model species to study such phenological adaptations of long-distance migratory songbirds to climate change, but data on individuals' time schedules outside the breeding season are still lacking. Using light-level geolocators, we studied variation in migration schedules across the year in a pied flycatcher population in the Netherlands, which sheds light on the ability for individual adjustments in spring arrival timing to track environmental changes at their breeding grounds. We show that variation in arrival dates to breeding sites in 2014 was caused by variation in departure date from sub-Saharan Africa and not by environmental conditions encountered en route. Spring migration duration was short for all individuals, on average 2 weeks. Males migrated ahead of females in spring, while migration schedules in autumn were flexibly adjusted according to breeding duties. Individuals were therefore not consistently early or late throughout the year. In fast migrants like our Dutch pied flycatchers, advancement of arrival to climate change likely requires changes in spring departure dates. Adaptation for earlier arrival may be slowed down by harsh circumstances in winter, or years with high costs associated with early migration. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  8. Parallelization of LSODE in PIES Using NVIDIA's CUDA Architecture for GPGPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Paul; Ethier, Stephane

    2009-11-01

    The Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (PIES) is a powerful tool for computing three dimensional MHD equilibria, without making assumptions about the form of the magnetic field. Part of its strength comes from its ability to handle equilibria with islands and stochastic regions. However, a high-resolution PIES calculation often takes several hours to complete, spending most of its time in the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations (LSODE) to follow field-line trajectories. This work examines the feasibility of speeding up these calculations by taking advantage of the parallel computing resources of programmable Graphic Processor Units (GPUs). To this end, the LSODA variant version of LSODE is converted to NVIDIA's C for CUDA application programming interface and tested against its original Fortran version on an NVIDIA Tesla Cluster. Run times are compared between the serial and parallel versions, with special attention given to different scaling options. The new code is also analyzed for bottlenecks and opportunities for additional speedups, with the ultimate goal of developing a PIES-based MHD solver capable of running between experimental shots.

  9. Comparison between urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 detection and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays for evaluating aspirin response in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jingwei; Chen, Xiahuan; Feng, Xueru; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, Meilin

    2015-10-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to compare between two established methods of aspirin response, urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11dhTXB2) and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays in elderly Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and to investigate the clinical significance of both methods in predicting cardiovascular events. Urinary 11dhTxB2 assay and arachidonic acid-induced (AA, 0.5mg/ml) platelet aggregation by Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTAAA) assay were measured to evaluate aspirin responses. High-on aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) was defined as urinary 11dhTxB2>1500pg/mg or AA-induced platelet aggregation≥15.22%-the upper quartile of our enrolled population. The two tests showed a poor correlation for aspirin inhibition (r=0.063) and a poor agreement in classifying HAPR (kappa=0.053). With a mean follow-up time of 12months, cardiovascular events occurred more frequently in HAPR patients who were diagnosed by LTA assay as compared with no-HAPR patients (22.5% versus 10.6%, P=0.039, OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.06-5.63). However, the HAPR status, as determined by urinary 11dTXB2 measurement, did not show a significant correlation with outcomes.

  10. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Muijres, Florian T.; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a ‘feathered upstroke’ during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called ‘normal hovering’ as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body–tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as

  11. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-02-07

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  12. A landslide-quake detection algorithm with STA/LTA and diagnostic functions of moving average and scintillation index: A preliminary case study of the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Jie; Lin, Guan-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Since 1999, Taiwan has experienced a rapid rise in the number of landslides, and the number even reached a peak after the 2009 Typhoon Morakot. Although it is proved that the ground-motion signals induced by slope processes could be recorded by seismograph, it is difficult to be distinguished from continuous seismic records due to the lack of distinct P and S waves. In this study, we combine three common seismic detectors including the short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) approach, and two diagnostic functions of moving average and scintillation index. Based on these detectors, we have established an auto-detection algorithm of landslide-quakes and the detection thresholds are defined to distinguish landslide-quake from earthquakes and background noises. To further improve the proposed detection algorithm, we apply it to seismic archives recorded by Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) during the 2009 Typhoon Morakots and consequently the discrete landslide-quakes detected by the automatic algorithm are located. The detection algorithm show that the landslide-detection results are consistent with that of visual inspection and hence can be used to automatically monitor landslide-quakes.

  13. Transition in public knowledge of risk factors of cardiovascular disease in an Iranian general population: A latent transition analysis (LTA) on a longitudinal large community-based educational prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee Alhossaini, Mahsa; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Feizi, Awat; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the second leading cause of death, after accidents, in Iran. This study was performed to assess the change in levels of knowledge about 8 risk factors of CVD and its associated determinants the Iranian general population. METHODS The current repeated cross-sectional study included 3014 people in 2004, 3012 in 2005, and 4719 in 2007, aged older than 19 years. Knowledge about 8 risk factors (high blood pressure, nutrition, physical inactivity, smoking, diabetes, heredity, stress, and obesity) as the major causes of CVD was evaluated using latent transition analysis (LTA). RESULTS The most widely known CVD risk factors were nutrition and physical inactivity followed by stress. In addition, old age, low level of education, male gender and low socioeconomic status (SES) level were the significant determinants of low knowledge levels of CVD risk factors. Besides, individuals’ knowledge of CVD risk factors increased across the time. CONCLUSION Public knowledge of CVD risk factors has increased; however significant gaps continue to exist, particularly among the elderly, less-educated people, people in low socioeconomic status level and men. Future intensified educational efforts by policymakers are necessary for improving knowledge of CVD, particularly among high-risk groups. PMID:28149314

  14. Effects of inbreeding on fighting ability measured in Aosta Chestnut and Aosta Black Pied cattle.

    PubMed

    Sartori, C; Mantovani, R

    2012-09-01

    Aosta Black Pied (ABP) and Aosta Chestnut (AC) are dual-purpose cattle indigenous to the western Alps and famous for their fighting ability in traditional Italian Batailles de Reines. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of inbreeding on breeding values for fighting ability achieved in participants. Inbreeding (F) and average relatedness (AR) were obtained from the entire pedigree information available (19,554 and 87,967 records for ABP and AC, respectively). Data (n = 23,998) relating to 8,259 cows competing in years 2001-2009 were analyzed to obtain heritability (h(2)) estimates and breeding values for the trait. A placement score was chosen as a phenotype for fighting ability and both a classical quantitative model (NORM) and its implementation, used to identify its indirect genetic effects (COMP), were analyzed using the expectation maximization-REML (EM-REML) method. The F and AR trends in animals born between 1990 and 2009 were generally low and were greater for ABP (+0.06%/yr) than for AC (+0.03%/yr) populations, which also presented a greater mean F (about 2.8% ± 1.7% vs. 0.8% ± 1.5% for ABP and AC, respectively) and mean AR among individuals (about 1.0% ± 0.8% vs. 0.4% ± 0.3% for ABP and AC, respectively). Heritability estimates from 0.083 ± 0.036 to 0.120 ± 0.037 were obtained using the NORM model, accounting for or not accounting for F, respectively. Similar results were obtained also for the COMP model, with h(2) estimates of 0.12 ± 0.037, whether or not F was taken into consideration. Linear regression analyses carried out on the 33 major lineages to which most of participants belonged (n = 6,087) revealed an overall negative trend of EBV compared with the increase of either F (b = -21.3, P < 0.01) or AR (b = -50.1, P < 0.01). However, a great variability in the relationship between EBV and F or AR was found by analyzing data within lineages. Despite the variability, an unfavorable effect of inbreeding was detected in the

  15. An innovative method to produce green table olives based on "pied de cuve" technology.

    PubMed

    Martorana, Alessandra; Alfonzo, Antonio; Settanni, Luca; Corona, Onofrio; La Croce, Francesco; Caruso, Tiziano; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Francesca, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The technology of "pied de cuve" (PdC) is applied in food process only to produce wines with an enriched community of pro-technological yeasts. PdC promotes the growth of the desirable microbial strains in a small volume of grape must acting as a starter inoculums for higher volumes. The aim of the present work was to investigate the use of partially fermented brines, a technology known as PdC, developed with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of green fermented table olives during two consecutive campaigns. The experimental plan included two trials based on different PdCs: trial A, PdC obtained with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13; trial B, PdC obtained through a spontaneous fermentation. Two control additional trials without PdC were included for comparison: trial C, spontaneous fermentation; trial D, direct inoculation of L. pentosus OM13. The use of PdCs favoured the rapid increase of LAB concentrations in both trials A and B. These trials showed levels of LAB higher than trial C and almost superimposable to that of trial D. Trial B was characterized by a certain diversity of L. pentosus strains and some of them dominated the manufacturing process. These results indicated PdC as a valuable method to favour the growth of autochthonous L. pentosus strains. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) visibly discriminated olive processes fermented with the two experimental PdCs. Interestingly, on the basis of microbial and pH variables, both approaches showed that the olives produced with PdC technology are closely related to those of trial D, with the advantages of reducing the amount of starter to inoculate (trial A) and a higher LAB biodiversity (trial B). Volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and sensory analysis showed trials A and B different from the trials with no PdC added, in both years. Furthermore, the trial B showed the highest scores of green olive aroma and

  16. Detection of rhodopsin dimerization in situ by PIE-FCCS, a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin self-associates in the plasma membrane. At low concentrations, the interactions are consistent with a monomer-dimer equilibrium (Comar et al., J Am Chem Soc 136(23):8342-8349, 2014). At high concentrations in native tissue, higher-order clusters have been observed (Fotiadis et al., Nature 421:127-128, 2003). The physiological role of rhodopsin dimerization is still being investigated, but it is clear that a quantitative assessment is essential to determining the function of rhodopsin clusters in vision. To quantify rhodopsin interactions, I will outline the theory and methodology of a specialized time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring membrane protein-protein interactions called pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS). The strength of this technique is its ability to quantify rhodopsin interactions in situ (i.e., a live cell plasma membrane). There are two reasons for restricting the scope to live cell membranes. First, the compositional heterogeneity of the plasma membrane creates a complex milieu with thousands of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate species. This makes it difficult to infer quaternary interactions from detergent solubilized samples or construct a model phospholipid bilayer that recapitulates all of the interactions present in native membranes. Second, organizational structure and dynamics is a key feature of the plasma membrane, and fixation techniques like formaldehyde cross-linking and vitrification will modulate the interactions. PIE-FCCS is based on two-color fluorescence imaging with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) (Becker et al., Rev Sci Instrum 70:1835-1841, 1999). By time-tagging every detected photon, the data can be analyzed as a fluorescence intensity distribution, fluorescence lifetime histogram, or fluorescence (cross-)correlation spectra (FCS/FCCS) (Becker, Advanced time-correlated single-photon counting techniques, Springer, Berlin, 2005). These

  17. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, David J.; Finch, Fiona M.; Bell, Matthew B. V.; Ridley, Amanda R.

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a ‘cheap’ advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners. PMID:26177094

  18. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Humphries, David J; Finch, Fiona M; Bell, Matthew B V; Ridley, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a 'cheap' advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners.

  19. Microsporidian infection in the pied peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).

    PubMed

    Novilla, M N

    1978-01-01

    A microsporidian infection was diagnosed in a pied peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) which had died after an illness of 2 days. The parasite was observed in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. Lesions were most severe in the liver, with numerous organisms adjacent to areas of hepatic necrosis. Although the organisms were seen within renal tubules and within the intestinal mucosa, inflammatory lesions in those sites were minimal. The microsporidian nature of the parasite was confirmed by morphologic studies. The genus of the organism was not determined.

  20. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2016-08-15

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination represents the earlier works. As an historical chronology, the focus is on the emergence of key, specific aspects of the overall topic (often termed PiE) in the published literature and on the most highly cited works. This examination is not a conventional, technical review of the literature; as such, little attention was devoted to the more recent literature. The many dimensions involved with PiE span over 70years of published literature. Some articles began to appear in published works in the 1940s and earlier, while others only began to receive attention in the 1990s and later. Decades of early research on what at the time seemed to be disconnected topics eventually coalesced in the mid-to-late 1990s around a number of interconnected concerns and issues that now comprise PiE. Major objectives are to provide a new perspective to the topic, to facilitate more efficient and effective review of the literature by others, and to recognize the more significant, seminal contributions to the advancement of PiE as a field of research. Some of the most highly cited articles in all of environmental science now involve PiE. As of April 2015, a core group of 385 PiE articles had each received at least 200 citations; one had received 5424 citations. But hundreds of additional articles also played important roles in the evolution and advancement of the field.

  1. Quadriceps and patellar tendon pie-crusting as a treatment for limited flexion in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Burge, J Ross; Sanchez, Hugo B; Wagner, Russell A

    2014-04-01

    The pie-crusting method of ligament and tendon lengthening has been used successfully in various tissues but is not reported in the literature as an option for patellar or quadriceps tendons to address flexion limitation. Our case report discusses a patient with longstanding flexion limitation who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. The report reviews the literature on intraoperative treatments, which primarily pertains to the condition of patella baja, and demonstrates that the pie-crusting technique should be included as a treatment option for a tight extensor mechanism while having some advantages over tibial tubercle osteotomy or Z-plasty.

  2. EC as PIE: five criteria for executing a successful DNP final project.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Julee; Caruso, Diane; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Hypes, Kathe

    2014-01-01

    The goal of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs should be to produce nurses that are uniquely prepared to bridge the gap between the discovery of new knowledge and the scholarship of translation, application, and integration of this new knowledge in practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2006). However, there is concern over the variability in DNP programs and expected outcomes. The aim of this article is to describe a 5-point system of evaluation to determine whether a DNP final project meets the outcomes of the AACN Essentials of Doctoral Education in Advanced Nursing Practice (2006) in a comprehensive and rigorous way. In brief, the five criteria that must be met are represented by the acronym EC as PIE (E = Enhances; C = Culmination; P = Partnerships; I = Implements; E = Evaluates). Each criterion must be present and come together to form one complete "pie" representing evidence-based practice that is robust and innovative, culminating in a rigorous doctoral level DNP final project. In addition, we provide detailed examples of how these standards are currently being successfully implemented and discuss additional possibilities.

  3. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  4. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    PubMed

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-02-17

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil.

  5. The relationship of family characteristics and bipolar disorder using causal-pie models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H

    2014-01-01

    Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs.

  6. The PIES2012 Code for Calculating 3D Equilibria with Islands and Stochastic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, Donald; Reiman, Allan; Raburn, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We have made major modifications to the PIES 3D equilibrium code to produce a new version, PIES2012. The new version uses an adaptive radial grid for calculating equilibrium currents. A subset of the flux surfaces conform closely to island separatrices, providing an accurate treatment of the effects driving the neoclassical tearing mode. There is now a set of grid surfaces that conform to the flux surfaces in the interiors of the islands, allowing the proper treatment of the current profiles in the islands, which play an important role in tearing phenomena. We have verified that we can introduce appropriate current profiles in the islands to suppress their growth, allowing us to simulate situations where islands are allowed to grow at some rational surfaces but not others. Placement of grid surfaces between islands is guided by the locations of high order fixed points, allowing us to avoid spectral polution and providing a more robust, and smoother convergence of the code. The code now has an option for turning on a vertical magnetic field to fix the position of the magnetic axis, which models the horizontal feedback positioning of a tokamak plasma. The code has a new option for using a Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov scheme for convergence. The code now also contains a model that properly handles stochastic regions with nonzero pressure gradients. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. 49 CFR 40.373 - Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating official give the service agent an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating official give the service agent an opportunity to correct problems? 40.373 Section 40.373 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public...

  8. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of...

  9. A Comparison of Learning Management Systems in a School District: Searching for the Ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Zahide; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Kwon, Seolim; Kageto, Yuichi; Shao, Zihang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of several learning management systems (LMS), their benefits, and their limitations in relation to the desired characteristics of an ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the information age. A qualitative research design was used. The participants of the study were teachers, administrators, and…

  10. 49 CFR 40.401 - How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... document called the “List of Excluded Drug and Alcohol Service Agents.” This document may be found on the Department's web site (http://www.dot.gov/ost/dapc). You may also request a copy of the document from ODAPC. (b) When the Director issues a PIE, he or she adds to the List the name and address of the service...

  11. A Comparison of Learning Management Systems in a School District: Searching for the Ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Zahide; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Kwon, Seolim; Kageto, Yuichi; Shao, Zihang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of several learning management systems (LMS), their benefits, and their limitations in relation to the desired characteristics of an ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the information age. A qualitative research design was used. The participants of the study were teachers, administrators, and…

  12. Difficult Dialogues, Privilege and Social Justice: Uses of the Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) Model in Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry K.

    2007-01-01

    This article will introduce the Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) Model. This model identifies eight (8) defense modes associated with behaviors individuals display when engaged in difficult dialogues about social justice issues. Implications for the model and ways it can be used to assist facilitators as they engage participants in…

  13. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  14. [Comparative analysis of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds by histocompatibility markers].

    PubMed

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Sulimova, G E; Pavlenko, S P; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Ernst, L K

    1998-12-01

    Distribution of BoLA-A antigens and BoLA-DRB3 alleles was studied by means of the microlymphocytotoxic test (BoLA-A) and the PCR-RFLP method (BoLA-DRB3) using restriction endonucleases RSAI, HaeIII, and XhoII in Ayrshire (n = 127) and Black Pied (n = 129) cattle breeds. Comparative analysis of profiles for class I antigens revealed significant differences in the frequencies of antigens W2, W6, W10, W31, W44, W15, and W19 (P > 99%). The studied breeds also differ in the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and distribution of their frequencies. Heterogeneous allele frequency profile was detected in Ayrshire cattle: five of 18 detected alleles (DRB3.2*7, *8, *10, *24, and *28) accounted for 77%. Allele DRB3.2*7 (37.6%), which is classed with rare alleles in Black Pied cattle is the most common in Ayrshire cattle. The observed heterozygosity level in the combined sample of Black Pied breed (0.836) is higher than in Ayrshire breed (0.070). In both breeds, the heterozygosity level was studied in the groups of healthy and ill with persistent lymphocytosis (caused by bovine leukemia virus) animals and in the group of virus carriers in Ayrshire breed. In ill animals, a decrease in the observed heterozygosity level was detected, as compared to healthy animals and the expected heterozygosity level. The observed heterozygosity level exceeds the expected one in virus carriers. The detected features of the heterozygosity level in the studied groups allow the heterozygosity level for locus BoLA-DRB3 to be considered a nonspecific factor of resistance to leukemia and are heterozygous animals to have higher resistance to bovine leukemia. The presence of a larger proportion of highly productive animals (the annual productivity of more than 7000 kg) in the group of ill Ayrshire cattle animals, as compared to healthy animals to established. To increase resistance to bovine leukemia, the obtained data indicate the importance of the control of heterozygosity level and genetic diversity for

  15. Newcastle disease in a zoo affecting demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J

    1981-07-01

    Newcastle disease virus could be isolated from demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. All of these birds died without prominent symptoms and had no typical pathological lesions. Identification and characterisation studies of the viruses were performed in CEF cultures and embryos. Serological cross reactions could be detected between NDV strain B1 and the new isolates by haemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction tests. Electron microscopic examination revealed particles with paramyxovirus morphology. Inoculation of susceptible cockerels resulted in severe clinical symptoms and mortality. The distribution of lesions in the digestive tract indicates that the isolated viruses are of the velogenic viscerotropic type.

  16. Variete Technique du Lambeau Sural dans les Brulures Profondes du Pied

    PubMed Central

    Ezzoubi, M.; Ettalbi, S.; Elmounjid, S.; Fassi, J.; Benchamckha, F.J.; Sakhi, M.; Boukind, E.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Les couvertures des pertes de substance de la jambe, du talon et du pied font souvent appel au lambeau sural, qui reste, de part ses dimensions, une indication limitée. Les Auteurs présentent, à travers deux cas cliniques, une variété technique pour la levée du lambeau sural, permettant d'obtenir des palettes cutanées de grande surface avec une bonne sécurité vasculaire. C'est un lambeau fasciocutané remontant jusqu'à un centimètre du creux poplité et incluant, lors de la levée, l'aponévrose, le nerf sural, la petite veine saphène et le nerf sural latéral. PMID:21990988

  17. Biomechanical validation of medial pie-crusting for soft-tissue balancing in knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mihalko, William M; Woodard, Erik L; Hebert, Casey T; Crockarell, John R; Williams, John L

    2015-02-01

    Balancing a varus knee is traditionally accomplished by releasing the medial soft-tissue sleeve off the tibia. Recently, "pie-crusting" (PC) medial structures has been described. In a biomechanical cadaver study we compared PC to traditional release (TR) to determine their effects on flexion and extension gaps. PC was done in five specimens along the anterior half of the medial soft-tissue sleeve and five along the posterior half, followed by a traditional release. In 90° flexion, valgus laxity after TR was significantly greater than after PC alone. PC of the anterior or posterior aspect of the medial soft-tissue sleeve can effect changes more in flexion than in extension, respectively. Complete TR did not provide more gap opening than PC in extension, but produced more effect in flexion.

  18. Tuberculose du médio-pied, une localisation inhabituelle: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Hachimi, Hicham; Tahiri, Latifa; Kadi, Nadira; Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid; Harzy, Taoufik

    2012-01-01

    La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire représente 2 à 5% de l’ensemble des tuberculoses, la localisation au médio-pieds est rare. Nous en rapportons le cas d’une patiente âgée de 18 ans, qui présente depuis 2 ans des douleurs du médio-pied droit inflammatoires avec tuméfactio, La radiographie a montré des géodes et des érosions des os naviculaire et cunéiformes. L’IRM a orienté vers le dignostic de tuberculose confirm par biospie et étude anathomopathologique. C’est pourquoi devant tout tableau clinique traînant ou devant toute lésion osseuse suspecte ou de présentation atypique le diagnostic de tuberculose doit être évoqué afin d’éviter un retard diagnostique. PMID:22593789

  19. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert

    PubMed Central

    Both, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal flights were estimated to be part of non-stop flights of mostly 40–60 h. In spring, birds flew across the Sahara, while autumn migration probably circumpassed part of the desert, through a long oversea flight. Our data contradict claims that passerines cross the Sahara by intermittent flight and daytime resting. The frequent occurrence of long non-stop flights to cross the desert shows migrants' physiological abilities and poses the question why this would not be the general migration strategy to cross the Sahara. PMID:27072404

  20. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  1. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L B; Mold, David E; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-11-29

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients' sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs.

  2. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L. B.; Mold, David E.; Huang, Ru Chih C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients’ sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs. PMID:27856749

  3. Reduction Osteotomy vs Pie-Crust Technique as Possible Alternatives for Medial Release in Total Knee Arthroplasty and Compared in a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Hyun; Yang, Tae Yeong; Lee, Jang Yun

    2016-07-01

    To compare the gap change between the pie-crust technique and reduction osteotomy to determine their effects on flexion and extension gaps and their success rates in achieving ligament balancing during total knee arthroplasty. In a prospective randomized controlled trial, 106 total knee arthroplasties were allocated to each group with 53 cases. If there was a narrow medial gap with an imbalance of ≥3 mm after the initial limited medial release, either reduction osteotomy or pie-crust technique was performed. The changes of extension and flexion medial gaps along with the success rate of mediolateral balancing were compared. There was a significant difference in the change of medial gap in knee extension with mean changes of 3.5 ± 0.5 mm and 2.3 ± 0.8 mm in the reduction osteotomy and pie-crust groups, respectively (P < .001). For flexion gap, greater change was found in the pie-crust group compared with the reduction osteotomy group; the mean medial gap changes in knee flexion were 1.1 ± 0.5 mm and 2.3 ± 1.2 mm in the reduction osteotomy and pie-crust groups, respectively. The success rates were 90.6% and 67.9% in reduction osteotomy and pie-crust groups, respectively (P = .007). As an alternative medial release method, reduction osteotomy was more effective in extension gap balancing, and pie-crust technique was more effective in flexion gap balancing. The overall success rate of mediolateral ligament balancing was higher in the reduction osteotomy group than in the pie-crust group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The strategy for numerical solving of PIES without explicit calculation of singular integrals in 2D potential problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szerszeń, Krzysztof; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a strategy for numerical solving of parametric integral equation system (PIES) for 2D potential problems without explicit calculation of singular integrals. The values of these integrals will be expressed indirectly in terms of easy to compute non-singular integrals. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is investigated with the example of potential problem modeled by the Laplace equation. The strategy simplifies the structure of the program with good the accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  5. Hormonal and behavioral variation in pied tamarins housed in different management conditions.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D M; Santymire, R M

    2013-01-01

    Pied tamarins are an endangered Amazonian primate that has limited breeding success in zoos. Unfortunately, little is known about their reproductive biology and adrenocortical activity. Objectives were: (1) determine if fecal hormones could be utilized to monitor gonadal and adrenocortical activity; (2) characterize male and female gonadal and adrenocortical hormones; and (3) determine if there were differences between adrenocortical activity and behavior in a nonbreeding, on-exhibit (NB-ON) pair compared to a breeding, off-exhibit (B-OFF) pair. Fecal samples were collected from four (two males; two females) individuals. Hormones were analyzed for fecal progesterone (FPM), androgen (FAM), and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites by enzyme immunoassay. Behavioral observations were conducted for 6 months. Data were collected on instantaneous behavior, location, and all occurrences of intraspecific behaviors. Fecal progesterone metabolites were validated by pregnancy (mean ± SE, pregnant: 28.47 ± 1.60 μg/g; nonpregnant: 8.63 ± 0.89 μg/g). Fecal androgen metabolites were higher (T = 31,971, P < 0.05) in the B-OFF male (863.66 ± 46.30 μg/g) than the NB-ON male (838.63 ± 60.70 μg/g). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were validated by response to veterinary procedure with elevated values (7.31 ± 1.48 μg/g) seven times the baseline (0.37 ± 0.04 μg/g) at 24-hr postphysical. Females had higher baseline FGM than the males (P < 0.05). Baseline FGM were higher (P < 0.05) in the NB-ON female (0.93 ± 0.03 μg/g) compared to the B-OFF female (0.38 ± 0.02 μg/g). Similarly, the NB-ON male's FGM baseline (0.71 ± 0.03 μg/g) were higher (P < 0.05) than the B-OFF male (0.21 ± 0.01 μg/g). Behavioral data revealed stereotypical behaviors in the NB-ON pair but no stereotypical behaviors in the B-OFF pair. Fecal hormone monitoring and behavioral analysis may provide insight on the limited breeding success of pied tamarins in zoos. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Miniature Gas Chromatograph (GC): Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES) Instrument for the Trace Analyses of Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    In situ exploration of the solar system to identify its early chemistry as preserved in icy bodies and to look for compelling evidence of astrobiology will require new technology for chemical analysis. Chemical measurements in space flight environments highlight the need for a high level of positive identification of chemical compounds, since re-measurement by alternative techniques for confirmation will not be feasible. It also may not be possible to anticipate all chemical species that are observed, and important species may be present only at trace levels where they can be masked by complex chemical backgrounds. Up to now, the only techniques providing independent sample identification of GC separated components across a wide range of chemical species have been Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS). We describe here the development of a versatile and robust miniature GC detector based on Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES), for use with miniature GC systems being developed for planetary missions. PIES identifies the sample molecule through spectra related to its ionization potential. The combination of miniature GC technology with the primary identification capabilities of PIES provides an analytical approach ideal for planetary analyses.

  7. Syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur pied malformé (à propos d'un cas)

    PubMed Central

    Benbella, Imane; Khalki, Hanane; Lahmadi, Khalid; Kouara, Sara; Abbadi, Abderrahim; Er-rami, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de larva migrans cutanée est une dermite sous cutanée causée par des larves d'ankylostomes d'animaux en impasse parasitaire chez l'homme. L'infestation transcutanée est favorisée par le contact avec le sol contaminé par les larves du parasite. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 15 mois, originaire de Guinée-Bissau, atteint d'un syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur un pied malformé. Cette malformation sous forme d'une syndactylie associée à une tuméfaction du pied, était à l'origine d'un retard d'acquisition de la station debout. De même, on a rapporté une notion de pieds nus, vue la difficulté de chausser le pied malformé du patient. Tous ces facteurs auraient contribués à favoriser l'infestation du malade par les larves du nématode. PMID:27217876

  8. Optical properties of the hydrated charged silver tetramer and silver hexamer encapsulated inside the sodalite cavity of an LTA-type zeolite.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi; Pham-Ho, My Phuong; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2016-07-21

    The optical spectra in the UV-VIS region of the hydrated doubly charged tetramer Ag4(2+) and hydrated multiply charged hexamer Ag6(p+) silver clusters encapsulated inside the sodalite cavity of an LTA-type zeolite have been systematically predicted using DFT, TD-DFT and CASSCF/CASPT2 methods. The optical behaviour of the model hydrated clusters [Ag6(H2O)8(Si24H24O36)](p+) is very sensitive to their charge. Among the cations [Ag6(H2O)8(Si24H24O36)](p+), only the embedded hydrated quadruply charged silver hexamer [Ag6(H2O)8(Si24H24O36)](4+) shows a strong absorption band at ∼420 nm (blue light) and emits light in red color. The absorption spectrum of the hydrated doubly charged silver tetramer cluster [Ag4(H2O)m(Si24H24O36)](2+), which shifts slightly and steadily with the increasing amount of interacting water molecules to longer wavelengths, has a strong peak in the blue region. The water environment forces the silver tetramer to relocate into one side of the cavity instead of at its center as in the case of the non-hydrated [Ag4(Si24H24O36)](2+) cluster. Water molecules act as ligands significantly splitting the energy levels of excited states of the Ag4(2+) and Ag6(4+) clusters. This causes the absorption spectra of the clusters to broaden and the emission to shift to the green-yellow and red part of the visible region.

  9. The why of practice: utilizing PIE to analyze social work practice in Australian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, David; Joubert, Lynette; Holland, Lucy; Posenelli, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This research used a collaborative approach to gain a comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the breadth and depth of the social work role in health care. Data was collected from individual interviews with all employed hospital social workers (N = 120) across five Melbourne, Australia health networks about their most recently completed case. This data was coded using a revised version of the Karls and Wandrei (1994) Person-in-Environment (PIE) tool to retrospectively analyze the reasons for social work involvement over the course of the case. The findings demonstrate that the hospital social work role is multidimensional across a number of domains but centers predominantly on assisting clients and their significant others with issues of altered social roles and functioning; particularly in relation to role responsibility, dependency, and managing associated role-change losses. The findings of this study will assist hospital social workers, managers, and academics to better describe and effectively undertake this complex work. These findings will also assist in the development of professional training and education to up-skill social workers who operate within this complex setting.

  10. Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird's song

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Hollis; Scharff, Constance; Rothenberg, David; Parra, Lucas C.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the temporal regularity of singing performance. We found that different phrase types often share motifs (notes or stereotyped groups of notes). These shared motifs reappeared in strikingly regular temporal intervals across different phrase types, over hundreds of phrases produced without interruption by each bird. We developed a statistical estimate to quantify the degree to which phrase transition structure is optimized for maximizing the regularity of shared motifs. We found that transition probabilities between phrase types tend to maximize regularity in the repetition of shared motifs, but only in birds of high repertoire complexity. Conversely, in birds of low repertoire complexity, shared motifs were produced with less regularity. The strong correlation between repertoire complexity and motif regularity suggests that birds possess a mechanism that regulates the temporal placement of shared motifs in a manner that takes repertoire complexity into account. We discuss alternative musical, mechanistic and ecological explanations to this effect. PMID:27703699

  11. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a ‘pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers ‘filling' and amino-functionalized graphene ‘crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm−2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g−1 (4.7 mAh cm−2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm−2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm−2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm−2. PMID:26608228

  12. [EEG in altricial pied flycatcher nestlings during the functional sates related with natural behavior cycle].

    PubMed

    Korneeva, E V; Aleksandrov, L I; Khramov, A E; Sitnikova, E Iu; Raevskiĭ, V V

    2014-01-01

    Electrical brain activity accompanying various forms of behavior was studied in 11-day-old pied flycatcher nestlings. Wavelet analysis of EEG, recorded from symmetrical areas of caudomedial nidopallium (higher avian auditory center) during rest, passive and active wakefulness and movements showed that the major rhythmical EEG component was confined to low-frequency range in all four states. The significant difference from other states was observed only during movements: spectral power in the range of 1-3 Hz decreased while that in the range of 5-20 Hz--increased. The range of 3-5 Hz revealed, in all functional states, the interhemispheric asymmetry of spectral power that could be due to asymmetrical embryonic development of avian visual projections. Active wakefulness and movements were characterized by high positive correlations between spectral power in right and left hemispheres. During rest this correlation was negative. The correlation values during passive wakefulness and rest were rather low that could indicate disintegration of neural connections.

  13. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a `pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers `filling' and amino-functionalized graphene `crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm-2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g-1 (4.7 mAh cm-2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm-2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm-2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm-2.

  14. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-11-26

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a 'pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers 'filling' and amino-functionalized graphene 'crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm(-2)) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g(-1) (4.7 mAh cm(-2)) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm(-2)) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm(-2) by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm(-2).

  15. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    PubMed

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  16. NASA's Long-Term Archive (LTA) of ICESat Data at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, D. K.; Moses, J. F.; Dimarzio, J. P.; Webster, D.

    2011-12-01

    Data Stewardship, preservation, and reproducibility are becoming principal parts of a data manager's work. In an era of distributed data and information systems, where the host location ought to be transparent to the internet user, it is of vital importance that organizations make a commitment to both current and long-term goals of data management and the preservation of scientific data. NASA's EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a distributed system of discipline-specific archives and mission-specific science data processing facilities. Satellite missions and instruments go through a lifecycle that involves pre-launch calibration, on-orbit data acquisition and product generation, and final reprocessing. Data products and descriptions flow to the archives for distribution on a regular basis during the active part of the mission. However there is additional information from the product generation and science teams needed to ensure the observations will be useful for long term climate studies. Examples include ancillary input datasets, product generation software, and production history as developed by the team during the course of product generation. These data and information will need to be archived after product data processing is completed. Using inputs from the USGCRP Workshop on Long Term Archive Requirements (1998), discussions with EOS instrument teams, and input from the 2011 ESIPS Federation meeting, NASA is developing a set of Earth science data and information content requirements for long term preservation that will ultimately be used for all the EOS missions as they come to completion. Since the ICESat/GLAS mission is one of the first to come to an end, NASA and NSIDC are preparing for long-term support of the ICESat mission data now. For a long-term archive, it is imperative that there is sufficient information about how products were prepared in order to convince future researchers that the scientific results are accurate, understandable

  17. Preparation, crystal structure, and thermal stability of the cadmium sulfide nanoclusters Cd6S44+ and Cd2Na2S4+in the sodalite cavities of zeolite A (LTA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok Han; Heo, Nam Ho; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Hong, Suk Bong; Seff, Karl

    2006-12-28

    The crystal structure and thermal stability of two cadmium sulfide nanoclusters prepared in zeolite A (LTA) have been studied by XPS, TGA, and single-crystal and powder XRD. The crystal structures of Cd2.4Na3.2(Cd6S4)0.4(Cd2Na2S)0.6(H2O)> or =5.8[Si12Al12O48]-LTA (a = 12.2919(7) A, crystal 1 (hydrated)) and /Cd4Na2(Cd2O)(Na2O)/[Si12Al12O48]-LTA (a = 12.2617(4) A, crystal 2 (dehydrated)) were determined by single-crystal methods in the cubic space group Pm3m at 294(1) K. Crystal 1 was prepared by ion exchange of Na12-LTA in an aqueous stream 0.05 M in Cd2+, followed by washing in a stream of water, followed by reaction in an aqueous stream 0.05 M in Na2S. Crystal 2 was made by dehydrating crystal 1 at 623 K and 1 x 10(-6) Torr for 3 days. In crystal 1, Cd6S4(4+) nanoclusters were found in and extending out of about 40% of the sodalite cavities. Central to each Cd6S4(4+) cluster is a Cd4S4 unit (interpenetrating Cd2+ and S2- tetrahedra with near Td symmetry, Cd-S = 2.997(24) A, Cd-S-Cd = 113.8(12) degrees, and S-Cd-S = 58.1(24) degrees). Each of the two remaining Cd2+ ions bonds radially through a 6-ring of the zeolite framework to a sulfide ion of this Cd4S4 unit (Cd-S = 2.90(8) A). In each of the remaining 60% of the sodalite cavities of crystal 1, a planar Cd2Na2S4+ cluster was found (Cd-S/Na-S = 2.35(5)/2.56(14) A and Cd-S-Cd/Na-S-Na = 122(5)/92(7) degrees). Cd6S4(4+) and Cd2Na2S4+ are stable within the zeolite up to about 700 K in air. Upon vacuum dehydration at 623 K, all sulfur was lost (crystal 2). Instead as anions, only two oxide ions remain per sodalite unit. One bridges between two Cd2+ ions (Cd2O2+, Cd-O = 2.28(3) A) and the other between two Na+ ions (Na2O, Na-O = 2.21(10) A).

  18. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R; Townsend, Simon W

    2016-05-24

    Language's expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a "mobbing sequence," potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought.

  19. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler

    PubMed Central

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  20. Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation.

    PubMed

    Burger, Claudia; Belskii, Eugen; Eeva, Tapio; Laaksonen, Toni; Mägi, Marko; Mänd, Raivo; Qvarnström, Anna; Slagsvold, Tore; Veen, Thor; Visser, Marcel E; Wiebe, Karen L; Wiley, Chris; Wright, Jonathan; Both, Christiaan

    2012-07-01

    1. Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, such trophic interactions are likely to differ between habitats, resulting in differential susceptibility of populations to increases in spring temperatures. A mismatch between breeding phenology and food abundance might be mitigated by dietary changes, but few studies have investigated this phenomenon. Here, we present data on nestling diets of nine different populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, across their breeding range. This species has been shown to adjust its breeding phenology to local climate change, but sometimes insufficiently relative to the phenology of their presumed major prey: Lepidoptera larvae. In spring, such larvae have a pronounced peak in oak habitats, but to a much lesser extent in coniferous and other deciduous habitats. 2. We found strong seasonal declines in the proportions of caterpillars in the diet only for oak habitats, and not for the other forest types. The seasonal decline in oak habitats was most strongly observed in warmer years, indicating that potential mismatches were stronger in warmer years. However, in coniferous and other habitats, no such effect of spring temperature was found. 3. Chicks reached somewhat higher weights in broods provided with higher proportions of caterpillars, supporting the notion that caterpillars are an important food source and that the temporal match with the caterpillar peak may represent an important component of reproductive success. 4. We suggest that pied flycatchers breeding in oak habitats have greater need to adjust timing of breeding to rising spring temperatures, because of the strong seasonality in their food. Such between-habitat differences can have

  1. A bipartite U1 site represses U1A expression by synergizing with PIE to inhibit nuclear polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fei; Caratozzolo, Rose M; Goraczniak, Rafal; Ho, Eric S; Gunderson, Samuel I

    2007-12-01

    U1A protein negatively autoregulates itself by polyadenylation inhibition of its own pre-mRNA by binding as two molecules to a 3'UTR-located Polyadenylation Inhibitory Element (PIE). The (U1A)2-PIE complex specifically blocks U1A mRNA biosynthesis by inhibiting polyA tail addition, leading to lower mRNA levels. U1 snRNP bound to a 5'ss-like sequence, which we call a U1 site, in the 3'UTRs of certain papillomaviruses leads to inhibition of viral late gene expression via a similar mechanism. Although such U1 sites can also be artificially used to potently silence reporter and endogenous genes, no naturally occurring U1 sites have been found in eukaryotic genes. Here we identify a conserved U1 site in the human U1A gene that is, unexpectedly, within a bipartite element where the other part represses the U1 site via a base-pairing mechanism. The bipartite element inhibits U1A expression via a synergistic action with the nearby PIE. Unexpectedly, synergy is not based on stabilizing binding of the inhibitory factors to the 3'UTR, but rather is a property of the larger ternary complex. Inhibition targets the biosynthetic step of polyA tail addition rather than altering mRNA stability. This is the first example of a functional U1 site in a cellular gene and of a single gene containing two dissimilar elements that inhibit nuclear polyadenylation. Parallels with other examples where U1 snRNP inhibits expression are discussed. We expect that other cellular genes will harbor functional U1 sites.

  2. Open arthrolysis with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon for treating post-traumatic contracture of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhan, Yu-lin; Yu, Shi-yang; Zheng, Xian-you; Liu, Shen; Fan, Cun-yi

    2016-05-01

    Extensive loss of elbow flexion compromises the performance of daily activities. We examined the clinical outcomes of patients with post-traumatic extension contracture of the elbow treated with open arthrolysis and pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 7 patients (5 men and 2 women; mean age, 35 years) who underwent open arthrolysis via a combined lateral and medial approach with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon for the treatment of post-traumatic elbow stiffness. All the patients had heterotopic ossification that restricted elbow motion and underwent removal of the ossified tissue and capsular release. The triceps tendon was gradually stretched by making multiple stab incisions on the tendon by using a No. 11 surgical blade. The range of motion of the elbow was recorded both preoperatively and at the final postoperative follow-up. Elbow function was assessed with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score. The patients were followed up for a mean of 24 months. After treatment, significant improvement was noted in the total arc of motion (from 44° to 116°, P <.001), mean flexion (from 80° to 124°, P < .001), and mean extension (from 31° to 8°, P = .004). The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved significantly from 59 points preoperatively to 92 points at the final evaluation. No major postoperative complications developed in any of the patients. Our findings indicate that open arthrolysis with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon is an effective and safe treatment approach for post-traumatic extension contracture of the elbow. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, P K; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, A V; Belskii, E; Berg, P R; Both, C; Buggiotti, L; Bureš, S; Burgess, M D; Bushuev, A V; Krams, I; Moreno, J; Mägi, M; Nord, A; Potti, J; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkiä, P M; Sætre, G-P; Winkel, W; Primmer, C R

    2012-04-01

    The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed 2 of 14 loci to show significantly elevated signals of divergence. The first of these, the follistatin gene, is expressed in the developing feather bud and is found in pathways with genes that determine the structure of feathers and may thus be important in generating variation in structural colouration. The second is a gene potentially underlying the ability to detect this variation: SWS1 opsin. These two loci were most differentiated in two Spanish pied flycatcher populations, which are also among the populations that have the highest UV reflectance. The follistatin and SWS1 opsin genes thus provide strong candidates for future investigations on the molecular basis of adaptively significant traits and their co-evolution.

  4. Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Kerstin; Schwenk, Klaus; Both, Christiaan; Canal, David; Johansson, Ulf S; van der Mije, Steven; Töpfer, Till; Päckert, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phenology to the ongoing advance of food peaks within their breeding area and consequently suffered local population declines. We address the question whether this population decline led to a loss of genetic variation, using two neutral marker sets (mitochondrial control region and microsatellites), and one potentially selectively non-neutral marker (avian Clock gene). We report temporal changes in genetic diversity in extant populations and biological archives over more than a century, using samples from sites differing in the extent of climate change. Comparing genetic differentiation over this period revealed that only the recent Dutch population, which underwent population declines, showed slightly lower genetic variation than the historic Dutch population. As that loss of variation was only moderate and not observed in all markers, current gene flow across Western and Central European populations might have compensated local loss of variation over the last decades. A comparison of genetic differentiation in neutral loci versus the Clock gene locus provided evidence for stabilizing selection. Furthermore, in all genetic markers, we found a greater genetic differentiation in space than in time. This pattern suggests that local adaptation or historic processes might have a stronger effect on the population structure and genetic variation in the pied flycatcher than recent global climate changes.

  5. Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, P K; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, A V; Belskii, E; Berg, P R; Both, C; Buggiotti, L; Bureš, S; Burgess, M D; Bushuev, A V; Krams, I; Moreno, J; Mägi, M; Nord, A; Potti, J; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkiä, P M; Sætre, G-P; Winkel, W; Primmer, C R

    2012-01-01

    The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed 2 of 14 loci to show significantly elevated signals of divergence. The first of these, the follistatin gene, is expressed in the developing feather bud and is found in pathways with genes that determine the structure of feathers and may thus be important in generating variation in structural colouration. The second is a gene potentially underlying the ability to detect this variation: SWS1 opsin. These two loci were most differentiated in two Spanish pied flycatcher populations, which are also among the populations that have the highest UV reflectance. The follistatin and SWS1 opsin genes thus provide strong candidates for future investigations on the molecular basis of adaptively significant traits and their co-evolution. PMID:22027894

  6. 49 CFR 40.371 - On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding? 40.371 Section 40.371 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.371 On...

  7. Overflow transports in Denmark Strait and the Faroe Bank Channel derived from combined moored ADCP and PIES measurements during 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Denmark Strait (DS) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) are the major pathways of dense water leaving the Arctic Mediterranean. The water formed in the Nordic Seas crosses the sills of this passages and descends into the deep North Atlantic Ocean where it becomes part of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Estimates of strength and variability of these overflows are useful to observe temporal changes and understand mechanisms that may affect the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The velocities in the overflows have been measured with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) for almost two decades. For transport estimates the thickness of the overflow plume is typically derived from the depth of maximum velocity shear. During 2011 and 2014 Pressure Inverted Echo Sounders (PIES) were added to the mooring sites. The thickness of the plume of overflow water that is usually characterized to be denser than σΦ=27.8 kgm-3 can be estimated from hydrographic profiles that were obtained from travel time measurements of the PIES. The volume transports in DS, calculated from ADCPs only and in combination with the plume thickness derived from PIES measurements, are compared. The mean difference between both is about 3% of the total transport of 3 Sv. Nevertheless, daily estimates can differ within the same magnitude, whereas the difference of monthly estimates reduces to about 0.3 Sv. The heat transport of the overflow relative to 0° C calculated from combined PIES and ADCP measurements across the DS varies within the order of 10 TW. Estimates of transports from hydraulic control theory were derived from PIES data upstream of the sills in DS and FBC and compared to transport observations at the sills. Additionally, the variability within the vertical structure of the water column in DS and FBC are analysed.

  8. Fifteen-year population attributable fractions and causal pies of risk factors for newly developed hepatocellular carcinomas in 11,801 men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu-Fen; Yang, Hwai-I; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial process. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important risk factors of HCC. Host factors, such as alcohol drinking, may also play a role. This study aims to provide a synthesis view on the development of HCC by examining multiple risk factors jointly and collectively. Causal-pie modeling technique was applied to analyze a cohort of 11,801 male residents (followed up for 15 years) in Taiwan, during which a total of 298 incident HCC cases were ascertained. The rate ratios adjusted by age were further modeled by an additive Poisson regression. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and causal-pie weights (CPWs) were calculated. A PAF indicates the magnitude of case-load reduction under a particular intervention scenario, whereas a CPW for a particular class of causal pies represents the proportion of HCC cases attributable to that class. Using PAF we observed a chance to reduce around 60% HCC risk moving from no HBV-related intervention to the total elimination of the virus. An additional ∼15% (or ∼5%) reduction can be expected, if the HBV-related intervention is coupled with an HCV-related intervention (or an anti-drinking campaign). Eight classes of causal pies were found to be significant, including four dose-response classes of HBV (total CPW=52.7%), one independent-effect class of HCV (CPW=14.4%), one HBV-alcohol interaction class (CPW=4.2%), one HBV-HCV interaction class (CPW=1.7%), and one all-unknown class (CPW=27.0%). Causal-pie modeling for HCC helps clarify the relative importance of each viral and host factor, as well as their interactions.

  9. A novel putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) in the hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: cloning and up-regulated expression after the injection of LPS and LTA.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Chung, J Sook

    2012-03-01

    The full-length cDNA encoding a putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) was isolated from the hemocytes of Callinectes sapidus using 5' and 3' RACEs. The open reading frame for CasLpR contains a precursor of putative CasLpR consisting of 1710 amino acid residues including 22 amino acid residues of the signal peptide (22 amino acids). Mature CasLpR (1688 amino acids with 5.6% of phosphorylation sites) has multiple, putative functional domains: five low-density lipoprotein receptor domains in the N-terminus, and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolysis site domain and a 7 transmembrane receptor (secretin family) domain in the C-terminus. To date, there are no proteins with a similar domain structure in the GenBank. The expression pattern of CasLpR was exclusive in hemocytes among all tested tissues obtained from a juvenile female at intermolt stage: brain, eyestalk ganglia, pericardial organs, and thoracic ganglia complex (nervous system); hepatopancreas (digestive system); heart, artery and hemocytes (circulatory system); gill and antennal gland (excretory system), hypodermis; and Y-organ (endocrine organ). There was no CasLpR expression in the ovary of an adult female. A putative function of CasLpR was examined after challenges of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in vivo using qRT-PCR assays. Animals at 24 h after injection of LPS or LTA up-regulated the expression of CasLpR in hemocytes by ∼3.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to the controls that received saline injection. LPS challenge also caused the greatest increment (∼55 folds) of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression in these samples. These data indicate that putative CasLpR and CasHsp90 may be involved in the defense system or the stress response of C. sapidus.

  10. What happens in an estuary doesn't stay there: patterns of biotic connectivity resulting from long term ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Kennedy, Christina G.; Deegan, Linda A.; Smith, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The paucity of data on migratory connections and an incomplete understanding of how mobile organisms use geographically separate areas have been obstacles to understanding coastal dynamics. Research on acoustically tagged striped bass (Morone saxatilis) at the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) Long Term Ecological Research site, Massachusetts, documents intriguing patterns of biotic connectivity (i.e., long-distance migration between geographically distinct areas). First, the striped bass tagged at PIE migrated southward along the coast using different routes. Second, these tagged fish exhibited strong fidelity and specificity to PIE. For example, across multiple years, tagged striped bass resided in PIE waters for an average of 1.5-2.5 months per year (means: 51-72 days; range 2-122 days), left this estuary in fall, then returned in subsequent years. Third, this specificity and fidelity connected PIE to other locations. The fish exported nutrients and energy to at least three other coastal locations through biomass added as growth. These results demonstrate that what happens in an individual estuary can affect other estuaries. Striped bass that use tightly connected routes to feed in specific estuaries should have greater across-system impacts than fish that are equally likely to go anywhere. Consequently, variations in when, where, and how fish migrate can alter across-estuary impacts.

  11. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  12. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-08-11

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  13. Influence of different diets on growth performance, meat quality, and disease resistance in pig crossbreeds (PIE x MC-local) and PIE (LW x MC-local).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang Linh; Nguyen, Thi Be; Dinh, Thi Dao

    2006-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of different dietary formulations on the growth rate in pigs and their resistance to infection with hog cholera. Results indicate that growth rates can be enhanced by certain formulations and that there is a correlation between this increased growth rate and increased resistance to infection with hog cholera.

  14. [Nourseothricin (streptothricin) inactivated by plasmid pIE 636-encoded acetyltransferase: detection of N-acetyl-beta-lysine in the inactivated product].

    PubMed

    Seltmann, G

    1985-12-01

    Nourseothricin (streptothricin) can be inactivated by an acetyl transferase synthesized by E. coli strains containing plasmid pIE 636. Nourseothricin inactivated in the presence of 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A was purified and submitted to partial acidic hydrolysis. By electrophoresis of the hydrolysate a 14C-containing substance moving only slowly towards the cathode could be isolated. This substance after complete hydrolysis yields only unlabelled beta-lysine.

  15. A new dual-frequency liquid crystal lens with ring-and-pie electrodes and a driving scheme to prevent disclination lines and improve recovery time.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C-P

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern.

  16. A New Dual-Frequency Liquid Crystal Lens with Ring-and-Pie Electrodes and a Driving Scheme to Prevent Disclination Lines and Improve Recovery Time

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C.-P.

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern. PMID:22163906

  17. Pre-laying nutrition mediates maternal effects on offspring immune capacity and growth in the pied flycatcher.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan; Lobato, Elisa; Morales, Judith; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-De La Puente, Josué; Tomás, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    We have aimed at detecting prelaying maternal effects on nestling antibody defences and growth through experimental food supplementation of female pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca and subsequent exchange of whole clutches with control nests. The levels of immunoglobulins and the mass and size of chicks at 12 days of age were ascertained. This is the first study controlling for maternal incubation effects by exchanging eggs rather than nestlings. Our prediction is that the females' availability of pre-laying nutritional resources affects offspring immune capacity and growth through maternal effects in the eggs when conditions during incubation and rearing are controlled for. Nestling immunoglobulin Y (IgY) levels and tarsus length were indeed positively associated with maternal food supplementation at laying. The only rearing environmental effect detected was that of mite infestation which affected both IgY levels and growth of nestlings. Nestlings that recruited to the population in the subsequent 2 years had higher IgY levels than those that did not. Maternal adaptations for allocating resources to eggs play an important role in moulding offspring phenotypes and may affect their survival prospects.

  18. Foveolar Müller cells of the Pied Flycatcher: morphology and distribution of the intermediate filaments regarding the cell transparency

    PubMed Central

    Zueva, Lidia; Golubeva, Tatiana; Korneeva, Elena; Makarov, Vladimir; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of the vertebrates' lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, an unusual low-scattering light transport was also described in the retinal Müller cells. Exploring the function of the IFs in the Müller cells, we have studied the morphology and distribution pattern of the IFs and other cytoskeletal filaments inside the Müller cell main processes in the foveolar part of the avian (Pied Flycatcher) retina. We found that some IFs surrounded by globular nanoparticles (that we suggest are crystallines) are present in almost every part of the Müller cells that span the retina, including the microvilli. Unlike the IFs implicated in the mechanical architecture of the cell, these IFs are not connected to any specific cellular membranes. Instead, they are organized into bundles, passing inside the cell from the endfeet to the photoreceptor, following the geometry of the processes and repeatedly circumventing numerous obstacles. We believe that all of the presently reported data effectively confirms that the model of nanooptical channels built of the intermediate filaments [Makarov et al., 2015, Khmelinskii et al., 2015] may provide a viable explanation of the Müller cell transparency. PMID:26926795

  19. Active basement uplift of Sierra Pie de Palo (Northwestern Argentina): Rates and inception from10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siame, Lionel L.; Sébrier, Michel; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Costa, Carlos; Ahumada, Emilio A.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Cisneros, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Quaternary tectonic and denudation rates are investigated for an actively growing basement anticline: the Sierra Pie de Palo range, which belongs to the Andean foreland of Northwestern Argentina (28°S-33°S). In this study, a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography is combined with in situ-produced cosmogenic10Be concentrations measured in (1) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial terraces affected by fault activity (along the north bounding fault) and growth of the basement fold (along the southeastern border), (2) bedrock outcrops corresponding to an exhumed and folded, regional erosion surface, and (3) fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of several watersheds. Along the eastern and northern borders of the range, incision and uplift rates have been estimated at approximately 0.5 and 1 mm/yr when integrated on Holocene and Pleistocene time scales, in close agreement with both long-term (structural and basin evolution data) and short-term (GPS-derived velocity field) analyses. Cosmogenic-derived denudation and uplift rates combined with geomorphic characteristics of watersheds and river channels allows estimating the onset of the uplift at 4-6 Ma, followed by a more recent period of topographic rejuvenation at roughly 1-2 Ma, probably synchronous with steepening of the eastern and northern flanks of the anticline.

  20. Foveolar Müller Cells of the Pied Flycatcher: Morphology and Distribution of Intermediate Filaments Regarding Cell Transparency.

    PubMed

    Zueva, Lidia; Golubeva, Tatiana; Korneeva, Elena; Makarov, Vladimir; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of vertebrate lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, an unusual low-scattering light transport was also described in retinal Müller cells. Exploring the function of IFs in Müller cells, we have studied the morphology and distribution pattern of IFs and other cytoskeletal filaments inside the Müller cell main processes in the foveolar part of the avian (pied flycatcher) retina. We found that some IFs surrounded by globular nanoparticles (that we suggest are crystallines) are present in almost every part of the Müller cells that span the retina, including the microvilli. Unlike IFs implicated in the mechanical architecture of the cell, these IFs are not connected to any specific cellular membranes. Instead, they are organized into bundles, passing inside the cell from the endfeet to the photoreceptor, following the geometry of the processes, and repeatedly circumventing numerous obstacles. We believe that the presently reported data effectively confirm that the model of nanooptical channels built of the IFs may provide a viable explanation of Müller cell transparency.

  1. Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

    2010-09-01

    Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. La place de la double arthrodèse dans la prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré

    PubMed Central

    Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    La prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré ( PBVEI) pose d’énormes problèmes thérapeutiques. La double arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio-tarsienne longtemps considérée comme la solution de sécurité pour ces déformations est encore couramment utilisée. Nous rapportons une série de 13 enfants opérés pour un pied bot varus équin invétérés (16 pieds) par Arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne réalisée au service d'orthopédie pédiatrique du CHU Hassan II; de Fès au Maroc sur une période de 4 ans; étalée de janvier 2009 à décembre 2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 12,6 ans avec prédominance féminine. L'origine congénitale était retrouvée chez 10 patients. L'atteinte était gauche chez 8 patients avec une localisation bilatérale chez 3 patients. La radiographie standard du pied de face et de profil a révélée une divergence talo-calcanéenne qui variait entre 5 et 20°, l'angle talus-1er métatarsien entre 20 et 40° (avec une moyenne de 28°) et l'angle calcanéus-5ème métatarsien entre 15° et 45° (avec une moyenne de 30°). Tous les patients ont bénéficiés d'une arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne. Les résultats étaient satisfaisants dans 98% des cas. Le pied était plantigrade dans 9 cas, le varus de l'arrière pied persistait dans 4 pieds alors que l’équin et le varus de l'avant pied étaient notés chez 2 cas. La double arthrodèse est l'intervention idéale pour stabiliser et corriger les déformations rencontrées dans le PBVE invétéré, elle assure totalement le verrouillage du couple de torsion. Elle permet outre une correction des diverses déformations et une ré-axation de l'arrière-pied dans les 3 plans de l'espace. PMID:25829977

  3. SplicePie: a novel analytical approach for the detection of alternative, non-sequential and recursive splicing.

    PubMed

    Pulyakhina, Irina; Gazzoli, Isabella; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Verwey, Nisha; den Dunnen, Johan T; den Dunnen, Johan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Laros, Jeroen F J

    2015-07-13

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism present in eukaryotic cells to obtain a wide range of transcripts and protein isoforms from a relatively small number of genes. The mechanisms regulating (alternative) splicing and the paradigm of consecutive splicing have recently been challenged, especially for genes with a large number of introns. RNA-Seq, a powerful technology using deep sequencing in order to determine transcript structure and expression levels, is usually performed on mature mRNA, therefore not allowing detailed analysis of splicing progression. Sequencing pre-mRNA at different stages of splicing potentially provides insight into mRNA maturation. Although the number of tools that analyze total and cytoplasmic RNA in order to elucidate the transcriptome composition is rapidly growing, there are no tools specifically designed for the analysis of nuclear RNA (which contains mixtures of pre- and mature mRNA). We developed dedicated algorithms to investigate the splicing process. In this paper, we present a new classification of RNA-Seq reads based on three major stages of splicing: pre-, intermediate- and post-splicing. Applying this novel classification we demonstrate the possibility to analyze the order of splicing. Furthermore, we uncover the potential to investigate the multi-step nature of splicing, assessing various types of recursive splicing events. We provide the data that gives biological insight into the order of splicing, show that non-sequential splicing of certain introns is reproducible and coinciding in multiple cell lines. We validated our observations with independent experimental technologies and showed the reliability of our method. The pipeline, named SplicePie, is freely available at: https://github.com/pulyakhina/splicing_analysis_pipeline. The example data can be found at: https://barmsijs.lumc.nl/HG/irina/example_data.tar.gz.

  4. A randomized controlled trial of a manual-based psychosocial group intervention for young people with epilepsy [PIE].

    PubMed

    Dorris, Liam; Broome, Helen; Wilson, Margaret; Grant, Cathy; Young, David; Baker, Gus; Balloo, Selina; Bruce, Susan; Campbell, Jo; Concannon, Bernie; Conway, Nadia; Cook, Lisa; Davis, Cheryl; Downey, Bruce; Evans, Jon; Flower, Diane; Garlovsky, Jack; Kearney, Shauna; Lewis, Susan; Stephens, Victoria; Turton, Stuart; Wright, Ingram

    2017-07-01

    We conducted an exploratory RCT to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy for a manual-based psychosocial group intervention aimed at improving epilepsy knowledge, self-management skills, and quality of life in young people with epilepsy. Eighty-three participants (33:50m/f; age range 12-17years) were randomized to either the treatment or control group in seven tertiary paediatric neuroscience centres in the UK, using a wait-list control design. Participants were excluded if they reported suicidal ideation and/or scored above the cut off on mental health screening measures, or if they had a learning disability or other neurological disorder. The intervention consisted of six weekly 2-hour sessions using guided discussion, group exercises and role-plays facilitated by an epilepsy nurse and a clinical psychologist. At three month follow up the treatment group (n=40) was compared with a wait-list control group (n=43) on a range of standardized measures. There was a significant increase in epilepsy knowledge in the treatment group (p=0.02). Participants receiving the intervention were also significantly more confident in speaking to others about their epilepsy (p=0.04). Quality of life measures did not show significant change. Participants reported the greatest value of attending the group was: Learning about their epilepsy (46%); Learning to cope with difficult feelings (29%); and Meeting others with epilepsy (22%). Caregiver and facilitator feedback was positive, and 92% of participants would recommend the group to others. This brief psychosocial group intervention was effective in increasing participants' knowledge of epilepsy and improved confidence in discussing their epilepsy with others. We discuss the qualitative feedback, feasibility, strengths and limitations of the PIE trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) Experiment Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Laura A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Campion, Scott D.; Faust, Jessica A.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Hayden, William L.; Lowman, Andrew E.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Petrone, Peter P., III

    2004-01-01

    The Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) was created to develop and test wavefront sensing and control algorithms and software for the segmented James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Last year, we changed the system configuration from three sparse aperture segments to a filled aperture with three pie shaped segments. With this upgrade we have performed experiments on fine phasing with line-of-sight and segment-to-segment jitter, dispersed fringe visibility and grism angle;. high dynamic range tilt sensing; coarse phasing with large aberrations, and sampled sub-aperture testing. This paper reviews the results of these experiments.

  6. MOX Average Power Test 30 GWd/MT PIE: Quick Look

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, RN

    2001-02-14

    This report summarizes the early results of the post irradiation examination of the 30 GWd/MT MOX Average Power Test Capsules (numbers 3 and 10). The purpose of this preliminary examination is to document and monitor the progress of the MOX Average Power Test Irradiation. The capsules and their fuel pins were found to be in excellent condition. Measurement of the fission gas release fraction (about 1.50 to 2.26%), preliminary fuel stack gamma scan measurements, and preliminary fuel pin diameter measurements indicate that the fuel is behaving as expected.

  7. A patient with phonologic alexia can learn to read "much" from "mud pies"

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M.; Oliver, Robyn T.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2008-01-01

    People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al (2002) reported a successful treatment for phonologic alexia that paired problematic functors and verbs with easily read relays that were homophonous nouns (e.g. "be" paired with "bee"). The current study evaluates the efficacy of pairing problematic grammatical words with relays that share initial phonemes, but vary in the relationship of their final phonemes. Results showed that reading of target grammatical words improved to criterion level (90% accuracy over two consecutive probes) in all experimental conditions with shared phonology, but remained far below criterion level in control conditions. There was a significant correlation between degree of phonologic relatedness and error rate. Maintenance of the treatment effect was poor as assessed by traditional measurement, however a dramatic savings during relearning was demonstrated during a subsequent treatment phase. The finding that reading can be re-organized by pairing target words not only with homophones, but with other phonologically related relays, suggests that this approach could be applied to a wide corpus of words and, therefore, potentially be of great use clinically. We suggest, within a connectionist account, that the treatment effect results from relays priming the initial phonologic units of the targets. PMID:18513760

  8. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2002-11-01

    In the initial months of the Korean War, very high numbers of psychological casualties occurred among American troops, 250 per 1,000 per annum. Initially, these men were evacuated to Japan or the United States, and very few of them were returned to duty. Then the principles of early and far-forward treatment, learned in the previous world wars, were reinstituted. Up to 80% of neuropsychiatric casualties were returned to duty. During and after the war, the prisoners of war were believed to have been "brainwashed," have "give-it-upitis," and exhibit apathy and depression. Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies.

  9. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  10. Disuniting uniformity: a pied cladistic canvas of mtDNA haplogroup H in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Roostalu, Urmas; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Tambets, Kristiina; Reidla, Maere; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Parik, Jüri; Pennarun, Erwan; Laos, Sirle; Lunkina, Arina; Golubenko, Maria; Barac, Lovorka; Pericic, Marijana; Balanovsky, Oleg P; Gusar, Vladislava; Khusnutdinova, Elsa K; Stepanov, Vadim; Puzyrev, Valery; Rudan, Pavao; Balanovska, Elena V; Grechanina, Elena; Richard, Christelle; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Chaventré, André; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel N; Claustres, Mireille; Gölge, Mukaddes; Mikerezi, Ilia; Usanga, Esien; Villems, Richard

    2004-11-01

    It has been often stated that the overall pattern of human maternal lineages in Europe is largely uniform. Yet this uniformity may also result from an insufficient depth and width of the phylogenetic analysis, in particular of the predominant western Eurasian haplogroup (Hg) H that comprises nearly a half of the European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pool. Making use of the coding sequence information from 267 mtDNA Hg H sequences, we have analyzed 830 mtDNA genomes, from 11 European, Near and Middle Eastern, Central Asian, and Altaian populations. In addition to the seven previously specified subhaplogroups, we define fifteen novel subclades of Hg H present in the extant human populations of western Eurasia. The refinement of the phylogenetic resolution has allowed us to resolve a large number of homoplasies in phylogenetic trees of Hg H based on the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) of mtDNA. As many as 50 out of 125 polymorphic positions in HVS-I were found to be mutated in more than one subcluster of Hg H. The phylogeographic analysis revealed that sub-Hgs H1*, H1b, H1f, H2a, H3, H6a, H6b, and H8 demonstrate distinct phylogeographic patterns. The monophyletic subhaplogroups of Hg H provide means for further progress in the understanding of the (pre)historic movements of women in Eurasia and for the understanding of the present-day genetic diversity of western Eurasians in general.

  11. Adipocytokines: The pied pipers.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Hardik; Upaganlawar, Aman; Balaraman, R

    2010-01-01

    Even though there have been major advances in therapy, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease retain their lead as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the first decade of 21(st) century. To add to the woes, we have diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance as the other causes. The adipose tissue secretes several bioactive mediators that influence inflammation, insulin resistance, diabetes, atherosclerosis and several other pathologic states besides the regulation of body weight. These mediators are mostly proteins and are termed "adipocytokines". Adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and leptin are a few such proteins. Adiponectin is a multimeric protein, acting via its identified receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. It is a potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome and has several antiinflammatory actions. Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity and ameliorates obesity. Resistin, another protein secreted by the adipose tissue, derived its name due to its involvement in the development of insulin resistance. It plays a role in the pathophysiology of several conditions because of its robust proinflammatory activity mediated through the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2). In 2007, resistin was reported to have protective effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocyte-apoptosis in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI). RBP-4 is involved in the developmental pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Visfatin has been described as an inflammatory cytokine. Increased expression of visfatin mRNA has been observed in inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Leptin mainly regulates the food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin resistance has been associated with development of obesity and insulin resistance. Few drugs (thiazolidinediones, rimonabant, statins, etc.) and some lifestyle modifications have been found to improve the levels of adipocytokines. Their role in therapy has a lot in store to be explored upon.

  12. Sharing Smaller Pies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Tom

    This paper details the unfavorable predicament of the United States as a consequence of using much of its own non-renewable material and energy resources. As a consequence, the United States will soon be subject to the political and economic conditions imposed upon it by other nations. The United States must begin to implement adjustments to the…

  13. Adipocytokines: The pied pipers

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Hardik; Upaganlawar, Aman; Balaraman, R

    2010-01-01

    Even though there have been major advances in therapy, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease retain their lead as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the first decade of 21st century. To add to the woes, we have diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance as the other causes. The adipose tissue secretes several bioactive mediators that influence inflammation, insulin resistance, diabetes, atherosclerosis and several other pathologic states besides the regulation of body weight. These mediators are mostly proteins and are termed “adipocytokines”. Adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and leptin are a few such proteins. Adiponectin is a multimeric protein, acting via its identified receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. It is a potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome and has several antiinflammatory actions. Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity and ameliorates obesity. Resistin, another protein secreted by the adipose tissue, derived its name due to its involvement in the development of insulin resistance. It plays a role in the pathophysiology of several conditions because of its robust proinflammatory activity mediated through the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2). In 2007, resistin was reported to have protective effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocyte-apoptosis in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI). RBP-4 is involved in the developmental pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Visfatin has been described as an inflammatory cytokine. Increased expression of visfatin mRNA has been observed in inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Leptin mainly regulates the food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin resistance has been associated with development of obesity and insulin resistance. Few drugs (thiazolidinediones, rimonabant, statins, etc.) and some lifestyle modifications have been found to improve the levels of adipocytokines. Their role in therapy has a lot in store to be explored upon. PMID:21808585

  14. Sweetie Pie Thornless Blackberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Sweetie Pie’ is a new thornless blackberry (Rubus L. subg. Watson) cultivar developed and released by the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory. ‘Sweetie Pie’ is a vigorous, semi-erect blackberry that produces moderate yields of sweet high quality fruit having excellent flavor, ...

  15. Aerodynamics and Hovering Control of LTA Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Cylinders (From Reference 7). 28 ~~0 0 - iI- ~43 0 C*4 JoJ o Di 29rtf IrI ALLEN ( NACA REPT 1048) f ( k a ~~ 01 WHER IS MAX.NEGATIVEdx2 FUR2...size, the propulsive power will decrease as che propeller remote inlet velocity V, decreases. Hence, a wake-immersed propeller can produce the same...M.: "The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls", NACA Report 184, 1924. 2. Milne-Thompson: THEORETICAL HYDRODYNAMICS, MacMillan, 1955. 3. Koebn, N. E

  16. Basic relationships for LTA technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to airship performance is presented. Static lift equations are shown which, when combined with power requirements for conventional airships, allow parametric studies of range, payload, speed and airship size. It is shown that very large airships are required to attain reasonable speeds at transoceanic ranges.

  17. LTA vehicles comparison for Titan exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombatti, Giacomo; Aboudan, Alessio; La Gloria, Nicola; Debei, Stefano

    In the past years several aerial vehicles have been proposed for the exploration of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. After Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan has been revealed as a complex moon with the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system a part from Earth. Future missions to Titan will carry out an in depth characterisation of the atmosphere, of the internal structure of the clouds and of its seasonal evolution, as well as the mapping of the surface and the investigation of surface-atmosphere interactions. Robotic montgolfiers, conventional or lenticular airships can be very effective to fulfil scientific requirements for a Cassini-Huygens follow up mission. In this paper a comparison of the performance of the three types of vehicles is analysed with respect to a common mission profile for the exploration of Titan. A system of 150 kg with a 25 kg payload has been used as a gondola; 45 W power has been considered for scientific operations. The total available power for attitude and mobility is around 100 W. The starting altitude value for the simulations is around 10 km and does not reach heights lower than 6 km (due to the risk of precipitations that could occur); in addition a surface science mission profile has been investigated for the airships. The equatorial area (around 20N) has been selected as the starting location of the simulations and one Titan day has been considered for simulations. Versatility of the airship allows deeper investigation w.r.t. the other systems both in space and time. Airship also permits investigations that cover a wider range of altitudes (from 10 km down to surface) without major risks.

  18. [Visual input affects the expression of the early genes c-Fos and ZENK in auditory telencephalic centers of pied flycatcher nestlings during the acoustically-guided freezing].

    PubMed

    Korneeva, E V; Tiunova, A A; Aleksandrov, L I; Golubeva, T B; Anokhin, K V

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzed expression of transcriptional factors c-Fos and ZENK in 9-day-old pied flycatcher nestlings' (Ficedula hypoleuca) telencephalic auditory centers (field L, caudomedial nidopallium and caudomedial mesopallium) involved in the acoustically-guided defense behavior. Species-typical alarm call was presented to the young in three groups: 1--intact group (sighted control), 2--nestlings visually deprived just before the experiment for a short time (unsighted control) 3--nestlings visually deprived right after hatching (experimental deprivation). Induction of c-Fos as well as ZENK in nestlings from the experimental deprivation group was decreased in both hemispheres as compared with intact group. In the group of unsighted control, only the decrease of c-Fos induction was observed exclusively in the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that limitation of visual input changes the population of neurons involved into the acoustically-guided behavior, the effect being dependant from the duration of deprivation.

  19. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Biri, S.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Tuske, O.; Delferriere, O.

    2008-02-15

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  20. Algorithmic pie-crusting of the medial collateral ligament guided by sensing technology affects the use of constrained inserts during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Spencer; Lee, Yuo-Yu; González Della Valle, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    Intra-operative sensing technology is an alternative to standard techniques in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for determining balance by providing quantitative analysis of loads and point of contact throughout a range of motion. We used intra-operative sensing (VERASENSE-OrthoSensor, Inc.) to examine pie-crusting release of the medial collateral ligament in knees with varus deformity (study group) in comparison to a control group where balance was obtained using a classic release technique and assessed using laminar spreaders, spacer blocks, manual stress, and a ruler. The surgery was performed by a single surgeon utilizing measured resection and posterior-stabilized, cemented implants. Seventy-five study TKAs were matched 1:3 with 225 control TKAs. Outcome variables included the use of a constrained insert, functional- and knee-specific Knee Society score (KSS) at six weeks, four months, and one year post-operatively. Outcomes were analyzed in a multivariate model controlling for age, sex, BMI, and severity of deformity. The use of a constrained insert was significantly lower in the study group (5.3 vs. 13.8%; p = 0.049). The use of increased constraint was not significant between groups with increasing deformity. There was no difference in functional KSS and knee-specific KSS between groups at any follow-up interval. An algorithmic pie-crusting technique guided by intra-operative sensing is associated with decreased use of constrained inserts in TKA patients with a pre-operative varus deformity. This may cause a positive shift in value and cost savings.

  1. C. butyricum lipoteichoic acid inhibits the inflammatory response and apoptosis in HT-29 cells induced by S. aureus lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Qi, Lili; Mei, Lehe; Wu, Zhige; Wang, Hengzheng

    2016-07-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is one of microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules of gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated that Clostridium butyricum LTA (bLTA) significantly inhibited the inflammatory response and apoptosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus LTA (aLTA) in HT-29 cells. aLTA stimulated the inflammatory responses by activating a strong signal transduction cascade through NF-κB and ERK, but bLTA did not activate the signaling pathway. bLTA pretreatment inhibited the activation of the NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway induced by aLTA. The expression and release of cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF-α were also suppressed by bLTA pretreatment. aLTA treatment induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells, but bLTA did not affect the viability of the cells. Further study indicated that bLTA inhibited apoptosis in HT-29 cells induced by aLTA. These results suggest that bLTA may act as an aLTA antagonist and that an antagonistic bLTA may be a useful agent for suppressing the pro-inflammatory activities of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term recovery of clutch size and egg shell quality of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a metal polluted area.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2015-06-01

    We explored if breeding parameters and egg shell quality of an insectivorous passerine, pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, have fully recovered after c.a. 99% decrease in dust emissions from a non-ferrous smelter in the course of the 23 year study period. Some potentially important population characteristics (density, phenology, age) and environmental variables (habitat, inter-specific competition) were taken into account in the analysis. We found marked increase in reproductive parameters (egg shell quality, clutch size, hatchability, and fledgling number) in the metal polluted area especially in 1990's when metal-rich dust emissions from the smelter were markedly reduced. Still clutch sizes and fledgling numbers remain below the levels of the reference area. There is currently very little evidence of direct toxic effects of metals in our study population but full recovery of breeding parameters may not be reached until the full recovery of food chains, which is likely to be a slow process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synchrotron radiation as a tool for in situ investigation of extraterrestrial grains in low-density collectors: application to the analyses of the PIE polymid foams targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, J.; Quirico, E.; Simionovici, A.; Raynal, P.-I.; Chevallier, P.; Langevin, Y.

    2002-08-01

    The Particle Impact Experiment (PIE) was flown for 11 months outside the MIR station in 1996-97. The grains, both of extraterrestrial and terrestrial origins, captured in the low-density foam collectors, were investigated for using Synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (SXμF) techniques, developed at LURE (Orsay, France) and ESRF (Grenoble, France). The positions of grains a few microns large are known at better than 10 μm. Chemical identification is arduous; only Z>20 elements are identified and, for the heavy elements, only a rough estimate of their abundances inside the grains can be given. We use the Fe/Ni ratio as the criterion allowing to distinguish between terrestrial orbital debris (OD) and extraterrestrial grains. In the 60 cm2 of foam analyzed by this technique, we identified two or three probable extraterrestrial grains and confirmed the existence of an OD cloud, rich in Fe-Ni alloys, crossed by the MIR station. SXμF is a powerful, non-destructive, technique of in situ identification of absorbing grains trapped in a material otherwise transparent to X-rays. It is the only analytical procedure for foams, opaque to visible light. For aerogels, exposed in many space missions and used as grain collectors in the STARDUST mission, the grains positions can be known after an optical scanning; SXμF appears as the last step for the high resolution in situ identification (size, shape, chemical composition) of the grain before its eventual extraction by microtunneling techniques.

  4. MSL-2 accelerometer data results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory-2 (MSL-2) mission flew the Marshall Space Flight Center-developed Linear Triaxial Accelerometer (LTA) on the Space Transportation System (STS) 61-C Shuttle mission launched January 21, 1986. Flight data were analyzed to verify the quietness of the MSL carrier and to characterize the acceleration environment for future MSL users. The MSL was found to introduce no significant experiment acceleration; and the effects of crew treadmill exercise, Orbiter vernier engine firings, and other routine flight occurrences were established. The LTA was found to be well suited for measuring nominal to very quiet STS acceleration levels at frequencies below 50 Hz. Special processing was used to examine the low-frequency spectrum and to establish the effective rms amplitude associated with dominant frequencies.

  5. [Estimation of heritability and repeatability of resting metabolic rate in birds, with free-living pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Passeriformes) as an example].

    PubMed

    Bushuev, A V; Kerimov, A B; Ivankina, E V

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of a trait heritability and repeatability can get at an idea of its usefulness for being an individual characteristic and its ability to change under selection pressure. Heritability and repeatability of energetic parameters still poorly studied in birds. The most important physiological characteristic of homoiotherms is resting metabolic rate (RMR), which, in the absence of productive processes, does not exceed basal metabolic rate (BMR). We estimated BMR repeatability in free-living pied flycatchers in Moscow Region (55 degrees 44' N, 36 degrees 51' E; 1992-2008) and Tomsk (56 degrees 20' N, 84 degrees 56' E; 2008-2009) populations over intervals from 40 days to 3 years. In Moscow Region population, BMR repeatability amounted to tau = 0.34 +/- 0.10 (n=80) if measured over 1 year interval, tau = 0.60 +/- 0.15 (n=19) if measured over 2 years interval, and tau = 0.85 +/- 0.13 (n=6) if measured over 3 years interval providing that consecutive BMR measurements were done in the same period of reproductive season. In Tomsk population, BMR repeatability, measured over 1 year interval, amounted to tau = 0.49 +/- 0.11 (n=50). Repeatability is a measure of a trait constancy and sets the upper limit of its heritability. To estimate RMR heritability, cross-fostering experiments have been conducted in 2003-2005 with flycatchers of Moscow Region population. RMR of chicks positively correlated with BMR of their biological fathers, whereas such correlation in metabolic rates between chicks and their foster fathers was absent. The RMR heritability estimate turned out to be h2 = 0.43 +/- 0.17 (n=210). The obtained estimates of heritability and repeatability of fundamental energetic traits are rather high for physiological features. This suggests the existence of a potential for direct selection on BMR and evolutionary stable diversity of avian populations with regard to basal metabolic rate.

  6. Milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid profile of dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied cows fed separate concentrate-forage versus total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Cornale, Paolo; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Turille, Germano; Mimosi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two feeding methods on milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile obtained from dual-purpose cattle. Twenty-four Aosta Red Pied cows beyond peak of lactation were assigned to two groups and fed hay and concentrates in the proportions 0.69 and 0.31 on a dry matter basis for 10 weeks. Concentrates were offered separately from forages 6 times a day (separate ration, SR) or as a total mixed ration (TMR). The feeding method did not significantly influence dry matter intake (16.8 vs. 16.9 kg/head/day for SR- and TMR-fed cows, respectively), milk yield (17.4 vs. 17.5 kg/head/day), milk fat, protein and lactose contents (36.4 vs. 35.2, 33.5 vs. 32.8, and 47.3 vs. 47.4 g/kg) and yields (607.9 vs. 613.4, 567.4 vs. 572.7 and 805.5 vs. 829.7 g/head/day). The overall milk FA profile was very similar between groups. Milk concentrations of FA used as indirect markers of rumen function (C18:2 t10c12, odd- and branched-chain FA) and the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation were comparable (P > 0.05) between SR- and TMR-fed cows, suggesting that ruminal pH did not vary considerably as a consequence of the feeding strategy applied. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Detrital zircon analysis from the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian sedimentary cover (Cuyania terrane), Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina: Evidence of a rift and passive margin system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipauer, M.; Vujovich, G. I.; Cingolani, C. A.; McClelland, W. C.

    2010-03-01

    Metamorphic basement and its Neoproterozoic to Cambrian cover exposed in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, a basement block of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina, lie within the Cuyania terrane. Detrital zircon analysis of the cover sequence which includes, in ascending order, the El Quemado, La Paz, El Desecho, and Angacos Formations of the Caucete Group indicate a Laurentian origin for the Cuyania terrane. The lower section represented by the El Quemado and La Paz Formations is interpreted as having an igneous source related to a rift setting similar to that envisioned for the southern and eastern margins of Laurentia at approximately 550 Ma. The younger strata of the El Desecho Formation are correlative with the Cerro Totora Formation of the Precordillera, and both are products of rift sedimentation. Finally, the Angacos Formation and the correlative La Laja Formation of the Precordillera were deposited on the passive margin developed on the Cuyania terrane. The maximum depositional ages for the Caucete Group include ca. 550 Ma for the El Quemado Formation and ca. 531 Ma for the El Desecho Formation. Four different sediment sources areas were interpreted in the provenance analysis. The main source is crystalline basement dominated by early Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks related to the Granite-Rhyolite province of central and eastern Laurentia. Possible source areas for 1600 Ma metamorphic detrital zircons of the Caucete Group include the Yavapai-Mazatzal province ( ca. 1800-1600 Ma) of south-central to southwestern Laurentia. Younger Mesoproterozoic zircon is likely derived from Grenville-age medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks and subordinate igneous rocks that form the basement of Cuyania as well as the southern Grenville province of Laurentia itself. Finally, Neoproterozoic igneous zircon in the Caucete Group records different magmatic pulses along the southern Laurentian margin during opening of Iapetus and break-up of Rodinia. Northwestern Cuyania terrane

  8. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  9. Opening the medial tibiofemoral compartment by pie-crusting the superficial medial collateral ligament at its tibial insertion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Roussignol, X; Gauthe, R; Rahali, S; Mandereau, C; Courage, O; Duparc, F

    2015-09-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of tears in the middle and posterior parts of the medial meniscus can be difficult when the medial tibiofemoral compartment is tight. Passage of the instruments may damage the cartilage. The primary objective of this cadaver study was to perform an arthroscopic evaluation of medial tibiofemoral compartment opening after pie-crusting release (PCR) of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) at its distal insertion on the tibia. The secondary objective was to describe the anatomic relationships at the site of PCR (saphenous nerve, medial saphenous vein). We studied 10 cadaver knees with no history of invasive procedures. The femur was held in a vise with the knee flexed at 45°, and the medial aspect of the knee was dissected. PCR of the sMCL was performed under arthroscopic vision, in the anteroposterior direction, at the distal tibial insertion of the sMCL, along the lower edge of the tibial insertion of the semi-tendinosus tendon. Continuous 300-N valgus stress was applied to the ankle. Opening of the medial tibiofemoral compartment was measured arthroscopically using graduated palpation hooks after sequential PCR of the sMCL. The compartment opened by 1mm after release of the anterior third, 2.3mm after release of the anterior two-thirds, and 3.9mm after subtotal release. A femoral fracture occurred in 1 case, after completion of all measurements. Both the saphenous nerve and the medial saphenous vein were located at a distance from the PCR site in all 10 knees. PCR of the sMCL is chiefly described as a ligament-balancing method during total knee arthroplasty. This procedure is usually performed at the joint line, where it opens the compartment by 4-6mm at the most, with some degree of unpredictability. PCR of the sMCL at its distal tibial insertion provides gradual opening of the compartment, to a maximum value similar to that obtained with PCR at the joint space. The lower edge of the semi-tendinosus tendon is a valuable landmark

  10. Correlation Between the CYP2C19 Phenotype Status and the Results of Three Different Platelet Function Tests in Cardiovascular Disease Patients Receiving Antiplatelet Therapy: An Emphasis on Newly Introduced Platelet Function Analyzer-200 P2Y Test

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuhua; Choi, Jae-Lim; Guo, Long Zhe; Goh, Ri-Young; Kim, Bo-Ram; Woo, Kwang-Sook; Kim, Moo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background An association has been reported between CYP2C19 polymorphism and the altered antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel. We investigated this association using the newly introduced platelet function analyzer (PFA)-200 (INNOVANCE PFA-200 System; Siemens Healthcare, Germany) P2Y test. Methods Polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 and the degree of inhibition of platelet function were determined in 83 patients. Three different platelet function tests were used to evaluate the degree of platelet inhibition and to check the association with genotype. Results The post-procedure PFA-200 values of extensive metabolizers (EM) patients (285.3±38.8) were higher than those of intermediate metabolizers (IM) and poor metabolizers (PM) patients (227.7±98.3 and 133.7±99.2, respectively; P=0.024). Light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and the VerifyNow system showed that the post-procedure values for EM patients were lower than those of IM and PM patients (LTA: 24.4±15.7, 34.1±17.6, and 42.2±16.9, respectively, P<0.001; VerifyNow: 133.2±60.5, 171.5±42.6, and 218.7±59.3, respectively, P<0.001). The high residual platelet reactivity (HPR) rates were significantly different among the EM, IM, and PM groups using PFA-200 (PM:IM:EM=82.4:40.6:11.8, P<0.001). Conclusions Approximately, 59.0% of Korean patients with cardiovascular disease receiving clopidogrel had CYP2C19 loss-of-function genotypes classified as IM or PM, and the frequency was similar to the data from Asian people. The PFA-200, LTA, and VerifyNow platelet function tests revealed evidence of a significant association between the efficacy of clopidogrel and CYP2C19 genotypes. PMID:26522758

  11. Segmentation: Slicing the Urban Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Explains market segmentation and defines undifferentiated, concentrated, and differentiated marketing strategies. Describes in detail the marketing planning process at the Metropolitan Community Colleges. Focuses on the development and implementation of an ongoing recruitment program designed for the market segment composed of business employees.…

  12. SDI - pie in the sky

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.

    1984-04-01

    Proponents of the controversial Strategic Defense Initiatives (SDI)reverse arrowfeel that the will to succeed will be as significant a factor as capability in their effort to make defense a popular concept. They reject the idea that a defensive system must be perfect, and want to loosen the hold of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and Salt II. More than an improvement to deterrence, the goal of SDI is to make a technological leap over the Soviet Union to make its military investments obsolete. Scientists find research on defensive weapons more rewarding than work on offensive systems. Critics need to understand that the force of SDI is ideological in that it rejects the concept of mutually assured destruction (MAD) and concedes that nuclear war is possible.

  13. Segmentation: Slicing the Urban Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Explains market segmentation and defines undifferentiated, concentrated, and differentiated marketing strategies. Describes in detail the marketing planning process at the Metropolitan Community Colleges. Focuses on the development and implementation of an ongoing recruitment program designed for the market segment composed of business employees.…

  14. Instant Pudding and Pie Filling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    0.57 Cocoa 12.46 Chocolate flavor enhancer 0.04 Artificial vanilla flavor 0.10 4 Food starch-modified, pre-gelatinized 14.32 Powdered vegetable... chocolate , vanilla and butterscotch flavors - were developed by NARADCOM, successfully production-tested, and subsequently procured through...powder of Example 1. These were chilled, sliced and served in the same manner as in Example 1. 8 Example 3 A chocolate flavored instant dessert

  15. Quels agents incriminés dans les mycoses du pied ? Enquête auprès des diabétiques consultant au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Chegour, Hakima; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Tali, Abdelali; Zoughaghi, Laila; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Les infections mycosiques du pied constituent un motif fréquent de consultation chez les diabétiques, le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant les lésions cutanéomuqueuses. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier la flore mycologique locale responsable des lésions du pied chez le diabétique et déterminer les facteurs favorisant la survenue de mycoses. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale intéressant des diabétiques suivis en consultation; un prélèvement mycologique, avec examen direct et culture, a été réalisé devant toute suspicion clinique de lésion mycosique. Quatre-vingt-deux patients ont été inclus. L'hémoglobine glycosylée moyenne a été de9,2% ± 2,23. Un intertrigo inter orteil a été noté dans 90,2% des cas; l'examen mycologique était positif dans 64,8% des cas, avec 18 cas de Trichophyton rubrum et 11 cas de Candida albicans. Une atteinte unguéale a été suspectée chez 65,9% patients; la culture a mis en évidence un Trichosporon pathogène chez sept patients, un Candida albicansdans six cas, un Trichophyton rubrum dans quatre cas, avec trois cas de Trichophyton mentagrophytes et deux cas de Scytalidium dimidiatum. L’étude analytique, après confirmation mycologique, en fonction des principales caractéristiques des patients a montré que l'atteinte mycosique du pied est significativement corrélée au déséquilibre glycémique. Ce travail a montré la prédominance du Trichophyton rubrum dans les lésions d'intertrigo inter orteil et du Trichosporon dans les onychomycoses, avec une prédominance globale plus globale plus élevée du TR. PMID:25170372

  16. Validation environment for AIPS/ALS: Implementation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Zary; Siewiorek, Daniel; Caplan, Eddie; Chung, Alan; Czeck, Edward; Vrsalovic, Dalibor

    1990-01-01

    The work is presented which was performed in porting the Fault Injection-based Automated Testing (FIAT) and Programming and Instrumentation Environments (PIE) validation tools, to the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) in the context of the Ada Language System (ALS) application, as well as an initial fault free validation of the available AIPS system. The PIE components implemented on AIPS provide the monitoring mechanisms required for validation. These mechanisms represent a substantial portion of the FIAT system. Moreover, these are required for the implementation of the FIAT environment on AIPS. Using these components, an initial fault free validation of the AIPS system was performed. The implementation is described of the FIAT/PIE system, configured for fault free validation of the AIPS fault tolerant computer system. The PIE components were modified to support the Ada language. A special purpose AIPS/Ada runtime monitoring and data collection was implemented. A number of initial Ada programs running on the PIE/AIPS system were implemented. The instrumentation of the Ada programs was accomplished automatically inside the PIE programming environment. PIE's on-line graphical views show vividly and accurately the performance characteristics of Ada programs, AIPS kernel and the application's interaction with the AIPS kernel. The data collection mechanisms were written in a high level language, Ada, and provide a high degree of flexibility for implementation under various system conditions.

  17. Comparison of silver release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-2 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Harp, Jason M.; Hunn, John D.

    2016-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict silver release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the second irradiation experiment (AGR-2) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-2 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 559 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission product silver from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-2 compacts and individual fuel particles containing either mixed uranium carbide/oxide (UCO) or 100% uranium dioxide (UO2) kernels. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements were performed to provide data on release of silver from these compacts and individual fuel particles. The available experimental fractional releases of silver were compared to their corresponding PARFUME predictions. Preliminary comparisons show that PARFUME under-predicts the PIE results in UCO compacts and is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for UO2 compacts. The accuracy of PARFUME predictions is impacted by the code limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature across the compacts. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie within the same order of magnitude.

  18. Apport de l’écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs dans la prise en charge du pied diabétique à l'hôpital Saint-Jean de Dieu de Thiès (Sénégal)

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Aliou Amadou; Affangla, Désiré Alain; Dione, Jean-Michel; Akpo, Géraud; Mbengue, Marie; Ka, Mamadou Mourtalla; Diop, Bernard Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le pied diabétique se définit comme l'ensemble des manifestations trophiques du pied survenant chez le diabétique par atteinte nerveuse, artérielle et ou infectieuse. Le pied diabétique est un problème majeur de santé publique à l’échelle mondiale avec un taux d'amputation de membres inférieurs très élevé. L’écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs est de nos jours incontournable dans la prise en charge du pied diabétique. Le but de cette étude est de montrer la place prépondérante qu'occupe l’écho-doppler artériel dans le bilan lésionnel du pied diabétique. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective monocentrique incluant 46 patients sur une période de 24 mois, de mars 2012 à mars 2014 à l'hôpital Saint-Jean de Dieu, un des deux hôpitaux de référence de la région de Thiès, doté depuis juillet 2011 d'un centre moderne de traitement du diabète et des maladies cardio-métaboliques (Diabcarmet). Dans les critères d'inclusion, nous avons sélectionné tous les patients diabétiques adressés pour un écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs dans le cadre d'une prise en charge du pied diabétique. Etaient exclus de l’étude, les patients artéritiques non-diabétiques et les patients diabétiques asymptomatiques référés pour un bilan écho-doppler de routine. Résultats Le sex-ratio était de 1.42 (27 hommes pour 19 femmes). L’âge moyen des patients était de 62,86 ans avec des extrêmes de 23 et 88 ans. 60% des patients (n=28) étaient âgés entre 50 et 70 ans. Le diabète de type 2 était retrouvé chez 95% des patients (n=44) alors que le diabète de type 1 représentait 5% (n=2). La moyenne d’évolution du diabète était estimée à 8 ans, avec des extrêmes de 2 et 20 ans. On notait une atteinte du pied droit chez 24 patients, une atteinte du pied gauche chez 18 patients et une atteinte bilatérale chez 4 patients. La plupart du temps, les lésions du pied diabétique survenaient

  19. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  20. Aerocrane: A hybrid LTA aircraft for aerial crane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. G., Jr.; Doolittle, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerocrane, a hybrid aircraft, combines rotor lift with buoyant lift to offer VTOL load capability greatly in excess of helicopter technology while eliminating the airship problem of ballast transfer. In addition, the Aerocrane concept sharply reduces the mooring problem of airships and provides 360 deg vectorable thrust to supply a relatively large force component for control of gust loads. Designed for use in short range, ultra heavy lift missions, the Aerocrane operates in a performance envelope unsuitable for either helicopters or airships. Basic design considerations and potential problem areas of the concept are addressed.

  1. Results of postirradiation examination of the in-pile blockage experiments MOL-7C/4 and MOL-7C/5

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, P.; Schleisiek, K. )

    1991-10-01

    The Mol-7C in-pile local blockage experiments are performed in the BR-2 reactor at Mol, Belgium as a joint project of Kernforchungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) and Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nuclearire-Mol. The main objective is to investigate the consequences of local cooling disturbances in liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) fuel subassemblies. In the tests Mol-7C/4 and MOL-7C/5, fuel pins from KNK II are used with a burnup of 5 and 1.7%, respectively. An active central porous blockage is used to simulate the cooling disturbance. During irradiation, the blockage causes significant local damage, including melting of cladding and fuel. Extensive postirradiation examinations (PIE) are performed to investigate the extent of damage. In this paper a description and interpretation of results of the destructive PIE performed at the Hot Cells Laboratory at KfK is given, along with some conclusions related to LMR safety.

  2. Discrimination of Beef Samples by Electronic Nose and Pattern Recognition Techniques Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper a study about the possibility of beef characterization with electronic nose is presented. Three beef classes were compared: Piemontese (PIE), Limousin (FRA) and meat from Argentine (ARG). 150 meat samples were put in glass vials and analysed with a commercial electronic nose instrument based on 10 metal oxide semiconductor sensors. Sensors response of beef classes seemed to be different. Different supervised and unsupervised pattern recognition procedures were applied to sensors signal: principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Multivariate analysis pointed out promising classification and prediction results. Three clusters (according to the beef classes) can be clearly discriminated in PCA score plot. Statistical parameters from calibration, validation and prediction of PLS-DA model revealed themselves to be indices of a good model. These results demonstrate that electronic nose technology with multivariate analysis models is promising for the rapid determination of differences in meat aroma.

  3. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte; Dupont Søgaard, Mia; Kaever, Volkhard; Siljamäki, Pia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Varmanen, Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase) gene arise spontaneously in an S. aureus mutant lacking the ClpX chaperone. A wide variety of ltaS mutations were selected, and among these, a substantial portion resulted in premature stop codons and other changes predicted to abolish LtaS synthesis. Consistent with this assumption, the clpX ltaS double mutants did not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement defects of an LTA-depleted strain, while other phenotypes typical of LTA-negative S. aureus mutants, including increased cell size and decreased autolytic activity, are retained. In conclusion, our results indicate that LTA has an essential role in septum placement that can be bypassed by inactivating the ClpX chaperone. PMID:27507828

  4. Different effects of lipoteichoic acid from C. butyricum and S. aureus on inflammatory responses of HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Qi, Lili; Wu, Zhige; Mei, Lehe; Wang, Hengzheng

    2016-06-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and represents one of the most critical microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules. In this study, we isolated and purified LTA from Clostridium butyricum (bLTA) and compared its effects on the inflammatory responses of HT-29 cells with those of LTA from Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA). We also compared the effects of bLTA and aLTA on cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. The results showed that the length and saturation degree of the acyl chains in the two LTA molecules were obviously different. aLTA stimulated the phosphorylation of p65 and activated the NF-κB signaling pathway, inducing the expression and secretion of cytokines. Moreover, aLTA also inhibited the growth and proliferation of HT-29 cells and induced cell apoptosis. However, bLTA had no significant effects on the NF-κB signaling pathway in HT-29 cells and did not stimulate cellular inflammatory responses or induce apoptosis. These differences in activity may result from the different lengths and saturation degrees of the acyl fatty acid chains of the two LTA molecules. These differences may also account for the distinct effects elicited by probiotic bacteria and pathogenic bacteria on host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Features of the distribution of BoLA-A antigens and alleles of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Black Pied cattle in relation to association with leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ernst, L K; Sulimova, G E; Orlova, A R; Udina, I G; Pavlenko, S P

    1997-01-01

    The character of distribution of BoLA class-I antigens was studied in Black Pied cattle populations differing in status in relation to leukemia. Associative relationships of distinct antigens with resistance and susceptibility to leukemia were revealed. Using the statusmetria method, an integral estimate of predisposition to leukemia (Z) was calculated taking into consideration the contribution of each antigen in the immunogenetic status of the animal. The interval of Z values was determined, which allowed animals to be divided into groups according to resistance or susceptibility to leukemia. Alleles of the BoLA-DRB3 gene were typed in subsamples of animals with leukemia and healthy animals by the PCR-RFLP method. Twenty alleles of the gene were detected, and their frequencies were determined in both subsamples. Alleles mediating resistance of animals to leukemia (BoLA-DRB3.2*11, *23, and *28) were distributed in the group of healthy animals with frequencies of 0.079, 0.132, and 0.053, respectively; they were completely absent in animals with leukemia. The data on the estimate of animal status in relation to leukemia, which were obtained by the method of statusmetria taking in consideration the real contribution of the each class-I antigen in the detection of the disease risk (value Z), and data of allele typing by the PCR-RFLP method were shown to be in good agreement. The possibility of using BoLA class-I antigen typing in herds to determine the number of animals with leukemia was demonstrated.

  6. ZEUS Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Elisabetta

    2005-10-06

    Several results from the ZEUS Collaboration were presented at this Workshop. The highlights are presented in this summary, and include results from NLO QCD fits and determination of {alpha}S, from forward jets and diffractive final states, from pentaquarks and searches and from heavy flavour production. Also the first results from the analysis of the HERA II e+p/e-p data are shown.

  7. Late results.

    PubMed

    Daly, B D

    1999-08-01

    Pneumonectomy is performed for a number of benign and malignant conditions. It is most commonly performed for lung cancer. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols have increased the number of these operations being performed and the long-term results are improving. Pneumonectomy may also be performed for metastases to lung and for mesothelioma with encouraging results. Some bronchial adenomas require pneumonectomy. Treatment of resistant mycobacteria or the complications of tuberculosis frequently require pneumonectomy. Late bronchopleural fistulae, esophagopleural fistulae, and empyema may occur.

  8. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  9. Tevatron results

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, R.; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent results obtained by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II are presented. A first part is dedicated to QCD physics where inclusive jet production, dijet azimuthal decorrelations and jet shapes measurements are reported. Electroweak physics is then discussed relating measurements of the W and Z bosons productions, of the forward-backward charge asymmetry in W production, of the W width and of the top quarks mass. The extensive Run II exploration program is finally approached reporting about searches for neutral supersymmetric Higgs bosons in multijet events and for sbottom quark from gluino decays.

  10. Crustal shortening, exhumation, and strain localization in a collisional orogen: The Bajo Pequeño Shear Zone, Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, Joshua M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Warren, Jessica; Mulcahy, Sean R.; McClelland, William C.; Austin, Lauren J.; Renne, Paul R.; Vujovich, Graciela I.

    2014-07-01

    The Bajo Pequeño Shear Zone (BPSZ) is a lower-crustal shear zone that records shortening and exhumation associated with the establishment of a new plate boundary, and its placement in a regional structural context suggests that local- to regional-scale strain localization occurred with progressive deformation. A kilometer-scale field and analytical cross section through the ~80 m thick BPSZ and its adjacent rocks indicates an early Devonian (405-400 Ma) phase of deformation on the western margin of Gondwanan continental crust. The earliest stages of the BPSZ, recorded by metamorphic and microstructural data, involved thrusting of a hotter orthogneiss over a relatively cool pelitic unit, which resulted in footwall garnet growth and reset footwall white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages in proximity to the shear zone. Later stages of BPSZ activity, as recorded by additional microstructures and quartz c-axis opening angles, were characterized by strain localization to the center of the shear zone coincident with cooling and exhumation. These and other data suggest that significant regional tectonism persisted in the Famatinian orogenic system for 60-70 million years after one microplate collision (the Precordillera) but ceased 5-10 million years prior to another (Chilenia). A survey of other synchronous structures shows that strain was accommodated on progressively narrower structures with time, indicating a regional pattern of strain localization and broad thermal relaxation as the Precordillera collision evolved.

  11. Effects of dabigatran on the cellular and protein phase of coagulation in patients with coronary artery disease on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Results from a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Cho, Jung Rae; King, Rhodri; Phoenix, Fladia; Bhatti, Mona; DeGroat, Christopher; Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Zenni, Martin M; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the effects of adding an oral anticoagulant in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and clopidogrel represent the most broadly utilised oral anticoagulant and P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, respectively. However, VKAs can interfere with clopidogrel metabolism via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system which in turn may result in an increase in platelet reactivity. Dabigatran is a direct acting (anti-II) oral anticoagulant which does not interfere with CYP and has favourable safety and efficacy profiles compared with VKAs. The pharmacodynamic (PD) effects on platelet reactivity and clot kinetic of adjunctive dabigatran therapy in patients on DAPT are poorly explored. In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled PD study, patients (n=30) on maintenance DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel were randomised to either dabigatran 150 mg bid or placebo for seven days. PD testing was performed before and after treatment using four different assays exploring multiple pathways of platelet aggregation and fibrin clot kinetics: light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetric assays. There were no differences in multiple measures of platelet reactivity investigating purinergic and non-purinergic signaling pathways assessed by LTA, MEA and TEG platelet mapping. Dabigatran significantly increased parameters related to thrombin activity and thrombus generation, and delayed fibrin clot formation, without affecting clot structure or fibrinolysis. In conclusion, in patients on DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, adjunctive dabigatran therapy is not associated with modulation of profiles of platelet reactivity as determined by several assays assessing multiple platelet signalling pathways. However, dabigatran significantly interferes with parameters related to thrombin activity and delays fibrin clot formation.

  12. Of stewardship, motherhood and apple pie.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is universally agreed to be desirable, but optimal models for stewardship remain uncertain. UK stewardship targets the particular antibiotic families-cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones-blamed for the selection of Clostridium-difficile-associated disease. To balance this there have been dramatic increases in the use of penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. By channelling selection pressure in this way, we hazard destroying the utility of these antibiotic classes in turn, as happened with gonorrhoea where penicillins, fluoroquinolones and cefixime were sequentially lost as therapies. Strikingly, in context, almost all carbapenemase-producers are highly resistant to penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, which may select for them. There is an urgent need to explore an alternative stewardship model, seeking to limit total antibiotic use but to maintain heterogeneity in what is used, avoiding concentrated selection pressure. There is also a great need to improve and accelerate diagnostics for infection and resistance, reducing or removing the need for protracted empirical treatment with broad-spectrum agents.

  13. Trash Pie: Is Your School Serving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Krista M.; Curran, Mary Carla

    2010-01-01

    In observation of Earth Day, third-grade students were invited to examine what they contribute to the landfill and learn new ways they could help protect the environment. In this lesson, students collected, evaluated, and displayed data comparing the trash generated by home-lunch versus school-lunch students. Students interpreted their findings…

  14. PIE: A Dynamic Failure-Based Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic technique for statistically estimating three program characteristics that affect a program's computational behavior: (1) the probability that a particular section of a program is executed, (2) the probability that the particular section affects the data state, and (3) the probability that a data state produced by that section has an effect on program output. These three characteristics can be used to predict whether faults are likely to be uncovered by software testing. Index Terms: Software testing, data state, fault, failure, testability. 1 Introduction

  15. Resolving resource conflict: A bigger pie

    Treesearch

    Jim Winder

    1999-01-01

    One of today's critical questions for ranchers is how to gain economic benefits from natural resources without damaging biodiversity. Ranchers today face declining beef prices, escalating resource prices, and taking on costs once covered outside the industry. Ranchers join environmentalists and agency personnel in the struggle to meet evolving needs of the...

  16. Motherhood, Apple Pie, and Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    2005-01-01

    A good Little League baseball coach will analyze a pitcher's performance and develop an individual prescription based on that analysis. Just as all pitchers do not receive the same remedies from high-quality coaches, the author believes, neither should all students. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) stands as the imposing batter to many teachers and…

  17. The Politics of the Static Economic Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Until America gets a stable source of energy, we will have slow or no economic growth. The public policy of scarcity will differ from the politics of abundance and cause a rethinking of public policy. For example, we cannot have the immigration policies that we had as an empty continent. (SR)

  18. Trash Pie: Is Your School Serving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Krista M.; Curran, Mary Carla

    2010-01-01

    In observation of Earth Day, third-grade students were invited to examine what they contribute to the landfill and learn new ways they could help protect the environment. In this lesson, students collected, evaluated, and displayed data comparing the trash generated by home-lunch versus school-lunch students. Students interpreted their findings…

  19. Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bor-Ren; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Tseng, Wen-Pei; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Chingju; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2013-05-15

    We investigated the interaction between proinflammatory and inflammatory responses caused by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in primary cultured microglial cells and BV-2 microglia. LTA induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels increase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, LTA also increased nitric oxide (NO) and PGE{sub 2} production in microglia. Administration of TLR2 antagonist effectively inhibited LTA-induced NO, iNOS, and COX-2 expression. Moreover, treatment of cells with LTA caused a time-dependent activation of ERK, p38, JNK, as well as AKT. We also found that LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation were attenuated by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, LTA-enhanced HO-1 expression was attenuated by p38 and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Treatment of cells with NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors antagonized LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. However, only NF-κB inhibitors reduced LTA-induced HO-1 expression in microglia. Furthermore, stimulation of cells with LTA also activated IκBα phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser{sup 536}, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, LTA-induced increases of κB-DNA and AP-1-DNA binding activity were inhibited by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. HO-1 activator CoPP IX dramatically reversed LTA-induced iNOS expression. Our results provided mechanisms linking LTA and inflammation/anti-inflammation, and indicated that LTA plays a regulatory role in microglia activation. - Highlights: • LTA causes an increase in iNOS, COX-2, and HO-1 expression in microglia. • LTA induces iNOS and COX-2 expression through TLR-2/NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. • HO-1 expression is regulated through p38, JNK, PI3K/AKT and AP-1 pathways. • Induced HO-1 reduces LTA-induced iNOS expression. • LTA plays a regulatory role on inflammatory/anti-inflammatory responses.

  20. Lipoteichoic acid promotes nuclear accumulation of β-catenin via AKT in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Cardoso-Jiménez, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) results in the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Exposure of HGF to LTA has been shown to result in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LTA-induced PI3K activation in HGFs. We found that LTA treatment results in the phosphorylation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3). Inactivation of GSK-3 promotes the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and expression of connexin43. Treatment with PI3K inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, inhibited LTA-induced phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3, demonstrating that these events require PI3K activation. This report is the first demonstration that LTA treatment activates AKT in HGFs.

  1. In-pile test results of U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-7Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, J. M.; Lee, K. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Ryu, H. J.; Ye, B.

    2014-11-01

    U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al (U-Mo/Al) was in-pile tested to examine the effectiveness of the coating as a diffusion barrier between the U-7Mo fuel kernels and Al matrix. This paper reports the PIE data and analyses focusing on the effectiveness of the coating in terms of interaction layer (IL) growth and general fuel performance. The U-silicide coating showed considerable success, but it also provided evidence for additional improvement for coating process. The U-nitride coated specimen showed largely inefficient results in reducing IL growth. From the test, important observations were also made that can be utilized to improve U-Mo/Al fuel performance. The heating process for coating turned out to be beneficial to suppress fuel swelling. The use of larger fuel particles confirmed favorable effects on fuel performance.

  2. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part I: Experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrachin, M.; Gavillet, D.; Dubourg, R.; De Bremaecker, A.

    2014-10-01

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO2 fuel test section and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 and 900 mm) of the 1-m long test section are presented in this paper. Material interactions leading to local corium formation were identified: firstly between fuel and Zircaloy-4 cladding, notably at 823 mm, where the cladding melting temperature was reached, and secondly between fuel and stainless steel oxides. Regarding fission products, molybdenum left so-called metallic precipitates mainly composed of ruthenium. Xenon and caesium behave similarly whereas barium and molybdenum often seems to be associated in precipitates.

  3. Seasonal migration to high latitudes results in major reproductive benefits in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jason W.; Bell, James R.; Burgin, Laura E.; Reynolds, Donald R.; Pettersson, Lars B.; Hill, Jane K.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Thomas, Jeremy A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of the population dynamics of long-range insect migrants, and it has been suggested that the annual journeys of billions of nonhardy insects to exploit temperate zones during summer represent a sink from which future generations seldom return (the “Pied Piper” effect). We combine data from entomological radars and ground-based light traps to show that annual migrations are highly adaptive in the noctuid moth Autographa gamma (silver Y), a major agricultural pest. We estimate that 10–240 million immigrants reach the United Kingdom each spring, but that summer breeding results in a fourfold increase in the abundance of the subsequent generation of adults, all of which emigrate southward in the fall. Trajectory simulations show that 80% of emigrants will reach regions suitable for winter breeding in the Mediterranean Basin, for which our population dynamics model predicts a winter carrying capacity only 20% of that of northern Europe during the summer. We conclude not only that poleward insect migrations in spring result in major population increases, but also that the persistence of such species is dependent on summer breeding in high-latitude regions, which requires a fundamental change in our understanding of insect migration. PMID:22927392

  4. Leukotriene A4 modulates generation of leukotriene B4 and sulphidopeptide leukotrienes by human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, R A; König, W

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the influence of exogenous leukotriene A4 (LTA4) on the reactivity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN). PMN were either prestimulated with LTA4 or incubated simultaneously with LTA4 and the Ca ionophore A23187 or sodium fluoride (NaF). The Ca ionophore A23187 and NaF induced generation of LTB4 from PMN was significantly diminished in the presence of LTA4 while the formation of LTC4 was enhanced. In contrast, preincubation of cells with LTA4 followed by subsequent stimulation with NaF synergistically increased the LTB4 generation from PMN. LTA4, either alone or in combination with the calcium ionophore A23187 or NaF, decreases GTPase activity in human PMN. This decrease was abolished when LTA4 pretreated cells were subsequently stimulated with NaF, but not with calcium ionophore A23187, suggesting a regulatory role of LTA4 on G-proteins. The results demonstrate dual functions of LTA4: it serves as a substrate for the generation of leukotrienes and also regulates the susceptibility of human PMN for subsequent response. PMID:1335961

  5. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  6. Mortality, morbidity and healthcare expenditures after local tumour ablation or partial nephrectomy for T1A kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Larcher, A; Sun, M; Dell'Oglio, P; Trudeau, V; Boehm, K; Schiffmann, J; Tian, Z; Fossati, N; Capitanio, U; Briganti, A; Montorsi, F; Karakiewicz, P

    2017-04-01

    Local tumour ablation (LTA) may yield better perioperative outcomes than partial nephrectomy (PN), however the impact of each treatment on perioperative mortality and health care expenditures is unknown. The aim of the study was to compare mortality, morbidity and health care expenditures between LTA and PN. A population-based assessment of 2471 patients with cT1a kidney cancer treated with either LTA or PN, between 2000 and 2009, in the SEER-Medicare database was performed. After propensity score matching, 30-day mortality, overall and specific complication rates, length of stay, readmission rates and health care expenditures according to LTA or PN were estimated. Multivariable logistic and linear models addressed the effect of each specific LTA approach on overall complication rates, length of stay, readmission rates and health care expenditures. The 30-day mortality was <2% after either LTA or PN (OR 2.27, p = 0.2). The overall complication rate was 21% after LTA and 40% after PN (OR 0.38, p < 0.001). Blood transfusions, infection/sepsis, wound infections, respiratory complications, gastrointestinal complications, acute kidney injury, and accidental puncture or laceration/foreign body left during procedure rates resulted lower after LTA relative to PN (all p < 0.05). Similarly, length of stay and health care expenditures resulted lower after LTA relative to PN (all p < 0.05). Conversely, readmission rate was not significantly different in LTA relative to PN (p = 0.1). Despite similar perioperative mortality, LTA is associated with lower complications rate, shorter length of stay and lower health care expenditure relative to PN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid LTA Vehicle Controllability as Affected by Thruster Magnitude and Spacing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    0 0 0 0 g3 " e Ŗ 2 Xrtr Tc y ft.lb. 5,994,960 5,9 285.756,4911 5,526,954 r - a IZ r~rl td .2 Z eec 292 Yrtr TP 4-ztim If gi), /•M&Y TY T n T - gT...Mz - z max " trim rd. () b Yrtr X.nax -m Xna (1b TPX j’ax/TZ total 1,560 /030tota -rad. .069) .0495 .0218 -. 0122 6,500 .125 . td . 0919 .0721 .0444...If gl _• I~= ’. an~d TR 1 - 2 (g - T a ).. . . ..T- raz. 1Y Ti max 1 and TD i 0 4 lb. 1 0 1,725 4.537 9,394 Y D T lb. 0 0 0 0 9 3 cl Ŗ - 2 X rt T T

  8. The technology assessment of LTA aircraft systems. [hybrid airships for passenger and cargo transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advantages of conventional small and large airships over heavier than air aircraft are reviewed and the need for developing hybrid aircraft for passenger and heavy charge transport is assessed. Performance requirements and estimated operating costs are discussed for rota-ships to be used for short distance transportation near large cities as well as for airlifting civil engineering machinery and supplies for the construction of power stations, dams, tunnels, and roads in remote areas or on isolated islands.

  9. Feasibility Study of Endo- and Exo-skeletal Framed Structures with Envelopes for LTA Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    W911NF- 10 -1-0020 622618 Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 56760-EG-II.1 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO...Grant #: W911NF- 10 -1-0020 Short Term Innovative Research To Col. Young Reed, Program Manager Army Research Office Research Triangle...13.74 0.0408 0.254 0.081 0.068 0.067 0.065 Altitude, ft Air Density, lb/ft^3 Atm Pressure, in. Hg * * includes 10 % wt. of endoskeleton structure

  10. A practical concept for powered or tethered weight-lifting LTA vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balleyguier, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    A concept for a multi-hull weightlifting airship is presented. The concept is based upon experience in the design and handling of gas-filled balloons for commercial purposes, it was first tested in April, 1972. In the flight test, two barrage balloons were joined side-by-side, with an intermediate frame, and launched in captive flight. The success of this flight test led to plans for a development program calling for a powered, piloted prototype, a follow-on 40 ton model, and a 400 ton transport model. All of these airships utilize a tetrehedric three-line tethering method for loading and unloading phases of flight, which bypasses many of the difficulties inherent in the handling of a conventional airship near the ground. Both initial and operating costs per ton of lift capability are significantly less for the subject design than for either helicopters or airships of conventional mono-hull design.

  11. Comparison of singer's formant, speaker's ring, and LTA spectrum among classical singers and untrained normal speakers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Barrichelo, V M; Heuer, R J; Dean, C M; Sataloff, R T

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have described and analyzed the singer's formant. A similar phenomenon produced by trained speakers led some authors to examine the speaker's ring. If we consider these phenomena as resonance effects associated with vocal tract adjustments and training, can we hypothesize that trained singers can carry over their singing formant ability into speech, also obtaining a speaker's ring? Can we find similar differences for energy distribution in continuous speech? Forty classically trained singers and forty untrained normal speakers performed an all-voiced reading task and produced a sample of a sustained spoken vowel /a/. The singers were also requested to perform a sustained sung vowel /a/ at a comfortable pitch. The reading was analyzed by the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) method. The sustained vowels were analyzed through power spectrum analysis. The data suggest that singers show more energy concentration in the singer's formant/speaker's ring region in both sung and spoken vowels. The singers' spoken vowel energy in the speaker's ring area was found to be significantly larger than that of the untrained speakers. The LTAS showed similar findings suggesting that those differences also occur in continuous speech. This finding supports the value of further research on the effect of singing training on the resonance of the speaking voice.

  12. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    ... VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results ... in your blood. You may also have a lipid (or coronary risk) profile, which includes: Total cholesterol Low density lipoprotein (LDL ...

  13. Product formation controlled by substrate dynamics in leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Tholander, Fredrik; Kumar, Ramakrishnan B; Qureshi, Abdul Aziz; Niegowski, Damian; Hasan, Mahmudul; Thunnissen, Marjolein; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2014-02-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) (EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme with both an epoxide hydrolase and an aminopeptidase activity. LTA4H from the African claw toad, Xenopus laevis (xlLTA4H) has been shown to, unlike the human enzyme, convert LTA4 to two enzymatic metabolites, LTB4 and another biologically active product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4 (5(S),12R-dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid). In order to study the molecular aspect of the formation of this product we have characterized the structure and function of xlLTA4H. We solved the structure of xlLTA4H to a resolution of 2.3Å. It is a dimeric structure where each monomer has three domains with the active site in between the domains, similar as to the human structure. An important difference between the human and amphibian enzyme is the phenylalanine to tyrosine exchange at position 375. Our studies show that mutating F375 in xlLTA4H to tyrosine abolishes the formation of the LTB4 isomeric product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4. In an attempt to understand how one amino acid exchange leads to a new product profile as seen in the xlLTA4H, we performed a conformer analysis of the triene part of the substrate LTA4. Our results show that the Boltzmann distribution of substrate conformers correlates with the observed distribution of products. We suggest that the observed difference in product profile between the human and the xlLTA4H arises from different level of discrimination between substrate LTA4 conformers.

  14. Temporal and Modal Characterization of DoD Source Air Toxic Emission Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Spectrometry GHz Gigahertz HAP Hazardous Air Pollutants HEPA High Efficiency Particulate Arresting HMMWV High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle HPLC ...Low Resolution Mass Spectrometry LTA Low Temperature Ashing MHz Megahertz MS Mass Spectrometry MWC Municipal Waste Combustor ND Non Detect NDIR...exhaust. LIBS plus low temperature ashing (LTA) showed positive results, improving metal discrimination from highly carbonaceous backgrounds. However, the

  15. Design and development of a linear thermal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, G.; Osborne, D.

    1985-01-01

    The design and development of a linear thermal actuator (LTA) for space applications is described. The actuator is driven by thermal energy and utilizes the property of thermal expansion to do work. Equations to predict performance are developed and used to optimize the design of the development model LTA. Design details and test results are presented and discussed.

  16. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  17. Your Kidney Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessels healthy. Vitamin D is important for bones and heart health. 1 Your Kidney Test Results Other Important Tests, continued A1C (for patients with diabetes) Results Goal: Your Result: Total Cholesterol Normal: Less ...

  18. Novel polymorphisms and the definition of promoter 'alleles' of the tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin alpha loci: inclusion in HLA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Posch, P E; Cruz, I; Bradshaw, D; Medhekar, B A

    2003-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) influence a variety of cellular responses and play a complex role in the immune response. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported in these major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked loci; however, a comprehensive examination of polymorphisms in the promoter regions of TNF and LTA has not been carried out and was undertaken here. Seven novel SNPs in LTA were identified by sequence analysis of 69 samples. Eight novel TNF alleles and 16 novel LTA alleles were designated. The TNF alleles clustered into two closely related groups, while the LTA alleles clustered into three distinct groups using phylogenetic and percentage difference analyses. A total of 52 unique TNF-LTA-HLA haplotypes are reported. There appear to be some associations between TNF/LTA alleles and HLA haplotypes, but not with specific HLA alleles. The majority of the SNPs appear to be randomly associated within and between the two loci except for the LTA SNPs at -293, +81 and +369. These observations may provide an explanation for the oftentimes contradictory results of studies associating individual cytokine gene SNPs with expression level phenotypes, HLA and disease.

  19. Outcomes of Living Donor Liver Transplantation Alone for Patients on Maintenance Renal Replacement Therapy in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Susumu; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Umeshita, Koji; Imamura, Hajime; Soyama, Akihiko; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Isaji, Shuji; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Egawa, Hiroto; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Kasahara, Mureo; Nagano, Hiroaki; Ku, Yonson; Ohdan, Hideki; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Sato, Shuntaro; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Because simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation has been limited as a standard practice because of a severe shortage of deceased donors in Japan, living donor (LD) liver transplantation alone (LTA) is indicated in most recipients with maintenance renal replacement therapy (MRRT). Methods A retrospective nationwide survey of LD LTA was performed for liver transplant patients on MRRT. The characteristics of donors and recipients, postoperative complications, survival rate, and causes of death were analyzed. Results In the adult cases (n = 28), the overall survival rate at 1 year and 5 years were 66.1% and 57.3%, respectively. When compared with those adults without MRRT (n = 237), it was significantly worse. In the 7 pediatric cases, the overall survival rate at 1 and 5 years were both 83.3%. Three adult recipients died of nonaneurysm cerebral hemorrhage after 1 year and 1 adult recipient died of acute heart failure after 7 months. In adult recipients with MRRT, graft weight versus standard liver volume, and duration and blood loss in LTA surgery were associated with poor outcomes after LD LTA. Multivariate analysis revealed that MRRT was highest hazard ratio on patient survival after LD LTA. Conclusions Early post-LD LTA mortality was higher in patients with MRRT than in those without MRRT with characteristic causes. Smaller grafts for size and a complicated surgery were associated with poor outcome after LD LTA. Thus, LD LTA in adult patients on MRRT should be carefully treated with meticulous postoperative management and follow-up. PMID:27500264

  20. Deletion of Lipoteichoic Acid Synthase Impacts Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Surface Proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Selle, Kurt; Goh, Yong J; Johnson, Brant R; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Andersen, Joakim M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a well-characterized probiotic microorganism, supported by a decade of genomic and functional phenotypic investigations. L. acidophilus deficient in lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major immunostimulant in Gram-positive bacteria, has been shown to shift immune system responses in animal disease models. However, the pleiotropic effects of removing LTA from the cell surface in lactobacilli are unknown. In this study, we surveyed the global transcriptional and extracellular protein profiles of two strains of L. acidophilus deficient in LTA. Twenty-four differentially expressed genes specific to the LTA-deficient strains were identified, including a predicted heavy metal resistance operon and several putative peptidoglycan hydrolases. Cell morphology and manganese sensitivity phenotypes were assessed in relation to the putative functions of differentially expressed genes. LTA-deficient L. acidophilus exhibited elongated cellular morphology and their growth was severely inhibited by elevated manganese concentrations. Exoproteomic surveys revealed distinct changes in the composition and relative abundances of several extracellular proteins and showed a bias of intracellular proteins in LTA-deficient strains of L. acidophilus. Taken together, these results elucidate the impact of ltaS deletion on the transcriptome and extracellular proteins of L. acidophilus, suggesting roles of LTA in cell morphology and ion homeostasis as a structural component of the Gram positive cell wall.

  1. Deletion of Lipoteichoic Acid Synthase Impacts Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Surface Proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Selle, Kurt; Goh, Yong J.; Johnson, Brant R.; O’Flaherty, Sarah; Andersen, Joakim M.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a well-characterized probiotic microorganism, supported by a decade of genomic and functional phenotypic investigations. L. acidophilus deficient in lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major immunostimulant in Gram-positive bacteria, has been shown to shift immune system responses in animal disease models. However, the pleiotropic effects of removing LTA from the cell surface in lactobacilli are unknown. In this study, we surveyed the global transcriptional and extracellular protein profiles of two strains of L. acidophilus deficient in LTA. Twenty-four differentially expressed genes specific to the LTA-deficient strains were identified, including a predicted heavy metal resistance operon and several putative peptidoglycan hydrolases. Cell morphology and manganese sensitivity phenotypes were assessed in relation to the putative functions of differentially expressed genes. LTA-deficient L. acidophilus exhibited elongated cellular morphology and their growth was severely inhibited by elevated manganese concentrations. Exoproteomic surveys revealed distinct changes in the composition and relative abundances of several extracellular proteins and showed a bias of intracellular proteins in LTA-deficient strains of L. acidophilus. Taken together, these results elucidate the impact of ltaS deletion on the transcriptome and extracellular proteins of L. acidophilus, suggesting roles of LTA in cell morphology and ion homeostasis as a structural component of the Gram positive cell wall. PMID:28443071

  2. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  3. Recent results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Sally Carol Seidel

    2001-07-16

    During the past year, the CDF Experiment has reported on a variety of results concerning QCD and electroweak studies, studies of the top quark, and searches for new phenomena. A sample of these results is presented here.

  4. Recent results from TRISTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    1997-01-01

    TRISTAN results on {gamma}{gamma} physics from 1994 to 1995 are reviewed in this report. We have systematically investigated jet production, the {gamma}-structure function, and charm pair production in {gamma}{gamma} processes. The results are discussed, and future prospects are presented.

  5. Diffraction Results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    We present final results by the CDF II collaboration on diffractive W and Z production, report on the status of ongoing analyses on diffractive dijet production and on rapidity gaps between jets, and briefly summarize results obtained on exclusive production pointing to their relevance to calibrating theoretical models used to predict exclusive Higgs-boson production at the LHC.

  6. Getting Districtwide Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeath, Angus

    2006-01-01

    This monograph is based on a keynote presentation by Angus McBeath at the "Getting Districtwide Results" Conference in Long Beach, California, which was co-sponsored by the Cross City Campaign for Urban School Reform and Focus on Results. The author, a former superintendent of the Edmonton Public Schools, how his school district was…

  7. Unfavourable results in hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Karoon; Misra, Anshumali

    2013-01-01

    Hypospadias urethroplasty is considered difficult as the complications and unfavourable results are not uncommon. At the turn of the century, due to a better understanding of applied anatomy of hypospadias, new techniques were developed which significantly brought down the complication rate. However unfavourable results are still disturbing. An algorithm for selection of surgery has been presented. Forty three secondary surgeries were performed over 3 years for correction of unfavourable results. The urethrocutaneous fistula was the most common (21%) followed by meatal stenosis (14%) and narrow neourethra (14%). Common unfavourable results have been discussed. On the basis of experience with a large number of hypospadias urethroplasty ‘tips to avoid or minimise unfavourable results’ have been presented. However, one should assess the final outcome of urethroplasty using hypospadias objective scoring evaluation. PMID:24501477

  8. A-3 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxsey, R.

    1979-01-01

    The scanning modulation collimator experiment designed to identify the optical counterparts of celestial X-ray sources is described. Identification of galactic sources is discussed. Results concerning active galaxies are presented.

  9. CMAQ Community Survey Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2016, CMAQ users worldwide participated in a survey circulated by the University of North Carolina's Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) center. The aggregated results allow us to better understand the attributes of the CMAQ user community.

  10. Electroweak results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Waters

    2004-06-02

    Inclusive W and Z production cross-sections have been measured by CDF and certain electroweak parameters extracted with high precision from these measurements. New results on diboson production at the Tevatron are also presented.

  11. Tevatron direct photon results.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, S.

    1999-09-21

    Tevatron direct photon results since DIS98 are reviewed. Two new CDF measurements are discussed, the Run Ib inclusive photon cross section and the photon + Muon cross section. Comparisons with the latest NLO QCD calculations are presented.

  12. Results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.B.

    1983-05-01

    The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

  13. Teaching Rhythmic Movement to Children: "Chock-Let Pie"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Martin, Ellen H.; Gibson, Gary S.

    2005-01-01

    It is doubtful that any teacher would question the value of rhythmic movement in a physical education program. The benefits of being able to move rhythmically and to keep a beat are numerous. First, children with rhythm have an increased kinesthetic awareness of their body in motion and stillness. As most physical activities have an inherent…

  14. Recurrent Education: "Apple Pie" ...or..."Atomic Bomb"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, William L.

    The author conceptualizes recurrent education as organized, structured, institutionally sponsored learning activities with intentional outcomes, which are distributed over the life span of the individual in a recurring way. Some problems to which recurrent education proposes solutions include: alienation at the inter-generational level,…

  15. Teaching Rhythmic Movement to Children: "Chock-Let Pie"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Martin, Ellen H.; Gibson, Gary S.

    2005-01-01

    It is doubtful that any teacher would question the value of rhythmic movement in a physical education program. The benefits of being able to move rhythmically and to keep a beat are numerous. First, children with rhythm have an increased kinesthetic awareness of their body in motion and stillness. As most physical activities have an inherent…

  16. The Humble Pie--Half-Baked or Well Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Neville; Mashhoudy, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    This article re-examines the much maligned piechart and provides justification for its use. It identifies common pitfalls when drawing piecharts in Microsoft Excel and offers advice on how to avoid them. (Contains 6 figures and 5 tables.)

  17. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  18. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  19. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  20. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  1. Recurrent Education: "Apple Pie" ...or..."Atomic Bomb"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, William L.

    The author conceptualizes recurrent education as organized, structured, institutionally sponsored learning activities with intentional outcomes, which are distributed over the life span of the individual in a recurring way. Some problems to which recurrent education proposes solutions include: alienation at the inter-generational level,…

  2. Telescopes on the Moon or pie in the sky?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    1992-01-01

    The question is examined of whether it makes sense to believe that there will one day be an interferometric array of telescopes on the Moon. The question is really one of national commitment to a lunar base, since it is not likely that a scientific undertaking of this magnitude would occur in the absence of permanent human presence on the Moon. A discussion is also given of the real possibility if the exploration of space should be a multinational effort.

  3. Improving Relationships: Serving up a Slice of "Enemy Pie"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, P. Cougar; McIntyre, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The "14 Characteristics of Effective Health Education Curricula" identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health promote teaching ideas designed to personalize information and engage students through activities which are both student centered and interactive. Effective health education efforts…

  4. The Humble Pie--Half-Baked or Well Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Neville; Mashhoudy, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    This article re-examines the much maligned piechart and provides justification for its use. It identifies common pitfalls when drawing piecharts in Microsoft Excel and offers advice on how to avoid them. (Contains 6 figures and 5 tables.)

  5. States Vie for a Slice of the Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Herb

    1985-01-01

    Cites programs by governors and legislatures to make their states better places to start and operate a technology-based business. Areas addressed include starting companies, research and development money, university partnerships, and networking. Major development programs, economic education, and training information, and contact resources are…

  6. Can the Lung Cancer Pie Be Divided into Angiogenic Slices?

    PubMed

    Cascone, Tina; Heymach, John V

    2015-12-01

    There are no validated markers for predicting benefit from angiogenesis inhibitors or classifying tumors with distinct angiogenic phenotypes. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib, Franzini and colleagues find that angiogenesis- and hypoxia-associated gene expression signatures predict tumor response and/or clinical outcome, and may define distinct angiogenic patterns.

  7. Networking: Pie in the Sky or Icing on the Cake?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Discusses benefits and pitfalls of networking or disk-sharing in computer labs where microcomputers are connected to a central disk drive which runs one program for all microcomputers at one time. Copyright and software compatibility from educators' and publishers' perspectives, costs, time factors, and educational objectives are included in the…

  8. "Cutting it" means slicing up the patient pie.

    PubMed

    Sheth, J N

    1985-01-01

    This article has attempted to demonstrate why market segmentation will become increasingly prevalent in the health care industry. It has also suggested how segmentation can be extremely useful to health care practitioners. Finally, it has described three customer characteristics (demographics, psycho-graphics, and usage patterns) as a basis for segmenting the market. Three marketing practices (competitive positioning, full line versus specialty, and payment plans) as the bases for market segmentation have also been identified.

  9. PIE Nacelle Flow Analysis and TCA Inlet Flow Quality Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, C. F.; Arslan, Alan; Sundaran, P.; Kim, Suk; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation includes three topics: (1) Analysis of isolated boattail drag; (2) Computation of Technology Concept Airplane (TCA)-installed nacelle effects on aerodynamic performance; and (3) Assessment of TCA inlet flow quality.

  10. Dividing up the pie: Whales, fish, and humans as competitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Steele, John H.; Ballerini, Tosca; Gaichas, Sarah K.; Ainley, David G.

    2013-09-01

    Similarly structured food web models of four coastal ecosystems (Northern California Current, Central Gulf of Alaska, Georges Bank, southwestern Antarctic Peninsula) were used to investigate competition among whales, fishes, pinnipeds, and humans. Two analysis strategies simulated the effects of historic baleen and odontocete whale abundances across all trophic levels: food web structure scenarios and time-dynamic scenarios. Direct competition between whales and commercial fisheries is small at current whale abundances; whales and fisheries each take similar proportions of annual pelagic fish production (4-7%). Scenarios show that as whale populations grow, indirect competition between whales and fish for zooplankton would more likely impact fishery production than would direct competition for fish between whales and commercial fisheries. Increased baleen whale abundance would have greater and broader indirect effects on upper trophic levels and fisheries than a similar increase in odontocete abundance. Time-dynamic scenarios, which allow for the evolution of compensatory mechanisms, showed more modest impacts than structural scenarios, which show the immediate impacts of altered energy pathways. Structural scenarios show that in terms of energy availability, there is potential for large increases in whale abundance without major changes to existing food web structures and without substantial reduction of fishery production. For each ecosystem, a five-fold increase in baleen whale abundance could be supported with minor disruptions to existing energy flow pathways. However, such an increase would remain below historical population levels for many cetaceans. A larger expansion (20X) could be accommodated only with large reductions in energy flow to competitor groups. The scope for odontocete expansion varies between ecosystems but may be more restricted than the scope for baleen expansion because they feed at higher, less productive trophic levels. Egestion: unassimilated consumption, feces; directed to detritus pools. Metabolism: basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and activity costs in terms of ammonium excretion NH4+; directed to recycled nutrient pools. Predation: a production term; production directed to grazing or predation by other functional groups. “Other” mortality: a production term; “other” mortality is unconsumed production; principally unconsumed phytoplankton; directed to detritus pools. Export (losses): a production term; export of plankton and pelagic detritus by physical transport; export losses are handled as a reduction of group transfer efficiency (the fraction of consumption that is passed to higher trophic level groups through grazing or predation). “Consumption” for phytoplankton is the uptake of new nitrate NO3- input and recycled ammonium NH4+ produced by consumer metabolism. Nitrate input was rescaled to carbon based upon the Redfield ratio (6.625 mmole C mmole N-1) and to wet weight based upon the estimated carbon content of fish (8.8 mg wet weight mg C-1) (Steele et al., 2007).The E2E trophic network matrices for each region are provided as Supplementary material. The E2E network models for the Northern California Current (NCC), Central Gulf of Alaska (CGoA), and southwestern Antarctic Peninsula (sWAP) ecosystems were derived following the techniques of Steele and Ruzicka (2011) from solutions for biomasses, consumption rates, and predation pressure upon each functional group calculated using ECOPATH algorithms (Christensen and Walters, 2004). The NCC model was modified from Ruzicka et al. (2012), the CGoA model was modified as noted in the Supplementary material from the full Gulf of Alaska model documented in Aydin et al. (2007), and the sWAP model was modified from Ballerini et al. (submitted for publication). A quantitative assessment of the Georges Bank (GB) food web is given in Steele et al. (2007) and Collie et al. (2009). Top predators (seabirds, baleen whales, odontocetes) were implicit in the original GB model. These components have now been explicitly defined using information from Link et al. (2006) to provide estimates of the abundance, diets, and consumption rates of birds and mammals on Georges Bank. (ECOPATH parameters and diet matrices for all four regional models are provided in the Supplementary material).Each regional model was developed by a different team of researchers with different emphasis of purpose but was re-structured so that each shared similar functional group aggregations. Functional groups were aggregated using production-weighted mean values of physiological parameters and diets and the sums of group biomasses and fishery harvests. Model currencies also differed between regional models: wet weight biomass (NCC, CGoA), nitrogen biomass (GB), and carbon biomass (sWAP). However, all analyses are expressed as comparable dimensionless metrics: relative changes in production rate (E2E network scenarios) and relative changes in biomass (time-dynamic scenarios).

  11. A Howling Success: How To Put Your "Pied Dedans."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, Barrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses humorous incidences of translating an idiom from one language literally into another. Notes that words with a similar look or sound in English and the target language, or within the target language, cause confusion. (Author/CK)

  12. Unfavorable results in replantation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abraham G

    2013-05-01

    Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation) has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  13. Recent results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Takikawa, K.; CDF

    1998-02-15

    We first present recent CDF results on the top quark, covering the measurement of the t{anti t} production cross section and the top quark mass, the observation of hadronic W decays in top events, the measurement of V{sub tb}, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, and kinematical properties of t{anti t} production. Then we present one topic from CDF exotic physics results, i.e., the search for first-generation leptoquarks, and one topic from CDF B physics results, i.e., the measurement of time-dependent B{sup 0}-{anti B}{sup 0} mixing. Finally we conclude by briefly mentioning the prospects for Run II.

  14. Recent results from PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Hollebeek, R.

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the data taken by the MARK II and MAC collaborations at the PEP storage ring. Results include measurements of QED processes, limits on the weak couplings g/sub V/ and g/sub A/, limits on anomalous lepton production, the measurement of the tau lifetime, scale violation in inclusive hadron production, Monte Carlo independent tests of QCD using energy-energy correlations and single jet energy moments, measurements of the properties of three jet events, and measurements of proton, neutral kaon, lambda and proton pair yields.

  15. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  16. Recent CDF results

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Gervasio; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2007-11-01

    As of November of 2007, the CDF detector has recorded approximately 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data. This contribution describes some of the most recent and most relevant results from the CDF collaboration in all areas of its wide physics program, as well as some insights into the Tevatron reach for Higgs searches within the next few years.

  17. Implementation Challenges and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirk; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the online and f2f summer algebra courses that were delivered in summers 2011 and 2012. These data will be used to frame the impact results presented in an earlier paper. In particular, the paper will provide a detailed picture of how the online course was structured and the types of supports provided to…

  18. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  19. Results Are the Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Author Mike Schmoker argues that data should play a crucial role before staff development begins by helping to select the most results-oriented initiatives. Staff development proposals should be based on data that indicate the initiatives have led to higher achievement. This interview discusses barriers to using data and notes the role of…

  20. CPT Results from Ktev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hogan

    2002-02-01

    We present several preliminary measurements from KTeV of the fundamental neutral K parameters, and their implications for CPT violation. A new limit is given on the sidereal time dependence of φ+-. The results are based on data collected in 1996-97.

  1. Results from ARGUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darden, C.

    1984-10-01

    The ARGUS collaboration reports results bearing on the fragmentation function for D*± mesons, the mass of the F± meson, the decays F±→φπ± and F±→φπ+π-π±, the decay γ'→π+π-γ and the radiative decay γ'→γΥ(3Pj).

  2. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  3. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  4. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  5. Communicating research results

    Treesearch

    Jan Fryk

    1999-01-01

    A research finding is of little value until it is known and applied. Hence) communication of results should be regarded as a natural, integrated part of research) and thus addressed in the research plans from the very beginning. A clearly defined information strategy and operational goals for information activities are needed for successful communication. For maximum...

  6. QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, R.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    Results are presented for hadronic jet and direct photon production at {radical}{bar s} = 1800 GeV. The data are compared with next-to-leading QCD calculations. A new limit on the scale of possible composite structure of the quarks is also reported. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  7. 2008 Election Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, William; Bamzai, Anjuli; Robinson, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Voting by the membership for Union and Section officers for the 2008-2010 term was completed on 10 January 2008. Voting was conducted electronically through an Internet Web site using commercial surveying software. Paper ballots were available upon request. The tallying and recording of the election was managed by AGU staff using Vovici software. The results of the election are given below.

  8. 2006 Election Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, Amanda C.; Given, Holly K.; McDonough, William F.

    2006-02-01

    The voting by the membership for Union and Section officers for the 2006-2008 term was completed on 10 January. Voting was conducted electronically through the Internet using commercial surveying software. Paper ballots were available upon request. The tallying and recording of the elections was managed by AGU staff using the Web-Surveyor software. The results of the voting are listed below.

  9. [The applicability of results].

    PubMed

    Marín-León, I

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate aim of the critical reading of medical literature is to use the scientific advances in clinical practice or for innovation. This requires an evaluation of the applicability of the results of the studies that have been published, which begins with a clear understanding of these results. When the studies do not provide sufficient guarantees of rigor in design and analysis, the conditions necessary for the applicability of the results are not met; however, the fact that the results are reliable is not enough to make it worth trying to use their conclusions. This article explains how carrying out studies in experimental or artificial conditions often moves them away from the real conditions in which they claim to apply their conclusions. To evaluate this applicability, the article proposes evaluating a set of items that will enable the reader to determine the likelihood that the benefits and risks reported in the studies will yield the least uncertainty in the clinical arena where they aim to be applied.

  10. Continuous ACL graft, results

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jorge Luis; Vega, Marcelo; Matesevach, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: describe our technique using hamstring graft that respects the proximal continuity of Semitendinosus and uses the superior biological potential of the distal periosteum., preserving and stressing the ST reinforce the retropulsión and dynamic control of external rotation of the knee. Here the technique, results, difficulties and foundations. Methods: The sample of this research was composed of 229 cases operated between 01/03/97 and 01/03/13 in Arthroscopy Private Center., 166 male and 63 female, the postop follow-up was 86 months. Evaluated with IKDC, Lysholm, Hamstring EMG. Comparative histology study in rabbits. Results: IKDC and Lysholm score showed 93% of very good results. Conclusion: Dynamic ACL reconstruction achieves a static-dynamic stabilization of the knee. Grafts have a plus in their biological potential (proximal continuity - osteo-periosteal insertion of the tendons in the femoral tunnel). The hamstring maintains its functionality (EMG). 93% satisfactory results (IKDC, Lysholm). It is a valid surgical option in ACL injuries.

  11. Early results from ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    First findings by Europe's new space telescope ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) will be announced at a press conference to be held at ESA's satellite tracking station in Villafranca, Apartado 50727 - 28080-Madrid, on Wednesday 14 February 1996 Astronomers responsible for ISO's instruments will show results ranging from materials in the planet Saturn, through the birth and death of stars, to the behaviour of colliding galaxies. All instruments are working well and even their preliminary results confirm that ISO is a unique observatory making an unprecedented exploration of the universe by infrared rays. Parallel press conferences will be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris, ESTEC Noordwijk (the Netherlands) and ESOC Darmstadt (Germany) where a live television link will be established with Villafranca and from where the media can participate in the discussion.

  12. Dosimetric results on EURECA

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, G.

    1995-02-01

    Detector packages were exposed on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) as part of the Biostack experiment inside the Exobiology and Radiation Assembly (ERA) and at several locations around EURECA. The packages consist of different plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD`s). Evaluation of these detectors yields data on absorbed dose and particle and LET spectra. Preliminary results of absorbed dose measurements in the EURECA dosimeter packages are reported and compared to results of the LDEF experiments. The highest dose rate measured on EURECA is 63.3 plus or minus 0.4 mGy d(exp -1) behind a shielding thickness of 0.09 g cm(exp -2) in front of the detector package.

  13. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  14. Cleanroom energy benchmarking results

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang

    2001-09-01

    A utility market transformation project studied energy use and identified energy efficiency opportunities in cleanroom HVAC design and operation for fourteen cleanrooms. This paper presents the results of this work and relevant observations. Cleanroom owners and operators know that cleanrooms are energy intensive but have little information to compare their cleanroom's performance over time, or to others. Direct comparison of energy performance by traditional means, such as watts/ft{sup 2}, is not a good indicator with the wide range of industrial processes and cleanliness levels occurring in cleanrooms. In this project, metrics allow direct comparison of the efficiency of HVAC systems and components. Energy and flow measurements were taken to determine actual HVAC system energy efficiency. The results confirm a wide variation in operating efficiency and they identify other non-energy operating problems. Improvement opportunities were identified at each of the benchmarked facilities. Analysis of the best performing systems and components is summarized, as are areas for additional investigation.

  15. Recent results from MAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, Hans-Juergen

    2011-10-24

    The Mainz Microtron MAMI is an ideal facility to study the hadron structure with the electromagnetic probe. With the new accelerator stage (HDSM), which went into operation in 2007, high-intensity polarized electron and photon beams with energies up to 1.6 GeV are delivered to the experiments. Polarized targets and recoil polarimeters in combination with dedicated detectors are available for precision experiments in hadron physics. In this article, an overview over selected recent results is given.

  16. Results from SAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.

    1996-04-01

    The Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. Beginning in September 1992, SAGE II data were taken with 55 tons of Ga and with significantly reduced backgrounds. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10 +5/{minus}7 SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU.

  17. Titan - Some new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Gautier, D.

    New analyses of Voyager spectra of Titan have led to improvements in the determination of abundances of minor constituents as a function of latitude and altitude. Ground-based microwave observations have extended the Voyager results for HCN, and have demonstrated that CO is mysteriously deficient in the stratosphere. The origin of the CH4, CO, and N2 in Titan's atmosphere is still unresolved. Both primordial and evolutionary sources are compatible with the available evidence.

  18. ICAAS piloted simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, R. J.; Halski, P. J.; Meyer, R. P.

    1994-05-01

    This paper reports piloted simulation results from the Integrated Control and Avionics for Air Superiority (ICAAS) piloted simulation evaluations. The program was to develop, integrate, and demonstrate critical technologies which will enable United States Air Force tactical fighter 'blue' aircraft to achieve superiority and survive when outnumbered by as much as four to one by enemy aircraft during air combat engagements. Primary emphasis was placed on beyond visual range (BVR) combat with provisions for effective transition to close-in combat. The ICAAS system was developed and tested in two stages. The first stage, called low risk ICAAS, was defined as employing aircraft and avionics technology with an initial operational date no later than 1995. The second stage, called medium risk ICAAS, was defined as employing aircraft and avionics technology with an initial operational date no later than 1998. Descriptions of the low risk and medium risk simulation configurations are given. Normalized (unclassified) results from both the low risk and medium risk ICAAS simulations are discussed. The results show the ICAAS system provided a significant improvement in air combat performance when compared to a current weapon system. Data are presented for both current generation and advanced fighter aircraft. The ICAAS technologies which are ready for flight testing in order to transition to the fighter fleet are described along with technologies needing additional development.

  19. The Viking biology results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of the purposes and the results from the Viking Biology experiments is presented, in the expectation that the lessons learned from this mission will be useful in planning future approaches to the biological exploration of Mars. Since so little was then known about potential micro-environments on Mars, three different experiments were included in the Viking mission, each one based on different assumptions about what Martian organisms might be like. In addition to the Viking Biology Instrument (VBI), important corollary information was obtained from the Viking lander imaging system and from the molecular analysis experiments that were conducted using the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument. No biological objects were noted by the lander imaging instrument. The GCMS did not detect any organic compounds. A description of the tests conducted by the Gas Exchange Experiment, the Labeled Release experiment, and the Pyrolytic Release experiment is given. Results are discussed. Taken as a whole, the Viking data yielded no unequivocal evidence for a Martian biota at either landing site. The results also revealed the presence of one or more reactive oxidants in the surface material and these need to be further characterized, as does the range of micro-environments, before embarking upon future searches for extant life on Mars.

  20. GIRAFFE test results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H.

    1996-03-01

    A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

  1. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  2. Certification of computational results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptually novel and powerful technique to achieve fault detection and fault tolerance in hardware and software systems is described. When used for software fault detection, this new technique uses time and software redundancy and can be outlined as follows. In the initial phase, a program is run to solve a problem and store the result. In addition, this program leaves behind a trail of data called a certification trail. In the second phase, another program is run which solves the original problem again. This program, however, has access to the certification trail left by the first program. Because of the availability of the certification trail, the second phase can be performed by a less complex program and can execute more quickly. In the final phase, the two results are compared and if they agree the results are accepted as correct; otherwise an error is indicated. An essential aspect of this approach is that the second program must always generate either an error indication or a correct output even when the certification trail it receives from the first program is incorrect. The certification trail approach to fault tolerance is formalized and realizations of it are illustrated by considering algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, and shortest path. Cases in which the second phase can be run concurrently with the first and act as a monitor are discussed. The certification trail approach are compared to other approaches to fault tolerance.

  3. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  4. Pressure locking test results

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  5. Recent BABAR Results

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2015-04-29

    We present herein the most recent BABAR results on direct CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xsγ, on partial branching fraction and CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xs+-, on a search for B → π/ηℓ+- decays, on a search for lepton number violation in B+ → X-+ℓ'+ modes and a study of B0 →ωω and B0 → ωφ decays.

  6. SPEAR results, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Scharre, D.L.

    1981-09-01

    New results from SPEAR on the inclusive photon spectrum at the psi' and on J/psi radiative transitions are presented. Evidence for an eta/sub c/' candidate is observed in the psi' inclusive photon spectrum at a mass M = 3592 +- 5 MeV. A new resonance, the theta(1640) which is observed to decay into eta eta, has been seen in radiative transitions from the J/psi. The spin-parity of the l(1440), previously observed in J/psi radiative transitions and originally identified as the E(1420), has been determined to be 0/sup -/.

  7. Planck 2015 Cosmological results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tristram, Matthieu

    2015-08-01

    On behalf of the Planck collaboration, I will present the cosmological results from the 2015 release. The new release now include polarization data from both the LFI and the HFI.I will focus on the impact of the polarization on both the standard LCDM model and its basic extensions. I will compare these constraints with other cosmological probes such as BAO, gravitational lensing and redshift space distortions.LCDM is still a very good fit of the Planck CMB data. The scalar fluctuations are consistent with adiabatic modes.

  8. Results of railgun experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    During the 1979 Megagauss II conference the hypervelocity potential of railguns and the pulsed power technology needed to power them were discussed. Since then, many laboratories have initiated railgun R and D projects for a variety of potential applications. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories initiated a collaborative experimental railgun project which resulted in several successes in accelerating projectiles to high velocities, emphasized the limits on railgun operation, and indicated that the numerical modeling of railgun operation was in good agreement with the experiments.

  9. Recent Results from WMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the Big Bang and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.

  10. Preliminary results of DISTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedfer, Y.

    1998-05-01

    DISTO is a spectrometer experiment installed at Saturne in Saclay to study strangeness production in p¯p reactions. It has entered its production phase in the second semester of 1996 and is to complete it by the time Saturne closes at the end of 1997. Preliminary results bearing on the two main items of its physics program. viz. polarization in associated hyperon production and OZ1 rule assessment in vector meson production, and obtained at 2.85 GeV are presented.

  11. Tevatron Higgs Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Aaron

    2009-12-17

    We present the latest results of searches for the production of Higgs bosons at the Tevatron collider in the D0 and CDF experiments. Cross section times branching ratios have been measured in many different topologies and have been interpreted in both the standard model and other models. No evidence for the production of Higgs bosons has been observed, but limits have been set. The D0 and CDF searches in the standard model have been combined and for the first time we exclude part of the possible mass range, 160 GeV to 170 GeV at the 95% confidence level.

  12. Recent Results from Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, D.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Atroshchenko, V.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Carlini, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, A.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Jeschke, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Borexino experiment is taking data since 2007 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy accomplishing outstanding achievements in the field of neutrino physics. Its success is strongly based on the unprecedented ultra-high radio-purity of the inner scintillator core. The main features of the detector and the impressive results for solar and geo-neutrinos obtained by Borexino so far are summarized. The main focus is laid on the most recent results, i.e. the first real-time measurement of the solar pp neutrino flux and the detection of the signal induced by geo-neutrinos with a significance as high as 5.9σ. The measurement of the pp neutrino flux represents a direct probe of the major mechanism of energy production in the Sun and its observation at a significance of 10σ proves the stability of the Sun over a time of at least 105 years. It further puts Borexino in the unique position of being capable to test the MSW-LMA paradigm across the whole solar energy range. The geo-neutrino data allow to infer information concerning important geophysical properties of the Earth that are also discussed. The perspectives of the final stage of the Borexino solar neutrino program that are centered on the goal of measuring the CNO neutrinos that so far escaped any observation are outlined.

  13. Spacelab Science Results Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  14. First results from CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy

    2011-10-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS superconducting linac facility aims at providing low energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics, astrophysics and application issues. These beams are obtained from fission fragments of a 1 Ci 252Cf source, thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge breed to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. The method described is fast and universal and short-lived isotope yield scale essentially with Californium fission yields. The facility is now commissioned and operating with a 100 mCi source which has yielded extracted low-energy mass separated radioactive beams at intensities in excess of 100000 ions per second. Radioactive beams have been charge bred with an efficiency of up to 12% and reaccelerated to 6 MeV/u. Commissioning results, together with the results from first astrophysics experiments at CARIBU using the beams from the 100 mCi source will be presented. The final 1 Ci source is currently under fabrication and is expected to be installed by the end of the year. This work was supported by the US DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  15. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC.

  16. Maquet Osteotomy, Results

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jorge Luis; Vega, Marcelo; Matesevach, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives are to assess the results and to discuss the indications for Maquet osteotomy in patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Methods: Retrospective study of a series of 32 patients (4 bilateral, that is to say, 36 knees) operated between March 1999 and October 2013 in " Arthroscopy Private Center ", 12 male and 20 female, average age 59 years with an average postoperative surgery outcomes of 53 months. The technique consists of an arthroscopic procedure to treat joint lesions and a tibial tuberosity osteotomy of 5 cm long, by embedding a 1cm subsequent graft taken from the same metaphysis and fixed with 2 screws. Results: All patients had significant improvement, evaluated with Kujala’s score (54 points preop to 86 points postop) and Guillamon Ferguson’s criteria (27.2 very good and 60.7 good). The complication rate was acceptable. Conclusion: The available technics are surgeries on proximal soft structures, osteotomies of tibial tuberosity and patellofemoral arthroplasty. Maquet osteotomy is an excellent procedure when the patient’s selection is right. Obtaining the graft from the same metaphysis simplified the procedure.

  17. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  18. Recent Results from HAPPEX

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Michaels

    2006-09-18

    New measurements of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering of 3GeV electrons off hydrogen and helium-4 targets at theta{sub lab} = 6 degrees are reported. The helium-4 result is A = (+6.40 {+-} 0.23 (stat) {+-} 0.12 (syst)) * 10{sup -6}. The hydrogen result is A = (-1.58 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.04 (syst)) * 10{sup -6}. The asymmetry for hydrogen is a function of a linear combination of G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s}, the strange quark contributions to the electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon respectively, and that for helium-4 is a function solely of G{sub E}{sup s}. The combination of the two measurements separates G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} and provide new limits on the role of strange quarks in the nucleon charge and magnetization distributions. We extract G{sub E}{sup s} = 0.002 {+-} 0.014 {+-} 0.007 at Q{sup 2} = 0.077 GeV{sup 2} and G{sub E}{sup s} + 0.09 G{sub M}{sup s} = 0.007 {+-} 0.011 {+-} 0.006 at Q{sup 2} = 0.109 GeV{sup 2}.

  19. CDF results on top

    SciTech Connect

    Beretvas, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1995-08-01

    CDF has established the existence of the top quark. Results from p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV are presented. In the dilepton final state the authors found seven events with a background of 1.3 {+-} 0.3. In the e, {mu} + {nu} + jets channel with a b identified via a secondary vertex detector (SVX), they found twenty one events with a background of 5.5 {+-} 1.8. They measure the top quark mass to be 176 {+-} 8 (stat) {+-} 10 (syst) GeV/c{sup 2}, and the t{anti t} production cross section to be 7.6{sub {minus}2.0}{sup +2.4} pb. The integrated luminosity for the results presented in this talk is 67 pb{sup {minus}1}. The CDF detector needs to be upgraded for the next run. The integrated luminosity for the next run is expected to be more than 1,000 pb{sup {minus}1}.

  20. AMT experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Pinck, Deborah S.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) experiments have provided a terminal technology testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications (satcom). Such a system could prove to be highly beneficial for many different commercial and government mobile satcom users. Combining ACTS' highly concentrated spotbeams with the smaller, higher-gain Ka-band antenna technology, results in a system design that can support a much higher throughput capacity than today's commercial configurations. To date, experiments in such diverse areas as emergency medical applications, enhanced Personal Communication Services (PCS), disaster recovery assistance, military applications, and general voice and data services have already been evaluated. Other applications that will be evaluated over the next year include telemedicine, ISDN, and television network return feed. Baseline AMT performance results will be presented, including Bit Error Rate (BER) curves and mobile propagation data characterizing the K- and Ka-band mobile satcom channel. In addition, observations from many of the application-specific experiments will also be provided.

  1. AMT experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Pinck, Deborah S.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) experiments have provided a terminal technology testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications (satcom). Such a system could prove to be highly beneficial for many different commercial and government mobile satcom users. Combining ACTS' highly concentrated spotbeams with the smaller, higher-gain Ka-band antenna technology, results in a system design that can support a much higher throughput capacity than today's commercial configurations. To date, experiments in such diverse areas as emergency medical applications, enhanced Personal Communication Services (PCS), disaster recovery assistance, military applications, and general voice and data services have already been evaluated. Other applications that will be evaluated over the next year include telemedicine, ISDN, and television network return feed. Baseline AMT performance results will be presented, including Bit Error Rate (BER) curves and mobile propagation data characterizing the K- and Ka-band mobile satcom channel. In addition, observations from many of the application-specific experiments will also be provided.

  2. Recent Results from ARGUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Henning

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II at DESY new results on beauty and τ physics have been obtained. In particular, new measurements on fundamental constants in the Yukawa sector of the Standard Model are presented. These comprise measurements of CKM matrix elements from the study of B decays as well as determinations of properties of the τ lepton and its neutrino vτ. From semileptonic B decays ARGUS finds |Vcb|=0.050±0.008±0.007 and from B0 bar B0 mixing |Vtd|= 0.007±0.002. An analysis of the decay type τ-→π-π-π+ντ yields a τ mass of mτ=(1776.3±2.4±1.4) MeV/c2. This result also leads to an improvement of the upper limit on the m{ν r } < 31 {{{MeV}} {/ {{{MeV}} {{c}{2} }}} ; } {{c}{2} }} at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Unfavourable results in pollicisation

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Nehete, Sushil; Garude, Kirti; Mehta, Rujuta

    2013-01-01

    Pollicisation of the index finger is perhaps one of the most complex and most rewarding operations in hand and plastic surgery. It however has a steep learning curve and demands very high skill levels and experience. There are multiple pitfalls and each can result in an unfavourable result. In essence we need to: Shorten the Index, recreate the carpo metacarpal joint from the metacarpo phalangeal (MP) joint, rotate the digit by about 120° for pulp to pulp pinch, palmarly abduct by 40-50° to get a new first web gap, Shorten and readjust the tension of the extensors, re attach the intrinsics to form a thenar eminence capable of positioning the new thumb in various functional positions and finally close the flaps forming a new skin envelope. The author has performed over 75 pollicisations personally and has personal experience of some of the issues raised there. The steps mentioned therefore are an algorithm for helping the uninitiated into these choppy waters. PMID:24501467

  4. Transient tinnitus suppression induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fregni, F; Marcondes, R; Boggio, P S; Marcolin, M A; Rigonatti, S P; Sanchez, T G; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A

    2006-09-01

    Modulation of activity in the left temporoparietal area (LTA) by 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) results in a transient reduction of tinnitus. We aimed to replicate these results and test whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of LTA could yield similar effect. Patients with tinnitus underwent six different types of stimulation in a random order: 10-Hz rTMS of LTA, 10-Hz rTMS of mesial parietal cortex, sham rTMS, anodal tDCS of LTA, cathodal tDCS of LTA and sham tDCS. A non-parametric analysis of variance showed a significant main effect of type of stimulation (P = 0.002) and post hoc tests showed that 10-Hz rTMS and anodal tDCS of LTA resulted in a significant reduction of tinnitus. These effects were short lasting. These results replicate the findings of the previous study and, in addition, show preliminary evidence that anodal tDCS of LTA induces a similar transient tinnitus reduction as high-frequency rTMS.

  5. Results from TOTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Karsten

    2013-06-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC is focussed on the measurement of the elastic proton-proton scattering, the total pp cross-section, and all kinds of diffractive phenomena. Detectors housed in "Roman Pots" which can be moved close to the outgoing proton beams allow to trigger on elastic and diffractive protons and to determine their parameters like the momentum loss and the transverse momentum transfer. In addition, charged particle detectors in the forward regions detect almost all inelastic events. Together with the CMS detector, a large solid angle is covered enabling precise studies of Min. Bias as well as Single Diffractive and Double Pomeron Interactions. The results will considerably help the interpretation of the Cosmic Ray Showers at highest energies and will give insight into the proton structure and the QCD theory of strong interactions. TOTEM measured the elastic pp- scattering over a large range of t (the squared momentum transfer) from 10-3 - 4 GeV2. Noneof the considered models could yield a satisfactory fit over the complete range. However, the exponential slope at low |t|-values and the position of the diffractiveminimum are well within the extrapolation from lower energies. The total pp cross-section has been determined in different ways from the extrapolation of the elasticscattering to t=0 (optical point) and the inelastic rate: (i) From the elastic scattering using the optical theorem and the CMS, (ii) luminosity independently, usingthe inelastic rate, elastic scattering and the optical theorem, (iii)ρ independently, by using elastic scattering, inelastic rate and the CMS luminosity. The results for the total crosssection obtained from the different methods are in excellent agreement with each other. First studies of the data on diffractive phenomena havebeen performed by correlating the momentum loss of the forward protons with the topology of the particle flux. The data look very promising and further studies will follow. Since the

  6. Recent MAGSAT results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Meyer, et al. have improved their original global crustal model and made a spherical harmonic analysis of the resulting magnetic field to n=50. The Z contours at 400 Km altitude from a field model composed of the first 15 degrees and order of their model and the terms n=16 to 29 from the MAGSAT model M051782 are presented. The main point to consider from such representations is that the lower order terms appear to contribute components comparable in magnitude to those of higher order. Thus, one should allow in making tectonic interpretations of global maps of anomalies such as those published by Langel, that there are likely continental scale (or smaller) features that have been removed along with the core field by the subtraction of the terms n=1 to 13 of the observed field. Planning for the analysis of data to be accrued by GRM should thus address this problem.

  7. FIRE Science Results 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, David S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program formed in 1984 to increase the basic understanding of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems, to develop realistic parameterizations for these systems, and to validate and improve ISCCP cloud product retrievals. Presentations of results culminating the first 5 years of FIRE research activities were highlighted. The 1986 Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO), the 1987 Marine Stratocumulus IFO, the Extended Time Observations (ETO), and modeling activities are described. Collaborative efforts involving the comparison of multiple data sets, incorporation of data measurements into modeling activities, validation of ISCCP cloud parameters, and development of parameterization schemes for General Circulation Models (GCMs) are described.

  8. System results from FRECOPA

    SciTech Connect

    Durin, C.; Berthoud, L.; Mandeville, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    The work carried out over the past three years on FRECOPA and the LDEF has enabled a large quantity of information to be collected, part of which has already been exploited. As far as CNES is concerned, the major spin-offs of this mission mainly focus on the orbital environment and the behavior of materials in such an environment. With respect to the environment, the authors shall develop the lessons learned from expert appraisals on impacts by microparticles, which are the main feature observed in this area. As for the materials, the results show a variety of behavior when subjected to the space environment and even now constitute a wealth of information for the designing and validation of future mechanical systems. Apart from these direct spin-offs, there are repercussions on in-flight and ground testing, the calibration of test benches and improvements to simulation models.

  9. System results from FRECOPA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durin, Christian; Berthoud, Lucinda; Mandeville, Jean-Claude

    1995-01-01

    The work carried out over the past three years on FRECOPA and the LDEF has enabled a large quantity of information to be collected, part of which has already been exploited. As far as CNES is concerned, the major spin-offs of this mission mainly focus on the orbital environment and the behavior of materials in such an environment. With respect to the environment, the authors shall develop the lessons learned from expert appraisals on impacts by microparticles, which are the main feature observed in this area. As for the materials, the results show a variety of behavior when subjected to the space environment and even now constitute a wealth of information for the designing and validation of future mechanical systems. Apart from these direct spin-offs, there are repercussions on in-flight and ground testing, the calibration of test benches and improvements to simulation models.

  10. Top physics: CDF results

    SciTech Connect

    K. Bloom

    2004-06-23

    The top quark plays an important role in the grand scheme of particle physics, and is also interesting on its own merits. We present recent results from CDF on top-quark physics based on 100-200 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data. We have measured the t{bar t} cross section in different decay modes using several different techniques, and are beginning our studies of top-quark properties. New analyses for this conference include a measurement of {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in the lepton-plus-jets channel using a neural net to distinguish signal and background events, and measurements of top-quark branching fractions.

  11. Undulator Transportation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Horton, Nick; Kharakh, David; Levashov, Yurii; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Poling, Ben; Reese, Ed; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    A test was performed to determine whether transporting and handling the undulators makes any changes to their properties. This note documents the test. No significant changes to the test undulator were observed. After the LCLS undulators are tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF), they must be transported to storage buildings and transported to the tunnel. It has been established that the undulators are sensitive to temperature. We wish to know whether the undulators are also sensitive to the vibrations and shocks of transportation. To study this issue, we performed a test in which an undulator was measured in the MMF, transported to the tunnel, brought back to the MMF, and re-measured. This note documents the test and the results.

  12. Test results: EMIR optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, S.; Gonzalez, C.; Manescau, A.; Abreu, D.; Becerril, S.; Correa, S.; Fragoso, A.; Perez, J.; Redondo, P.; Restrepo, R.; Saavedra, P.; Sanchez, V.; Tenegi, F.; Garzon, F.; Patron, J.

    2005-08-01

    EMIR is a NIR multiobject spectrograph with imaging capabilities to be used at the GTC. The first collimator lens in EMIR, made of Fused Silica, has an outer diameter of 490 mm, and a weight of 265 N, which make it one of the largest Fused Silica lenses ever mounted to work under cryogenic conditions. The results of the various tests being done at the IAC (with two different lens dummies) in order to validate a mounting design concept for this lens, are presented here. The radial support concept tested consists of three contact areas around the lens, one of which is a PTFE block, preloaded by coil springs and the other two are fixed supports made of Aluminum and PTFE, dimensioned in order to keep lens centered both at room temperature and under operation conditions.

  13. Recent Results from Phobos

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Edmundo; Betts, R. R.; Garcia, E.; Halliwell, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Sagerer, J.; Smith, C. E.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; George, N.; Hauer, M.; Holzman, B.; Pak, R.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.

    2007-02-12

    The PHOBOS detector is one of four heavy ion experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper we will review some of the results of PHOBOS from the data collected in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies up to 200 GeV. Evidence is found of the formation of a very high energy density and highly interactive system, which can not be described in terms of hadrons, and has a relatively low baryon density. There is evidence that the system formed is thermalized to a certain degree. Scaling with the number of participants and extended longitudinal scaling behavior are also observed in distributions of produced charged particles.

  14. MRC testing and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akins, A. J.; Romano, B. C.; Waugh, C. W.

    A media resource controller (MRC) advanced development model (ADM) has been developed. The MRC is a device that provides adaptive routing of data and voice traffic over a multimedia, packet switch network. Five MRC ADMs and a network evaluator and simulator (which allows the simulation of additional MRC nodes) will provide a testbed evaluation capability. The testbed is being used to investigate the operational benefits that can be gained by using a multimedia tactical communications network and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the MRC. An overview is given of the MRC design, with an emphasis on the relationship between operational goals and design choices. The test approach, evaluation criteria, and preliminary test results are discussed.

  15. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  16. Latest results of OPERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meregaglia, A.; OPERA Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino experiment which took data between 2008 and 2012 having for goal the observation of the νμ →ντ transition in appearance mode i.e. detecting the τ lepton. The detector was located in the underground Gran Sasso laboratory, 730 km away from the CNGS neutrino beam production at CERN. The collaboration observed 5 ντ candidates which, considering the very low expected background of 0.25 events, allowed for a discovery claim of neutrino oscillation in appearance mode at the level of 5.1 σ. Additional analyses were performed aiming at the possible observation of the νμ →νe transition, and at the search for anomalies related to the possible existence of a sterile neutrino. In this paper, after a short introduction describing the detector, the different results are presented on both oscillation channels including standard 3 flavour scenario and possible new physics.

  17. Results of patch tests

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to construct, install, and operate a patch testing unit on a hot gas stream at a coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler. A 2,000-hour patch test was conducted on ceramic disks of materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic cross-flow filters. The primary issues addressed in these tests were the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long-term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse-cleaning systems. Results on three samples, or patches, 10 cm in diameter are given.

  18. 2012 election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2012-10-01

    On 4 October 2012, AGU members completed voting for the 2013-2014 leadership term. Union officers, Board members, section and focus group officers, and student and early career representatives to the Council were elected. All members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 were eligible to vote in this year's leadership election. The vote was held electronically, and access to voting was provided to all eligible voters for a period of 31 days. The voting was conducted by Survey and Ballot Systems, Inc. (SBS). SBS, which offers election planning and management services, provided unique login credentials and other support services for eligible voters throughout the election. Voting results were certified by SBS on 8 October and by the AGU Tellers Committee on 9 October. The overall participation rate was 21.9%, an increase over previous AGU elections.

  19. Viscosupplementation: techniques, indications, results.

    PubMed

    Legré-Boyer, V

    2015-02-01

    Viscosupplementation by hyaluronic acid (HA) injections is frequently used for local treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), due to ease of use and good tolerance. A profusion of linear or reticulated HA derivates are marketed, with varied characters and levels of evidence. Viscosupplementation has demonstrated moderate but significant efficacy (20%) versus placebo in terms of pain and function, with a high rate of responders (60-70%) in knee osteoarthritis. It allows reduced administration of opioid analgesics and NSAIDs, with improved risk/benefit ratio, and may delay joint replacement. Cartilage protection remains to be proven. Clinical efficacy shows 1-4 weeks' later onset than corticosteroids, but is maintained for 6 or even 12 months. Systematic association of corticosteroid and HA injection is not justified, and an interval has to be left before undertaking arthroplasty. Intra-articular injection of HA requires a skilled specialist, and may be difficult in a non-swollen joint; some tips and tricks may be helpful. In other joints than the knee, radiologic or ultrasound guidance is recommended. The efficacy of viscosupplementation is a matter of ongoing debate, after discordant findings in some meta-analyses. Some poor results may be due to inappropriate use of HA injections, poorly adapted to the patient's OA phenotype. Viscosupplementation is a treatment for chronic moderate symptomatic OA, and not for flares with joint swelling. Application in sport-related chondropathy has yet to be properly assessed. The optimal response profile remains to be determined. The ideal indication in the knee seems to be moderate femorotibial OA without swelling. Results have been generally disappointing in hip osteoarthritis but promising in OA of the ankle and shoulder (with and without rotator cuff tear). Further studies are needed to determine response profile and optimal treatment schedule, according to the joint.

  20. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration

    1996-10-01

    The LSND (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations using muon neutrinos from antimuon decay at rest. The electron antineutrinos are detected via the reaction electron antineutrino + proton {r_arrow} positron + neutron, correlated with the 2.2-MeV gamma from neutron + proton {r_arrow} deuteron + gamma. The use of tight cuts to identify positron events with correlated gamma rays yields 22 events with positron energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup -8}. A chi-squared fit to the entire positron sample results in a total excess of 51.8 {sup +18.7}{sub -16.9} {+-} 8.0 events with positron energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of (0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05){percent}. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; LSND Collaboration

    1997-11-01

    The LSND experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations using {anti v}{sub {mu}} from {mu}{sup +} decay at rest. The {anti v}{sub e} are detected via the reaction {anti v}{sub e} p {yields} e{sup +}n, correlated with the 2.2 MeV {gamma} from n p {yields} d {gamma}. The use of tight cuts to identify e{sup +} events with correlated {gamma} rays yielded 22 events with e{sup +} energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}. A {chi}{sup 2} fit to the entire e{sup +} sample results in a total excess of 51.8{sub {minus}16.9}{sup +18.7} {+-} 8.0 events with e{sup +} energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of 0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05%.

  2. SAA drift: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  3. Recent Dama Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Montecchia, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, J. M.; Ye, Z. P.

    2006-04-01

    DAMA is an observatory for rare processes and it is operative deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. The experiment developes and uses low background scintillator for rare processes investigation. In this paper, after a short presentation of the main DAMA set-ups, the DAMA/NaI apparatus (≃ 100 kg highly radiopure NaI(Tl)) and its main results in the Dark Matter field will be addressed. This experiment, in particular, has effectively investigated the presence of a Dark Matter particle component in the galactic halo by exploiting the model-independent annual modulation signature over seven annual cycles (total exposure of 107731 kg × day), obtaining a 6.3 σ C.L. model-independent evidence for such a presence. In addition, some corollary model-dependent quests to investigate the nature of a candidate particle will be recalled. The new additional analysis for a pseudoscalar and for a scalar bosonic candidate (whose detection only involves electrons and photons/X-rays) will be addressed as well. Some perspectives of the second generation DAMA/LIBRA set-up (≃ 250 kg highly radiopure NaI(Tl)), presently in measurement deep underground, will be mentioned.

  4. Results from SNO

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Yuen-dat

    2001-10-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is an underground heavy water Cherenkov detector for studying solar neutrinos. SNO is capable of performing both flavor sensitive and flavor blind measurements of the solar neutrino flux. The first charged current (CC) measurement is found to be: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) = 1.75 {+-} 0.07(stat.){sub -0.11}{sup +0.12}(sys.) {+-} 0.05 (theor.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the elastic scattering fluxes (ES) is: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup ES}({nu}{sub x}) = 2.39 {+-} 0.34(stat.){sub -0.14}{sup +0.16} (sys.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) result, when combined with the high statistics elastic scattering (ES) measurement from Super-Kamiokande, provide a strong evidence for solar neutrino flavor transformation (3.3{sigma}). The deduced total solar neutrino flux is in good agreement with standard solar model predictions. No significant distortion in the energy spectrum is observed.

  5. ALICE TPC commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. T.; Alice Tpc Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE is a dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN LHC aiming to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. A lead-lead collision might produce several 10 00 new particles. Detailed study of the event requires precise measurements of the particle tracks. A 90 m3 Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with more than 500 000 read-out pads was built as the main central barrel tracker. Collisions can be recorded at a rate of up to about 1 kHz. The front-end electronics, designed from FPGAs and custom ASICs, performs shaping, amplification, digitisation and digital filtering of the signals. The data are forwarded to DAQ via 216 1.25 Gb/s fibre-optical links. Configuration, control and monitoring is done by an embedded Linux system on the front-end electronics. Before production runs with beam, extensive commissioning using tracks from cosmics and from the laser system as well as clusters from radioactive krypton gas is needed. Extensive results have been obtained with respect to the performance of the TPC including its sub-systems.

  6. Databases for LDEF results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the team supporting the LDEF Systems and Materials Special Investigative Groups is to develop databases of experimental findings. These databases identify the hardware flown, summarize results and conclusions, and provide a system for acknowledging investigators, tracing sources of data, and future design suggestions. To date, databases covering the optical experiments, and thermal control materials (chromic acid anodized aluminum, silverized Teflon blankets, and paints) have been developed at Boeing. We used the Filemaker Pro software, the database manager for the Macintosh computer produced by the Claris Corporation. It is a flat, text-retrievable database that provides access to the data via an intuitive user interface, without tedious programming. Though this software is available only for the Macintosh computer at this time, copies of the databases can be saved to a format that is readable on a personal computer as well. Further, the data can be exported to more powerful relational databases, capabilities, and use of the LDEF databases and describe how to get copies of the database for your own research.

  7. Simpler images, better results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton

    1999-03-01

    The very rapid development of optical technology has followed a pattern similar to that of nuclear magnetic resonance: first, spectroscopy and then imaging. The accomplishments in spectroscopy have been significant--among them, early detection of hematomas and quantitative oximetry (assuming that time and frequency domain instruments are used). Imaging has progressed somewhat later. The first images were obtained in Japan and USA a few years ago, particularly of parietal stimulation of the human brain. Since then, rapid applications to breast and limb, together with higher resolution of the brain now make NIR imaging of functional activation and tumor detection readily available, reliable and affordable devices. The lecture has to do with the applications of imaging to these three areas, particularly to prefrontal imaging of cognitive function, of breast tumor detection, and of localized muscle activation in exercise. The imaging resolution achievable in functional activation appears to be FWHM of 4 mm. The time required for an image is a few seconds or even much less. Breast image detection at 50 microsecond(s) ec/pixel results in images obtainable in a few seconds or shorter times (bandwidths of the kHz are available). Finally, imaging of the body organs is under study in this laboratory, particularly in the in utero fetus. It appears that the photon migration theory now leads to the development of a wide number of images for human subject tissue spectroscopy and imaging.

  8. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  9. Results of hip resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Favetti, Fabio; Casella, Filippo; Papalia, Matteo; Panegrossi, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Background The renewed popularity of resurfacing hip arthroplasty in the last 10 years has generated a remarkable quantity of scientific contributions based on mid- and short-term follow-up. More than one paper has reported a consistent early revision rate as a consequence of biological or biomechanical failure. Two major complications are commonly described with resurfacing implants: avascular necrosis and femoral-neck fracture. A close relationship between these two events has been suggested, but not firmly demonstrated, whereas cementing technique seems to be better understood as potential cause of failure. Methods We performed an in vitro study in which four different resurfacing implants were evaluated with a simulated femoral head, two types of cement, (low and high viscosity) and two cementing techniques: direct (cement apposition directly on the femoral head) and indirect (cement poured into the femoral component). Results High-viscosity cement showed homogeneous distribution over the entire femoral head. Low-viscosity cement showed a massive polar concentration with insufficient, if not absent, distribution in the equatorial zone. Conclusion Polar cement concentration could be a risk factor for early implant failure due to two effects on the femoral head: biological (excessive local exothermic reaction could cause osteocyte necrosis) and biomechanical (which could lead to uneven load distribution on the femoral head). PMID:21234563

  10. CTF Challenge: Result Summary

    PubMed Central

    Marabini, Roberto; Carragher, Bridget; Chen, Shaoxia; Chen, James; Cheng, Anchi; Downing, Kenneth H.; Frank, Joachim; Grassucci, Robert A.; Heymann, J. Bernard; Jiang, Wen; Jonic, Slavica; Liao, Hstau Y.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Patwari, Shail; Piotrowski, Angela L.; Quintana, Adrian; Sorzano, Carlos O.S.; Stahlberg, Henning; Vargas, Javier; Voss, Neil R.; Chiu, Wah; Carazo, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Image formation in bright field electron microscopy can be described with the help of the contrast transfer function (CTF). In this work the authors describe the “CTF Estimation Challenge”, called by the Madrid Instruct Image Processing Center (I2PC) in collaboration with the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) at Houston. Correcting for the effects of the CTF requires accurate knowledge of the CTF parameters, but these have often been difficult to determine. In this challenge, researchers have had the opportunity to test their ability in estimating some of the key parameters of the electron microscope CTF on a large micrograph data set produced by well-known laboratories on a wide set of experimental conditions. This work presents the first analysis of the results of the CTF Estimation Challenge, including an assessment of the performance of the different software packages under different conditions, so as to identify those areas of research where further developments would be desirable in order to achieve high-resolution structural information. PMID:25913484

  11. SWAT laboratory test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenti, Ronald R.; Murphy, Daniel V.

    1993-03-01

    The non-cooperative-target beam-control problem has been the subject of intense investigation since the synthetic-beacon concept was first introduced to the high-energy-laser community in 1982. While numerous analytical studies and computer simulations have been performed to evaluate the practical utility of this phase-measurement technique, prior to Lincoln Laboratory's SWAT (Short-Wavelength Adaptive Techniques) program, no experimental verification had been obtained. In the first phase of the SWAT investigation, completed in 1985, a high degree of correlation between differential-phase measurements from natural and artificial sources was demonstrated. The next phase of the SWAT program will be performed at the AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical Station) facility in Maui, where a 241-actuator adaptive-optics system and an array of six dye lasers will be integrated with the site's 60-cm beam director. Prior to shipment, the adaptive-optics subsystem was subjected to a thorough laboratory evaluation, which culminated in a series of compensation tests involving simulated beacon sources. The results of these measurements are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and provide strong evidence of the efficacy of the synthetic-beacon approach.

  12. Climax granite test results

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-01-15

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

  13. [SENTIERI Project: results].

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Pirastu, Roberta; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Minelli, Giada; Manno, Valerio; Bruno, Caterina; Fazzo, Lucia; Iavarone, Ivano; Pasetto, Roberto; Ricci, Paolo; Zona, Amerigo; Conti, Susanna; Comba, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Of the 18 National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) analysed in this Report, some have a single source of environmental contamination (such as fluoro-edenite in Biancavilla). In most cases, however, we are looking at multiple heterogeneous sources of contamination. In this respect, the a priori causal evaluation of the association between diseases and environmental exposures in NPCSs, based on epidemiological evidence, can help trace the health impact back to specific types of environmental exposure. There are several cases in which the project's findings have been consistent with a priori evidence: stomach cancer (both genders, excess cancer incidence) in the Fidenza NPCS; stomach cancer (women, excess mortality, cancer incidence and hospital discharges) in the Laguna di Grado e Marano NPCS; excess hospitalisation from respiratory diseases in Brescia-Caffaro, Milazzo and Terni Papigno NPCSs; excesses for non-Hodgkin lymphomas and melanoma (incidence and hospitalisation in men and women) and breast cancer (incidence and hospital discharges, women) in Brescia-Caffaro NPCS. In preorder to properly evaluate the population's health profile, we must also observe whether results remain consistent for all three health outcomes or in both genders. The first is the case of excess mortality, cancer incidence and hospital discharges for bladder cancer (men) in Porto Torres and diseases of the urinary tract in the Basso bacino del fiume Chienti NPCS). Gender consistency is observed, for instance, for all cancer in Bolzano, Porto Torres, Venice, Litorale Domizio Flegreo, Priolo, and Taranto, for all causes in Taranto, Litorale Domizio Flegreo and Trieste. The health impact in the various NPCSs needs to be considered carefully and used as a springboard for further analytical research that could confirm and explain causal links to specific environmental exposures. The observations can, however, already be considered as a basis for mandatory primary prevention measures.

  14. Overview of MAST results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bigelow, T.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, P.; Carr, M.; Caughman, J.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W. A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Diallo, A.; Dickinson, D.; Diem, S.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fox, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gibson, K.; Graves, J.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawke, J.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Holgate, J.; Horacek, J.; Howard, J.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Leggate, H.; Lilley, M.; Lipschultz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A. W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O'Brien, M.; O'Gorman, T.; Ono, Y.; Oliver, H.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Podesta, M.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ren, Y.; Roach, C.; Robinson, J.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Storrs, J.; Takase, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, D.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Walkden, N.; Wilson, H.; van Wyk, F.; Yamada, T.; Zoletnik, S.; MAST; MAST Upgrade Teams

    2015-10-01

    The Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) programme is strongly focused on addressing key physics issues in preparation for operation of ITER as well as providing solutions for DEMO design choices. In this regard, MAST has provided key results in understanding and optimizing H-mode confinement, operating with smaller edge localized modes (ELMs), predicting and handling plasma exhaust and tailoring auxiliary current drive. In all cases, the high-resolution diagnostic capability on MAST is complemented by sophisticated numerical modelling to facilitate a deeper understanding. Mitigation of ELMs with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidal mode number nRMP = 2, 3, 4, 6 has been demonstrated: at high and low collisionality; for the first ELM following the transition to high confinement operation; during the current ramp-up; and with rotating nRMP = 3 RMPs. nRMP = 4, 6 fields cause less rotation braking whilst the power to access H-mode is less with nRMP = 4 than nRMP = 3, 6. Refuelling with gas or pellets gives plasmas with mitigated ELMs and reduced peak heat flux at the same time as achieving good confinement. A synergy exists between pellet fuelling and RMPs, since mitigated ELMs remove fewer particles. Inter-ELM instabilities observed with Doppler backscattering are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations of micro-tearing modes in the pedestal. Meanwhile, ELM precursors have been strikingly observed with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) measurements. A scan in beta at the L-H transition shows that pedestal height scales strongly with core pressure. Gyro-Bohm normalized turbulent ion heat flux (as estimated from the BES data) is observed to decrease with increasing tilt of the turbulent eddies. Fast ion redistribution by energetic particle modes depends on density, and access to a quiescent domain with ‘classical’ fast ion transport is found above a critical density. Highly efficient electron Bernstein wave current drive (1 A W-1) has been achieved

  15. National Hospice Survey Results

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Melissa D.; Schlesinger, Mark; Barry, Colleen L.; Morrison, R. Sean; McCorkle, Ruth; Hürzeler, Rosemary; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of the substantial growth in for-profit hospices in the United States on quality and hospice access has been intensely debated, yet little is known about how for-profit and nonprofit hospices differ in activities beyond service delivery. OBJECTIVE To determine the association between hospice ownership and (1) provision of community benefits, (2) setting and timing of the hospice population served, and (3) community outreach. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional survey (the National Hospice Survey), conducted from September 2008 through November 2009, of a national random sample of 591 Medicare-certified hospices operating throughout the United States. EXPOSURES For-profit or nonprofit hospice ownership. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Provision of community benefits; setting and timing of the hospice population served; and community outreach. RESULTS A total of 591 hospices completed our survey (84% response rate). For-profit hospices were less likely than nonprofit hospices to provide community benefits including serving as training sites (55% vs 82%; adjusted relative risk [ARR], 0.67 [95% CI, 0.59–0.76]), conducting research (18% vs 23%; ARR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.46–0.99]), and providing charity care (80% vs 82%; ARR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.80–0.96]). For-profit compared with nonprofit hospices cared for a larger proportion of patients with longer expected hospice stays including those in nursing homes (30% vs 25%; P = .009). For-profit hospices were more likely to exceed Medicare’s aggregate annual cap (22% vs 4%; ARR, 3.66 [95% CI, 2.02–6.63]) and had a higher patient disenrollment rate (10% vs 6%; P < .001). For-profit were more likely than nonprofit hospices to engage in outreach to low-income communities (61% vs 46%; ARR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.05–1.44]) and minority communities (59% vs 48%; ARR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.02–1.38]) and less likely to partner with oncology centers (25% vs 33%; ARR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.44–0.80]). CONCLUSIONS AND

  16. GAUSS Project Trials Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fazio, Antonella; Vernucci, Antonio; Rossini, Eugenio

    2003-07-01

    , specifically operating in inland- waterways and roads. Safety-of-life applications for assisted vessel navigation and for management of hazardous goods (gas) transhipment over the Po river were thoroughly tested and assessed. Applications for emergency assistance, Point of Interest inquiry, localisation of commercial fleet were also proven.GAUSS successfully demonstrated integrated GNSS1 precise positioning based on EGNOS and satellite UMTS packet communication. The new technology with respect to the current state-of the art, developed within the project, was validated during the trial campaign, including the implemented broadcasting and multicasting communication of data packet compliant to 3GPP standard (current release 4). Horizontal accuracy better than 3-m was achieved in the trial area (Northern Italy - Lario - Como Lake, Parma and Po river areas), thanks to the navigation functions based on GPS signals augmented with SBAS techniques. The MTB (Mediterranean Test Bed) was utilised because of the poor performance coverage of the ESTB system over the Italian regions.In this paper, the results of the GAUSS trial campaign are reported, along with their assessment and evaluation in terms of possible enhancements and future exploitations.

  17. Ability of Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid to inhibit Vibrio anguillarum-induced inflammation and apoptosis in silvery pomfret (Pampus argenteus) intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Quanxin; Gao, Qian; Min, Minghua; Zhang, Chenjie; Peng, Shiming; Shi, Zhaohong

    2016-07-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major constituent of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. The structure and immunomodulation of LTA vary greatly between different species. LTA from Lactobacillus plantarum has been shown to exert anti-pathogenic effects. Vibrio anguillarum is a major causative agent of vibriosis, one of the most prevalent fish diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of L. plantarum LTA on V. anguillarum growth, adhesion, and induced inflammation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells of silvery pomfret (Pampus argenteus). Our results showed that L. plantarum LTA was unable to inhibit V. anguillarum growth; however, it significantly inhibited adhesion of V. anguillarum. It also showed significant inhibitory effects on EHEC-induced inflammation and apoptosis by modulating the expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB), Bcl2 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2), BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), IL-8 (interleukin 8) and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and via inhibition of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. These data extend our understanding of the beneficial effects of L. plantarum LTA, which is related to the inhibition of V. anguillarum, and suggest that L. plantarum LTA has potential as a new therapeutic agent against V. anguillarum-caused vibriosis in fish.

  18. Assembly of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei: mutants deficient in the D-alanyl ester content of this amphiphile

    SciTech Connect

    Ntamere, A.S.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

    1987-04-01

    D-Alanyl-lipoteichoic acid (D-alanyl-LTA) from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 contains a poly(glycerophosphate) moiety that is acylated with D-alanyl ester residues. The physiological function of these residues is not well understood. Five mutant strains of this organism that are deficient in the esters of this amphiphile were isolated and characterized. When compared with the parent, strains AN-1 and AN-4 incorporated less than 10% of D-(/sup 14/C)alanine into LTA, whereas AN-2, AN-3, and AN-5 incorporated 50%. The synthesis of D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA was virtually absent in the first group and was approximately 30% in the second group. The mutant strains synthesized and selected the glycolipid anchor for LTA assembly. In addition, all of the strains synthesized the poly(glycerophosphate) moiety of LTA to the same extent as did the parent or to a greater extent. It was concluded that the membranes from the mutant strains AN-1 and AN-4 are defective for D-alanylation of LTA even though acceptor LTA is present. Mutant strains AN-2 and AN-3 appear to be partially deficient in the amount of the D-alanine-activating enzyme. Aberrant morphology and defective cell separation appear to result from this deficiency in D-alanyl ester content.

  19. Lactobacillus sakei lipoteichoic acid inhibits MMP-1 induced by UVA in normal dermal fibroblasts of human.

    PubMed

    You, Ga-Eun; Jung, Bong-Jun; Kim, Hye-Rim; Kim, Han-Geun; Kim, Tae-Rahk; Chung, Dae-Kyun

    2013-10-28

    Human skin is continuously exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging. UVA increases the activity of MMP-1 in dermal fibroblasts through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38, signaling. The irradiation of keratinocytes by UVA results in the secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the stimulation of MMP-1 in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a component of the cell wall of gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. of bacteria. LTA is well known as an anti-inflammation molecule. LTA of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum has an anti-photoaging effect, but the potential anti-photoaging effect of the other bacteria has not been examined to date. The current study showed that L. sakei LTA (sLTA) has an immune modulating effect in human monocyte cells. Our object was whether inhibitory effects of sLTA on MMP-1 are caused from reducing the MAPK signal in NHDFs. It inhibits MMP-1 and MAPK signaling induced by UVA in NHDFs. We also confirmed effects of sLTA suppressing TNF-α inducing MMP-1 in NHDFs.

  20. KEY RESULTS FROM IRRADIATION AND POST-IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF AGR-1 UCO TRISO FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Petti, David A.; Morris, Robert N.

    2016-11-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment was performed as the first test of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel in the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment consisted of 72 right cylinder fuel compacts containing approximately 3×105 coated fuel particles with uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) fuel kernels. The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor for a total of 620 effective full power days. Fuel burnup ranged from 11.3 to 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom and time average, volume average irradiation temperatures of the individual compacts ranged from 955 to 1136°C. This paper focuses on key results from the irradiation and post-irradiation examination, which revealed a robust fuel with excellent performance characteristics under the conditions tested and have significantly improved the understanding of UCO coated particle fuel irradiation behavior within the US program. The fuel exhibited a very low incidence of TRISO coating failure during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing at temperatures up to 1800°C. Advanced PIE methods have allowed particles with SiC coating failure to be isolated and meticulously examined, which has elucidated the specific causes of SiC failure in these specimens. The level of fission product release from the fuel during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing has been studied in detail. Results indicated very low release of krypton and cesium through intact SiC and modest release of europium and strontium, while also confirming the potential for significant silver release through the coatings depending on irradiation conditions. Focused study of fission products within the coating layers of irradiated particles down to nanometer length scales has provided new insights into fission product transport through the coating layers and the role various fission products may have on coating integrity. The broader implications of these results and the application of