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Sample records for lti kanavabrik valmistub

  1. Cyclic LTI Systems in Digital Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-10

    multirate systems and filter banks , presenting several important differences between...on well-known topics [1], [12], [23], [27] such as multirate systems , filter banks , paraunitary matrices, and state space representations, but this...noncyclic systems , especially pertaining to multirate systems , filter banks , and LTI system theory. 2 0TIC QUALITY XX3FECT» 1 ► Related literature.

  2. The development of low temperature inactive (Lti) baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Gysler, C; Niederberger, P

    2002-02-01

    The construction of a novel baker's yeast variety via traditional genetic techniques is described. The phenotype was designated "Lti" ("Low temperature inactive"). Lti mutations with the desired characteristics within a genetically well-defined haploid laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, and two different approaches were taken to obtain baker's yeast strains, which exhibit reduced fermenting activity at refrigeration temperatures. In a first approach, a chosen Lti strain carrying mutation lti9 was combined with other laboratory strains carrying defined MAL alleles. In a second approach, the same lti mutation was introduced in the genetic background of polyploid commercial baker's yeast strains that harbor important "industrial" properties. Lti strains arising from both approaches were characterized with specifically developed screening procedures. Strains of the "academic" Lti strain family displayed between 85% and 92% of the biomass yield of a commercial reference strain, whereas strains of the "industrial" Lti strain family showed a variation between 60% and 115%. Lti strains from both families varied strongly among each other in their activity in model doughs: at 8 degrees C they displayed activities between 5% and 30%, and at 30 degrees C between 40% and 113% of a commercial reference baker's yeast strain.

  3. [Laryngotracheal traumatic injuries (LTI) in children: when to operate?

    PubMed

    Santiago-Martínez, S; Laín, A; Guillén, G; Gander, R; López-Fernández, S; Pumarola, F; Seidler, L; Lloret, J

    2015-10-10

    Paediatric LTI is associated with significant morbid-mortality. Although historically first line treatment was surgical, conservative management is making headway. The purpose of this study was to analyze the management and surgical indications of LTI treated at our institution. Retrospective study of patients with LTI treated between 2007 and 2014. Six out of seven patients, with a median age of 4 years (2-15), had blunt traumas and one had an open trauma. Respiratory distress, pain and subcutaneous emphysema were presented in 71.4% of the patients. Five children were intubated (3 pre-hospital care and 2 after reaching the hospital), all of them underwent fibrobronchoscopy, determining the location, the extention, and assessing the possibility of extubation. Esophagoscopy was made in 2 cases. The remaining 2 cases were bounded to observation as they did not have respiratory symptoms or progressive emphysema, precluding bronchoscopy. Conservative management was followed in 71.4% of the patients, with a 100% success rate. Conservative management criteria were no progression of emphysema or respiratory distress, regardless the degree and location of the lesions. Two patients needed surgery: one tracheoesophageal fistula caused by a button battery, and the other was a tracheal open section associated with vascular injury. Both of them recovered uneventfully. If the respiratory symptoms or the emphysema do not progress, patients with LTI can be managed conservatively, regardless of size or location of the injury. Associated esophageal lesions and open injuries require surgical management. An early diagnosis is mandatory in order to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  4. Some Properties and Stability Results for Sector-Bounded LTI Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Sandeep; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for a linear, time-invariant (LTI) system to be inside sector (n, b) in terms of linear matrix inequalities in its state-space realization matrices, which represents a generalization of similar conditions for bounded H(sub infinity)-norm systems. Further, a weaker definition of LTI systems strictly inside closed sector (a, b) is proposed, and state-space characterization of such systems is presented. Sector conditions for stability of the negative feedback interconnection of two LTI systems and for stability of LTI systems with feedback nonlinearities are investigated using the Lyapunov function approach. It is shown that the proposed weaker conditions for an LTI system to be strictly inside a sector are sufficient to establish closed-loop stability of these systems.

  5. Gastric LTi cells promote lymphoid follicle formation but are limited by IRAK-M and do not alter microbial growth

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Jessica; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Ding, Hua; Czinn, Steven J.; Drakes, Maureen L.; Banerjee, Aditi; Basappa, Nisha; Kobayashi, Koichi S.; Fricke, W. Florian; Blanchard, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are activated by accessory cell IL-23, and promote lymphoid tissue genesis and antibacterial peptide production by the mucosal epithelium. We investigated the role of LTi cells in the gastric mucosa in the context of microbial infection. Mice deficient in IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, were investigated for increased LTi cell activity, and antibody mediated LTi cell depletion was used to analyze LTi cell dependent antimicrobial activity. H. pylori infected IRAK-M deficient mice developed increased gastric IL-17 and lymphoid follicles compared to wild type mice. LTi cells were present in naive and infected mice, with increased numbers in IRAK-M deficient mice by two weeks. Helicobacter and Candida infection of LTi cell depleted rag1−/− mice demonstrated LTi-dependent increases in calprotectin but not RegIII proteins. However, pathogen and commensal microbiota populations remained unchanged in the presence or absence of LTi cell function. These data demonstrate LTi cells are present in the stomach and promote lymphoid follicle formation in response to infection, but are limited by IRAK-M expression. Additionally, LTi cell mediated antimicrobial peptide production at the gastric epithelium is less efficacious at protecting against microbial pathogens than has been reported for other tissues. PMID:25603827

  6. Report on the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) and Leadership in Library Education (LLE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. School of Library Science.

    A report on the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) and its successor, the Leadership in Library Education Institute (LLEI), reviews 1974-75 new and continuing activities and provides an assessment of program-activity patterns for the last three years. Activities reported include site visits to training institutes; special meetings of…

  7. Membrane-Induced Folding of the Plant Stress Dehydrin Lti301[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eremina, Nadejda

    2016-01-01

    Dehydrins are disordered proteins that are expressed in plants as a response to embryogenesis and water-related stress. The molecular function and structural action of the dehydrins are yet elusive, but increasing evidence points to a role in protecting the structure and functional dynamics of cell membranes. An intriguing example is the cold-induced dehydrin Lti30 that binds to membranes by its conserved K segments. Moreover, this binding can be regulated by pH and phosphorylation and shifts the membrane phase transition to lower temperatures, consistent with the protein’s postulated function in cold stress. In this study, we reveal how the Lti30-membrane interplay works structurally at atomic level resolution in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis suggests that negatively charged lipid head groups electrostatically capture the protein’s disordered K segments, which locally fold up into α-helical segments on the membrane surface. Thus, Lti30 conforms to the general theme of structure-function relationships by folding upon binding, in spite of its disordered, atypically hydrophilic and repetitive sequence signatures. Moreover, the fixed and well-defined structure of the membrane-bound K segments suggests that dehydrins have the molecular prerequisites for higher level binding specificity and regulation, raising new questions about the complexity of their biological function. PMID:27208263

  8. Membrane-Induced Folding of the Plant Stress Dehydrin Lti30.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sylvia; Eremina, Nadejda; Barth, Andreas; Danielsson, Jens; Harryson, Pia

    2016-06-01

    Dehydrins are disordered proteins that are expressed in plants as a response to embryogenesis and water-related stress. The molecular function and structural action of the dehydrins are yet elusive, but increasing evidence points to a role in protecting the structure and functional dynamics of cell membranes. An intriguing example is the cold-induced dehydrin Lti30 that binds to membranes by its conserved K segments. Moreover, this binding can be regulated by pH and phosphorylation and shifts the membrane phase transition to lower temperatures, consistent with the protein's postulated function in cold stress. In this study, we reveal how the Lti30-membrane interplay works structurally at atomic level resolution in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis suggests that negatively charged lipid head groups electrostatically capture the protein's disordered K segments, which locally fold up into α-helical segments on the membrane surface. Thus, Lti30 conforms to the general theme of structure-function relationships by folding upon binding, in spite of its disordered, atypically hydrophilic and repetitive sequence signatures. Moreover, the fixed and well-defined structure of the membrane-bound K segments suggests that dehydrins have the molecular prerequisites for higher level binding specificity and regulation, raising new questions about the complexity of their biological function. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Integral-based event triggering controller design for stochastic LTI systems via convex optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. H.; Marquez, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    The presence of measurement noise in the event-based systems can lower system efficiency both in terms of data exchange rate and performance. In this paper, an integral-based event triggering control system is proposed for LTI systems with stochastic measurement noise. We show that the new mechanism is robust against noise and effectively reduces the flow of communication between plant and controller, and also improves output performance. Using a Lyapunov approach, stability in the mean square sense is proved. A simulated example illustrates the properties of our approach.

  10. A switched state feedback law for the stabilization of LTI systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Santarelli, Keith R.

    2009-09-01

    Inspired by prior work in the design of switched feedback controllers for second order systems, we develop a switched state feedback control law for the stabilization of LTI systems of arbitrary dimension. The control law operates by switching between two static gain vectors in such a way that the state trajectory is driven onto a stable n - 1 dimensional hyperplane (where n represents the system dimension). We begin by briefly examining relevant geometric properties of the phase portraits in the case of two-dimensional systems to develop intuition, and we then show how these geometric properties can be expressed as algebraic constraints on the switched vector fields that are applicable to LTI systems of arbitrary dimension. We then derive necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure stabilizability of the resulting switched system (characterized primarily by simple conditions on eigenvalues), and describe an explicit procedure for designing stabilizing controllers. We then show how the newly developed control law can be applied to the problem of minimizing the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the corresponding closed-loop state trajectories, and we illustrate the closed-loop transient performance of these switched state feedback controllers via multiple examples.

  11. Prion protein-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD4 T and LTi cell numbers and impaired spleen structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soochan; Han, Sinsuk; Lee, Ye Eun; Jung, Woong-Jae; Lee, Hyung Soo; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein is expressed in almost all tissues, including the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues. To investigate the effects of the prion protein in lymphoid cells and spleen structure formation, we used prion protein-deficient (Prnp(0/0)) Zürich I mice generated by inactivation of the Prnp gene. Prnp(0/0) mice had decreased lymphocytes, in particular, CD4 T cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Decreased CD4 T cells resulted from impaired expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in the spleen rather than altered chemokine receptor CCR7 expression. Importantly, some of the white pulp regions in spleens from Prnp(0/0) mice displayed impaired T zone structure as a result of decreased LTi cell numbers and altered expression of the lymphoid tissue-organizing genes lymphotoxin-α and CXCR5, although expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin and CXCL13 by stromal cells was not affected. In addition, CD3(-)CD4(+)IL-7Rα(+) LTi cells were rarely detected in impaired white pulp in spleens of these mice. These data suggest that the prion protein is required to form the splenic white pulp structure and for development of normal levels of CD4 T and LTi cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Tunable membrane binding of the intrinsically disordered dehydrin Lti30, a cold-induced plant stress protein.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sylvia K; Kutzer, Michael; Procek, Jan; Gröbner, Gerhard; Harryson, Pia

    2011-06-01

    Dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins whose expression is upregulated under conditions of desiccation and cold stress. Their molecular function in ensuring plant survival is not yet known, but several studies suggest their involvement in membrane stabilization. The dehydrins are characterized by a broad repertoire of conserved and repetitive sequences, out of which the archetypical K-segment has been implicated in membrane binding. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these K-segments, we examined the interaction between lipid membranes and a dehydrin with a basic functional sequence composition: Lti30, comprising only K-segments. Our results show that Lti30 interacts electrostatically with vesicles of both zwitterionic (phosphatidyl choline) and negatively charged phospholipids (phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidic acid) with a stronger binding to membranes with high negative surface potential. The membrane interaction lowers the temperature of the main lipid phase transition, consistent with Lti30's proposed role in cold tolerance. Moreover, the membrane binding promotes the assembly of lipid vesicles into large and easily distinguishable aggregates. Using these aggregates as binding markers, we identify three factors that regulate the lipid interaction of Lti30 in vitro: (1) a pH dependent His on/off switch, (2) phosphorylation by protein kinase C, and (3) reversal of membrane binding by proteolytic digest.

  13. Tunable Membrane Binding of the Intrinsically Disordered Dehydrin Lti30, a Cold-Induced Plant Stress Protein[W

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sylvia K.; Kutzer, Michael; Procek, Jan; Gröbner, Gerhard; Harryson, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins whose expression is upregulated under conditions of desiccation and cold stress. Their molecular function in ensuring plant survival is not yet known, but several studies suggest their involvement in membrane stabilization. The dehydrins are characterized by a broad repertoire of conserved and repetitive sequences, out of which the archetypical K-segment has been implicated in membrane binding. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these K-segments, we examined the interaction between lipid membranes and a dehydrin with a basic functional sequence composition: Lti30, comprising only K-segments. Our results show that Lti30 interacts electrostatically with vesicles of both zwitterionic (phosphatidyl choline) and negatively charged phospholipids (phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidic acid) with a stronger binding to membranes with high negative surface potential. The membrane interaction lowers the temperature of the main lipid phase transition, consistent with Lti30’s proposed role in cold tolerance. Moreover, the membrane binding promotes the assembly of lipid vesicles into large and easily distinguishable aggregates. Using these aggregates as binding markers, we identify three factors that regulate the lipid interaction of Lti30 in vitro: (1) a pH dependent His on/off switch, (2) phosphorylation by protein kinase C, and (3) reversal of membrane binding by proteolytic digest. PMID:21665998

  14. Performance analysis of active disturbance rejection tracking control for a class of uncertain LTI systems.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenchao; Huang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The paper considers the tracking problem for a class of uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) systems with both uncertain parameters and external disturbances. The active disturbance rejection tracking controller is designed and the resulting closed-loop system's characteristics are comprehensively studied. In the time-domain, it is proven that the output of closed-loop system can approach its ideal trajectory in the transient process against different kinds of uncertainties by tuning the bandwidth of extended state observer (ESO). In the frequency-domain, different kinds of parameters' influences on the phase margin and the crossover frequency of the resulting control system are illuminated. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are verified through the actuator position control system with uncertain parameters and load disturbances in the simulations.

  15. Identification and expression analysis of CjLTI, a novel low temperature responsive gene from Caragana jubata.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kaur, Jagdeep; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-03-01

    Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, a full length cDNA (CjLTI) was cloned from apical buds of Caragana jubata, a plant species that grows under extreme cold. The cDNA obtained was 573 bp long consisting of an open reading frame of 351 bp encoding 116 amino acids. Homology analysis did not exhibit significant similarity with any sequence at NCBI database, therefore it was deduced as a novel gene. Secondary structure analysis suggested that the deduced CjLTI contained 25.86% α-helices, 4.31% β-turns, 6.90% extended strands, and 62.93% random coils. The hydropathy profile suggested CjLTI to be a hydrophobic protein having characteristic features of signal peptides at N-terminus. The gene exhibited down-regulation at 5 min of exposure to low temperature (LT, 4 ± 3 °C) followed by a strong up-regulation after 15 min and onwards. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) lead to up-regulation of CjLTI starting at 5 min onwards. The gene exhibited up- and down-regulation of expression pattern in response to abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA). Mild drought stress slightly up-regulated gene expression and at severe drought (up to 115% reduction in leaf water potential) slight down-regulation of gene expression was observed. These results suggested CjLTI to be a LT responsive gene wherein MJ, ABA and SA pathways might be involved in regulating the gene expression.

  16. Stepwise transplantation of an active site loop between heat-labile enterotoxins LT-II and LT-I and characterization of the obtained hybrid toxins.

    PubMed

    Feil, I K; Platas, A A; van den Akker, F; Reddy, R; Merritt, E A; Storm, D R; Hol, W G

    1998-11-01

    Members of the cholera toxin family, including Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins LT-I and LT-II, catalyze the covalent modification of intracellular proteins by transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to a specific arginine of the target protein. The ADP-ribosylating activity of these toxins is located in the A-subunit, for which LT-I and LT-II share a 63% sequence identity. The flexible loop in LT-I, ranging from residue 47 to 56, closes over the active site cleft. Previous studies have shown that point mutations in this loop have dramatic effects on the activity of LT-I. Yet, in LT-II the sequence of the equivalent loop differs at four positions from LT-I. Therefore five mutants of the active site loop were created by a stepwise replacement of the loop sequence in LT-I with virtually all the corresponding residues in LT-II. Since we discovered that LT-II had no activity versus the artificial substrate diethylamino-benzylidine-aminoguanidine (DEABAG) while LT-I does, our active site mutants most likely probe the NAD binding, not the arginine binding region of the active site. The five hybrid toxins obtained (Q49A, F52N, V53T, Q49V/F52N and Q49V/F52N/V53T) show (i) great differences in holotoxin assembly efficiency; (ii) decreased cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells; and (iii) increased in vitro enzymatic activity compared with wild type LT-I. Specifically, the three mutants containing the F52N substitution display a greater Vmax for NAD than wild type LT-I. The enzymatic activity of the V53T mutant is significantly higher than that of wild type LT-I. Apparently this subtle variation at position 53 is beneficial, in contrast to several other substitutions at position 53 which previously had been shown to be deleterious for activity. The most striking result of this study is that the active site loop of LT-I, despite great sensitivity for point mutations, can essentially be replaced by the active site loop of LT-II, yielding an active 'hybrid enzyme' as well

  17. The Development of Steady-State Activation Hubs between Adult LTi ILC3s and Primed Macrophages in Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Savage, Adam K; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

    2017-09-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are important for intestinal health, particularly in controlling inflammation in response to epithelial dysregulation, but their role during homeostasis remains less well understood. We generated IL-22 reporter mice to assess production of this key cytokine by ILC3s in the small intestine during development and under basal conditions. Although IL-22 is produced by a variety of lymphocyte populations, constitutively high IL-22 expression was limited to lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi) cells residing in lymph node-like structures in the gut called solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). Constitutive IL-22 expression was dependent on the microbiota and MyD88 signaling, appeared upon weaning, and was present across the spectrum of SILT, including in cryptopatches. Activated SILT LTi cells colocalized with a rare subpopulation of activated macrophages constitutively positive for IL-12/23 p40 and capable of activating neonatal LTi cells in response to TLR stimulus. Thus, weaning leads to the organization of innate immune activation hubs at SILT that mature and are continuously sustained by signals from the microbiota. This functional and anatomic organization constitutes a significant portion of the steady-state IL-23/IL-22 axis. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Microbiota-induced tertiary lymphoid tissues aggravate inflammatory disease in the absence of RORγt and LTi cells

    PubMed Central

    Lochner, Matthias; Ohnmacht, Caspar; Presley, Laura; Bruhns, Pierre; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2011-01-01

    The programmed development of lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches during ontogeny requires lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells that express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt. After birth, LTi cells in the intestine cluster into cryptopatches, the precursors of isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), which are induced to form by symbiotic bacteria and maintain intestinal homeostasis. We show that in RORγt-deficient mice, which lack LTi cells, programmed lymphoid tissues, ILFs, and Th17 cells, bacterial containment requires the generation of large numbers of tertiary lymphoid tissues (tLTs) through the activity of B cells. However, upon epithelial damage, these mice develop severe intestinal inflammation characterized by extensive recruitment of neutrophils and IgG+ B cells, high expression of activation-induced deaminase in tLTs, and wasting disease. The pathology was prevented by antibiotic treatment or inhibition of lymphoid tissue formation and was significantly decreased by treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG). Our data show that intestinal immunodeficiency, such as an absence in RORγt-mediated proinflammatory immunity, can be compensated by increased lymphoid tissue genesis. However, this comes at a high cost for the host and can lead to a deregulated B cell response and aggravated inflammatory pathology. PMID:21173107

  19. A new 3-D ray tracing method based on LTI using successive partitioning of cell interfaces and traveltime gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Yan; Hu, Ying; Qin, Qian-Qing

    2013-05-01

    We present a new method of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic ray tracing, based on an improvement to the linear traveltime interpolation (LTI) ray tracing algorithm. This new technique involves two separate steps. The first involves a forward calculation based on the LTI method and the dynamic successive partitioning scheme, which is applied to calculate traveltimes on cell boundaries and assumes a wavefront that expands from the source to all grid nodes in the computational domain. We locate several dynamic successive partition points on a cell's surface, the traveltimes of which can be calculated by linear interpolation between the vertices of the cell's boundary. The second is a backward step that uses Fermat's principle and the fact that the ray path is always perpendicular to the wavefront and follows the negative traveltime gradient. In this process, the first-arriving ray path can be traced from the receiver to the source along the negative traveltime gradient, which can be calculated by reconstructing the continuous traveltime field with cubic B-spline interpolation. This new 3-D ray tracing method is compared with the LTI method and the shortest path method (SPM) through a number of numerical experiments. These comparisons show obvious improvements to computed traveltimes and ray paths, both in precision and computational efficiency.

  20. Hurwitz stability analysis of fractional order LTI systems according to principal characteristic equations.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant

    2017-09-01

    With power mapping (conformal mapping), stability analyses of fractional order linear time invariant (LTI) systems are carried out by consideration of the root locus of expanded degree integer order polynomials in the principal Riemann sheet. However, it is essential to show the left half plane (LHP) stability analysis of fractional order characteristic polynomials in the s plane in order to close the gap emerging in stability analyses of fractional order and integer order systems. In this study, after briefly discussing the relation between the characteristic root orientations and the system stability, the author presents a methodology to establish principal characteristic polynomials to perform the LHP stability analysis of fractional order systems. The principal characteristic polynomials are formed by factorizing principal characteristic roots. Then, the LHP stability analysis of fractional order systems can be carried out by using the root equivalency of fractional order principal characteristic polynomials. Illustrative examples are presented to explain how to find equivalent roots of fractional order principal characteristic polynomials in order to carry out the LHP stability analyses of fractional order nominal and interval systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human NKp44+IL-22+ cells and LTi-like cells constitute a stable RORC+ lineage distinct from conventional natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Crellin, Natasha K.; Trifari, Sara; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cupedo, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are required for lymph node formation during fetal development, and recent evidence implies a role in mucosal immunity in the adult. LTi cells share some phenotypic features of conventional natural killer (NK; cNK) cells; however, little is known to date about the relationship between these two cell types. We show that lineage− (Lin−) CD127+RORC+ LTi-like cells in human tonsil are precursors to CD56+CD127+RORC+NKp46+ cells, which together comprise a stable RORC+ lineage. We find that LTi-like cells and their CD56+ progeny can be expanded and cloned ex vivo without loss of function and without conversion into cNK cells. Clonal analysis reveals heterogeneity of cytokine production within the CD127+ LTi-like population. Furthermore, we identify within the tonsil a cNK precursor population that is characterized as Lin−CD117+CD161+CD127− cells. Overall, we propose that CD127+RORC+ cells, although they share some characteristics with cNK cells, represent a functionally and developmentally distinct lineage. PMID:20142432

  2. Ligand-Controlled CO2 Activation Mediated by Cationic Titanium Hydride Complexes, [LTiH](+) (L=Cp2 , O).

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Ya; Rijs, Nicole J; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    CO2 activation mediated by [LTiH](+) (L=Cp2 , O) is observed in the gas phase at room temperature using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and reaction details are derived from traveling wave ion-mobility mass spectrometry. Wheresas oxygen-atom transfer prevails in the reaction of the oxide complex [OTiH](+) with CO2 , generating [OTi(OH)](+) under the elimination of CO, insertion of CO2 into the metal-hydrogen bond of the cyclopentadienyl complex, [Cp2 TiH](+) , gives rise to the formate complex [Cp2 Ti(O2 CH)](+) . DFT-based methods were employed to understand how the ligand controls the observed variation in reactivity toward CO2 . Insertion of CO2 into the Ti-H bond constitutes the initial step for the reaction of both [Cp2 TiH](+) and [OTiH](+) , thus generating formate complexes as intermediates. In contrast to [Cp2 Ti(O2 CH)](+) which is kinetically stable, facile decarbonylation of [OTi(O2 CH)](+) results in the hydroxo complex [OTi(OH)](+) . The longer lifetime of [Cp2 Ti(O2 CH)](+) allows for secondary reactions with background water, as a result of which, [Cp2 Ti(OH)](+) is formed. Further, computational studies reveal a good linear correlation between the hydride affinity of [LTi](2+) and the barrier for CO2 insertion into various [LTiH](+) complexes. Understanding the intrinsic ligand effects may provide insight into the selective activation of CO2 .

  3. Neuropilin-1 Is Expressed on Lymphoid Tissue Residing LTi-like Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Associated with Ectopic Lymphoid Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Shikhagaie, Medya Mara; Björklund, Åsa K; Mjösberg, Jenny; Erjefält, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Anne S; Ros, Xavier Romero; Bal, Suzanne M; Koning, Jasper J; Mebius, Reina E; Mori, Michiko; Bruchard, Melanie; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen

    2017-02-14

    Here, we characterize a subset of ILC3s that express Neuropilin1 (NRP1) and are present in lymphoid tissues, but not in the peripheral blood or skin. NRP1(+) group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) display in vitro lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) activity. In agreement with this, NRP1(+) ILC3s are mainly located in proximity to high endothelial venules (HEVs) and express cell surface molecules involved in lymphocyte migration in secondary lymphoid tissues via HEVs. NRP1 was also expressed on mouse fetal LTi cells, indicating that NRP1 is a conserved marker for LTi cells. Human NRP1(+) ILC3s are primed cells because they express CD45RO and produce higher amounts of cytokines than NRP1(-) cells, which express CD45RA. The NRP1 ligand vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) served as a chemotactic factor for NRP1(+) ILC3s. NRP1(+) ILC3s are present in lung tissues from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting a role in angiogenesis and/or the initiation of ectopic pulmonary lymphoid aggregates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Education and Activity - Lessening The Inequalities in mental health (HEA - LTI mental health).

    PubMed

    Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; Lindsay, Jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group ('normalisation activity') in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change physical health behaviours, confidence to change, anxiety and motivation to exercise. The result was a 26% improvement in self-reported understanding across the four domains following teaching. Furthermore patient anxiety reduced by on average 35%, self-reported motivation to change increased by 20%, motivation to do exercise by 26% and confidence to change by 16% as a result of the intervention. The authors conclude that a collaborative approach to education and activity between the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) and service user results in sustained improvement in understanding of physical health, motivation to change behaviour and to do exercise. It also results in improved confidence and reduced anxiety.

  5. Gradient Projection Anti-windup Scheme on Constrained Planar LTI Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-15

    uniqueness results based on Lipschitz continuity of vector fields [7]–[10] do not apply directly. We show that the GPAW compensated system is in fact...K+out (⊂ ∂K+) and ∂K−out (⊂ ∂K−). Classical results on the existence and uniqueness of solutions [7]–[10] rely on Lipschitz continuity of the...d ] . It can be verified [8, Example 3.2, pp. 91 – 92] that the saturation function is globally Lipschitz with unity Lipschitz constant, ie. |sat(α

  6. Health Education and Activity – Lessening The Inequalities in mental health (HEA – LTI mental health)

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; lindsay, jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group (‘normalisation activity’) in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change physical health behaviours, confidence to change, anxiety and motivation to exercise. The result was a 26% improvement in self-reported understanding across the four domains following teaching. Furthermore patient anxiety reduced by on average 35%, self-reported motivation to change increased by 20%, motivation to do exercise by 26% and confidence to change by 16% as a result of the intervention. The authors conclude that a collaborative approach to education and activity between the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) and service user results in sustained improvement in understanding of physical health, motivation to change behaviour and to do exercise. It also results in improved confidence and reduced anxiety. PMID:28243443

  7. Using LTI Dynamics to Identify the Influential Nodes in a Network

    PubMed Central

    Jorswieck, Eduard; Scheunert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Networks are used for modeling numerous technical, social or biological systems. In order to better understand the system dynamics, it is a matter of great interest to identify the most important nodes within the network. For a large set of problems, whether it is the optimal use of available resources, spreading information efficiently or even protection from malicious attacks, the most important node is the most influential spreader, the one that is capable of propagating information in the shortest time to a large portion of the network. Here we propose the Node Imposed Response (NiR), a measure which accurately evaluates node spreading power. It outperforms betweenness, degree, k-shell and h-index centrality in many cases and shows the similar accuracy to dynamics-sensitive centrality. We utilize the system-theoretic approach considering the network as a Linear Time-Invariant system. By observing the system response we can quantify the importance of each node. In addition, our study provides a robust tool set for various protective strategies. PMID:28030548

  8. Eigenvalue assignment by minimal state-feedback gain in LTI multivariable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataei, Mohammad; Enshaee, Ali

    2011-12-01

    In this article, an improved method for eigenvalue assignment via state feedback in the linear time-invariant multivariable systems is proposed. This method is based on elementary similarity operations, and involves mainly utilisation of vector companion forms, and thus is very simple and easy to implement on a digital computer. In addition to the controllable systems, the proposed method can be applied for the stabilisable ones and also systems with linearly dependent inputs. Moreover, two types of state-feedback gain matrices can be achieved by this method: (1) the numerical one, which is unique, and (2) the parametric one, in which its parameters are determined in order to achieve a gain matrix with minimum Frobenius norm. The numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

  9. Immunoprotection of cattle vaccinated with rRmLTI against Rhipicephalus microplus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhipicephalus microplus is arguably the most economically important cattle ectoparasite. There is interest in the development of second-generation anti-R. microplus vaccines with an improved product profile. Genes coding for trypsin inhibitors in R. microplus have diverse patterns of expression acro...

  10. Robustness Analysis of Integrated LPV-FDI Filters and LTI-FTC System for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khong, Thuan H.; Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis framework for robustness analysis of a nonlinear dynamics system that can be represented by a polynomial linear parameter varying (PLPV) system with constant bounded uncertainty. The proposed analysis framework contains three key tools: 1) a function substitution method which can convert a nonlinear system in polynomial form into a PLPV system, 2) a matrix-based linear fractional transformation (LFT) modeling approach, which can convert a PLPV system into an LFT system with the delta block that includes key uncertainty and scheduling parameters, 3) micro-analysis, which is a well known robust analysis tool for linear systems. The proposed analysis framework is applied to evaluating the performance of the LPV-fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters of the closed-loop system of a transport aircraft in the presence of unmodeled actuator dynamics and sensor gain uncertainty. The robustness analysis results are compared with nonlinear time simulations.

  11. LTI system order reduction approach based on asymptotical equivalence and the Co-operation of biology-related algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, I. S.; Semenkin, E. S.; Akhmedova, Sh A.

    2017-02-01

    A novel order reduction method for linear time invariant systems is described. The method is based on reducing the initial problem to an optimization one, using the proposed model representation, and solving the problem with an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method of determining the model allows all the parameters of the model with lower order to be identified and by definition, provides the model with the required steady-state. As a powerful optimization tool, the meta-heuristic Co-Operation of Biology-Related Algorithms was used. Experimental results proved that the proposed approach outperforms other approaches and that the reduced order model achieves a high level of accuracy.

  12. Gifts, Talents, and the Very Young: Early Childhood Education for Gifted/Talented N/S-LTI-G/T Brief No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Willard; And Others

    Compiled are presentations given at the Institute on Gifted/Talented Early Childhood Education in January, 1977. Considered in "Current Myths Concerning Gifted Children" by H. Robinson are the myth of the "giftedness syndrome", the myth of the qualitatively different gifted individual, and myths about educating children with special gifts. M.…

  13. Nutritional Markers and Body Composition in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Valtuille, Rodolfo; Casos, Maria Elisa; Fernandez, Elmer Andres; Guinsburg, Adrian; Marelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse body composition, to detect the presence of undernutrition, and to establish a relationship between undernutrition and the biological markers routinely used as indicators of nutritional status in hemodialysis (HD) patients (pts). We used a body composition monitor (BCM) that expresses body weight in terms of lean tissue mass (LTM) and fat tissue mass (FTM) independent of hydration status. From nine HD units, 934 pts were included. Undernutrition was defined as having a lean tissue index (LTI = LTM/height2) below the 10th percentile of a reference population. Biochemical markers and parameters delivered by BCM were used to compare low LTI and normal LTI groups. Undernutrition prevalence was 58.8% of the population studied. Low LTI pts were older, were significantly more frequently overhydrated, and had been on HD for a longer period of time than the normal LTI group. FTI (FTI = FTM/ height2) was significantly higher in low LTI pts and increased according to BMI. LTI was not influenced by different BMI levels. Albumin and C-reactive protein correlated inversely (r = −0.28). However neither of them was statistically different when considering undernourished and normal LTI pts. Our BCM study was able to show a high prevalence of undernutrition, as expressed by low LTI. In our study, BMI and other common markers, such as albumin, failed to predict malnutrition as determined by BCM. PMID:27347538

  14. Nutritional Markers and Body Composition in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Valtuille, Rodolfo; Casos, Maria Elisa; Fernandez, Elmer Andres; Guinsburg, Adrian; Marelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse body composition, to detect the presence of undernutrition, and to establish a relationship between undernutrition and the biological markers routinely used as indicators of nutritional status in hemodialysis (HD) patients (pts). We used a body composition monitor (BCM) that expresses body weight in terms of lean tissue mass (LTM) and fat tissue mass (FTM) independent of hydration status. From nine HD units, 934 pts were included. Undernutrition was defined as having a lean tissue index (LTI = LTM/height(2)) below the 10th percentile of a reference population. Biochemical markers and parameters delivered by BCM were used to compare low LTI and normal LTI groups. Undernutrition prevalence was 58.8% of the population studied. Low LTI pts were older, were significantly more frequently overhydrated, and had been on HD for a longer period of time than the normal LTI group. FTI (FTI = FTM/ height(2)) was significantly higher in low LTI pts and increased according to BMI. LTI was not influenced by different BMI levels. Albumin and C-reactive protein correlated inversely (r = -0.28). However neither of them was statistically different when considering undernourished and normal LTI pts. Our BCM study was able to show a high prevalence of undernutrition, as expressed by low LTI. In our study, BMI and other common markers, such as albumin, failed to predict malnutrition as determined by BCM.

  15. CD4+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells promote innate immunity in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Elloso, M. Merle; Fouser, Lynette A.; Artis, David

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Fetal CD4+ lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells play a critical role in the development of lymphoid-tissues. Recent studies identified that LTi cells persist in adults and are related to a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cells that have been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, whether LTi cells contribute to protective immunity remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that following infection with Citrobacter rodentium, CD4+ LTi cells were a dominant source of interleukin-22 (IL-22) early during infection. Infection-induced CD4+ LTi cell responses were IL-23-dependent, and ablation of IL-23 impaired innate immunity. Further, depletion of CD4+ LTi cells abrogated infection-induced expression of IL-22 and anti-microbial peptides, resulting in exacerbated host mortality. LTi cells were also found to be essential for host protective immunity in lymphocyte-replete hosts. Collectively these data demonstrate that adult CD4+ LTi cells are a critical source of IL-22 and identify a previously unrecognized function for CD4+ LTi cells in promoting innate immunity in the intestine. PMID:21194981

  16. The architects of B and T cell immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lane, Peter J L

    2008-08-15

    Published work links adult lymphoid tissue-inducer cells (LTi) with T cell-dependent antibody responses. In this issue of Immunity, Tsuji et al. (2008) associate LTi with T cell-independent IgA antibody responses in the gut.

  17. Advanced Formation Flight Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    stabilizes the time dependent linearized plant (7.9) than it is to synthesize a control law which stabilizes the LTI plant (7.5). However, if a stabilizing ... control law is available, Lyapunov’s stabilizability result can also be applied to non LTI scenarios which arise from the application of linearization to

  18. Leadership Training Institute in Learning Disabilties. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, N. Dale; And Others

    Presented is the final report of the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) in Learning Disabilities at the University of Arizona. Purposes of the LTI are reported to have been to give technical assistance to the Child Service Demonstration Centers which were alloted funds by the Bureau for the Education of Handicapped Children in eight states…

  19. Conceptualization of an R&D Based Learning-to-Innovate Model for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Oiki Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to conceptualize an R & D based learning-to-innovate (LTI) model. The problem to be addressed was the lack of a theoretical L TI model, which would inform science pedagogy. The absorptive capacity (ACAP) lens was adopted to untangle the R & D LTI phenomenon into four learning processes: problem-solving via…

  20. Conceptualization of an R&D Based Learning-to-Innovate Model for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Oiki Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to conceptualize an R & D based learning-to-innovate (LTI) model. The problem to be addressed was the lack of a theoretical L TI model, which would inform science pedagogy. The absorptive capacity (ACAP) lens was adopted to untangle the R & D LTI phenomenon into four learning processes: problem-solving via…

  1. Lymphoid tissue inducer cells: architects of CD4 immune responses in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Kim, M-Y; Kim, K-S; McConnell, F; Lane, P

    2009-07-01

    In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the multiple functions of the mouse lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells in: (i) the development of organized lymphoid tissue, (ii) the generation and maintenance of CD4-dependent immunity in adult lymphoid tissues; and (iii) the regulation of central tolerance in thymus. By contrast with mouse LTi cells, which have been well described, the human equivalent is only just beginning to be characterized. Human LTi-like cells expressing interleukin (IL)-22 have been identified recently and found to differentiate into natural killer (NK) cells. The relationship of LTi cells to NK cells is discussed in the light of several studies reporting a close relationship in the mouse between LTi cells and transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor gammat-dependent IL-22 producing NK cells in the gut. We also outline our data suggesting that these cells are present in adult human lymphoid tissues.

  2. Risk identification in haemodialysis patients by appropriate body composition assessment.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Sandra; Palomares, Inés; Moissl, Ulrich; Chamney, Paul; Carretero, Diana; Crespo, Antonio; Morente, Camilo; Ribera, Laura; Wabel, Peter; Ramos, Rosa; Merello, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Circumstances such as gender, age, diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal failure impact on the body composition of patients. However, we use nutritional parameters such as lean and fat tissue with reference values from healthy subjects to assess the nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients. To analyse body composition by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) of 6395 HD patients in order to obtain reference values of lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI) from HD patients; and to confirm its validity by showing that those patients with LTI below the 10th percentile calculated for their group have greatest risk of death. We used the BIS to determine the LTI and FTI in our cohort of HD patients in Spain. We calculated the 10th percentile and 90th percentile of LTI and FTI in each age decile for patients grouped by gender and presence of DM. We collected clinical, laboratory and demographic parameters. The LTI/FTI 10 and 90 percentile values varied by group (age, gender and presence of DM) and, after adjusting for other risk factors such as fluid overload, those patients with LTI lower than percentile 10 had a higher relative risk of death (OR 1.57) than those patients with higher values. Monitoring the LTI and FTI of patients on HD using suitable reference values may help to identify risk in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A statistical scheme to forecast the daily lightning threat over southern Africa using the Unified Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gijben, Morné; Dyson, Liesl L.; Loots, Mattheus T.

    2017-09-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning data from the Southern Africa Lightning Detection Network and numerical weather prediction model parameters from the Unified Model are used to develop a lightning threat index (LTI) for South Africa. The aim is to predict lightning for austral summer days (September to February) by means of a statistical approach. The austral summer months are divided into spring and summer seasons and analysed separately. Stepwise logistic regression techniques are used to select the most appropriate model parameters to predict lightning. These parameters are then utilized in a rare-event logistic regression analysis to produce equations for the LTI that predicts the probability of the occurrence of lightning. Results show that LTI forecasts have a high sensitivity and specificity for spring and summer. The LTI is less reliable during spring, since it over-forecasts the occurrence of lightning. However, during summer, the LTI forecast is reliable, only slightly over-forecasting lightning activity. The LTI produces sharp forecasts during spring and summer. These results show that the LTI will be useful early in the morning in areas where lightning can be expected during the day.

  4. Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcer, Fahri Ersel

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control

  5. Seismic ray tracing using linear traveltime interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Kawanaka, Taku )

    1993-01-01

    A new ray-tracing method called linear traveltime interpolation (LTI) is proposed. This method computes traveltimes and raypaths in a 2D velocity structure more rapidly and accurately than other conventional methods. The LTI method is formulated for a 2D cell model, and calculations of traveltimes and raypaths are carried out only on cell boundaries. Therefore a raypath is considered to be always straight in a cell with uniform velocity. This approach is suitable to tomography analysis. The algorithm of LTI consists of two separate steps: step 1 calculates traveltimes on all cell boundaries; step 2 traces raypaths for all pairs of receivers and the shot. A traveltime at an arbitrary point on a cell boundary is assumed to be linearly interpolated between traveltimes at the adjacent discrete points at which traveltimes were calculated. Fermat's principle is used as the criterion for choosing the correct traveltimes and raypaths from several candidates routinely. The LTI method has been compared numerically with the shooting method and the finite-difference method (FDM) of the eikonal equation. The results show that the LTI method has great advantages of high speed and high accuracy in the calculation of both traveltimes and raypaths. The LTI method can be regarded as an advanced version of the conventional FDM of the eikonal equation because the formulae of FDM are independently derived from LTI. In the process of derivation, it is shown theoretically that LTI is more accurate than FDM. Moreover in the LTI method, they can avoid the numerical instability that occurs in Vidale's method where the velocity changes abruptly.

  6. Thermal characteristics of lysine tri-isocyanate and its mixture with water.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Rui; Koseki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Yusaku

    2007-04-11

    The thermal reactivity of lysine tri-isocyanate (LTI, 2-isocyanatoethyl-2,6-diisocyanato caproylate) and its mixture with 1% water was investigated after the occurrence of a runaway reaction at a plant. By using a sensitive thermal calorimeter, C80, and an adiabatic calorimeter, ARC, an onset reaction of LTI was observed at 70-100 degrees C and it became vigorous at 175-200 degrees C. The reaction is considered as co-polymerization at this stage, which causes a second decomposition reaction at 200 degrees C if the heat generation is accumulated in the vessel. On the other hand, the presence of water can catalyze LTI at much lower onset temperature and lead to a moderate reaction at 50 degrees C since carbamine is produced and in turn it induces decarbonization of the LTI molecule with significant release of CO2 gas which was detected by a gas chromatography and an FT-IR gas analyzer.

  7. Predicting the underestimation of the femoral offset in anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using 'lesser trochanter index': a 3D CT derived simulated radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Boddu, Krishna; Siebachmeyer, Martin; Lakkol, Sandesh; Rajayogeswaran, Brathaban; Kavarthapu, Venu; Li, Patrick L S

    2014-06-01

    We developed 'lesser trochanter index' (LTI) and estimated its accuracy in predicting the underestimation of offset in the anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs. We reconstructed 320 simulated radiographs from the CT scans of 40 adult hips at different rotational projections of 10° increments from 30° internal rotation to 40° external rotation. Underestimation of femoral offset as a percentage was derived from the neck profile angle for all radiographs. Radiographs with an LTI value above 35 were 94% (95% CI, 89%-97%) likely to underestimate femoral offset by more than 5%. Radiographs with LTI between 0 and 30 demonstrated femoral offset within 5% of the true offset (predictive value 100%, CI 87%-100%). LTI could be a useful guide in preoperative templating of hip arthroplasty.

  8. 207Pb and 119Sn solid-state NMR and relativistic density functional theory studies of the historic pigment lead-tin yellow type I and its reactivity in oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Jaclyn; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Alkan, Fahri; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil

    2014-09-11

    Lead soaps (lead carboxylates) have been detected in traditional oil paintings in layers containing the pigment lead-tin yellow type I (LTY-I). LTY-I has been used by artists from at least the second quarter of the 15th century until the first half of the 18th century. Soap formation can lead to protrusions in paint layers and increased transparency, causing the paint support to become visible. We have characterized LTY-I by (119)Sn and (207)Pb solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy. Using a combination of NMR techniques and DFT molecular cluster calculations, we identify the individual species in LTY-I and determine their (119)Sn and (207)Pb chemical-shift tensors. The presence of starting materials from the synthesis, minium, and tin(IV) oxide was also verified. Knowledge of the chemical-shift tensor components and the impurities in LTY-I is important for examining the chemistry of degradation processes and soap formation. We demonstrate that ssNMR can be used to detect reaction between Pb2SnO4 and added palmitic acid in a model paint sample containing LTY-I.

  9. Patient preferences and acceptable risk for computed tomography in trauma.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Robert M; Henderson, Tarann M; Ritchie, Anne M; Langdorf, Mark I; Raja, Ali S; Silverman, Eric; Schlang, Joelle; Sloane, Bryan; Ronan, Clare E; Anderson, Craig L; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2014-09-01

    Rising use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate patients with trauma has increased both patient costs and risk of cancer from ionizing radiation, without demonstrable improvements in outcome. Patient-centred care mandates disclosure of the potential risks, costs and benefits of diagnostic testing whenever possible. We sought to determine (1) patient preferences regarding emergency department (ED) real-time discussions of risks and costs of CT during their trauma evaluations; and (2) whether varying levels of odds of detection of life-threatening injury (LTI) were associated with changes in patient preferences for CT. Excluding patients already receiving CT and patients with altered mental status, we surveyed adult, English-speaking patients at four Level I verified trauma centres. After informing subjects of cancer risks associated with chest CT, we used hypothetical scenarios with varying LTIs to assess patients' preferences regarding CT. Of 941 patients enrolled, 50% were male and their mean age was 42 years. Most patients stated they would prefer to discuss CT radiation risks (73.5%, 95% CI [66.1-80.8]) and costs (53.2%, 95% CI [46.1-60.4]) with physicians. As the odds of detecting LTI decreased, preferences for receiving CT decreased accordingly: LTI 25% (desire 91.2%, 95% CI [89.4-93.1]), LTI 10% (desire 79.3%, 95% CI [76.7-81.9]), LTI 5% (desire 69.1%, 95% CI [66.1-72.1]) and LTI <2% (desire 53.8%, 95% CI [50.6-57.0]). If the LTI was <2% and subjects were required to pay $1000 out-of-pocket, only 34.5% (95% CI 31.4-37.5) would opt for CT. Most non-critically injured patients prefer to discuss radiation risks and costs of CT prior to receiving imaging. As the odds of detecting LTI decrease, fewer patients prefer to have CT; at an LTI threshold of 2%, approximately half of patients would prefer to forego CT. Adding out-of-pocket costs reduced this proportion to one-third of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of epithelial cell function by interleukin-22-producing RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanos, Stephanie L; Vonarbourg, Cedric; Mortha, Arthur; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is rapidly emerging that the defence system of innate lymphocytes is more diverse than previously recognized. In addition to natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, and natural helper cells have now been identified. LTi cells are developmentally dependent on the orphan transcription factor RORγt and instruct lymph node development during embryogenesis. More recently, it has become evident, that in addition to their role for lymph organ development, LTi cells are also potent producers of cytokines such as interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17 in adult mice. In addition to LTi cells, another RORγt-dependent innate lymphocyte subset co-expressing RORγt and NK cell receptors (NKRs) has been identified. These NKR+ RORγt+ cells are also potent producers of IL-22 but it is unclear whether they are part of the NK cell or LTi cell lineage. This review will highlight recent progress in understanding development and function of innate IL-22-producing lymphocyte subsets. PMID:21391996

  11. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity.

    PubMed

    van de Pavert, Serge A; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R; Littman, Dan R; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J Pedro; Mebius, Reina E; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-03

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  12. A novel linear tracking integrator with integral compensation and its application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Wang, Honglun; Cao, Zhibin

    2017-09-27

    A novel linear tracking integrator (LTI) with integral compensation is proposed for efficient integral estimation from a contaminated measurement with a constant or time-varying bias. The limitation of finite-time convergent integral observer (FTCIO) in ruling out the integral drift is firstly revealed via describing function method. Subsequently, by the utilization of integral action in the feedback path, a simple but effective linear tracking integrator is established to provide a practical solution in achieving a drift-free integral estimate. The highlight is that the proposed LTI can simultaneously give the accurate integral and tracking estimates from a noisy measurement without relying on the condition of observability. In addition, frequency-domain analysis of LTI is investigated to give a viable guideline of parameter tuning. Illustrative simulations and comparison with Kalman filter are included to demonstrate the superiority of LTI in accomplishing precise integral tracking in the presence of constant or time-varying bias. Finally, the effectiveness of LTI is also confirmed by an application on autopilot design for aircraft. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing a linear time invariant model for skin conductance responses by intraneural recording and stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gerster, Samuel; Namer, Barbara; Elam, Mikael; Bach, Dominik R

    2017-09-01

    Skin conductance responses (SCR) are increasingly analyzed with model-based approaches that assume a linear and time-invariant (LTI) mapping from sudomotor nerve (SN) activity to observed SCR. These LTI assumptions have previously been validated indirectly, by quantifying how much variance in SCR elicited by sensory stimulation is explained under an LTI model. This approach, however, collapses sources of variability in the nervous and effector organ systems. Here, we directly focus on the SN/SCR mapping by harnessing two invasive methods. In an intraneural recording experiment, we simultaneously track SN activity and SCR. This allows assessing the SN/SCR relationship but possibly suffers from interfering activity of non-SN sympathetic fibers. In an intraneural stimulation experiment under regional anesthesia, such influences are removed. In this stimulation experiment, about 95% of SCR variance is explained under LTI assumptions when stimulation frequency is below 0.6 Hz. At higher frequencies, nonlinearities occur. In the intraneural recording experiment, explained SCR variance is lower, possibly indicating interference from non-SN fibers, but higher than in our previous indirect tests. We conclude that LTI systems may not only be a useful approximation but in fact a rather accurate description of biophysical reality in the SN/SCR system, under conditions of low baseline activity and sporadic external stimuli. Intraneural stimulation under regional anesthesia is the most sensitive method to address this question. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  15. Effect of Ethyl Ester L-Lysine Triisocyanate addition to produce reactive PLA/PCL bio-polyester blends for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Visco, Annamaria; Nocita, Davide; Giamporcaro, Alberto; Ronca, Sara; Forte, Giuseppe; Pistone, Alessandro; Espro, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    We report in this paper the effects of Ethyl Ester L-Lysine Triisocyanate (LTI) on the physical-mechanical properties of Poly(lactide)/Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLA/PCL) polyesters blends. The PLA/PCL ratios considered were 20/80, 50/50 and 80/20 (wt/wt %) and LTI was added in amounts of 0.0-0.5-1.0 phr. PLA and PCL reacted with LTI during processing in a Brabender twin screw internal mixer to produce block copolymers in-situ. The resulting blends have been characterized by torque measurements, uniaxial tensile tests, Differential Scanning Calorimeter, contact angle measurements with a Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution, ATR analysis and morphological SEM observations. Experimental results highlighted how LTI enhanced interaction and dispersion of the two components, resulting into a synergic effect in mechanical properties. Mechanical and physical properties can be tailored by changing the blend composition. The most noticeable trend was an increase in ductility of the mixed polymers. Besides, LTI decreased blend's wet ability in PBS and lowered the starting of crystalline phase formation for both polymers, confirming an interaction among them. These reactive blends could find use as biomedical materials, e.g. absorbable suture threads or scaffolds for cellular growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Mode I Fracture and Morphological Properties of PLLA Blends with Addition of Lysine Triisocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannaladsaysy, Vilay; Todo, Mitsugu

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was toughened by blending with three different ductile biopolymers such as poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-e-caprolactone) (PBSC), poly (butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) (PBSL). The blend ratio was fixed to 50:50. Lysine triisocyanate (LTI) was added to the blends as a compatibilizer. Characterizations such as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), and mode I fracture test were used to characterize the effectiveness of LTI on the mechanical and morphological properties of various PLLA blends. It was found that PLLA/PCL blend shows the highest toughness energy among the binary blends. On the other hand, addition of LTI in PLLA/PBSC blend exhibits the best toughness property. Based on the FE-SEM observation, fractured surfaces of PLLA blends with LTI indicate ductile fracture with dense elongated fibrils. The largest damage zone is generated in the vicinity of crack-trip, suggesting that high energy dissipation occurred in the crack-trip region. FT-IR analysis also suggested that the NCO groups of LTI were acted as a compatibilizer, as the results of interaction between the two phases of the polymer blends.

  17. Latent tuberculosis infection amongst new recruits to the Chinese army: comparison of ELISPOT assay and tuberculin skin test.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueqiong; Li, Qiaoke; Yang, Yourong; Zhang, Chuiying; Li, Juan; Zhang, Junxian; Liang, Yan; Cheng, Hongbing; Zhang, Jingzhuan; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Lan

    2009-07-01

    In China, latent tuberculosis infection (LTI) is frequent. To protect the health of soldiers and monitor TB infection, new recruits were routinely examined for LTI by tuberculin skin testing (TST). This is the first report on the extent of LTI in the Chinese army comparing TST and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. New recruits to the army were interviewed, routinely examined and injected intradermally with purified protein derivative (PPD) in March 2007. At the same time, 100 male soldier volunteers were detected with ELISPOT assay using recombinant CFP-10/ESAT-6 fusion protein (rCFP-10/ESAT-6) as a stimulus. The prevalence of LTI, as estimated by TST and ELISPOT assay, was 41% and 21% of new recruits, respectively. Vaccination scars on the arms could be found in 83% of volunteers with positive TST and 19% of volunteers with negative TST. Five individuals with strongly positive TST of whom 2 had negative ELISPOT were not given chemotherapy, and were observed for 20 months. None developed active TB. The prevalence of LTI in new recruits to the Chinese army is not as high as previously reported. ELISPOT technique may be the most accurate screening method for the TB infection in China, which was not interfered by BCG vaccination.

  18. LTbetaR signaling induces cytokine expression and up-regulates lymphangiogenic factors in lymph node anlagen.

    PubMed

    Vondenhoff, Mark F; Greuter, Mascha; Goverse, Gera; Elewaut, Dirk; Dewint, Pieter; Ware, Carl F; Hoorweg, Kerim; Kraal, Georg; Mebius, Reina E

    2009-05-01

    The formation of lymph nodes is a complex process crucially controlled through triggering of LTbetaR on mesenchymal cells by LTalpha(1)beta(2) expressing lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. This leads to the induction of chemokines to attract more hematopoietic cells and adhesion molecules to retain them. In this study, we show that the extravasation of the first hematopoietic cells at future lymph node locations occurs independently of LTalpha and that these cells, expressing TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), are the earliest LTi cells. By paracrine signaling the first expression of LTalpha(1)beta(2) is induced. Subsequent LTbetaR triggering on mesenchymal cells leads to their differentiation to stromal organizers, which now also start to express TRANCE, IL-7, as well as VEGF-C, in addition to the induced adhesion molecules and chemokines. Both TRANCE and IL-7 will further induce the expression of LTalpha(1)beta(2) on newly arrived immature LTi cells, resulting in more LTbetaR triggering, generating a positive feedback loop. Thus, LTbetaR triggering by LTi cells during lymph node development creates a local environment to which hematopoietic precursors are attracted and where they locally differentiate into fully mature, LTalpha(1)beta(2) expressing, LTi cells. Furthermore, the same signals may regulate lymphangiogenesis to the lymph node through induction of VEGF-C.

  19. Evidence for adaptive evolution of low-temperature stress response genes in a Pooideae grass ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Vigeland, Magnus D; Spannagl, Manuel; Asp, Torben; Paina, Cristiana; Rudi, Heidi; Rognli, Odd-Arne; Fjellheim, Siri; Sandve, Simen R

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to temperate environments is common in the grass subfamily Pooideae, suggesting an ancestral origin of cold climate adaptation. Here, we investigated substitution rates of genes involved in low-temperature-induced (LTI) stress responses to test the hypothesis that adaptive molecular evolution of LTI pathway genes was important for Pooideae evolution. Substitution rates and signatures of positive selection were analyzed using 4330 gene trees including three warm climate-adapted species (maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and rice (Oryza sativa)) and five temperate Pooideae species (Brachypodium distachyon, wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Lolium perenne and Festuca pratensis). Nonsynonymous substitution rate differences between Pooideae and warm habitat-adapted species were elevated in LTI trees compared with all trees. Furthermore, signatures of positive selection were significantly stronger in LTI trees after the rice and Pooideae split but before the Brachypodium divergence (P < 0.05). Genome-wide heterogeneity in substitution rates was also observed, reflecting divergent genome evolution processes within these grasses. Our results provide evidence for a link between adaptation to cold habitats and adaptive evolution of LTI stress responses in early Pooideae evolution and shed light on a poorly understood chapter in the evolutionary history of some of the world's most important temperate crops. PMID:23701123

  20. Robust Stabilization of Uncertain Systems Based on Energy Dissipation Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Sandeep

    1996-01-01

    Robust stability conditions obtained through generalization of the notion of energy dissipation in physical systems are discussed in this report. Linear time-invariant (LTI) systems which dissipate energy corresponding to quadratic power functions are characterized in the time-domain and the frequency-domain, in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMls) and algebraic Riccati equations (ARE's). A novel characterization of strictly dissipative LTI systems is introduced in this report. Sufficient conditions in terms of dissipativity and strict dissipativity are presented for (1) stability of the feedback interconnection of dissipative LTI systems, (2) stability of dissipative LTI systems with memoryless feedback nonlinearities, and (3) quadratic stability of uncertain linear systems. It is demonstrated that the framework of dissipative LTI systems investigated in this report unifies and extends small gain, passivity, and sector conditions for stability. Techniques for selecting power functions for characterization of uncertain plants and robust controller synthesis based on these stability results are introduced. A spring-mass-damper example is used to illustrate the application of these methods for robust controller synthesis.

  1. Interleukin-22-producing natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells in mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Marco

    2009-07-17

    Blood, lymphoid tissues, and placenta contain diverse subpopulations of natural killer (NK) cells that possess distinct immune functions. Recent studies have shown that human and mouse gut-associated lymphoid tissues harbor a unique NK cell subset that specializes in production of interleukin (IL)-22. This cytokine plays a role in host defense of mucosal barriers, although dysregulated secretion may cause autoimmune disease. In parallel, human fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and mouse adult LTi-like cells in secondary lymphoid tissues were found to release IL-22, as well as IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates host defense against extracellular pathogens. Here, we compare these recently identified immune cells, reviewing what is known about their anatomical location, differentiation requirements, function, and potential involvement in host defense and autoimmunity. Finally, we discuss the challenges faced in furthering our understanding of the developmental relationships and role of NK and LTi-like cells in mucosal immune responses.

  2. Structural discrimination via density functional theory and lattice dynamics: Monoclinic Mg2NiH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J. F.; Hector, L. G., Jr.

    2009-04-01

    Two distinct crystal structures for the monoclinic, low-temperature phase of Mg2NiH4 , which we designate as LTI and LTII, are available in the published literature. We demonstrate that density functional theory and lattice dynamics can easily identify LTII as the preferable structure at two levels of inquiry. First, enthalpies of formation ΔH calculated using three different forms for the exchange-correlation energy functional are in better agreement with experiment for LTII. Second, the phonon spectrum calculated for LTII contains no anomalies while that for LTI exhibits a variety of soft modes. By analyzing the soft modes in LTI as well as those we find for the known CaMgNiH4 structure with Ca replaced by Mg we derive a crystal structure that closely approximates LTII.

  3. Protective immunity against tick infestation in cattle vaccinated with recombinant trypsin inhibitor of Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Renato; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Soares, Mariana Aparecida; Guerrero, Felix D; Leite, Fábio P Leivas; de León, Adalberto A Pérez

    2012-10-19

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock globally. Control is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides. This approach is hampered by the development of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations. Vaccination against R. microplus infestation is another technology that can be integrated for effective cattle tick control. Proteins belonging to the Kunitz-BPTI family are abundant in cattle tick salivary glands, midgut, and ovaries. These organs are attractive targets for the development of a novel cattle tick vaccine. Efficacy assessment against cattle tick infestation in bovines using a vaccine containing the recombinant form of a member of the Kunitz family from R. microplus produced in a yeast expression system is reported for the first time here. The yeast Pichia pastoris was bioengineered to produce the recombinant version of a trypsin inhibitor that is expressed in cattle tick larvae (rRmLTI). Immunization with rRmLTI afforded 32% efficacy against R. microplus. The estimated molecular weight of rRmLTI was 46 kDa. Structural homology to the native form of the larval trypsin inhibitor was documented by recognition of rRmLTI in Western-blots using polyclonal antibodies from mice immunized with cattle tick larval extract or rRmLTI. Bioinformatics analysis of the partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the rRmLTI closely resembles BmTI-6, which is a three-headed Kunitz protein present in cattle tick ovary and fat tissue. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Lateral Tibiocalcaneal Angle As a Determinant for Percutaneous Achilles Tenotomy for Idiopathic Clubfeet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seungcheol; Park, Soo-Sung

    2015-08-05

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of using the lateral tibiocalcaneal (LTiC) angle, measured on a lateral radiograph made with the foot and ankle in maximal dorsiflexion, instead of the ankle dorsiflexion (ADF) angle, measured on physical examination, as a determining indicator of the need for percutaneous Achilles tenotomy after Ponseti serial cast treatment of idiopathic clubfoot. We identified patients with idiopathic clubfoot who had been treated at our institution between March 2006 and June 2012. After exclusion of patients with Diméglio grade-I clubfoot and those followed for less than two years, 125 idiopathic clubfeet were evaluated. The clubfeet were grouped according to their LTiC and ADF angles, after which we evaluated the clinical outcomes of each group and investigated the prognostic effects of each angle-based decision regarding whether to perform percutaneous Achilles tenotomy. Patients with a favorable LTiC angle (≤80°) showed no sagittal relapse even though none underwent percutaneous Achilles tenotomy. In contrast, patients with an unfavorable LTiC angle (>80°) had a high chance of sagittal relapse if percutaneous Achilles tenotomy had not been performed, even when they had a favorable ADF angle (≥15°). The LTiC-angle-based decision showed the most significant prognostic value in multivariate analyses of relapse-free and surgery-free survival rates. The LTiC angle measured on simple radiographs is a more objective and prognostic indicator of the need for percutaneous Achilles tenotomy, as compared with the ADF angle measured on physical examination, in patients with idiopathic clubfoot. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  5. Health and relationships with leisure time activities in Swedish children aged 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2014-09-01

    Three cross-sectional time series studies, randomised and stratified for age and gender, were performed on children aged 2-17, studying their health and well-being. The studies were performed in the Nordic countries in 1984, 1996 and 2011. Long-term illness (LTI) and psychosomatic complaints (PSC) increased during the period. Data were collected from mailed questionnaires. Data of 1461 Swedish children from 2011 were used and compared with data from 1984 and 1996. Relationships between the health indicators (the absence of LTI, 13 diagnoses, the absence of PSC, six symptoms, six items of well-being) and 12 activities were analysed. A total of 83.2% of the children were healthy and 16.8% had at least one LTI, boys 19.1% and girls 14.5%. PSC increased from 18.6% in 1996 to 23.1% in 2011. The distribution was higher in girls. Girls were more active than boys during leisure time. 'Reading books', 'visiting friends', 'listening to music' and 'activity in organisations' were related to an absence of PSC, LTI and well-being. 'Surfing/blogging on the Internet' was negatively related to LTI, PSC and well-being. Multiple regression showed that that 'visits or is visited by friends' was related with a low probability for LTI and also with a high probability for well-being. In the logistic regression analyses, the following variables were seen as promoting health most: 'visits or is visited by friends' and 'is active in organizations' for children aged 2-17 years, especially for boys and well-being. The health of Swedish children declined between 1984 and 2011. Positive relationships were found between some activities and health as well as other activities related to ill health. The results suggest an increased focus on the activities that have positive relationships with health in order to promote health among children. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Switching control of linear systems subject to asymmetric actuator saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Wu, Fen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the saturation control problem for linear time-invariant (LTI) systems subject to asymmetric actuator saturation under a switching control framework. The LTI plant with asymmetric saturation is first transformed to an equivalent switched linear model with each subsystem subject to symmetric actuator saturation, based on which a dwell-time switching controller augmented with a controller state reset is then developed by using multiple Lyapunov functions. The controller synthesis conditions are formulated as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be solved efficiently. Simulation results are also included to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach.

  7. Variable structure control of linear time invariant fractional order systems using a finite number of state feedback law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balochian, Saeed; Sedigh, Ali Khaki; Zare, Asef

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, an approach based on the variable structure control is proposed for stabilization of linear time invariant fractional order systems (LTI-FOS) using a finite number of available state feedback controls, none of which is capable of stabilizing the LTI-FOS by itself. First, a system with integer order derivatives is defined and its existence is proved, which has stability equivalent properties with respect to the fractional system. This makes it possible to use Lyapunov function and convex analysis in order to define the sliding sector and develop a variable structure control which enables the switching between available control gains and stabilizing the fractional order system.

  8. Comparison of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpedance in Assessing Body Composition and Nutrition in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Velena; Zerahn, Bo; Heaf, James Goya

    2017-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are characterized by protein malnutrition and muscle wasting. Reliable, easy, and cheap methods for evaluating nutrition are desirable. Three methods are commonly available: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance (BI), and subjective global assessment (SGA).The objective of the study was to compare the previously mentioned methods for assessment of body composition and nutritional status in PD patients. The study is cross-sectional and consisted of 72 PD patients from a single center PD ambulatorium. Participants were measured twice by DXA, twice by BI, and once by SGA. Measurements included lean tissue mass (LTM), fat tissue mass (FT) and, for BI, overhydration (OH), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW). LTM and FT were indexed to body area (Lean Tissue Index [LTI] and Fat Tissue Index [FTI], respectively), and ICW for height (ICW/ht). We assessed conventional biochemical and clinical variables, using values for normal individuals as a reference. There was good overall agreement between BI and DXA but considerable intra-individual variation (1 standard deviation: FT 5.7 kg; LTM 5.6 kg). Factors affecting the differences were FT, ICW, LTM, and ICW. Obesity (DXA 43%; BI 54%) and muscle wasting (BI 28%; SGA 53%) were common. Agreement between BI and SGA was poor. Thirty-eight percent of patients judged malnourished by SGA also had a low LTI; 23% with normal SGA had low LTI. SGA was closer related to LTI (BI) than LTI (DXA). Plasma albumin was correlated to LTI, FTI, and ICW/ht, and comorbidity to OH, clinical malnutrition, reduced FTI, but not LTI. Agreement between DXA and BI was high on a population basis but not at an individual level. Obesity and muscle wasting were common in this population. OH might reduce DXA accuracy in PD patients. LTI and ICW may be useful measures to supplement SGA in assessing nutrition. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Control design and simulation of systems modeled using ADAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohoni, Vikram N.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for control design and simulation using the ADAMS software and a control design software package is presented. For design of control systems ADAMS generates a minimum realization linear time invariant (LTI), state space representation of multi-body models. This LTI representation can be produced in formats for input to several commercial control design packages. The user can exercise various design strategies in the control design software to arrive at a suitable compensator. The resulting closed loop model can then be simulated using ADAMS. This procedure is illustrated with two examples.

  10. Weighting Matrix Selection for QFT (Quantitative Feedback Technique) Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    MIMO _ multiple - input multiple - output ...possible plants, disturbances, and inputs , 3. Multiple - input , multiple - output ( MIMO ) LTI systems which are solved as a set of equivalent multiple - input ...jwL)F(j,). To do so, a mapping between a MIMO plant and a set of equivalent multiple - input , single- output (MISO) control systems is defined.

  11. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 03/20/1975

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... AUHI1a .. .i4 S ~"aula~ Lt;i Spot. ... oecu4. Po ~ct 4rci~ ~~£, tat~~~ ccnd~tic~~ ~av~~ d~{~t !\\r~ 4~~a) :,cat~d. 0: ~ct eO'lt~~i~ar~ ~al~' bu ...

  12. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Duan, Yujing; Hu, Yun; Sun, Lili; Wang, Song; Fu, Wenyan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate characteristic of animals related to fear or stress response. Animals can be classified into long TI (LTI) and short TI (STI) phenotypes based on TI test duration. In this study, effect of TI phenotype, chronic corticosterone administration (CORT), and their interaction on cholesterol metabolism in liver was evaluated in broilers. LTI broilers showed higher level of cholesterol in liver compared to STI chickens (p<0.05), and CORT significantly increased hepatic cholesterol content (p<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that both TI and CORT potentially altered ABCA1 and CYP7A1 gene expressions (0.05LTI broilers showed higher level of HMGCR protein expression in liver than STI (p<0.05). These results indicate that chronic CORT administration causes hepatic cholesterol accumulation in broiler chickens mainly by enhancing cholesterol synthesis and uptake into liver. LTI chickens had higher amount of total cholesterol in liver, which might be associated with an increase of hepatic HMGCR protein expression. However, there is no interaction between TI and CORT on cholesterol metabolism in liver of broilers.

  13. Determination of Lakeshore Technical Institute Associate Degree Nursing Graduates' Nursing Competencies Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, Marvin A.

    In an effort to determine the effectiveness of Lakeshore Technical Institute's (LTI's) Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program, questionnaires were administered to 1982 program graduates (N=45) and their employers (N=43) requesting an assessment of the graduates' preparedness to perform 39 nursing functions. Responses were submitted to a…

  14. A Singular Perturbation Approach for Time-Domain Assessment of Phase Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J. Jim; Yang, Xiaojing; Hodel, A Scottedward

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of time-domain assessment of the Phase Margin (PM) of a Single Input Single Output (SISO) Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) system using a singular perturbation approach, where a SISO LTI fast loop system, whose phase lag increases monotonically with frequency, is introduced into the loop as a singular perturbation with a singular perturbation (time-scale separation) parameter Epsilon. First, a bijective relationship between the Singular Perturbation Margin (SPM) max and the PM of the nominal (slow) system is established with an approximation error on the order of Epsilon(exp 2). In proving this result, relationships between the singular perturbation parameter Epsilon, PM of the perturbed system, PM and SPM of the nominal system, and the (monotonically increasing) phase of the fast system are also revealed. These results make it possible to assess the PM of the nominal system in the time-domain for SISO LTI systems using the SPM with a standardized testing system called "PM-gauge," as demonstrated by examples. PM is a widely used stability margin for LTI control system design and certification. Unfortunately, it is not applicable to Linear Time-Varying (LTV) and Nonlinear Time-Varying (NLTV) systems. The approach developed here can be used to establish a theoretical as well as practical metric of stability margin for LTV and NLTV systems using a standardized SPM that is backward compatible with PM.

  15. Working Group on Ice Forces; State-of-the-Art Report (3rd),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    a Lo -ta stucture : An e X Ter imental ;tUdy. Proceedings, Eighth nierinatioiial Conference on Port an(! ocean Engineering (POAC), Nn,’rssa,-rssuiag...rlct’ire of a flawed sample is given by Hallam (1986, this * *~. . i- i lti-.rItion let its suppose the sample to be cubic of side hiv - roguir f laws

  16. View of Crew Members working on the FD during STS-129

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-18

    View of Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Randy Bresnik (right) using a Laser Technology Incorporated (LTI) NSRV1-OH Hand Held Lidar through an overhead window on the aft Flight Deck (FD) during International Space Station (ISS) rendezvous operations. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Leland Melvin (center) and MS4 Robert L. Satcher Jr. (left) assist Bresnik.

  17. A Decision Tool for Selecting a Sustainable Learning Technology Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raji, Maryam; Zualkernan, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Education is a basic human right. In pursuit of this right, governments in developing countries and their donors often invest scarce resources in educational initiatives that are sometimes not sustainable. This paper addresses the problem of selecting a sustainable learning technology intervention (LTI) for a typical developing country. By solving…

  18. Comparison Sensitivity Design of Output Feedback Systems Using State Observers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    of sensitivity reduction in feedback systems which use state observers for dynamic compensation is considered leading to a design procedure which...results developed using state observers in the compensator dynamics. All systems discussed are assumed to be linear time invariant (LTI) systems which are state controllable and state observable. (Author)

  19. Swarming Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Concept Development and Explementation, A State of the Art Review on Flight and Mission Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    studied mainly for Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems, without or with state variables and/or control constraints [35]. All MPC controllers share...requires extensive simulation studies and avionics manufacturers sometimes offer dedicated softwares for aircraft simulator including avionics models...Kim, D.Necsulescu, Autonomous Mobile Vehicles for Motion on Uneven and Inclined Surfaces, Electromotion, Quaterly Int. Journal, Vol 5, No

  20. A Decision Tool for Selecting a Sustainable Learning Technology Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raji, Maryam; Zualkernan, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Education is a basic human right. In pursuit of this right, governments in developing countries and their donors often invest scarce resources in educational initiatives that are sometimes not sustainable. This paper addresses the problem of selecting a sustainable learning technology intervention (LTI) for a typical developing country. By solving…

  1. A local identification method for linear parameter-varying systems based on interpolation of state-space matrices and least-squares approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, Francesco; Rolain, Yves

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel state-space matrix interpolation technique to generate linear parameter-varying (LPV) models starting from a set of local linear time-invariant (LTI) models estimated at fixed operating conditions. Since the state-space representation of LTI models is unique up to a similarity transformation, the state-space matrices need to be represented in a common state-space form. This is needed to avoid potentially large variations as a function of the scheduling parameters of the state-space matrices to be interpolated due to underlying similarity transformations, which might degrade the accuracy of the interpolation significantly. Underlying linear state coordinate transformations for a set of local LTI models are extracted by the computation of similarity transformation matrices by means of linear least-squares approximations. These matrices are then used to transform the local LTI state-space matrices into a form suitable to achieve accurate interpolation results. The proposed LPV modeling technique is validated by pertinent numerical results.

  2. Normal D-dimer levels in patients with latent tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Shitrit, D; Izbicki, G; Shitrit, A Bar-Gil; Raz, M; Sulkes, J; Kramer, M R

    2005-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated a link between acute pulmonary tuberculosis and a hypercoagulable state, but there are no data on the coagulation state of patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTI). The present prospective observational study was designed to help fill this gap. The sample included 84 patients (high school students and adults) with suspected LTI referred for the purified protein derivative (PPD) test. Results were read according to the criteria of the American Thoracic Society. Blood samples were collected at admission and assayed for D-dimer, the marker of the coagulation state, with the quantitative Miniquant test. D-dimer values were correlated with the PPD status and clinical parameters. Fifty-seven patients tested positive for LTI and 27 tested negative. There was no significant difference in D-dimer level between these groups (341 +/- 106 and 360 +/- 60 microg/ml, respectively). No significant correlation was found between D-dimer level and PPD status, patient age or occupation (health care worker or not), or clinical indication for the tuberculin test. The normal D-dimer levels in this series suggest that low-level inflammations such as LTI do not lead to a hypercoagulable state.

  3. Enterprise Measures. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Social Fund, Dublin (Ireland).

    In Ireland, four government programs have traditionally been available to help individuals wishing to establish an enterprise: (1) Enterprise Training; (2) local training initiatives (LTI); (3) the Enterprise Scheme; and (4) the Community Enterprise Programme (CEP). In 1988, the four enterprise measures were combined to form the Training and…

  4. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, INSECTICIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... ". ... w ••• 11 dft ... ln- .... el ..... wi" .... 4 h., • .. 0 .... . cil eft ..... If I"'tet'''' ,11'1. If ••• 111."- • "I' •• Alee -.ltI"._ C.II. ",11.:1 ... 1_ ... ,tI,. ...

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 09/16/1997

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... ffli~~~~r~tr(ii~t~yt~~~ttit~!~~*I~~2~R~~~~~I~~~~~l~ti~~ft1W~li~hg liker' bra!edthehi ... treat a few plants and observe prior to full scale application. ...

  6. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, CYMBUSH OL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... i1 ;::!(I·(~ t,,\\' .t"tt .1;,,] 1"i,I, ,~I:tij.lrit;("" 1)'.' 1,II;r;:r:,'. If lJllr!~"t:, L,t,I'.' .~t I,f <:-",J.-.', rr : i' ~. r: :, >" T hy (Itil"r ,II, ~r'''II,: f' :11 III rl ~; t\\t't i",('!A( rt' ...

  7. The State of the Art of Computer Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    46 .3. ; ["vrn, Shimon, 239. f • 173 : Flye Samnte-Marie, Camille, .580. lti Z1 174 elvhir Ficlrr, David Allen Llq Hamlet , P’rince of D)enmark, 228... Shakespeare , William, 228, 465. I )-I L191 dele Shih-ehih, Chu entry ii 192 Steel(- Jr., Guy I,ewir (-Quux), 594. 193 Strong, Hovey Raymond, Jr., 556

  8. The incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration and Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased in patients operated for benign goiter over a 31-year period.

    PubMed

    Ott, Johannes; Meusel, Moritz; Schultheis, Andrea; Promberger, Regina; Pallikunnel, Shannon Joan; Neuhold, Nikolaus; Hermann, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have increased over the last several decades. Since there is a lack of recent studies in the literature that evaluate this phenomenon on a histological basis, we aimed to assess the incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration (LTI) in our large surgical patient collective over a 31-year period. In our study, a total of 1,050 patients who had undergone uni- or bilateral thyroid surgery for benign goiter were included (150 patients in each group, during 1979 to 2009). The stored histological sections of the removed thyroid specimens were re-analyzed, including routine grading of LTI severity on a scale of 0-4, according to Williams and Doniach. Positive correlations were seen for the incidences of LTI grading (0-4) (r = 0.077, p = 0.013) and HT (r = 0.044, p = 0.078) over the years. Furthermore, when comparing the years 1979-1989 and 1994-2009, i.e., before and after the second iodine prophylaxis had been introduced in Austria, a higher incidence of HT was found for the later years (2 out of 450, 0.4%, vs. 6 out of 600, 1.0%, respectively; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the incidence of LTI and HT has increased substantially over the last 31 years.

  9. Narrative Evaluation Report on the Leadership Training Institute. July 1, 1972 (through) June 30, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. School of Library Science.

    During the 1972-1973 year the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) implemented a variety of program activities to improve training skills, to assess needs, and to package certain products for dissemination to the profession in general. Specific activities included training sessions, on-site visits, development of instructional materials, and…

  10. Sufficient condition for stabilization of linear time invariant fractional order switched systems and variable structure control stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Balochian, Saeed; Sedigh, Ali Khaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the stabilization problem of a linear time invariant fractional order (LTI-FO) switched system with order 1LTI-FO switched system with order 1LTI-FO switched system so that each state in the state space is inside at least one sliding sector with its corresponding subsystem, where the Lyapunov function found by the extremum seeking control is decreasing. Finally, a switching control law is designed to switch the LTI-FO switched system among subsystems to ensure the decrease of the Lyapunov function in the state space. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed VS controller.

  11. Adapting acceptance and commitment therapy for parents of children with life-threatening illness: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kylie; Muscara, Frank; McCarthy, Maria; Dimovski, Anica; Hearps, Stephen; Anderson, Vicki; Walser, Robyn

    2014-03-01

    We piloted a novel parent-targeted intervention, Take A Breath (TAB), for parents of children diagnosed with a life-threatening illness (LTI) with the aim of reducing parental distress. Parents were assisted to adapt to their child's diagnosis, treatment, and recovery via TAB's combined acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and problem-solving skills training (PSST) approach. Participants were 11 parents of children with a diagnosis of cancer, or who had life-saving cardiac surgery at least 4 months prior. Parents completed questionnaires at pre, post, and 6-month follow-up assessing parent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), the emotional impact of the child's LTI (e.g., feelings of uncertainty, guilt and sorrow, emotional resources), and psychological elements targeted by the intervention (parental psychological flexibility and mindfulness). Parents reported significant reductions in PTSS and emotional impact from their child's LTI, along with significant improvements in parental psychological flexibility and mindfulness. Effect sizes were medium to large, and improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Our pilot indicates the TAB intervention has promise for preventing or reducing parental distress associated with child LTI and warrants more rigorous evaluation. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that targeting parents' subjective perceptions of their child's LTI may be an effective approach to reducing parental distress. Our results also indicate the potential for such an approach to be adopted across diverse child diagnoses in the acute pediatric setting. Further, our findings provide early indications that ACT combined with PSST is an appropriate therapeutic approach within this context.

  12. Ethnic analogies and differences in fetal heart rate variability signal: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Salvatore; Esposito, Francesca Giovanna; Fagioli, Rosa; Di Cresce, Marco; Sacchi, Lucia; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Marta; Martinelli, Pasquale; Magenes, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to analyze computerized cardiotocographic (cCTG) parameters (including fetal heart rate baseline, short-term variability, Delta, long-term irregularity [LTI], interval index [II], low frequency [LF], movement frequency [MF], high frequency [HF], and approximate entropy [ApEn]) in physiological term pregnancies in order to correlate them with ethnic differences. The clinical meaning of numerical parameters may explain physiological or paraphysiological phenomena that occur in fetuses of different ethnic origins. A total of 696 pregnant women, including 384 from Europe, 246 from sub-Saharan Africa, 45 from South-East Asia, and 21 from South America, were monitored from the 37th to the 41st week of gestation. Statistical analysis was performed with the analysis of variance test, Pearson correlation test and receiver-operator curves (P < 0.05). Our results showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between white and black women for Delta, LTI, LF, MF, HF, and ApEn; between white and Asian women for Delta, LTI, MF, and the LF/(HF + MF) ratio; and between white and Latina women for Delta, LTI, and ApEn. In particular, Delta and LTI performed better in the white group than in the black, Asian, and Latina groups. Instead, LF, MF, HF, and ApEn performed better in the black than in the white group. Our results confirmed the integrity and normal functionality of both central and autonomic nervous system components for all fetuses investigated. Therefore, CTG monitoring should include both linear and nonlinear components of fetal heart rate variability in order to avoid misinterpretations of the CTG trace among ethnic groups. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Asthma Treatments and Mental Health Visits After a Food and Drug Administration Label Change for Leukotriene Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Christine Y; Zhang, Fang; Lakoma, Matthew D; Butler, Melissa G; Fung, Vicki; Larkin, Emma K; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Vollmer, William M; Lieu, Tracy; Soumerai, Stephen B; Chen Wu, Ann

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated a label change for leukotriene inhibitors (LTIs) to include neuropsychiatric adverse events (eg, depression and suicidality) as a precaution. This study investigated how this label change affected the use of LTIs and other asthma controller medications, mental health visits, and suicide attempts. We analyzed data (2005-2010) from 5 large health plans in the US Population-Based Effectiveness in Asthma and Lung Diseases (PEAL) Network. The study cohort included children and adolescents (n = 30,000), young adults (n = 20,000), and adults (n = 90,000) with asthma. We used interrupted time series to examine changes in rates of LTI dispensings, non-LTI dispensings, mental health visits, and suicide attempts (using a validated algorithm based on a combination of diagnoses of injury or poisoning and psychiatric conditions). The label change was associated with abrupt reductions in LTI use among all age groups (relative reductions of 8.3%, 15.1%, and 6.0% among adolescents, young adults, and adults, respectively, compared with expected rates at 1 year after the warnings). Although we detected immediate offset increases in non-LTI asthma medication use, these increases were not sustained among adolescents and young adults. There were small increases in mental health visits among LTI users. The FDA label change for LTIs communicated possible risk of neuropsychiatric events. Communication and enhanced awareness may have increased reporting of mental health symptoms among young adults and adults. It is important to assess intended and unintended consequences of FDA warnings and label changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular mechanism of enzyme inhibition: prediction of the three-dimensional structure of the dimeric trypsin inhibitor from Leucaena leucocephala by homology modelling.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Rabia; Ali, Syed Abid; Kamal, Mustafa; Khan, Aftab Ahmed; Abbasi, Atiya

    2004-02-13

    Serine proteinase inhibitors are widely distributed in nature and inhibit the activity of enzymes like trypsin and chymotrypsin. These proteins interfere with the physiological processes such as germination, maturation and form the first line of defense against the attack of seed predator. The most thoroughly examined plant serine proteinase inhibitors are found in the species of the families Leguminosae, Graminae, and Solanaceae. Leucaena leucocephala belongs to the family Leguminosae. It is widely used both as an ornamental tree as well as cattle food. We have constructed a three-dimensional model of a serine proteinase inhibitor from L. leucocephala seeds (LTI) complexed with trypsin. The model was built based on its comparative homology with soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) using the program, MODELLER6. The quality of the model was assessed stereochemically by PROCHECK. LTI shows structural features characteristic of the Kunitz type trypsin inhibitor and shows 39% residue identity with STI. LTI consists of 172 amino acid residues and is characterized by two disulfide bridges. The protein is a dimer with the two chains being linked by a disulfide bridge. Despite the high similarity in the overall tertiary structure, significant differences exist at the active site between STI and LTI. The present study aims at analyzing these interactions based on the available amino acid sequences and structural data. We have also studied some functional sites such as phosphorylation, myristoylation, which can influence the inhibitory activity or complexation with other molecules. Some of the differences observed at the active site and functional sites can explain the unique features of LTI.

  15. Can Bioimpedance Measurements of Lean and Fat Tissue Mass Replace Subjective Global Assessments in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients?

    PubMed

    Paudel, Klara; Visser, Annemarie; Burke, Sinead; Samad, Nasreen; Fan, Stanley L

    2015-11-01

    Malnutrition and protein energy wasting (PEW) determined by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is associated with increased mortality. There is an inverse relationship between body mass and overhydration in dialysis patients. Is the predictive accuracy of SGA (for death) independent of hydration status? Can bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI) accurately identify dialysis patients with protein energy wasting and increased mortality? We report an observational study of 455 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We found that 96 patients (21%) were malnourished (SGA score between 1 and 5), and 192 (42%) had LTI values below 10th centile (age, gender adjusted). FTI was significantly lower in the SGA-defined malnourished cohort. By contrast, there was an inverse relationship between LTI and FTI. Malnourished (by SGA) patients were significantly more overhydrated (P < .0001), but SGA remained highly predictive of survival in multivariate analysis that included hydration status (hazard ratio: 3.12, 95% confidence interval 1.86-5.23, P < .0001). Obesity (patients with the highest 20% FTI) predicted survival (hazard ratio of death was 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.85, P < .02) on univariate but not multivariate analysis. We have confirmed that SGA is an accurate predictor of mortality in PD patients, and its predictive value is independent of the hydration status. Predictive power of SGA was not affected when LTI and FTI were included in multivariate analysis. Patients with low LTI were different from patients with low SGA (associated with high FTI). Sensitivity and specificity of Body Composition Monitor to diagnose patients with low SGA readings were poor (area under the curve for receiver operator characteristics analysis 0.66). The phenomenon of reverse epidemiology (high FTI predicting a survival advantage) was found in our PD cohort. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ch14.18/CHO in relapsed/refractory high-risk neuroblastoma patients treated by long-term infusion in combination with IL-2

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Nikolai; Eger, Christin; Seidel, Diana; Jüttner, Madlen; Zumpe, Maxi; Wegner, Danilo; Kietz, Silke; Ehlert, Karoline; Veal, Gareth J.; Siegmund, Werner; Weiss, Michael; Loibner, Hans; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lode, Holger N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ch14.18 manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Short-term infusion (STI) (8–20 h/day; 4–5 days) of 100 mg/m2 ch14.18/CHO (dinutiximab β) per cycle in combination with cytokines is standard treatment of neuroblastoma (NB) patients. As pain is a limiting factor, we investigated a novel delivery method by continuous long-term infusion (LTI) of 100 mg/m2 over 10 days. 53 NB patients were treated with 5–6 cycles of 6 × 106 IU/m2 subcutaneous interleukin-2 (d 1-5, 8-12), LTI of 100 mg/m2 ch14.18/CHO (d 8-18) and 160 mg/m2 oral 13-cis-retinoic acid (d 22-35). Human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity were determined. With LTI, we observed a maximum concentration of ch14.18/CHO (Cmax) of 12.56 ± 0.68 µg/ml and a terminal half-life time (t1/2 β) of 32.7 ± 16.2 d. The clearance values for LTI and STI of 0.54 ± 0.13 and 0.41 ± 0.29 L/d m2 and area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) values of 189.6 ± 41.4 and 284.8 ± 156.8 µg×d/ml, respectively, were not significantly different. Importantly, we detected ch14.18/CHO trough concentration of ≥ 1 µg/ml at time points preceding subsequent antibody infusions after cycle 1, allowing a persistent activation of antibody effector mechanisms over the entire treatment period of 6 months. HACA responses were observed in 10/53 (19%) patients, similar to STI (21%), indicating LTI had no effect on the immunogenicity of ch14.18/CHO. In conclusion, LTI of ch14.18/CHO induced effector mechanisms over the entire treatment period, and may therefore emerge as the preferred delivery method of anti-GD2 immunotherapy to NB patients. PMID:26785755

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Body Composition in Patients After Initiation of Hemodialysis Therapy: Results From an International Cohort.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniele; Brand, Katharina; Ponce, Pedro; Milkowski, Andrzej; Marelli, Cristina; Ok, Ercan; Merello Godino, José-Ignacio; Gurevich, Konstantin; Jirka, Tomáš; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Ladányi, Erzsébet; Grassmann, Aileen; Scatizzi, Laura; Bayh, Inga; Kooman, Jeroen; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    In patients with advanced kidney disease, metabolic and nutritional derangements induced by uremia interact and reinforce each other in a deleterious vicious circle. Literature addressing the effect of dialysis initiation on changes in body composition (BC) is limited and contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in BC in a large international cohort of incident hemodialysis patients. A total of 8,227 incident adult end-stage renal disease patients with BC evaluation within the initial first 6 months of baseline, defined as 6 months after renal replacement therapy initiation, were considered. BC, including fat tissue index (FTI) and lean tissue index (LTI), were evaluated by Body Composition Monitor (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). Exclusion criteria at baseline were lack of a BCM measurement before or after baseline, body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m(2), presence of metastatic solid tumors, treatment with a catheter, and prescription of less or more than 3 treatments per week. Maximum follow-up was 2 years. Descriptive analysis was performed comparing current values with the baseline in each interval (delta analysis). Linear mixed models considering the correlation structure of the repeated measurements were used to evaluate factors associated with different trends in FTI and LTI. BMI increased about 0.6 kg/m(2) over 24 months from baseline. This was associated with increase in FTI of about 0.95 kg/m(2) and a decrease in LTI of about 0.4 kg/m(2). Female gender, diabetic status, and low baseline FTI were associated with a significant greater increase of FTI. Age > 67 years, diabetes, male gender, high baseline LTI, and low baseline FTI were associated with a significant greater decrease of LTI. With the transition to hemodialysis, end-stage renal disease patients presented with distinctive changes in BC. These were mainly associated with gender, older age, presence of diabetes, low baseline FTI, and high baseline LTI. BMI

  18. Comparison of kinetic and extended magnetohydrodynamics computational models for the linear ion temperature gradient instability in slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnack, D. D.; Cheng, J.; Barnes, D. C.; Parker, S. E.

    2013-06-01

    We perform linear stability studies of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability in unsheared slab geometry using kinetic and extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models, in the regime k∥/k⊥≪1. The ITG is a parallel (to B) sound wave that may be destabilized by finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) effects in the presence of a gradient in the equilibrium ion temperature. The ITG is stable in both ideal and resistive MHD; for a given temperature scale length LTi0, instability requires that either k⊥ρi or ρi/LTi0 be sufficiently large. Kinetic models capture FLR effects to all orders in either parameter. In the extended MHD model, these effects are captured only to lowest order by means of the Braginskii ion gyro-viscous stress tensor and the ion diamagnetic heat flux. We present the linear electrostatic dispersion relations for the ITG for both kinetic Vlasov and extended MHD (two-fluid) models in the local approximation. In the low frequency fluid regime, these reduce to the same cubic equation for the complex eigenvalue ω =ωr+iγ. An explicit solution is derived for the growth rate and real frequency in this regime. These are found to depend on a single non-dimensional parameter. We also compute the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions with the extended MHD code NIMROD, and a hybrid kinetic δf code that assumes six-dimensional Vlasov ions and isothermal fluid electrons, as functions of k⊥ρi and ρi/LTi0 using a spatially dependent equilibrium. These solutions are compared with each other, and with the predictions of the local kinetic and fluid dispersion relations. Kinetic and fluid calculations agree well at and near the marginal stability point, but diverge as k⊥ρi or ρi/LTi0 increases. There is good qualitative agreement between the models for the shape of the unstable global eigenfunction for LTi0/ρi=30 and 20. The results quantify how far fluid calculations can be extended accurately into the kinetic regime. We conclude that for the linear ITG

  19. Low lean tissue mass is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Soraya; Macías, Nicolás; Aragoncillo, Inés; Santos, Alba; Galán, Isabel; Cedeño, Santiago; Manuel López-Gómez, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mortality in patients with stages 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) is higher than in the general population. Body composition predicts mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of body composition on mortality in patients with stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis CKD. Methods: We performed a prospective study of 356 patients with stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis CKD. At baseline, we recorded general characteristics, history of cardiovascular events, body composition, serum inflammatory markers, nutrition and cardiac biomarkers. Body composition was analysed using bioimpedance spectroscopy. We recorded the lean tissue index (LTI), fat tissue index (FTI) and overhydration (OH). During a median (range) follow-up of 22 (3–49) months, we recorded mortality, cardiovascular events and progress to renal replacement therapy. Results: At baseline, mean (± standard deviation) age was 67 ± 13 years (men 64%; diabetes 36%). Mean body mass index was 28.2 ± 12.8 kg/m2, the FTI was 12.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2, the LTI was 15.7 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and median (interquartile range) OH was 0.6 (−0.4 to 1.5) L. Sixty-four (18%) patients died during follow-up. The univariate Cox analysis showed an association between mortality and age, low LTI, high Charlson comorbidity index, previous cardiovascular events, OH, low albumin and prealbumin levels, and high C-reactive protein levels. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed higher survival in patients with a higher LTI (log-rank, 9.47; P = 0.002). The multivariate Cox analysis confirmed an association between mortality and low LTI (P = 0.031), previous cardiovascular events (P = 0.003) and high Charlson comorbidity index (P = 0.01). We did not find any association between body composition and cardiovascular events or renal replacement therapy. Conclusions: A low LTI is an independent factor for mortality in patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD. PMID:28396734

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ch14.18/CHO in relapsed/refractory high-risk neuroblastoma patients treated by long-term infusion in combination with IL-2.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Nikolai; Eger, Christin; Seidel, Diana; Jüttner, Madlen; Zumpe, Maxi; Wegner, Danilo; Kietz, Silke; Ehlert, Karoline; Veal, Gareth J; Siegmund, Werner; Weiss, Michael; Loibner, Hans; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lode, Holger N

    2016-01-01

    Ch14.18 manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Short-term infusion (STI) (8-20 h/day; 4-5 days) of 100 mg/m2 ch14.18/CHO (dinutiximab β) per cycle in combination with cytokines is standard treatment of neuroblastoma (NB) patients. As pain is a limiting factor, we investigated a novel delivery method by continuous long-term infusion (LTI) of 100 mg/m2 over 10 days. 53 NB patients were treated with 5-6 cycles of 6 × 106 IU/m2 subcutaneous interleukin-2 (d 1-5, 8-12), LTI of 100 mg/m2 ch14.18/CHO (d 8-18) and 160 mg/m2 oral 13-cis-retinoic acid (d 22-35). Human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity were determined. With LTI, we observed a maximum concentration of ch14.18/CHO (Cmax) of 12.56 ± 0.68 µg/ml and a terminal half-life time (t1/2 β) of 32.7 ± 16.2 d. The clearance values for LTI and STI of 0.54 ± 0.13 and 0.41 ± 0.29 L/d m2 and area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) values of 189.6 ± 41.4 and 284.8 ± 156.8 µg×d/ml, respectively, were not significantly different. Importantly, we detected ch14.18/CHO trough concentration of ≥ 1 µg/ml at time points preceding subsequent antibody infusions after cycle 1, allowing a persistent activation of antibody effector mechanisms over the entire treatment period of 6 months. HACA responses were observed in 10/53 (19%) patients, similar to STI (21%), indicating LTI had no effect on the immunogenicity of ch14.18/CHO. In conclusion, LTI of ch14.18/CHO induced effector mechanisms over the entire treatment period, and may therefore emerge as the preferred delivery method of anti-GD2 immunotherapy to NB patients.

  1. Diversity, function, and transcriptional regulation of gut innate lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Lucille; Groom, Joanna; Mielke, Lisa A.; Seillet, Cyril; Belz, Gabrielle T.

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical early role in host defense against viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells. Until recently, natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells were the primary members of the innate lymphocyte family: NK cells form the front-line interface between the external environment and the adaptive immune system, while LTi cells are essential for secondary lymphoid tissue formation. More recently, it has become apparent that the composition of this family is much more diverse than previously appreciated and newly recognized populations play distinct and essential functions in tissue protection. Despite the importance of these cells, the developmental relationships between different innate lymphocyte populations remain unclear. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the development of different innate immune cell subsets, the transcriptional programs that might be involved in driving fate decisions during development, and their relationship to NK cells. PMID:23508190

  2. Stabilising compensators for linear time-varying differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a constructive test to decide whether a given linear time-varying (LTV) differential system admits a stabilising compensator for the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection or model matching and construct and parametrise all of them if at least one exists. In analogy to the linear time-invariant (LTI) case, the ring of stable rational functions, noncommutative in the LTV situation, and the Kučera-Youla parametrisation play prominent parts in the theory. We transfer Blumthaler's thesis from the LTI to the LTV case and sharpen, complete and simplify the corresponding results in the book 'Linear Time-Varying Systems' by Bourlès and Marinescu.

  3. Colonic Patch and colonic SILT development are independent and differentially-regulated events

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, AP; Olivier, BJ; Goverse, G; Greuter, M; Knippenberg, M; Kusser, K; Domingues, RG.; Veiga-Fernandes, H; Luster, AD; Lugering, A; Randall, TD; Cupedo, T; Mebius, RE

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal lymphoid tissues have to simultaneously ensure protection against pathogens and tolerance towards commensals. Despite such vital functions, their development in the colon is poorly understood. Here, we show that the two distinct lymphoid tissues of the colon–colonic patches and colonic SILTs–can easily be distinguished based on anatomical location, developmental timeframe and cellular organization. Furthermore, whereas colonic patch development depended on CXCL13-mediated LTi cell clustering followed by LTα-mediated consolidation, early LTi clustering at SILT anlagen did not require CXCL13, CCR6 or CXCR3. Subsequent dendritic cell recruitment to and gp38+VCAM-1+ lymphoid stromal cell differentiation within SILTs required LTα; B cell recruitment and follicular dendritic cell differentiation depended on MyD88-mediated signalling, but not the microflora. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that different mechanisms, mediated mainly by programmed stimuli, induce the formation of distinct colonic lymphoid tissues, therefore suggesting that these tissues may have different functions. PMID:22990625

  4. Coarse mode aerosol measurement using a Low Turbulence Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, J.; Bart, M.; Trembath, J.; McQuaid, J. B.; Brooks, B. J.; Osborne, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahara desert is a major natural source of global mineral dust emissions (Forster et al., 2007) through the mobilisation and lifting of dust particles into the atmosphere from dust storms. A significant fraction of this dust is in the aerosol coarse mode (Weinzierl et al., 2009). It is highlighted of the difficulty in making accurate and reliable measurements from an aircraft platform, particularly that of coarse mode aerosol (Wendisch et al., 2004). To achieve the measurement of a representative aerosol sample an aerosol inlet, on an aircraft, is required for the delivery of the sample to the instruments making the measurements. Inlet design can modify aerosol size distribution through either underestimating due to aerosol losses or overestimation due to enhancements. The Low Turbulence Inlet (LTI) was designed to improve inlet efficiency. This is achieved by reducing turbulence flow within the tip of the inlet, reducing impaction of particles to the walls of the inlet (Wilson et al., 2004). The LTI further maintains isokinetic sampling flow (free stream velocity, U0 and sampling velocity, U are equal to 1). Dust aerosol over the Sahara desert provides an excellent environment to test and quantify the capabilities of the LTI on the FAAM BAe 146, whilst enabling in-situ dust measurement. The LTI was operated during the Fennec field campaign in June 2011 with 11 flights during the campaign over Mauritania and Mali. We are using the LTI to provide critical information on the sampling characteristics of the inlet used by nearly all aerosol instruments inside the aircraft (AMS, Nephelometer, PSAP, and CCN). Inlet experiments were performed with identical Optical Particle Counters (OPC) connected to the rosemount and LTI with size distribution for each inlet measured and Rosemount enhancements determined. Rosemount inlet enhancements were determined to be 2 to 4 times for particles up to 2.5 µm. A key parameter in aerosol measurement is size distribution, in which

  5. Structural Discrimination via DFT: Monoclinic Mg2NiH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Jan; Hector, Louis, Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Mg2NiH4 is a semiconductor and forms an ordered low temperature monoclinic phase and a disordered high temperature cubic modification. Two distinct structures for the monoclinic phase from neutron diffraction studies of the deuterated analog, which we designate as LTI and LTII, are available in the published literature. We calculate the enthalpy of formation δH with density functional theory (DFT) for both using three different approximations for the exchange-correlation energy functional. Phonon spectra are calculated as well. DFT unequivocally identifies LTII as preferable since δH obtained for it is in better agreement with experiment and its phonon spectrum contains no anomalies. Structures approximating LTII derived from analyses of soft modes in LTI and in Mg-substituted CaMgNiH4 are also discussed.

  6. A method for designing robust multivariable feedback systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milich, David Albert; Athans, Michael; Valavani, Lena; Stein, Gunter

    1988-01-01

    A new methodology is developed for the synthesis of linear, time-invariant (LTI) controllers for multivariable LTI systems. The aim is to achieve stability and performance robustness of the feedback system in the presence of multiple unstructured uncertainty blocks; i.e., to satisfy a frequency-domain inequality in terms of the structured singular value. The design technique is referred to as the Causality Recovery Methodology (CRM). Starting with an initial (nominally) stabilizing compensator, the CRM produces a closed-loop system whose performance-robustness is at least as good as, and hopefully superior to, that of the original design. The robustness improvement is obtained by solving an infinite-dimensional, convex optimization program. A finite-dimensional implementation of the CRM was developed, and it was applied to a multivariate design example.

  7. Reliable regulation in decentralised control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Arturo; Schiavoni, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the design of decentralised regulators which supply the control systems with signal tracking and disturbance rejection. This property has to be attained, to the maximum possible extent, even when instrumentation faults occur, thus causing the opening of some feedback loops. The problem is tackled for LTI asymptotically stable plants, subject to perturbations, under the assumption that the Laplace transforms of the exogenous signals have multiple poles on the imaginary axis. The proposed regulator is composed of an LTI nominal controller supervised by a reconfiguration block. Once the actions of the reconfiguration block have been settled, the synthesis of the nominal controller is reformulated as a suitable regulation problem. A constructive sufficient condition for its solvability is established. This condition turns out to be also necessary if the exogenous signals are polynomial in time.

  8. The extent of local tumor invasion predicts prognosis in stage IE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: a novel T staging system for risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xi-wen; Zhang, Wen-wen; Li, Zhi-ming; Huang, Jia-jia; Xia, Yi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Wen-qi

    2015-09-01

    A heterogeneous treatment response and prognosis exists among patients with Ann Arbor stage IE natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), and further risk stratification is required to identify high-risk patients. Here, we assessed the extent of local tumor invasion (LTI) in 185 patients with Ann Arbor stage IE primary nasal NKTCL and proposed a novel four-level T staging system. We found that a more advanced T stage was associated with a significantly lower rate of complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy and a marginally lower rate of CR after radiotherapy. While patients with no LTI (T1) or mild LTI (T2) presented with similar 5-year overall survival (OS; 83.6 % vs. 86.0 %, P = 0.990), those with moderately or highly advanced local disease (T3 or T4) had significantly worse survival (5-year OS was 63.3 % and 35.1 %, respectively). A more advanced T stage (T3 or T4) was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and progression-free survival (PFS) in the Cox regression model. In addition, patients with T3 or T4 disease experienced locoregional failure more frequently than those with T1 or T2 disease, and patients with T4 disease had a significantly higher risk of distant failure. Our data demonstrated that the T staging system, based on the extent of LTI, could serve as an effective clinical parameter for further risk stratification among patients with primary nasal Ann Arbor stage IE NKTCL.

  9. Constrained Trajectory Optimization Using Pseudospectral Methods (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-05

    at itu de , d eg POST SPOCS Figure 5. Trajectory Comparison of Integration Method Comparison IV.B. Basic Optimization Comparison The second set of...1500 2000 2500 3000 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Altitude Time, sec A lti tu de , k m POST SPOCS Figure 7. Altitude Comparison of the First...Coordinates Z , k m POST SPOCS Figure 8. Range Comparison of the First Optimization Comparison 13 of 33 American Institute of Aeronautics and

  10. Mathematical Approaches to WMD Defense and Vulnerability Assessments of Dynamic Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    network communities in reality usually overlap with each other. We investigate network vulnerability based on communities obtained from underlying...j follow i (lines 3 to 6). Many real world networks in reality are highly dynamic and thus, their communities are not al- ways disjoint from each...t) where we remove all edges satisfying l(t)i < l (t+m ij ) j ; we then proceed to calculate the shortest path from each node to a virtual aggregate

  11. Re-Engineering Software Systems in the Department of Defense Using Integrated Computer Aided Software Engineering Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-24

    programs c. number of interactive programs d . number of assembly programs (if any) e. total estimated lines of code f . number of computer languages used...Acett, S O1 P NTT!; Qmi44 U1 an~ d jJ JJ J ~. i’feati! I Av1I. l:• lty Codes iii I C Ia THESIS DISCLAIMER The following trademarks are used throughout...QUESTIONS ............. .............. 2 C. METHODOLOGY ................ .................. 3 D . FOCUS .................... ..................... 3 E

  12. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 21, Number 6, November-December 1992. Real Time Software Manipulation for Weapons Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    question: What, specifically, are pact. Looking beyond the program code, pro- attitudes, behaviors and competen- office, the results-oriented program...attitudes, happen. With a firm grip on overall by pro- behaviors , and competencies used by program strategy and goals, they con- grammers results-oriented...at- velopment, and u lti mate behaviors and titudinal change focusing everyone on attainment. Using induc- ci the big picture. Why are we here? tive

  13. Physiologic Waveform Analysis for Early Detection of Hemorrhage during Transport and Higher Echelon Medical Care of Combat Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    thermodilution CO values from 15 ICU patients [10 men and 5 women ; age: 67 12 yr (mean SD)] remained for technique evaluation. Table 1 summarizes the...to the present study. Ten healthy human volunteers [5 men and 5 women , age: 25 4 yr (mean SD)] participated in the experiments. Each subject was...linear and time-invariant (LTI) relationship between AP and measured PAP ( RAP and FAP in our setup). The assumption of coprime impulse responses of

  14. Synthesis Methods for Robust Passification and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, Atul G.; Joshi, Suresh M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The research effort under this cooperative agreement has been essentially the continuation of the work from previous grants. The ongoing work has primarily focused on developing passivity-based control techniques for Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) systems. During this period, there has been a significant progress made in the area of passivity-based control of LTI systems and some preliminary results have also been obtained for nonlinear systems, as well. The prior work has addressed optimal control design for inherently passive as well as non- passive linear systems. For exploiting the robustness characteristics of passivity-based controllers the passification methodology was developed for LTI systems that are not inherently passive. Various methods of passification were first proposed in and further developed. The robustness of passification was addressed for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems for certain classes of uncertainties using frequency-domain methods. For MIMO systems, a state-space approach using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)-based formulation was presented, for passification of non-passive LTI systems. An LMI-based robust passification technique was presented for systems with redundant actuators and sensors. The redundancy in actuators and sensors was used effectively for robust passification using the LMI formulation. The passification was designed to be robust to an interval-type uncertainties in system parameters. The passification techniques were used to design a robust controller for Benchmark Active Control Technology wing under parametric uncertainties. The results on passive nonlinear systems, however, are very limited to date. Our recent work in this area was presented, wherein some stability results were obtained for passive nonlinear systems that are affine in control.

  15. Effects of Parameter Estimation and Control Limits on Steered Frequency Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    33rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (P’lTI) Meeting EFFECTS OF PARAMETER ESTIMATION AND CONTROL LIMITS ON STEERED FREQUENCY STANDARDS Jim...Skinner and Paul Koppang U.S. Naval Observatory Abstract Data estimation and frequency steer limits are important aspects that influence the...overall response and design of a robust control system. We study the effects that frequency steer limits have on the response of a control system

  16. Structures and Properties of Polyurethanes. Part II,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-23

    values of module/moaulus and strength for tear. The presence 𔄃. DOC =79011109 PAs;j fo of pliable groups in hardaer, tur example thioester, lowered...properties it is polyurethane in soluticn ana Diock. It is important to also explain a guestion concerning what projeLties of the isclated/ insulated ...isolated/ insulated macromoecule, with temperature transitions in polymeric block, that tear cooperdtive character (95]. The authors tried to reveal

  17. Eubacterium brachy - Reactivity in In Vitro Bone Resorptive Bioassay,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-10

    was described by L6e et all in a study in which gingivitis was induced in healthy subjects by with- drawing oral hygiene procedures. The changes in...pathogenicLty in this disease process. 7 Fuobacterium nucleatum has been shown to increase in numbers with increasing gingival inflammation e and in...association of this organism in relation to the advancing front of the disease state. An organism isolated from subgingival plaque which is also present in

  18. Are the Current Classifications and Radiographic Measurements for Trochlear Dysplasia Appropriate in the Skeletally Immature Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Stepanovich, Matthew; Bomar, James D.; Pennock, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment and classification of trochlear dysplasia in pediatric patients has yet to be well documented or validated. Purpose: To examine several different measurements/classifications of trochlear dysplasia in skeletally immature patients to assess inter- and intraobserver reliability and to determine which best correlates with patellar instability. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 36 skeletally immature patients undergoing surgery for patellar instability were compared with 27 age-matched cohort patients who had similar imaging for an acute knee injury but no clinical evidence of patellar instability. Trochlear dysplasia was measured/classified using the radiographic and MRI Dejour classifications, the trochlear depth index (TDI), the lateral trochlear inclination (LTI), and the medial condyle trochlear offset (MCTO). Additionally, the tibial tubercle–trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was calculated for all patients. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of each measurement, as well as the ability to discriminate patients with patellar instability, were evaluated. Results: Inadequate radiographs prevented the radiographic Dejour classification from being assessed in 78% of cases. The MRI Dejour classification had the lowest inter- and intraobserver reliabilities (κ = 0.687 and 0.596, respectively); all other measurements were greater than 0.80. The TDI, LTI, and MCTO all significantly differentiated patients with patellar instability compared with those with no instability, with critical cutoffs of 3 mm, 17°, and 1 mm, respectively. Patients with a TDI <3 mm or MCTO <1 mm were 33 and 38 times more likely to have patellar instability, respectively. The TT-TG was directly correlated with trochlear dysplasia severity. Conclusion: Trochlear dysplasia is common in skeletally immature patients with patellar instability. The objective assessment of

  19. Synthetic Infrared Scene: Improving the KARMA IRSG Module and Signature Modelling Tool SMAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Desmeules Alexandre Bastien Louis Tanguay Informatique inc. Geoffroy Rivet-Sabourin Technologie Intelligence Image inc. Prepared By: Louis Tanguay... Informatique inc. 825 Boulevard Lebourgneuf, Bureau 204 Québec, Canada G2J 0B9 Contractor’s Document Number: LTI-SIS-2011-1 Contract Project Manager...Alexandre Bastien Louis Tanguay Informatique inc. Geoffroy Rivet-Sabourin Technologie Intelligence Image inc. Prepared By: Louis Tanguay

  20. Mitigation and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Thoracic Injury With a Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, Celecoxib

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Nancy R.; Valdecanas, David; Liao Zhongxing; Milas, Luka; Thames, Howard D.; Mason, Kathy A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To test whether a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) could reduce mortality resulting from radiation-induced pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: Celecoxib was given to mice twice daily for 40 consecutive days starting on the day of local thoracic irradiation (LTI) or 40 or 80 days later. C3Hf/KamLaw mice were observed for morbidity, and time to death was determined. Results were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Timing of celecoxib relative to LTI determined efficacy. A significant reduction in time to death was achieved only when celecoxib was started 80 days after LTI, corresponding to the time when pneumonitis is expressed. For these mice the reduction in mortality was quantified as a hazard ratio for mortality of treated vs untreated of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.53), thus significantly less than 1.0. Correspondingly, the median lethal dose for treated mice (12.9 Gy; 95% CI 12.55-13.25 Gy) was significantly (P=.026) higher than for untreated mice (12.4 Gy; 95% CI 12.2-12.65 Gy). Conclusions: Celecoxib significantly reduced lung toxicity when administered months after LTI when the deleterious effects of radiation were expressed. The schedule-dependent reduction in fatal pneumonitis suggests that celecoxib could be clinically useful by reintroduction of treatment months after completion of radiation therapy. These findings may be important for designing clinical trials using cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to treat radiation-induced lung toxicity as a complement to concurrent radiation therapy of lung cancers.

  1. Results on Cyclic Signal Processing Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    8] Vaidyanathan, P. P. Multirate systems and filter banks , Prentice Hall, 1993. [9] Vaidyanathan, P. P., and Kirac, A. "Theory of cyclic filter ...91125 Abstract We present a state space description for cyclic LTI sys- tems which find applications in cyclic filter banks and wavelets. We also...in a unified way by using the realization matrix defined by the state space description. 1. INTRODUCTION Cyclic digital filters and filter banks

  2. The energy confinement response of DIII-D plasmas to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    DOE PAGES

    Cui, L.; Nazikian, Raffi; Grierson, B. A.; ...

    2017-07-11

    Here, Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) are a leading method for edge localized modes (ELMs) Control in fusion plasmas. However they can also cause a rapid degradation in energy confinement. In this paper we show that the energy confinement in low collisionality (v*e < 0.3) DIII-D ITER Similar Shape (ISS) plasmas often recovers after several energy confinement times for RMP amplitudes up to the threshold for ELM suppression. Immediately following the application of the RMP, the plasma stored energy decreases in proportion to the decrease in the line-averaged density during density "pump-out". Later in the discharge confinement recovery is observed inmore » the thermal ion channel and is correlated with the increase in the ion temperature at the top of the H-mode pedestal. A correlation between the inverse scale length of the ion temperature (α/LTi) and the E x B shearing rate at the top of the pedestal is seen during the confinement recovery phase. Transport analysis reveals that the confinement improvement in the ion channel results from the self-similarity in the ion temperature profiles in the plasma core combined with the observed increase in α/LTi in the plasma edge following density pump-out. In contrast the electron temperature scale length (α/LTi) remains essentially unchanged in response to the application of the RMP. At significantly higher RMP levels the edge EXB shearing rate and α/LTi does not increase and the confinement does not recover following density pump-out.« less

  3. A High Altitude Infrared Radiance Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-30

    too. W N.ao ow %a S MV 0 ) weOK 4%NK06 W411404~MP mww.0O` 0 N U𔃾%~N se t QDO % O P0 ON 0) a 1%r𔄃ltI C, w 0m94N N~~~~~~~~~ U’ U’ * 0 10 g0 104.* 01

  4. Characterization of the Degradation Mechanisms of Lysine-derived Aliphatic Poly(ester urethane) Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hafeman, Andrea E.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Zachman, Angela L.; Sung, Hak-Joon; Nanney, Lillian B.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Guelcher, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the degradation mechanism of polymeric scaffolds and delivery systems for regenerative medicine is essential to assess their clinical applicability. Key performance criteria include induction of a minimal, transient inflammatory response and controlled degradation to soluble non-cytotoxic breakdown products that are cleared from the body by physiological processes. Scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable poly(ester urethane)s (PEURs) undergo controlled degradation to non-cytotoxic breakdown products and support the ingrowth of new tissue in preclinical models of tissue regeneration. While previous studies have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine-derived polyisocyanates degrade faster under in vivo compared to in vitro conditions, the degradation mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine triisocyanate (LTI) or a trimer of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDIt) undergo hydrolytic, esterolytic, and oxidative degradation. Hydrolysis of ester bonds to yield α-hydroxy acids is the dominant mechanism in buffer, and esterolytic media modestly increase the degradation rate. While HDIt scaffolds show a modest (<20%) increase in degradation rate in oxidative medium, LTI scaffolds degrade six times faster in oxidative medium. Furthermore, the in vitro rate of degradation of LTI scaffolds in oxidative medium approximates the in vivo rate in rat excisional wounds, and histological sections show macrophages expressing myeloperoxidase at the material surface. While recent preclinical studies have underscored the potential of injectable PEUR scaffolds and delivery systems for tissue regeneration, this promising class of biomaterials has a limited regulatory history. Elucidation of the macrophage-mediated oxidative mechanism by which LTI scaffolds degrade in vivo provides key insights into the ultimate fate of these materials when injected into the body. PMID:20864156

  5. Preliminary Guidelines for Maintenance of Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Roofing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Technician Nathalie Milliken for preparing the test panels, conducting the tests, and reducing the data for this report. . REFERENCES 1. E. Wyatt and...P R\\’’ I . irir. i’N ) linctIic i).Iklwm NI o \\I(c I B B N I). el l Hel l( i A M Ilexilic IN M i. . IIt V1-’. ( ikI lti \\ .IN i Nemcm j~. \\A1( FPe~l D

  6. Reduced venous compliance: an important determinant for orthostatic intolerance in women with vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Johan; Lindenberger, Marcus; Ekman, Mikael; Holmberg, Bengt; Zachrisson, Helene; Länne, Toste

    2016-02-01

    The influence of lower limb venous compliance on orthostatic vasovagal syncope (VVS) is uncertain. The most widespread technique to calculate venous compliance uses a nonphysiological quadratic regression equation. Our aim was therefore to construct a physiologically derived venous wall model (VWM) for calculation of calf venous compliance and to determine the effect of venous compliance on tolerance to maximal lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Venous occlusion plethysmography was used to study calf volume changes in 15 women with VVS (25.5 ± 1.3 yr of age) and 15 controls (22.8 ± 0.8 yr of age). The fit of the VWM and the regression equation to the experimentally induced pressure-volume curve was examined. Venous compliance was calculated as the derivative of the modeled pressure-volume relationship. Graded LBNP to presyncope was used to determine the LBNP tolerance index (LTI). The VWM displayed a better fit to the experimentally induced pressure-volume curve (P < 0.0001). Calf blood pooling was similar in the groups and was not correlated to the LTI (r = 0.204, P = 0.30). Venous compliance was significantly reduced at low venous pressures in women with VVS (P = 0.042) and correlated to the LTI (r = 0.459, P = 0.014) in the low pressure range. No correlation was found between venous compliance at high venous pressures and the LTI. In conclusion, the new VWM accurately adopted the curvilinear pressure-volume curve, providing a valid characterization of venous compliance. Reduced venous compliance at low venous pressures may adversely affect mobilization of peripheral venous blood to the central circulation during hypovolemic circulatory stress in women with VVS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of Fearfulness in Birds: Genetic Factors Modulate Non-Genetic Maternal Influences

    PubMed Central

    Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Bertin, Aline; Guibert, Floriane; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Augery, Matthieu; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2011-01-01

    The development of fearfulness and the capacity of animals to cope with stressful events are particularly sensitive to early experience with mothers in a wide range of species. However, intrinsic characteristics of young animals can modulate maternal influence. This study evaluated the effect of intrinsic fearfulness on non-genetic maternal influence. Quail chicks, divergently selected for either higher (LTI) or lower fearfulness (STI) and from a control line (C), were cross-fostered by LTI or STI mothers. Behavioural tests estimated the chicks' emotional profiles after separation from the mother. Whatever their genotype, the fearfulness of chicks adopted by LTI mothers was higher than that of chicks adopted by STI mothers. However, genetic background affected the strength of maternal effects: the least emotional chicks (STI) were the least affected by early experience with mothers. We demonstrated that young animal's intrinsic fearfulness affects strongly their sensitivity to non-genetic maternal influences. A young animal's behavioural characteristics play a fundamental role in its own behavioural development processes. PMID:21298038

  9. Lagrangian simulations and interannual variability of anchovy egg and larva dispersal in the Sicily Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palatella, Luigi; Bignami, Francesco; Falcini, Federico; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S.; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2014-02-01

    The interannual variability in the transport of anchovy eggs and larvae in the Sicily Channel, relatively to the period 1999-2012, is studied by means of numerical simulations of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) circulation model provided by INGV. Subgrid-scale dynamics not resolved by the MFS model is parameterized in terms of kinematic fields. The latter affect small-scale tracer relative dispersion, while leaving the mean large-scale advection substantially unchanged. A Lagrangian Transport Index (LTI) can be defined to characterize the efficiency of the main currents, e.g., the Atlantic Ionian Stream, in connecting spawning and nursery areas to each other. In our case, this indicator comes from the first arrival time statistics of tracers traveling from a spawning area near Sciacca to a nursery area in proximity of Cape Passero. We observe, on the basis of LTI values, that there are years when the Lagrangian connectivity is very efficient (2004, 2008, 2012) and years when it is weak (2000, 2001, 2003, 2010). Lagrangian indicators like the LTI concur to explain observed fluctuations of larval density and, also, can be employed, more in general, in multivariate models of population dynamics.

  10. Translation Invariant Extensions of Finite Volume Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S.; Kuna, T.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the following questions: Given a measure μ _Λ on configurations on a subset Λ of a lattice L, where a configuration is an element of Ω ^Λ for some fixed set Ω , does there exist a measure μ on configurations on all of L, invariant under some specified symmetry group of L, such that μ _Λ is its marginal on configurations on Λ ? When the answer is yes, what are the properties, e.g., the entropies, of such measures? Our primary focus is the case in which L=Z^d and the symmetries are the translations. For the case in which Λ is an interval in Z we give a simple necessary and sufficient condition, local translation invariance ( LTI), for extendibility. For LTI measures we construct extensions having maximal entropy, which we show are Gibbs measures; this construction extends to the case in which L is the Bethe lattice. On Z we also consider extensions supported on periodic configurations, which are analyzed using de Bruijn graphs and which include the extensions with minimal entropy. When Λ subset Z is not an interval, or when Λ subset Z^d with d>1, the LTI condition is necessary but not sufficient for extendibility. For Z^d with d>1, extendibility is in some sense undecidable.

  11. Characterization of CRF, AVT, and ACTH cDNA and pituitary-adrenal axis function in Japanese quail divergently selected for tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Hazard, D; Couty, M; Guémené, D

    2007-09-01

    Higher corticosterone (CORT) responses to acute stress have previously been reported in quail selected for short (STI) duration of tonic immobility (TI) than for long TI (LTI), although behavioral studies indicated that LTI quail were more fearful. To investigate adrenal and pituitary function in these quail lines and their possible involvement in the differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, we measured CORT responses to adrenocorticotropin (1-24 ACTH), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and arginine vasotocin (AVT) after characterizing the nucleotide acid sequences of these peptides in quail. Although maximum adrenal responses, assessed by ACTH challenge, were higher in STI quail, adrenal sensitivity was comparable for the two genotypes. It is therefore unlikely that differences in HPA axis reactivity involved the adrenal level. AVT and ACTH induced comparable CORT responses in both genotypes, whereas those induced by CRF were much lower. AVT is thus more potent than CRF in quail, but the respective maximum pituitary capacity of both genotypes to secrete ACTH was similar, and it is doubtful that the AVT pathway is involved in the difference in HPA axis reactivity between genotypes. On the other hand, the higher CORT responses induced by CRF in STI quail suggest that CRF might be involved in the differences in HPA axis reactivity between LTI and STI genotypes.

  12. Moving from ethnography to epidemiology: lessons learned in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Kuzara, Jennifer; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian; Worthman, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Anthropologists are beginning to translate insights from ethnography into tools for population studies that assess the role of culture in human behavior, biology, and health. Aim We describe several lessons learned in the creation and administration of an ethnographically-based instrument to assess the life course perspectives of Appalachian youth, the Life Trajectory Interview for Youth (LTI-Y). Then, we explore the utility of the LTI-Y in predicting depressive affect, controlling for prior depressed mood and severe negative life events throughout the life course. Subjects and methods In a sample of 319 youth (190 White, 129 Cherokee), we tested the association between depressive affect and two domains of the LTI-Y - life course barriers and milestones. Longitudinal data on previous depressed mood and negative life events were included in the model. Results The ethnographically-based scales of life course barriers and milestones were associated with unique variance in depressed mood, together accounting for 11% of the variance in this outcome. Conclusion When creating ethnographically-based instruments, it is important to strike a balance between detailed, participant-driven procedures and the analytic needs of hypothesis testing. Ethnographically-based instruments have utility for predicting health outcomes in longitudinal studies. PMID:19353406

  13. The association between bioimpedance analysis and quality of life in pre-dialysis stage 5 chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yongsiri, Somchai; Thammakumpee, Jiranuch; Prongnamchai, Suriya; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan; Chueansuwan, Rachaneeporn; Tangjaturonrasme, Siriporn; Chaivanit, Pechngam

    2014-03-01

    Protein-energy wasting is a significant problem in End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Furthermore, it compromises the patient's Quality of life (QOL). Multifrequency Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS) is a validated method to assess body composition in dialysis patients. There has been no data on the relationship between body composition and QOL in ESRD patients who were treated with different modalities. To explore the association between body composition as assessed by BIS and QOL in ESRD patients who received different treatment modalities. The present study is a cross sectional, descriptive analytic study of the association between QOL and BIS in ESRD patients in Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand. QOL was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, body composition was measured by BIS technique. The difference between groups was tested by one-way ANOVA test, relationship between groups was tested with Pearson correlation test. Eighteen predialysis-CKD5, 26 peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 34 hemodialysis (HD) patients were included in the present study. All PD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 1.7 per week and all HD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 3.6 per week. There were no statistically difference in baseline characteristics including Charlson comorbidity index, dietary intake, BMI, and blood pressure between groups. Mean QOL scores in each group were in the middle range and not significantly difference. PD patients had more over hydration when compare to HD patients (16.18 +/- 11.24 vs. 2.36 +/- 11.07 %OH/ECW p < 0.0001). There were inversed correlation between overhydration and physical health in HD patients (r = -0.372, p = 0.033) but not in PD and CKD5 patients. CKD5 patients had more lean tissue index (LTI) than PD and HD patients (LTI = 14.34 +/- 3.13, 12.26 +/- 3.65, 11.48 +/- 3.48 kg/m2 respectively, p = 0.023). There were correlation between LTI and overall QOL in CKD5 (r = 0.690, p = 0.002) and PD patients (r = 0.498, p = 0.010). In HD patients, LTI

  14. V51 NMR study of the kagome staircase compound Ni3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogloblichev, V.; Kumagai, K.; Verkhovskii, S.; Yakubovsky, A.; Mikhalev, K.; Furukawa, Yu.; Gerashenko, A.; Smolnikov, A.; Barilo, S.; Bychkov, G.; Shiryaev, S.

    2010-04-01

    We used V51 NMR to study magnetic ordering in the Ni3V2O8 single crystal with a Kagome staircase structure of Ni atoms. The NMR spectra were measured in the temperature range T=(3-300)K and magnetic fields H=(2-9.4)T directed along the main a,b,c axes of the orthorhombic (Cmca) crystal. The local magnetic field at the V51 NMR probe determines position and the shape of the corresponding NMR line. These parameters yield an unique information, respectively, on the uniform and the staggered spin components of the ordered Ni. The NMR data collected at H≥2T are considered in line with predictions of the representation theory [A. Harris, Phys. Rev. B 76, 054447 (2007)] with a result that incommensurate amplitude-modulated structure of the spine Nis spins acquires in the high-temperature incommensurate (HTI) phase two prominent nearly equal spin components Sa≈Sc≫Sb instead of the longitudinal incommensurate spin-density wave (SDW) order with Sa≫Sc,Sb as it was deduced from neutron-diffraction data [M. Kenzelmann , Phys. Rev. B 74, 014429 (2006)]. No noticeable variation of SDW polarization in the ab plane was detected below the HTI-low-temperature incommensurate (LTI) transition. In both the HTI and LTI phases two almost equal spin components of the Nis spins Sa≈Sc≫Sb exist at H<4.7T . Their phasing is still not determined. The bulk magnetization in these phases is explained by contribution of the cross-tie Nic spins which antiferromagnetic structure in the LTI phase is canted along H .

  15. Structural investigation of disordered stress proteins. Comparison of full-length dehydrins with isolated peptides of their conserved segments.

    PubMed

    Mouillon, Jean-Marie; Gustafsson, Petter; Harryson, Pia

    2006-06-01

    Dehydrins constitute a class of intrinsically disordered proteins that are expressed under conditions of water-related stress. Characteristic of the dehydrins are some highly conserved stretches of seven to 17 residues that are repetitively scattered in their sequences, the K-, S-, Y-, and Lys-rich segments. In this study, we investigate the putative role of these segments in promoting structure. The analysis is based on comparative analysis of four full-length dehydrins from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; Cor47, Lti29, Lti30, and Rab18) and isolated peptide mimics of the K-, Y-, and Lys-rich segments. In physiological buffer, the circular dichroism spectra of the full-length dehydrins reveal overall disordered structures with a variable content of poly-Pro helices, a type of elongated secondary structure relying on bridging water molecules. Similar disordered structures are observed for the isolated peptides of the conserved segments. Interestingly, neither the full-length dehydrins nor their conserved segments are able to adopt specific structure in response to altered temperature, one of the factors that regulate their expression in vivo. There is also no structural response to the addition of metal ions, increased protein concentration, or the protein-stabilizing salt Na(2)SO(4). Taken together, these observations indicate that the dehydrins are not in equilibrium with high-energy folded structures. The result suggests that the dehydrins are highly evolved proteins, selected to maintain high configurational flexibility and to resist unspecific collapse and aggregation. The role of the conserved segments is thus not to promote tertiary structure, but to exert their biological function more locally upon interaction with specific biological targets, for example, by acting as beads on a string for specific recognition, interaction with membranes, or intermolecular scaffolding. In this perspective, it is notable that the Lys-rich segment in Cor47 and Lti29 shows

  16. Structural Investigation of Disordered Stress Proteins. Comparison of Full-Length Dehydrins with Isolated Peptides of Their Conserved Segments1

    PubMed Central

    Mouillon, Jean-Marie; Gustafsson, Petter; Harryson, Pia

    2006-01-01

    Dehydrins constitute a class of intrinsically disordered proteins that are expressed under conditions of water-related stress. Characteristic of the dehydrins are some highly conserved stretches of seven to 17 residues that are repetitively scattered in their sequences, the K-, S-, Y-, and Lys-rich segments. In this study, we investigate the putative role of these segments in promoting structure. The analysis is based on comparative analysis of four full-length dehydrins from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; Cor47, Lti29, Lti30, and Rab18) and isolated peptide mimics of the K-, Y-, and Lys-rich segments. In physiological buffer, the circular dichroism spectra of the full-length dehydrins reveal overall disordered structures with a variable content of poly-Pro helices, a type of elongated secondary structure relying on bridging water molecules. Similar disordered structures are observed for the isolated peptides of the conserved segments. Interestingly, neither the full-length dehydrins nor their conserved segments are able to adopt specific structure in response to altered temperature, one of the factors that regulate their expression in vivo. There is also no structural response to the addition of metal ions, increased protein concentration, or the protein-stabilizing salt Na2SO4. Taken together, these observations indicate that the dehydrins are not in equilibrium with high-energy folded structures. The result suggests that the dehydrins are highly evolved proteins, selected to maintain high configurational flexibility and to resist unspecific collapse and aggregation. The role of the conserved segments is thus not to promote tertiary structure, but to exert their biological function more locally upon interaction with specific biological targets, for example, by acting as beads on a string for specific recognition, interaction with membranes, or intermolecular scaffolding. In this perspective, it is notable that the Lys-rich segment in Cor47 and Lti29 shows

  17. Association of Fluid Status and Body Composition with Physical Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsiao, Pei-Ni; Kung, Lan-Fang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Kuo, Mei-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1–5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method. Results All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (β = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (β = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test. Conclusions Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients. PMID:27798648

  18. Parameters to assess nutritional status in a Moroccan hemodialysis cohort.

    PubMed

    Aatif, Taoufiq; Hassani, Kawtar; Alayoud, Ahmed; Maoujoud, Omar; Ahid, Samir; Benyahia, Mohamed; Oualim, Zouhair

    2013-05-01

    Malnutrition is common in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and correlate the methods of nutritional assessment. We evaluated the nutritional status of 40 prevalent HD patients by subjective global assessment (SGA) score, anthropometrics [body mass index (BMI), arm circumference (AC), triceps skin-fold thicknesses (TSF), arm muscle circumference (AMC)], biochemical tests [normalized protein equivalent to total nitrogen appearance (nPNA), and pre-dialysis serum albumin and serum prealbumin levels] and bio-electrical impedance (BEI) analysis to estimate body composition [lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI)]. The study assessed 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a mean age of 50.7±16.5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition according to the different methods ranged from 5 % to 65%. There were highly significant gender-specific differences in AMC (p<0.001) and TSF (p<0.001). The BEI revealed a highly significant difference in LTI (p<0.001) but no difference in FTI (p=0.14) according to gender. There was a positive correlation between LTI and both serum albumin (r=0.37; p=0.018) and serum prealbumin (r=0.53; p<0.001). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between FTI and BMI (r=0.59; p<0.001), AC (r=0.44; p=0.004) and TSF (r=0.61; p<0.001). Our data suggest that BEI analysis provides a useful means of assessing nutritional status and was correlated with anthropometrics and biochemical findings.

  19. Activation of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Major Latency Locus by the Lytic Switch Protein RTA (ORF50)

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Satoko; Fujita, Yuriko; Gomez, Evan; Tanese, Naoko; Wilson, Angus C.

    2005-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) maintains a latent infection in primary effusion lymphoma cells but can be induced to enter full lytic replication by exposure to a variety of chemical inducing agents or by expression of the KSHV-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein. During latency, only a few viral genes are expressed, and these include the three genes of the so-called latency transcript (LT) cluster: v-FLIP (open reading frame 71 [ORF71]), v-cyclin (ORF72), and latency-associated nuclear antigen (ORF73). During latency, all three open reading frames are transcribed from a common promoter as part of a multicistronic mRNA. Subsequent alternative mRNA splicing and internal ribosome entry allows for the expression of each protein. Here, we show that transcription of LT cassette mRNA can be induced by RTA through the activation of a second promoter (LTi) immediately downstream of the constitutively active promoter (LTc). We identified a minimal cis-regulatory region, which overlaps with the promoter for the bicistronic K14/v-GPCR delayed early gene that is transcribed in the opposite direction. In addition to a TATA box at −30 relative to the LTi mRNA start sites, we identified three separate RTA response elements that are also utilized by the K14/v-GPCR promoter. Interestingly, LTi is unresponsive to sodium butyrate, a potent inducer of lytic replication. This suggests there is a previously unrecognized class of RTA-responsive promoters that respond to direct, but not indirect, induction of RTA. These studies highlight the fact that induction method can influence the precise program of viral gene expression during early events in reactivation and also suggest a mechanism by which RTA contributes to establishment of latency during de novo infections. PMID:15956592

  20. Hemispheric Differences in Corticospinal Excitability and in Transcallosal Inhibition in Relation to Degree of Handedness

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Travis; Tremblay, François

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined hemispheric differences in corticospinal excitability and in transcallosal inhibition in a selected group of young adults (n = 34) grouped into three handedness categories (RH: strongly right-handed, n = 17; LH: strongly left-handed, n = 10; MH: mixed-handed, n = 7) based on laterality quotients (LQ) derived from the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Performance measures were also used to derive a laterality index reflecting right-left asymmetries in manual dexterity (Dextli) and in finger tapping speed (Speedli). Corticospinal excitability was assessed in each hemisphere by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using the first dorsal interosseus as the target muscle. TMS measures consisted of resting motor threshold (rMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve (RC) and the contralateral silent period (cSP) with the accompanying MEP facilitation. Hemispheric interactions were assessed by means of the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) to determine the onset latency and the duration of transcallosal inhibition (i.e., LTI and DTI). Analysis of hemispheric variations in measures of corticospinal excitability revealed no major asymmetries in relation to degrees of laterality or handedness, with the exception of a rightward increase in rMTs in the LH group. Similarly, no clear asymmetries were found when looking at hemispheric variations in measures of transcallosal inhibition. However, a large group effect was detected for LTI measures, which were found to be significantly shorter in the MH group than in either the LH or RH group. MH participants also tended to show longer DTI than the other participants. Further inspection of overall variations in LTI and DTI measures as a function of LQs revealed that both variables followed a non-linear relationship, which was best described by a 2nd order polynomial function. Overall, these findings provide converging evidence for a link between mixed-handedness and more

  1. Does Whey Protein Supplementation Improve the Nutritional Status in Hypoalbuminemic Peritoneal Dialysis Patients?

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kamal

    2017-07-25

    Limited data are available regarding the effects of whey protein on the nutritional status of the peritoneal dialysis population. This study evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks on the nutritional status in hypoalbuminemic peritoneal dialysis patients. Thirty-six stable adult patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis with serum albumin levels <3.5 g/dL were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups similar in their serum albumin and normalized protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (nPNA). Nineteen patients were instructed to receive 1.2 g/kg per day of protein diet and additional whey protein supplement at a dose of 25% of the instructed daily protein diet (whey protein group), and 17 patients were instructed to receive 1.2 g/kg per day protein diet without additional whey protein supplementation (control group). Nutritional status was assessed using two measures: nPNA and lean tissue mass index (LTI) obtained by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy technique. In the whey protein group serum albumin and nPNA significantly increased from baseline to week 6 (P < 0.001, P = 0.034; respectively) and from week 6 to week 12 (P < 0.001, P = 0.001; respectively); LTI significantly increased from week 6 to week 12 (P = 0.022). Compared to the control group at week 12, serum albumin, nPNA and LTI values were significantly higher in the whey protein group (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P = 0.001; respectively). This study demonstrated for the first time that oral supplementation with whey protein improves nutritional status and is well tolerated in hypoalbuminemic PD patients. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  2. Hemispheric differences in corticospinal excitability and in transcallosal inhibition in relation to degree of handedness.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Travis; Tremblay, François

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined hemispheric differences in corticospinal excitability and in transcallosal inhibition in a selected group of young adults (n = 34) grouped into three handedness categories (RH: strongly right-handed, n = 17; LH: strongly left-handed, n = 10; MH: mixed-handed, n = 7) based on laterality quotients (LQ) derived from the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Performance measures were also used to derive a laterality index reflecting right-left asymmetries in manual dexterity (Dextli) and in finger tapping speed (Speedli). Corticospinal excitability was assessed in each hemisphere by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using the first dorsal interosseus as the target muscle. TMS measures consisted of resting motor threshold (rMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve (RC) and the contralateral silent period (cSP) with the accompanying MEP facilitation. Hemispheric interactions were assessed by means of the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) to determine the onset latency and the duration of transcallosal inhibition (i.e., LTI and DTI). Analysis of hemispheric variations in measures of corticospinal excitability revealed no major asymmetries in relation to degrees of laterality or handedness, with the exception of a rightward increase in rMTs in the LH group. Similarly, no clear asymmetries were found when looking at hemispheric variations in measures of transcallosal inhibition. However, a large group effect was detected for LTI measures, which were found to be significantly shorter in the MH group than in either the LH or RH group. MH participants also tended to show longer DTI than the other participants. Further inspection of overall variations in LTI and DTI measures as a function of LQs revealed that both variables followed a non-linear relationship, which was best described by a 2(nd) order polynomial function. Overall, these findings provide converging evidence for a link between mixed-handedness and more efficient

  3. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering

    PubMed Central

    Chroňáková, Alica; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Radl, Viviane; Endesfelder, David; Quince, Christopher; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI) and long-term impact (17 years; LTI), one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG) and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON). Cattle manure (CMN), the source of allochthonous microbes, was collected from the same area. We used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to assess the composition of archaeal and bacterial communities in each soil type and CMN. Both short- and long- term cattle impact negatively altered archaeal and bacterial diversity, leading to increase of homogenization of microbial communities in overwintering soils over time. Moreover, strong shifts in the prokaryotic communities were observed in response to cattle overwintering, with the greatest impact on archaea. Oligotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Acidobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria) dominated in CON and expressed strong negative response to increased pH, total C and N. Whereas copiotrophic and alkalophilic microbes (e.g. methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) were common in LTI showing opposite trends. Crenarchaeota were also found in LTI, though their trophic interactions remain cryptic. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae indicated the introduction and establishment of faecal microbes into the impacted soils, while Chloroflexi and Methanosarcinaceae suggested increased abundance of soil-borne microbes under altered environmental conditions. The observed changes in prokaryotic community composition may have driven corresponding changes in soil functioning. PMID:26274496

  4. Sustained release of vancomycin from polyurethane scaffolds inhibits infection of bone wounds in a rat femoral segmental defect model.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Brown, Kate V; Wenke, Joseph C; Guelcher, Scott A

    2010-08-03

    Infection is a common complication in open fractures that compromises the healing of bone and can result in loss of limb or life. Currently, the clinical standard of care for treating contaminated open fractures comprises a staged approach, wherein the wound is first treated with non-biodegradable antibiotic-laden poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads to control the infection followed by bone grafting. Considering that tissue regeneration is associated with new blood vessel formation, which takes up to 6 weeks in segmental defects, a biodegradable bone graft with sustained release of an antibiotic is desired to prevent the implant from becoming infected, thus allowing the processes of both vascularization and new bone formation to occur unimpeded. In the present study, we utilized biodegradable porous polyurethane (PUR) scaffolds as the delivery vehicle for vancomycin. Hydrophobic vancomycin free base (V-FB) was obtained by precipitating the hydrophilic vancomycin hydrochloride (V-HCl) at pH 8. The decreased solubility of V-FB resulted in an extended vancomycin release profile in vitro, as evidenced by the fact that active vancomycin was released for up to 8 weeks at concentrations well above both the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Using PUR prepared from lysine triisocyanate (LTI) (PUR(LTI)), the extended in vitro release profile observed for V-FB translated to improved infection control in vivo compared to V-HCl in a contaminated critical-sized fat femoral segmental defect. The performance of PUR(LTI)/V-FB was comparable to PMMA/V-HCl beads in vivo. However, compared with PMMA, PUR is a biodegradable system which does not require the extra surgical removal step in clinical use. These results suggest that PUR scaffolds incorporating V-FB could be a potential clinical therapy for treatment of infected bone defects. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Jasper J. P.; Martens, Anne W. J.; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring. PMID:28536374

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  7. Physical - mechanical characterization of poly(lactide)/poly (ɛ-caprolactone) blends with ethyl ester L-lysine triisocyanate as reactive agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocita, Davide; Visco, Annamaria; Espro, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    A study on physical and mechanical properties of PLA/PCL polyesters reactive blends, obtained by adding LTI was made with the aim to apply these blends in biomedical field, for example for absorbable suture threads or scaffolds for cellular growth. Polyesters based reactive blends were obtained by internal mixing, and it was find out the possibility of finely control the characteristic properties of those materials by varying the weight fraction of the two components and the amount of reactive agent. Blends of different composition were characterized by torque measurements, uniaxial traction test and wet-ability.

  8. Defense Science Board 1988 Summer Study on the Defense Industrial and Technology Base. Volume 2. Subgroup Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    hingtono D.C. 2030143140 99 220Z PREFACE This volume of the report of the 1988 Defense Science Board Summer Study on the Defense Industrial and Technology ...and Technology Base, Volume I. Accession For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unnnnounced U icati~~ Distribution/ Avatlbii lty Codes Av ih and/or Dist Spec ial .L.A...Jrtt1O8 n an Mah" IN DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNOLOGY BASE Mr. Robert A. Fuhrman, Chairman Mr. William A

  9. Advanced Cumulative Damage Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    MPaim and (b) 31 MPa/ m . xiv 5.42 Results of the Constant AK hold time tests on Alloy 718 at 132 593"C with (a) R-O.O, (b) R-0.5, and (c) R-0.8. 5.43...this type of model is the relationship first proposed by Walker( 40) Keff - Kmax (-R) m (2.14) where m is known as the Walker exponent Vhen m is zpro...Ketf zqual’ KraA: but when m i ut,!Lty, KeZf cqualb AK In reality, the Walker exponent is an empirical factor which accounts for mean stress and

  10. JSEP Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    matrix T) passed through an LTI all-zero filter b(z) given by [AI-Dhahtr] b(z)1 -1 ]t (11) A closed - form expression for T In terms of b(z) and G...Block diagram of the pole zero model of Rsubopt. flmdi It can be shown [Lev-Arl],[Ai-Dhahlrj that the W order whitening filter of has the form : 0...equal to j. We have found a closed form expression for the expected gain, i, for the trajectory T,. As special cases of the general solution we obtain

  11. Workshop on Higher-Order Spectral Analysis Held at Vail, Colorado on 28- 30 June 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-28

    NOISY DATA USING HIGHER-ORDER STATISTICS Jitendra K. lugnait Exxon Production Research Company P.O. Box 2180 i L.ston, TX 77252-2189 ,ABSTRACT Within the...asi IIt~le be e’ v i i tiheir ’ agil lle rer-irtonstruc’tio is performed as t tA l t lv h % (aill he1 m~litlell 𔃻 i//( ,) ,.xp ,(k, , k2).,,,(, k...related by a linear-time-invariant E{ In k-n k) 2 ) resulting in the mean-square-sense cancella- (LTI) transfomation , i.e., tion of the noise. The same

  12. Mission Complete?: Tactical Intelligence During the Transition From War to Peace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    OLIrbanriA,.. PANAMAM 1in~ .I. My A C . owd J L Li. ~ 0- .......... m C f~Am ..am ’s....e...epialefo tsps:thrfre ioou td of. ..he.. pLti sipratt...counterintelligence operations. First, USSOUTHCOM and JTFSO had to develop an extensive Black-White-Gray ( BWG ) list in coordination with the newly...police duties." Combat units and MPs conducting law and order missions also used the BWG list. Although the list lacked many details needed to make

  13. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-15

    in times of crisis. The various solutions in politics are: the Afrikaner volk [ethnic] state of the AWB, the old Verwoerd dream of the HNP, the NP...and its ™^?ln^P^^r!’Jideal °f ^stice, but Protection for all population groups, the leftist dream of one man, one vote in a unitary state (and thus...J?L P°ss-^ll;Lty of oppression by Blacks) and the Marxist dream of dictatorship. As for the Afrikaner, the volk state is regarded by even many far

  14. Real-time assessment of a linear pyroelectric sensor array for object classication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, William E., III; Brown, Jeremy B.; Chari, Srikant; Jacobs, Eddie L.

    2010-10-01

    Pyroelectric linear arrays can be used to generate profiles of targets. Simulations have shown that generated profiles can be used to classify human and animal targets. A pyroelectric array system was used to collect data and classify targets as either human or non-human in real time. The pyroelectric array system consists of a 128-element Dias 128LTI pyroelectric linear array, an F/0.86 germanium lens, and an 18F4550 pic microcontroller for A/D conversion and communication. The classifier used for object recognition was trained using data collected in petting zoos and tested using data collected at the US-Mexico border in Arizona.

  15. Variable Cycle Engine Control System Definition Study. Turbine Engine Technology Demonstrator Component Development Program, Project 668A. Controls Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    JULY 1973 to MARCH 1976 Approved for public rtlease; distribution unlimited DDC R 191r Alit V0tCE, AKt *IRO-10ROU14,40N LAHIORATf0lty .71 L y ~j Alit...engine parameters to "scheduled" optimal poramelric relationships successfully attained minimum sfc and maximum thrust at all the selected test points in... test plan woa formulated for the JTD control system. Table of Contents Page 1.0 Introduction 1-1 2.0 Summary 2- 1 3.0 Joint Technology Demonstrator

  16. Conceptualization of an R&D Based Learning-to-Innovate Model for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Oiki Sylvia

    The purpose of this research was to conceptualize an R & D based learning-to-innovate (LTI) model. The problem to be addressed was the lack of a theoretical L TI model, which would inform science pedagogy. The absorptive capacity (ACAP) lens was adopted to untangle the R & D LTI phenomenon into four learning processes: problem-solving via knowledge acquisition, incremental improvement via knowledge participation, scientific discovery via knowledge creation, and product design via knowledge productivity. The four knowledge factors were the latent factors and each factor had seven manifest elements as measured variables. The key objectives of the non experimental quantitative survey were to measure the relative importance of the identified elements and to explore the underlining structure of the variables. A questionnaire had been prepared, and was administered to more than 155 R & D professionals from four sectors - business, academic, government, and nonprofit. The results showed that every identified element was important to the R & D professionals, in terms of improving the related type of innovation. The most important elements were highlighted to serve as building blocks for elaboration. In search for patterns of the data matrix, exploratory factor analysis (EF A) was performed. Principal component analysis was the first phase of EF A to extract factors; while maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was used to estimate the model. EF A yielded the finding of two aspects in each kind of knowledge. Logical names were assigned to represent the nature of the subsets: problem and knowledge under knowledge acquisition, planning and participation under knowledge participation, exploration and discovery under knowledge creation, and construction and invention under knowledge productivity. These two constructs, within each kind of knowledge, added structure to the vague R & D based LTI model. The research questions and hypotheses testing were addressed using correlation

  17. Stability and Drag Reduction in a Boundary Layer with Microbubbles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Joao M. P. Correia Neves : DTICŔ ’ It~iELECTE D , AR 2 2 1988-’DMTM.,O STAU-S. Approved for pubac rel , Ditr’bUtion Untimited ~T1(1INllAL REPORT 88 3 ...2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 DISTRIBUr’ION/AVAILABIuLTY OF REPORT 2b. DECLASSIFICATION/OOWNGRAOING SCHEDULE Unlimited 4 PERFORMING...12 2.2 A Simple Hollow Vortex Sheet .............. .13 2.3 A Symmetric Hollow Vortex Sheet ............ . 18’. 3 . EVOLUTION OF A HOLLOW VORTEX SHEET

  18. Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-12

    USAFETACITN-63-0I. "AN AID FOR USING THE REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS" 1RUSSAO. TABLE OF CONTENTS STATION HISTORY C PART A: WEATHER...24 634 OSC STATION LOCATION AND INSTRUMENTATION HISTORY Vitt~f tLAU UELtlNE L~TI EMI AIM WK A.1. U 6itffn maI~t . 041 1 Oscoda AA ich A Jul.43 1 Aug43...fla saiTT[I SUSHI ~ 15658 __________________ 1 Jul 43 1/A N/A 1/A N/A 2 JU 53 Permanently mounted on iop of AN/GMQ-1 ML-204-~1 30 ft the weather

  19. Corrosion of Electroless Nickel-Coated Steel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    AB:LTY 0 ARS’RAI AES’RA(’ )t (.AY A, (IN 4(,N AS3;ED T’M ED 0 SAME AS El ’] 5S.S Unclassified ,a IA ,E E ) ; ) S B E , NDi D A , ’ E , F P O ( in c u d...stress relieved. 3 EN plating of high strength steels are usually per- formed using acidic surface activation solutions which can induce hydrogen ... embrittlement . If the surface activation process is omitted, coating adhesion is reduced; therefore, it is recommended that alkaline solutions be used for

  20. Refractive Index of Silicon and Germanium and Its Wavelength and Temperature Derivatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    59. Tauc , J., Abraham, A., Pajasova, L., Grigorovici, R., and Vancu, A., "Optical Properties of Non-Crystalline Semiconductors," in Physics of Non...259 onm 1 84 9!. vojn: .p r us TlI II io L, rinc 11 1US I11L ni . 3 1.98’ ,iii til n i,:n ;Ivvi i Li o i Ili LtI loi ,I ,.kii d.i / T ’I 2 .1) 11 L...index measured using interference method. 40 (T-298 K) Amorphous germanium thin film prepared Tauc , J., Abraham, A., 159) 0.695 4.742 by evaporation

  1. Robust fault detection observer design for linear uncertain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiukun; Verhaegen, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the fault detection observer design issue for linear time invariant (LTI) systems with additive or multiplicative uncertainties, which are also subject to unknown disturbances. The observer design is investigated under the ℋ∞/ℋ- index framework using the generalised KYP lemma in the finite-frequency domain. Sufficient conditions for the existence of such a fault detection observer are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The threshold design issue is discussed and a method for estimating the worst undetectable fault size is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by numerical simulation examples.

  2. A New Therapeutic Paradigm for Breast Cancer Exploiting Low Dose Estrogen-Induce Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    5 6 7 8 9 Week ’i .8 ɘ ~ ɘ 5 0 E ~ Q) lti Gi ~ Tumour regains antihonmonal Fig. 1...does not replicate adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen, which has a duration of 5 years. To address this issue, tamoxifen-stimulated tumours were serially...received only an AI in the past, six patients had a partial response and five patients had tumours that 5 F U L V E S T R A N T | A R T I C L

  3. U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Volume 6. Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-02-01

    obivrvoiiom laootimg viiib>l>iy I«H than 2 nouticol m<lti nil iS (0 \\ o( oN NW wwfk wtn ottompamad by «i W*y Iw Ikon 3 mfct) ’ 0 ’aplacai bat whan...IS1BILITY CHART 131 w 30" <»nla0» F.«qu*nc> ©t Vu.b.Uy *5 NoutKOl M1W1 TO i - -■’ i.j- F(«(]u»n{y pt Vitibilit>«v i*ti iKon amount <r

  4. Parallel Estimators and Communication in Spacecraft Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Roy S.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the closed-loop dynamics of systems controlled via parallel estimators. This structure arises in formation flying problems when each spacecraft bases its control action on an internal estimate of the complete formation state. For LTI systems a separation principle shows that the necessary and sufficient conditions for overall system stability are more stringent than the single controller case; the controllers' open-loop dynamics necessarily appear in the closed-loop dynamics. Communication amongst the spacecraft can be used to specify the complete system dynamics and a framework for integrating the design of the communication links into the formation flying control design problem is presented.

  5. Multi-modal Interfacing for Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    the final state of having turned in a particular direction u Locative goals u “there” “the waypoint” “table” N C A R A I Object and Gesture ... Recognition n Structured-light range finder (camera + laser) u output: 2D range data n 16 ultra-sonic sonars u output: range data out to 25’ n 16 active...mechanical gestures, we hope to achieve dynam ic autonomy and an integrated m u lti-modal interface. N C A R A I Future Plans • Extend gesture

  6. Hybrid Approaches and Industrial Applications of Pattern Recognition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    generally carried out by human operators with the aid of high power and low power microscopes ; it includes essentially the Leads, die and wire bonding, and...view of a muLti-lens microscope . The subcell images are also assumed to be thresholded and digitized on a few gray levels. Ll 3.4 Algorithm #1: Matching...reLiabiLity physics symposium. 3. T. I. Bajenesco, Initiation a La fiabilite en electronique moderne, Masson, Paris, 1978. 4. L. F. Pau, Failure Diagnosis and

  7. Basic Rifle Marksmanship Test: Trainee Pretest and Posttest Attitudes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    marksmanship skills to be more •nportant to the jobs they wanted in the Army than did women. On five qusstions that directly ad- dressed confidence in specific...Ich. Ft Nudrhuca. ATFNI: LTi-Crary I USA WESgar Coleg , Falil Gordacn, ATTN: Lib-E I USA, HnalieO tCr&S Ft Huachuce , ATTN: Tech ef Di 2 WRAIR...Comsmaindant, ATT~o Code MP14646 I FAA Aeronautical Ctr, Oklahoma City. ATTN. AAC-440 a USCO Acaclerny, New London. ATTN. Admilsolon,a USA PIE Aty 3S111, let

  8. Parallel Estimators and Communication in Spacecraft Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Roy S.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the closed-loop dynamics of systems controlled via parallel estimators. This structure arises in formation flying problems when each spacecraft bases its control action on an internal estimate of the complete formation state. For LTI systems a separation principle shows that the necessary and sufficient conditions for overall system stability are more stringent than the single controller case; the controllers' open-loop dynamics necessarily appear in the closed-loop dynamics. Communication amongst the spacecraft can be used to specify the complete system dynamics and a framework for integrating the design of the communication links into the formation flying control design problem is presented.

  9. Investigation for South Fill Area, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    NEW UNC 970PLATE A13 (SHEET 2 OF 2) A17 go I ~ iA Coeff c ent Peor amJ4lty, k", 10" c/us 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.40.65 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 251.6 . 0 1.5 1.14...STRAIN INCR.__ C 0 1 5 1 20. AXIAL STRAIN. Yo INITIAL DIAMETER, IN. 1-38 1.38 1.38 CONTROLLED-STRAIN TEST INITIAL HEIGHT. IN. 3.00 3.00 3.00

  10. Design, Analysis and Implementation of the Primary Operation, RETRIEVE-COMMON, of the Multi-Backend Database System (MBDS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Hsiang -lung Tung 2 8 lane 46 Ming- Chuan Road Ctia-i CiLty Taiwan 600 Pepublic of 6hina tit 148 •, 1,,J., ., FILMED 4.~ 0-85 DTIC p.0 ...DATABASE SYSTEM (MBDS) by ~i. Hsiang -Lung Tung June 1985 Thesis Advisor: David K. Hsiao -’-" Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited P- A...Desi n. Analysis and Implementation of the grimazy operation Retriee-Coamon of the Rulti-BAckbnd Datafase System (MBDS by Hsiang -Lung Tung

  11. Porcine Ischemic Wound-Healing Model for Preclinical Testing of Degradable Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prarthana; Martin, John R; Sarett, Samantha M; Pollins, Alonda C; Cardwell, Nancy L; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Guelcher, Scott A; Nanney, Lillian B; Duvall, Craig L

    2017-09-29

    Impaired wound healing that mimics chronic human skin pathologies is difficult to achieve in current animal models, hindering testing and development of new therapeutic biomaterials that promote wound healing. In this article, we describe a refinement and simplification of the porcine ischemic wound model that increases the size and number of experimental sites per animal. By comparing three flap geometries, we adopted a superior configuration (15 × 10 cm) that enabled testing of twenty 1 cm(2) wounds in each animal: 8 total ischemic wounds within 4 bipedicle flaps and 12 nonischemic wounds. The ischemic wounds exhibited impaired skin perfusion for ∼1 week. To demonstrate the utility of the model for comparative testing of tissue regenerative biomaterials, we evaluated the healing process in wounds implanted with highly porous poly (thioketal) urethane (PTK-UR) scaffolds that were fabricated through reaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-cleavable PTK macrodiols with isocyanates. PTK-lysine triisocyanate (LTI) scaffolds degraded significantly in vitro under both oxidative and hydrolytic conditions whereas PTK-hexamethylene diisocyanate trimer (HDIt) scaffolds were resistant to hydrolytic breakdown and degraded exclusively through an ROS-dependent mechanism. Upon placement into porcine wounds, both types of PTK-UR materials fostered new tissue ingrowth over 10 days in both ischemic and nonischemic tissue. However, wound perfusion, tissue infiltration and the abundance of pro-regenerative, M2-polarized macrophages were markedly lower in ischemic wounds independent of scaffold type. The PTK-LTI implants significantly improved tissue infiltration and perfusion compared with analogous PTK-HDIt scaffolds in ischemic wounds. Both LTI and HDIt-based PTK-UR implants enhanced M2 macrophage activity, and these cells were selectively localized at the scaffold/tissue interface. In sum, this modified porcine wound-healing model decreased animal usage, simplified

  12. Occupational Emergency Medicine - Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with...Under Title III, companie covered under the Hazard Communication Standard are r qulred to make their chemica l inventor ies known to emergency response...anagement howe ver. misp)"l’ed . OCClIj1illi.ll1illllleliicilll’ h olli - ia lly, ~ llb ~l)(’ciJ lty of I’rcvellliV l- Illedi cine, which dut’~ ind "d

  13. Reduced Order Model Based Feedback Control of Large-Scale Aeroelastic Simulations: Residual State Filter Model Reduction Compensation and Application to F-16 Dynamic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-23

    0 1 0] (1.1.5) The entire system in first order linear form can be written as: A L-H - B - cIl y[" - ] 0 I(] pt poo _n12 D Or SCx (1.1.7 The LTI state...open loop. Therefore, it is seen all of the interaction of the ROM controller and Ao has been removed by the RMF, by adding a column of zeroes above the...orthogonal matrix and satisfies the following inner product: (Vx, Vy) = (x,y). Consequently, a unitary matrix preserves the norm. Moreover, the columns of V

  14. Standardized Methods for Electronic Shearography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Matthew D.

    1997-01-01

    Research was conducted in development of operating procedures and standard methods to evaluate fiber reinforced composite materials, bonded or sprayed insulation, coatings, and laminated structures with MSFC electronic shearography systems. Optimal operating procedures were developed for the Pratt and Whitney Electronic Holography/Shearography Inspection System (EH/SIS) operating in shearography mode, as well as the Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) SC-4000 and Ettemeyer SHS-94 ISTRA shearography systems. Operating practices for exciting the components being inspected were studied, including optimal methods for transient heating with heat lamps and other methods as appropriate to enhance inspection capability.

  15. Elastic Model Transitions: a Hybrid Approach Utilizing Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurenko, Robert J.; Bush, T. Jason; Ottander, John A.

    2014-01-01

    A method for transitioning linear time invariant (LTI) models in time varying simulation is proposed that utilizes both quadratically constrained least squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM) algorithms to determine physical displacements. This approach is applicable to the simulation of the elastic behavior of launch vehicles and other structures that utilize multiple LTI finite element model (FEM) derived mode sets that are propagated throughout time. The time invariant nature of the elastic data for discrete segments of the launch vehicle trajectory presents a problem of how to properly transition between models while preserving motion across the transition. In addition, energy may vary between flex models when using a truncated mode set. The LSQI-DSM algorithm can accommodate significant changes in energy between FEM models and carries elastic motion across FEM model transitions. Compared with previous approaches, the LSQI-DSM algorithm shows improvements ranging from a significant reduction to a complete removal of transients across FEM model transitions as well as maintaining elastic motion from the prior state.

  16. The application of adaptive Luenberger observer concept in chemical process control: An algorithmic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doko, Marthen Luther

    2017-05-01

    When developing a wide class of on-line parameter estimation scheme for estimating the unknown parameter vector that appears in certain general linear and bilinear parametric model will be parametrizations of LTI processes or plants as well as of some special classes of nonlinear processes or plants. The resuls is used to design one of the important tools in control, i.e., adaptive observer and for stable LTI processes or plants. In this paper it will consider the design of schemes that simultaneously estimate the plant state variables and parameters by processing the plant I/O measurements on-line and such schemes is refered to as adaptive observers. The design of an adaptive observer is based on the combination of a state observer that could be used to estimate the state variables of aparticular plant state-space representation with an on-line estimation scheme. The choice of the plant state-space representation is crucial for the design and stability analysis of the adaptive observer. The paper will discuss a class of observer called Adaptive Luenberger Observer and its application. Begin with observable canonical form one can find observability matrix of n linear independent rows. By using this fact or their linear combination chosen as a basis, various canonical forms known also as Luenberger canonical form can be obtained. Also,this formation will leads to various algorithm for computing including computation of observable canonical form, observable Hessenberg form and reduced-order state observer design.

  17. Linear dynamic analysis of multi-mesh transmissions containing external, rigid gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayak, H.; Singh, R.; Padmanabhan, C.

    1995-08-01

    This paper extends the multi-body dynamics modeling strategy for a gear pair [6] to multi-mesh transmissions with external, fixed center, helical or spur gears. Each gear is modeled as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom. A multi-dimensional, position-dependent formulation is used to describe the gear mesh stiffness which is assumed to be distributed along the line of action. A simplified model of the shaft-bearing subsystems is included since the focus of this study is on the gear dynamics. Excitation to the system is considered in the form of either external torque pulsation or internal static transmission error. The governing equations are linearized to yield a formulation with position or time-varying coefficients (LTV). Subsequently, three examples of linearized time-invariant (LTI) transmission systems are solved, and eigensolution predictions of the multi-body dynamics model compare very well with finite element calculations. Then the periodic response of a non-unity gear pair system is studied in depth. New results including a comparison between LTI and LTV models are presented. It has been demonstrated that both time and frequency domain solutions can be efficiently and accurately constructed by using the multi-term harmonic balance method, provided that several shaft and gear mesh harmonics are included.

  18. Unique and redundant functions of NKp46+ ILC3s in models of intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Song, Christina; Lee, Jacob S; Gilfillan, Susan; Robinette, Michelle L; Newberry, Rodney D; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Mack, Matthias; Cella, Marina; Colonna, Marco

    2015-10-19

    Group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) are innate sources of IL-22 and IL-17 and include lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi)-like and NKp46(+) subsets. Both depend on RORγt and aryl hydrocarbon receptor, but NKp46(+)ILC3s also require Notch and T-bet for their development and are transcriptionally distinct. The extent to which these subsets have unique functions, especially in the context of T cell- and B cell-sufficient mice, remains largely unclear. To investigate the specific function of NKp46(+)ILC3s among other ILC3 subsets and T cells, we generated mice selectively lacking NKp46(+)ILC3s or all ILC3s and crossed them to T cell-deficient mice, thus maintaining B cells in all mice. In mice lacking T cells, NKp46(+)ILC3s were sufficient to promote inflammatory monocyte accumulation in the anti-CD40 innate colitis model through marked production of GM-CSF. In T cell-competent mice, lack of NKp46(+)ILCs had no impact on control of intestinal C. rodentium infection, whereas lack of all ILC3s partially impaired bacterial control. Thus, NKp46(+)ILC3s have a unique capacity to promote inflammation through GM-CSF-induced accumulation of inflammatory monocytes, but are superseded by LTi-like ILC3s and T cells in controlling intestinal bacterial infection.

  19. [Analysis of discordance between tuberculin test and QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-Tube in studies of contacts].

    PubMed

    Ballaz, Aitor; Salinas, Carlos; Aguirre, Urko; López de Goicoechea, Maria José; Diez, Rosa; Egurrola, Mikel

    2013-04-15

    Our objective is to compare the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB(®) Gold In-Tube (QFT) in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTI) in a population of contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and to analyze the influence of different variables in the discordance. From March 2008 to September 2010, among a population of 300,000 inhabitants of the Basque Country, we analyzed all contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. All patients underwent the TST and the value of QFT was measured. Sociodemographic variables and vaccination were examined and we analyzed the discordance between the 2 tests. Seven hundred and four were included in the study, with a mean age of 27 years. Of these, 397 were vaccinated, with similar proportion between native and foreign. Increasing the age to 59 years (odds ratio [OR] 10.53, P<.001), being foreign (OR 2.71, P=.02) and vaccination (OR 4.22, P<.001) were predictors of the discordance between a positive TST and negative QFT. It seems that the QFT, alone or combined with the TST, is a safe method for the diagnosis of LTI and its use would contribute to a more specific selection of individuals who would need preventive treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. A solid frame for the window on cognition: Modelling event-related pupil responses

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2016-01-01

    Pupil size is often used to infer central processes, including attention, memory, and emotion. Recent research spotlights its relation to behavioral variables from decision-making models and to neural variables such as locus coeruleus activity or cortical oscillations. As yet, a unified and principled approach for analyzing pupil responses is lacking. Here, we seek to establish a formal, quantitative forward model for pupil responses by describing them with linear time invariant (LTI) systems. Based on empirical data from human participants, we show that a combination of two LTI systems can parsimoniously explain approximately all variance evoked by illuminance changes. Notably, the model makes a counter-intuitive prediction that pupil constriction dominates the responses to darkness flashes, as in previous empirical reports. This prediction was quantitatively confirmed for responses to light and darkness flashes in an independent group of participants. Crucially, illuminance- and non-illuminance-related inputs to the pupillary system are presumed to share a common final pathway, comprised of muscles and nerve terminals. Hence, we can harness our illuminance-based model to estimate the temporal evolution of this neural input for an auditory oddball task, an emotional words task, and a visual detection task. Onset and peak latencies of the estimated neural inputs furnish plausible hypotheses for the complexity of the underlying neural circuit. To conclude, this mathematical description of pupil responses serves as a prerequisite to refine their relation to behavioral and brain indices of cognitive processes. PMID:26894512

  1. Colonic patch and colonic SILT development are independent and differentially regulated events.

    PubMed

    Baptista, A P; Olivier, B J; Goverse, G; Greuter, M; Knippenberg, M; Kusser, K; Domingues, R G; Veiga-Fernandes, H; Luster, A D; Lugering, A; Randall, T D; Cupedo, T; Mebius, R E

    2013-05-01

    Intestinal lymphoid tissues have to simultaneously ensure protection against pathogens and tolerance toward commensals. Despite such vital functions, their development in the colon is poorly understood. Here, we show that the two distinct lymphoid tissues of the colon-colonic patches and colonic solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILTs)-can easily be distinguished based on anatomical location, developmental timeframe, and cellular organization. Furthermore, whereas colonic patch development depended on CXCL13-mediated lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cell clustering followed by LTα-mediated consolidation, early LTi clustering at SILT anlagen did not require CXCL13, CCR6, or CXCR3. Subsequent dendritic cell recruitment to and gp38(+)VCAM-1(+) lymphoid stromal cell differentiation within SILTs required LTα; B-cell recruitment and follicular dendritic cell differentiation depended on MyD88-mediated signaling, but not the microflora. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that different mechanisms, mediated mainly by programmed stimuli, induce the formation of distinct colonic lymphoid tissues, therefore suggesting that these tissues may have different functions.

  2. Incorporation of SemiSpan SuperSonic Transport (S4T) Aeroservoelastic Models into SAREC-ASV Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Stevens, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The Simulink-based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) was modified to incorporate linear models representing aeroservoelastic characteristics of the SemiSpan SuperSonic Transport (S4T) wind-tunnel model. The S4T planform is for a Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) design from the 1990s. The model has three control surfaces and is instrumented with accelerometers and strain gauges. Control laws developed for wind-tunnel testing for Ride Quality Enhancement, Gust Load Alleviation, and Flutter Suppression System functions were implemented in the simulation. The simulation models open- and closed-loop response to turbulence and to control excitation. It provides time histories for closed-loop stable conditions above the open-loop flutter boundary. The simulation is useful for assessing the potential impact of closed-loop control rate and position saturation. It also provides a means to assess fidelity of system identification procedures by providing time histories for a known plant model, with and without unmeasured turbulence as a disturbance. Sets of linear models representing different Mach number and dynamic pressure conditions were implemented as MATLAB Linear Time Invariant (LTI) objects. Configuration changes were implemented by selecting which LTI object to use in a Simulink template block. A limited comparison of simulation versus wind-tunnel results is shown.

  3. Evidence for an evolutionary antagonism between Mrr and Type III modification systems

    PubMed Central

    Tesfazgi Mebrhatu, Mehari; Wywial, Ewa; Ghosh, Anirban; Michiels, Chris W.; Lindner, Ariel B.; Taddei, François; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Van Melderen, Laurence; Aertsen, Abram

    2011-01-01

    The Mrr protein of Escherichia coli is a laterally acquired Type IV restriction endonuclease with specificity for methylated DNA. While Mrr nuclease activity can be elicited by high-pressure stress in E. coli MG1655, its (over)expression per se does not confer any obvious toxicity. In this study, however, we discovered that Mrr of E. coli MG1655 causes distinct genotoxicity when expressed in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. Genetic screening enabled us to contribute this toxicity entirely to the presence of the endogenous Type III restriction modification system (StyLTI) of S. typhimurium LT2. The StyLTI system consists of the Mod DNA methyltransferase and the Res restriction endonuclease, and we revealed that expression of the LT2 mod gene was sufficient to trigger Mrr activity in E. coli MG1655. Moreover, we could demonstrate that horizontal acquisition of the MG1655 mrr locus can drive the loss of endogenous Mod functionality present in S. typhimurium LT2 and E. coli ED1a, and observed a strong anti-correlation between close homologues of MG1655 mrr and LT2 mod in the genome database. This apparent evolutionary antagonism is further discussed in the light of a possible role for Mrr as defense mechanism against the establishment of epigenetic regulation by foreign DNA methyltransferases. PMID:21504983

  4. A study of Helmholtz resonators to stabilize thermoacoustically driven pressure oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zalluhoglu, Umut; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies passive control of thermoacoustic instabilities from an unconventional mathematical perspective. These instabilities are notoriously known to result from the complex dynamic exchange between the unsteady heat release and the acoustic waves within a finite volume such as a combustor. One possible passive control strategy is to utilize Helmholtz resonators. Under certain simplifications, the ensemble combustion dynamics including the resonators reduces to a linear-time invariant-multiple time-delayed system (LTI-MTDS). As the main contribution of the paper, an exact analytical procedure is proposed to determine the placement of the resonators to avoid instabilities. A unique mathematical paradigm, called the cluster treatment of characteristic roots, is used to accomplish this task. It declares exactly the necessary and sufficient stability conditions for an LTI-MTDS in the space of the system parameters. This concept paper is written with the mindset that this analytical tool can invite yet unexplored design capabilities for similar noise control applications where acoustic dampers are used.

  5. Design and control of a bio-inspired soft wearable robotic device for ankle-foot rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Lae; Chen, Bor-rong; Pérez-Arancibia, Néstor O; Young, Diana; Stirling, Leia; Wood, Robert J; Goldfield, Eugene C; Nagpal, Radhika

    2014-03-01

    We describe the design and control of a wearable robotic device powered by pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for use in ankle-foot rehabilitation. The design is inspired by the biological musculoskeletal system of the human foot and lower leg, mimicking the morphology and the functionality of the biological muscle-tendon-ligament structure. A key feature of the device is its soft structure that provides active assistance without restricting natural degrees of freedom at the ankle joint. Four pneumatic artificial muscles assist dorsiflexion and plantarflexion as well as inversion and eversion. The prototype is also equipped with various embedded sensors for gait pattern analysis. For the subject tested, the prototype is capable of generating an ankle range of motion of 27° (14° dorsiflexion and 13° plantarflexion). The controllability of the system is experimentally demonstrated using a linear time-invariant (LTI) controller. The controller is found using an identified LTI model of the system, resulting from the interaction of the soft orthotic device with a human leg, and model-based classical control design techniques. The suitability of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated with several angle-reference following experiments.

  6. Aggregation Analysis for Competitive Multiagent Systems With Saddle Points via Switching Strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liying; Xiang, Zhengrong

    2017-06-16

    This paper addresses the aggregation issues of competitive multiagent systems (CMASs) consisting of competitive agents with multimodes and saddle points. In such CMASs, due to existing mutual competitions, every agent is equipped with finite multimodes, and every mode in any agent is described as a second-order linear time-invariant (LTI) control system. When the origin is the same saddle point of all modes of agents, to investigate aggregation of the CMASs with switching strategies, we first use switched LTI systems with saddle points to formulate such CMASs. Then, two new stability concepts, called initial-state-dependent ISD) stability and initial-state-independent (ISI) stability, are defined for the CMASs. Based on these new stability concepts, a practical criterion of local/global ISI asymptotic aggregation is proposed for the CMASs. A local/global ISD/ISI asymptotical-stabilizing-control observed as distributed controls of multimodes, stabilizing-switching-paths, and a corresponding algorithm are all designed for local/global aggregation of such CMASs with switching delays. Finally, a numerical example illustrates the effectiveness and practicality of our new results.

  7. Probing signal design for seismic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James S.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; Larson, Gregg D.; Rogers, Peter H.; McCall, George S., II

    2004-09-01

    This paper addresses the design of time-domain signals for use as seismic excitations in a system that images buried landmines. The goal of the design is the selection of a signal that provides sufficient contrast for the post-processed landmine image in the shortest possible measurement time. Although the goal is relatively straightforward and the problem appears similar to one of system identification for a linear time invariant (LTI) system, practical implementation of many commonly accepted approaches to the system-identification problem has proven difficult. The reason for this is that the system under consideration exhibits observable nonlinearity over the entire range of drive levels that are of interest. The problem is therefore constrained by the requirement that nonlinear effects be tolerable rather than imperceptible (i.e. that the nonlinearity be sufficiently weak that the system can be reasonably characterized as linear). Several candidate signal types that have been shown to offer good noise immunity for the LTI system identification problem were considered. These included circular chirps, binary-sequence-based (BSB) signals, and numerically optimized randomly seeded multisines. Based on purely experimental figures of merit, circular chirps with flat amplitude and linearly swept frequency offered the best performance among the signals that were tested.

  8. Energy Confinement Recovery in Low Collisionality ITER Shape Plasmas with Applied Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, L.; Grierson, B.; Logan, N.; Nazikian, R.

    2016-10-01

    Application of RMPs to low collisionality (ν*e < 0.4) ITER shape plasmas on DIII-D leads to a rapid reduction in stored energy due to density pumpout that is sometimes followed by a gradual recovery in the plasma stored energy. Understanding this confinement recovery is essential to optimize the confinement of RMP plasmas in present and future devices such as ITER. Transport modeling using TRANSP+TGLF indicates that the core a/LTi is stiff in these plasmas while the ion temperature gradient is much less stiff in the pedestal region. The reduction in the edge density during pumpout leads to an increase in the core ion temperature predicted by TGLF based on experimental data. This is correlated to the increase in the normalized ion heat flux. Transport stiffness in the core combined with an increase in the edge a/LTi results in an increase of the plasma stored energy, consistent with experimental observations. For plasmas where the edge density is controlled using deuterium gas puffs, the effect of the RMP on ion thermal confinement is significantly reduced. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. The effect of axial rotation of the anterior resection plane in patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cho, K J; Erasmus, P J; Müller, J H

    2016-10-01

    Patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) has a small but definite place in replacement surgery of the knee, especially in young patients. The main surgical considerations in PFA are the patient's anatomy, the type of prosthesis and the surgical technique. The surgical technique and PFA success rely heavily on the anterior resection. In this study we investigate the effect of axial rotation of the anterior resection plane. We tested the outcome of PFA fit based on resection footprint measurements, axial and coronal groove angles, and lateral trochlear inclination (LTI) angle in a virtual PFA model. The range of anterior resection plane axial rotations was from five degree internal to five degree external with an increment of one degree. Axial rotation of anterior resection plane changes the resection footprint dimension, which leads to coronal rotation of the femoral component. External rotation of the resection plane results in valgus rotation of the trochlear groove and decreased LTI after PFA and the opposite was observed for internal rotation. Our study showed that by changing the axial rotation of the anterior cut, the coronal groove of the prosthesis can be altered to lie more closely with the native groove line without compromising the prosthesis-cartilage transition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of diazepam administration during pregnancy or labor on the heart rate variability of the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    van Geijn, H P; Jongsma, H W; Doesburg, W H; Lemmens, W A; de Haan, J; Eskes, T K

    1980-03-01

    Maternal diazepam medication during labor reduces beat-to-beat variability of the fetal heart rate. In this study, the prolongation of the effect was examined in the newborn. The mother received diazepam: (A) during labor as a tranquilizer, (B) daily in low doses at the end of pregnancy, or (C) in high doses i.v. for (pre-)eclampsia. A control group had no analgesic or sedative during pregnancy or labor. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded daily from each newborn during the first 6 days after birth. After preprocessing of the ECG, the median R-R interval, the long-term irregularity index (LTI index) and the interval difference index (ID index) were calculated. A cubic spline interpolation method was applied to compare the various groups with respect to these heart rate parameters. The median R-R interval showed no particular differences in trend for all groups. The LTI index was decreased in the first days after birth in the chronic diazepam (B), and in the diazepam infusion groups (C), but statistical significance was not reached. The ID index was significantly decreased in the first 1-2 days in the newborns of the acute and chronic diazepam group. In the diazepam infusion group, an even longer lasting effect was observed. Maternal diazepam medication affects the beat-to-beat variability in the newborn. The duration of the effect is dependent on dosage and route of administration.

  11. A methodology for the synthesis of robust feedback systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milich, David Albert

    1988-01-01

    A new methodology is developed for the synthesis of linear, time-variant (LTI) controllers for multivariable LTI systems. The resulting closed-loop system is nominally stable and exhibits a known level of performance. In addition, robustness of the feedback system is guaranteed, i.e., stability and performance are retained in the presence of multiple unstructured uncertainty blocks located at various points in the feedback loop. The design technique is referred to as the Causality Recovery Methodology (CRM). The CRM relies on the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing compensators to ensure nominal stability of the feedback system. A frequency-domain inequality in terms of the structured singular value mu defines the robustness specification. The optimal compensator, with respect to the mu condition, is shown to be noncausal in general. The aim of the CRM is to find a stable, causal transfer function matrix that approximates the robustness characteristics of the optimal solution. The CRM, via a series of infinite-dimensional convex programs, produces a closed-loop system whose performance robustness is at least as good as that of any initial design. The algorithm is approximated by a finite dimensional process for the purposes of implementation. Two numerical examples confirm the potential viability of the CRM concept; however, the robustness improvement comes at the expense of increased computational burden and compensator complexity.

  12. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur.

  13. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.

  14. Activation of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by native and recombinant adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors, 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C M; Chang, P P; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Price, S R; Kunz, B C; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are responsible in part for "traveler's diarrhea" and related diarrheal illnesses. The family of LTs comprises two serogroups termed LT-I and LT-II; each serogroup includes two or more antigenic variants. The effects of LTs result from ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, a stimulatory component of adenylyl cyclase; the mechanism of action is identical to that of cholera toxin (CT). The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CT is enhanced by 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. These proteins directly activate the CTA1 catalytic unit and stimulate its ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, other proteins, and simple guanidino compounds (e.g., agmatine). Because of the similarities between CT and LTs, we investigated the effects of purified bovine brain ARF and a recombinant form of bovine ARF synthesized in Escherichia coli on LT activity. ARF enhanced the LT-I-, LT-IIa-, and LT-IIb-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of agmatine, as well as the auto-ADP ribosylation of the toxin catalytic unit. Stimulation of ADP-ribosylagmatine formation by LTs and CT in the presence of ARF was GTP dependent and enhanced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. With agmatine as substrate, LT-IIa and LT-IIb exhibited less than 1% the activity of CT and LT-Ih. CT and LTs catalyzed ADP-ribosyl-Gs alpha formation in a reaction dependent on ARF, GTP, and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cholate. With Gs alpha as substrate, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of the toxins were similar, although CT and LT-Ih appeared to be slightly more active than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Thus, LT-IIa and LT-IIb appear to differ somewhat from CT and LT-Ih in substrate specificity. Responsiveness to stimulation by ARF, GTP, and phospholipid/detergent as well as the specificity of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity are functions of LTs from serogroups LT-I and LT-II that are shared with CT. Images PMID:1902492

  15. Stability Assessment and Tuning of an Adaptively Augmented Classical Controller for Launch Vehicle Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Zhu, J. Jim; Adami, Tony; Berry, Kyle; Grammar, Alex; Orr, Jeb S.; Best, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a robust and practical adaptive control scheme for launch vehicles [ [1] has been introduced. It augments a classical controller with a real-time loop-gain adaptation, and it is therefore called Adaptive Augmentation Control (AAC). The loop-gain will be increased from the nominal design when the tracking error between the (filtered) output and the (filtered) command trajectory is large; whereas it will be decreased when excitation of flex or sloshing modes are detected. There is a need to determine the range and rate of the loop-gain adaptation in order to retain (exponential) stability, which is critical in vehicle operation, and to develop some theoretically based heuristic tuning methods for the adaptive law gain parameters. The classical launch vehicle flight controller design technics are based on gain-scheduling, whereby the launch vehicle dynamics model is linearized at selected operating points along the nominal tracking command trajectory, and Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) controller design techniques are employed to ensure asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics, typically by meeting some prescribed Gain Margin (GM) and Phase Margin (PM) specifications. The controller gains at the design points are then scheduled, tuned and sometimes interpolated to achieve good performance and stability robustness under external disturbances (e.g. winds) and structural perturbations (e.g. vehicle modeling errors). While the GM does give a bound for loop-gain variation without losing stability, it is for constant dispersions of the loop-gain because the GM is based on frequency-domain analysis, which is applicable only for LTI systems. The real-time adaptive loop-gain variation of the AAC effectively renders the closed-loop system a time-varying system, for which it is well-known that the LTI system stability criterion is neither necessary nor sufficient when applying to a Linear Time-Varying (LTV) system in a frozen-time fashion. Therefore, a

  16. Cramer-Rao bound on watermark desynchronization parameter estimation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadasivam, Shankar; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Various decoding algorithms have been proposed in the literature to combat desynchronization attacks on quantization index modulation (QIM) blind watermarking schemes. Nevertheless, these results have been fairly poor so far. The need to investigate fundamental limitations on the decoder's performance under a desynchronization attack is thus clear. In this paper, we look at the class of estimator-decoders which estimate the desynchronization attack parameter(s) for using in the decoding step. We model the desynchronization attack as an arbitrary (but invertible) linear time-invariant (LTI) system. We then come up with an encoding-decoding scheme for these attacks on cubic QIM watermarking schemes, and derive Cramer-Rao bounds on the estimation error for the desynchronization parameter at the decoder. As an example, we consider the case of a cyclic shift attack and present some numerical findings.

  17. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR(+) ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, but also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. New Manning System Field Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    iC -anizat.iuo . The 7th ID(L) merits care£-jl a.tei’tion in future evaluation research. In any caJe., the data at. nand 1joi i. to leadership au Lhe...o ew unItits. IidofuIndad WUtly b j uIliCJ t o Itave di ic u1Lty t al1k I Ig i iot~ f l a1y w i L It theair moldiurt atLsal I I I.tiodad of j ainitig...prelvious war, alterable only by death, wounding, disease , breakdown, or the need to refit end retrain a unit was now changed to one in which a fixed term

  19. Infrared photometry of the intermediate polar XYArietis (H0253+193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Hellier, Coel; Ramseyer, Tod F.

    1996-09-01

    Near-infrared H-band photometry of the eclipsing intermediate polar XYAri shows an ellipsoidal variation from the Roche-lobe-filling secondary star, and a marginally significant spin pulse. We model the light curve, finding that the mass ratio of the system lies in the range 0.43<q<0.71, and the system inclination in the range 80 deg&lti<87 deg. We show that IR-emitting material circles around the white dwarf, consistent with an accretion disc extending to more than 0.3 of the primary's Roche lobe. The H-band light of this material cannot be asymmetric about the white dwarf by more than a factor of 2.

  20. Stromal Cell Subsets Directing Neonatal Spleen Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jonathan K. H.; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Development of lymphoid tissue is determined by interactions between stromal lymphoid tissue organiser (LTo) and hematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. A failure for LTo to receive appropriate activating signals during embryogenesis through lymphotoxin engagement leads to a complete cessation of lymph node (LN) and Peyer’s patch development, identifying LTo as a key stromal population for lymphoid tissue organogenesis. However, little is known about the equivalent stromal cells that induce spleen development. Here, by dissociating neonatal murine spleen stromal tissue for re-aggregation and transplant into adult mouse recipients, we have identified a MAdCAM-1+CD31+CD201+ spleen stromal organizer cell-type critical for new tissue formation. This finding provides an insight into the regulation of post-natal spleen tissue organogenesis, and could be exploited in the development of spleen regenerative therapies. PMID:28067323

  1. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1957. Twelfth Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-09-30

    OFFICER QUALIFYING TESI ’ (AFo;:r) The AFOQl’battery 1s given to newly cCIIIlIlss10ned officers and. to persons being conSidered for off1cer tT8ining...8217 Career Intent’ A2 career IntentAJlD A’l"I’ITUDES S’rRENG’ltI TO’rAL Strength Strength y" unce- No y" Unde- Nocided cided ~-~ ~ 618 !!1!! 2i... cided 𔃺 J:P Career Intent Unde- cided 𔃺 SEIECTED CHJJlACTERISTICS AJ{Il ATTITUDES OFFICER ~ ~ PER CENT - ~ GRADE III WHICH SERVINQ 1 1 114, 41 22

  2. Antiwindup analysis and design approaches for MIMO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcopoli, Vincent R.; Phillips, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    Performance degradation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control systems having limited actuators is often handled by augmenting the controller with an antiwindup mechanism, which attempts to maintain system performance when limits are encountered. The goals of this paper are: (1) To develop a method to analyze antiwindup systems to determine precisely what stability and performance degradation is incurred under limited conditions. It is shown that by reformulating limited actuator commands as resulting from multiplicative perturbations to the corresponding controller requests, mu-analysis tools can be utilized to obtain quantitative measures of stability and performance degradation. (2) To propose a linear, time invariant (LTI) criterion on which to base the antiwindup design. These analysis and design methods are illustrated through the evaluation of two competing antiwindup schemes augmenting the controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight.

  3. Antiwindup analysis and design approaches for MIMO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcopoli, Vincent R.; Phillips, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    Performance degradation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control systems having limited actuators is often handled by augmenting the controller with an antiwindup mechanism, which attempts to maintain system performance when limits are encountered. The goals of this paper are: 1) to develop a method to analyze antiwindup systems to determine precisely what stability and performance degradation is incurred under limited conditions. It is shown that by reformulating limited actuator commands as resulting from multiplicative perturbations to the corresponding controller requests, mu-analysis tools can be utilized to obtain quantitative measures of stability and performance degradation. 2) To propose a linear, time invariant (LTI) criterion on which to base the antiwindup design. These analysis and design methods are illustrated through the evaluation of two competing antiwindup schemes augmenting the controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight.

  4. Utility of the Revised Level of Service Inventory (LSI-R) in predicting recidivism after long-term incarceration.

    PubMed

    Manchak, Sarah M; Skeem, Jennifer Lynne; Douglas, Kevin S

    2008-12-01

    Assessing an inmate's risk for recidivism may become more challenging as the length of incarceration increases. Although the population of Long-Term Inmates (LTIs) is burgeoning, no risk assessment tools have been specifically validated for this group. Based on a sample of 1,144 inmates released in a state without parole, we examine the utility of the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) in assessing risk of general and violent felony recidivism for LTIs (n = 555). Results indicate that (a) the LSI-R moderately predicts general, but not necessarily violent, recidivism, and (b) this predictive utility is not moderated by LTI status, and is based in part on ostensibly dynamic risk factors. Implications for informing parole decision-making and risk management for LTIs are discussed.

  5. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  6. CCR7-dependent trafficking of RORγ+ ILCs creates a unique microenvironment within mucosal draining lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Mackley, Emma C.; Houston, Stephanie; Marriott, Clare L.; Halford, Emily E.; Lucas, Beth; Cerovic, Vuk; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Milling, Simon; Withers, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of peptide:MHCII by RORγ-expressing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), which are enriched within gut tissue, is required for control of CD4 T-cell responses to commensal bacteria. It is not known whether ILC populations migrate from their mucosal and peripheral sites to local draining secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we demonstrate that ILC3s reside within the interfollicular areas of mucosal draining lymph nodes, forming a distinct microenvironment not observed in peripheral lymph nodes. By photoconverting intestinal cells in Kaede mice we reveal constitutive trafficking of ILCs from the intestine to the draining mesenteric lymph nodes, which specifically for the LTi-like ILC3s was CCR7-dependent. Thus, ILC populations traffic to draining lymph nodes using different mechanisms. PMID:25575242

  7. Generalized Sampling Theorem for Bandpass Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokes, Ales

    2006-12-01

    The reconstruction of an unknown continuously defined function[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] from the samples of the responses of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] linear time-invariant (LTI) systems sampled by the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]th Nyquist rate is the aim of the generalized sampling. Papoulis (1977) provided an elegant solution for the case where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a band-limited function with finite energy and the sampling rate is equal to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] times cutoff frequency. In this paper, the scope of the Papoulis theory is extended to the case of bandpass signals. In the first part, a generalized sampling theorem (GST) for bandpass signals is presented. The second part deals with utilizing this theorem for signal recovery from nonuniform samples, and an efficient way of computing images of reconstructing functions for signal recovery is discussed.

  8. Transport coefficient computation based on input/output reduced order models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Joshua L.

    The guiding purpose of this thesis is to address the optimal material design problem when the material description is a molecular dynamics model. The end goal is to obtain a simplified and fast model that captures the property of interest such that it can be used in controller design and optimization. The approach is to examine model reduction analysis and methods to capture a specific property of interest, in this case viscosity, or more generally complex modulus or complex viscosity. This property and other transport coefficients are defined by a input/output relationship and this motivates model reduction techniques that are tailored to preserve input/output behavior. In particular Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based methods are investigated. First simulation methods are identified that are amenable to systems theory analysis. For viscosity, these models are of the Gosling and Lees-Edwards type. They are high order nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) that employ Periodic Boundary Conditions. Properties can be calculated from the state trajectories of these ODEs. In this research local linear approximations are rigorously derived and special attention is given to potentials that are evaluated with Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC). For the Gosling description LTI models are developed from state trajectories but are found to have limited success in capturing the system property, even though it is shown that full order LTI models can be well approximated by reduced order LTI models. For the Lees-Edwards SLLOD type model nonlinear ODEs will be approximated by a Linear Time Varying (LTV) model about some nominal trajectory and both balanced truncation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) will be used to assess the plausibility of reduced order models to this system description. An immediate application of the derived LTV models is Quasilinearization or Waveform Relaxation. Quasilinearization is a Newton's method applied to the ODE operator

  9. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  10. TSARINA: User’s Guide to a Computer Model for Damage Assessment of Complex Airbase Targets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Y(1I)CT*(XT-X(1)))) GO TO 30 2024 . IF (YT .GT. (Y(2)- T*(IT-X(2)))) GO TO 3? 2025. IF (YT .LT.(Y(4) CT*(XT-X(4)))) GO TO 3C 2026. IF (IT .LT. (Y(1...13*LU + 1 2119. LU = LU + 1 2120. DO 00 J = 1,40 2121o I = 41-J 2122. DO 10 N = 1,129 2123. 10 ICOL(N) = IBK 2124 . ICOL(l) = IE 2125. ICOL(LEN...JUI.OPE.ORL( 2024 )AGE1I14)PATS(4014), 2738. 1 AKRO(126,14).THAP(26,4) .IATERL(26,𔃾).E0LA10.14),SIOCKS(1000.3). 2739. 1 REjUIV(4O0) 27140. COMMON /SIATS / STAY

  11. Antiwindup analysis and design approaches for MIMO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcopoli, Vincent R.; Phillips, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    Performance degradation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control systems having limited actuators is often handled by augmenting the controller with an antiwindup mechanism, which attempts to maintain system performance when limits are encountered. The goals of this paper are: 1) to develop a method to analyze antiwindup systems to determine precisely what stability and performance degradation is incurred under limited conditions. It is shown that by reformulating limited actuator commands as resulting from multiplicative perturbations to the corresponding controller requests, mu-analysis tools can be utilized to obtain quantitative measures of stability and performance degradation. 2) To propose a linear, time invariant (LTI) criterion on which to base the antiwindup design. These analysis and design methods are illustrated through the evaluation of two competing antiwindup schemes augmenting the controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight.

  12. Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator Development to Improve Soldier Shooting Skills with the M16A3 Rifle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    101 ( ot SF11.! its CIP 1(2024 IVf SFC TEI IHISTI ID! 123 DIE SCLIO TIC SFC lID 1121 IDE 00 LDE SE4 SEE030 IDE (SFI), .Y TIGET I Cl? V1 115110 $TE SID...DUFFSl IF Slots IDE SIC CI? I’D fill ID0E 1255 :IS EYCl. IT loVE ltI 101 EDC 10 119 iIT040 VATTI DIE BUFFER IF Slots IS ODD SIT SFC HIMTJ I if0 0SET Dit...Of BUFFER lED. LDA (SFB( ,T CLC $?I EVIL :SET UP Fot :50 STOPOFF II III. CLC IDC SIB L1 -10 ADDITIOE OF 119111 i5! SPIT ABC 0! PAL ICC GITIO :OFFSET

  13. Guide to Technical Documents. Volume I. May 1949 through December 1972

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    ion .it .mil’ i i’iii room t MpfffSl Ufff hv MIM*’ v ■ «K hydrostJI I« pirNsurr to thr iNlcr ol thr liumatnl lonr .it i i itnt muoiiK iii. oi bSO ...NOV- 28145 on s shielded, unitized, universal ignition systea snd a unitized, univeraal shield for generators and regulators. ) 0-8 J ( o| taH ...AD«58<.II - M-b89 A1WSH4.") - N- bSO AIUMI^WI - R-l.)4 AI^’.H’.Ml - ltiY-32219 AD4S880) • N-b88 AH-I.I’U: - N-b’»4 AD^OOSl« - N-bb8

  14. Compact tunable silicon photonic differential-equation solver for general linear time-invariant systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayang; Cao, Pan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinhong; Pan, Ting; Yang, Yuxing; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2014-10-20

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal differential-equation solver that can be used to solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing general linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The photonic device implemented by an add-drop microring resonator (MRR) with two tunable interferometric couplers is monolithically integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with a compact footprint of ~60 μm × 120 μm. By thermally tuning the phase shifts along the bus arms of the two interferometric couplers, the proposed device is capable of solving first-order ODEs with two variable coefficients. The operation principle is theoretically analyzed, and system testing of solving ODE with tunable coefficients is carried out for 10-Gb/s optical Gaussian-like pulses. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the fabricated device as a tunable photonic ODE solver.

  15. Real-Time Feedback Control of Flow-Induced Cavity Tones. Part 1; Fixed-Gain Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegerise, M. A.; Cabell, R. H.; Cattafesta, L. N., III

    2006-01-01

    A generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm was formulated and applied to the cavity flow-tone problem. The control algorithm demonstrated multiple Rossiter-mode suppression at fixed Mach numbers ranging from 0.275 to 0.38. Controller performance was evaluated with a measure of output disturbance rejection and an input sensitivity transfer function. The results suggest that disturbances entering the cavity flow are collocated with the control input at the cavity leading edge. In that case, only tonal components of the cavity wall-pressure fluctuations can be suppressed and arbitrary broadband pressure reduction is not possible with the present sensor/actuator arrangement. In the control-algorithm development, the cavity dynamics were treated as linear and time invariant (LTI) for a fixed Mach number. The experimental results lend support to that treatment.

  16. Separation of U-238 and Np-237 nuclei by gamma-quanta intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, A. A.; Kezerashvili, G. Y.; Lazareva, T. Y.; Nedorezov, V. G.; Skrinskiy, A. N.; Sudov, A. S.; Tumaykin, G. M.; Shatunov, Y. M.

    1986-01-01

    A system employing a beam of backscattered Compton quanta based on the e(+)e(-) accumulating complex and an LTI-701 solid state laser is employed to measure the average photoseparation and separability cross sections of U234 and Np237 nuclei at energies ranging from 150 to 170 MeV. The findings contradict the predictions of existing models based on photon-meson nuclear excitation, and suggest that one of the most probable mechanisms underlying the excitation of nuclei by gamma quanta with intermediate energies, in addition to the photogeneration of pions, is the generation of e(+)e(-) pairs in the field of the nucleus: the gamma quanta wavelength energies in this region becomes comparable to the nucleon dimension, so that collective nuclear excitations are generally suppressed.

  17. ARDS (Automated Requirements Development System) User’s Manual. Volume 1. Document Analysis. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    nti ouet a encmltd wo otput areavaiab42 a 7 Allrefrenes inther ene istandin he ex iEU n page 42eenelstn INPUTSAMPLE DIPRINOU p page 66 43 INPUT SAMPLE...Air Force Base, Massachusetts S7 sit C ~L 1183 D >Project No. 5720 Cl Prepared by I) ,\\ p I\\dh puhhi ,clIcasc. di[ t ,huit,, tnut ICILtd , THE MITRE...Corporation LAI_ __p_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6 . A D D R E S S I C’lty . S la t an d I I C o d e I 7 . A D D R E S S ( C i t y . S t a te e n d Z i P

  18. Modeling and Control for an Asymmetric Hydraulic Active Suspension System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wanil; Won, Sangchul

    In this paper we present a model for an automotive active suspension system which includes the dynamics of an asymmetric hydraulic actuator. In this model the force exerted by a single-rod cylinder is regarded as an internal state, and the sum of the oil flow rates through the orifice of a servo valve as the control input. We obtain a linear time-invariant (LTI) state state equation and propose a force-tracking-free one-step control method which can accept various linear control techniques. An optimal state-feedback control is applied as an example. Quarter car test rig experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in modeling and control.

  19. Feasibility Study of Improved Methods for Riverbank Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-11-01

    stabilization, that of sun drying, has been used for many cen- turies in making adobe . However, the hardening which o ccu1· s during this process is...lbwn • ••lty 0. tl4-0 "* ’ · otf.J, .)to ..... ,oo t O UO ... I r -o ... . ,. l lo:•t Stl 0 1’ •• hiCh d-~Uiy 0 t41·0.M-\\ 1, •oo. r., HIO )! • SOl > 10...This does not include an~r ballast to keep the mattress in place. The problem of impermeability is one that could be sol ved by mak- ing more

  20. Matrix method for eigenstructure assignment - The multi-input case with application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Modi, V. J.; Bhat, M. S.; Misra, A. K.

    1992-08-01

    The eigenvalue and eigenstructure assignment procedure has found application in a wide variety of control problems. In this paper a method for assigning eigenstructure to a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) multiinput system is proposed. The algorithm determines a matrix, which has eigenvalues and eigenvectors at the desired locations. It is obtained from the knowledge of the open-loop system and the desired eigenstructure. Solution of the matrix equation, involving unknown controller gains, open-loop system matrices, and desired eigenvalues and eigenvectors, results in the state feedback controller. The proposed algorithm requires the closed-loop eigenvalues to be different from those of the open-loop case. This apparent constraint can easily be overcome by a negligible shift in the values. Application of the procedure is illustrated through the offset control of a satellite supported, from an orbiting platform, by a flexible tether.

  1. Electroacoustics modeling of piezoelectric welders for ultrasonic additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent 3D metal printing technology which utilizes ultrasonic vibrations from high power piezoelectric transducers to additively weld similar and dissimilar metal foils. CNC machining is used intermittent of welding to create internal channels, embed temperature sensitive components, sensors, and materials, and for net shaping parts. Structural dynamics of the welder and work piece influence the performance of the welder and part quality. To understand the impact of structural dynamics on UAM, a linear time-invariant model is used to relate system shear force and electric current inputs to the system outputs of welder velocity and voltage. Frequency response measurements are combined with in-situ operating measurements of the welder to identify model parameters and to verify model assumptions. The proposed LTI model can enhance process consistency, performance, and guide the development of improved quality monitoring and control strategies.

  2. Performance of HTGR fertile particles irradiated in HFIR capsule HT-32

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.L. Jr.; Robbins, J.M.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kania, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    The HT-32 experiment was an uninstrumented capsule irradiated for four cycles in the target position of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The experiment was designed to: provide supplemental simulated fuel rods for thermal transport and expansion measurements; test fertile kernels with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ additives for improved fission product retention; study the stability and permeability of low-temperature isotropic (LTI) pyrocarbon coatings; test Biso- and Triso-coatings derived in a large (0.24-m-dia) coating furnace with a frit distributor; investigate the performance of particles with an outer layer of SiC both as loose particles and as resin-bonded fuel rods; and evaluate high-density alumina as a potential high-temperature thermometry sheathing material.

  3. USAF Warrior Studies: Air Superiority in World War 2 and Korea,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    i ’ ccrci ’N sri cc (iii ,c :is’ Ii ’ 1 41 ’’ a p i- i lti ii IlC rii. I/ 1111w fti , l . mill ftc’l \\cu \\’k il/iwS p ’~4i4 ti i ’ 1 Si s ti,1r iiii...Pr Ii rpp, (I4:1p 1.l11pCi \\ (I pl1I )I Lr PN 11 Prr )11 B 1 ( lCt ( p I CF I’ ’ l lp r pI PpIlt o I iii’ ’IP L al, I [pif I . it I I pI I pp NI I Nuit

  4. Robust controller design for fuzzy parametric uncertain systems: an optimal control approach.

    PubMed

    Patre, Balasaheb M; Bhiwani, R J

    2013-03-01

    A new approach of designing a robust controller for fuzzy parametric uncertain systems is proposed. A linear time invariant (LTI) system with fuzzy coefficients is called as fuzzy parametric uncertain system (FPUS). The proposed method envisages conversion of the FPUS into an uncertain (interval) state space controllable canonical form system in terms of its alpha cut. Further, the problem of designing a robust controller is translated into an optimal control problem minimizing a cost function. For matched uncertainty, it is shown that the optimal control problem is a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem, which can be solved to obtain a robust controller for FPUS. The numerical examples and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of robustness of the controller. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [New reliable methods for the diagnose of protein-energy wasting in hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Castellano-Gasch, Sandra; Palomares-Sancho, Inés; Molina-Núñez, Manuel; Ramos-Sánchez, Rosa; Merello-Godino, José I; Maduell, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: La depleción proteico-calórica (protein- energy wasting, PEW) definida como pérdida de masa muscular y grasa del organismo, supone un importante factor de riesgo cardiovascular en los pacientes en diálisis. Para su diagnóstico se requiere de la presencia de tres características: bioquímicas (albúmina, prealbúmina o colesterol bajos), descenso de masa corporal (índice de masa corporal, pérdida de peso o de grasa) y reducción de masa muscular (evaluada mediante creatinina o área muscular del brazo). El Objetivo del presente estudio es demostrar que el índice de tejido magro (LTI) obtenido por bioimpedancia espectroscópica (BIS) es un parámetro válido para el diagnóstico de depleción proteico- calórica. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 1369 pacientes con dos mediciones de BCM entre las que transcurren seis meses, en los que analizamos parámetros analíticos y de bioimpedancia espectroscópica . Resultados: El índice de tejido magro aportado por el BCM (Body Composition Monitor) cuantifica la masa magra del paciente y se correlaciona con parámetros tradicionales (albúmina plasmática) y no-tradicionales (IRE y PCR) de depleción proteico-calórica sin verse alterado por la situación hídrica del paciente. Conclusiones: El LTI es un parámetro de masa magra fácil de obtener cuyo seguimiento y monitorización nos puede ayudar a diagnosticar situaciones de riesgo para nuestros pacientes como la depleción proteico-calórica.

  6. Hyponatraemia, mortality and haemodialysis: An unexplained association.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Rafael; Palomares, Inés; Merello, José Ignacio; Ramos, Rosa; Maduell, Francisco; Molina, Manolo; Aljama, Pedro; Marcelli, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    As in the general population, in patients on haemodialysis (HD) hyponatraemia is associated with higher mortality risk. The objective of this article was to study the relationship between predialysis serum sodium (sNa) and mortality in an HD population. We also intended to define hyponatraemia and determine the characteristics of hyponatraemic patients in terms of anthropometric data, analytical features, dialysis measurements and hydration (bioimpedance). Observational, descriptive study of a cohort of HD incident patients. The independent variable was the mean of each patient's sNa analysed during their first 6 months on HD. A total of 4,153 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 64.7 years; 65.2% of the patients were male and 35% were diabetics. Mean follow-up time was 21.48 (SD) (1.31) months. sNa had a normal distribution, with a mean (SD)=138.46 (2.7) mEq/l. Body weight, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain, total ultrafiltration, serum glucose, albumin and creatinine, vascular access and haemodialysis type, acquire significant differences between sodium quartiles. Lean tissue index (LTI) in patients with low serum sodium, Q1 (135 mEq/l), was significantly lower than the LTI of patients from the other serum sodium quartiles. Patients with sNa<136 mEq/l had a higher independent mortality risk (OR=1.62) (Cox regression analysis). HD patients with hyponatraemia patients have a poor prognosis and present malnutrition or fluid overload. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    Under driving conditions, a typical geared system may be subjected to large dynamic loads. Also, the vibration level of the geared system is directly related to the noise radiated from the gear box. The steady state dynamic behavior of the system is examined in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. The scope is limited to a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type nonlinearities. The internal static transmission error at the gear mesh, which is of importance from high frequency noise and vibration control view point, is considered in the formulation in sinusoidal or periodic form. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and forced vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solutions with the finite element model results. Using the reduced order formulations, a three degree of freedom dynamic model is developed which includes nonlinearities associated with radical clearances in the radial rolling element bearings, backlash between a spur gear pair and periodically varying gear mesh stiffness. As a limiting case, a single degree of freedom model of the spur gear pair with backlash is considered and mathematical conditions for tooth separation and back collision are defined. Both digital simulation technique and analytical models such as method of harmonic balance and the method of multiple scales were used to develop the steady state frequency response characteristics for various nonlinear and/or time varying cases.

  8. Characterisation of Runoff - Storage Relationships By Satellite-Gravimetry and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegger, J. M.; Tourian, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    GRACE observations of the time dependent gravity field provide a direct measurement of the monthly state of mass and thus monthly total water storage in a catchment. This for the first time allows for a direct comparison of monthly runoff and water storage. Investigations of global scale Runoff-Storage (R-S) relationships for different climatic conditions show distinct periodic characteristics with hysteresis for total water storage. For fully humid tropical catchments hysteresis reveals a time invariant temporal delay from storage to runoff. An adjustment of time lag leads to a linear (R-S) relationship with correlation 0.98. Confirmed by the coherence of Fourier spectra, this allows to characterize this R-S relationship as a Linear Time invariant System (LTI). Based hereon, the hypothesis of a R-S relationship characterized by the superposition of linear contributions from coupled/liquid storage and nonlinear contributions from uncoupled storages is investigated by means of remote sensing. For boreal catchments MODIS snow coverage is used to separate total storage into coupled/liquid and uncoupled/solid components either directly by assigning frozen solid storage to the snow covered areas or indirectly by a model based aggregation of snow and liquid according to snow coverage. Both methods show, that the nonlinear part of the R-S relationship can be fully assigned to the uncoupled/solid storage while the relationship of runoff and liquid storage can also be characterized as LTI. This system behavior thus allows for a direct determination of river runoff from GRACE mass or vice versa of water storage from measured runoff for unmanaged catchments, provided that the coupled/uncoupled storage components can be quantified by remote sensing. Examples for river runoff time series determined from GRACE mass are presented for Amazon sub-catchments and with the additional integration of MODIS snow coverage also for the boreal catchments of Sibiria and North America.

  9. Estimation of Respiratory Pattern From Video Using Selective Ensemble Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prathosh, A. P.; Praveena, Pragathi; Mestha, Lalit K.; Bharadwaj, Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Non-contact estimation of respiratory pattern (RP) and respiration rate (RR) has multiple applications. Existing methods for RP and RR measurement fall into one of the three categories - (i) estimation through nasal air flow measurement, (ii) estimation from video-based remote photoplethysmography, and (iii) estimation by measurement of motion induced by respiration using motion detectors. These methods, however, require specialized sensors, are computationally expensive and/or critically depend on selection of a region of interest (ROI) for processing. In this paper a general framework is described for estimating a periodic signal driving noisy LTI channels connected in parallel with unknown dynamics. The method is then applied to derive a computationally inexpensive method for estimating RP using 2D cameras that does not critically depend on ROI. Specifically, RP is estimated by imaging the changes in the reflected light caused by respiration-induced motion. Each spatial location in the field of view of the camera is modeled as a noise-corrupted linear time-invariant (LTI) measurement channel with unknown system dynamics, driven by a single generating respiratory signal. Estimation of RP is cast as a blind deconvolution problem and is solved through a method comprising subspace projection and statistical aggregation. Experiments are carried out on 31 healthy human subjects by generating multiple RPs and comparing the proposed estimates with simultaneously acquired ground truth from an impedance pneumograph device. The proposed estimator agrees well with the ground truth device in terms of correlation measures, despite variability in clothing pattern, angle of view and ROI.

  10. OsPEX11, a Peroxisomal Biogenesis Factor 11, Contributes to Salt Stress Tolerance in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Islam, Faisal; Li, Lan; Farooq, Muhammad A.; Ruan, Songlin; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000), was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type (WT) and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with WT and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1, and OsAKT1) involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than WT and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop. PMID:27695459

  11. The distribution of Escherichia coli serovars, virulence genes, gene association and combinations and virulence genes encoding serotypes in pathogenic E. coli recovered from diarrhoeic calves, sheep and goat.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Mustafa, A M; Elhariri, M; Abdelhamed, G S

    2013-02-01

    Ruminants, especially cattle, have been implicated as a principal reservoir of one of the enterovirulent Escherichia coli pathotypes. The detection of the virulence genes in diarrhoeic calves and small ruminants has not been studied in Egypt. To determine the occurrence, serotypes and the virulence gene markers, stx1, stx2, hylA, Flic(h7) , stb, F41, K99, sta, F17, LT-I, LT-II and eae, rectal swabs were taken from diarrhoeic calves, sheep and goats and subjected to bacterial culture and PCR. The E. coli prevalence rate in the diarrhoeic animals was 63.6% in calves, 27.3% in goat and 9.1% in sheep. The 102 E. coli strains isolated from the calves, goat and sheep were 100% haemolytic non-verotoxic and fitted into the Eagg group. The isolates belonged to seven O serogroups (O25, O78, O86, O119, O158, O164 and O157). The eae gene was detected in six of the strains isolated from the calves. The 102 bovine, ovine and caprine E. coli strains isolated in this study were negative for stx1, stx2, F41, LT-I and Flic(h7) genes. The highest gene combinations were found to occur in the form of 24/102 isolates (23.5%) that carried the F17 gene predominantly associated with eaeA, hylA, K99 and Stb genes in the calves, while the hylA, K99 and Sta were the only genes found to be in conjunction in both calves and goats (6/102; 5.9% each). Our data show that in Egypt, large and small ruminants could be a potential source of infection in humans.

  12. Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order models

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew F.; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.

    2014-12-15

    Our paper aims to unify and extend several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs) using the energy method and the concept of “energy-stability”. Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. First, an approach for building energy stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) using continuous projection is proposed. The key idea is to apply to the system a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The result of this procedure will be a ROM that is energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special inner product, termed the “symmetry inner product”. Next, attention is turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, termed the “Lyapunov inner product”, is derived. Moreover, it is shown that the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system ari sing from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. Projection in this inner product guarantees a ROM that is energy-stable, again for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. We also made comparisons between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. Performance of ROMs constructed using these inner products is evaluated on several benchmark test cases.

  13. Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order models

    DOE PAGES

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew F.; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; ...

    2014-12-15

    Our paper aims to unify and extend several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs) using the energy method and the concept of “energy-stability”. Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. First, an approach for building energy stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) using continuous projection is proposed. The key idea is to apply to the system a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The result of this procedure will be a ROM that is energy-stablemore » for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special inner product, termed the “symmetry inner product”. Next, attention is turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, termed the “Lyapunov inner product”, is derived. Moreover, it is shown that the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system ari sing from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. Projection in this inner product guarantees a ROM that is energy-stable, again for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. We also made comparisons between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. Performance of ROMs constructed using these inner products is evaluated on several benchmark test cases.« less

  14. Role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells during experimental otitis media in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chang Gun; Gong, Sung Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Joo Hyun; Lim, Yun-Sung; Park, Seok-Won

    2016-09-01

    and IL-22 seemed to be lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. The results suggest that LTi cells release IL-17 and IL-22, and play a significant role in both the early phase of OM induction and recovery from it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A predicts survival in end-stage renal disease-confounding and modifying effects of cardiovascular disease, body composition and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Erik; Cao, Yang; Lindholm, Bengt; Ohyama, Ayane; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2017-07-24

    High pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels are linked to atherosclerosis and associate with increased mortality in prevalent dialysis patients. We investigated associations of PAPP-A, measured at dialysis initiation, with cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors and mortality in incident dialysis patients, and explored if body composition and inflammation modulated these associations. Baseline plasma PAPP-A levels, inflammation biomarkers and body composition, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were measured in 286 incident dialysis patients. Primary outcome was survival during 60 months follow-up. Quantile (median) regression was used for cross-sectional analysis and Kaplan-Meier diagrams and Cox proportional hazards regression for survival analysis. In cross-sectional analysis adjusted for age and sex, PAPP-A levels were associated with lean tissue index (LTI) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) but not with fat tissue index (FTI) or history of CVD. In a model also including diabetes mellitus (DM), the association with LTI did not remain statistically significant. When adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and body composition, higher PAPP-A levels showed a moderate but significant association [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1-1.4, P = 0.04] with mortality. When also including hsCRP the association was attenuated (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.99-1.4, P = 0.06). In survival analysis, interactions with PAPP-A on the multiplicative scale were found for hsCRP (HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2, P = 0.004) and DM (HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2, P = 0.01) and with DM and FTI on the additive scale. Higher PAPP-A levels are associated with worse survival in incident dialysis patients following adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors and body composition indices, but not clearly so when adjusted for hsCRP. Inflammation, body composition (FTI) and DM were found to be potential

  16. A multicentric, international matched pair analysis of body composition in peritoneal dialysis versus haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    van Biesen, Wim; Claes, Kathleen; Covic, Adrian; Fan, Stanley; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Schoder, Volker; Verger, Christian; Wabel, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Volume status, lean and fat tissue are gaining interest as prognostic predictors in patients on dialysis. Comparative data in peritoneal dialysis (PD) versus haemodialysis (HD) patients are lacking. In a cohort of PD (EuroBCM) and HD (Euclid database) patients, matched for country, gender, age and dialysis vintage, body composition was assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care). Time-averaged volume overload (TAVO) was defined as the mean of pre- and post-dialysis volume overload (VO), and relative (%) (TA)VO as (TA)VO/ECV. Four hundred and ninety-one matched pairs (55.2% males, median age 60.0 years) were included. The body mass index (BMI, PD = 26.5 ± 4.7 versus HD = 25.9 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.18 in males and 27.4 ± 5.8 versus 27.5 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.75 in females) and fat tissue index (males: 11.5 ± 5.3 versus 11.4 ± 5.4 kg/m(2), P = 0.90, females: 14.8 ± 6.7 versus 15.4 ± 7.2 kg/m(2), P = 0.30) were not different in PD versus HD patients, whereas the lean tissue index (LTI) was higher in PD versus HD patients (males: 14.5 ± 3.4 versus 13.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2), P = 0.001, females: 12.6 ± 3.3 versus 11.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2), P < 0.0001). VO/extracellular water (ECW) was not different between PD versus just before the HD treatment (males: 10.8 ± 12.1 versus 9.2 ± 10.2%, P = 0.09; females: 6.5 ± 10.8 versus 7.7 ± 9.4%, P = 0.19). The relative TAVO was higher in PD versus HD (10.8 ± 12.1% versus 3.2 ± 11.2%, and 6.5 ± 10.8% versus 1.2 ± 10.9%, both P < 0.0001). The LTI was impaired, and this was more in males versus females, but was better preserved on PD versus HD, whereas fat tissue index (FTI) was increased, but not different between PD and HD. Volume overload was more present in PD versus HD when TAVO, but not when predialysis volume status, was used as a reference.

  17. Intestinal Lin- c-Kit+ NKp46- CD4- population strongly produces IL-22 upon IL-1β stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngae; Kumagai, Yutaro; Jang, Min Seong; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Yang, Bo-Gie; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, You-Me; Akira, Shizuo; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2013-05-15

    Small intestinal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and help to prevent pathogenic bacterial infections by producing IL-22. In a global gene-expression analysis comparing small intestinal ILCs (Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-) cells) with non-ILCs (Lin(-)c-Kit(-)Sca-1(-) cells), we found that Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-) cells highly expressed the mRNAs for Il22, antimicrobial peptides, Csf2rb2 (Il3r), mast cell proteases, and Rorc. We then subdivided the Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-) cells into three groups--Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-), Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(+) (CD4(+) LTi-like cells), and Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(+) (NKp46(+) ILC22 cells)--and showed that the Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-) cells produced the highest level of IL-22 protein after IL-1β, IL-23, or IL-1β and IL-23 stimulation. In addition, we showed that the majority of the Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-) population was IL-7Rα(+)CD34(-)β7(int) cells, and IL-7Rα(-) cells could be divided into three subsets (CD34(+)β7(int), CD34(-)β7(int), and CD34(int)β7(hi) cells). The IL-7Rα(+)CD34(-)β7(int) cells strongly expressed the transcripts for Il17f and Il22 after costimulation with IL-1β and IL-23. The IL-7Rα(-)CD34(+)β7(int) and IL-7Rα(-)CD34(int)β7(hi) cells predominantly expressed the transcripts for mast cell proteases and differentiated almost entirely into mast cells after 1 wk in culture medium supplemented with a cytokine mixture, whereas the IL-7Rα(-)CD34(-)β7(int) cells highly expressed α-defensins and showed no differentiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that the IL-7Rα(-)CD34(+)β7(int) and IL-7Rα(-)CD34(int)β7(hi) populations are mast cell progenitors, and the IL-7Rα(+)CD34(-)β7(int) (CD4(-) LTi-like cells) and IL-7Rα(-)CD34(-)β7(int) populations within Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-) cells may control intestinal homeostasis and provide intestinal protection by producing high levels of IL-22 and α-defensins, respectively.

  18. Comparison of the carbohydrate-binding specificities of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins LTh-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuta, S; Magnani, J L; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K; Ginsburg, V

    1988-01-01

    The heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli are related in structure and function. They are oligomers consisting of A and B polypeptide subunits. They bind to gangliosides, and they activate adenylate cyclase. The toxins form two antigenically distinct groups; members of each group cross-react but are not necessarily identical. Serogroup I includes cholera toxin (CT) and type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I) of E. coli. LTh-I and LTp-I are antigenic variants of LT-I produced by strains of E. coli from humans and pigs, respectively. Serogroup II contains the type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) of E. coli. Two antigenic variants designated LT-IIa and LT-IIb have been described. The binding of CT, LTh-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb to gangliosides was analyzed by immunostaining thin-layer chromatograms and by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. The four toxins have different glycolipid-binding specificities. LTh-I and CT bind strongly to ganglioside GM1 and less strongly to ganglioside GD1b. However, LTh-I, unlike CT, also binds weakly to GM2 and asialo GM1. LTh-I, like CT, probably binds to the terminal sugar sequence Gal beta 1-3GalNAc beta 1-4(NeuAc alpha 2-3)Gal . . ., where GalNAc is N-acetylgalactosamine and NeuAc is N-acetylneuraminic acid. LT-IIa probably binds to the same sugar sequence to which CT and LTh-I bind, with the additional contribution to binding of a second NeuAc as in GD1b and GD2. Also, LT-IIa must bind the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc . . . sequence in such a way that its binding is relatively unaffected by attachment of NeuAc to the terminal galactose residue as in GD1a, GT1b, and GQ1b. LT-IIb probably binds to the terminal sugar sequence NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GalNAc . . ., as it binds to gangliosides GD1a and GT1b but not to GM1. Images PMID:3290106

  19. Modeling and Thrust Optimization of a Bio-Inspired Pulsatile Jet Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Michael W.

    -off is coincides with this velocity criterion, for all cases tested. Piston velocity program and nozzle radius are optimized with respect to average thrust, and a quantity similar to propulsive efficiency. The average thrust is maximized by a critical nozzle radius. An approximate linear time-invariant (LTI) model of the thruster vehicle system was derived which categorizes maneuvers into different characteristic regimes. Initial thruster testing showed that open and closed loop frequency response were sufficiently approximated by the LTI model, and that the thruster is ideally suited for small scale high accuracy maneuvers.

  20. Nonlinear time-periodic models of the longitudinal flight dynamics of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Zbikowski, Rafał

    2005-06-22

    Previous studies of insect flight control have been statistical in approach, simply correlating wing kinematics with body kinematics or force production. Kinematics and forces are linked by Newtonian mechanics, so adopting a dynamics-based approach is necessary if we are to place the study of insect flight on its proper physical footing. Here we develop semi-empirical models of the longitudinal flight dynamics of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria. We use instantaneous force-moment measurements from individual locusts to parametrize the nonlinear rigid body equations of motion. Since the instantaneous forces are approximately periodic, we represent them using Fourier series, which are embedded in the equations of motion to give a nonlinear time-periodic (NLTP) model. This is a proper mathematical generalization of an earlier linear-time invariant (LTI) model of locust flight dynamics, developed using previously published time-averaged versions of the instantaneous force recordings. We perform various numerical simulations, within the fitted range of the model, and across the range of body angles used by free-flying locusts, to explore the likely behaviour of the locusts upon release from the tether. Solutions of the NLTP models are compared with solutions of the nonlinear time-invariant (NLTI) models to which they reduce when the periodic terms are dropped. Both sets of models are unstable and therefore fail to explain locust flight stability fully. Nevertheless, whereas the measured forces include statistically significant harmonic content up to about the eighth harmonic, the simulated flight trajectories display no harmonic content above the fundamental forcing frequency. Hence, manoeuvre control in locusts will not directly reflect subtle changes in the higher harmonics of the wing beat, but must operate on a coarser time-scale. A state-space analysis of the NLTP models reveals orbital trajectories that are impossible to capture in the LTI and NLTI models, and

  1. Gain scheduling of aircraft pitch attitude and control of discrete, affine, linear parametrically varying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhe

    This research is motivated by gain scheduling, a technique which has been successfully applied to many nonlinear control problems. In flight controls, the wide variations in the characteristics of the aircraft dynamics throughout the flight envelope make gain scheduling a particularly suitable design strategy. This research consists of two parts: (1) aircraft pitch attitude scheduling scheme designs, and (2) control of a class of linear parametrically varying (LPV) systems. In the first part, the classical gain scheduling technique and the single quadratic Lyapunov function (SQLF) based LPV technique are investigated. In the classical gain scheduling design, the Hinfinity mixed sensitivity GS/T method is chosen for local linear time invariant (LTI) designs to provide robustness to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties. Following a model reduction procedure that exploits the optimal controller structure, LTI controllers designed at the selected equilibrium points are reduced to second order controllers and realized in a feedback path configuration. Such controllers are shown to retain the superior robust performance at each flight condition, while having a low order that is amenable to scheduling. A gain-scheduling law is developed and simulation results verify that the closed-loop performance specifications are met. In the LPV design, the mixed sensitivity S/KS/T design setup is used. An approximation to the original LPV controller using the linear fractional transformation (LFT) representation is constructed. Our design exhibits potential applications of the LPV technique to commercial aircraft gain scheduling designs. In the second part, we consider a class of discrete, affine, linear parametrically varying (DALPV) systems. For this type of systems, the parameters are assumed to vary in a polytope and the state space matrices are assumed to depend affinely on the varying parameters. A sufficient condition is derived to analyze the stability and the

  2. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Floral Buds of Pineapple and Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Response to Ethephon Induction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuan-He; Fan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable characteristic of pineapple is its ability to undergo floral induction in response to external ethylene stimulation. However, little information is available regarding the molecular mechanism underlying this process. In this study, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in plants exposed to 1.80 mL·L−1 (T1) or 2.40 mL·L−1 ethephon (T2) compared with Ct plants (control, cleaning water) were identified using RNA-seq and gene expression profiling. Illumina sequencing generated 65,825,224 high-quality reads that were assembled into 129,594 unigenes with an average sequence length of 1173 bp. Of these unigenes, 24,775 were assigned to specific KEGG pathways, of which metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were the most highly represented. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the annotated unigenes revealed that the majority were involved in metabolic and cellular processes, cell and cell part, catalytic activity and binding. Gene expression profiling analysis revealed 3788, 3062, and 758 DEGs in the comparisons of T1 with Ct, T2 with Ct, and T2 with T1, respectively. GO analysis indicated that these DEGs were predominantly annotated to metabolic and cellular processes, cell and cell part, catalytic activity, and binding. KEGG pathway analysis revealed the enrichment of several important pathways among the DEGs, including metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and plant hormone signal transduction. Thirteen DEGs were identified as candidate genes associated with the process of floral induction by ethephon, including three ERF-like genes, one ETR-like gene, one LTI-like gene, one FT-like gene, one VRN1-like gene, three FRI-like genes, one AP1-like gene, one CAL-like gene, and one AG-like gene. qPCR analysis indicated that the changes in the expression of these 13 candidate genes were consistent with the alterations in the corresponding RPKM values, confirming the accuracy and credibility of the RNA-seq and gene

  3. Construction of energy-stable Galerkin reduced order models.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf

    2013-05-01

    This report aims to unify several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs). Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The model reduction procedure consists of two steps: the computation of a reduced basis, and the projection of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) onto this reduced basis. Two kinds of reduced bases are considered: the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis and the balanced truncation basis. The projection step of the model reduction can be done in two ways: via continuous projection or via discrete projection. First, an approach for building energy-stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of PDEs using continuous projection is proposed. The idea is to apply to the set of PDEs a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The resulting ROM will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special weighted L2 inner product, termed the %E2%80%9Csymmetry inner product%E2%80%9D. Attention is then turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, a weighted L2 inner product termed the %E2%80%9CLyapunov inner product%E2%80%9D, is derived. The weighting matrix that defines the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. It is shown that a ROM constructed via discrete projection using the Lyapunov inner product will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. Comparisons are also made between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. The performance of ROMs constructed

  4. [Innate Lymphoid Cells: new actors of immunity].

    PubMed

    Cypowyj, Sophie; Vivier, Éric

    2016-03-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A new group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphoid tissue--inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as interferon-γ). (IFN-γ). Advances in our understanding of NK cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens in the absence of specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples.

  5. The Yin and Yang of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrega, Paolo; Campana, Stefania; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2016-11-01

    The recent appreciation of novel subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as important regulators of tissue homeostasis, inflammation and repair, raise questions regarding the presence and role of these cells in cancer tissues. In addition to natural killer and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, the ILC family comprises non-cytolytic, cytokine-producing cells that are classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 based on phenotypic and functional characteristics. Differently from natural killer cells, which are the prototypical members of ILC1 and whose role in tumors is better established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression or resistance is still fuzzy and in several instances controversial, since current studies indicate both context-dependent beneficial or pathogenic effects. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of these novel ILC subsets in the context of tumor immunology, highlighting how ILC subsets might behave either as friends or foes. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser Shearography Inspection of TPS (Thermal Protection System) Cork on RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingbloom, Mike; Plaia, Jim; Newman, John

    2006-01-01

    Laser Shearography is a viable inspection method for detection of de-bonds and voids within the external TPS (thermal protection system) on to the Space Shuttle RSRM (reusable solid rocket motors). Cork samples with thicknesses up to 1 inch were tested at the LTI (Laser Technology Incorporated) laboratory using vacuum-applied stress in a vacuum chamber. The testing proved that the technology could detect cork to steel un-bonds using vacuum stress techniques in the laboratory environment. The next logical step was to inspect the TPS on a RSRM. Although detailed post flight inspection has confirmed that ATK Thiokol's cork bonding technique provides a reliable cork to case bond, due to the Space Shuttle Columbia incident there is a great interest in verifying bond-lines on the external TPS. This interest provided and opportunity to inspect a RSRM motor with Laser Shearography. This paper will describe the laboratory testing and RSRM testing that has been performed to date. Descriptions of the test equipment setup and techniques for data collection and detailed results will be given. The data from the test show that Laser Shearography is an effective technology and readily adaptable to inspect a RSRM.

  7. WIRC-POL: A near-IR spectro-polarimetric imager at Palomar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Ricky; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Mawet, Dimitri; Knutson, Heather; WIRC-POL Team

    2017-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory is the largest equatorial-mounted telescope in the world. Combining a large aperture, extremely stable tracking, and no differential motion of optics, it introduces low and stable instrument polarization, making it uniquely suited for time-resolved polarimetry. Its prime focus currently hosts the Wide-field InfraRed Camera (WIRC), which is being refurbished with a new H2 detector, 32 channel readout electronics, grism, focal-plane mask and polarization grating. This will transform it into WIRC-POL — a machine for high-precision photometry, and slitless low-resolution (R~150) spectroscopy and spectro-polarimetry. Two key science programs are starting in 2017: (1) a large spectro-polarimetric survey of approximately 1000 LTY field brown dwarfs, probing atmospheric composition, physical properties, and cloud dynamics at the L-T transition, and (2) a survey of transiting exoplanets, using the high photometric stability and slitless spectroscopy mode to characterize exoplanet atmospheres from spectra obtained in transit and secondary eclipse, and search for transit-timing variations in multiple planet systems. Here we present an overview of the instrument upgrades and the exciting scientific questions we aim to address.

  8. Innate lymphoid cells sustain colon cancer through production of interleukin-22 in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kirchberger, Stefanie; Royston, Daniel J; Boulard, Olivier; Thornton, Emily; Franchini, Fanny; Szabady, Rose L; Harrison, Oliver; Powrie, Fiona

    2013-05-06

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of colon cancer. However, the immune cells and cytokines that mediate the transition from intestinal inflammation to cancer are poorly understood. We show that bacteria-induced colon cancer is accompanied by differential accumulation of IL-17(+)IL-22(+) colonic innate lymphoid cells (cILCs), which are phenotypically distinct from LTi and NK-22 cells, and that their depletion in mice with dysplastic inflammation blocks the development of invasive colon cancer. Analysis of the functional role of distinct Type 17 cytokines shows that although blockade of IL-17 inhibits some parameters of intestinal inflammation, reduction in dysplasia and colorectal cancer (CRC) requires neutralization of IL-22 indicating a unique role for IL-22 in the maintenance of cancer in this model. Mechanistic analyses showed that IL-22 selectively acts on epithelial cells to induce Stat3 phosphorylation and proliferation. Importantly, we could detect IL-22(+)CD3(+) and IL-22(+)CD3(−) cells in human CRC. Our results describe a new activity of IL-22 in the colon as a nonredundant mediator of the inflammatory cascade required for perpetuation of CRC, highlighting the IL-22 axis as a novel therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  9. Carleman Estimates with No Lower-Order Terms for General Riemann Wave Equations. Global Uniqueness and Observability in One Shot

    SciTech Connect

    Triggiani, R.; Yao, P.F.

    2002-12-19

    This paper considers a fully general (Riemann) wave equation on a finite-dimensional Riemannian manifold, with energy level (H{sup 1} x L{sub 2}) -terms, under essentially minimal smoothness assumptions on the variable (in time and space) coefficients. The paper provides Carleman-type inequalities: first pointwise, for C{sup 2} -solutions, then in integral form for H{sup 1,1}(Q) -solutions. The aim of the present approach is to provide Carleman inequalities which do not contain lower-order terms, a distinguishing feature over most of the literature. Accordingly, global uniqueness results for overdetermined problems as well as Continuous Observability/ Uniform Stabilization inequalities follow in one shot, as a part of the same stream of arguments. Constants in the estimates are, therefore, generally explicit. The paper emphasizes the more challenging pure Neumann B.C. case. The paper is a generalization from the Euclidean to the Riemannian setting of [LTZ] in the more difficult case of purely Neumann B.C., and of [KK1] in the case of Dirichlet B.C. The approach is Riemann geometric, but different from-indeed, more flexible than-the one in [LTY1].

  10. Synchronization of Lienard-Type Oscillators in Uniform Electrical Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Mohit; Dorfler, Florian; Johnson, Brian B.; Dhople, Sairaj V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a condition for global asymptotic synchronization of Lienard-type nonlinear oscillators in uniform LTI electrical networks with series R-L circuits modeling interconnections. By uniform electrical networks, we mean that the per-unit-length impedances are identical for the interconnecting lines. We derive conditions for global asymptotic synchronization for a particular feedback architecture where the derivative of the oscillator output current supplements the innate current feedback induced by simply interconnecting the oscillator to the network. Our proof leverages a coordinate transformation to a set of differential coordinates that emphasizes signal differences and the particular form of feedback permits the formulation of a quadratic Lyapunov function for this class of networks. This approach is particularly interesting since synchronization conditions are difficult to obtain by means of quadratic Lyapunov functions when only current feedback is used and for networks composed of series R-L circuits. Our synchronization condition depends on the algebraic connectivity of the underlying network, and reiterates the conventional wisdom from Lyapunov- and passivity-based arguments that strong coupling is required to ensure synchronization.

  11. Semi-active tuned liquid column damper implementation with real-time hybrid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riascos, Carlos; Marulanda Casas, Johannio; Thomson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is a modern cyber-physical technique used for the experimental evaluation of complex systems, that treats the system components with predictable behavior as a numerical substructure and the components that are difficult to model as an experimental substructure. Therefore it is an attractive method for evaluation of the response of civil structures under earthquake, wind and anthropic loads. In this paper, the response of three-story shear frame controlled by a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) and subject to base excitation is considered. Both passive and semi-active control strategies were implemented and are compared. While the passive TLCD achieved a reduction of 50% in the acceleration response of the main structure in comparison with the structure without control, the semi-active TLCD achieved a reduction of 70%, and was robust to variations in the dynamic properties of the main structure. In addition, a RTHS was implemented with the main structure modeled as a linear, time-invariant (LTI) system through a state space representation and the TLCD, with both control strategies, was evaluated on a shake table that reproduced the displacement of the virtual structure. Current assessment measures for RTHS were used to quantify the performance with parameters such as generalized amplitude, equivalent time delay between the target and measured displacement of the shake table, and energy error using the measured force, and prove that the RTHS described in this paper is an accurate method for the experimental evaluation of structural control systems.

  12. Beyond xMOOCs in healthcare education: study of the feasibility in integrating virtual patient systems and MOOC platforms

    PubMed Central

    Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an emerging trend in online learning. However, their technology is not yet completely adjusted to the needs of healthcare education. Integration of Virtual Patients within MOOCs to increase interactivity and foster clinical reasoning skills training, has been discussed in the past, but not verified by a practical implementation. Objective. To investigate the technical feasibility of integrating MOOCs with Virtual Patients for the purpose of enabling further research into the potential pedagogical benefits of this approach. Methods. We selected OpenEdx and Open Labyrinth as representative constituents of a MOOC platform and Virtual Patient system integration. Based upon our prior experience we selected the most fundamental technical requirement to address. Grounded in the available literature we identified an e-learning standard to guide the integration. We attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of the integration by designing a “proof-of-concept” prototype. The resulting pilot implementation was subject of verification by two test cases. Results. A Single Sign-On mechanism connecting Open Labyrinth with OpenEdx and based on the IMS LTI standard was successfully implemented and verified. Conclusion. We investigated the technical perspective of integrating Virtual Patients with MOOCs. By addressing this crucial technical requirement we set a base for future research on the educational benefits of using virtual patients in MOOCs. This provides new opportunities for integrating specialized software in healthcare education at massive scale. PMID:25405078

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of Ti12M clusters (M=Sc to Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Houqian; Xu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    The geometries, electronic, and magnetic properties of the 3d atom doped icosahedron (ICO) Ti12M (M=Sc to Zn), where a dopant atom replaces either the centra l(Ti12Mc) or surface (Ti12Ms) Ti atom in ICO Ti13 cluster, have been systematically investigated by using the density functional theory. The structures of all the optimized Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms clusters are distorted ICO. Sc, Ni, Cu, and Zn atoms prefer to displace surface Ti atom, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe atoms prefer to displace central Ti atom. The position of impurity atom depends on the strength of the interaction between the central atom and the surface atoms. As compared to the pure Ti13 cluster, Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms (M=V, Fe, Co, and Ni) clusters are more stable, Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms (M=Sc, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) are less stable. Both Ti12Nis and Ti12Nic are magic clusters, which originate from their electronic as well as geometric closed shells. Because the exchange interaction prevails over the crystal field in Ti12M clusters, the valence electrons fill molecular orbitals in terms of Hund's rule of maximum spin.

  14. The chromosomal nature of LT-II enterotoxins solved: a lambdoid prophage encodes both LT-II and one of two novel pertussis-toxin-like toxin family members in type II enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB5 toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins. PMID:26755534

  15. On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

  16. Inspection of fabricated fuselage panels using electronic shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, John, II; Feferman, Ben

    1992-07-01

    The results of a proof of principle demonstration of using electronic shearography to detect induced damage in fabricated aircraft panels are presented. The demonstration was performed at the FAA's Aircraft Panel Test Facility in Waltham, Massachusetts and all shearography equipment and its operational support was provided by Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) under a separate contract from the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The test panels that were inspected using the electronic shearography were constructed to closely simulate the fuselage and skin structure of Boeing 727 and 737 aircraft. These panels contained programmed flaws intended to simulate two major types of defects associated with aging aircraft, namely cracks along fastener rows, and disbonded tear strap doublers and lap joints. The proof of principle consisted of a series of inspections that demonstrated shearography's capability to detect cracks and disbonds in the fuselage panel specimens. The sensitivity of shearography to detect short, simulated fatigue cracks that would correspond to a multiple site damage situation was too low to provide sufficient confidence that the method could economically replace existing eddy current surface methods. The sensitivity of the method to detect panel disbonding, however, is sufficient to encourage further development of the technique.

  17. The chromosomal nature of LT-II enterotoxins solved: a lambdoid prophage encodes both LT-II and one of two novel pertussis-toxin-like toxin family members in type II enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB(5) toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins.

  18. Controller design for delay systems via eigenvalue assignment - on a new result in the distribution of quasi-polynomial roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghai; Liu, Jianchang; Yang, Feisheng; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the eigenvalue distribution of a linear time-invariant (LTI) system with time delays and its application to some controllers design for a delay plant via eigenvalue assignment. First, a new result on the root distribution for a class of quasi-polynomials is developed based on the extension of the Hermite-Biehler theorem. Then, such result is applied to proportional-integral (PI) controller parameter design for a first-order plant with time delay through pole placement. The complete region of PI gains can be obtained so that the rightmost eigenvalues in the infinite eigenspectrum of the closed-loop system with delay plant are assigned to desired positions in the complex plane. Furthermore, on the basis of the previous result, this paper also extended the PI control to the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. It is worth pointing out that this work aims to improve the performance of the closed-loop system on the premise of guaranteeing the stability.

  19. IL-22: An Evolutionary Missing-Link Authenticating the Role of the Immune System in Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Rajasekaran, Kamalakannan; Palmer, Jeanne M; Thakar, Monica S; Malarkannan, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Tissue regeneration is a critical component of organ maintenance. The ability of lymphocytes to kill pathogen-infected cells has been well-studied. However, the necessity for lymphocytes to participate in reconstruction of destroyed tissues has not been explored until recently. Interleukin (IL)-22, a newly defined cytokine exclusively produced by subsets of lymphocytes, provides the strongest proof yet for the tissue regenerative potentials of the immune system. IL-22 plays an obligatory role in epithelial homeostasis in the gut, liver and lung. The receptor for IL-22 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2) is predominantly expressed by epithelial cells. While the pro-inflammatory effect is questioned, the pro-constructive potential of IL-22 is well established. It is evident from the response to IL-22, that epithelial cells not only produce anti-microbial peptides but also actively proliferate. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (RORγt) transcription factor are required for IL-22 generation from Lymphoid Tissue inducer cells LTi, Th22 and NK-like cells. However, IL-22 production from conventional NK cells is independent of AhR and RORγt. In this review, we present a case for a paradigm shift in how we define the function of the immune system. This would include tissue regeneration as a legitimate immune function. PMID:23386905

  20. Non-overshooting stabilisation via state and output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halikias, G.; Papageorgiou, A.; Karcanias, N.

    2010-06-01

    The concept of 'strong stability' of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems has been introduced in a recent paper (Karcanias, N., Halikias, G., and Papageorgiou, A. (2010), 'Strong Stability of Internal System Descriptions', International Journal of Control, 83, 182-205). This is a stronger notion of stability compared to alternative definitions (e.g. stability in the sense of Lyapunov, asymptotic stability), which allows the analysis and design of control systems with non-overshooting response in the state-space for arbitrary initial conditions. This article reviews the notion of 'strong stability' (Karcanias et al. 2010) and introduces the problem of non-overshooting stabilisation. It is shown that non-overshooting stabilisation under dynamic and static output feedback are, in a certain sense, equivalent problems. Thus, we turn our attention to static non-overshooting stabilisation problems under state-feedback, output injection and output feedback. After developing a number of preliminary results, we give a geometric interpretation to the problem in terms of the intersection of an affine hyperplane and the interior of an open convex cone. A solution to the problem is finally obtained via linear matrix inequalities, along with the complete parameterisation of the optimal solution set.

  1. Fearfulness affects quail maternal care and subsequent offspring development.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Le Bot, Océane; Leterrier, Christine; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird's fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI) or low fearfulness (STI). Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks' fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects.

  2. CX(3)CR1(+) macrophages support IL-22 production by innate lymphoid cells during infection with Citrobacter rodentium.

    PubMed

    Manta, C; Heupel, E; Radulovic, K; Rossini, V; Garbi, N; Riedel, C U; Niess, J H

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells, dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, granulocytes, and innate lymphoid cells provide a first line of defence to enteric pathogens. To study the role of CX(3)CR1(+) DCs and macrophages in host defence, we infected CX(3)CR1-GFP animals with Citrobacter rodentium. When transgenic CX(3)CR1-GFP animals are infected with the natural mouse pathogen C. rodentium, CX(3)CR1(-/-) animals showed a delayed clearance of C. rodentium as compared with (age- and sex-matched) wild-type B6 animals. The delayed clearance of C. rodentium is associated with reduced interleukin (IL)-22 expression. In C. rodentium-infected CX(3)CR1-GFP animals, IL-22 producing lymphoid-tissue inducer cells (LTi cells) were selectively reduced in the absence of CX(3)CR1. The reduced IL-22 expression correlates with decreased expression of the antimicrobial peptides RegIIIβ and RegIIIγ. The depletion of CX(3)CR1(+) cells by diphtheria toxin injection in CX(3)CR1-GFP × CD11c.DOG animals confirmed the role of CX(3)CR1(+) phagocytes in establishing IL-22 production, supporting the clearance of a C. rodentium infection.

  3. 4-(Nitrophenylsulfonyl)piperazines mitigate radiation damage to multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Micewicz, Ewa D.; Kim, Kwanghee; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Cheng, Genhong; Boxx, Gayle M.; Damoiseaux, Robert D.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Ruchala, Piotr; Nguyen, Christine; Purbey, Prabhat; Loo, Joseph; Deng, Gang; Jung, Michael E.; Sayre, James W.; Norris, Andrew J.; McBride, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to use ionizing radiation as an energy source, as a therapeutic agent, and, unfortunately, as a weapon, has evolved tremendously over the past 120 years, yet our tool box to handle the consequences of accidental and unwanted radiation exposure remains very limited. We have identified a novel group of small molecule compounds with a 4-nitrophenylsulfonamide (NPS) backbone in common that dramatically decrease mortality from the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (hARS). The group emerged from an in vitro high throughput screen (HTS) for inhibitors of radiation-induced apoptosis. The lead compound also mitigates against death after local abdominal irradiation and after local thoracic irradiation (LTI) in models of subacute radiation pneumonitis and late radiation fibrosis. Mitigation of hARS is through activation of radiation-induced CD11b+Ly6G+Ly6C+ immature myeloid cells. This is consistent with the notion that myeloerythroid-restricted progenitors protect against WBI-induced lethality and extends the possible involvement of the myeloid lineage in radiation effects. The lead compound was active if given to mice before or after WBI and had some anti-tumor action, suggesting that these compounds may find broader applications to cancer radiation therapy. PMID:28732024

  4. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells-new members of the "type 2 franchise" that mediate allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2012-05-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are members of an ILC family, which contains NK cells and Rorγt(+) ILCs, the latter including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and ILCs producing IL-17 and IL-22. ILC2s are dedicated to the production of IL-5 and IL-13 and, as such, ILC2s provide an early and important source of type 2 cytokines critical for helminth expulsion in the gut. Several studies have also demonstrated a role for ILC2s in airway inflammation. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Klein Wolterink et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 1106-1116] show that ILC2s are instrumental in several models of experimental asthma where they significantly contribute to production of IL-5 and IL-13, key cytokines in airway inflammation. This study sheds light over the relative contribution of ILC2s versus T helper type 2 cells (Th2) in type 2 mediated allergen-specific inflammation in the airways as discussed in this commentary.

  5. Patterns of food and nutrient consumption in northern Iran, a high-risk area for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Malekshah, Akbar Fazeltabar; Kimiagar, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Wakefield, Jon; Goglani, Goharshad; Rakhshani, Nasser; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Salahi, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate patterns of food and nutrient consumption in Golestan province, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer (EC) in northern Iran. Twelve 24-h dietary recalls were administered during a 1-yr period to 131 healthy participants in a pilot cohort study. We compare here nutrient intake in Golestan with recommended daily allowances (RDAs) and lowest threshold intakes (LTIs). We also compare the intake of 27 food groups and nutrients among several population subgroups using mean values from the 12 recalls. Rural women had a very low level of vitamin intake, which was even lower than LTIs (P < 0.01). Daily intake of vitamins A and C was lower than LTI in 67% and 73% of rural women, respectively. Among rural men, the vitamin intakes were not significantly different from LTIs. Among urban women, the vitamin intakes were significantly lower than RDAs but were significantly higher than LTIs. Among urban men, the intakes were not significantly different from RDAs. Compared to urban dwellers, intake of most food groups and nutrients, including vitamins, was significantly lower among rural dwellers. In terms of vitamin intake, no significant difference was observed between Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnics. The severe deficiency in vitamin intake among women and rural dwellers and marked differences in nutrient intake between rural and urban dwellers may contribute to the observed epidemiological pattern of EC in Golestan, with high incidence rates among women and people with low socioeconomic status and the highest incidence rate among rural women.

  6. Distributed consensus observer-based H∞ control for linear systems with sensor and actuator networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Du; Wu, Huai-Ning

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposed a distributed consensus observer (DCO) based H∞ control method for a class of linear time-invariant (LTI) continuous systems with a sensor and actuator network (SAN). The communication topology of the SAN under consideration is represented by a directed graph, in which the sensor nodes are not able to acquire all the control inputs applied to the target system from the actuator nodes. To overcome this difficulty, a set of novel DCOs embedded in the sensor nodes and a set of DCO-based controllers embedded in the actuator nodes are initially constructed to estimate and control the state of the target system in a fully distributed way, respectively. The constructed DCOs take full advantage of their consensus property and replace the unavailable control inputs with the approximate ones computed on the basis of the state estimates of the underlying sensor node and its neighboring sensor nodes. Subsequently, a design method of DCO-based H∞ control is proposed in terms of bilinear matrix inequality (BMI) to ensure that the closed-loop system is exponentially stable while satisfying a prescribed overall H∞ performance of disturbance attenuation. Moreover, in order to make attenuation level as small as possible, a suboptimal H∞ control design problem is formulated as a BMI optimization problem, and a modified path-following method is provided for solving this problem by using the existing linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization techniques. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Beyond xMOOCs in healthcare education: study of the feasibility in integrating virtual patient systems and MOOC platforms.

    PubMed

    Stathakarou, Natalia; Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an emerging trend in online learning. However, their technology is not yet completely adjusted to the needs of healthcare education. Integration of Virtual Patients within MOOCs to increase interactivity and foster clinical reasoning skills training, has been discussed in the past, but not verified by a practical implementation. Objective. To investigate the technical feasibility of integrating MOOCs with Virtual Patients for the purpose of enabling further research into the potential pedagogical benefits of this approach. Methods. We selected OpenEdx and Open Labyrinth as representative constituents of a MOOC platform and Virtual Patient system integration. Based upon our prior experience we selected the most fundamental technical requirement to address. Grounded in the available literature we identified an e-learning standard to guide the integration. We attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of the integration by designing a "proof-of-concept" prototype. The resulting pilot implementation was subject of verification by two test cases. Results. A Single Sign-On mechanism connecting Open Labyrinth with OpenEdx and based on the IMS LTI standard was successfully implemented and verified. Conclusion. We investigated the technical perspective of integrating Virtual Patients with MOOCs. By addressing this crucial technical requirement we set a base for future research on the educational benefits of using virtual patients in MOOCs. This provides new opportunities for integrating specialized software in healthcare education at massive scale.

  8. Follicular Dendritic Cells Emerge from Ubiquitous Perivascular Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Krautler, Nike Julia; Kana, Veronika; Kranich, Jan; Tian, Yinghua; Perera, Dushan; Lemm, Doreen; Schwarz, Petra; Armulik, Annika; Browning, Jeffrey L.; Tallquist, Michelle; Buch, Thorsten; Oliveira-Martins, José B.; Zhu, Caihong; Hermann, Mario; Wagner, Ulrich; Brink, Robert; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Summary The differentiation of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) is essential to the remarkable microanatomic plasticity of lymphoid follicles. Here we show that FDC arise from ubiquitous perivascular precursors (preFDC) expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ). PDGFRβ-Cre-driven reporter gene recombination resulted in FDC labeling, whereas conditional ablation of PDGFRβ+-derived cells abolished FDC, indicating that FDC originate from PDGFRβ+ cells. Lymphotoxin-α-overexpressing prion protein (PrP)+ kidneys developed PrP+ FDC after transplantation into PrP mice, confirming that preFDC exist outside lymphoid organs. Adipose tissue-derived PDGFRβ+ stromal-vascular cells responded to FDC maturation factors and, when transplanted into lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) kidney capsules, differentiated into Mfge8+CD21/35+ FcγRIIβ+PrP+ FDC capable of trapping immune complexes and recruiting B cells. Spleens of lymphocyte-deficient mice contained perivascular PDGFRβ+ FDC precursors whose expansion required both lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and lymphotoxin. The ubiquity of preFDC and their strategic location at blood vessels may explain the de novo generation of organized lymphoid tissue at sites of lymphocytic inflammation. PMID:22770220

  9. A generalized smith predictor for unstable time-delay SISO systems.

    PubMed

    Sanz, R; García, P; Albertos, P

    2017-10-04

    In this work, a generalization of the Smith Predictor (SP) is proposed to control linear time-invariant (LTI) time-delay single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Similarly to the SP, the combination of any stabilizing output-feedback controller for the delay-free system with the proposed predictor leads to a stabilizing controller for the delayed system. Furthermore, the tracking performance and the steady-state disturbance rejection capabilities of the equivalent delay-free loop are preserved. In order to place this contribution in context, some modifications of the SP are revisited and recast under the same structure. The features of the proposed scheme are illustrated through simulations, showing a comparison with respect to the corresponding delay-free loop, which is here considered to be the ideal scenario. In order to emphasize the feasibility of this approach, a successful experimental implementation in a laboratory platform is also reported. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consensus+Innovations Distributed Kalman Filter With Optimized Gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhro; Moura, Jose M. F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the distributed filtering and prediction of time-varying random fields represented by linear time-invariant (LTI) dynamical systems. The field is observed by a sparsely connected network of agents/sensors collaborating among themselves. We develop a Kalman filter type consensus+innovations distributed linear estimator of the dynamic field termed as Consensus+Innovations Kalman Filter. We analyze the convergence properties of this distributed estimator. We prove that the mean-squared error of the estimator asymptotically converges if the degree of instability of the field dynamics is within a pre-specified threshold defined as tracking capacity of the estimator. The tracking capacity is a function of the local observation models and the agent communication network. We design the optimal consensus and innovation gain matrices yielding distributed estimates with minimized mean-squared error. Through numerical evaluations, we show that, the distributed estimator with optimal gains converges faster and with approximately 3dB better mean-squared error performance than previous distributed estimators.

  11. Real-Time Adaptive Control of Flow-Induced Cavity Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Cattafesta, Louis N.

    2004-01-01

    An adaptive generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm was formulated and applied to the cavity flow-tone problem. The algorithm employs gradient descent to update the GPC coefficients at each time step. The adaptive control algorithm demonstrated multiple Rossiter mode suppression at fixed Mach numbers ranging from 0.275 to 0.38. The algorithm was also able t o maintain suppression of multiple cavity tones as the freestream Mach number was varied over a modest range (0.275 to 0.29). Controller performance was evaluated with a measure of output disturbance rejection and an input sensitivity transfer function. The results suggest that disturbances entering the cavity flow are colocated with the control input at the cavity leading edge. In that case, only tonal components of the cavity wall-pressure fluctuations can be suppressed and arbitrary broadband pressure reduction is not possible. In the control-algorithm development, the cavity dynamics are treated as linear and time invariant (LTI) for a fixed Mach number. The experimental results lend support this treatment.

  12. Irradiation behavior of Ti-stabilized 316L type steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodchenkov, B. S.; Kalinin, G. M.; Strebkov, Yu. S.; Shamardin, V. K.; Prokhorov, V. I.; Bulanova, T. M.

    2009-04-01

    Type 316L austenitic steels are widely used for the in-vessel internal structures of fission reactors (core, core support, etc.) and for experimental irradiation facilities. The modifications of 316L Type steel (316L, 316L(N), US 316, J 316, JPCA, etc.) have been considered as structural material for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The results of investigation the irradiation behaviour of Ti-stabilized 316 L type steel (0.04 C-15 Cr-11 Ni-2.5 Mo-0.5 Ti) are presented in this work. The specimens cut out from 316L-Ti steel forging were irradiated in the SM-2 reactor up to a dose ˜4 and 10 dpa at 265 ± 15 °C. The tensile properties, fracture toughness and changes in resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been investigated after irradiation. The results for Ti-stabilized 316L steel were compared with those for 316L(N)-IG steel irradiated at the same condition.

  13. Fearfulness Affects Quail Maternal Care and Subsequent Offspring Development

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Le Bot, Océane; Leterrier, Christine; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird’s fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI) or low fearfulness (STI). Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks’ fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects. PMID:25033292

  14. Reverberation time measurement using integrated impulse response and sweep sine excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabuco, Marco; Brando, Paulo

    2002-11-01

    As the capacity and speed of digital processing systems becomes much higher, the integrated impulsive response for reverberation time measurements by the indirect method also becomes more feasible and faster. The MLS technique to obtain the impulse response for LTI has been developed during the last several years and it is very well reported by the bibliography. Some frequency analyzers available in the market are capable to generate and process MLS to get the impulse responses very easily. Sometimes, when the room to be tested is very reverberant, sequences of higher order and a certain number of average are necessary to assure acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. The sweep sine technique or the deconvolution method to obtain impulsive responses presents many new advantages, most of them still reported in various technical documents. This paper presents the results of application of this technique to measure the reverberation time in two different reverberation rooms. Comparisons with MLS, ensemble, and reverberation time averages are presented. The sweep sine technique repeatability was verified in a reverberation chamber for a polyurethane foam sample and showed smaller standard deviations when compared with other techniques. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  15. The Quest for an HIV-1 Vaccine Adjuvant: Bacterial Toxins as New Potential Platforms.

    PubMed

    Nashar, Toufic O

    2014-06-01

    While tremendous efforts are undergoing towards finding an effective HIV-1 vaccine, the search for an HIV-1 vaccine adjuvant lags behind and is understudied. More recently, however, efforts have focused on testing adjuvant formulations that can boost the immune response and generate broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 ENV (gp160). Despite this, there remain a number of challenges towards achieving this goal. These include safety of adjuvant formulations; stability of the incorporated antigens; maintenance of ENV immunogenicity; optimal inoculation sites; the effective combination of adjuvants; stability of ENV neutralizing epitopes in some adjuvant formulations; mucosal immunity; and long-term maintenance of the immune response. A new class of adjuvants for HIV-1 proteins is suggested to overcome many of the limitations of some other adjuvants. Type 1 (LT-I) and type 2 (LT-II) human E. coli enterotoxins (HLTs) and their non-toxic B-subunits derivatives are strong systemic and mucosal adjuvants and effective carriers for other proteins and epitopes. Their stable molecular structure in the presence of fused proteins and epitopes, and their ability to target surface receptors on antigen presenting cells make them ideal for the delivery of HIV-1 ENV or HIV other proteins. Importantly, unlike some other adjuvants, HLTs and derivatives have well-defined modes of immune system activation. The challenges in finding optimal HIV-1 vaccine adjuvant formulation and the important properties of HLTs are discussed.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-PHASE AND MULTI-COMPONENT FLOW MODEL WITH REACTION IN POROUS MEDIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT ON SOIL CONTAMINATION DUE TO MINERAL OIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Nishiwaki, Junko; Hara, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Sugai, Yuichi; Komai, Takeshi

    In late years, soil contamination due to mineral oil in vacant lots of oil factory and oil field has become obvious. Measure for soil contamina tion and risk assessment are neces sary for sustainable development of industrial activity. Especially, in addition to contaminated sites, various exposure paths for human body such as well water, soil and farm crop are supposed. So it is very important to comprehend the transport phenomena of contaminated material under the environments of soil and ground water. In this study, mineral oil as c ontaminated material consisting of mu lti-component such as aliphatic and aromatic series was modeled. Then numerical mode l for transport phenomena in surface soil and aquifer was constructed. On the basis of modeling for mineral oil, our numerical model consists of three-phase (oil, water and gas) forty three-component. This numerical model becomes base program for risk assessment system on soil contamination due to mineral oil. Using this numerical model, we carried out some numerical simulation for a laboratory-scale experiment on oil-water multi-phase flow. Relative permeability that dominate flow behavior in multi-phase condition was formulated and the validity of the numerical model developed in this study was considered.

  17. Adaptive cruise control with stop&go function using the state-dependent nonlinear model predictive control approach.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Payman; Ordys, Andrzej; Askari, Mohamad R

    2012-09-01

    In the design of adaptive cruise control (ACC) system two separate control loops - an outer loop to maintain the safe distance from the vehicle traveling in front and an inner loop to control the brake pedal and throttle opening position - are commonly used. In this paper a different approach is proposed in which a single control loop is utilized. The objective of the distance tracking is incorporated into the single nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) by extending the original linear time invariant (LTI) models obtained by linearizing the nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicle. This is achieved by introducing the additional states corresponding to the relative distance between leading and following vehicles, and also the velocity of the leading vehicle. Control of the brake and throttle position is implemented by taking the state-dependent approach. The model demonstrates to be more effective in tracking the speed and distance by eliminating the necessity of switching between the two controllers. It also offers smooth variation in brake and throttle controlling signal which subsequently results in a more uniform acceleration of the vehicle. The results of proposed method are compared with other ACC systems using two separate control loops. Furthermore, an ACC simulation results using a stop&go scenario are shown, demonstrating a better fulfillment of the design requirements.

  18. Performance limitations of networked control systems with quantization and packet dropouts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Xian-He; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Li; Yan, Huai-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the problem of optimal tracking performance of networked control systems (NCSs) with quantization and packet-dropouts. The system under consideration is linear time-invariant (LTI), multi-input multi-output (MIMO), where an H2 norm of error signal between the reference input and the system output is used as the tracking performance index. The impacts of packet-dropouts in the communication channel and the quantized input and output are studied. The goal is to obtain the minimal error in tracking a random signal, by searching through all possible stabilizing two-parameter controllers. It is shown that, the minimum value of tracking error is closely related to the reference input signal direction, the non-minimum phase zeros and unstable poles of the given plant, including the locations and directions. We also demonstrated the quantization error and the packet-dropouts may degrade the tracking performance. A typical example is given to evaluate the theoretical results.

  19. Nfil3 is crucial for development of innate lymphoid cells and host protection against intestinal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Theresa L.; Abt, Michael C.; Gasteiger, Georg; Firth, Matthew A.; O’Connor, Margaret H.; Geary, Clair D.; O’Sullivan, Timothy E.; van den Brink, Marcel R.; Pamer, Eric G.; Hanash, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor Nfil3 (also known as E4BP4) is required for the development of natural killer (NK) cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s). We find that Nfil3 plays a critical role in the development of other mucosal tissue-associated innate lymphocytes. Type 3 ILCs (ILC3s), including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)–like cells, are severely diminished in both numbers and function in Nfil3-deficient mice. Using mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, we demonstrate that Nfil3 is critical for normal development of gut-associated ILC3s in a cell-intrinsic manner. Furthermore, Nfil3 deficiency severely compromises intestinal innate immune defense against acute bacterial infection with Citrobacter rodentium and Clostridium difficile. Nfil3 deficiency resulted in a loss of the recently identified ILC precursor, yet conditional ablation of Nfil3 in the NKp46+ ILC3 subset did not perturb ILC3 numbers, suggesting that Nfil3 is required early during ILC3 development but not for lineage maintenance. Lastly, a marked defect in type 2 ILCs (ILC2s) was also observed in the lungs and visceral adipose tissue of Nfil3-deficient mice, revealing a general requirement for Nfil3 in the development of all ILC lineages. PMID:25113970

  20. Elastic Model Transitions: A Hybrid Approach Utilizing Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannan, Mike R.; Jurenko, Robert J.; Bush, Jason; Ottander, John

    2014-01-01

    A method for transitioning linear time invariant (LTI) models in time varying simulation is proposed that utilizes a hybrid approach for determining physical displacements by augmenting the original quadratically constrained least squares (LSQI) algorithm with Direct Shape Mapping (DSM) and modifying the energy constraints. The approach presented is applicable to simulation of the elastic behavior of launch vehicles and other structures that utilize discrete LTI finite element model (FEM) derived mode sets (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) that are propagated throughout time. The time invariant nature of the elastic data presents a problem of how to properly transition elastic states from the prior to the new model while preserving motion across the transition and ensuring there is no truncation or excitation of the system. A previous approach utilizes a LSQI algorithm with an energy constraint to effect smooth transitions between eigenvector sets with no requirement that the models be of similar dimension or have any correlation. This approach assumes energy is conserved across the transition, which results in significant non-physical transients due to changing quasi-steady state energy between mode sets, a phenomenon seen when utilizing a truncated mode set. The computational burden of simulating a full mode set is significant so a subset of modes is often selected to reduce run time. As a result of this truncation, energy between mode sets may not be constant and solutions across transitions could produce non-physical transients. In an effort to abate these transients an improved methodology was developed based on the aforementioned approach, but this new approach can handle significant changes in energy across mode set transitions. It is proposed that physical velocities due to elastic behavior be solved for using the LSQI algorithm, but solve for displacements using a two-step process that independently addresses the quasi-steady-state and non

  1. Reduced Order Modeling for Prediction and Control of Large-Scale Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Barone, Matthew Franklin; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2014-05-01

    -Stokes equations is derived, and it is demonstrated that if a Galerkin ROM is constructed in this inner product, the ROM system energy will be bounded in a way that is consistent with the behavior of the exact solution to these PDEs, i.e., the ROM will be energy-stable. The viability of the linear as well as nonlinear continuous projection model reduction approaches developed as a part of this project is evaluated on several test cases, including the cavity configuration of interest in the targeted application area. In the second part of this report, some POD/Galerkin approaches for building stable ROMs using discrete projection are explored. It is shown that, for generic linear time-invariant (LTI) systems, a discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product is a weighted L2 inner product obtained by solving a Lyapunov equation. This inner product was first proposed by Rowley et al., and is termed herein the “Lyapunov inner product“. Comparisons between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product are made, and the performance of ROMs constructed using these inner products is evaluated on several benchmark test cases. Also in the second part of this report, a new ROM stabilization approach, termed “ROM stabilization via optimization-based eigenvalue reassignment“, is developed for generic LTI systems. At the heart of this method is a constrained nonlinear least-squares optimization problem that is formulated and solved numerically to ensure accuracy of the stabilized ROM. Numerical studies reveal that the optimization problem is computationally inexpensive to solve, and that the new stabilization approach delivers ROMs that are stable as well as accurate. Summaries of “lessons learned“ and perspectives for future work motivated by this LDRD project are provided at the end of each of the two main chapters.

  2. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-10

    Although various adaptive control techniques have been around for a long time and in spite of successful proofs of stability and even successful demonstrations of performance, the eventual use of adaptive control methodologies in practical real world systems has met a rather strong resistance from practitioners and has remained limited. Apparently, it is difficult to guarantee or even understand the conditions that can guarantee stable operations of adaptive control systems under realistic operational environments. Besides, it is difficult to measure the robustness of adaptive control system stability and allow it to be compared with the common and widely used measure of phase margin and gain margin that is utilized by present, mainly LTI, controllers. Furthermore, customary stability analysis methods seem to imply that the mere stability of adaptive systems may be adversely affected by any tiny deviation from the pretty idealistic and assumably required stability conditions. This paper first revisits the fundamental qualities of customary direct adaptive control methodologies, in particular the classical Model Reference Adaptive Control, and shows that some of their basic drawbacks have been addressed and eliminated within the so-called Simple Adaptive Control methodology. Moreover, recent developments in the stability analysis methods of nonlinear systems show that prior conditions that were customarily assumed to be needed for stability are only apparent and can be eliminated. As a result, sufficient conditions that guarantee stability are clearly stated and lead to similarly clear proofs of stability. As many real-world applications show, once robust stability of the adaptive systems can be guaranteed, the added value of using Add-On Adaptive Control along with classical Control design techniques is pushing the desired performance beyond any previous limits.

  3. Combined herbicide and saline stress differentially modulates hormonal regulation and antioxidant defense system in Oryza sativa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Ali, Basharat; Wang, Jian; Farooq, Muhammad A; Gill, Rafaqat A; Ali, Shafaqat; Wang, Danying; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-10-01

    Plants are simultaneously exposed to a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses in field conditions. Crops respond to the combined stress in a unique way which cannot be understood by extrapolating the results of individual stress. In the present study, effects of individual and combined stress of herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and salinity (NaCl) on two Oryza sativa cultivars (ZJ 88 and XS 134) were investigated. Both herbicide and saline stress affected the plant growth differentially and produced oxidative stress in rice cultivars. Interestingly, the combination of herbicide and salinity showed a significant protection to both rice cultivars by reducing ROS (H2O2, O2(-)) and lipid peroxidation through modulation of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX) and non-enzymatic (TSP, sugars, phenolic and proline) antioxidants. In addition, active regulation of transcript levels of genes encoding Na(+) and K(+) (OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a,b, OsHKT2;1, OsSOS1, OsCNGC1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1) transporter proteins reduced sodium and enhanced potassium accumulation under combined stress, resulted a better growth and ionic homeostasis in both rice cultivars. The production of ABA and IAA was significantly higher in cultivar XS 134 compared to cultivar ZJ 88 under control conditions. However, combined herbicide and saline stress enhanced the accumulation of phytohormones (IAA and ABA) and transcription of ethylene in cultivar ZJ 88, which might be one of the factors responsible for poor salt tolerance in sensitive cultivar. These findings indicated that herbicide application under saline stress confers tolerance to salinity in rice cultivars, likely by reducing oxidative damage, modulating mineral absorption, upgradation of antioxidant defense and by dynamic regulation of key genes involved in Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis in plants.

  4. Prevalence of F107 fimbriae on Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with oedema disease or postweaning diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Imberechts, H; Bertschinger, H U; Stamm, M; Sydler, T; Pohl, P; De Greve, H; Hernalsteens, J P; Van Montagu, M; Lintermans, P

    1994-06-01

    The study comprises fifty 4 to 12 weeks old pigs that died from oedema disease or severe diarrhoea. Smears were prepared from the mucosa of duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and by immunofluorescence F107 fimbrial antigens were detected. E. coli strains were isolated from the intestines and were characterised by slide agglutination (serogroup and F107 fimbriae production), by their cytotoxicity for Vero cells, and by gene amplification (genes coding for the major F107 subunit FedA, the toxin causing oedema disease SLT-IIv, and enterotoxins LTI, STIa and STII). F107 fimbriae were demonstrated in association with E. coli of serogroups O139:K12 and O141:K85a,b but not of serogroup O149:K91:F4a,c. Expression in culture of F107 fimbriae by some isolates gave additional evidence for production of these fimbriae by ETEC strains. The genetic determinant of SLT-Ilv was found in association with F107, and could not be detected in serogroup O149:K91:F4a,c. Gene fedA was demonstrated in two isolates which were devoid of SLT-IIv. Most isolates from cases of oedema disease belonged to serogroup O139:K12 and did not contain enterotoxin genes. Isolates from pigs that suffered from diarrhoea were serotyped O141:K85a,b or O149:K91:F4a,c, and carried at least two enterotoxin genes in their genomes. In a small proportion of the cases F107 antigens were demonstrated in intestinal smears although gene fedA was not detected in the corresponding isolates. The results confirm the importance of F107 fimbriae as virulence factor in oedema disease E. coli strains, but also demonstrate that F107 fimbriae can be found in association with postweaning diarrhoea isolates. In these latter strains enterotoxins were always demonstrated, irrespective of the presence of toxin SLT-IIv.

  5. Notch Signaling Contributes to Liver Inflammation by Regulation of Interleukin-22-Producing Cells in Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Jiu-Ping; Hao, Chun-Qiu; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lin-Xu; Huang, Chang-Xing; Bai, Xue-Fan; Lian, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) induced liver inflammation is not fully elucidated. Notch signaling augmented interleukin (IL)-22 secretion in CD4(+) T cells, and Notch-IL-22 axis fine-tuned inflammatory response. We previously demonstrated a proinflammatory role of IL-22 in HBV infection. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the role of Notch in development of IL-22-producing cells in HBV infection by inhibition of Notch signaling using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT in both hydrodynamic induced HBV-infected mouse model and in peripheral blood cells isolated from patients with HBV infection. mRNA expressions of Notch1 and Notch2 were significantly increased in livers and CD4(+) T cells upon HBV infection. Inhibition of Notch signaling in vivo leaded to the reduction in NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells 22 (ILC22) and lymphoid tissue inducer 4 (LTi4) cells in the liver. This process was accompanied by downregulating the expressions of IL-22 and related proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the liver, as well as blocking the recruitment of antigen-non-specific inflammatory cells into the liver and subsequent liver injury, but did not affect HBV antigens production and IL-22 secretion in the serum. Furthermore, IL-22 production in HBV non-specific cultured CD4(+) T cells, but not HBV-specific CD4(+) T cells, was reduced in response to in vitro inhibition of Notch signaling. In conclusion, Notch siganling appears to be an important mediator of the liver inflammation by modulating hepatic ILC22. The potential proinflammatory effect of Notch-mediated ILC22 may be significant for the development of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of hepatitis B.

  6. Involvement of CBF Transcription Factors in Winter Hardiness in Birch1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Welling, Annikki; Palva, E. Tapio

    2008-01-01

    Cold acclimation of plants involves extensive reprogramming of gene expression. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), three cold-inducible transcriptional activators designated CBF1 to -3/DREB1a to -c have been shown to play an important regulatory role in this acclimation process. Similarly to Arabidopsis, boreal zone trees can increase their freezing tolerance (FT) in response to low temperature during the growing season. However, maximal FT of these trees requires short daylength-induced dormancy development followed by exposure to both low and freezing temperatures. To elucidate the molecular basis of FT in overwintering trees, we characterized the role of birch (Betula pendula) CBF transcription factors in the cold acclimation process. We identified four putative CBF orthologs in a birch expressed sequence tag collection designated BpCBF1 to -4. Ectopic expression of birch CBFs in Arabidopsis resulted in constitutive expression of endogenous CBF target genes and increased FT of nonacclimated transgenic plants. In addition, these plants showed stunted growth and delayed flowering, typical features for CBF-overexpressing plants. Expression analysis in birch showed that BpCBF1 to -4 are low temperature responsive but differentially regulated in dormant and growing plants, the expression being delayed in dormant tissues. Freeze-thaw treatment, simulating wintertime conditions in nature, resulted in strong induction of BpCBF genes during thawing, followed by induction of a CBF target gene, BpLTI36. These results suggest that in addition to their role in cold acclimation during the growing season, birch CBFs appear to contribute to control of winter hardiness in birch. PMID:18467468

  7. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller.

    PubMed

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M A; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.

  8. [Development of an evidence-based managerial decision aid to assist in the provision of secondary medical services in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF)].

    PubMed

    Green, Ilan; Huerta, Michael; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa; Fire, Gil

    2009-04-01

    Increasing global expenditures on health, together with increased patient demand for quality and service, have created a need for health care management tools based on economic and quaLity-based criteria. Despite the recognition of this need, decision-support tools are Lacking. In the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), policy change and budgetary and quality constraints necessitated the development of an evidence-based managerial decision aid, to assist in providing medical services at acceptable quality and availability leveLs, while addressing economic concerns. To develop a decision-support model for the IDF Medical Corps, that balances the conflicting considerations of service avaiLabiLity and cost. The authors developed a manageriaL model to characterize regional secondary medical care, and to compare it to country-wide patterns and to historic regional patterns. Secondary care systems were then analyzed by specialty. Finally, the relative costs of medical encounters for each speciaLty were anaLyzed. Core specialties examined included dermatology, orthopedics and otolaryngology. Two-thirds of all referrals to core specialists were made to intra-organizational resources. Furthermore, several intra-organizationaL clinics were found to have short waiting times and low output indices. In response to the application of the model, IDF Medical Corps policy was updated and suppliers were reprioritized, yielding substantial savings of up to NIS 5.5 million in 2006 alone. This cost saving enabled budgetary reallocation and alternative investment in the emergency and primary health care systems. Applying efficient managerial tools can lead to cost savings and to increased quality and availability of services. These tools must effectively follow changes in the dynamics of the health care system. These changes are to be impLemented rapidly, in order to provide practical guidance for medical administrators and to enable them to infLuence the real-time utiLization of medical

  9. Cu(II) binding by a pH-fractionated fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.K.; Cabaniss, S.E.; MacCarthy, P.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between acidity, Cu(II) binding and sorption to XAD resin was examined using Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). The work was based on the hypothesis that fractions of SRFA eluted from an XAD column at various pH's from 1.0 to 12.0 would show systematic variations in acidity and possibly aromaticity which in turn would lead to different Cu(II) binding properties. We measured equilibrium Cu(II) binding to these fractions using Cu2+ ion-selective electrode (ISE) potentiometry at pH 6.0. Several model ligands were also examined, including cyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (CP-TCA) and tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THF-TCA), the latter binding Cu(II) much more strongly as a consequence of the ether linkage. The SRFA Cu(II) binding properties agreed with previous work at high ionic strength, and binding was enhanced substantially at lower ionic strength, in agreement with Poisson-Boltzmann predictions for small spheres. Determining Cu binding constants (K(i)) by non-linear regression with total ligand concentrations (L(Ti)) taken from previous work, the fractions eluted at varying pH had K(i) similar to the unfractionated SRFA, with a maximum enhancement of 0.50 log units. We conclude that variable-pH elution from XAD does not isolate significantly strong (or weak) Cu(II)-binding components from the SRFA mixture. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Feedback to providers improves evidence-based implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming and reduces shocks.

    PubMed

    Silver, Marc T; Sterns, Laurence D; Piccini, Jonathan P; Joung, Boyoung; Ching, Chi-Keong; Pickett, Robert A; Rabinovich, Rafael; Liu, Shufeng; Peterson, Brett J; Lexcen, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks are associated with increased anxiety, health care utilization, and potentially mortality. The purpose of the Shock-Less Study was to determine if providing feedback reports to physicians on their adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming could improve their programming behavior and reduce shocks. Shock-Less enrolled primary prevention (PP) and secondary prevention (SP) ICD patients between 2009 and 2012 at 118 study centers worldwide and followed patients longitudinally after their ICD implant. Center-specific therapy programming reports (TPRs) were delivered to each center 9 to 12 months after their first enrollment. The reports detailed adherence to evidence-based programming targets: number of intervals to detect ventricular fibrillation (VF NID), longest treatment interval (LTI), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) discriminators (Wavelet, PR Logic), SVT limit, Lead Integrity Alert (LIA), and antitachycardia pacing (ATP). Clinicians programmed ICDs at their discretion. The primary outcome measure was the change in utilization of evidence-based shock reduction programming before (phase I, n = 2694 patients) and after initiation of the TPR (phase II, n = 1438 patients). Patients implanted after feedback reports (phase II) were up to 20% more likely to have their ICDs programmed in line with evidence-based shock reduction programming (eg, VF NID in PP patients 30/40 in 33.5% vs 18.6%, P < .0001). Patients implanted in phase II had a lower risk of all-cause shock (adjusted hazard ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.90, P = .003). Providing programming feedback reports improves adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming and is associated with lower risk of ICD shocks. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 7–13 Years Old Children from Vojvodina (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Dželajlija, Darko D.; Spasić, Slavica S.; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Nataša B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease. Methods Study included 624 children (316 boys, 308 girls), aged from 7–13 years. We analysed socio-demographic data (BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular family history, smoking status), as well as lipid status with lipoprotein little a-Lp(a), and apolipoproteins: Apo AI, Apo B-100 for all children. This enabled us to calculate new atherogenic indices Tg/HDL-c, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). Cardiovascular risk for later life was estimated by using modified Risk Score for Young Individuals (RS), which divided the subjects according to the score level: low, medium and higher risk. Results The older children (13 y) had better lipid status than the younger children, i.e. significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and non-HDL-C concentration and significantly higher HDL-C concentration than the younger children and this was in accordance with the RS level. Children with a positive family history of CV disease had significantly higher Lp(a) concentration and blood pressure. LPI was significantly higher in children with a higher RS. Conclusions The results of our work could be used for cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy children to provide preventive measures which could control the changeable risk factors. PMID:28356880

  12. Transducer characterization for Vibrothermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Jyani Somayajulu

    Vibrothermography, also known as Sonic IR and Thermosonics, is an NDE technique for finding cracks and flaws based on vibration-induced frictional rubbing of unbonded surfaces. The vibration is usually generated by a piezoelectric stack transducer which transduces electrical energy into large amplitude mechanical vibrations. The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the excitation process for vibrothermography so that optimal parameters and transducers for the testing can be selected. The amplitude and impedance transfer characteristics of the transducer system control the vibration of the sample. Within a linear contact (no tip chatter) model, the interaction between the transducer system and the specimen can be characterized using the theory of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems and electro-mechanical Norton equivalence. This work presents quantitative measurements of the performance of piezoelectric stack transducers in a vibrothermography excitation system and the effect of transducer performance and specimen characteristics on the induced vibration in the specimen. We show that with compliant coupling, the specimen vibration is directly proportional to the transducer open circuit velocity and that the system resonances generated because of metal-metal contact of specimen and transducer are disconnected by adding a couplant between specimen and transducer. We then give suggestions for transducer and couplant selection for vibrothermography and suggest methods to flatten the velocity spectrum of the transducer. We extend our analysis to high amplitude transducer behavior and elaborate on the effect of power amplifier saturation on the transducer behavior. The saturation effect negates the effect of adding an external inductance to flatten the transducer velocity spectrum. Finally, preliminary results are reported on the effect of transducer degradation phenomenon.

  13. Notch Signaling Contributes to Liver Inflammation by Regulation of Interleukin-22-Producing Cells in Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Jiu-Ping; Hao, Chun-Qiu; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lin-Xu; Huang, Chang-Xing; Bai, Xue-Fan; Lian, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) induced liver inflammation is not fully elucidated. Notch signaling augmented interleukin (IL)-22 secretion in CD4+ T cells, and Notch-IL-22 axis fine-tuned inflammatory response. We previously demonstrated a proinflammatory role of IL-22 in HBV infection. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the role of Notch in development of IL-22-producing cells in HBV infection by inhibition of Notch signaling using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT in both hydrodynamic induced HBV-infected mouse model and in peripheral blood cells isolated from patients with HBV infection. mRNA expressions of Notch1 and Notch2 were significantly increased in livers and CD4+ T cells upon HBV infection. Inhibition of Notch signaling in vivo leaded to the reduction in NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells 22 (ILC22) and lymphoid tissue inducer 4 (LTi4) cells in the liver. This process was accompanied by downregulating the expressions of IL-22 and related proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the liver, as well as blocking the recruitment of antigen-non-specific inflammatory cells into the liver and subsequent liver injury, but did not affect HBV antigens production and IL-22 secretion in the serum. Furthermore, IL-22 production in HBV non-specific cultured CD4+ T cells, but not HBV-specific CD4+ T cells, was reduced in response to in vitro inhibition of Notch signaling. In conclusion, Notch siganling appears to be an important mediator of the liver inflammation by modulating hepatic ILC22. The potential proinflammatory effect of Notch-mediated ILC22 may be significant for the development of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of hepatitis B. PMID:27800305

  14. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation. PMID

  15. The Role of ITG/TEM/ETG Cross-Scale Coupling in Explaining Experimental Electron Heat Flux and Profile Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.

    2015-11-01

    Anomalous electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas is the ``great unsolved problem of tokamak transport physics'' [Batchelor Plasma Sci. Tec. 2007]. For years it has been speculated that short wavelength ETG turbulence plays a key role, but simulation capturing both ion and electron-scale turbulence simultaneously had never been tested quantitatively against experiment due to extreme computational requirements. Only recently have gyrokinetic codes and supercomputing resources together been able to capture the physics of cross-scale coupling between long wavelength ITG/TEM and short wavelength ETG turbulence. In C-Mod, long wavelength simulations often under-predict electron heat flux. As a result, dedicated experiments have been performed in L-mode plasmas to validate multi-scale nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. In this talk, the first set of full-physics, multi-scale simulations of a tokamak plasma performed with the GYRO code are compared to experiment. The simulations include coupled ITG/TEM/ETG turbulence (kθρs < 48 . 0) at realistic mass ratio (mi/me = 3600), with experimental inputs for impurities, geometry, ExB shear, and collisions. 100M CPU hours were required for six simulations to scan the ITG and ETG drive terms (a/LTi and a/LTe) within experimental error bars. The multi-scale simulations show for the first time that ETG streamers coexist and nonlinearly couple with ITG and zonal flows. This nonlinear cross-scale coupling enhances both ion and electron heat fluxes by up to a factor of 10 above standard, long wavelength simulation, resulting in simulations that simultaneously match experimental ion and electron heat fluxes and electron profile stiffness. The new physics of ITG/ETG/zonal flow coupling has important implications for predictions of ITER performance and may be linked to phenomena such as confinement transitions and rotation reversals. This work was supported by DOE contract - DE-FC02-99ER54512-CMOD.

  16. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Although various adaptive control techniques have been around for a long time and in spite of successful proofs of stability and even successful demonstrations of performance, the eventual use of adaptive control methodologies in practical real world systems has met a rather strong resistance from practitioners and has remained limited. Apparently, it is difficult to guarantee or even understand the conditions that can guarantee stable operations of adaptive control systems under realistic operational environments. Besides, it is difficult to measure the robustness of adaptive control system stability and allow it to be compared with the common and widely used measure of phase margin and gain margin that is utilized by present, mainly LTI, controllers. Furthermore, customary stability analysis methods seem to imply that the mere stability of adaptive systems may be adversely affected by any tiny deviation from the pretty idealistic and assumably required stability conditions. This paper first revisits the fundamental qualities of customary direct adaptive control methodologies, in particular the classical Model Reference Adaptive Control, and shows that some of their basic drawbacks have been addressed and eliminated within the so-called Simple Adaptive Control methodology. Moreover, recent developments in the stability analysis methods of nonlinear systems show that prior conditions that were customarily assumed to be needed for stability are only apparent and can be eliminated. As a result, sufficient conditions that guarantee stability are clearly stated and lead to similarly clear proofs of stability. As many real-world applications show, once robust stability of the adaptive systems can be guaranteed, the added value of using Add-On Adaptive Control along with classical Control design techniques is pushing the desired performance beyond any previous limits.

  17. Detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli and microbiological quality of chilled shrimp sold in street markets.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, L J; Ribeiro, L F; Lavezzo, L F; Barbosa, M M C; Rossi, G A M; do Amaral, L A

    2016-05-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by Escherichia coli are one of the most important gastrointestinal diseases and therefore represent a public health risk. The presence of E. coli in water or in products such as shrimp indicates faecal contamination. However, indicator micro-organisms can be used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food sold in markets. This study focused on detecting isolates of E. coli containing the genes stx1A, stx2A, eae, LTI, STa, STb, aggR and pCVD432 in chilled shrimp sold in street markets in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, and to assess the microbiological quality of this product. Enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli pathotypes were detected on the surface of two chilled shrimp samples. Salmonella spp. was not isolated. In addition, contamination of surface and muscle of the shrimp samples was found to be correlated. The detection of EPEC and ETEC pathotypes in chilled shrimp sold in street markets in Brazil provides useful epidemiological information for public health authorities to improve food safety and public health. Shrimps are crustaceans commonly produced and consumed in Brazil. Specimens of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Litopenaeus schmitti sold in street markets were examined by PCR to detect the presence of Escherichia coli pathotypes (enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enterohemorrhagic and enteroinvasive). EPEC and ETEC strains were detected in whole shrimp. These findings provide useful information for public health authorities to improve the food safety and health of the Brazilian population. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Collisionless reversed magnetic shear trapped electron instability and contribution of sidebands to anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogister, André L.; Singh, Raghvendra

    2005-11-01

    By keeping account of the trapped electron ∇B and curvature drifts, it is found that the spatial decay of the collisionless electron drift wave is governed either by the trapped electron response or by the resonant interaction of ions with the sidebands of the primary oscillation. In the former case, pairs of spatially bounded unstable and damped solutions are obtained for negative magnetic shear (ŝ<0) if, as usual, LTe=1/∂rlnTe<0; there are no bounded solutions if ŝLTe<0. In the latter case, there is either a set of bounded damped solutions if ηi>0 or a set of bounded unstable solutions if ηi<0. The unstable modes have a radiating character and the growth rates are γ ˜(2n+1)√1+2q2 ∣ŝ∣∣LNωe*/qR∣ (n is the Hermite polynomial solution index, q the safety factor, ŝ the magnetic shear parameter, R the major radius, ωe* the electron diamagnetic frequency, LN=1/∂rlnNe, and ηi=LN/LTi).The sidebands are responsible for unusually large ratios Qe/TeΓe, where Qe and Γe are the anomalous electron energy flux and the particle flux. These results may explain the box-type Te profile observed in lower hybrid current drive reversed magnetic shear plasmas on the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak 60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [H. Ninomiya and the JT-60U Team, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2070 (1992)]. It is finally demonstrated that the ballooning hypothesis generally leads to conflicting requirements: it is thus hardly relevant for the electron drift branch! The "radiating" boundary condition that has formerly been imposed on the slab solution is finally discussed.

  19. The Influence of Crystal Anisotropy on Failure Stability: Evidence from Multiple-Cracking Noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, H.; Ghofrani Tabari, M.; Young, R. P.; Griffith, W. A.; Goodfellow, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Failure of crystals under some external loads often exploit cleavage planes as planes of weakness. The nucleation and extension of "defects" in most cases results in emission of acoustic (phonon) excitations. While X-ray diffraction methods describe the structure of crystals well, the relationship between cleavage planes and unstable failure during cracking of crystals is less well established. In this study, we analyze the polarization patterns of multiple acoustic excitations using functional acoustic network theory. The experiment involves fracturing a small sample placed on a thick aluminum plate using a sharp tip. A load is slowly applied to the testing material until failure inducing the propagation of elastic waves through the aluminum plate. Once the defects' disturbances have traveled to the opposite side of the plate, they are recorded by a symmetric array of 15 Panametrics V103 sensors. The V103 sensors were calibrated in-situ and showed a roughly flat displacement sensitivity of 73 mV/nm between 20 kHz and 1 MHz. We characterize the emitted noises from Graphite, Gypsum, and Halite and show that microscopic cracking noises carry a signature of plasticity (dislocation growth). We describe the analysis of defects' slip-direction and growth, inferred from polarization patterns in the weakening phase, and we relate these patterns to individual cleavage plane(s). Further, using multiplex complex networks, we explore the angular tendency of micro-cracking, and estimate the anisotropic nature of micro-defects. Next, we use elasto-dynamic and linear-time-invariant (LTI) systems theory to deconvolve the instrument response and wave propagation functions from the recorded waveform leaving only the source term. Finally, we compare the results from both methods, drawing conclusions about the relationship between crackling noises and plasticity.

  20. Disseminating General Relativity for 21st century astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Mariateresa

    2015-08-01

    The talk aims to present two outreach projects - initially developed for the ESA Gaia satellite, a multidisciplinary mission launched on December 19, 2013 - available to the OAD community: NeST and "The Meaning of Light".NeST is an interactive educational tool, that displays how the theory of GR rules the Universe, it creates a performance physically "belonging" to the exhibition space and moving through it, materializing what J.A. Wheeler said "mass tells space-time how to curve, and space-time tells mass how to move"."The Meaning of Light" is a short motion comics, part of an extensive outreach program called "The History of Photons" whose main theme is the story of a beam of stellar photons that, after leaving the progenitor star, propagates through the Universe and, once intercepted come into contact with a team of scientists: here begins their adventure to be taken "back" home and in doing so the scientists, and the spectators, are driven to discover the wonders of which the light are the bearers.The description of the journey of the photons becomes, therefore, an opportunity to easily tell the fascinating topics of Astrophysics and General Relativity, i.e. the complexity and the infinite beauty of the Universe in which we live.For this movie a new theme song was produced, "Singing the Stars", whose refrain (Oh Be A Fine Girl / Guy Kiss Me Little Thing, Yeah) adds to the famous mnemonic for stellar classification (OBAFGKM) the new stellar types LTY discovered in recent years.

  1. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller

    PubMed Central

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M. A.; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation. PMID:26745265

  2. Monitoring nearly 4000 nearby stellar systems with the OVRO-LWA in search of radio exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Marin M.; Hallinan, Gregg

    2017-05-01

    4000 stellar and substellar objects out to 25 pc, including approximately 1100 FGK-dwarfs, 1300 M-dwarfs, and 1100 LTY-dwarfs (likely substellar).

  3. Oxidatively Degradable Poly(thioketal urethane)/Ceramic Composite Bone Cements with Bone-Like Strength.

    PubMed

    McEnery, Madison A P; Lu, Sichang; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J; Wenke, Joseph C; Kalpakci, Kerem N; Shimko, Daniel; Duvall, Craig L; Guelcher, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic bone cements are commonly used in orthopaedic procedures to aid in bone regeneration following trauma or disease. Polymeric cements like PMMA provide the mechanical strength necessary for orthopaedic applications, but they are not resorbable and do not integrate with host bone. Ceramic cements have a chemical composition similar to that of bone, but their brittle mechanical properties limit their use in weight-bearing applications. In this study, we designed oxidatively degradable, polymeric bone cements with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. We synthesized a novel thioketal (TK) diol, which was crosslinked with a lysine triisocyanate (LTI) prepolymer to create hydrolytically stable poly(thioketal urethane)s (PTKUR) that degrade in the oxidative environment associated with bone defects. PTKUR films were hydrolytically stable for up to 6 months, but degraded rapidly (<1 week) under simulated oxidative conditions in vitro. When combined with ceramic micro- or nanoparticles, PTKUR cements exhibited working times comparable to calcium phosphate cements and strengths exceeding those of trabecular bone. PTKUR/ceramic composite cements supported appositional bone growth and integrated with host bone near the bone-cement interface at 6 and 12 weeks post-implantation in rabbit femoral condyle plug defects. Histological evidence of osteoclast-mediated resorption of the cements was observed at 6 and 12 weeks. These findings demonstrate that a PTKUR bone cement with bone-like strength can be selectively resorbed by cells involved in bone remodeling, and thus represent an important initial step toward the development of resorbable bone cements for weight-bearing applications.

  4. Measurements of seismic wave attenuation for frequencies between 0.1 and 100 Hz in a Paterson Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, C.; Tisato, N.; Delle Piane, C.; Saenger, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The study of wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks over a broad frequency range provides valuable information about reservoir fluid systems, which are inherently composed of multiple phase fluid. Following an original idea initiated by Luigi, we designed and set up a specific instrument, the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM), to experimentally measure the bulk attenuation on partially saturated rocks at frequencies between 0.01 and 100 Hz, using natural rock samples under in situ conditions. We present its bench-top calibration, a series of data collected from different kind of rocks at different confing pressure and the numerical simulations, supporting the obtained results. We employ the sub-resonance test. Assuming that the rock behaves as a linear time invariant (LTI) system, the attenuation factor 1/Q (Q is the quality factor) is equal to the tangent of the phase shift between the stress and the strain signal. The new attenuation measurement equipment is calibrated in a gas apparatus (Paterson rig) using aluminum as elastic standard and Plexiglas as a viscoelastic standard. Measurements were performed on 25.4 mm diameter, 60 mm long samples. Berea sandstone samples with 20% porosity, and ~500 mD permeability have been measured at different saturation conditions. Attenuation measurements show dependence upon saturation. Moreover, measurements on two well-characterized shale samples have been performed. The two shales have significantly different quality factors; which result to be dependent on both the saturation state of the samples and the propagation direction of the oscillatory signal with respect to the sedimentary bedding. The attenuation coefficient parallel to bedding is less than that vertical to bedding. Thanks to Luigi's initiative and inspiration two generations of his Ph.D. students are now able to jointly present these new challenging experimental results.

  5. Involvement of CBF transcription factors in winter hardiness in birch.

    PubMed

    Welling, Annikki; Palva, E Tapio

    2008-07-01

    Cold acclimation of plants involves extensive reprogramming of gene expression. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), three cold-inducible transcriptional activators designated CBF1 to -3/DREB1a to -c have been shown to play an important regulatory role in this acclimation process. Similarly to Arabidopsis, boreal zone trees can increase their freezing tolerance (FT) in response to low temperature during the growing season. However, maximal FT of these trees requires short daylength-induced dormancy development followed by exposure to both low and freezing temperatures. To elucidate the molecular basis of FT in overwintering trees, we characterized the role of birch (Betula pendula) CBF transcription factors in the cold acclimation process. We identified four putative CBF orthologs in a birch expressed sequence tag collection designated BpCBF1 to -4. Ectopic expression of birch CBFs in Arabidopsis resulted in constitutive expression of endogenous CBF target genes and increased FT of nonacclimated transgenic plants. In addition, these plants showed stunted growth and delayed flowering, typical features for CBF-overexpressing plants. Expression analysis in birch showed that BpCBF1 to -4 are low temperature responsive but differentially regulated in dormant and growing plants, the expression being delayed in dormant tissues. Freeze-thaw treatment, simulating wintertime conditions in nature, resulted in strong induction of BpCBF genes during thawing, followed by induction of a CBF target gene, BpLTI36. These results suggest that in addition to their role in cold acclimation during the growing season, birch CBFs appear to contribute to control of winter hardiness in birch.

  6. Genotypic analysis of virulence genes and antimicrobial profile of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased lambs in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarpour, Reza; Askari, Nasrin; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tahamtan, Yahya; Mashayekhi, Khoobyar; Afsharipour, Narjes; Darijani, Nasim

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the analysis of virulence genes and antimicrobial profile of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased lambs. Two hundred ninety E. coli isolates were recovered from 300 rectal swabs of diarrheic lambs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. The pathotype determination was done according to the presence of genes including f5, f41, LTI, STI, bfp, ipaH, stx 1 , stx 2 , eae, ehlyA, cnf 1 , cnf 2 , cdIII, cdIV, and f17 by PCR method. Sixty-six isolates (23.72%) possessed the STI gene and categorized into entrotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Nine isolates (3.1%) and five isolates (1.72%) were positive for the cnf1 and cnf2 genes which categorized into necrotoxic E. coli (NTEC). Hundred and seventeen isolates (40.34%) harbored stx 1 and/or stx 2 and classified as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Thirteen isolates (4.48%) were assigned to atypical entropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) and possessed eae gene. Two isolates (0.68%) were positive for ipaH gene and were assigned to entroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). Statistical analysis showed a specific association between eae gene and STEC pathotype (P < 0.0001). The most prevalent resistance was observed against lincomycin (96.5%) and the lowest resistance was against kanamycine (56.02%), respectively. The high prevalence of STEC and ETEC indicates that diarrheic lambs represent an important reservoir for humans. ETEC may play an important role for frequent occurrence of diarrhea in lambs observed in this region. Due to high antibiotic resistance, appropriate control should be implemented in veterinary medicine to curb the development of novel resistant isolates.

  7. Long pulse chemical laser. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bardon, R.L.; Breidenthal, R.E.; Buonadonna, V.R.

    1989-02-01

    This report covers the technical effort through February, 1989. This effort was directed towards the technology associated with the development of a large scale, long pulse DF-CO{sub 2} chemical laser. Optics damage studies performed under Task 1 assessed damage thresholds for diamond-turned salt windows. Task 2 is a multi-faceted task involving the use of PHOCL-50 for laser gain measurements, LTI experiments, and detector testing by LANL personnel. To support these latter tests, PHOCL-50 was upgraded with Boeing funding to incorporate a full aperture outcoupler that increased its energy output by over a factor of 3, to a full kilojoule. The PHOCL-50 carbon block calorimeter was also recalibrated and compared with the LANL Scientech meter. Cloud clearing studies under Task 3 initially concentrated on delivering a Boeing built Cloud Simulation Facility to LANL, and currently involves design of a Cold Cloud Simulation Facility. A Boeing IRAD funded theoretical study on cold cloud clearing revealed that ice clouds may be easier to clear then warm clouds. Task 4 involves the theoretical and experimental study of flow system design as related to laser beam quality. Present efforts on this task are concentrating on temperature gradients induced by the gas filling process. General support for the LPCL field effort is listed under Task 5, with heavy emphasis on assuring reliable operation of the Boeing built Large Slide Valve and other device related tests. The modification of the PHOCL-50 system for testing long pulse DF (4{mu}m only) chemical laser operation is being done under Task 6.

  8. "Concordia res parvae crescunt" or how different approaches can be combined to decrypt root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Félicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Draye, Xavier; Javaux, Mathieu; Lobet, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a new operation pipe showing that the combined use of computer models and in vivo experiments allows one a better analysis of the water fluxes in the soil-plant system and can help researchers to decrypt the root water uptake dynamics. From an experimental point of view, we monitored in 2D the evolution of soil water content around roots of transpiring maize plants using a light transmission imaging (LTI) technique on a rhizotron. Subsequently, we digitized the entire root system in order to create an input file for the model RSWMS (HYDRUS-like model for soil-plant water transfers). In the other hand, we performed a global sensitivity analysis of the modeled experiment to highlight the plant parameters that can be measured thanks to such a procedure. Then fitting the simulated changes of distributed Sink term in Richards equation to experimental data enabled us to depict the local radial and axial conductivities. The use of the RSWMS model in association with experimental data gave us an insight on the water potential distribution in the plant and fluxes by and through individual segments during the entire duration of the experiment. Finally, this analysis can be optimized by changing the timing and/or types of measurements included in the protocol in order to maximize the information content of the experiment. A validation of the results can also take place: the optimized conductivities of the root segments are indeed sensitive to a global conductance measurement and to other root water uptake experiments. In the future, this experimental set-up will enable us to compare genotypes hydraulic architectures in order to answer questions such as: which genotype is the best adapted to avoid a drought stress occurring at a certain time in a given environment?

  9. Analysis of control system responses for aircraft stability and efficient numerical techniques for real-time simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, Gabriela; Andrei, Irina-Carmen; Frunzulica, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are the study and the implementation of both aerodynamic and propulsion models, as linear interpolations using look-up tables in a database. The aerodynamic and propulsion dependencies on state and control variable have been described by analytic polynomial models. Some simplifying hypotheses were made in the development of the nonlinear aircraft simulations. The choice of a certain technique to use depends on the desired accuracy of the solution and the computational effort to be expended. Each nonlinear simulation includes the full nonlinear dynamics of the bare airframe, with a scaled direct connection from pilot inputs to control surface deflections to provide adequate pilot control. The engine power dynamic response was modeled with an additional state equation as first order lag in the actual power level response to commanded power level was computed as a function of throttle position. The number of control inputs and engine power states varied depending on the number of control surfaces and aircraft engines. The set of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations that comprise the simulation model can be represented by the vector differential equation. A linear time-invariant (LTI) system representing aircraft dynamics for small perturbations about a reference trim condition is given by the state and output equations present. The gradients are obtained numerically by perturbing each state and control input independently and recording the changes in the trimmed state and output equations. This is done using the numerical technique of central finite differences, including the perturbations of the state and control variables. For a reference trim condition of straight and level flight, linearization results in two decoupled sets of linear, constant-coefficient differential equations for longitudinal and lateral / directional motion. The linearization is valid for small perturbations about the reference trim

  10. Conception de lois de pilotage robustes et sequencement de gains par l'approche de systemes lineaires a parametres variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentabli, Kamel

    Cette recherche s'inscrit dans le cadre du projet de recherche Active Control Technology entre l'Ecole de Technologie Superieure et le constructeur Bombardier Aeronautique . Le but est de concevoir des strategies de commandes multivariables et robustes pour des modeles dynamiques d'avions. Ces strategies de commandes devraient assurer a l'avion une haute performance et satisfaire des qualites de vol desirees en l'occurrence, une bonne manoeuvrabilite, de bonnes marges de stabilite et un amortissement des mouvements phugoides et rapides de l'avion. Dans un premier temps, nous nous sommes principalement interesses aux methodes de synthese LTI et plus exactement a l'approche Hinfinity et la mu-synthese. Par la suite, nous avons accorde un interet particulier aux techniques de commande LPV. Pour mener a bien ce travail, nous avons envisage une approche frequentielle, typiquement Hinfinity. Cette approche est particulierement interessante, dans la mesure ou le modele de synthese est construit directement a partir des differentes specifications du cahier des charges. En effet, ces specifications sont traduites sous forme de gabarits frequentiels, correspondant a des ponderations en entree et en sortie que l'on retrouve dans la synthese Hinfinity classique. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilise une representation de type lineaire fractionnelle (LFT), jugee mieux adaptee pour la prise en compte des differents types d'incertitudes, qui peuvent intervenir sur le systeme. De plus, cette representation s'avere tres appropriee pour l'analyse de la robustesse via les outils de la mu-analyse. D'autre part, afin d'optimiser le compromis entre les specifications de robustesse et de performance, nous avons opte pour une structure de commande a 2 degres de liberte avec modele de reference. Enfin, ces techniques sont illustrees sur des applications realistes, demontrant ainsi la pertinence et l'applicabilite de chacune d'elle. Mots cles. Commande de vol, qualites de vol et manoeuvrabilite

  11. Pathotyping and antibiotic resistance of porcine enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains from Switzerland (2014-2015).

    PubMed

    Brand, P; Gobeli, S; Perreten, V

    2017-07-01

    A total of 131 porcine E. coli were isolated in 2014 and 2015 from the gut of 115 pigs raised in Switzerland and suffering from diarrhea. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, serotypes, virulence factors and genetic diversity. Serotypes were assigned by agglutination tests and virulence genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the measurement of the MIC of 14 antibiotics and by the detection of the corresponding genes using microarray and PCR approaches. Genetic diversity was determined by repetitive palindromic PCR (rep- PCR) revealing a heterogenous population. Half of the E. coli isolates possessing virulence factors could not be assigned to any of the 19 serotypes tested, but contained toxins and adhesins similarly to the sero-typable E. coli isolates. The most prevalent E. coli serotypes found were K88ac (18%), O139:K82 (6%), O141:K85ac (5%), O108:K`V189` (5%), O119:K`V113` (3%) and O157:K`V17` (2%). The combination of toxins EAST-1, STb and LT-I and adhesin F4 characterizing ETEC was the most frequent. The shigatoxin Stx2e (STEC) and intimin Eae (EPEC) were also detected, but less frequently. Seventy percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 29% were resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (50%) associated to resistance genes tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C), sulfamethoxazole (49%) [sul1, sul2 and sul3], trimethoprim (34%) [dfr], nalidixic acid (29%), ampicillin (26%) [blaTEM-1], gentamicin (17%) [aac(3) -IIc, aac(3) -IVa and aac(3) -VIa], chloramphenicol (17%) [catAI and catAIII], and ciprofloxacin (8%) [mutations in GyrA (S83L) and ParC (S80I)]. All isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, colistin and tigecycline. Pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland could frequently not be assigned to a known serotype even if they contained diarrhea-causing virulence factors. They

  12. [Disasters and emergency situations: what have we learned from the past to prepare for the future?].

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi

    2010-07-01

    Israel has gained extensive experience in the mass casuaLty field, especially from dealing with terrorism events. This special issue of "Harefuah" includes articles that describe and analyze several aspects and approaches related to mass casualty event (MCE) preparedness and response strategies, based on Israel's experience. Feigenberg reports that Magen David Adom (MDA) was able to evacuate all urgent injuries during an MCE from the site to a hospital in 28 minutes, on average. Of the MCE casualties, 71% were evacuated directly to level 1 trauma centers. Rafalowski notes that the ability of MDA to implement organizational and operational Learning processes close to the time of the incident, as well as their modular operational approach, which allows flexibility in responding to simultaneous events, are probably among the reasons that have helped MDA reach a high Level of success in dealing with MCEs. Analysis of terrorism injury data demonstrates that these injuries, suffered by both children and adults, are characterized by increased complexity, with higher severity, higher in-patient mortality rates, and significantly greater use of precious hospital resources such as intensive care, operating rooms, CT, and days of hospitalization. Extensive experience dealing with MCEs has brought managerial insights to the entire health system, for instance in the hospitalization system and clinical management of injuries. In her article, Adini defines five major components for assessing the Israeli health system in emergencies. Shasha's article discusses the principles of hospital preparedness while working under fire. The importance of this subject has in recent years helped bring a more academic approach to emergency and disaster management in the world and in Israel, as enacted at Tel Aviv University's Multidisciplinary Master's Program in Emergency and Disaster Management, and also in other universities that focus on specific disciplines. In summary, achieving

  13. Reduction and reconstruction methods for simulation and control of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhanhua

    In this thesis we develop model reduction/reconstruction methods that are applied to simulation and control of fluids. In the first part of the thesis, we focus on development of dimension reduction methods that compute reduced-order models (at the order of 101˜2) of systems with high-dimensional states (at the order of 105˜8) that are typical in computational fluid dynamics. The reduced-order models are then used for feedback control design for the full systems, as the control design tools are usually applicable only to systems of order up to 10 4. First, we show that a widely-used model reduction method for stable linear timeinvariant (LTI) systems, the approximate balanced truncation method (also called balanced POD), yields identical reduced-order models as Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), a well-known method in system identification. Unlike ERA, Balanced POD generates sets of modes that are useful in controller/observer design and systems analysis. On the other hand, ERA is more computationally efficient and does not need data from adjoint systems, which cannot be constructed in experiments and are often costly to construct and simulate numerically. The equivalence of ERA and balanced POD leads us to further design a version of ERA that works for unstable (linear) systems with one-dimensional unstable eigenspace and is equivalent to a recently developed version of balanced POD for unstable systems. We consider further generalization of balanced POD/ERA methods for linearized time-periodic systems around an unstable orbit. Four algorithms are presented: the lifted balanced POD/lifted ERA and the periodic balanced POD/periodic ERA. The lifting approach generates a LTI reduced-order model that updates the system once every period, and the periodic approach generates a periodic reduced-order model. By construction the lifted ERA is the most computationally efficient algorithm and it does not need adjoint data. By removing periodicity in periodic balanced

  14. Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armah, Stephen Kofi

    second-order altitude models for the quadrotor, AR.Drone 2.0. Proportional (P), pole placement or proportional plus velocity (PV), linear quadratic regulator (LQR), and model reference adaptive control (MRAC) controllers are designed and validated through simulations using MATLAB/Simulink. Control input saturation and time delay in the controlled systems are also studied. MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) and Simulink programs are developed to implement the controllers on the drone. Thirdly, the time delay in the drone's control system is estimated using analytical and experimental methods. In the experimental approach, the transient properties of the experimental altitude responses are compared to those of simulated responses. The analytical approach makes use of the Lambert W function to obtain analytical solutions of scalar first-order delay differential equations (DDEs). A time-delayed P-feedback control system (retarded type) is used in estimating the time delay. Then an improved system performance is obtained by incorporating the estimated time delay in the design of the PV control system (neutral type) and PV-MRAC control system. Furthermore, the stability of a parametric perturbed linear time-invariant (LTI) retarded-type system is studied. This is done by analytically calculating the stability radius of the system. Simulation of the control system is conducted to confirm the stability. This robust control design and uncertainty analysis are conducted for first-order and second-order quadrotor models. Lastly, the robustly designed PV and PV-MRAC control systems are used to autonomously track multiple waypoints. Also, the robustness of the PV-MRAC controller is tested against a baseline PV controller using the payload capability of the drone. It is shown that the PV-MRAC offers several benefits over the fixed-gain approach of the PV controller. The adaptive control is found to offer enhanced robustness to the payload fluctuations.

  15. Electron Microscopic Study on the Suction Cast In Situ Ti-Fe-Sn Ultrafine Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Sumanta; Mondal, Barnali; Biswas, Krishanu; Govind

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation reports detailed study on the microstructural evolution in the suction cast hypereutectic Ti71Fe29- x Sn x alloys during Sn addition with x = 0, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.85, 4.5, 6, and 10 at. pct and the solidification of these ternary alloys using SEM and TEM. These alloys have been prepared by melting high-purity elements using vacuum arc melting furnace under high-purity argon atmosphere. This was followed by suction casting these alloys in the water-cooled split Cu molds of diameters, ϕ = 1 and 3 mm, under argon atmosphere. The results indicate the formation of binary eutectic between bcc solid solution β-Ti and B2 FeTi in all alloys. β-Ti undergoes eutectoid transformation, β-Ti → α-Ti + FeTi, during subsequent solid-state cooling, leading to formation of hcp α-Ti and FeTi. For alloys x < 2, the primary FeTi forms from the liquid before the formation of eutectic with minute scale Ti3Sn phase. For alloys with 2 ≥ x ≤ 10, the liquid is found to undergo ternary quasi-peritectic reaction with primary Ti3Sn, L+Ti3Sn → β-Ti+FeTi, leading to formation of another kind of FeTi. In all the other alloy compositions (3.85 ≥ x ≤ 10), Ti3Sn and FeTi dendrites are observed in the suction cast alloys with profuse amount of Ti3Sn being formed for alloys with x ≥ 4.5. The current study conclusively proves that the liquid undergoes ternary quasi-peritectic reaction involving four phases, L + Ti3Sn → β-Ti + FeTi, which lies at the invariant point Ti69.2±0.8Fe27.4±0.7Sn3.4±0.2 (denoted by P). Below P, there is one univariant reaction, i.e., L → β-Ti + FeTi for all alloy compositions, whereas above P, liquid undergoes one of the univariant reactions, i.e., L + β-Ti → Ti3Sn (Sn = 2, 2.5, 3, and 4.5 at. pct) or L + FeTi → Ti3Sn for alloys (Sn = 6, 10 at. pct). For alloy with Sn = 3.85 at. pct, the ternary quasi-peritectic reaction is co-operated by two monovariant eutectic reactions, i.e., L → β-Ti + FeTi below P and L → Fe

  16. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    is feasible, convenient and effective. Conventionally, wind energy is highly location-dependent. Many desirable wind resources are located in rural areas without direct access to the transmission grid. By connecting MW-scale wind turbines or wind farms to the distributions system of SG, the cost of building long transmission facilities can be avoid and wind power supplied to consumers can be greatly increased. After the effective wide area monitoring (WAM) approach is built, an event-driven control strategy is proposed for renewable energy integration. This approach is based on support vector machine (SVM) predictor and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) model predictive control (MPC) on linear time-invariant (LTI) and linear time-variant (LTV) systems. The voltage condition of the distribution system is predicted by the SVM classifier using synchrophasor measurement data. The controllers equipped with wind turbine generators are triggered by the prediction results. Both transmission level and distribution level are designed based on this proposed approach. Considering economic issues in the power system, a statistical scheduling approach to economic dispatch and energy reserves is proposed. The proposed approach focuses on minimizing the overall power operating cost with considerations of renewable energy uncertainty and power system security. The hybrid power system scheduling is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize power operating cost, taking considerations of renewable energy generation, power generation-consumption balance and power system security. A genetic algorithm based approach is used for solving the minimization of the power operating cost. In addition, with technology development, it can be predicted that the renewable energy such as wind turbine generators and PV panels will be pervasively located in distribution systems. The distribution system is an unbalanced system, which contains single-phase, two-phase and three

  17. Evaluation of Protein-Energy Wasting and Inflammation on Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis and its Correlations.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Venkataramanan; Sunder, Sham; Mahapatra, Himansu Sekhar; Verma, Himanshu; Sharma, Neera; Jayaraman, Rajesh; Sathi, Satyanand; Khanna, Shikha; Mohamed, Ashik

    2015-11-01

    /dL, respectively. Based on subjective global assessment (SGA); 11.63 (17.4%), 34.63 (54%), and 18.65 (28.6%) patients undergoing CAPD had normal, moderate, and severe malnutrition status, respectively. According to serum albumin level; 13.63 (21%), 39.63 (62%), and 11.63 (17%) patients undergoing CAPD had normal, moderate, and severe malnutrition status, respectively. Finally, based on BMI; 33.63 (52%), 23.63 (37%), and 7.63 (11%) patients undergoing CAPD had normal, moderate, and severe malnutrition status, respectively. About 76.1% and 9.5% of patients undergoing CAPD were malnourished based on lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI), respectively. Based on hs-CRP and IL-6 findings, 70% (44/63) and 71.8% (45/63) of patients undergoing CAPD had high inflammation, respectively. High sensitive C-reactive protein correlated negatively (significantly) with serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin. Interleukin -6 correlated negatively (significantly) with MAC; MAMA; serum albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin. There was significant positive correlation between hs-CRP and IL-6. There is statistically significant difference in total protein intake (g/d), protein intake (g/kg/d), serum protein (g/dL), albumin (g/dL), transferrin (mg/dL), and cholesterol (mg/dL) between patients with and without inflammation. Protein-energy wasting (80% - 85%) by various methods and inflammation (70%) was very prevalent among patients undergoing CAPD. Inflammatory markers show significant negative correlation with anthropometry and serological markers. Inflammatory markers are suggested to be included in the regular assessment of patients undergoing CAPD, for the better management of protein-energy wasting.