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Sample records for lth

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus carnosus LTH 3730

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anne; Weiss, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Specific strains of the apathogenic coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus carnosus are frequently used as meat starter cultures, as they contribute to color formation and the production of aroma compounds. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. carnosus LTH 3730, a strain isolated from a fermented fish product. PMID:27688338

  2. Activities in HPM effects phenomenology at LLNL under the DNA/SDI Lth-6 effort

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.; King, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    During the fiscal years 1984-1986, DNA funded an effort at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the SDI/Lth-6 program to develop models and to study the phenomenology of HPM interaction with systems. The effort concentrated on the following areas: linear coupling/modeling; linear coupling/experiments; nonlinear coupling/modeling; component failure/modeling; component characterization; and electronic subsystem characterization. This report sumarizes these subject areas.

  3. Microcystin-degrading activity of an indigenous bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila MC-LTH2 isolated from Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Zhou, Yuanlong; Yin, Lihong; Zhu, Guangcan; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) produced by harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) pose substantial threats to the ecosystem and public health due to their potential hepatotoxicity. Degradation of microcystins (MCs) by indigenous bacteria represents a promising method for removing MCs from fresh water without harming the aquatic environment, but only a few microcystin (MC)-degrading bacteria have been isolated and had their mechanisms reported. This study aimed to isolate indigenous bacteria from Lake Taihu, and investigate the capability and mechanism of MC degradation by these bacteria. During a Microcystis bloom, an indigenous MC-degrading bacterium designated MC-LTH2 was successfully isolated from Lake Taihu, and identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila based on phylogenetic analysis. In the presence of MC-LR together with MC-RR, the strain MC-LTH2 was capable of totally degrading both simultaneously in 8 days, at rates of 3.0 mg/(L⋅d) and 5.6 mg/(L⋅d), respectively. The degradation rates of MCs were dependent on temperature, pH, and initial MC concentration. Adda (3-amino-9-methoxy-2, 6, 8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4, 6-dienoic acid) was detected as an intermediate degradation product of MCs using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila capable of degrading two MC analogues and other compounds containing Adda residue completely under various conditions, although the mlrA gene in the strain was not detected. These results indicate the Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain MC-LTH2 possesses a significant potential to be used in bioremediation of water bodies contaminated by MC-LR and MC-RR, and is potentially involved in the degradation of MCs during the disappearance of the HCBs in Lake Taihu.

  4. Microcystin-Degrading Activity of an Indigenous Bacterial Strain Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila MC-LTH2 Isolated from Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Zhou, Yuanlong; Yin, Lihong; Zhu, Guangcan; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) produced by harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) pose substantial threats to the ecosystem and public health due to their potential hepatotoxicity. Degradation of microcystins (MCs) by indigenous bacteria represents a promising method for removing MCs from fresh water without harming the aquatic environment, but only a few microcystin (MC)-degrading bacteria have been isolated and had their mechanisms reported. This study aimed to isolate indigenous bacteria from Lake Taihu, and investigate the capability and mechanism of MC degradation by these bacteria. During a Microcystis bloom, an indigenous MC-degrading bacterium designated MC-LTH2 was successfully isolated from Lake Taihu, and identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila based on phylogenetic analysis. In the presence of MC-LR together with MC-RR, the strain MC-LTH2 was capable of totally degrading both simultaneously in 8 days, at rates of 3.0 mg/(L⋅d) and 5.6 mg/(L⋅d), respectively. The degradation rates of MCs were dependent on temperature, pH, and initial MC concentration. Adda (3-amino-9-methoxy-2, 6, 8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4, 6-dienoic acid) was detected as an intermediate degradation product of MCs using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila capable of degrading two MC analogues and other compounds containing Adda residue completely under various conditions, although the mlrA gene in the strain was not detected. These results indicate the Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain MC-LTH2 possesses a significant potential to be used in bioremediation of water bodies contaminated by MC-LR and MC-RR, and is potentially involved in the degradation of MCs during the disappearance of the HCBs in Lake Taihu. PMID:24416455

  5. Sodium Chloride Reduces Production of Curvacin A, a Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus curvatus Strain LTH 1174, Originating from Fermented Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain originating in fermented sausage, produces the antilisterial bacteriocin curvacin A. Its biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production as a function of various concentrations of salt (sodium chloride) were investigated in vitro during laboratory fermentations using modified MRS medium. A model was set up to describe the effects of different NaCl concentrations on microbial behavior. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were affected by changes in the salt concentration. Sodium chloride clearly slowed down the growth of L. curvatus LTH 1174, but more importantly, it had a detrimental effect on specific curvacin A production (kB) and hence on overall bacteriocin activity. Even a low salt concentration (2%, wt/vol) decreased bacteriocin production, while growth was unaffected at this concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaCl was mainly due to its role as an aw-lowering agent. Further, it was clear that salt interfered with bacteriocin induction. Additionally, when 6% (wt/vol) sodium chloride was added, the minimum biomass concentration necessary to start the production of curvacin A (XB) was 0.90 g (cell dry mass) per liter. Addition of the cell-free culture supernatant or a protein solution as a source of induction factor resulted in a decrease in XB, an increase in kB, and hence an increase in the maximum attainable bacteriocin activity. PMID:15066822

  6. Sodium chloride reduces production of curvacin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus strain LTH 1174, originating from fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain originating in fermented sausage, produces the antilisterial bacteriocin curvacin A. Its biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production as a function of various concentrations of salt (sodium chloride) were investigated in vitro during laboratory fermentations using modified MRS medium. A model was set up to describe the effects of different NaCl concentrations on microbial behavior. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were affected by changes in the salt concentration. Sodium chloride clearly slowed down the growth of L. curvatus LTH 1174, but more importantly, it had a detrimental effect on specific curvacin A production (k(B)) and hence on overall bacteriocin activity. Even a low salt concentration (2%, wt/vol) decreased bacteriocin production, while growth was unaffected at this concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaCl was mainly due to its role as an a(w)-lowering agent. Further, it was clear that salt interfered with bacteriocin induction. Additionally, when 6% (wt/vol) sodium chloride was added, the minimum biomass concentration necessary to start the production of curvacin A (X(B)) was 0.90 g (cell dry mass) per liter. Addition of the cell-free culture supernatant or a protein solution as a source of induction factor resulted in a decrease in X(B), an increase in k(B), and hence an increase in the maximum attainable bacteriocin activity.

  7. Comparison of the carbohydrate-binding specificities of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins LTh-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuta, S; Magnani, J L; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K; Ginsburg, V

    1988-01-01

    The heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli are related in structure and function. They are oligomers consisting of A and B polypeptide subunits. They bind to gangliosides, and they activate adenylate cyclase. The toxins form two antigenically distinct groups; members of each group cross-react but are not necessarily identical. Serogroup I includes cholera toxin (CT) and type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I) of E. coli. LTh-I and LTp-I are antigenic variants of LT-I produced by strains of E. coli from humans and pigs, respectively. Serogroup II contains the type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) of E. coli. Two antigenic variants designated LT-IIa and LT-IIb have been described. The binding of CT, LTh-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb to gangliosides was analyzed by immunostaining thin-layer chromatograms and by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. The four toxins have different glycolipid-binding specificities. LTh-I and CT bind strongly to ganglioside GM1 and less strongly to ganglioside GD1b. However, LTh-I, unlike CT, also binds weakly to GM2 and asialo GM1. LTh-I, like CT, probably binds to the terminal sugar sequence Gal beta 1-3GalNAc beta 1-4(NeuAc alpha 2-3)Gal . . ., where GalNAc is N-acetylgalactosamine and NeuAc is N-acetylneuraminic acid. LT-IIa probably binds to the same sugar sequence to which CT and LTh-I bind, with the additional contribution to binding of a second NeuAc as in GD1b and GD2. Also, LT-IIa must bind the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc . . . sequence in such a way that its binding is relatively unaffected by attachment of NeuAc to the terminal galactose residue as in GD1a, GT1b, and GQ1b. LT-IIb probably binds to the terminal sugar sequence NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GalNAc . . ., as it binds to gangliosides GD1a and GT1b but not to GM1. Images PMID:3290106

  8. Ability of Kocuria varians LTH 1540 To Degrade Putrescine: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Amine Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Sara; Sendra, Ramón; Ferrer, Sergi; Pardo, Isabel

    2015-04-29

    This work describes the identification and characterization of an amine oxidase from Kocuria varians LTH 1540 (syn. Micrococcus varians) primarily acting on putrescine. Data from MALDI-TOF MS/MS and the identification of Δ(1)-pyrroline as degradation product from putrescine indicate that the enzyme is a flavin-dependent putrescine oxidase (PuO). Properties of partially purified enzyme have been determined. The enzyme oxidizes diamines, putrescine and cadaverine, and, to a lesser extent, polyamines, such as spermidine, but not monoamines. The kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for the two major substrates were 94 ± 10 μM and 2.3 ± 0.1 μmol/min·mg for putrescine and 75 ± 5 μM and 0.15 ± 0.02 μmol/min·mg for cadaverine. Optimal temperature and pH were 45 °C and 8.5, respectively. Enzyme was stable until 50 °C. K. varians PuO is sensitive to human flavin-dependent amine oxidase inhibitors and carboxyl-modifying compounds. The new enzyme has been isolated from a bacterial starter used in the manufacture of fermented meat. One of the problems of fermented foods or beverages is the presence of toxic biogenic amines produced by bacteria. The importance of this works lies in the description of a new enzyme able to degrade two of the most abundant biogenic amines (putrescine and cadaverine), the use of which could be envisaged to diminish biogenic amines content in foods in the future.

  9. Effects of different spices used in production of fermented sausages on growth of and curvacin A production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-08-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (X(max)) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased X(max). Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing.

  10. Effects of Different Spices Used in Production of Fermented Sausages on Growth of and Curvacin A Production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174

    PubMed Central

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; de Vuyst, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (Xmax) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased Xmax. Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing. PMID:15294818

  11. GLANCE - calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Leif; Faria, Sérgio; Markandya, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Current annual global estimates of premature deaths from poor air quality are estimated in the range of 2.6-4.4 million, and 2050 projections are expected to double against 2010 levels. In Europe, annual economic burdens are estimated at around 750 bn €. Climate change will further exacerbate air pollution burdens; therefore, a better understanding of the economic impacts on human societies has become an area of intense investigation. European research efforts are being carried out within the MACC project series, which started in 2005. The outcome of this work has been integrated into a European capacity for Earth Observation, the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). In MACC/CAMS, key pollutant concentrations are computed at the European scale and globally by employing chemically-driven advanced transport models. The project GLANCE (calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE) aims at developing an integrated assessment model for calculating the health impacts and damage costs of air pollution at different physical scales. It combines MACC/CAMS (assimilated Earth Observations, an ensemble of chemical transport models and state of the art ECWMF weather forecasting) with downscaling based on in-situ network measurements. The strengthening of modelled projections through integration with empirical evidence reduces errors and uncertainties in the health impact projections and subsequent economic cost assessment. In addition, GLANCE will yield improved data accuracy at different time resolutions. This project is a multidisciplinary approach which brings together expertise from natural sciences and socio economic fields. Here, its general approach will be presented together with first results for the years 2007 - 2012 on the European scale. The results on health impacts and economic burdens are compared to existing assessments.

  12. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions.

  13. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  14. Analysis of antigenic determinants in cholera enterotoxin and heat-labile enterotoxins from human and porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Y; Honda, T; Sima, H; Tsuji, T; Miwatani, T

    1983-01-01

    Antigenic determinants of cholera enterotoxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin from a human strain (LTh) and a porcine strain (LTp) were analyzed by Ouchterlony double-gel diffusion test against anti-CT, anti-LTh, and anti-LTp, which were treated by immunoaffinity column chromatography. The results showed the existence of the following antigenic determinants: (i) antigenic determinants unique to CT, LTh, and LTp, respectively; (ii) an antigenic determinant common to CT, LTh, and LTp; (iii) an antigenic determinant common to CT and LTh, but not LTp; and (iv) an antigenic determinant common to LTh and LTp, but not CT. On the basis of these results, an antigenic scheme for CT, LTh, and LTp is proposed. Images PMID:6190758

  15. Complicated Airway Due to Unexpected Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Aarti Bhavesh; Davidian, Edward; Reebye, Uday

    2012-01-01

    We report an unexpected failed laryngeal mask airway in a patient with unrecognized lingual tonsil hypertrophy (LTH). A 19-year-old obese woman presented for extraction of multiple teeth via intravenous general anesthesia. Surgery was interrupted due to a laryngospasm midway through the procedure. The laryngospasm required the existing laryngeal mask airway to be removed so the patient could be suctioned. Although it is unclear the extent of obstruction caused by LTH, the surgery had to be postponed due to the discovery of enlarged lingual tonsils, which prevented endotracheal intubation. One reason for unexpected difficult airways is attributed to LTH. It is recognized that LTH is more common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea; however, LTH also has an increased prevalence in obese children with prior palatine tonsillectomies or adenoidectomies. Unexpected LTH can complicate general anesthesia by making placement of a laryngeal mask airway difficult. Thus, further research needs to be conducted to gain a deeper understanding on how to reduce the risks presented by LTH during sedation surgeries. PMID:22822995

  16. Context shift and protein synthesis inhibition disrupt long-term habituation after spaced, but not massed, training in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    PubMed

    Hermitte, G; Pedreira, M E; Tomsic, D; Maldonado, H

    1999-01-01

    An opaque screen moving overhead elicits an escape response in the crab Chasmagnathus that after a few presentations habituates for a long period (long-term habituation, LTH). Previous results suggested that spaced (15 trials separated by 171 s) and massed training (300 trials without rest interval) were correlated with two different memory components of LTH. The present experiments were aimed at further studying the mechanisms subserving these components. Results indicate that LTH acquired by spaced but not by massed training is blocked either by a training-to-testing context shift or by cycloheximide (15-25 microg) pre- or posttraining injection and that LTH after spaced training persists for longer time (5 days) than after massed training (2 days). A model based on these results that distinguishes two LTH-memory components is proposed: a (context-signal) LTH yielded by spaced training, dependent of context, sensitive to cycloheximide (CYX), and long lasting; and a (signal) LTH yielded by massed training, dependent only on the signal invariance, insensitive to CYX, and shorter lasting.

  17. Formation of biogenic amine in mayonnaise, herring and tuna fish salad by lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, R G; Hammes, W P

    1999-05-01

    The effect of amino acid decarboxylase-positive lactobacilli in mayonnaise, herring and tuna fish salads on formation of biogenic amines (BA) was investigated. Commercial mayonnaise was inoculated with either of five amine-forming lactobacilli which were selected as model contaminants: Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 975 and LTH 1859 (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine and phenylethylamine producing), L. delbrueckii LTH 1260 (tyramine and phenylethylamine forming) and L. buchneri LTH 1388 and LTH 661 (histamine forming). Low concentrations of tyramine (4.5 ppm) were detected and an addition of precursor amino acids resulted in an increase of amine concentrations to 40 ppm putrescine, 16.5 ppm tyramine and 5.5 ppm cadaverine. Herring and tuna fish salads were inoculated either with L. curvatus LTH 975 or L. Buchneri LTH 1388. In tuna fish salad 1 ppm putrescine, 3 ppm cadaverine, 7 ppm histamine and 28 ppm tyramine were found after 4 days when L. curvatus was added. In the corresponding herring salad putrescine (14 ppm), cadaverine (11.5 ppm), histamine (17 ppm) and tyramine (72 ppm) were detected. Fish salads containing L. buchneri displayed histamine concentrations of 900 ppm in tuna and 670 ppm in herring salad, respectively. Eight lactic acid bacteria and five yeasts, isolates from spoiled delicatessen salads and ingredients, were not able to form putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine or phenylethylamine.

  18. Long-term hypoxia increases calcium affinity of BK channels in ovine fetal and adult cerebral artery smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoxiao; Lin, Mike T; Thorington, Glyne U; Wilson, Sean M; Longo, Lawrence D; Hessinger, David A

    2015-04-01

    Acclimatization to high-altitude, long-term hypoxia (LTH) reportedly alters cerebral artery contraction-relaxation responses associated with changes in K(+) channel activity. We hypothesized that to maintain oxygenation during LTH, basilar arteries (BA) in the ovine adult and near-term fetus would show increased large-conductance Ca(2+) activated potassium (BK) channel activity. We measured BK channel activity, expression, and cell surface distribution by use of patch-clamp electrophysiology, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy, respectively, in myocytes from normoxic control and LTH adult and near-term fetus BA. Electrophysiological data showed that BK channels in LTH myocytes exhibited 1) lowered Ca(2+) set points, 2) left-shifted activation voltages, and 3) longer dwell times. BK channels in LTH myocytes also appeared to be more dephosphorylated. These differences collectively make LTH BK channels more sensitive to activation. Studies using flow cytometry showed that the LTH fetus exhibited increased BK β1 subunit surface expression. In addition, in both fetal groups confocal microscopy revealed increased BK channel clustering and colocalization to myocyte lipid rafts. We conclude that increased BK channel activity in LTH BA occurred in association with increased channel affinity for Ca(2+) and left-shifted voltage activation. Increased cerebrovascular BK channel activity may be a mechanism by which LTH adult and near-term fetal sheep can acclimatize to long-term high altitude hypoxia. Our findings suggest that increasing BK channel activity in cerebral myocytes may be a therapeutic target to ameliorate the adverse effects of high altitude in adults or of intrauterine hypoxia in the fetus.

  19. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine Strain CVD 1204 Expressing Colonization Factor Antigen I and Mutant Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Koprowski, Hilary; Levine, Myron M.; Anderson, Richard J.; Losonsky, Genevieve; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Barry, Eileen M.

    2000-01-01

    A multivalent live oral vaccine against both Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is being developed based on the hypothesis that protection can be achieved if attenuated shigellae express ETEC fimbrial colonization factors and genetically detoxified heat-labile toxin from a human ETEC isolate (LTh). Two detoxified derivatives of LTh, LThK63 and LThR72, were engineered by substitution—serine to lysine at residue 63, or lysine to arginine at residue 72. The genes encoding these two derivatives were cloned separately on expression plasmids downstream from the CFA/I operon. Following electroporation into S. flexneri 2a vaccine strain CVD 1204, coexpression of CFA/I and LThK63 or LThR72 was demonstrated by Western blot analysis, GM1 binding assays, and agglutination with anti-CFA/I antiserum. Hemagglutination and electron microscopy confirmed surface expression of CFA/I. Guinea pigs immunized intranasally on days 0 and 15 with CVD 1204 expressing CFA/I and LThK63 or LThR72 exhibited high titers of both serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal secretory IgA anti-CFA/I; 40% of the animals produced antibodies directed against LTh. All immunized guinea pigs also produced mucosal IgA (in tears) and serum IgG anti-S. flexneri 2a O antibodies. Furthermore, all immunized animals were protected from challenge with wild-type S. flexneri 2a. This prototype Shigella-ETEC hybrid vaccine demonstrates the feasibility of expressing multiple ETEC antigens on a single plasmid in an attenuated Shigella vaccine strain and engendering immune responses against both the heterologous antigens and vector strain. PMID:10948101

  20. Home Use Devices: How to Prepare for and Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices That Require Electricity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices that Require Electricity Center for De CDRH vices and Rad lth ... Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices that Require Electricity As a home medical device user, it is ...

  1. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and PI3K/Akt Inhibition Reduce eNOS Phosphorylation and Increase Cortisol Biosynthesis in Long-Term Hypoxic Ovine Fetal Adrenal Cortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Newby, Elizabeth A; Kaushal, Kanchan M; Myers, Dean A; Ducsay, Charles A

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the role of the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways in cortisol production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (peNOS) in the ovine fetal adrenal in response to long-term hypoxia (LTH). Pregnant ewes were maintained at high altitude (3820 m) for the last 100 days of gestation (dGa). At 138 to 142 dGa, fetal adrenal cortical cells (FACs) were collected from LTH and age-matched normoxic fetuses. Cortisol production and peNOS were measured in response to pretreatment with the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor UO126 (UO) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. UO126 reduced ACTH-stimulated cortisol in both normoxic and LTH FACs. UO126 alone or in combination with ACTH reduced peNOS in the normoxic group, while ACTH alone or ACTH + UO inhibited peNOS in LTH FACs. Additionally, cortisol was measured in response to pretreatment with UO and treatment with 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OHC) or water-soluble cholesterol (WSC) with and without ACTH stimulation. UO126 had no effect on 22R-OHC-treated cells, but reduced cortisol in cells treated with WSC and/or ACTH. Cortisol and peNOS were also measured in response to pretreatment with PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor Wortmannin (WT) and ACTH stimulation. Wortmannin further increased cortisol under ACTH-stimulated conditions and, like ACTH, reduced peNOS in LTH but not normoxic FACs. Together, these data suggest that in LTH FACs MEK/ERK1/2 does not regulate peNOS but that UO acts downstream from eNOS, possibly at cholesterol transport, to affect cortisol production in LTH FACs, while the PI3K/Akt pathway, along with ACTH, regulates peNOS and plays a role in the fetal adaptation to LTH in FACs.

  2. Cerebral Artery Alpha-1 AR Subtypes: High Altitude Long-Term Acclimatization Responses

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ravi; Goyal, Dipali; Chu, Nina; Van Wickle, Jonathan; Longo, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1) - adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH), contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m) and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m). Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05) in the maximum tension achieved by 10−5 M phenylephrine (PHE). LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05) α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function. PMID:25393740

  3. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Goyal, Dipali; Chu, Nina; Van Wickle, Jonathan; Longo, Lawrence D

    2014-01-01

    In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1) - adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH), contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m) and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m). Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05) in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE). LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05) α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  4. Evidence of microvascular dysfunction in patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Thomas, Jeffrey; Seigler, Nichole; Crandall, Reva; McKie, Kathleen T.; Forseen, Caralee

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic, multisystemic disorder with broad clinical manifestations apart from the well-characterized pulmonary dysfunction. Recent findings have described impairment in conduit vessel function in patients with CF; however, whether microvascular function is affected in this population has yet to be elucidated. Using laser-Doppler imaging, we evaluated microvascular function through postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH), local thermal hyperemia (LTH), and iontophoresis with acetylcholine (ACh). PORH [518 ± 174% (CF) and 801 ± 125% (control), P = 0.039], LTH [1,338 ± 436% (CF) and 1,574 ± 620% (control), P = 0.045], and iontophoresis with ACh [416 ± 140% (CF) and 617 ± 143% (control), P = 0.032] were significantly lower in patients with CF than control subjects. In addition, the ratio of PORH to LTH was significantly (P = 0.043) lower in patients with CF (55.3 ± 5.1%) than control subjects (68.8 ± 3.1%). Significant positive correlations between LTH and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%predicted) (r = 0.441, P = 0.013) and between the PORH-to-LTH ratio and exercise capacity (r = 0.350, P = 0.049) were observed. These data provide evidence of microvascular dysfunction in patients with CF compared with control subjects. In addition, our data demonstrate a complex relationship between microvascular function and classical markers of disease severity (i.e., pulmonary function and exercise capacity) in CF. PMID:27084387

  5. Comparison of two GM1-erythrocyte assays to detect heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin in stool specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Germani, Y; Guesdon, J L; Phalente, L; Begaud, E; Moreau, J P

    1988-01-01

    Two erythrocyte immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTh) in stool supernatants and cell-free culture supernatants were compared. In the competitive assay, GM1 ganglioside was coated onto V-shaped-well microdilution plates and enterotoxin was coupled to sheep erythrocytes. As little as 0.8 ng of LTh per ml was detected by this method, which was based on the competition between the LTh of the test sample and the sensitized erythrocytes. The second assay made use of chimera antibody prepared by coupling polyclonal anti-LTh antibody to a monoclonal antibody specific for sheep erythrocytes. In this case, LTh, which was specifically bound to a GM1 ganglioside-coated plate, was detected by successively adding the chimera antibody and sheep erythrocytes. The limit of detection of the chimera antibody erythrocyte immunoassay was 0.2 ng/ml. Stool samples were collected from 167 infants hospitalized for diarrhea in the hospital of Noumea, New Caledonia. False-negative reactions due to proteases present in the stool samples were avoided by the addition of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Images PMID:3290242

  6. A new LIHE (Light Initiated High Explosive) test capability for spherical targets

    SciTech Connect

    Benham, R A

    1987-01-01

    A goal of the Defense Nuclear Agency Lethality and Target Hardening (LTH-3) Program is to assess the lethality of the x-ray laser against the SDI threat entourage of boosters, post-boost vehicles (PBVs), reentry vehicles, and defense suppression weapons (DSWs). A principal characteristic of the effects of the x-ray laser on such threats is the delivery of a cosine distributed impulsive load to exposed curved surfaces of the targets. The LTH-3 program is using test and analysis techniques to investigate the structural response of models of typical targets and target components subjected to impulsive flood loads. A new capability for testing spherical targets using Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) is the subject of this paper. Spherical targets are of interest to LTH-3 since vulnerable pressurant, propellant, and chemical reactant storage vessels in PBVs and DSWs are likely to be generally spherical in design.

  7. Investigation of the protein-peptide composition of the secretory granules of bovine lactogenic hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Nagornaya, L.V.; Kizim, E.A.; Kravtsov, G.M.; Tsibezov, V.V.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1987-02-20

    By a combination of methods of gel chromatography, fluorometric analysis, and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with immunochemical identification, they investigated the protein-peptide composition of the secretory granules of lactogenic hormone (LTH), isolated from the bovine anterior pituitary. It was established that the content of peptides in the granules is less than 3% of the content of immunoreactive LTH. Using gel chromatography, the monomer of the hormone and two immunoreactive forms with molecular weight 42 and 65 kilodaltons were detected in the secondary granules. The content of the forms with respect to immunoreactivity was 90, 3, and 7%, respectively. Four immunoreactive forms of LTH were detected in the secretory granules by the method of electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel followed by immunochemical identification.

  8. Proteolysis and bioconversion of cereal proteins to glutamate and γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) in Rye malt sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Stromeck, Achim; Hu, Ying; Chen, Lingyun; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-02-23

    This study aimed to achieve the conversion of cereal proteins to the alternative end products glutamate or γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Rye malt, fungal proteases, and lactobacilli were employed to convert wheat gluten or barley proteins. Glutamate and GABA formations were strain-dependent. Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 and Lactobacillus rossiae 34J accumulated glutamate; L. reuteri LTH5448 and LTH5795 accumulated GABA. Glutamate and GABA accumulation by L. reuteri TMW1.106 and LTH5448 increased throughout fermentation time over 96 h, respectively. Peptides rather than amino acids were the main products of proteolysis in all doughs, and barley proteins were more resistant to degradation by rye malt proteases than wheat gluten. However, addition of fungal protease resulted in comparable degradation of both substrates. Glutamate and GABA accumulated to concentrations up to 63 and 90 mmol kg(-1) DM, respectively. Glutamate levels obtained through bioconversion of cereal proteins enable the use of hydrolyzed cereal protein as condiment.

  9. C2-alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate is an intermediate on the pathway of thiamin diphosphate-dependent pyruvate decarboxylation. Evidence on enzymes and models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Min; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Jordan, Frank

    2004-12-24

    Thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent decarboxylations are usually assumed to proceed by a series of covalent intermediates, the first one being the C2-trimethylthiazolium adduct with pyruvate, C2-alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP). Herein is addressed whether such an intermediate is kinetically competent with the enzymatic turnover numbers. In model studies it is shown that the first-order rate constant for decarboxylation can indeed exceed 50 s(-1) in tetrahydrofuran as solvent, approximately 10(3) times faster than achieved in previous model systems. When racemic LThDP was exposed to the E91D yeast pyruvate decarboxylase variant, or to the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc-E1) from Escherichia coli, it was partitioned between reversion to pyruvate and decarboxylation. Under steady-state conditions, the rate of these reactions is severely limited by the release of ThDP from the enzyme. Under pre-steady-state conditions, the rate constant for decarboxylation on exposure of LThDP to the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was 0.4 s(-1), still more than a 100-fold slower than the turnover number. Because these experiments include binding, decarboxylation, and oxidation (for detection purposes), this is a lower limit on the rate constant for decarboxylation. The reasons for this slow reaction most likely include a slow conformational change of the free LThDP to the V conformation enforced by the enzyme. Between the results from model studies and those from the two enzymes, it is proposed that LThDP is indeed on the decarboxylation pathway of the two enzymes studied, and once LThDP is bound the protein needs to provide little assistance other than a low polarity environment.

  10. Gestational hypoxia modulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Myers, Dean A; Singleton, Krista; Kenkel, Christy; Kaushal, Kanchan M; Ducsay, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Maturation of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is critical for organ maturation necessary for the fetus to transition to the ex-utero environment. Intrauterine stressors can hasten maturation of the HPA axis leading to fetal growth restriction and in sheep, premature birth. We have previously reported that high-altitude mediated, long-term-moderate gestational hypoxia (LTH) during gestation has a significant impact on the fetal HPA axis. Significant effects were observed at the level of both the anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex resulting in elevated plasma ACTH during late gestation with decreased adrenocortical expression of enzymes rate limiting for cortisol synthesis. As such, these fetuses exhibited the normal ontogenic rise in fetal plasma cortisol but an exaggerated cortisol response to acute stress. This study extended these findings to ACTH secretagogue expression in the PVN using in situ hybridization. We report that the expression of AVP but not CRH was increased in the medial parvocellular PVN (mpPVN) in the LTH fetus. This represented an increase in both AVP mRNA per neuron as well as an increase in AVP hybridizing neurons with no increase in mpPVN CRH neurons. LTH had no effect on PVN volume, area of CRH or AVP hybridization, thus LTH did not have a trophic effect on the size of the nucleus. In conclusion, there appears to be a switch from CRH to AVP as a primary ACTH secretagogue in response to LTH, supporting our previous findings of increased anterior pituitary sensitivity to AVP over CRH in the LTH fetus.

  11. Rice bran extracts inhibit invasion and intracellular replication of Salmonella typhimurium in mouse and porcine intestinal epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary rice bran supplementation has been shown to inhibit Salmonella fecal shedding in animals. The aim of this study was to determine if bran extracts from two distinct rice varieties, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) and Sanhuangzhan-2 (SHZ-2), differentially inhibit Salmonella enterica serover Typhimu...

  12. The Effect of Three Cognitive Variables on Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Its Changes of State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of the structure of matter and its changes of state such as melting, evaporation, boiling, and condensation was investigated in relation to three cognitive variables: logical thinking (LTh), field dependence/independence, and convergence/divergence dimension. The study took place in Greece with the…

  13. Organizational and Environmental Influences on Health and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    DEMOCRACY EDITORS Bed King Office of Naval Reseaith Siegfr ied Streufert University of Bielefeld Feder al Republic of Gennany Fred F. Fiedkr University of...several organizational levels. Such efforts are in progrem at the Naval Hea lth Research Center, San Diem. R~~ERENCES Arm y, R. I)., & Hoyle , 3. C. A

  14. Determination of LCt50s in Anesthetized Rats Exposed to Aerosolized Nerve Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    these agents if inhaled. This basic problem has lacked serious investigation and, as such, the paucity of funda- mental research has not provided...Plaguicidas y salud en las Americas. Washington, DC. To xi co lo gy M ec ha ni sm s a nd M et ho ds D ow nl oa de d fr om in fo rm ah ea lth ca

  15. Application of Backward Chaining to Air-to-Surface Weapons Delivery Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    task. Proceedings, I lth NTEC/lndustry Conference. Orlando, Florida, 1978. Kazdin, A.E. Behavior modification in applied settings. Homewood, IL: The...Dorsey Press. 1975. Martin, G., & PearJ. Behavior modification : What it is and how to do it. Englewood Cliffs. N.J. Prentice-Hall, 1978. Martin, G.L

  16. Preliminary Findings on the Temporomandibular Joint Sounds of Lateral Cross-Bite Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    van der Weele LTh, ”Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular dissorder (TMD) and Craniofacial form,” Am J Orthod Dentofac Or- thop, 8:73-110, 1996...Disorders: Re- view, Criteria, Examinations and Specifications, Cri- tique,” J Craniomand Disord Facial Oral Pain , 6:301- 355, 1992. [18] Hardison J.D

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 11/18/1982

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... _lth a: ,:;:cod machine adJII",t<>d tf} rj,'I1\\'(r 3. fin'" ah;t or 'og.'1 tor rapl~ c()ntf"ol tit l"\\ouot;{> flies. ("I..IJt. fUI'",:. ljn:lt~. ... ur tIt I \\"'rt f '""~I ~pr;l\\" I .. ' .. k ...

  18. Highly efficient redox-driven reversible color switching of dye molecules via hydrogenation/oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Yuan, Cheng-Zong; Zhou, Xiao; Guo, Hong-Li; Liu, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Nan; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-12-22

    We report a novel reversible color switching system based on one-pot hydrogenation/oxygenation reactions over Pd/CeO2-x catalysts and fast interconversion of thionine (TH(+)) and leuco thionine (LTH). Oxygen vacancies produced by Pd-catalyzed instant hydrogenation of CeO2 and strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) could lead to fast color switching.

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, COYNE FORMULA NO. 166 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... Junk '.rd •• N.dge •• Kennel •• L.nd.c.pe •• L.th Hou •••• Lv •••• Menur. ... In _.tt.... 'roc ... ad foods should be r--.d or c_rocl ..... 1 ... tr .. t..nt. All food proc ... ...

  20. The Effect of Three Cognitive Variables on Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Its Changes of State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of the structure of matter and its changes of state such as melting, evaporation, boiling, and condensation was investigated in relation to three cognitive variables: logical thinking (LTh), field dependence/independence, and convergence/divergence dimension. The study took place in Greece with the…

  1. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, DIMATE 2.67, 12/07/1988

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... ( III W<:JJII~,~: FIJI{ liS I-: II l~; d 'Jiili.1.t I(ill of h·d." ... 1 ];1\\. .. ' 1" 1]'; •• fhi,; product 111 II mallll('r illclllI~>istf'Tll ..... lth it·: lah"il!!p,. '~(C;IIJ:;" "rt:li -;1;11 ...

  2. Recent and Long-Term Soccer Heading Exposure Is Differentially Associated With Neuropsychological Function in Amateur Players.

    PubMed

    Levitch, Cara F; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lubin, Naomi; Kim, Namhee; Lipton, Richard B; Stewart, Walter F; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Michael L

    2017-08-22

    The present study examined the relative contribution of recent or long-term heading to neuropsychological function in amateur adult soccer players. Soccer players completed a baseline questionnaire (HeadCount-12m) to ascertain heading during the prior 12 months (long-term heading, LTH) and an online questionnaire (HeadCount-2w) every 3 months to ascertain heading during the prior 2 weeks (recent heading, RH). Cogstate, a battery of six neuropsychological tests, was administered to assess neuropsychological function. Generalized estimating equations were used to test if LTH or RH was associated with neuropsychological function while accounting for the role of recognized concussion. A total of 311 soccer players completed 630 HeadCount-2w. Participants had an average age of 26 years. Participants headed the ball a median of 611 times/year (mean=1,384.03) and 9.50 times/2 weeks (mean=34.17). High levels of RH were significantly associated with reduced performance on a task of psychomotor speed (p=.02), while high levels of LTH were significantly associated with poorer performance on tasks of verbal learning (p=.03) and verbal memory (p=.04). Significantly better attention (p=.02) was detectable at moderately high levels of RH, but not at the highest level of RH. One hundred and seven (34.4%) participants reported a lifetime history of concussion, but this was not related to neuropsychological function and did not modify the association of RH or LTH with neuropsychological function. High levels of both RH and LTH were associated with poorer neuropsychological function, but on different domains. The clinical manifestations following repetitive exposure to heading could change with chronicity of exposure. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-9).

  3. Defining critical residues for substrate binding to 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase: Active site substitutions stabilize the pre-decarboxylation intermediate C2α-lactylthiamin diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Kakalis, Lazaros; Jordan, Frank; Meyers, Caren L. Freel

    2014-01-01

    1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase catalyzes formation of DXP from pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (d-GAP) in a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent manner, and is the first step in the essential pathway to isoprenoids in human pathogens. Understanding the mechanism of this unique enzyme is critical for developing new anti-infective agents that selectively target isoprenoid biosynthesis. The present study uses mutagenesis and a combination of protein fluorescence, circular dichroism and kinetics experiments to investigate the roles of Arg-420, Arg-478 and Tyr-392 in substrate binding and catalysis. The results support a random sequential, preferred order mechanism and predict Arg-420 and Arg-478 are involved in binding of the acceptor substrate, d-GAP. d-Glyceraldehyde, an alternative acceptor substrate lacking the phosphoryl group predicted to interact with Arg-420 and Arg-478, also accelerates decarboxylation of the pre-decarboxylation intermediate C2α-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP) on DXP synthase, indicating this binding interaction is not absolutely required, and the hydroxyaldehyde sufficiently triggers decarboxylation. Unexpectedly, Tyr-392 contributes to d-GAP affinity and is not required for LThDP formation or its d-GAP-promoted decarboxylation. Time-resolved CD spectroscopy and NMR experiments indicate LThDP is significantly stabilized on R420A and Y392F variants compared to wild type DXP synthase in the absence of acceptor substrate, yet these substitutions do not appear to impact the rate of d-GAP-promoted LThDP decarboxylation in the presence of high d-GAP, and LThDP formation remains the rate-limiting step. These results suggest a role of these residues to promote d-GAP binding which in turn facilitates decarboxylation, and further highlight interesting differences between DXP synthase and other ThDP-dependent enzymes. PMID:24767541

  4. Leptin receptor antagonist treatment ameliorates the effects of long-term maternal hypoxia on adrenal expression of key steroidogenic genes in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Ken; Vargas, Vladimir E.; Kaushal, Kanchan M.; Singleton, Krista; Hyatt, Kimberly; Myers, Dean A.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported elevated adipose leptin expression, plasma leptin concentrations, and adrenocortical leptin receptor expression in the long-term hypoxic (LTH) ovine fetus. This study addressed whether leptin antagonist (LA) administration to LTH fetal sheep altered expression of key genes governing cortisol synthesis. Ewes were maintained at high altitude (3,820 meters) from 40 to 130 days gestation (dG), returned to Loma Linda University, and implanted with a maternal tracheal catheter. Reduced Po2 was maintained by nitrogen infusion. On 132 dG, LTH (n = 11) and age-matched, normoxic control (n = 11) fetuses underwent vascular catheter implantation. At 138 dG, fetuses were continuously infused with either saline or the LA (1.5 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 4 days and samples collected for blood gases, ACTH, and cortisol. Fetal adrenal cortex was collected for determination of steriodogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), ACTH, and leptin receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), cytochrome P-450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17), 21-hydroxylase (CYP21), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), pSTAT3, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) expression. In the saline-infused LTH fetuses, StAR, ACTH receptor, CYP11A1, and CYP17 expression was significantly lower compared with control (P < 0.05), whereas levels of CYP11B1, CYP21, and HSD3B mRNA were similar between groups. LA infusion restored expression of StAR, pSTAT3, CYP11A1, and CYP17, but not ACTH receptor, to normal ontogenic levels in the LTH group while having no effect on control fetuses. Neither fetal plasma ACTH nor cortisol concentrations were altered by LA infusion. We speculate that while leptin plays a role in governing expression of key enzymes and StAR in response to LTH, other factors play a role in modulating cortisol synthesis in these fetuses. PMID:23344230

  5. Living together: the marine amoeba Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and its endosymbiont Labyrinthula sp.

    PubMed

    Dyková, Iva; Fiala, Ivan; Dvoráková, Helena; Pecková, Hana

    2008-11-01

    Two protists isolated simultaneously from the same sample of gill tissue of Psetta maxima (L.) were identified as Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and Labyrinthula sp. A Labyrinthula strain (LTH) derived from a mixed culture of both organisms was well established in a short time, while subcultures of T. hilla continued to be associated with Labyrinthula cells despite all efforts to eliminate them. Ultrastructural examination, repeated several times in the course of long-lasting subculturing of amoebae, revealed that trophozoites of T. hilla host in their cytoplasm multiplying labyrinthulid cells. Comparison of SSU rDNA sequences of the Labyrinthula strain LTH and those from labyrinthulid endosymbionts from T. hilla verified the assumption that the extra- and intra-cellularly multiplying Labyrinthula cells are identical organisms. The association of the marine amoeba T. hilla and Labyrinthula sp. displayed signs of mutualistic symbiosis.

  6. Lubricants for Hydraulic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    150-TH1 Oil Wso Hyd. Oil 45 Duro 46 ETC (R&O) #20 Trrapi 46 R&O Tena-Fi’n, #300-LTH Oil Wrsirl y. O 52 (uro 68 ETC (R&O) 30 Tenew 68 P&O Tena-Fft...304ATH Oi NR Duro 117cor 150 ETC (R&O) #70 Tenain 150 R&O Tena-Ff #400 TH 01 Winsor Hyd. Oil 43 AW Duro AW 32 AW Oil #15 Terrapin 32 AW/Super Blue 32 AW...Tena-Film # 150-TH Oil Winsor Hyd Oil 45 AW Duro AW 46 AW Oil #20 Terrapin 46 AW/Super Blue 46 AW Tena-Film #300.LTH Oil Winsor Hyd Oil 52 AW Ouro AW

  7. Fluorogenic ratiometric dipodal optode containing imine-amide linkages: exploiting subtle thorium (IV) ion sensing.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Kundan; Kaur, Amanpreet; Tetgure, Sandesh; Chaitanya, G Krishana; Singh, Narinder; Kuwar, Anil

    2014-12-10

    The (13E,19E)-N1',N3'-bis[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzylidene]malonohydrazide (L) has been developed for the detection of Th(4+) ions using dual channel signalling system. The UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed the formation of L-Th(4+) complex in 1:1 equilibrium. The density functional theory (DFT) also confirms the optimum binding cavity for the recognition of metal ion. The binding constant computed from different mathematical models for an assembly of L-Th(4+). The detection limit of L for Th(4+) recognition is to a concentration down to 0.1 μM (0.023 μg g(-1)). The present sensing system is also successfully applied for the detection of Th(4+) ion present in soil near nuclear atomic plants.

  8. Teleconnection of the 1997 El Nino Observed by Spaceborne Sensors and the Dacadal Anomalies in the Northeast Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W.; Hu, H.; Xie, X.

    1999-01-01

    Liu et al.[1998] (hereafter referred as LTH), superimposed wind velocity anomalies observed by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) on the map of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the Pacific at the end of May 1997, and illustrated that the three regions of anomalous warming in the North Pacific Ocean are related to wind anomalies through different mechanisms.

  9. Department of Clinical Investigation Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1984. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery , Las Vegas, NV, Sep 84. Peripheral Vascular SurgerF Jarstfer, B.S. latrogenic vascular ...injuries. l1th Peripheral Vascular Surgery Seminar, USUHS, Bethesda, MD, 2 Dec 83. Delgado, R.J. OPG/spectral analysis: a carotid study. lth Peripheral... Vascular Surgery Seminar, USUHS, Bethesda, MD, 2 Dec 83. Jarstfer, B.S. Management of carotid restenosis. University of Texas Health Science Center, San

  10. Racial Extremism in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    initially identified with black culture: the "ska" music they listened to derived from the West Indies.93 Given their attitudes towards foreigners and...positive their attitudes toward each other would be.29 4 The four conditions he found necessary were: (1) the authority must positively sanction the...featuring women in sexually suggestive manner). See also Gay & Lesbian Bisexual Alliance v. Pryor, 110 F.3d. 1543 (1 lth Cir. 1997) (University of

  11. Armored Warfare in World War 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-10

    Kalinovski, it was hit on the right flank by a strong Russian attack which produced a temporary crisis . One battalion was surrounded. The Sllth...position of 48th Panzerkorps on the River Don. The crisis on our own front and the collapse of the Italians not only forced the cancellation of the...and GegenschZag? • "von Mellenthin: The main fire brigade for us was the lth Panzerdivision who we - used for Gegenangriff. Bill Lind: In the American

  12. Classification and Discrimination of Sources With Time-Varying Frequency and Spatial Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    polarization scenario, it can be cast in a block diagonal form to give T(fj) [ AIV ](fj) 1H (j 0~ 1[A~v1(fj)1 ~ AIV ](fo) 11 SA[h] (f)J 0 T[h](f)J A[hN (fj... aiv ] ah a. Accordingly, the joint spatio-polarimetric signature of the lth signal for a dual-polarized array can be expressed as (D) (D) aD) =alpD, (7

  13. Cybertherapy 2005: A Decade of VR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    study regarding its efficacy in training spatial abilities. The main contribution is the description of evaluation design including the test instruments ...spatial abilities in VR is of strong evaluation study - the test instruments , partici- interest in application areas such as surgery," pants and the...to (DG). DG classes start in the 11lth form. eliminate obvious inequalities, we thereafter Instruments exchanged some items or assigned some itemsto

  14. Seminar on Basic Documentation Practices (Les Pratiques de Base en Matiere de Documentation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    information might be of high S ...........I................... interest to a competitor because of its commercial value, since its knowledge might save years...Consultant and Exchange Programme ofAGARD presented on" 3rd--4th.September 1992 in Ankara, Turkey, 7th--gth September 1992 in Athen~ s , Greece and lIt...l lth September 1992 in Lisbon, Portugal. S ~NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION Published August 1992 I Ditrbtinand Availability on Back Cover AGARD-R

  15. Examples of Technology Transfer from the SDIO Kinetic Energy Weapon Lethality Program to Orbital Debris Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    codes can be made available to the Orbital Debris Spacecraft Breakup Modeling Program through technology transfer. This will reduce duplication...conserve scarce R&D funds, and provide a head start to orbital debris breakup modeling efforts. This paper highlights results from those LTH-5 activities...which will be of most interest to those involved with orbital debris generation and the effects of debris on spacecraft. The attached bibliography

  16. A novel inhibitor of active protein kinase G attenuates chronic inflammatory and osteoarthritic pain.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ying-Ju; Sofoluke, Nelson; Nkamany, Mary; Deng, Shixian; Xie, Yuli; Greenwood, Jeremy; Farid, Ramy; Landry, Donald W; Ambron, Richard T

    2017-05-01

    Activating PKG-1α induces a long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in nociceptive neurons. Since the LTH correlates directly with chronic pain in many animal models, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting PKG-1α would attenuate LTH-mediated pain. We first synthesized and characterized compound N46 (N-((3R,4R)-4-(4-(2-fluoro-3-methoxy-6-propoxybenzoyl)benzamido)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide). N46 inhibits PKG-1α with an IC50 of 7.5 nmol, was highly selective when tested against a panel of 274 kinases, and tissue distribution studies indicate that it does not enter the CNS. To evaluate its antinociceptive potential, we used 2 animal models in which the pain involves both activated PKG-1α and LTH. Injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the rat hind paw causes a thermal hyperalgesia that was significantly attenuated 24 hours after a single intravenous injection of N46. Next, we used a rat model of osteoarthritic knee joint pain and found that a single intra-articular injection of N46 alleviated the pain 14 days after the pain was established and the relief lasted for 7 days. Thermal hyperalgesia and osteoarthritic pain are also associated with the activation of the capsaicin-activated transient receptor protein vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel. We show that capsaicin activates PKG-1α in nerves and that a subcutaneous delivery of N46 attenuated the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity elicited by exposure to capsaicin. Thus, PKG-1α appears to be downstream of the transient receptor protein vanilloid-1. Our studies provide proof of concept in animal models that a PKG-1α antagonist has a powerful antinociceptive effect on persistent, already existing inflammatory pain. They further suggest that N46 is a valid chemotype for the further development of such antagonists.

  17. Antenatal maternal long-term hypoxia: acclimatization responses with altered gene expression in ovine fetal carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Van Wickle, Jonathan; Goyal, Dipali; Matei, Nathanael; Longo, Lawrence D

    2013-01-01

    In humans and other species, long-term hypoxia (LTH) during pregnancy can lead to intrauterine growth restriction with reduced body/brain weight, dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and other problems. To identify the signal transduction pathways and critical molecules, which may be involved in acclimatization to high altitude LTH, we conducted microarray with advanced bioinformatic analysis on carotid arteries (CA) from the normoxic near-term ovine fetus at sea-level and those acclimatized to high altitude for 110+ days during gestation. In response to LTH acclimatization, in fetal CA we identified mRNA from 38 genes upregulated >2 fold (P<0.05) and 9 genes downregulated >2-fold (P<0.05). The major genes with upregulated mRNA were SLC1A3, Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 3, IGF type 2 receptor, transforming growth factor (TGF) Beta-3, and genes involved in the AKT and BCL2 signal transduction networks. Most genes with upregulated mRNA have a common motif for Pbx/Knotted homeobox in the promoter region, and Sox family binding sites in the 3' un translated region (UTR). Genes with downregulated mRNA included those involved in the P53 pathway and 5-lipoxygenase activating proteins. The promoter region of all genes with downregulated mRNA, had a common 49 bp region with a binding site for DOT6 and TOD6, components of the RPD3 histone deacetylase complex RPD3C(L). We also identified miRNA complementary to a number of the altered genes. Thus, the present study identified molecules in the ovine fetus, which may play a role in the acclimatization response to high-altitude associated LTH.

  18. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Submerged-Engine Fuselage Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1940-10-01

    pursuit-type fuselage with a practicable internal dust arrangement deralgned to meet all of the air requirements of a 1000-horsepower radial en%ine... radial type, it was de- cided to include two tail outlets in this investigation even though they could obvlouslr not be used ~lth a Pusher. propeller...the bmslo streamline body. 3. Because of the low 10CR1 velocities over the noee shapes tested, the criticnl comprese ~billty speed of the fuselage

  19. Analytical solution of the kinetic equation for a uniform plasma in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.

    2010-07-15

    The kinetic equation for a single-component uniform plasma in a magnetic field is analytically solved by the moment method. The linear system of ordinary differential equations for the moments is decomposed into subsystems of lower dimensions by a geometric method. The eigensystem of each subsystem shows that parallel moments decay monotonically, but perpendicular lth harmonic moments decay while oscillating with the l,l-2,...,-th harmonics of gyrofrequency. A generalization to a multicomponent plasma is discussed.

  20. Analytical solution of the kinetic equation for a uniform plasma in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D

    2010-07-01

    The kinetic equation for a single-component uniform plasma in a magnetic field is analytically solved by the moment method. The linear system of ordinary differential equations for the moments is decomposed into subsystems of lower dimensions by a geometric method. The eigensystem of each subsystem shows that parallel moments decay monotonically, but perpendicular lth harmonic moments decay while oscillating with the l,l-2,… ,-th harmonics of gyrofrequency. A generalization to a multicomponent plasma is discussed.

  1. The Role of Posttraumatic Stress in Acute Postconcussive Symptoms following Blast Injury in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-21

    Neuropsychological Services, 2000. 5 Weathers FW, Huska JA, Keane TM: PCL-M for DSM -IV. Boston, Na- tional Center for PTSD, 1991. 6 Barkhoudarian G...results are based on multiple imputation with 100 imputations (n = 685). D ow nl oa de d by : T T U - H ea lth S ci en ce s C en te r 69 .1 75 .1 59 .3 4 - 5 / 26 /2 01 5 11 :2 4: 02 P M

  2. The role of the human cerebellum in short- and long-term habituation of postural responses.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Achim; Drepper, Johannes; Maschke, Matthias; Diener, Hans Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the human cerebellum in short-term (STH) and long-term habituation (LTH) of postural responses to repeated platform perturbations. Ten cerebellar patients and ten age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. Twenty backward platform translations were applied on each of 5 consecutive days. Changes of postural response size within each day were assessed to determine STH and changes across days to determine LTH. Both controls and cerebellar patients showed a significant reduction of postural response size within each day (i.e. STH). No significant reduction of postural response size was observed across days (i.e. no LTH). Both controls and cerebellar patients, however, showed a tendency of response size to increase across days suggesting long-term sensitization. The amount of changes within and across days did not significantly differ between groups. The present findings suggest that changes of postural response size to repeated perturbations do not depend upon the integrity of the cerebellum.

  3. Metabolic Profiles in Ovine Carotid Arteries with Developmental Maturation and Long-Term Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ravi; Longo, Lawrence D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term hypoxia (LTH) is an important stressor related to health and disease during development. At different time points from fetus to adult, we are exposed to hypoxic stress because of placental insufficiency, high-altitude residence, smoking, chronic anemia, pulmonary, and heart disorders, as well as cancers. Intrauterine hypoxia can lead to fetal growth restriction and long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairments, hypertension, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and schizophrenia. Similarly, prolonged hypoxic exposure during adult life can lead to acute mountain sickness, chronic fatigue, chronic headache, cognitive impairment, acute cerebral and/or pulmonary edema, and death. Aim LTH also can lead to alteration in metabolites such as fumarate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate, and lactate, which are linked to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Importantly, during the intrauterine life, a fetus is under a relative hypoxic environment, as compared to newborn or adult. Thus, the changes in gene expression with development from fetus to newborn to adult may be as a consequence of underlying changes in the metabolic profile because of the hypoxic environment along with developmental maturation. To examine this possibility, we examined the metabolic profile in carotid arteries from near-term fetus, newborn, and adult sheep in both normoxic and long-term hypoxic acclimatized groups. Results Our results demonstrate that LTH differentially regulated glucose metabolism, mitochondrial metabolism, nicotinamide cofactor metabolism, oxidative stress and antioxidants, membrane lipid hydrolysis, and free fatty acid metabolism, each of which may play a role in genetic-epigenetic regulation. PMID:26110419

  4. The Effect of Three Cognitive Variables on Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and its Changes of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-05-01

    In this study, students' understanding of the structure of matter and its changes of state such as melting, evaporation, boiling, and condensation was investigated in relation to three cognitive variables: logical thinking (LTh), field dependence/independence, and convergence/divergence dimension. The study took place in Greece with the participation of 329 ninth-grade junior high school pupils (age 14-15). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that all of the above-mentioned cognitive variables were statistically significant predictors of the students' achievement. Among the three predictors, LTh was found to be the most dominant. In addition, students' understanding of the structure of matter, along with the cognitive variables, was shown to have an effect on their understanding of the changes of states and on their competence to interpret these physical changes. Path analyses were implemented to depict these effects. Moreover, a theoretical analysis is provided that associates LTh and cognitive styles with the nature of mental tasks involved when learning the material concerning the particulate nature of matter and its changes of state. Implications for science education are also discussed.

  5. Degradation of histamine and tyramine by Brevibacterium linens during surface ripening of Munster cheese.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, R G; Hammes, W P

    1998-07-01

    Red smear formation during fermentation of Munster cheese was started by using three different strains of Brevibacterium linens as surface inocula. The cheeses were produced with and without supplementation of histamine and tyramine. After smearing the cheese surface for the first time with B. linens viable counts of 10(7) CFU/g were detected. At the end of the logarithmic growth phase cell numbers increased to 10(10) CFU/g and remained constant during the whole ripening period. During a 4-week ripening period strains of B. linens reduced histamine and tyramine content by 55 to 70%. B. linens LTH 456 and LTH 3686 degraded histamine and tyramine in a phosphate buffer (pH 7) containing 0.54 M histamine and 0.58 M tyramine when incubated with agitation at 30 degrees C. B. linens LTH 3813 did not reveal any amine degradation activity in a buffer system. The pH on the cheese surface increased from 5 to 7, whereas it increased in the center only to 5.3 after a 3-week ripening period.

  6. Observation of thiamin-bound intermediates and microscopic rate constants for their interconversion on 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase: 600-fold rate acceleration of pyruvate decarboxylation by D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hetalben; Nemeria, Natalia S; Brammer, Leighanne A; Freel Meyers, Caren L; Jordan, Frank

    2012-11-07

    The thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase carries out the condensation of pyruvate as a 2-hydroxyethyl donor with d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (d-GAP) as acceptor forming DXP. Toward understanding catalysis of this potential anti-infective drug target, we examined the pathway of the enzyme using steady state and presteady state kinetic methods. It was found that DXP synthase stabilizes the ThDP-bound predecarboxylation intermediate formed between ThDP and pyruvate (C2α-lactylThDP or LThDP) in the absence of D-GAP, while addition of D-GAP enhanced the rate of decarboxylation by at least 600-fold. We postulate that decarboxylation requires formation of a ternary complex with both LThDP and D-GAP bound, and the central enzyme-bound enamine reacts with D-GAP to form DXP. This appears to be the first study of a ThDP enzyme where the individual rate constants could be evaluated by time-resolved circular dichroism spectroscopy, and the results could have relevance to other ThDP enzymes in which decarboxylation is coupled to a ligation reaction. The acceleration of the rate of decarboxylation of enzyme-bound LThDP in the presence of D-GAP suggests a new approach to inhibitor design.

  7. Long-term habituation of the C-start escape response in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam C; Pearce, Kaycey C; Choe, Ronny C; Alzagatiti, Joseph B; Yeung, Anthony K; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2016-10-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of long-term memory in vertebrates remains poorly understood. Knowledge regarding long-term memory has been impeded by the enormous complexity of the vertebrate brain, particularly the mammalian brain, as well as by the relative complexity of the behavioral alterations examined in most studies of long-term memory in vertebrates. Here, we demonstrate a long-term form of nonassociative learning-specifically, long-term habituation (LTH)-of a simple reflexive escape response, the C-start, in zebrafish larvae. The C-start is triggered by the activation of one of a pair of giant neurons in the zebrafish's hindbrain, the Mauthner cells. We show that LTH of the C-start requires the activity of NMDA receptors and involves macromolecular synthesis. We further show that the long-term habituated reflex can by rapidly dishabituated by a brief tactile stimulus. Our results set the stage for rigorous, mechanistic investigations of the long-term memory for habituation of a reflexive behavioral response, one that is mediated by a relatively simple, neurobiologically tractable, neural circuit. Moreover, the demonstration of NMDAR and transcriptionally dependent LTH in a translucent vertebrate organism should facilitate the use of optical recording, and optogenetic manipulation, of neuronal activity to elucidate the cellular basis of a long-term vertebrate memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relativistic tidal properties of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro

    2009-10-15

    We study the various linear responses of neutron stars to external relativistic tidal fields. We focus on three different tidal responses, associated to three different tidal coefficients: (i) a gravito-electric-type coefficient G{mu}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth-order mass multipolar moment GM{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field G{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; (ii) a gravito-magnetic-type coefficient G{sigma}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth spin multipole moment GS{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-magnetic tidal field H{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; and (iii) a dimensionless 'shape' Love number h{sub l} measuring the distortion of the shape of the surface of a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field. All the dimensionless tidal coefficients G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, G{sigma}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, and h{sub l} (where R is the radius of the star) are found to have a strong sensitivity to the value of the star's 'compactness'c{identical_to}GM/(c{sub 0}{sup 2}R) (where we indicate by c{sub 0} the speed of light). In particular, G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}{approx}k{sub l} is found to strongly decrease, as c increases, down to a zero value as c is formally extended to the 'black hole (BH) limit'c{sup BH}=1/2. The shape Love number h{sub l} is also found to significantly decrease as c increases, though it does not vanish in the formal limit c{yields}c{sup BH}, but is rather found to agree with the recently determined shape Love numbers of black holes. The formal vanishing of {mu}{sub l} and {sigma}{sub l} as c{yields}c{sup BH} is a consequence of the no-hair properties of black holes. This vanishing suggests, but in no way proves, that the effective action describing the gravitational interactions of black holes may not need to be augmented by nonminimal worldline couplings.

  9. A Critical Reappraisal of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and NETosis Mimics Based on Differential Requirements for Protein Citrullination

    PubMed Central

    Konig, Maximilian F.; Andrade, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    NETosis, an antimicrobial form of neutrophil cell death, is considered a primary source of citrullinated autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and immunogenic DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Activation of the citrullinating enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4) is believed to be essential for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and NETosis. PAD4 is therefore viewed as a promising therapeutic target to inhibit the formation of NETs in both diseases. In this review, we examine the evidence for PAD4 activation during NETosis and provide experimental data to suggest that protein citrullination is not a universal feature of NETs. We delineate two distinct biological processes, leukotoxic hypercitrullination (LTH) and defective mitophagy, which have been erroneously classified as “NETosis.” While these NETosis mimics share morphological similarities with NETosis (i.e., extracellular DNA release), they are biologically distinct. As such, these processes can be readily classified by their stimuli, activation of distinct biochemical pathways, the presence of hypercitrullination, and antimicrobial effector function. NETosis is an antimicrobial form of cell death that is NADPH oxidase-dependent and not associated with hypercitrullination. In contrast, LTH is NADPH oxidase-independent and not bactericidal. Rather, LTH represents a bacterial strategy to achieve immune evasion. It is triggered by pore-forming pathways and equivalent signals that cumulate in calcium-dependent hyperactivation of PADs, protein hypercitrullination, and neutrophil death. The generation of citrullinated autoantigens in RA is likely driven by LTH, but not NETosis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expulsion, the result of a constitutive defect in mitophagy, represents a second NETosis mimic. In the presence of interferon-α and immune complexes, this process can generate highly interferogenic oxidized mtDNA, which has previously been mistaken for NETosis in SLE

  10. Between-day reliability of local thermal hyperaemia in the forearm and index finger using single point laser-Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    McGarr, Gregory W; Hodges, Gary J; Cheung, Stephen S

    2017-08-12

    To assess between-day reliability for local thermal hyperaemia (LTH) in glabrous and non-glabrous index finger skin and non-glabrous forearm skin, with single point laser-Doppler flowmetry. Part-1: In healthy, habitually active males (n=10), LTH was examined twice (~7-10 d apart) for both skin types on the index finger. Part-2: Identical testing was performed on the volar forearm. Local heating (33-42°C at 1°C·20 s(-1) +20 min at 44°C) was performed at all skin sites and baseline, initial peak, and plateau phases were identified. Data were expressed as raw cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure), and as CVC normalized to baseline (%CVC33°C ) and maximum heating (%CVC44°C ). Reliability was assessed using between-day mean difference, coefficient of variation (%CV), and intra-class correlation coefficient. Reliability (%CV) was poor at baseline for all forms of data presentation and for other phases with %CVC33°C . At the initial peak and plateau, reliability was moderate-poor (20-26%) for CVC and good-moderate (6-18%) for %CVC44°C . Reliability was good-moderate for vasodilatory onset time (10-23%) and time to initial peak (6-13%). For all sites, LTH reliability was acceptable for the timing, and for the initial peak and plateau using CVC or %CVC44°C . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of enhanced proteolysis on formation of biogenic amines by lactobacilli during Gouda cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, R G; Kurihara, R; Hammes, W P

    1998-10-20

    The effect of enhanced proteolysis on amine formation by amino acid decarboxylase positive Lactobacillus sp. during Gouda cheese ripening was examined. A commercial proteolytic enzyme preparation was added to pasteurized milk prior to cheese preparation. The effect of this manipulation on the formation of putrescine, histamine and tyramine was investigated in the presence and absence of amino acid decarboxylase-positive strains during a 12-week ripening period. Four batches were supplemented with a proteolytic enzyme. Batch I contained the proteolytic enzyme only, whereas batches II-IV were additionally supplemented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii LTH 1260 (batch II), Lactobacillus buchneri LTH 1388 (batch III) or Lactobacillus brevis LTH 2560 (batch IV). In batch I putrescine was detected with 4 mg/kg, in batch II, 42 mg/kg putrescine, 238 mg/kg histamine and 636 mg/kg tyramine were found. Batch III contained 13 mg/kg putrescine and 418 mg/kg histamine, whereas in batch IV, 26 mg/kg putrescine and 776 mg/kg tyramine were present. Batch V was supplemented with all three lactobacilli but did not contain the proteolytic enzyme. In this experiment, 4 mg/kg putrescine, 179 mg/kg histamine and 337 mg/kg tyramine were detected. A control cheese batch (VI) without addition of amine forming lactobacilli or a proteolytic enzyme was produced and only 4 mg/kg putrescine were detected. An increase in amine concentration during cheese ripening under conditions of enhanced proteolysis in the presence of starter and spoilage lactobacilli was evident from the experiments.

  12. New Methodology for Fluorocarbon Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Distribucion Unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMIER(S) 61. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION F6b...Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL Dr. Frod Reder 07-70;7-LThA-QA " D Form 1473, JUN 84 P’wous ed, r,on eare 6o0ee. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAG...AISTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION QUNCASSIFIEDIUNUMITED 0 SAME AS RAT r:C . if’.S snlas gf{.d Zia. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (InIufe Area

  13. Endomorphism rings of certain Jacobians in finite characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkhin, Yu G

    2002-08-31

    We prove that, under certain additional assumptions, the endomorphism ring of the Jacobian of a curve y{sup l}=f(x) contains a maximal commutative subring isomorphic to the ring of algebraic integers of the lth cyclotomic field. Here l is an odd prime dividing the degree n of the polynomial f and different from the characteristic of the algebraically closed ground field; moreover, n{>=}9. The additional assumptions stipulate that all coefficients of f lie in some subfield K over which its (the polynomial's) Galois group coincides with either the full symmetric group S{sub n} or with the alternating group A{sub n}.

  14. Development and Use of Anucleate Bacterial Cells to Assay the in vitro Activity of Pollutants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-07

    cel 1 l,01eLth " tli,,nine was al!ow L! Lo react with normal ’or immune scrum and then rot ;n A ctlizrose. la = T7 infected E. col i B + normal serum lb...xenotransplantntion antigen., and Lhc ir use in xenograft prolongation and studies of xenograft rejection. TEACHING EXPERIENCE: Medical Student...Instructor for the medical student M-Iedical Microbiology course (-EX 625), (lhio State Univers;ity, 1973. Teaching Assistumt (Genetics), Department of

  15. Maturation and long-term hypoxia-induced acclimatization responses in PKC-mediated signaling pathways in ovine cerebral arterial contractility.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Mittal, Ashwani; Chu, Nina; Arthur, Rebecca Afiba; Zhang, Lubo; Longo, Lawrence D

    2010-11-01

    In the developing fetus, cerebral arteries (CA) show striking differences in signal transduction mechanisms compared with the adult, and these differences are magnified in response to high-altitude long-term hypoxia (LTH). In addition, in the mature organism, cerebrovascular acclimatization to LTH may be associated with several clinical problems, the mechanisms of which are unknown. Because PKC plays a key role in regulating CA contractility, in fetal and adult cerebral arteries, we tested the hypothesis that LTH differentially regulates the PKC-mediated Ca(2+) sensitization pathways and contractility. In four groups of sheep [fetal normoxic (FN), fetal hypoxic (FH), adult normoxic (AN), and adult hypoxic (AH)], we examined, simultaneously, responses of CA tension and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and measured CA levels of PKC, ERK1/2, RhoA, 20-kDa myosin light chain, and the 17-kDa PKC-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor CPI-17. The PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) produced robust contractions in all four groups. However, PDBu-induced contractions were significantly greater in AH CA than in the other groups. In all CA groups except AH, in the presence of MEK inhibitor (U-0126), the PDBu-induced contractions were increased a further 20-30%. Furthermore, in adult CA, PDBu led to increased phosphorylation of ERK1, but not ERK2; in fetal CA, the reverse was the case. PDBu-stimulated ERK2 phosphorylation also was significantly greater in FH than FN CA. Also, although RhoA/Rho kinase played a significant role in PDBu-mediated contractions of FN CA, this was not the case in FH or either adult group. Also, whereas CPI-17 had a significant role in adult CA contractility, this was not the case for the fetus. Overall, in ovine CA, the present study demonstrates several important maturational and LTH acclimatization changes in PKC-induced contractile responses and downstream pathways. The latter may play a key role in the pathophysiologic disorders

  16. The Use of the Roentgen Ray by the Medical Department of the United States Army in the War with Spain (1898)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1900-01-01

    the sacro -lumbar articulation. Complete paralysis of the lower extremities and loss of sensation followed the receipt of the injury. Patient was...keep Il’tter wien’l Ic.kel together in light-tight pastelurml Ioxes,;is they art 4 rliarivly picked, t;,r 4cmimer- cial use. For these reasons, plates...such ls thle E’astmanll .nleralnile lth rellilde. These pIaleHrs art , Ilhowever, ntucl silower than plate, aIldl 1( Io(,t give asw clrar antl well- (l

  17. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-08-15

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h{sub l} of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h{sub l}{sup EM}. The Love numbers h{sub l} give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  18. Fatigue Life Analysis and Tensile Overload Effects with High Strength Steel Notched Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    versus Aa calculated using K/p42 approach. 13 4. Ratio of fatigue life following an overload to average 14 fatigue life with no overload versus Au relative...dimensions. The material for all tests was ASTh A723, Grade 2, a high strength nickel-chromium-molybdenum steel used for pressure component forgings...results plotted using Eq. (2) to calculate Aa . The (1 + P/no) term, wiLth an arbitrary po - 10 on, was added here so that the data over the whole range

  19. Determine Parameters Causing Water Damage to Asphalt Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    COMPACTED MIXTURES TEST AND SAMPLE TREATMENT % ASPHALTENES % SATURATES % AROMATICS % POLARS METHOD GAK-30-GI LTh-D 29.81 7.21 20.21 42.77 GAK-30-GI LTM-W...FROM DRY AND WET COMPACTED MIXTURES (CONTINUED). TEST AND SAMPLE TREATMENT % ASPHALTENES % SATURATES % AROMATICS % POLARS. .# METHOD GAN-30W-G2 IC-D...FROM DRY AND WET COMPACTED MIXTURES (CONCLUDED). TEST AND SAMPLE TREATMENT % ASPHALTENES % SATURATES % AROMATICS % POLARS METHOD MS2-20-C LTM-D 33.84

  20. Gebruikershandleiding SUSTAINED (User Manual Sustained)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Facility CCA - Contamination Control Area Tabel 1 Objecten en mogelijke stati. maO r.ppo~t Pagina 8 C, I~ LII~LTh Fig. 2: Processchema " Sustained ". TNO...90-Al-22 9 Gebruikershandleiding Sustained Niets uit daze uilgave meg worderr vermenigvutdigdi en/of openbaar gemaakt door ,nddlet van druMk...0 V.O - 1140 rapport Pagina rapport no. FEL-90-AI22 titel .Gebruikershandleiding SUSTAINED auteurs Ir. S.A. van Merrignboer, Ing. R. van Rij instituut

  1. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of diurnal variability in tropospheric humidity using SAPHIR on-board Megha-Tropiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, K. N.; Das, Siddarth Shankar

    2016-08-01

    The global diurnal variability of relative humidity (RH) from August 2012 to May 2014 is discussed for the first time using 'Sounder for Atmospheric Profiling of Humidity in the Inter-tropical Regions (SAPHIR)', a microwave humidity sounder onboard Megha-Tropiques (MT). It is superior to other microwave satellite humidity sounders in terms of its higher repetitive cycle in the tropics owing to its low-inclination orbit and the availability of six dedicated humidity sounding channels. The six layers obtained are 1000-850, 850-700, 700-550, 550-400, 400-250 and 250-100 hPa. Three hourly data over a month has been combined using equivalent day analysis to attain a composite profile of complete diurnal cycle in each grid (2.5°×2.5°). A distinct diurnal variation is obtained over the continental and the oceanic regions at all the layers. The magnitude in the lower tropospheric humidity (LTH), middle tropospheric humidity (MTH) and the upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) show a large variability over the continental regions compared to that over oceans. The monthly variability of the diurnal variation over the years has also been discussed by segregating into five different continental and four different oceanic regions. Afternoon peaks dominate in the LTH over the land and the desert regions. The MTH is found to vary between the evening and the early morning hours over different geographical regions and not as consistent as that of the LTH. The UTH maximum magnitude is generally observed during the early morning hours, over the continents. Interestingly, the Oceanic regions are found to have a dominant magnitude in the afternoon hours similar to that of the continents in the LTH, evening maximum in the MTH and the early morning maximum in the UTH. The underlying mechanisms involved in the variability of humidity over different regions are also discussed. The study reveals the complexity involved in the understanding the diurnal variability over the continents and open

  2. An Investigation of Structural Locality in the Memory Referencing Behavior of Computer Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    o ’ I ’ ’. I.._= " " -. - O’U •IOJJl.(I uonrnq!ins!u B-15 Figure B.15. Differences in lie New I).istribut.iois of lth I- xplorer Overall Traces 00 E... IEEE . B1MM84. Richard B. Bunt, Jennifer M. Murphy, and Shikharesh Majunrndar. A measure of pro- gram locality and its application. In Proceedings of the...main memory. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 4(2):121-130, March 1978. Spi77. Jeffrey R. Spirn. Program Behavior: Models and Measurements

  3. Maturation and long-term hypoxia-induced acclimatization responses in PKC-mediated signaling pathways in ovine cerebral arterial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ravi; Mittal, Ashwani; Chu, Nina; Arthur, Rebecca Afiba; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    In the developing fetus, cerebral arteries (CA) show striking differences in signal transduction mechanisms compared with the adult, and these differences are magnified in response to high-altitude long-term hypoxia (LTH). In addition, in the mature organism, cerebrovascular acclimatization to LTH may be associated with several clinical problems, the mechanisms of which are unknown. Because PKC plays a key role in regulating CA contractility, in fetal and adult cerebral arteries, we tested the hypothesis that LTH differentially regulates the PKC-mediated Ca2+ sensitization pathways and contractility. In four groups of sheep [fetal normoxic (FN), fetal hypoxic (FH), adult normoxic (AN), and adult hypoxic (AH)], we examined, simultaneously, responses of CA tension and intracellular Ca2+ concentration and measured CA levels of PKC, ERK1/2, RhoA, 20-kDa myosin light chain, and the 17-kDa PKC-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor CPI-17. The PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) produced robust contractions in all four groups. However, PDBu-induced contractions were significantly greater in AH CA than in the other groups. In all CA groups except AH, in the presence of MEK inhibitor (U-0126), the PDBu-induced contractions were increased a further 20–30%. Furthermore, in adult CA, PDBu led to increased phosphorylation of ERK1, but not ERK2; in fetal CA, the reverse was the case. PDBu-stimulated ERK2 phosphorylation also was significantly greater in FH than FN CA. Also, although RhoA/Rho kinase played a significant role in PDBu-mediated contractions of FN CA, this was not the case in FH or either adult group. Also, whereas CPI-17 had a significant role in adult CA contractility, this was not the case for the fetus. Overall, in ovine CA, the present study demonstrates several important maturational and LTH acclimatization changes in PKC-induced contractile responses and downstream pathways. The latter may play a key role in the pathophysiologic disorders

  4. Angular Momentum of Twisted Radiation from an Electron in Spiral Motion.

    PubMed

    Katoh, M; Fujimoto, M; Kawaguchi, H; Tsuchiya, K; Ohmi, K; Kaneyasu, T; Taira, Y; Hosaka, M; Mochihashi, A; Takashima, Y

    2017-03-03

    We theoretically demonstrate for the first time that a single free electron in circular or spiral motion emits twisted photons carrying well-defined orbital angular momentum along the axis of the electron circulation, in adding to spin angular momentum. We show that, when the electron velocity is relativistic, the radiation field contains harmonic components and the photons of lth harmonic carry lℏ total angular momentum for each. This work indicates that twisted photons are naturally emitted by free electrons and are more ubiquitous in laboratories and in nature than ever thought.

  5. Electromagnetic Characterization of Inhomogeneous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    1 1. b R c T b c R b T c        (2.2) Rewriting these equations in a more useful form an expression is obtained 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2...2.4) Using (2.3) and (2.4) the relations are manipulated to form a matrix equation 1 1 2 1 1 21 11 . 1 c R c b R bT...the form of (2.18). Here l represents the equation created from the corresponding lth shim measurement. Also seen in this equation minimization

  6. Commentary on "integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer." Weischenfeldt J, Simon R, Feuerbach L, Schlangen K, Weichenhan D, Minner S, Wuttig D, Warnatz HJ, Stehr H, Rausch T, Jäger N, Gu L, Bogatyrova O, Stütz AM, Claus R, Eils J, Eils R, Gerhäuser C, Huang PH, Hutter B, Kabbe R, Lawerenz C, Radomski S, Bartholomae CC, Fälth M, Gade S, Schmidt M, Amschler N, Haß T, Galal R, Gjoni J, Kuner R, Baer C, Masser S, von Kalle C, Zichner T, Benes V, Raeder B, Mader M, Amstislavskiy V, Avci M, Lehrach H, Parkhomchuk D, Sultan M, Burkhardt L, Graefen M, Huland H, Kluth M, Krohn A, Sirma H, Stumm L, Steurer S, Grupp K, Sültmann H, Sauter G, Plass C, Brors B, Yaspo ML, Korbel JO, Schlomm T, Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(2):159-70.

    PubMed

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursued comparative assessments with seven elderly-onset PCA genomes. Remarkable age-related differences in structural rearrangement (SR) formation became evident, suggesting distinct disease pathomechanisms. Whereas EO-PCAs harbored a prevalence of balanced SRs, with a specific abundance of androgen-regulated ETS gene fusions including TMPRSS2:ERG, elderly-onset PCAs displayed primarily non-androgen-associated SRs. Data from a validation cohort of>10,000 patients showed age-dependent androgen receptor levels and a prevalence of SRs affecting androgen-regulated genes, further substantiating the activity of a characteristic "androgen-type" pathomechanism in EO-PCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of hemolytic and nonhemolytic Escherichia coli isolated from post-weaning piglets in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prapasarakul, Nuvee; Tummaruk, Padet; Niyomtum, Waree; Tripipat, Titima; Serichantalergs, Oralak

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the existence of virulence genes in hemolytic Escherichia coli (HEC) and nonhemolytic E. coli (NHEC) isolated from weaner pigs in Thailand, and to determine their susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents. A total of 304 E. coli isolates were obtained from 90 piglets with diarrhea and 110 healthy piglets. Of these, 74 HEC isolates were obtained from 70 pigs with diarrhea, and 4 were obtained from 4 healthy pigs, while 190 and 40 NHEC were recovered from 110 healthy and 20 pigs with diarrhea, respectively. A ten digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled probe system was utilized for detecting genes encoding virulence-associated toxins and proteins in these isolates, and the minimal inhibitory concentration values against 10 antimicrobials were determined by means of the agar dilution technique. In total, 70.3% of the HEC isolates contained an exotoxin gene, lth, estp or stx2e, whereas 2.6% of the NHEC isolates hybridized with a gene probe for estp or stx2e. Over 90% of the isolates were resistant to most agents other than colistin and halquinol. The MIC(90) values of the HEC isolates for halquinol and colistin were 4 and 8 times greater than those of the NHEC isolates, respectively. The results represent the first characterization of resistant pathogenic E. coli distributed in the Thai pig industry. Amongst the HEC isolates, there appeared to be an association between the presence of some exotoxin genes, including lth, estp and stx2e, and reduced antimicrobial susceptibility.

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuated long-term hypoxia-stimulated cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting HIF-1α nuclear translocation via Mas receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ruey-Lin; Lin, Jing-Wei; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-02-01

    Extreme hypoxia often leads to myocardial apoptosis and causes heart failure. Angiotensin-(1-7)Ang-(1-7) is well known for its cardio-protective effects. However, the effects of Ang-(1-7) on long-term hypoxia (LTH)-induced apoptosis remain unknown. In this study, we found that Ang-(1-7) reduced myocardial apoptosis caused by hypoxia through the Mas receptor. Activation of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis down-regulated the hypoxia pro-apoptotic signaling cascade by decreasing the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Moreover, the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis further inhibited HIF-1α nuclear translocation. On the other hand, Ang-(1-7) activated the IGF1R/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, which mediate cell survival. However, the above effects were abolished by A779 treatment or silencing of Mas expression. Taken together, our findings indicate that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis protects cardiomyocytes from LTH-stimulated apoptosis. The protective effect of Ang-(1-7) is associated with the inhibition of HIF-1α nuclear translocation and the induction of IGF1R and Akt phosphorylation.

  9. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun-Cai; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-Yu; Liu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH) stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM), the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR), and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms.

  10. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun-cai; Yang, Cai-qiong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-yu; Liu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH) stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM), the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms. PMID:28487702

  11. High temperature effects on Pi54 conferred resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in two genetic backgrounds of Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Onaga, Geoffrey; Wydra, Kerstin; Koopmann, Birger; Chebotarov, Dmytro; Séré, Yakouba; Von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-02-21

    The global temperatures are predicted to rise due to climate change. However, knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the effect of high temperature (HT) on plant pathogen interaction is limited. We investigated the effect of elevated temperature on host phenotypic, biochemical and gene expression patterns in the rice-Magnaporthe oryzae (Mo) pathosystem using two genetic backgrounds, Co39 (Oryzae sativa-indica) and LTH (O. sativa-japonica) with (CO and LT) and without (Co39 and LTH) R gene (Pi54). After exposure to 28°C and 35°C the two genetic backgrounds showed contrasting responses to Mo. At 28°C, CO, Co39 and LTH displayed a more severe disease phenotype than LT. Surprisingly, CO became resistant to Mo after exposure to 35°C. CO and LT were used for further analysis to determine the defence related biochemical and transcriptome changes associated with HT induced resistance. Pre-exposure to 35°C triggered intense callose deposits and cell wall fluorescence of the attacked epidermal cells, as well as, increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid (SA) levels. Transcriptional changes due to combined stress (35°C+Mo) were largely overridden by pathogen infection in both backgrounds, suggesting that the plants tended to shift their response to the pathogen. However, significant differences in global gene expression patterns occurred between CO and LT in response to both single (35°C and Mo) and double stress (35°C+Mo). Collectively, our results suggest that rice lines carrying Pi54 respond to Mo by rapid induction of callose and H2O2, and that these resistance mechanisms are amplified at HT. The relative difference in disease severity between CO and LT at 28°C suggests that the genetic background of japonica rice facilitates the function of Pi54 more than the background of indica rice. The phenotypic plasticity and gene expression differences between CO and LT reveal the presence of intricate background specific molecular signatures that may

  12. [Influence of postoperative pelvic floor function on different surgical procedures of hysterectomy].

    PubMed

    Tan, A L; Hong, L; Zhao, Y Z; Jiang, L

    2017-05-25

    Objective: To compare the influence of postoperative pelvic floor function after different surgical procedures of hysterectomy. Methods: A total of 260 patients who underwent hysterectomy in Renmin hospital of Wuhan University from January 2012 to January 2014 were enrolled in the study, and divided into 5 groups by different surgical procedures, which were total abdominal hysterectomy (A-TH; 46 cases), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (L-TH; 59 cases), total vaginal hysterectomy (V-TH; 42 cases), abdominal intrafascial hysterectomy (A-CISH; 78 cases), laparoscopic intrafascial hysterectomy (L-CISH; 35 cases). Pelvic examination, pelvic organ prolapse quantitation (POP-Q), test of pelvic muscle strength, pelvic floor distress inventory-short form 20 (PFDI-20) and the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire were measured after 6 months and 12 months. Results: The differences of pelvic organ prolapse incidence after 6 months, A-TH and A-CISH [7% (3/46) versus 3% (2/78)], A-TH and L-CISH [7% (3/46) versus 3% (1/35)] were statistically significance (all P<0.05).POP-Q grade after 6 months between A-TH and A-CISH was statistically different in degree (P<0.05). The differences of incidence of abnormal pelvic floor muscle fatigue after 6 months of A-TH and A-CISH [59% (27/46) versus 29% (23/78)], A-TH and L-CISH [59% (27/46) versus 26% (9/35)] were statistically significant (all P<0.05), after 12 months the difference of L-TH and A-CISH [61% (36/59) versus 29%(23/78)] was statistically different (P<0.05). The differences of incidence of abnormal pelvic floor muscle strength after 6 months of L-TH and A-CISH [53% (31/59) verus 24% (19/78)], V-TH and A-CISH [60% (25/42) verus 24% (19/78)], V-TH and L-CISH [60% (25/42) verus 23% (8/35)] were statistically significant (all P<0.05); after 12 months the difference of V-TH and A-CISH [57% (24/42) versus 26%(20/78)] was statistically significant (P<0.05). Stress urinary incontinence, abnormal bowel movements after 6

  13. USAF/SCEEE Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1982). Management and Technical Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    and testing of a nitric oxide Raman cell wavelength shifter is described. This device is used in conjunction with a Q-switched Nd:Glass laser system, to...ignment~ , i-l r-tit’? -t a nvtric oxid ,- Rami-n 1. -.,.%o-t-,lth l -i ft er ; 4o r;c iI4. m qv!;*, t t l, ai vt 1, ;gb n e ak no’.or qI r irl pmht pTIL... odifiCations can be easily made since the model has captured the essence of the problem. With the val id~ited rl.,del thle sinalybt can Lreate enough

  14. Spherical tensor analysis of polar liquid crystals with biaxial and chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Zhong-can, Ou-Yang

    2012-11-01

    With the help of spherical tensor expression, an irreducible calculus of a Lth-rank macroscopic susceptibility χ for a polar liquid crystal (PLC) of biaxial and chiral molecules written as the average of molecular hyperpolarizability tensor β associated with their spherical orientational order parameters (0⩽l⩽L) is presented. Comprehensive formulas of L=1,2 have been obtained and the latter explains the optical activity and spontaneous splay texture observed in bent-core PLC. The expression of L=3 specifies for the molecules with D2 symmetry which can be applied to analyze the nonlinear optical second harmonic generation (SHG) observed in proteins, peptides, and double-stranded DNA at interfaces.

  15. Quantum Fisher information for periodic and quasiperiodic anisotropic XY chains in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. M.; Du, Z. Z.; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the concept of quantum Fisher information (QFI) is used to characterize the quantum transitions and factorization transitions in one-dimensional anisotropic XY models with periodic coupling interaction and quasiperiodic one. For the periodic-two model, it is found that the Ising transition and anisotropic transition can be distinctively illustrated by the evolution of QFI and its first-order derivatives, confirmed additionally by the scaling behavior. For the quasiperiodic Fibonacci chain, the number of quantum phase transitions increases from one to the lth Fibonacci number Fl when the anisotropic parameter γ approaches zero. The phase diagram for the approximant Fl=8 is derived as an example. In addition, the factorization transition in the two models can be marked by the correlation quantity defined from the QFI. The present work demonstrates the implication of the QFI as a general fingerprint to characterize the quantum transitions and factorization transitions.

  16. On the Sensitivity of the Diurnal Cycle in the Amazon to Convective Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itterly, Kyle; Taylor, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This presentation uses publicly available CERES and radiosonde data to investigate the sensitivity of thetropical convective diurnal cycle to atmosphere state. Averaging surface observations into regimes of convective intensitydefined by satellite shows great promise for physical understandingof convection.• Convective processes in the Amazon are highly variable seasonallyand locally.• Buoyancy/CIN more important JJA– Mesoscale/synoptic features easier to separate– Length/depth of buoyancy layer very important in DJF (EL).• Moisture more important DJF, esp. UTH– Humidity of lower atmosphere significantly impacts LTS, LCL and abilityfor parcels to reach LFC.• Lower level jet strength/direction important• Convective initiation correlated with LTS, LR, LTH, EL• Duration/Phase better correlated with humidity variables• Surface Flux amplitude well correlated with convection

  17. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2 GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem Including Santiago Creek. Volume 2. Prado Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    at Corona Sewage Treatmean t .................. 111-6 Dike at Alcoa Alumenum Plant .......................... 111-6 Dike at Corona National Housing...SAW;. 10 Y. po -t.d r.e.. Sortdoe, . It tt. am 222~~. ~ SWIT.H 7565 lTh e..I I, NP 9 4 7FSAW get.. cod, t d. dfc rt ZOO_ 5N dsm. .7too &I.I SAW 115...So 00 ? o lokr.ri .Veoiyprfls 46 . 10 1, 11 LEV. WN am real~m to6..6asa he somo.i UWIImi-sillNo list and:1 "ti t IIsv plant no oil. ofi l p .wI m wi

  18. Identification of benzofuran central cores for the inhibition of leukotriene A(4) hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Wendy; Blevitt, Jonathan M; Booker, Jamila N; Chrovian, Christa C; Crawford, Shelby; de Leon, Aimee Rose; Deng, Xiaohu; Fourie, Anne M; Grice, Cheryl A; Herman, Krystal; Karlsson, Lars; Kearney, Aaron M; Lee-Dutra, Alice; Liang, Jimmy; Luna, Rosa; Pippel, Dan; Rao, Navin; Riley, Jason P; Santillán, Alejandro; Savall, Brad; Tanis, Virginia M; Xue, Xiaohua; Young, Arlene L

    2013-02-01

    Leukotrienes (LT's) are known to play a physiological role in inflammatory immune response. Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a cystolic enzyme that stereospecifically catalyzes the transformation of LTA(4) to LTB(4). LTB(4) is a known pro-inflammatory mediator. This paper describes the identification and synthesis of substituted benzofurans as LTH(4)H inhibitors. The benzofuran series demonstrated reduced mouse and human whole blood LTB(4) levels in vitro and led to the identification one analog for advanced profiling. Benzofuran 28 showed dose responsive target engagement and provides a useful tool to explore a LTA(4)H inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  19. Hardwood Press-Lam Crossties: Processing and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Press-Lam S Forest Service Forest Productses t Laboiratory’ Processing and ii Performance, CHERNIT Chemical Engineer 000F riginer OKERS Forest Products...A th1110 e~aoi wot i 0-lth 101n tfa tot subeenlut-a 00, tbnltS, A trot tomO ee~t~K0 tec~~ inwttAeca0 a- totaty cutttatig And hea4te byv SkI11anetia...BOARDS HOT .... 3. REHE rED’eO4F9S. P-ESS - i/-,ilii: :I/ iI iCOLD -4E 4 RESOLE G.,UE Figure 10 -Process strategy in Press-Lan tie production Drying and

  20. Long-Term Treatment Sequelae After External Beam Irradiation With or Without Hormonal Manipulation for Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies 85-31, 86-10, and 92-02

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A. Bae, Kyoungwha; Pilepich, Miljenko; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity from external beam irradiation used to treat adenocarcinoma of the prostate continue to be a concern of physicians and patients alike. In addition, for locally advanced/high-risk cancer, the appropriate use of hormonal manipulation in addition to radiation therapy (RT) may increase toxicity. We analyzed three large Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies (85-31, 86-10, and 92-02) to try to address these issues. Methods and Materials: A total of 2,922 patients were accrued with a median follow-up of 10.3 years for surviving patients. The RTOG scoring scheme was used to assess GI, GU, and other toxicities. Toxicity reported was Grade 3 or higher late toxicity. Patient toxicity level was assessed by study and by treatment type combining RT only vs. RT + short-course hormone therapy (STH) vs. RT + long-term hormone therapy (LTH). Results: Multivariate analysis reveals that age >70 was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in late any Grade 3+ toxicity (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, p = 0.0476) adjusted for treatment type. Comparing treatment type, patients treated with RT+STH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GI, GU, and other toxicity compared with RT alone (p = .00006; p = 0.0037; p = 0.0127, respectively). Patients treated with RT+LTH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GU toxicity compared with RT alone (p = 0.023). Conclusions: These data show that external beam radiation therapy remains a safe option for locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer, and the use of hormonal manipulation does appear to be protective for GU and GI toxicity depending upon length of treatment.

  1. Habituation, latent inhibition, and extinction.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Wesley P; Todd, Travis P; Bucci, David J; Leaton, Robert N

    2015-06-01

    In two conditioned suppression experiments with a latent inhibition (LI) design, we measured the habituation of rats in preexposure, their LI during conditioning, and then extinction over days. In the first experiment, lick suppression, the preexposed group (PE) showed a significant initial unconditioned response (UR) to the target stimulus and significant long-term habituation (LTH) of that response over days. The significant difference between the PE and nonpreexposed (NPE) groups on the first conditioning trial was due solely to the difference in their URs to the conditioned stimulus (CS)-a habituated response (PE) and an unhabituated response (NPE). In the second experiment, bar-press suppression, little UR to the target stimulus was apparent during preexposure, and no detectable LTH. Thus, there was no difference between the PE and NPE groups on the first conditioning trial. Whether the UR to the CS confounds the interpretation of LI (Exp. 1) or not (Exp. 2) can only be known if the UR is measured. In both experiments, LI was observed in acquisition. Also in both experiments, rats that were preexposed and then conditioned to asymptote were significantly more resistant to extinction than were the rats not preexposed. This result contrasts with the consistently reported finding that preexposure either produces less resistance to extinction or has no effect on extinction. The effect of stimulus preexposure survived conditioning to asymptote and was reflected directly in extinction. These two experiments provide a cautionary procedural note for LI experiments and have shown an unexpected extinction effect that may provide new insights into the interpretation of LI.

  2. Homelessness and stakeholders' involvement in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stona, Anne-Claire; Berrang, Charles; Santerre, Honorine; Georges, Nathalie; Chimenti, Rosa; Kneip, René; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, between 150 and 200 people per night in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg are estimated roofless. Abilities to respond to emergencies in the GDL are perceptibly decreased due to longer stays in emergency shelters. This study aimed to analyse the needs of long-term homeless (LTH) individuals and to put forward professional recommendations to improve support and care for homeless individuals. A local, cross-sectional, qualitative study carried out between February and September 2013 in the GDL. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with homeless people living in Caritas housing facilities permanently over a period of 2 years or temporarily over a period of 3 years, as well as Caritas professionals and Luxembourgish psychiatrists. They mainly focused on the homeless person's life pathways, needs and expectations, and difficulties encountered. Twenty-two homeless persons, 13 professionals from Caritas and three Luxembourgish psychiatrists participated. Homeless persons' needs and expectations consist of the following: (i) seeking freedom and peacefulness, (ii) having their own space, being independent and (iii) living like everyone else. Professionals mainly complained about difficulties for supporting LTH persons and the lack of collaboration with Luxembourg stakeholders from social and psychiatric departments. This study has found that the current approach is not appropriate for the management of LTHness in the country. This study recommends changes within the Caritas facilities and outside, on the basis of three concepts: (i) a decent home as an essential need, (ii) respect of freedom of choice and (iii) a housing-first model. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Characterization of the Th profile of the bovine endometrium during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lilian J; Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; Mansourri-Attia, Nadéra; Fahey, Alan G; Browne, John; Forde, Niamh; Roche, James F; Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Trudee

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research in the area of cow fertility, the extent to which the maternal immune system is modulated during pregnancy in cattle remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to characterize the presence and response profile of B, T-helper (LTh), T- cytotoxic (LTc), gamma delta-T (γδT) and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes in terms of cell number, distribution and cytokine expression in bovine endometrial tissue to pregnancy. Endometrial tissue samples were collected from beef heifers on Days 5, 7, 13 and 16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Samples were analysed by immunofluorescence to identify the presence and abundance of B-B7 (B-cells), CD4 (LTh), CD8 (LTc), γδT cell receptor (TCR) and CD335/NKp46 (NK cells) -positive immune cells. Quantitative real time PCR (QPCR) was carried out to analyse mRNA relative abundance of FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T (Treg) cells) and a panel of immune factors, including MHC-I, LIF, Interleukins 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11,12A, IFNa and IFNG. Results indicate that B-B7+ cells are quite populous in bovine endometrial tissue, CD4+ and CD8+ -cells are present in moderate numbers and γδTCR+ and CD335+ cells are present in low numbers. Pregnancy affected the total number and distribution pattern of the NK cell population, with the most significant variation observed on Day 16 of pregnancy. Neither B lymphocytes nor T lymphocyte subsets were regulated temporally during the oestrous cycle or by pregnancy prior to implantation. mRNA transcript abundance of the immune factors LIF, IL1b, IL8 and IL12A, IFNa and IFNG, expression was regulated temporally during the estrous cycle and LIF, IL1b, IL-10, IL11, IL12A were also temporally regulated during pregnancy. In conclusion, the endometrial immune profile of the oestrous cycle favours a Th2 environment in anticipation of pregnancy and the presence of an embryo acts to fine tune this environment.

  4. Characterization of the Th Profile of the Bovine Endometrium during the Oestrous Cycle and Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lilian J.; Mansourri-Attia, Nadéra; Fahey, Alan G.; Browne, John; Forde, Niamh; Roche, James F.; Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Trudee

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research in the area of cow fertility, the extent to which the maternal immune system is modulated during pregnancy in cattle remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to characterize the presence and response profile of B, T-helper (LTh), T- cytotoxic (LTc), gamma delta-T (γδT) and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes in terms of cell number, distribution and cytokine expression in bovine endometrial tissue to pregnancy. Endometrial tissue samples were collected from beef heifers on Days 5, 7, 13 and 16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Samples were analysed by immunofluorescence to identify the presence and abundance of B-B7 (B-cells), CD4 (LTh), CD8 (LTc), γδT cell receptor (TCR) and CD335/NKp46 (NK cells) -positive immune cells. Quantitative real time PCR (QPCR) was carried out to analyse mRNA relative abundance of FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T (Treg) cells) and a panel of immune factors, including MHC-I, LIF, Interleukins 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11,12A, IFNa and IFNG. Results indicate that B-B7+ cells are quite populous in bovine endometrial tissue, CD4+ and CD8+ -cells are present in moderate numbers and γδTCR+ and CD335+ cells are present in low numbers. Pregnancy affected the total number and distribution pattern of the NK cell population, with the most significant variation observed on Day 16 of pregnancy. Neither B lymphocytes nor T lymphocyte subsets were regulated temporally during the oestrous cycle or by pregnancy prior to implantation. mRNA transcript abundance of the immune factors LIF, IL1b, IL8 and IL12A, IFNa and IFNG, expression was regulated temporally during the estrous cycle and LIF, IL1b, IL-10, IL11, IL12A were also temporally regulated during pregnancy. In conclusion, the endometrial immune profile of the oestrous cycle favours a Th2 environment in anticipation of pregnancy and the presence of an embryo acts to fine tune this environment. PMID:24204576

  5. Development of ligustrazine hydrochloride carboxymethyl chitosan and collagen microspheres: Formulation optimization, characterization, and vitro release.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Huo, Qing; Qin, Yingzhe; Zhao, Zhuo; Tao, Fengyun

    2017-01-02

    This study investigates the preparation of ligustrazine hydrochloride carboxymethyl chitosan and collagen microspheres. This experiment investigates effects of the ratio of carboxymethyl chitosan and collagen blend, water to oil ratio, stirring speed, and other factors on the microsphere properties. The experiment had the following conditions: a 1:2 proportion of carboxymethyl chitosan and collagen, a 1:2 proportion of drugs and materials, a 5:1 proportion of oil phase and water phase, 0.5% of span80, a 600r/min stirring speed, 3 ml of a cross-linking agent, 3 h of cross-linking curing, 1.25 ± 0.05 mm diameter LTH microcapsules, a 54.08% envelop rate, and a 14.16% carrier rate. The microspheres release rate reached 66% within 1 h, then steadily released within 5 h in vitro. The experimental results showed that the ligustrazine hydrochloride microsphere production process was stable and exhibited a good release effect compared with other ligustrazine hydrochloride tablets and pills.

  6. Levansucrase and sucrose phoshorylase contribute to raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose metabolism by lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Januana S; McNeill, Victoria; Gänzle, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in food are considered anti-nutritional factors. This study elucidated the role of α-galactosidase (α-Gal), levansucrase, and sucrose phosphorylase for conversion of RFOs by lactobacilli. Quantification of gene expression by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR revealed that expression of levansucrase and sucrose phosphorylase by Lactobacillus reuteri is increased more than 100 fold when sucrose or raffinose are available. Fava bean (Vicia faba) or field pea (Pisum sativum) flours were fermented with α-Gal positive L. reuteri or α-Gal negative Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Isogenic strains lacking levansucrase activity, a L. reuteri ftfA mutant and a L. sanfranciscensis levS mutant, were used for comparison. During growth in pulse flours, L. sanfranciscensis accumulated melibiose and α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOSs); the levansucrase-negative strain did not grow. L. reuteri metabolized raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose by levansucrase activity and accumulated α-GOSs as metabolic intermediates. Oligosaccharide metabolism in the levansucrase-negative mutant was slower, and accumulation of α-GOSs was not observed. The use of sorghum sourdough fermented with L. reuteri LTH5448 and bean flour in gluten-free baking converted RFOs to α-GOSs by levansucrase and invertase activities. In conclusion, the elucidation of the role levansucrase in RFO metabolism by lactobacilli allowed the conversion or hydrolysis of RFOs in food fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception of Environmental Risks and Health Promotion Attitudes of French Perinatal Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Lémery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-12-18

    The exposure of pregnant women to environmental contaminants is a subject of international concern. However, the risk perception of these contaminants by health professionals (HP) has not been extensively investigated. The main objective of the PERI-HELPE study (Perception of Risk-HEaLth Professionals & Environment Study) was to assess the risk perception of environmental exposure of pregnant women by perinatal HPs. The secondary objectives were to describe the preventive attitudes of perinatal HPs concerning chemicals exposure of pregnant women and to identify the barriers to preventive attitude. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2015 in France. One hundred eighty-nine HPs (obstetricians, midwives, and general practitioners) replied to an online self-administered questionnaire (participation rate: 11%). Carbon monoxide, pesticides and lead were the contaminants most frequently perceived as a high risk for pregnant women. A minority of HPs asked women about their chemical exposure and advised them to reduce exposure. The lack of information, training and scientific evidence in environmental health were the main difficulties declared by the HPs to advise pregnant women. Despite the low response rate, our findings provide important information to encourage French health authorities to take into account the difficulties encountered by HPs and set up appropriate training programs in Environmental health.

  8. Quasi-energy spectrum and dynamical localizations of two charged particles in a one-dimensional lattice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Suqing, Duan; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2006-04-01

    The quasi-energy spectrum of two charged particles in a one-dimensional lattice system driven by an external field are theoretically studied with the help of numerical calculations. It is found that the quasi-energy spectrum splits into two regions. In the gourd-shaped region the Floquet states mainly contain the Wannier states |l,m> (l≠m), which describe the two particles occupy the different sites. The (avoid) crossing points in this region are corresponding to the dynamical localizations of the two particles which initially occupy on different sites when the distance between the initial sites is large. These conditions of dynamical localization are the same as that in single particle system. In the other region (electron electron or electron hole pair region), the Floquet states mainly contain the Wannier states |l,l>, which describe the two particles simultaneously occupy the lth site. The (avoid) crossing points in this region are corresponding to the dynamical localizations of the two particles happening which initially occupy on same site.

  9. Ultrarelativistic bound states in the spherical well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żaba, Mariusz; Garbaczewski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    We address an eigenvalue problem for the ultrarelativistic (Cauchy) operator (-Δ)1/2, whose action is restricted to functions that vanish beyond the interior of a unit sphere in three spatial dimensions. We provide high accuracy spectral data for lowest eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of this infinite spherical well problem. Our focus is on radial and orbital shapes of eigenfunctions. The spectrum consists of an ordered set of strictly positive eigenvalues which naturally splits into non-overlapping, orbitally labelled E(k,l) series. For each orbital label l = 0, 1, 2, …, the label k = 1, 2, … enumerates consecutive lth series eigenvalues. Each of them is 2l + 1-degenerate. The l = 0 eigenvalues series E(k,0) are identical with the set of even labeled eigenvalues for the d = 1 Cauchy well: E(k,0)(d = 3) = E2k(d = 1). Likewise, the eigenfunctions ψ(k,0)(d = 3) and ψ2k(d = 1) show affinity. We have identified the generic functional form of eigenfunctions of the spherical well which appear to be composed of a product of a solid harmonic and of a suitable purely radial function. The method to evaluate (approximately) the latter has been found to follow the universal pattern which effectively allows to skip all, sometimes involved, intermediate calculations (those were in usage, while computing the eigenvalues for l ≤ 3).

  10. The durably resistant rice cultivar Digu activates defence gene expression before the full maturation of Magnaporthe oryzae appressorium.

    PubMed

    Li, Weitao; Liu, Ya; Wang, Jing; He, Min; Zhou, Xiaogang; Yang, Chao; Yuan, Can; Wang, Jichun; Chern, Mawsheng; Yin, Junjie; Chen, Weilan; Ma, Bingtian; Wang, Yuping; Qin, Peng; Li, Shigui; Ronald, Pamela; Chen, Xuewei

    2016-04-01

    Rice blast caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases worldwide. Although the rice-M. oryzae interaction has been studied extensively, the early molecular events that occur in rice before full maturation of the appressorium during M. oryzae invasion are unknown. Here, we report a comparative transcriptomics analysis of the durably resistant rice variety Digu and the susceptible rice variety Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) in response to infection by M. oryzae (5, 10 and 20 h post-inoculation, prior to full development of the appressorium). We found that the transcriptional responses differed significantly between these two rice varieties. Gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed that many biological processes, including extracellular recognition and biosynthesis of antioxidants, terpenes and hormones, were specifically activated in Digu shortly after infection. Forty-eight genes encoding receptor kinases (RKs) were significantly differentially regulated by M. oryzae infection in Digu. One of these genes, LOC_Os08g10300, encoding a leucine-rich repeat RK from the LRR VIII-2 subfamily, conferred enhanced resistance to M. oryzae when overexpressed in rice. Our study reveals that a multitude of molecular events occur in the durably resistant rice Digu before the full maturation of the appressorium after M. oryzae infection and that membrane-associated RKs play important roles in the early response.

  11. Fetal endocrine and metabolic adaptations to hypoxia: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Newby, Elizabeth A; Myers, Dean A; Ducsay, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    In utero, hypoxia is a significant yet common stress that perturbs homeostasis and can occur due to preeclampsia, preterm labor, maternal smoking, heart or lung disease, obesity, and high altitude. The fetus has the extraordinary capacity to respond to stress during development. This is mediated in part by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and more recently explored changes in perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) in response to hypoxia. Obvious ethical considerations limit studies of the human fetus, and fetal studies in the rodent model are limited due to size considerations and major differences in developmental landmarks. The sheep is a common model that has been used extensively to study the effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on fetal development. In response to high-altitude-induced, moderate long-term hypoxia (LTH), both the HPA axis and PAT adapt to preserve normal fetal growth and development while allowing for responses to acute stress. Although these adaptations appear beneficial during fetal development, they may become deleterious postnatally and into adulthood. The goal of this review is to examine the role of the HPA axis in the convergence of endocrine and metabolic adaptive responses to hypoxia in the fetus.

  12. CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, AND EPIGENETIC MECHANISMS IN NON-ASSOCIATIVE CONDITIONING: IMPLICATIONS FOR PAIN AND MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Elizabeth J.; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C.; Sweatt, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Sensitization is a form of non-associative conditioning in which amplification of behavioral responses can occur following presentation of an aversive or noxious stimulus. Understanding the cellular and molecular underpinnings of sensitization has been an overarching theme spanning the field of learning and memory as well as that of pain research. In this review we examine how sensitization, both in the context of learning as well as pain processing, shares evolutionarily conserved behavioral, cellular/synaptic, and epigenetic mechanisms across phyla. First, we characterize the behavioral phenomenon of sensitization both in invertebrates and vertebrates. Particular emphasis is placed on long-term sensitization (LTS) of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia following aversive stimulation or injury, although additional invertebrate models are also covered. In the context of vertebrates, sensitization of mammalian hyperarousal in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as mammalian models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain is characterized. Second, we investigate the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. We focus our discussion on serotonin-mediated long-term facilitation (LTF) and axotomy-mediated long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in reduced Aplysia systems, as well as mammalian spinal plasticity mechanisms of central sensitization. Third, we explore recent evidence implicating epigenetic mechanisms in learning-and pain- related sensitization. This review illustrates the fundamental and functional overlay of the learning and memory field with the pain field which argues for homologous persistent plasticity mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury across phyla. PMID:23796633

  13. Perception of Environmental Risks and Health Promotion Attitudes of French Perinatal Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Cécile; Lémery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of pregnant women to environmental contaminants is a subject of international concern. However, the risk perception of these contaminants by health professionals (HP) has not been extensively investigated. The main objective of the PERI–HELPE study (Perception of Risk–HEaLth Professionals & Environment Study) was to assess the risk perception of environmental exposure of pregnant women by perinatal HPs. The secondary objectives were to describe the preventive attitudes of perinatal HPs concerning chemicals exposure of pregnant women and to identify the barriers to preventive attitude. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2015 in France. One hundred eighty-nine HPs (obstetricians, midwives, and general practitioners) replied to an online self-administered questionnaire (participation rate: 11%). Carbon monoxide, pesticides and lead were the contaminants most frequently perceived as a high risk for pregnant women. A minority of HPs asked women about their chemical exposure and advised them to reduce exposure. The lack of information, training and scientific evidence in environmental health were the main difficulties declared by the HPs to advise pregnant women. Despite the low response rate, our findings provide important information to encourage French health authorities to take into account the difficulties encountered by HPs and set up appropriate training programs in Environmental health. PMID:27999342

  14. Survival of spoilage bacteria subjected to sequential eugenol and temperature treatments.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Yudith; Suriyarak, Sarisa; Gibis, Monika; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-02-02

    Effects of a sequential application of eugenol and temperature on the survival of two model spoilage organisms, Staphylococcus carnosus LTH1502 and Escherichia coli K12 C600, were studied. To assess effects of a "temperature first-antimicrobial later" treatment, cultures were treated with eugenol at 20, 37 and 42 °C at the beginning of the incubation period, and after 3h and 8h. To assess effects of an "antimicrobial first-temperature later" treatment, eugenol was added at the beginning of the incubation period at 37 °C and temperature was changed to 20 or 42 °C after 3 or 8h. Cell numbers were determined in regular intervals during the incubation period using plate counts. Partitioning of eugenol was measured by HPLC, and cell morphology was assessed by electron microscopy. Combined treatments were more effective against the Gram negative E. coli than against S. carnosus. Order of application influenced the effectiveness of treatments, especially at 42 °C. There, the temperature first-eugenol later treatment was less effective than other treatments, likely due to temperature-induced adaptation processes occurring in cellular membranes making them more resistant against a later eugenol treatment. Results are of significance in situations where combinations of sublethal stresses are used to build a hurdle concept for food preservation.

  15. H∞ state estimation for discrete-time neural networks with distributed delays and randomly occurring uncertainties through Fading channels.

    PubMed

    Hou, Nan; Dong, Hongli; Wang, Zidong; Ren, Weijian; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the H∞ state estimation problem is investigated for a class of uncertain discrete-time neural networks subject to infinitely distributed delays and fading channels. Randomly occurring uncertainties (ROUs) are introduced to reflect the random nature of the network condition fluctuations, and the channel fading phenomenon is considered to account for the possibly unreliable network medium on which the measurement signal is transmitted. A set of Bernoulli-distributed white sequences are employed to govern the ROUs and the L-th Rice fading model is utilized where channel coefficients are mutually independent random variables with certain probability density function on [0,1]. We aim to design a state estimator such that the dynamics of the estimation error is asymptotically stable while satisfying the prescribed H∞ performance constraint. By adopting the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the stochastic analysis theory, sufficient conditions are established to ensure the existence of the desired state estimators and the explicit expression of such estimators is acquired. A simulation example is provided to verify the usefulness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sample size determination for multiple comparison studies treating confidence interval width as random.

    PubMed

    Pan, Z; Kupper, L L

    1999-06-30

    Methods for optimal sample size determination are developed using four popular multiple comparison procedures (Scheffe's, Bonferroni's, Tukey's and Dunnett's procedures), where random samples of the same size n are to be selected from k (>/=2) normal populations with common variance sigma2, and where primary interest concerns inferences about a family of L linear contrasts among the k population means. For a simultaneous coverage probability of (1-alpha), the optimal sample size is defined to be the smallest integer value n*m such that, simultaneously for all L confidence intervals, the width of the lth confidence interval will be no greater than tolerance 2deltal (l=1,2,...,L) with tolerance probability at least (1-gamma), treating the pooled sample variance S2p as a random variable. Using Scheffe's procedure as an illustration, comparisons are made to usual sample size methods that incorrectly ignore the stochastic nature of S2p. The latter approach can lead to serious underestimation of required sample sizes and hence to unacceptably low values of the actually tolerance probability (1-gamma'). Our approach guarantees a lower bound of [1-(alpha+gamma)] for the probability that the L confidence intervals will both cover the parametric functions of interest and also be sufficiently narrow. Recommendations are provided regarding the choices among the four multiple comparison procedures for sample size determination and inference-making. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fetal endocrine and metabolic adaptations to hypoxia: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    Newby, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Dean A.

    2015-01-01

    In utero, hypoxia is a significant yet common stress that perturbs homeostasis and can occur due to preeclampsia, preterm labor, maternal smoking, heart or lung disease, obesity, and high altitude. The fetus has the extraordinary capacity to respond to stress during development. This is mediated in part by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and more recently explored changes in perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) in response to hypoxia. Obvious ethical considerations limit studies of the human fetus, and fetal studies in the rodent model are limited due to size considerations and major differences in developmental landmarks. The sheep is a common model that has been used extensively to study the effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on fetal development. In response to high-altitude-induced, moderate long-term hypoxia (LTH), both the HPA axis and PAT adapt to preserve normal fetal growth and development while allowing for responses to acute stress. Although these adaptations appear beneficial during fetal development, they may become deleterious postnatally and into adulthood. The goal of this review is to examine the role of the HPA axis in the convergence of endocrine and metabolic adaptive responses to hypoxia in the fetus. PMID:26173460

  18. [Looking back but facing ahead: implementing lessons learned from the 2nd Lebanon War].

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Laor, Danny; Lev, Boaz; Israeli, Avi

    2010-07-01

    The medical system utilizes a structured culture for learning lessons in order to improve the supply of services. Various tools are utilized to evaluate performance. The aim of the article is to describe the processes for learning lessons which were carried out following the Second Lebanon War and the major lessons that were identified and implemented. Three processes were performed: a process of learning Lessons of the heaLthcare system, initiated and led by the Supreme HeaLth Authority (SHA); After action review (AAR), initiated and led by the military Medical Corps and; at a later stage, a critique, initiated and led by the State Comptroller, that examined the performance of the medical system, as part of a critique on the preparedness of the home front. The following elements were defined as highly prioritized for improvement to elevate the preparedness for a future war: (1) deployment of unified clinics in conflict areas; (2) supply of medical services to the population in shelters; (3) deploying emergency medicine services, including the relationship between the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Home Front Command (HFC); (4) defining the relationships between the MOH and HFC in deploying the community health services in emergencies; (5) protecting medical facilities and personal protection equipment for medical teams and; (6) treating acute stress reactions. The AAR, critique and learning lessons signify three different processes that can sometimes be contradictory. Nevertheless, it is possible to achieve organizational improvement white integrating between these three processes, as was displayed by the SHA.

  19. Fuzzy [Formula: see text] output-feedback control for the discrete-time system with channel fadings, sector nonlinearities, and randomly occurring interval delays and nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaozheng; Wang, Yan; Hu, Manfeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the fuzzy [Formula: see text] output-feedback control problem is investigated for a class of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems with channel fadings, sector nonlinearities, randomly occurring interval delays (ROIDs) and randomly occurring nonlinearities (RONs). A series of variables of the randomly occurring phenomena obeying the Bernoulli distribution is used to govern ROIDs and RONs. Meanwhile, the measurement outputs are subject to the sector nonlinearities (i.e. the sensor saturations) and we assume the system output is [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. The Lth-order Rice model is utilized to describe the phenomenon of channel fadings by setting different values of the channel coefficients. The aim of this work is to deal with the problem of designing a full-order dynamic fuzzy [Formula: see text] output-feedback controller such that the fuzzy closed-loop system is exponentially mean-square stable and the [Formula: see text] performance constraint is satisfied, by means of a combination of Lyapunov stability theory and stochastic analysis along with LMI methods. The proposed fuzzy controller parameters are derived by solving a convex optimization problem via the semidefinite programming technique. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design technique.

  20. The synthesis of the bacteriocin sakacin A is a temperature-sensitive process regulated by a pheromone peptide through a three-component regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Diep, D B; Axelsson, L; Grefsli, C; Nes, I F

    2000-09-01

    Sakacin A is a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sakei Lb706. The gene cluster (sap) encompasses a regulatory unit composed of three consecutive genes, orf4 and sapKR. sapKR encode a histidine protein kinase and a response regulator, while orf4 encodes the putative precursor of a 23-amino-acid cationic peptide (termed Sap-Ph). The authors show that Sap-Ph serves as a pheromone regulating bacteriocin production. Lb706 produced bacteriocin when the growth temperature was kept at 25 or 30 degrees C, but production was reduced or absent at higher temperatures (33.5-35 degrees C). Production was restored by lowering the growth temperature to 30 degrees C, but at temperatures of 33-34 degrees C also by adding exogenous Sap-Ph to the growth medium. A knock-out mutation in orf4 abolished sakacin A production. Exogenously added Sap-Ph complemented this mutation, unambiguously showing the essential role of this peptide for bacteriocin production. Another sakacin A producer, Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174, had a similar response to temperature and exogenously added Sap-Ph.

  1. POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL APPROXIMATION OF FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES WITH CONVEX DERIVATIVES IN THE L_p-METRIC (0 < p\\leqslant\\infty)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatamov, A.

    1995-02-01

    Let \\operatorname{Conv}_n^{(l)}(\\mathscr{G}) be the set of all functions f such that for every n-dimensional unit vector \\mathbf{e} the lth derivative in the direction of \\mathbf{e}, D^{(l)}(\\mathbf{e})f, is continuous on a convex bounded domain \\mathscr{G}\\subset\\mathbf{R}^n ( n \\geqslant 2) and convex (upwards or downwards) on the nonempty intersection of every line L\\subset\\mathbf{R}^n with the domain \\mathscr{G}, and let M^{(l)}(f,\\mathscr{G}):= \\sup \\bigl\\{\\bigl\\Vert D^{(l)}(\\mathbf{e})f\\bigr\\Ve......})}\\colon\\mathbf{e}\\in\\mathbf{R}^n,\\,\\,\\Vert\\mathbf{e}\\Vert=1\\bigr\\} < \\infty. Sharp, in the sense of order of smallness, estimates of best simultaneous polynomial approximations of the functions f\\in\\operatorname{Conv}_n^{(l)}(\\mathscr{G}) for which D^{(l)}(\\mathbf{e})f\\in\\operatorname{Lip}_K 1 for every \\mathbf{e}, and their derivatives in the metrics of L_p(\\mathscr{G}) (0 < p\\leqslant\\infty) are obtained. It is proved that the corresponding parts of these estimates are preserved for best rational approximations, on any n-dimensional parallelepiped Q, of functions f\\in\\operatorname{Conv}_n^{(l)}(Q) in the metrics of L_p(Q) (0 < p < \\infty) and it is shown that they are sharp in the sense of order of smallness for 0 < p\\leqslant1.

  2. Prediction of Semiconducting and Metallic Behavior in AgBiSe2 due to Structural Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, P.; Mahanti, S. D.

    2001-03-01

    AgBiSe(_2) is observed to undergo a structural phase transition from a high temperature (T > 287 ( ^circ )C) cubic (HTC) to an intermediate temperature (120 ^circ )C < T < 287 ( ^circ )C) rhombohedral structure (ITR) and then to a low temperature (T < 120 ( ^circ )C) hexagonal phase (LTH).(C. Manolikas and J. Spyridelis, Mat. Res. Bull. 12), 907 (1977). This structural transition arises from a change in ordering of the Ag, Bi, and Se atoms and a distortion along the cube (111) axis. Electronic structure calculations of this material were performed, for different structural configurations, using ab initio all-electron linearized-augmented planewave (LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). We find the rhombohedral phase to be a semiconductor whereas different ordered arrangements of the cubic phase (Ag and Bi orderings) are found to be metallic. These calculations suggest that the HTC phase, which has Ag and Bi disorder, might be metallic, thereby giving a semiconducting to metallic transition when going from ITR to HTC. The gap formation in the ITR appears to be linked to both the atomic rearrangements from their cubic configuration as well as the distortion along (111). Energetics of the different configurations and the nature of the gap formation will be discussed.

  3. Reutericyclin producing Lactobacillus reuteri modulates development of fecal microbiota in weanling pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Zhao, Xin; Le, Minh H. A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is used as probiotic culture in food and feed applications; however, strain specific properties of L. reuteri that mediate probiotic activity remain unknown. This study aimed to determine effects of feed fermentation with exopolysaccharide and reutericyclin producing L. reuteri on the transition of the gut microbiome of piglets after weaning. The reutericyclin and reuteran producing L. reuteri TMW1.656 was compared to the reutericyclin negative and levan producing L. reuteri LTH5794 and unfermented controls. Both strains were fermented at conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation, or at conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Fecal microbiota were characterized by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and by quantitative PCR targeting clostridial toxins. The transition to solid food resulted in a transient increase of Proteobacteria to 12% of total bacteria, and increased bacterial diversity by increasing the abundance of anaerobic fiber fermenting Firmicutes. Three weeks after weaning, Prevotella and Lactobacillus were among the dominant bacterial genera. Feed fermentation with L. reuteri affected the abundance of few bacterial taxa and particularly reduced the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05) when compared to unfermented controls. Reutericyclin producing L. reuteri increased the abundance of Dialister spp. and Mitsuokella spp. (P < 0.05) but did not influence the abundance of clostridial toxins in the feces. In conclusion, data on the contribution of specific metabolic activities of L. reuteri to probiotic activity will facilitate the strain selection for probiotic applications in food and feed. PMID:26284047

  4. [Tuberculosis in pregnancy and puerperium].

    PubMed

    Bishara, Hashem; Vinitsky, Olga; Salim, Raed; Keness, Yoram; Chazan, Bibiana; Miron, Dan

    2013-07-01

    According to the World HeaLth Organization, tuberculosis (TB) is the third leading cause of death worldwide among women at child bearing age. However, in Israel, a low TB prevalence country, TB in pregnant women is infrequent and infectious pulmonary TB at puerperium is rare. Early diagnosis of TB in pregnancy is challenging because the non-specific symptoms of early TB such as weakness, excess perspiration and tachycardia will usually be attributed to pregnancy. Furthermore, since health care givers attempt to avoid superfluous exposure of the fetus to radiation, and pregnant women are reluctant to be X-rayed, the diagnosis of active TB may be further delayed, especially if the woman is not in a risk group for TB. However, delaying treatment of TB in a pregnant woman, especially in advanced pregnancy may lead to TB in the fetus, TB infection of the new born transmitted from the mother who may also infect other mothers and their infants in the maternity ward. We report a case of highly infectious active TB diagnosed in a pregnant woman one week before delivery. The woman, a native Israeli, had no risk factor for TB except her recent stay in a high burden TB country. We present the diagnostic workup and therapeutic approach to the pregnant patient, the newborn infant and the measures applied to control infection. Awareness of risk factors for TB, the elusive symptoms of the disease during pregnancy, and implementing the necessary diagnostic workup at delivery is vital to minimize pregnancy related TB morbidity.

  5. Biomechanical investigation of a novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Jeremy J; Li, Xinning; Weiss, Douglas R; Billiar, Kristen L; Wixted, John J

    2010-10-14

    Knee or tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure, often with unacceptable rates of nonunion. Basic science of fracture healing suggests that compression across a fusion site may decrease nonunion. A novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail designed to improve dynamic compression is mechanically tested in comparison to existing nails. A novel ratcheting nail was designed and mechanically tested in comparison to a solid nail and a threaded nail using sawbones models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc.). Intramedullary nails (IM) were implanted with a load cell (Futek LTH 500) between fusion surfaces. Constructs were then placed into a servo-hydraulic test frame (Model 858 Mini-bionix, MTS Systems) for application of 3 mm and 6 mm dynamic axial displacement (n = 3/group). Load to failure was also measured. Mean percent of initial load after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement was 190.4% and 186.0% for the solid nail, 80.7% and 63.0% for the threaded nail, and 286.4% and 829.0% for the ratcheting nail, respectively. Stress-shielding (as percentage of maximum load per test) after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement averaged 34.8% and 28.7% (solid nail), 40.3% and 40.9% (threaded nail), and 18.5% and 11.5% (ratcheting nail), respectively. In the 6-mm trials, statistically significant increase in initial load and decrease in stress-shielding for the ratcheting vs. solid nail (p = 0.029, p = 0.001) and vs. threaded nail (p = 0.012, p = 0.002) was observed. Load to failure for the ratcheting nail; 599.0 lbs, threaded nail; 508.8 lbs, and solid nail; 688.1 lbs. With significantly increase of compressive load while decreasing stress-shielding at 6-mm of dynamic displacement, the ratcheting mechanism in IM nails may clinically improve rates of fusion.

  6. Biomechanical investigation of a novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knee or tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure, often with unacceptable rates of nonunion. Basic science of fracture healing suggests that compression across a fusion site may decrease nonunion. A novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail designed to improve dynamic compression is mechanically tested in comparison to existing nails. Methods A novel ratcheting nail was designed and mechanically tested in comparison to a solid nail and a threaded nail using sawbones models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc.). Intramedullary nails (IM) were implanted with a load cell (Futek LTH 500) between fusion surfaces. Constructs were then placed into a servo-hydraulic test frame (Model 858 Mini-bionix, MTS Systems) for application of 3 mm and 6 mm dynamic axial displacement (n = 3/group). Load to failure was also measured. Results Mean percent of initial load after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement was 190.4% and 186.0% for the solid nail, 80.7% and 63.0% for the threaded nail, and 286.4% and 829.0% for the ratcheting nail, respectively. Stress-shielding (as percentage of maximum load per test) after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement averaged 34.8% and 28.7% (solid nail), 40.3% and 40.9% (threaded nail), and 18.5% and 11.5% (ratcheting nail), respectively. In the 6-mm trials, statistically significant increase in initial load and decrease in stress-shielding for the ratcheting vs. solid nail (p = 0.029, p = 0.001) and vs. threaded nail (p = 0.012, p = 0.002) was observed. Load to failure for the ratcheting nail; 599.0 lbs, threaded nail; 508.8 lbs, and solid nail; 688.1 lbs. Conclusion With significantly increase of compressive load while decreasing stress-shielding at 6-mm of dynamic displacement, the ratcheting mechanism in IM nails may clinically improve rates of fusion. PMID:20942976

  7. Comparison of formulas for resonant interactions between energetic electrons and oblique whistler-mode waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Xie, Lun Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Guo, Ruilong; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Tao, Xin; Yao, Zhonghua

    2015-05-15

    Test particle simulation is a useful method for studying both linear and nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. The gyro-averaged equations of particle motion for first-order and other cyclotron harmonic resonances with oblique whistler-mode waves were first derived by Bell [J. Geophys. Res. 89, 905 (1984)] and the most recent relativistic form was given by Ginet and Albert [Phys. Fluids B 3, 2994 (1991)], and Bortnik [Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2004), p. 40]. However, recently we found there was a (−1){sup l−1} term difference between their formulas of perpendicular motion for the lth-order resonance. This article presents the detailed derivation process of the generalized resonance formulas, and suggests a check of the signs for self-consistency, which is independent of the choice of conventions, that is, the energy variation equation resulting from the momentum equations should not contain any wave magnetic components, simply because the magnetic field does not contribute to changes of particle energy. In addition, we show that the wave centripetal force, which was considered small and was neglect in previous studies of nonlinear interactions, has a profound time derivative and can significantly enhance electron phase trapping especially in high frequency waves. This force can also bounce the low pitch angle particles out of the loss cone. We justify both the sign problem and the missing wave centripetal force by demonstrating wave-particle interaction examples, and comparing the gyro-averaged particle motion to the full particle motion under the Lorentz force.

  8. Band-structural and Fourier-spectral properties of one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, G. Y.; Lee, M. H.

    1993-11-01

    We study the electronic and Fourier-spectral properties of one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci lattices generated by the stacking rule Sl+1=SnlSml-1 with positive integers n and m, where Sl is the lth generational binary sequence. After showing that, in the limit of the large potential strength, the energy spectrum of a lattice with certain specific n and m can be determined by the associated characteristic value τ(n,m), we investigate the relation between the electronic band structure and the Fourier spectrum. When the lattice possesses the Pisot-Vijayaraghavan (PV) property (i.e., when n+1>m), the Fourier spectrum is closely related to the electronic band structure; the location and the relative strength of the Fourier spectral peak is in agreement with the location and the relative width of the energy spectral gap. On the other hand, when the lattice possesses no PV property (i.e., when n+1<=m), the Fourier spectrum is not directly related to the electronic band structure; the strength of the Fourier spectral peak is irrelevant to the width of the energy spectral gap, while the location of the peak corresponds to that of the gap. We also study the dependence of the electronic and Fourier-spectral properties on the initial conditions of the stacking rule through detailed study of the copper mean lattice (n=1,m=2) with initial conditions S1=\\{A\\} and S2=\\{ABp\\}. It is found that the fractal structure of the energy spectrum is independent of the integer p, while some local electronic properties depend on p. It is also found that the global structure of the Fourier spectrum depends on p; it looks more blurred, and thus the aperiodic nature of the lattice becomes clearer with the increase of p.

  9. Glutathione Reductase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T: Contribution to Oxygen Tolerance and Thiol Exchange Reactions in Wheat Sourdoughs▿

    PubMed Central

    Jänsch, André; Korakli, Maher; Vogel, Rudi F.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T on the thiol levels in fermented sourdoughs was determined, and the oxygen tolerance of the strain was also determined. The gshR gene coding for a putative GshR was sequenced and inactivated by single-crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451TΔgshR. The gene disruption was verified by sequencing the truncated gshR and surrounding regions on the chromosome. The gshR activity of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451TΔgshR was strongly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain, demonstrating that gshR indeed encodes an active GshR enzyme. The thiol levels in wheat doughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451 increased from 9 μM to 10.5 μM sulfhydryl/g of dough during a 24-h sourdough fermentation, but in sourdoughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451TΔgshR and in chemically acidified doughs, the thiol levels decreased to 6.5 to 6.8 μM sulfhydryl/g of dough. Remarkably, the GshR-negative strains Lactobacillus pontis LTH2587 and Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 exerted effects on thiol levels in dough comparable to those of L. sanfranciscensis. In addition to the effect on thiol levels in sourdough, the loss of GshR activity in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451TΔgshR resulted in a loss of oxygen tolerance. The gshR mutant strain exhibited a strongly decreased aerobic growth rate on modified MRS medium compared to either the growth rate under anaerobic conditions or that of the wild-type strain, and aerobic growth was restored by the addition of cysteine. Moreover, the gshR mutant strain was more sensitive to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. PMID:17496130

  10. A novel gene, Pi40(t), linked to the DNA markers derived from NBS-LRR motifs confers broad spectrum of blast resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Jeung, J U; Kim, B R; Cho, Y C; Han, S S; Moon, H P; Lee, Y T; Jena, K K

    2007-11-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a continuous threat to stable rice production worldwide. In a modernized agricultural system, the development of varieties with broad-spectrum and durable resistance to blast disease is essential for increased rice production and sustainability. In this study, a new gene is identified in the introgression line IR65482-4-136-2-2 that has inherited the resistance gene from an EE genome wild Oryza species, O. australiensis (Acc. 100882). Genetic and molecular analysis localized a major resistance gene, Pi40(t), on the short arm of chromosome 6, where four blast resistance genes (Piz, Piz-5, Piz-t, and Pi9) were also identified, flanked by the markers S2539 and RM3330. Through e-Landing, 14 BAC/PAC clones within the 1.81-Mb equivalent virtual contig were identified on Rice Pseudomolecule3. Highly stringent primer sets designed for 6 NBS-LRR motifs located within PAC clone P0649C11 facilitated high-resolution mapping of the new resistance gene, Pi40(t). Following association analysis and detailed haplotyping approaches, a DNA marker, 9871.T7E2b, was identified to be linked to the Pi40(t) gene at the 70 Kb chromosomal region, and differentiated the Pi40(t) gene from the LTH monogenic differential lines possessing genes Piz, Piz-5, Piz-t, and Pi-9. Pi40(t) was validated using the most virulent isolates of Korea as well as the Philippines, suggesting a broad spectrum for the resistance gene. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and pathotyping of BC progenies having two japonica cultivar genetic backgrounds further supported the potential of the resistance gene in rice breeding. Our study based on new gene identification strategies provides insight into novel genetic resources for blast resistance as well as future studies on cloning and functional analysis of a blast resistance gene useful for rice improvement.

  11. The ALHAMBRA survey: evolution of galaxy clustering since z ˜ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnalte-Mur, P.; Martínez, V. J.; Norberg, P.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Ascaso, B.; Merson, A. I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Castander, F. J.; Hurtado-Gil, L.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Molino, A.; Montero-Dorta, A. D.; Stefanon, M.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Perea, J.; Pović, M.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    We study the clustering of galaxies as function of luminosity and redshift in the range 0.35 < z < 1.25 using data from the Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium-Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey. The ALHAMBRA data used in this work cover 2.38 deg2 in seven independent fields, after applying a detailed angular selection mask, with accurate photometric redshifts, σz ≲ 0.014(1 + z), down to IAB < 24. Given the depth of the survey, we select samples in B-band luminosity down to Lth ≃ 0.16L* at z = 0.9. We measure the real-space clustering using the projected correlation function, accounting for photometric redshifts uncertainties. We infer the galaxy bias, and study its evolution with luminosity. We study the effect of sample variance, and confirm earlier results that the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and European Large Area ISO Survey North 1 (ELAIS-N1) fields are dominated by the presence of large structures. For the intermediate and bright samples, Lmed ≳ 0.6L*, we obtain a strong dependence of bias on luminosity, in agreement with previous results at similar redshift. We are able to extend this study to fainter luminosities, where we obtain an almost flat relation, similar to that observed at low redshift. Regarding the evolution of bias with redshift, our results suggest that the different galaxy populations studied reside in haloes covering a range in mass between log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 11.5 for samples with Lmed ≃ 0.3L* and log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 13.0 for samples with Lmed ≃ 2L*, with typical occupation numbers in the range of ˜1-3 galaxies per halo.

  12. Behavior of the Meat-Borne Bacterium Lactobacillus sakei during Its Transit through the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Axenic and Conventional Mice ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramonte, Fabrizio; Blugeon, Sébastien; Chaillou, Stéphane; Langella, Philippe; Zagorec, Monique

    2009-01-01

    A Lactobacillus sakei strain named FLEC01 was isolated from human feces and characterized genotypically. Comparison of the genetic features of this strain with those of both the meat-borne L. sakei strain 23K and another human isolate, LTH5590, showed that they belong to different but closely related clusters. The three L. sakei strains did not persist and only transited through the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of conventional C3H/HeN mice. In contrast, they all colonized the GITs of axenic mice and rapidly reached a population of 109 CFU/g of feces, which remained stable until day 51. Five days after mice were fed, a first subpopulation, characterized by small colonies, appeared and reached 50% of the total L. sakei population in mice. Fifteen to 21 days after feeding, a second subpopulation, characterized by rough colonies, appeared. It coexisted with the two other populations until day 51, and its cell shapes were also affected, suggesting a dysfunction of the cell division or cell wall. No clear difference between the behaviors of the meat-borne strain and the two human isolates in both conventional and axenic mice was observed, suggesting that L. sakei is a food-borne bacterium rather than a commensal one and that its presence in human feces originates from diet. Previous observations of Escherichia coli strains suggest that the mouse GIT environment could induce mutations to increase their survival and colonization capacities. Here, we observed similar mutations concerning a food-grade gram-positive bacterium for the first time. PMID:19447958

  13. Post-Newtonian factorized multipolar waveforms for spinning, nonprecessing black-hole binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yi; Buonanno, Alessandra; Racine, Etienne; Fujita, Ryuichi; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2011-03-15

    We generalize the factorized resummation of multipolar waveforms introduced by Damour, Iyer, and Nagar to spinning black holes. For a nonspinning test particle spiraling a Kerr black hole in the equatorial plane, we find that factorized multipolar amplitudes which replace the residual relativistic amplitude f{sub lm} with its lth root, {rho}{sub lm}=f{sub lm}{sup 1/l}, agree quite well with the numerical amplitudes up to the Kerr-spin value q{<=}0.95 for orbital velocities v{<=}0.4. The numerical amplitudes are computed solving the Teukolsky equation with a spectral code. The agreement for prograde orbits and large spin values of the Kerr black-hole can be further improved at high velocities by properly factoring out the lower-order post-Newtonian contributions in {rho}{sub lm}. The resummation procedure results in a better and systematic agreement between numerical and analytical amplitudes (and energy fluxes) than standard Taylor-expanded post-Newtonian approximants. This is particularly true for higher-order modes, such as (2,1), (3,3), (3,2), and (4,4), for which less spin post-Newtonian terms are known. We also extend the factorized resummation of multipolar amplitudes to generic mass-ratio, nonprecessing, spinning black holes. Lastly, in our study we employ new, recently computed, higher-order post-Newtonian terms in several subdominant modes and compute explicit expressions for the half and one-and-half post-Newtonian contributions to the odd-parity (current) and even-parity (odd) multipoles, respectively. Those results can be used to build more accurate templates for ground-based and space-based gravitational-wave detectors.

  14. Histamine and tyramine degradation by food fermenting microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, R G; Heidel, M; Hammes, W P

    1998-01-06

    Microorganisms suitable for food fermentation were examined with regard to their potential to degrade histamine and tyramine. Out of 64 lactic acid bacteria evaluated in this study, 27 degraded histamine and one tyramine, respectively, with low activity. Among 32 strains of Brevibacterium linens and coryneform bacteria, 21 exhibited histamine and tyramine oxidase activity. None of 20 strains of Staphylococcus carnosus tested degraded histamine or tyramine. One strain out of nine strains of Geotrichum candidum degraded tyramine slightly. Among 44 strains of Micrococcus sp. examined, 17 degraded either one or two biogenic amines. In this study Micrococcus varians (M. varians) LTH 1540 exhibited the highest tyramine oxidase activity of all strains tested and was therefore investigated in detail. The enzyme was found to be located in the cytoplasm and was not membrane bound. The reaction end product p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was detected by HPLC analysis. An activity staining for the amine oxidase in a native polyacrylamide gel based on the formation of H2O2 during amine oxidation was developed. Resting cells of the strain exhibited optimal tyramine oxidase activity at a pH of 7 at 37-40 degrees C. The enzyme in the cell free extract had a pH optimum between 7-8. The enzyme activity was decreased by NaCl, glucose and hydralazine. Phenylethylamine and tryptamine were oxidized at lower concentrations than tyramine. The potential for amine degradation was not found to be associated with that of formation of biogenic amines, as 23 microorganisms with the ability to metabolise biogenic amines exhibited no decarboxylase activity toward histidine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine or ornithine.

  15. Glutathione reductase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T: contribution to oxygen tolerance and thiol exchange reactions in wheat sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Jänsch, André; Korakli, Maher; Vogel, Rudi F; Gänzle, Michael G

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) on the thiol levels in fermented sourdoughs was determined, and the oxygen tolerance of the strain was also determined. The gshR gene coding for a putative GshR was sequenced and inactivated by single-crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR. The gene disruption was verified by sequencing the truncated gshR and surrounding regions on the chromosome. The gshR activity of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR was strongly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain, demonstrating that gshR indeed encodes an active GshR enzyme. The thiol levels in wheat doughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451 increased from 9 microM to 10.5 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough during a 24-h sourdough fermentation, but in sourdoughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR and in chemically acidified doughs, the thiol levels decreased to 6.5 to 6.8 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough. Remarkably, the GshR-negative strains Lactobacillus pontis LTH2587 and Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 exerted effects on thiol levels in dough comparable to those of L. sanfranciscensis. In addition to the effect on thiol levels in sourdough, the loss of GshR activity in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR resulted in a loss of oxygen tolerance. The gshR mutant strain exhibited a strongly decreased aerobic growth rate on modified MRS medium compared to either the growth rate under anaerobic conditions or that of the wild-type strain, and aerobic growth was restored by the addition of cysteine. Moreover, the gshR mutant strain was more sensitive to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat.

  16. Analysis of the dominant vibration frequencies of rail bridges for structure-borne noise using a power flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The use of concrete bridges in urban rail transit systems has raised many concerns regarding low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-borne noise due to the vibration of bridges when subjected to moving trains. Understanding the mechanism that determines the dominant frequencies of bridge vibrations is essential for both vibration and noise reduction. This paper presents a general procedure based on the force method to obtain the power flows within a coupled vehicle-track-bridge system, the point mobility of the system and the dynamic interaction forces connecting various components. The general coupling system consists of multi-rigid-bodies for the vehicles, infinite Euler beams representing the rails, two-dimensional or three-dimensional elements of the concrete bridges, and spring-dashpot pairs to model the wheel-rail contacts, the vehicle suspensions, the rail pads and the bridge bearings. The dynamic interaction of the coupled system is solved in the frequency domain by assuming the combined wheel-rail roughness moves forward relative to the stationary vehicles. The proposed procedure is first applied to a rail on discrete supports and then to a real urban rail transit U-shaped concrete bridge. The computed results show that the wheel-rail contact forces, the power flows to the rail/bridge subsystem and the accelerations of the bridge are primarily dominated by the contents around the natural frequency of a single wheel adhered to the elastically supported rail. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same rigid body, then δmnab(ω) can be expressed as δmnab(ω)=-{(}/{Mlω}, where Ml is the mass of the lth rigid body. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same infinite rail, δmnab(ω) can be expressed as [8] δmnab(ω)=-j{((e-je)}/{4EIk}, where xm and xn are the x-coordinates of the mth and nth spring

  17. EDITORIAL: International Conference on Finite Fermionic Systems: Nilsson Model 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    a high standing scientific programme. Finally, we thank the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences through its Nobel Committee for Physics, the Royal Physiographical Society in Lund, the Technical Faculty (LTH) at Lund University, and the Swedish Research Council (VR) for financial support. Sven Aberg, Ragnar Bengtsson, Ingemar Ragnarsson and Stephanie Reimann Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, S-22100 Lund, Sweden Joakim Cederkäll, Claes Fahlander and Dirk Rudolph Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, S-22100 Lund, Sweden

  18. Pharmacological Inhibitors of the Proteosome in Atrophying Muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    depth extracts from normal and atrophying muscles to compare the activities of the Ub-activating enzyme (El), the various LTh-carrier proteins (E2s), and Ub-protein ligases (E3s). Recent studies of other types of muscle wasting -suggest a very important role in muscle proteolysis of certain ubiquitination enzymes, E214k and E3-alpha(i.e. components of the "N-end pathway"). Future studies will focus in understanding their role and test whether they are in fact critical for muscle atrophy in vivo. Since weightlessness leads to a specific loss of contractile proteins and to a switching of myosin isotypes, Dr. Goldberg's group will attempt to identify the ubiquitination enzymes specifically involved in myosin degradation both in normal muscle and after hind-limb suspension.

  19. Habituation and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in rodents.

    PubMed

    Valsamis, Bridget; Schmid, Susanne

    2011-09-01

    The acoustic startle response is a protective response, elicited by a sudden and intense acoustic stimulus. Facial and skeletal muscles are activated within a few milliseconds, leading to a whole body flinch in rodents(1). Although startle responses are reflexive responses that can be reliably elicited, they are not stereotypic. They can be modulated by emotions such as fear (fear potentiated startle) and joy (joy attenuated startle), by non-associative learning processes such as habituation and sensitization, and by other sensory stimuli through sensory gating processes (prepulse inhibition), turning startle responses into an excellent tool for assessing emotions, learning, and sensory gating, for review see( 2, 3). The primary pathway mediating startle responses is very short and well described, qualifying startle also as an excellent model for studying the underlying mechanisms for behavioural plasticity on a cellular/molecular level(3). We here describe a method for assessing short-term habituation, long-term habituation and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rodents. Habituation describes the decrease of the startle response magnitude upon repeated presentation of the same stimulus. Habituation within a testing session is called short-term habituation (STH) and is reversible upon a period of several minutes without stimulation. Habituation between testing sessions is called long-term habituation (LTH)(4). Habituation is stimulus specific(5). Prepulse inhibition is the attenuation of a startle response by a preceding non-startling sensory stimulus(6). The interval between prepulse and startle stimulus can vary from 6 to up to 2000 ms. The prepulse can be any modality, however, acoustic prepulses are the most commonly used. Habituation is a form of non-associative learning. It can also be viewed as a form of sensory filtering, since it reduces the organisms' response to a non-threatening stimulus. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) was originally

  20. [Data coding in the Israeli healthcare system - do choices provide the answers to our system's needs?].

    PubMed

    Zelingher, Julian; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The IsraeLi healthcare system has undergone major processes for the adoption of health information technologies (HIT), and enjoys high Levels of utilization in hospital and ambulatory care. Coding is an essential infrastructure component of HIT, and ts purpose is to represent data in a simplified and common format, enhancing its manipulation by digital systems. Proper coding of data enables efficient identification, storage, retrieval and communication of data. UtiLization of uniform coding systems by different organizations enables data interoperability between them, facilitating communication and integrating data elements originating in different information systems from various organizations. Current needs in Israel for heaLth data coding include recording and reporting of diagnoses for hospitalized patients, outpatients and visitors of the Emergency Department, coding of procedures and operations, coding of pathology findings, reporting of discharge diagnoses and causes of death, billing codes, organizational data warehouses and national registries. New national projects for cLinicaL data integration, obligatory reporting of quality indicators and new Ministry of Health (MOH) requirements for HIT necessitate a high Level of interoperability that can be achieved only through the adoption of uniform coding. Additional pressures were introduced by the USA decision to stop the maintenance of the ICD-9-CM codes that are also used by Israeli healthcare, and the adoption of ICD-10-C and ICD-10-PCS as the main coding system for billing purpose. The USA has also mandated utilization of SNOMED-CT as the coding terminology for the ELectronic Health Record problem list, and for reporting quality indicators to the CMS. Hence, the Israeli MOH has recently decided that discharge diagnoses will be reported using ICD-10-CM codes, and SNOMED-CT will be used to code the cLinical information in the EHR. We reviewed the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of these two coding

  1. On the magnetic sounding of planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Roberts, Paul H.

    1996-12-01

    Two ways have been suggested for using the magnetic field of a planet to estimate the radius of its electrically conducting core, assumed spherical and concentric with the planet's surface. In the frozen flux method, the core radius is assumed to have the value rFF for which the integrated unsigned radial magnetic flux, from the sphere of that radius, is most nearly constant in time. In the flat spectrum method, the core radius is assumed to have the value rFS for which the power spectrum of the field, defined as the mean square energy density in the lth spherical harmonic component of the field at that radius, is most nearly independent of l. These two methods are here applied to a new geodynamo integration that is a continuation of a recently published simulation (see Glatzmaier and Roberts, 1995a, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 91: 63-75; Glatzmaier and Roberts, 1995b, Nature, 377: 203-209) and which, like the Earth, maintains a more strongly dipole dominated magnetic field. The rate of change of the unsigned flux was averaged over two different 300 year intervals at a number of radii, r, from the geocenter. The resulting functions of r were found to have zeros at rFF of approximately 3550 km and 3477 km, respectively. This demonstrates how sensitive this method is to the time interval selected for the computation. Even if, as is often done when the flat spectrum method is applied to the Earth, the centered dipole ( l = 1) is excluded, the spectrum of our model could not be made convincingly flat; but a radius rFS at which it is most flat can be defined. The value of rFS is, however, very sensitive to the number of spherical harmonics retained in the spectrum and to a lesser extent is time dependent. On the basis of these studies, and impressed by the lack of a sound physical justification for the flat spectrum method, we conclude that that method provides a less certain way of estimating the radius of a planetary core than does the frozen flux approximation, and

  2. Quantitative Ray Methods for Scattering of Sound by Spherical Shells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargl, Steven Gregory

    1990-01-01

    The application of ray methods to the scattering of high-frequency plane waves from evacuated elastic spherical shells is investigated. The investigation of ray methods for spherical shells is a precursor to the application of such methods to shells having more complicated shapes. The scattered pressure in the farfield of the shell is p _{sc} = p_{i}(a/2r)f( theta)exp(ikr) where p_{i } is the plane wave amplitude. The outer radius of the shell is a, h = a - b is the shell's thickness, and r is the distance to an observation point. Ray models are developed to synthesize the form function f( theta,ka) where k is the wavenumber of the incident wave and theta is the scattering angle. The forward scattering amplitude, f(theta = 0), is related to the extinction cross section, sigma_{e}, by the optical theorem. If the absorption by the scatterer is negligible, then sigma_{rm e} is equal to the scattering cross section sigma_{t}. A ray synthesis partitions f(theta = 0) into a component for ordinary forward diffraction about the shell, f_{FD}, and contributions from surface guided elastic waves. For high -frequency scattering, the relevant surface guided elastic waves are leaky Lamb waves. A similar ray synthesis of the backscattering amplitude f(theta=pi) contains a specular reflection component, f _{^}(theta=pi), and leaky Lamb wave contributions. A generalization of the geometrical theory of diffraction is employed to synthesize f_{l}(theta=0, {ka }) and f_{l}(theta= pi, {ka}) for the lth leaky Lamb wave contribution. The syntheses for forward and backwards scattering correctly describe the leaky Lamb wave contributions and are expressible in a Fabry-Perot resonator form. While the ray description of backscattering ordinarily accurately reproduces exact computations and experiments with tone burst, certain anomalies are discussed. A ray synthesis of f_{^} demonstrates a significant longitudinal resonance effect when k _{L}h = npi,n = 1, 2,..., where k_ {L} = omega/c _{L

  3. Estimating adsorption enthalpies and affinity sequences of monovalent electrolyte ions on oxide surfaces in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, N.

    2000-11-01

    A new expression is developed for estimating the adsorption enthalpy of aqueous, monovalent ions on charged surfaces of solid oxides up to about 70°C. For sorption of the M-th cation and L-th anion represented as: > SO- + M+ = > SO- - - M+and > SOH2+ + L- = > SOH2+ -- L-the enthalpy at 25°C is given by: ΔH i,k0=ΔΩ iT[ 1/ɛ k2( ∂ɛ k/∂T)- 1/ɛ w2( ∂ɛ w/∂T)]+ΔG i,k0, where i = M+ or L-, > SO- and > SOH2+ are charged surface sites, ΔΩ i is the interfacial Born solvation coefficient of the i-th monovalent ion, ɛ k and ɛ w are the dielectric constants of the k-th solid and of bulk water, respectively, T is the absolute temperature, and Δ Gi, k0 is the free energy of ion adsorption. The small values predicted for enthalpies suggest weak temperature dependence for electrolyte affinities. The reaction enthalpy is negative for all oxides considered, and is the major contribution to the free energy of adsorption. Reactions are less exothermic for solids with smaller dielectric constants. Ion-specific trends are also noted, with exothermicity of enthalpy decreasing as Li + > Na + > K + > Rb + = NH 4+ > Cs + > TMA + (tetramethylammonium) for all oxides except quartz and amorphous SiO 2 where the reverse trend is predicted. Similarly, exothermicity decreases as F - > Cl - > Br - > I - for all oxides excluding quartz and amorphous SiO 2. The entropic contribution to free energy is small, and is negative for all the oxides considered including quartz, but is positive for amorphous SiO 2, suggesting an intriguing difference between the surfaces of quartz and amorphous SiO 2. In order to determine the temperature dependence of surface-complexation, Δ HM+, k0 and Δ HL-, k0 are combined with the enthalpies for deprotonation and protonation of the neutral surface site (-Δ HH+,20, ΔH H+,10), respectively, yielding Δ HM+, k0∗ and Δ HL-, k0∗ which correspond to the reactions: > SOH + M+ = > SO- - - M+ + H+and > SOH + H+ + L- = > SOH2+ - - L- Positive values

  4. How to Reduce Computational Time in Distributed Hydrological Modeling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, U.; Tuteja, N. K.; Ajami, H.; Sharma, A.

    2012-12-01

    Equivalent Cross-sections approach are close to the reference fluxes while the computational time is reduced significantly of the order of ~7 to ~10 times. The U3M-2d model evaluation is performed by comparing the simulated soil moisture of hillslope cross-sections with the observed soil moisture at several locations in the Wagga Wagga experimental catchment. Results illustrates that the model has capability to produce consistent results and capture daily soil moisture dynamics. Results from this study indicate that an Equivalent Cross-section based distributed hydrological modeling approach has the potential to reduce the computational time significantly while retaining the same order of accuracy. References Khan, U., A. Sharma, and N. K. Tuteja (2009), A new approach for delineation of hydrologic response units in large catchments, in 18th IMACS World Congress MODSIM 2009, International Conference, Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, edited by R. S. Anderssen, R.D. Braddock and L.T.H. Newham, pp. 3521-3527, Cairns, Australia.