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Sample records for lucid dreaming reliable

  1. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. University hospital sleep disorder unit. Case-control study. Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P < 0.05), with an average of 7.6±11 vs. 0.3±0.8 lucid dreams/ month (P < 0.0001). The frequency of cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, dyssomnia, HLA positivity, and the severity of sleepiness were similar in narcolepsy with and without lucid dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Narcolepsy is a novel, easy model for studying lucid dreaming. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Lucid Dreaming in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy Settings: University hospital sleep disorder unit Design: Case-control study Participants: Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls Methods: Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Results: Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P < 0.05), with an average of 7.6 ± 11 vs. 0.3 ± 0.8 lucid dreams/month (P < 0.0001). The frequency of cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, dyssomnia, HLA positivity, and the severity of sleepiness were similar in narcolepsy with and without lucid dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Conclusion: Narcoleptics have a high propensity for lucid dreaming without differing in REM sleep characteristics from people without narcolepsy. This suggests narcolepsy patients may provide useful information in future studies on the nature of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dodet P, Chavez M, Leu-Semenescu S, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Lucid dreaming in

  3. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351082-07$15.00/0.

  4. Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug application. The methodological quality of the included studies was relatively low. None of the induction techniques were verified to induce lucid dreams reliably and consistently, although some of them look promising. On the basis of the reviewed studies, a taxonomy of lucid dream induction methods is presented. Several methodological issues are discussed and further directions for future studies are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased Lucid Dreaming Frequency in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Michael; Beitinger, Pierre; Steiger, Axel; Schredl, Michael; Dresler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Nightmares are a frequent symptom in narcolepsy. Lucid dreaming, i.e., the phenomenon of becoming aware of the dreaming state during dreaming, has been demonstrated to be of therapeutic value for recurrent nightmares. Data on lucid dreaming in narcolepsy patients, however, is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of recalled dreams (DF), nightmares (NF), and lucid dreams (LDF) in narcolepsy patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, we explored if dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares in narcolepsy patients. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Setting: Telephone interview. Patients: 60 patients diagnosed with narcolepsy (23–82 years, 35 females) and 919 control subjects (14–93 years, 497 females) Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Logistic regression revealed significant (P < 0.001) differences in DF, NF, and LDF between narcolepsy patients and controls after controlling for age and gender, with effect sizes lying in the large range (Cohen's d > 0.8). The differences in NF and LDF between patients and controls stayed significant after controlling for DF. Comparison of 35 narcolepsy patients currently under medication with their former drug-free period revealed significant differences in DF and NF (z < 0.05, signed-rank test) but not LDF (z = 0.8). Irrespective of medication, 70% of narcolepsy patients with experience in lucid dreaming indicated that dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares. Conclusion: Narcolepsy patients experience a markedly higher lucid dreaming frequency compared to controls, and many patients report a positive impact of dream lucidity on the distress experienced from nightmares. Citation: Rak M, Beitinger P, Steiger A, Schredl M, Dresler M. Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2015;38(5):787–792. PMID:25325481

  6. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments.

  7. Lucid Dreaming: A State of Consciousness with Features of Both Waking and Non-Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. Design: 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Setting: Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Participants: Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Measurements and Results: Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands δ and θ, and higher-than-REM activity in the γ band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in α, and lucid dreaming by increased δ and θ band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Conclusions: Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas. Citation: Voss U; Holzmann R; Tuin I; Hobson A. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1191-1200. PMID:19750924

  8. Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Rak, Michael; Beitinger, Pierre; Steiger, Axel; Schredl, Michael; Dresler, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Nightmares are a frequent symptom in narcolepsy. Lucid dreaming, i.e., the phenomenon of becoming aware of the dreaming state during dreaming, has been demonstrated to be of therapeutic value for recurrent nightmares. Data on lucid dreaming in narcolepsy patients, however, is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of recalled dreams (DF), nightmares (NF), and lucid dreams (LDF) in narcolepsy patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, we explored if dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares in narcolepsy patients. We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Telephone interview. 60 patients diagnosed with narcolepsy (23-82 years, 35 females) and 919 control subjects (14-93 years, 497 females). N/A. Logistic regression revealed significant (P < 0.001) differences in DF, NF, and LDF between narcolepsy patients and controls after controlling for age and gender, with effect sizes lying in the large range (Cohen's d > 0.8). The differences in NF and LDF between patients and controls stayed significant after controlling for DF. Comparison of 35 narcolepsy patients currently under medication with their former drug-free period revealed significant differences in DF and NF (z < 0.05, signed-rank test) but not LDF (z = 0.8). Irrespective of medication, 70% of narcolepsy patients with experience in lucid dreaming indicated that dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares. Narcolepsy patients experience a markedly higher lucid dreaming frequency compared to controls, and many patients report a positive impact of dream lucidity on the distress experienced from nightmares. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J Allan

    2009-09-01

    The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands delta and theta, and higher-than-REM activity in the gamma band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in alpha, and lucid dreaming by increased delta and theta band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas.

  10. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  11. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general.

  12. Lucid dreaming verified by volitional communication during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    La Berge, S P; Nagel, L E; Dement, W C; Zarcone, V P

    1981-06-01

    The occurrence of lucid dreaming (dreaming while being conscious that one is dreaming) has been verified for 5 selected subjects who signaled that they knew they were dreaming while continuing to dream during unequivocal REM sleep. The signals consisted of particular dream actions having observable concomitants and were performed in accordance with pre-sleep agreement. The ability of proficient lucid dreamers to signal in this manner makes possible a new approach to dream research--such subjects, while lucid, could carry out diverse dream experiments marking the exact time of particular dream events, allowing derivation of of precise psychophysiological correlations and methodical testing of hypotheses.

  13. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália B; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  14. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  15. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Lucid Dreaming and Ventromedial versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for one week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  17. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  18. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A Survey Focusing on Lucid Dreaming, Metacognition, and Dream Anxiety in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    YOKUŞOĞLU, Çağdaş; ATASOY, Mücahit; TEKELİ, Nurgül; URAL, Ahmet; ULUS, Çağla; TAYLAN, Yunus; AYDIN, Gülser; GÜLTEKİN, Gözde; EMÜL, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the level of lucidity and its relation with metacognitive beliefs and dream anxiety in medical students. Methods Nine hundred sixteen medical students were enrolled in the study. The participants were assessed with the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams Scale (LuCiD), the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS). Results There was no significant difference in mean total lucidity score between females and males, but there were some significant sex differences in subscales of lucidity, and control was significantly higher in male students, while realism, thought, and dissociation were significantly higher in female students. In addition, females had more dream anxiety levels, higher total MCQ-30 scores, and higher cognitive confidence and uncontrollability scores according to Metacognition Questionnaire-30 than males. We also found that the mean lucidity level was positively correlated with the mean total metacognition score and the mean total dream anxiety level. Discussion Our results suggest that female medical students tend to have more realistic dreams (p=0.018), have more logical thoughts during dreaming (p=0.011), and have a more dissociative experience during dreaming (p=0.028), while male medical students have more controlled dream events (p=0.002). There seem to be differences according to lucidity features between sexes, and the relationship between subdomains of lucidity and metacognition might lead to new therapeutic approaches to several psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders. PMID:29033639

  1. Effectiveness of motor practice in lucid dreams: a comparison with physical and mental practice.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Motor practice in lucid dreams is a form of mental rehearsal where the dreamer can consciously rehearse motor skills in the dream state while being physically asleep. A previous pilot study showed that practice in lucid dreams can improve subsequent performance. This study aimed to replicate those findings with a different task (finger-tapping) and compare the effectiveness of lucid dream practice (LDP) not only to physical but also to mental practice (MP) in wakefulness. An online experiment was completed by 68 participants within four groups: LDP group, MP group, physical practice (PP) group and control (no practice) group. Pre-test was accomplished in the evening, post-test in the next morning, while the practice was done during the night. All three practice groups significantly improved their performance from pre-test to post-test, but no significant improvements were observed for the control group. Subjective sleep quality was not affected by night practice. This study thus corroborates the previous findings that practice in lucid dreams is effective in improving performance. Its effects seem to be similar to actual PP and MP in wakefulness. Future studies should establish reliable techniques for lucid dream induction and verify the effects of LDP in sleep laboratory conditions.

  2. Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep: a combined EEG/fMRI case study.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Koch, Stefan P; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Obrig, Hellmuth; Sämann, Philipp G; Czisch, Michael

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of lucid dreaming. Parallel EEG/fMRI recordings of night sleep. Sleep laboratory and fMRI facilities. Four experienced lucid dreamers. N/A. Out of 4 participants, one subject had 2 episodes of verified lucid REM sleep of sufficient length to be analyzed by fMRI. During lucid dreaming the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, parietal lobules, and prefrontal and occipito-temporal cortices activated strongly as compared with non-lucid REM sleep. In line with recent EEG data, lucid dreaming was associated with a reactivation of areas which are normally deactivated during REM sleep. This pattern of activity can explain the recovery of reflective cognitive capabilities that are the hallmark of lucid dreaming.

  3. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Aviram, Liat; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2018-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD), and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187) self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy), stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78) reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming), emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in dissociation and

  4. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Aviram, Liat; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2018-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD), and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students ( N = 187) self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy), stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample ( n = 78) reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming), emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in dissociation and

  5. Neural Correlates of Dream Lucidity Obtained from Contrasting Lucid versus Non-Lucid REM Sleep: A Combined EEG/fMRI Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I.; Koch, Stefan P.; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Obrig, Hellmuth; Sämann, Philipp G.; Czisch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the neural correlates of lucid dreaming. Design: Parallel EEG/fMRI recordings of night sleep. Setting: Sleep laboratory and fMRI facilities. Participants: Four experienced lucid dreamers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Out of 4 participants, one subject had 2 episodes of verified lucid REM sleep of sufficient length to be analyzed by fMRI. During lucid dreaming the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, parietal lobules, and prefrontal and occipito-temporal cortices activated strongly as compared with non-lucid REM sleep. Conclusions: In line with recent EEG data, lucid dreaming was associated with a reactivation of areas which are normally deactivated during REM sleep. This pattern of activity can explain the recovery of reflective cognitive capabilities that are the hallmark of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dresler M; Wehrle R; Spoormaker VI; Koch SP; Holsboer F; Steiger A; Obrig H; Sämann PG; Czisch M. Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep: a combined EEG/fMRI case study. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1017–1020. PMID:22754049

  6. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F J; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states.

  7. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F. J.; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I.; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states. PMID:24427149

  8. The multiplicity of dreams: cognitive-affective correlates of lucid, archetypal, and nightmare dreaming.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, A; Hunt, H T

    1990-10-01

    This preliminary research is the first to compare lucid, nightmare, and archetypal-mythological dreams on dimensions important in previous research on each. A first study of 100 subjects showed all three forms significantly correlated with each other and with estimates of dream recall. In a second study, 41 subjects were selected from the above on the basis of relative specialization in each dream form, with a control group equally high on dream recall. Here, the lucid and archetypal dreamers tended to separate themselves from nightmare sufferers on the basis of high imaginativeness, proclivity to waking mystical experience, spatial/analytic skills, and physical balance. It appears that the intensification of dreaming is expressed positively or negatively, depending on variations in these cognitive dimensions.

  9. Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Stumbrys, Tadas; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations. PMID:24474942

  10. Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Stumbrys, Tadas; Schredl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations.

  11. Lucid dreaming incidence: A quality effects meta-analysis of 50years of research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David T; Roe, Chris A; Smith, Graham; Clegg, Helen

    2016-07-01

    We report a quality effects meta-analysis on studies from the period 1966-2016 measuring either (a) lucid dreaming prevalence (one or more lucid dreams in a lifetime); (b) frequent lucid dreaming (one or more lucid dreams in a month) or both. A quality effects meta-analysis allows for the minimisation of the influence of study methodological quality on overall model estimates. Following sensitivity analysis, a heterogeneous lucid dreaming prevalence data set of 34 studies yielded a mean estimate of 55%, 95% C. I. [49%, 62%] for which moderator analysis showed no systematic bias for suspected sources of variability. A heterogeneous lucid dreaming frequency data set of 25 studies yielded a mean estimate of 23%, 95% C. I. [20%, 25%], moderator analysis revealed no suspected sources of variability. These findings are consistent with earlier estimates of lucid dreaming prevalence and frequent lucid dreaming in the population but are based on more robust evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants (“During LD, one is–while dreaming–aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness”), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  13. Lucid dreams: their advantage and disadvantage in the frame of search activity concept

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2015-01-01

    Search activity (SA) is the behavioral and mental activity that is oriented to changes of the environment or of the subject's view and approach to the environment according to personal needs without the definite probability forecast of the outcomes of such activity, but with a regular consideration of the outcomes in the process of active behavior. Dream's lucidity (the subject's realization that he/she is dreaming) protects dreamer from awakenings during emotionally disturbing or frustrating dreams, because lucid dreams allow subject to feel separated from the dream events that may cause a feeling of helplessness. Due to such a protection from awakenings that can bring subject back to the frustration in wakefulness, subject can turn in the further sleep to normal non-lucid dreams that are restoring subject's SA in the subsequent wakefulness (activity in the uncertain situation with the feedback between behavior and its outcome). It is the advantage of lucid dreams. Their disadvantage is that due to the separation from the dream events that are in lucid dreams accepted as rationalized dreams, not as real stories where the dreamer acts like in wakefulness, their ability to restore SA is decreased until they are not displaced by the normal non-lucid dreams accepted as real stories. PMID:26483727

  14. Improvement of darts performance following lucid dream practice depends on the number of distractions while rehearsing within the dream - a sleep laboratory pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schädlich, Melanie; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2017-12-01

    In a lucid dream, the dreamer is aware of the dream state and can deliberately practice motor skills. Two field studies indicated that lucid dream practice can improve waking performance in simple motor tasks. The present pilot study investigated the effect of lucid dream practice in a controlled sleep laboratory setting, using a pre-post design with dart throwing in the evening and morning. The experimental group practiced darts in lucid dreams. Because some participants were distracted during lucid dream practice, the group was divided into lucid dreamers with few (n = 4) and many distractions (n = 5). Change of performance was compared to a physical practice group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9), showing a significant interaction (P = .013, η 2  = .368). Only the lucid dreamers with few distractions improved (18%) significantly over time (P = .005, d = 3.84). Even though these results have to be considered preliminary, the present study indicates that lucid dream practice can be an effective tool in sports practice if lucid dreamers find ways to minimise distractions during lucid dream practice. Moreover, the study emphasises the necessity to investigate lucid dream practice experiences on a qualitative level.

  15. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  16. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Targino, Zé H.; Souza, Bryan C.; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  17. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams

    PubMed Central

    Windt, Jennifer M.; Harkness, Dominic L.; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  19. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M; Harkness, Dominic L; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input.

  20. Lucid dreams, an atypical sleep disturbance in anterior and mediodorsal thalamic strokes.

    PubMed

    Sagnier, S; Coulon, P; Chaufton, C; Poli, M; Debruxelles, S; Renou, P; Rouanet, F; Olindo, S; Sibon, I

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive, affective, and behavioural disturbances are commonly reported following thalamic strokes. Conversely, sleep disorders are rarely reported in this context. Herein, we report the cases of two young patients admitted for an ischemic stroke located in the territories of the left pre-mammillary and paramedian arteries. Together with aphasia, memory complaint, impaired attention and executive functions, they reported lucid dreams with catastrophic content or conflicting situations. Lucid dreams are an atypical presentation in thalamic strokes. These cases enlarge the clinical spectrum of sleep-wake disturbances potentially observed after an acute cerebrovascular event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Terror and bliss? Commonalities and distinctions between sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, and their associations with waking life experiences.

    PubMed

    Denis, Dan; Poerio, Giulia L

    2017-02-01

    Sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming are both dissociated experiences related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Anecdotal evidence suggests that episodes of sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming are related but different experiences. In this study we test this claim systematically for the first time in an online survey with 1928 participants (age range: 18-82 years; 53% female). Confirming anecdotal evidence, sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming frequency were related positively and this association was most apparent between lucid dreaming and sleep paralysis episodes featuring vestibular-motor hallucinations. Dissociative experiences were the only common (positive) predictor of both sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming. Both experiences showed different associations with other key variables of interest: sleep paralysis was predicted by sleep quality, anxiety and life stress, whereas lucid dreaming was predicted by a positive constructive daydreaming style and vividness of sensory imagery. Overall, results suggest that dissociative experiences during wakefulness are reflected in dissociative experiences during REM sleep; while sleep paralysis is related primarily to issues of sleep quality and wellbeing, lucid dreaming may reflect a continuation of greater imaginative capacity and positive imagery in waking states. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Exploring the effects of galantamine paired with meditation and dream reliving on recalled dreams: Toward an integrated protocol for lucid dream induction and nightmare resolution.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Gregory; Hurd, Ryan; Carlson, Ralph; Molina, Ana

    2018-06-27

    An experimental home study examined the impact of a pre-sleep protocol for enhancing self-awareness, lucidity, and responsiveness in dreams. It included ingesting the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine--which is widely reported to increase the frequency of lucid dreaming--prior to engaging in middle-of-the-night meditation and the imaginary reliving of a distressing dream while exercising new responses. Thirty-five participants completed an eight-night study, which included pre- and post-baseline nights and six conditions: waking for 40 min before returning to bed, called Wake-Back-to-Bed (WBTB); Wake-Back-to-Bed plus placebo (WBTB + P); Wake-Back-to-Bed plus galantamine (WBTB + G); meditation and dream reliving (MDR); meditation and dream reliving plus placebo (MDR + P); and meditation and dream reliving plus galantamine (MDR + G). The outcome measures included lucidity, reflectiveness, interactive behavior, role change, constructive action, and fear and threat, as measured by the participants' self-ratings. The results support the use of this protocol in further studies of lucid dream induction and nightmare/trauma resolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies with lucid dreaming as add-on therapy to Gestalt therapy.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, B; Klösch, G; Saletu, B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present exploratory clinical study was to evaluate LD as an add-on therapy for treating nightmares. Thirty-two subjects having nightmares (ICD-10: F51.5) at least twice a week participated. Subjects were randomly assigned to group: A) Gestalt therapy group (= GTG), or B) Gestalt and lucid dreaming group therapy (= LDG). Each group lasted ten weeks. Participants kept a sleep/dream diary over the treatment. Examinations with respect to nightmare frequency and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were carried out at the beginning, after five and ten weeks and at a follow-up three months later. Concerning nightmare frequency, a significant reduction was found in both groups after the ten-week-study and at the follow-up (Wilcoxon test: P ≤ 0.05). Significant reduction in dream recall frequency could only be observed in the GTG (Wilcoxon test: P ≤ 0.05). For subjects having succeeded in learning lucid dreaming, reduction was sooner and higher. Sleep quality improved for both groups at the follow-up (P ≤ 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Only the LDG showed significant improvement at the end of therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Lucid dreaming, in combination with Gestalt therapy, is a potent technique to reduce nightmare frequency and improve the subjective quality of sleep. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, P.R.; Canavan, S.V.; Nahum, L.; Appah, F.; Morgan, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors – a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. Methods. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Results. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. Conclusions. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness. PMID:25028078

  5. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness.

    PubMed

    Corlett, P R; Canavan, S V; Nahum, L; Appah, F; Morgan, P T

    2014-01-01

    Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors - a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness.

  6. KB220Z™ a Pro-Dopamine Regulator Associated with the Protracted, Alleviation of Terrifying Lucid Dreams. Can We Infer Neuroplasticity-induced Changes in the Reward Circuit?

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Febo, Marcelo; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Barh, Debmalya; Dushaj, Kristina; Braverman, Eric R.; Li, Mona; Madigan, Margaret A.; Blum, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent reports by our laboratory have indicated that lucid dreams may be linked to psychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other Reward Deficiency Syndrome-related diagnoses. In the latter case, it has been our observation that such lucid dreams can be unpleasant and frequently terrifying. Case presentations We present four cases of a dramatic and persistent alleviation of terrifying, lucid dreams in patients diagnosed with ADHD/PTSD and/or opiate/opioid addiction. The amelioration of such dreams could well be permanent, since the patients had stopped taking the nutraceutical for between 10 to 12 months, without their recollection or recurrence. In the first case, the patient is a 47-year-old, married male who required continued Buprenorphine/ Naloxone (Suboxone) treatment. The second case involved a 32-year-old female with the sole diagnosis of ADHD. The third case involves a 38-year-old male who carried the diagnoses of Substance Use Dependence and ADHD. The fourth case involved a 50-year-old female with the diagnoses of Alcohol Abuse, ADHD and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Results In order to attempt to understand the possibility of neuroplasticity, we evaluated the effect of KB220Z in non-opioid-addicted rats utilizing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging methodology. While we cannot make a definitive claim because rat brain functional connectivity may not be exactly the same as humans, it does provide some interesting clues. We did find following seeding of the dorsal hippocampus, enhanced connectivity volume across several Regions of Interest (ROI), with the exception of the pre- frontal cortex. Interestingly, the latter region is only infrequently activated in lucid human dreaming, when the dreamer reports that he/she had the thought that they were dreaming during the lucid dream. Conclusions The four patients initially reported a gradual but, then, complete amelioration of their long

  7. The boundary characteristics of lucid dreamers.

    PubMed

    Galvin, F

    1990-06-01

    Based on the previously established personality correlates of frequent lucid dreaming and frequent nightmare dreaming, several hypotheses were generated regarding the boundary characteristics of these dreamers relative to each other and to a control group of non-lucid and comparatively nightmare-free dreamers. The data from Hartmann's Boundary Questionnaire obtained from 40 subjects in each dreamer group (who were individually matched for sex, age, and background as far as possible) were analyzed. The results of the study give evidence that lucid dreamers have "thin" boundaries in many of the same senses that nightmare sufferers do, but can be differentiated from nightmare dreamers by the greater degree of coherence of their psychological sense of self as measured on the Self-Coherence Subscale of the Boundary Questionnaire. The suggestion is made that, given the similarity of "thin" boundaries, perhaps nightmare sufferers could become lucid dreamers and possibly resolve their nightmare condition while in the dream state.

  8. REM sleep respiratory behaviours mental content in narcoleptic lucid dreamers.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dodet, Pauline; Ledard, Nahema; Artru, Emilie; Rachidi, Inès; Similowski, Thomas; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2018-02-08

    Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps. Participants were instructed to modify their dream scenario so that it involved vocalizations or an apnoea, -two behaviours that require a cortical control of ventilation when executed during wakefulness. Most participants (86%) were able to signal lucidity in at least one nap. In 50% of the lucid naps, we found a clear congruence between the dream report (e.g., diving under water) and the observed respiratory behaviour (e.g., central apnoea) and, in several cases, a preparatory breath before the respiratory behaviour. This suggests that the cortico-subcortical networks involved in voluntary respiratory movements are preserved during REM sleep and that breathing irregularities during this stage have a cortical/subcortical origin that reflects dream content.

  9. Consciousness in dreams.

    PubMed

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Minding the dream self: perspectives from the analysis of self-experience in dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be fruitful by suggesting new perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming as well an altered perspective on the efficacy of AAOM itself.

  11. The future of dream science.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2017-10-01

    This article describes the future prospects of scientific dream research. Three frontiers of investigation hold special promise: neuroscientific studies of the brain-mind system's activities during sleep (such as during lucid dreaming); systematic analyses of large collections of dream reports from diverse populations of people; and psychotherapeutic explorations of the multiple dimensions of personal and collective meaning woven into the dream experiences of each individual. Several helpful books on the science of sleep and dreaming are mentioned for further study. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

  14. Putative dopamine agonist (KB220Z) attenuates lucid nightmares in PTSD patients: role of enhanced brain reward functional connectivity and homeostasis redeeming joy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Febo, Marcelo; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L; Simpatico, Thomas; Gold, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Lucid dreams are frequently pleasant and training techniques have been developed to teach dreamers to induce them. In addition, the induction of lucid dreams has also been used as a way to ameliorate nightmares. On the other hand, lucid dreams may be associated with psychiatric conditions, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Reward Deficiency Syndrome-associated diagnoses. In the latter conditions, lucid dreams can assume an unpleasant and frequently terrifying character. We present two cases of dramatic alleviation of terrifying lucid dreams in patients with PTSD. In the first case study, a 51-year-old, obese woman, diagnosed with PTSD and depression, had attempted suicide and experienced terrifying lucid nightmares linked to sexual/physical abuse from early childhood by family members including her alcoholic father. Her vivid "bad dreams" remained refractory in spite of 6 months of treatment with Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and standard pharmaceutical agents which included prazosin, clonidie and Adderall. The second 39-year-old PTSD woman patient had also suffered from lucid nightmares. The medication visit notes reveal changes in the frequency, intensity and nature of these dreams after the complex putative dopamine agonist KB220Z was added to the first patient's regimen. The patient reported her first experience of an extended period of happy dreams. The second PTSD patient, who had suffered from lucid nightmares, was administered KB220Z to attenuate methadone withdrawal symptoms and incidentally reported dreams full of happiness and laughter. These cases are discussed with reference to the known effects of KB220Z including enhanced dopamine homeostasis and functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in rodents and humans. Their understanding awaits intensive investigation involving large-population, double-blinded studies.

  15. Putative Dopamine Agonist (KB220Z) Attenuates Lucid Nightmares in PTSD Patients: Role of Enhanced Brain Reward Functional Connectivity and Homeostasis Redeeming Joy

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Febo, Marcelo; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L.; Simpatico, Thomas; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lucid dreams are frequently pleasant and training techniques have been developed to teach dreamers to induce them. In addition, the induction of lucid dreams has also been used as a way to ameliorate nightmares. On the other hand, lucid dreams may be associated with psychiatric conditions, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Reward Deficiency Syndrome-associated diagnoses. In the latter conditions, lucid dreams can assume an unpleasant and frequently terrifying character. Case Presentations We present two cases of dramatic alleviation of terrifying lucid dreams in patients with PTSD. In the first case study, a 51-year-old, obese woman, diagnosed with PTSD and depression, had attempted suicide and experienced terrifying lucid nightmares linked to sexual/physical abuse from early childhood by family members including her alcoholic father. Her vivid “bad dreams” remained refractory in spite of 6 months of treatment with Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and standard pharmaceutical agents which included prazosin, clonidie and Adderall. The second 39-year-old PTSD woman patient had also suffered from lucid nightmares. Results The medication visit notes reveal changes in the frequency, intensity and nature of these dreams after the complex putative dopamine agonist KB220Z was added to the first patient’s regimen. The patient reported her first experience of an extended period of happy dreams. The second PTSD patient, who had suffered from lucid nightmares, was administered KB220Z to attenuate methadone withdrawal symptoms and incidentally reported dreams full of happiness and laughter. Conclusions These cases are discussed with reference to the known effects of KB220Z including enhanced dopamine homeostasis and functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in rodents and humans. Their understanding awaits intensive investigation involving large-population, double-blinded studies. PMID:26132915

  16. Using the Neuroadaptagen KB200z™ to Ameliorate Terrifying, Lucid Nightmares in RDS Patients: the Role of Enhanced, Brain-Reward, Functional Connectivity and Dopaminergic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Febo, Marcelo; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lucid Dreams are a form of dream life, during which the dreamer may be aware that he/she is dreaming, can stop/re-start the dreams, depending on the pleasantness or unpleasant nature of the dream, and experiences the dream as if he/she were fully awake. Depending on their content, they may be pleasant, un-pleasant or terrifying, at least in the context of patients, who also exhibit characteristics of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Case Series We present eight clinical cases, with known substance abuse, childhood abuse and diagnosed PTSD/RDS. The administration of a putative dopamine agonist, KB200Z™, was associated with the elimination of unpleasant and/or terrifying, lucid dreams in 87.5% of the cases presented, whereas one very heavy cocaine abuser showed a minimal response. These results required the continuous use of this nutraceutical. The lucid dreams themselves were distinguishable from typical, PTSD nightmares insofar as their content did not appear to reflect a symbolic rendition of an originally-experienced, historical trauma. Each of the cases was diagnosed with a form of RDS, i.e., ADHD, ADD, and/or Tourette’s syndrome. They all also suffered from some form of Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric diagnoses as well. Conclusion The reduction or elimination of terrifying Lucid Dreams seemed to be dependent on KB220Z, whereby voluntary stopping of the agent results in reinstatement of the terrifying non-pleasant nature of the dreams. Following more required research on a much larger population we anticipate confirmation of these seemingly interesting observations. If these results in a small number of patients are indeed confirmed we may have found a frontline solution to a very perplexing and complicated symptom known as lucid dreams. PMID:26065033

  17. [Friedrich Nietzsche's last lucid year].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2007-05-01

    As an outstanding philosopher Nietzsche poses the question whether his creativeness persisted in spite of his deteriorating disease or appeared, among other features, as a consequence of his illness. A thorough psychopathological understanding of his last lucid year is attempted. He had an exaggerated self-esteem and grandiose sense of confidence and achievements. But his lack of insight did not lead him to engage in activities that could harm himself or his loved ones. Between January 1888 and until his ultimate deterioration in January 1889, Nietzsche was exceedingly productive. During this period, polar changes along with moderately overlapping periods appeared.

  18. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-04-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the dreamer gains insight into his state of mind during dreaming. Recent electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the first time allow very specific hypotheses about the dream-psychosis relationship: if dreaming is a reasonable model for psychosis, then insight into the dreaming state and insight into the psychotic state should share similar neural correlates. This indeed seems to be the case: cortical areas activated during lucid dreaming show striking overlap with brain regions that are impaired in psychotic patients who lack insight into their pathological state. This parallel allows for new therapeutic approaches and ways to test antipsychotic medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Driver behavior in car-to-pedestrian incidents: An application of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM).

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Azra; Tivesten, Emma; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Bärgman, Jonas; Ljung Aust, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    To develop relevant road safety countermeasures, it is necessary to first obtain an in-depth understanding of how and why safety-critical situations such as incidents, near-crashes, and crashes occur. Video-recordings from naturalistic driving studies provide detailed information on events and circumstances prior to such situations that is difficult to obtain from traditional crash investigations, at least when it comes to the observable driver behavior. This study analyzed causation in 90 video-recordings of car-to-pedestrian incidents captured by onboard cameras in a naturalistic driving study in Japan. The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) was modified and used to identify contributing factors and causation patterns in these incidents. Two main causation patterns were found. In intersections, drivers failed to recognize the presence of the conflict pedestrian due to visual obstructions and/or because their attention was allocated towards something other than the conflict pedestrian. In incidents away from intersections, this pattern reoccurred along with another pattern showing that pedestrians often behaved in unexpected ways. These patterns indicate that an interactive advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) able to redirect the driver's attention could have averted many of the intersection incidents, while autonomous systems may be needed away from intersections. Cooperative ADAS may be needed to address issues raised by visual obstructions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  1. Lucid Provides Energy Reduction Software to DC Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Earlier this year, Lucid, a 2014 U.S. EPA SBIR award recipient, announced that the D.C. government was using Lucid's BuildingOS® software in order to reach an an energy reduction target of 20 percent in 20 months

  2. Lost in Translation? Rethinking First Nation Education via LUCID Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Thomas William

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from the Learning for Understanding through Culturally-Inclusive Imaginative Development project (LUCID). LUCID has been a 5-year (2004-2009) research and implementation endeavour and a partnership between Simon Fraser University (SFU) and three districts in British Columbia, Canada. Via emotionally engaging…

  3. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  4. The Dream

    PubMed Central

    Glucksman, Myron L.

    2001-01-01

    The dream is a unique psychodynamically informative instrument for evaluating the subjective correlates of brain activity during REM sleep. These include feelings, percepts, memories, wishes, fantasies, impulses, conflicts, and defenses, as well as images of self and others. Dream analysis can be used in a variety of clinical settings to assist in diagnostic assessment, psychodynamic formulation, evaluation of clinical change, and the management of medically ill patients. Dreams may serve as the initial indicators of transference, resistance, impending crisis, acting-out, conflict resolution, and decision-making. A clinically functional categorization of dreams can facilitate an understanding of psychopathology, psychodynamics, personality structure, and various components of the psychotherapeutic process. Examples of different types of dreams are provided to illustrate their relevance and use in various clinical situations. PMID:11696648

  5. Beyond the neuropsychology of dreaming: Insights into the neural basis of dreaming with new techniques of sleep recording and analysis.

    PubMed

    Cipolli, Carlo; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in electrophysiological [e.g., surface high-density electroencephalographic (hd-EEG) and intracranial recordings], video-polysomnography (video-PSG), transcranial stimulation and neuroimaging techniques allow more in-depth and more accurate investigation of the neural correlates of dreaming in healthy individuals and in patients with brain-damage, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders or parasomnias. Convergent evidence provided by studies using these techniques in healthy subjects has led to a reformulation of several unresolved issues of dream generation and recall [such as the inter- and intra-individual differences in dream recall and the predictivity of specific EEG rhythms, such as theta in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, for dream recall] within more comprehensive models of human consciousness and its variations across sleep/wake states than the traditional models, which were largely based on the neurophysiology of REM sleep in animals. These studies are casting new light on the neural bases (in particular, the activity of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex regions and hippocampus and amygdala areas) of the inter- and intra-individual differences in dream recall, the temporal location of specific contents or properties (e.g., lucidity) of dream experience and the processing of memories accessed during sleep and incorporated into dream content. Hd-EEG techniques, used on their own or in combination with neuroimaging, appear able to provide further important insights into how the brain generates not only dreaming during sleep but also some dreamlike experiences in waking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dream controller

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  7. What I make up when I wake up: anti-experience views and narrative fabrication of dreams.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Melanie G

    2013-01-01

    I propose a narrative fabrication thesis of dream reports, according to which dream reports are often not accurate representations of experiences that occur during sleep. I begin with an overview of anti-experience theses of Norman Malcolm and Daniel Dennett who reject the received view of dreams, that dreams are experiences we have during sleep which are reported upon waking. Although rejection of the first claim of the received view, that dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, is implausible, I evaluate in more detail the second assumption of the received view, that dream reports are generally accurate. I then propose a "narrative fabrication" view of dreams as an alternative to the received view. Dream reports are often confabulated or fabricated because of poor memory, bizarre dream content, and cognitive deficits. It is well documented that narratives can be altered between initial rapid eye movement sleep awakenings and subsequent reports. I argue that we have reason to suspect that initial reports are prone to inaccuracy. Experiments demonstrate that subjects rationalize strange elements in narratives, leaving out supernatural or bizarre components when reporting waking memories of stories. Inaccuracies in dream reports are exacerbated by rapid memory loss and bizarre dream content. Waking memory is a process of reconstruction and blending of elements, but unlike waking memory, we cannot reality-test for dream memories. Dream experiences involve imaginative elements, and dream content cannot be verified with external evidence. Some dreams may involve wake-like higher cognitive functions, such as lucid dreams. Such dreams are more likely to elicit accurate reports than cognitively deficient dreams. However, dream reports are generally less accurate than waking reports. I then propose methods which could verify the narrative fabrication view, and argue that although the theory cannot be tested with current methods, new techniques and technologies may

  8. What I make up when I wake up: anti-experience views and narrative fabrication of dreams

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Melanie G.

    2013-01-01

    I propose a narrative fabrication thesis of dream reports, according to which dream reports are often not accurate representations of experiences that occur during sleep. I begin with an overview of anti-experience theses of Norman Malcolm and Daniel Dennett who reject the received view of dreams, that dreams are experiences we have during sleep which are reported upon waking. Although rejection of the first claim of the received view, that dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, is implausible, I evaluate in more detail the second assumption of the received view, that dream reports are generally accurate. I then propose a “narrative fabrication” view of dreams as an alternative to the received view. Dream reports are often confabulated or fabricated because of poor memory, bizarre dream content, and cognitive deficits. It is well documented that narratives can be altered between initial rapid eye movement sleep awakenings and subsequent reports. I argue that we have reason to suspect that initial reports are prone to inaccuracy. Experiments demonstrate that subjects rationalize strange elements in narratives, leaving out supernatural or bizarre components when reporting waking memories of stories. Inaccuracies in dream reports are exacerbated by rapid memory loss and bizarre dream content. Waking memory is a process of reconstruction and blending of elements, but unlike waking memory, we cannot reality-test for dream memories. Dream experiences involve imaginative elements, and dream content cannot be verified with external evidence. Some dreams may involve wake-like higher cognitive functions, such as lucid dreams. Such dreams are more likely to elicit accurate reports than cognitively deficient dreams. However, dream reports are generally less accurate than waking reports. I then propose methods which could verify the narrative fabrication view, and argue that although the theory cannot be tested with current methods, new techniques and technologies

  9. Sleep and dream habits in a sample of French college students who report no sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Vallat, Raphael; Eskinazi, Mickael; Nicolas, Alain; Ruby, Perrine

    2018-02-06

    There is a lack of up-to-date data on sleep and dream habits of college students. To fill in this gap, we used an online questionnaire sent to the student mailing lists of two major universities of Lyon (Lyon 1 and Lyon 2) for the recruitment of an functional magnetic resonance imaging study with sleep disorders as exclusion criteria. In the sample (1,137 French college students, 411 males, mean age = 22.2 ± 2.4 years, body mass index = 22.0 ± 3.2 kg m -2 ), on average, the participants reported spending about 8 hr in bed during weekdays, 9 hr during the weekends, and 90.9% of them reported no difficulty falling asleep. Less than 0.4% of students reported to have sleep-walking episodes regularly, but nearly 7% reported regular sleep-talking episodes. The average dream recall frequency was about 3 mornings per week with a dream in mind. Dream recall frequency was positively correlated with the clarity of dream content and the frequency of lucid dreaming, and was negatively correlated with age. Fourteen percent of the students reported frequent lucid dreams, and 6% reported frequent recurrent dreams. We found a gender effect for several sleep and dream parameters, including dream recall frequency and time in bed, both of which were higher in women than in men. We have also observed differences between academic disciplines, namely humanities students (Lyon 2) reported spending more time in bed than sciences students (Lyon 1). These results confirm a gender difference for several sleep and dream parameters, and suggest a link between academic disciplines and sleep duration. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. A systematic change in dreams after 9/11/01.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ernest; Brezler, Tyler

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies of dreams after trauma and stress have found increases in the power of the central image of the dream. However, it has been difficult to perform properly controlled studies of dreams before and after trauma. The present study is designed to compare dreams before and after 9/11/01 in the same persons. The assumption is that the events of 9/11 produced mild trauma or at the very least emotional arousal in everyone living in the United States. Forty-four persons in the United States who had been recording all their dreams for years each provided 20 consecutive dreams from their records--the last 10 recorded before 9/11 and the first 10 after 9/11. These dreams were assigned random numbers and scored on a blind basis using a number of rating scales with established reliability. Dreams after 9/11 showed a highly significant increase in central image intensity, as well as central image proportion (number of dreams with scorable central images) but no change in dream length, dream-likeness, overall vividness, or content involving airplanes or tall buildings. There were no "exact replay" dreams picturing the actual events of 9/11 seen repeatedly on TV. These results are consistent with the Contemporary Theory of Dreaming, which emphasizes the role of underlying emotion in producing central dream imagery and suggests that the intensity of the central dream imagery is related to the power of the underlying emotion.

  11. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  12. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  13. Dream Weavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the success story of Hamissou Samari, an immigrant from Togo, who realized his dream through the help of the Kaplan Foundation scholarship and leadership program for nontraditional students enrolled in community colleges. Designed for underserved community college students in New York, the comprehensive, first-of-its-kind…

  14. Just Dreaming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Many of the nation's colleges and universities are not sure what the proposed DREAM Act would mean for their institutions--and a number of them are operating amid confusion in trying to serve undocumented students legally in light of the defeat of the measure in the Senate last year to pass the legislation. It would have allowed some immigrants…

  15. California Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…

  16. Astronaut Shannon Lucid and family after STS-79 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Surrounded by her family and looking very fit and happy, U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid answers questions about her record- setting stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir. From left are husband Michael, daughter Kawai, son Michael, son-in-law Jeff Richeson, and daughter Shandara. Lucid returned to Earth earlier today aboard the orbiter Atlantis, wrapping up a 188-day spaceflight that represents a U.S. long-duration spaceflight record as well as the longest stay in space by a woman. Lucid and the other five STS-79 astronauts are spending the night here in the Operations and Checkout Building before returning to Johnson Space Center in Houston. Atlantis touched down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT.

  17. Dreams and Psychedelics: Neurophenomenological Comparison and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Kraehenmann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,Ndimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. The aim of this review is to introduce readers to the similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and night dreams, and to draw conclusions related to therapeutic applications of psychedelics in psychiatry. Research literature related to psychedelics and dreaming is reviewed, and these two states of consciousness are systematically compared. Relevant conclusions with regard to psychedelicassisted therapy will be provided. Common features between psychedelic states and night dreams include perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body. Differences between these two states are related to differential perceptual input from the environment, clarity of consciousness and meta-cognitive abilities. Therefore, psychedelic states are closest to lucid dreaming which is characterized by a mixed state of dreaming and waking consciousness. The broad overlap between dreaming and psychedelic states supports the notion that psychedelics acutely induce dreamlike subjective experiences which may have long-term beneficial effects on psychosocial functioning and well-being. Future clinical studies should examine how therapeutic outcome is related to the acute dreamlike effects of psychedelics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Dreams and Psychedelics: Neurophenomenological Comparison and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kraehenmann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Background: A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or ‘classical’ psychedelics such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) and ayahuasca – a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. The aim of this review is to introduce readers to the similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and night dreams and to draw conclusions related to therapeutic applications of psychedelics in psychiatry. Methods: Research literature related to psychedelics and dreaming is reviewed and these two states of consciousness are systematically compared. Relevant conclusions with regard to psychedelic-assisted therapy will be provided. Results: Common features between psychedelic states and night dreams include perception mental imagery emotion activation fear memory extinction and sense of self and body. Differences between these two states are related to differential perceptual input from the environment clarity of consciousness and meta-cognitive abilities. Therefore psychedelic states are closest to lucid dreaming which is characterized by a mixed state of dreaming and waking consciousness Conclusion: The broad overlap between dreaming and psychedelic states supports the notion that psychedelics acutely induce dreamlike subjective experiences which may have long-term beneficial effects on psychosocial functioning and well-being. Future clinical studies should examine how therapeutic outcome is related to the acute dreamlike effects of psychedelics. PMID:28625125

  19. Candid view of Astronaut Lucid in the Spektr module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-16

    NM22-427-012 (16-26 Sept. 1996) --- During off-duty time on the Spektr Module aboard the Earth-orbiting Mir Space Station, astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, cosmonaut guest researcher, retrieves a book from her personal library. Lucid, dropped off in March by the STS-76 crew members, was nearing the end of 188 consecutive days in space before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew. She worked with a total of five cosmonauts at various times during that stay.

  20. [Unusual dreams in epileptics].

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, A I

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses bizarre dreams characteristic of epileptics and never occurring in normal subjects which have an important practical implication especially for early detection of epilepsy and the prevention of severe forms of the disease. This group of dreams includes vivid nightmares with vital fear, dreams not infrequently transforming into pro-dream states; persistently repeated stereotyped dreams and dreams with invariably the same unpleasant sensations representing an isolated aura of subsequent epileptic attacks. Diagnostically important may also be dreams with the symptoms of derealization and depersonalization, vague dream images and the deja vu phenomenon.

  1. Descartes' dreams.

    PubMed

    Withers, Robert

    2008-11-01

    René Descartes is often regarded as the 'father of modern philosophy'. He was a key figure in instigating the scientific revolution that has been so influential in shaping our modern world. He has been revered and reviled in almost equal measure for this role; on the one hand seen as liberating science from religion, on the other as splitting soul from body and man from nature. He dates the founding of his philosophical methods to the night of 10(th) November 1619 and in particular to three powerful dreams he had that night. This article utilizes Descartes' own interpretations of the dreams, supported by biographical material, as well as contemporary neuroscientific and psychoanalytic theory, to reach a new understanding of them. It is argued that the dreams can be understood as depicting Descartes' personal journey from a state of mind-body dissociation to one of mind-body deintegration. This personal journey may have implications for a parallel journey from Renaissance to modern culture and from modernity to post-modern culture.

  2. [The dream, anno 2007].

    PubMed

    Hebbrecht, M

    2007-01-01

    The dream has always been of interest to psychiatrists. It can assist with the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. To find out whether the dream is regarded as meaningful in modern psychiatry and to discover how dreams can be used by psychiatrists in clinical practice. Initially, psychoanalytic monographs on the subject of dreams were read thoroughly. This is followed by a literature search in PubMed and PEPWeb on the basis of the search terms 'dream', 'dreams' and 'dreaming'. results There has been considerable interest in dreams in the psychiatric literature published in the last few decades. Neuroscientific data seem to confirm Freud's wish-fulfilling theory. The dream plays a role in the consolidation of memory. It seems reasonable that psychopathological diagnosis should take the content of dreams into account. Not only is the dream a fascinating subject for research, it is also useful in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders.

  3. Affect integration in dreams and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Grenell, Gary

    2008-03-01

    The processes by which dreaming aids in the ongoing integration of affects into the mind are approached here from complementary psychoanalytic and nonpsychoanalytic perspectives. One relevant notion is that the dream provides a psychological space wherein overwhelming, contradictory, or highly complex affects that under waking conditions are subject to dissociation, splitting, or disavowal may be brought together for observation by the dreaming ego. This process serves the need for psychological balance and equilibrium. A brief discussion of how the mind processes information during dreaming is followed by a consideration of four component aspects of the integrative process: the nature and use of the dream-space, the oscillating "me / not me" quality of the dream, the apparent reality of the dream, and the use of nonpathological projective identification in dreaming. Three clinical illustrations are offered and discussed.

  4. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  5. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  6. A Systematic Change in Dreams after 9/11/01

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Ernest; Brezler, Tyler

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies of dreams after trauma and stress have found increases in the power of the central image of the dream. However, it has been difficult to perform properly controlled studies of dreams before and after trauma. The present study is designed to compare dreams before and after 9/11/01 in the same persons. The assumption is that the events of 9/11 produced mild trauma or at the very least emotional arousal in everyone living in the United States. Methods: Forty-four persons in the United States who had been recording all their dreams for years each provided 20 consecutive dreams from their records—the last 10 recorded before 9/11 and the first 10 after 9/11. These dreams were assigned random numbers and scored on a blind basis using a number of rating scales with established reliability. Results: Dreams after 9/11 showed a highly significant increase in central image intensity, as well as central image proportion (number of dreams with scorable central images) but no change in dream length, dream-likeness, overall vividness, or content involving airplanes or tall buildings. There were no “exact replay” dreams picturing the actual events of 9/11 seen repeatedly on TV. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the Contemporary Theory of Dreaming, which emphasizes the role of underlying emotion in producing central dream imagery and suggests that the intensity of the central dream imagery is related to the power of the underlying emotion. Citation: Hartmann E; Brezler T. A systematic change in dreams after 9/11/01. SLEEP 2008;31(2):213-218. PMID:18274268

  7. Perverse dreams and dreams of perversion.

    PubMed

    Good, Michael I

    2006-10-01

    This paper (1) posits the occurrence of perverse dreams as a type of mental phenomenon in the constellation of perverse processes; (2) considers manifest dreams of frank perversion as a type of perverse dream within the class of perverse dreams as a whole; (3) relates the subtype of perverse dreams without manifest perversions to the occurrence of perverse defenses and the development of a perverse transference; and (4) suggests that consideration to perverse dreams in the psychoanalytic process finds application in identifying and differentiating perverse defenses from neurotic and other characterologic patterns; in identifying and tracing the vicissitudes of difficult perverse transference-countertransference constellations; and in furthering perverse patients' recognition and understanding of particularly troublesome and seemingly intractable issues in their psychic makeup. Clinical material illustrates perverse dreams and their usefulness in the often arduous process of analyzing perverse defenses.

  8. Life and Utilization Criteria Identification in Design (LUCID). Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    AFWAL-.TR.412101 VOLUME Iff LIFE AND UTILIZATION CRITERIA IDENTIFICATION oIN DESIGN , VOLUME I[ SMcDonnell Aircraft Company SMcDonnell Douglas... design , a complexinteractive air- craft/engine design effort is conducted. The primary objective of the Life and Utilization Criteria Identification in... Design (LUCID) Program was to develop and demonstrate techniques which will aid in identifying, during conceptual design , balanced and consistent

  9. Dreams and acting out.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, L

    1987-01-01

    Dreams can be used as containers that free patients from increased tension. This may be the principal function of certain types of dreams, called "evacuative dreams." They are dreams used for getting rid of unbearable affects and unconscious fantasies, or as a safety valve for partial discharge of instinctual drives. These dreams are observed primarily in borderline and psychotic patients, but can also be seen in the regressive states of neurotic patients during weekends and other periods of separation. Such dreams have to be differentiated from "elaborative dreams," which have a working-through function and stand in an inverse relationship to acting out: the greater the production of elaborative dreams, the less the tendency to act out, and vice versa.

  10. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Camila; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2018-01-01

    Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology ("what it feels like" to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception ("see," "visual," "face," "reality," "color"), emotion ("fear"), setting ("outside," "inside," "street," "front," "behind") and relatives ("mom," "dad," "brother," "parent," "family") were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain physiology.

  11. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Camila; Zamberlan, Federico; Erowid, Earth; Erowid, Fire; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2018-01-01

    Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”), emotion (“fear”), setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind”) and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family”) were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain physiology. PMID

  12. The Dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, D.

    2010-12-01

    Models have become a routine research output over the past decade. They are used by many scientific disciplines in order to understand and analyses the processes and conditions within their domain of interest. This has resulted in a significant increase in scientific understanding and in a multitude of discipline specific models, modelling system software and workflows. There is now a growing realisation that to address the most pertinent questions of the age, such as climate change and the sustainable use of natural resources, we need to bringing together climate, ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological, geological and socio-economic models in order to provide the necessary framework to make truly informed decisions. At the British Geological Survey our vision is to provide scientists with the data, tools, techniques and support to address trans-disciplinary environmental questions impacting on human society. We hope to achieve this by being a leading member of an open community that will share data, applications and environmental models thus enabling collaboration and achieving sustainable solutions. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a scoping study with the aim of planning the implementation of the vision and preparing the organisation for the changes that are required to enable it to engage more effectively in trans-disciplinary modelling. This has resulted in the launch of a cross-cutting project call Data and Research for Environmental Applications and Models: The DREAM. The scoping study recognised that the investment and knowledge captured within the many existing scientific models represent a significant resource and not one that could be easily replicated in more centralised environmental modelling software. The only viable option in a ‘linked models’ approach which enables models to pass parameters between each other at runtime. This is perceived to be a pragmatic, achievable and cost-effective solution. This solution brings

  13. Our unacknowledged ancestors: dream theorists of antiquity, the middle ages, and the renaissance.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C S

    1990-06-01

    Exploring the dream world from a modern, or post-modern, perspective, especially through the lens of contemporary technologies, often leads us as researchers to see ourselves as engaged in a new and revolutionary discourse. In fact, this self-image is a profoundly ahistorical one, because it ignores the contributions of ancient, medieval and Renaissance oneirologists who wrote extensively, albeit in different terms and images of lucidity, prerecognition, day residue, wish fulfillment, incubation, problem solving, REM, obe, and the collective unconscious. There are also analogues in these early accounts to anxiety, recurrent, mirror, telepathic, shared, flying, and death dreams. Dream interpretation through music, analysis of dream as narrative, sophisticated theories about memory and language and symbolization are all part of the tradition. Further, early texts pose many issues in sleep and dream research which are not currently being pursued. We dream workers of the late twentieth century should therefore fortify ourselves with knowledge of the oneiric past as one important way to enhance our dream work in the twenty-first century.

  14. [Brief history of dreams].

    PubMed

    Rosselli, D

    Throughout history dreams have played a crucial role. Dreams have inspired great works of art, solved scientific problems and, because of the premonitory value attached to them, have influenced transcendental decisions. This paper reviews some of the dreams that have been a part of the world's literature and historical tradition.

  15. Mir 21 crew and Astronaut Lucid stowing equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-01

    NM21-386-024 (March 1996) --- Onboard the Base Block Module of Russia’s Mir Space Station, as two members of the Mir-21 crew prepare to move supplies to their proper stowage places. Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, recently dropped off by the STS-76 Space Shuttle Atlantis crew members and now serving as a cosmonaut guest researcher, works with Yury V. Usachev, flight engineer. She went on to spend a total of 188 consecutive days in space before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew. She worked with a total of five cosmonauts at various times during that stay.

  16. What physicians need to know about dreams and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F

    2012-11-01

    An overview of the current status of dream science is given, designed to provide a basic background of this field for the sleep-interested physician. No cognitive state has been more extensively studied and is yet more misunderstood than dreaming. Much older work is methodologically limited by lack of definitions, small sample size, and constraints of theoretical perspective, with evidence equivocal as to whether any special relationship exists between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming. As the relationship between dreams and REM sleep is so poorly defined, evidence-based studies of dreaming require a dream report. The different aspects of dreaming that can be studied include dream and nightmare recall frequency, dream content, dreaming effect on waking behaviors, dream/nightmare associated medications, and pathophysiology affecting dreaming. Whether studied from behavioral, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, pathophysiological or electrophysiological perspectives, dreaming reveals itself to be a complex cognitive state affected by a wide variety of medical, psychological, sleep and social variables.

  17. Design as dream and self-representation: Philip Johnson and the Glass House of Atreus.

    PubMed

    Tutter, Adele

    2011-06-01

    Philip Johnson's masterpiece--the Glass House--is compared to a dream and conceptualized as containing encrypted and embedded representations of the self. Freud's masterpiece--The Interpretation of Dreams--is the theoretical and methodological model for this approach to design-as-dream. Drawing on Johnson's words and forms set in biographical, historical, and cultural context, interpretive paths are traced from manifest design elements of the Glass House to overdetermined latent meanings, yielding new and surprising insights into the Glass House, its elusive architect, and the process of its design. A mirror that reflects an image, a lens that focuses it, and a prism that reveals its components, the Glass House turns a lucid eye onto its maker.

  18. Ethnic Groups and the American Dream(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    Examines what the American dream means to ethnic Americans. Specifically discussed are: (1) how official documents of the dream have dealt with ethnicity; (2) how ethnic groups have interpreted the dream; (3) how the 1960s redefined the dream; and (4) the future of the dream in terms of changing American ethnicity. (RM)

  19. Lost in translation? Rethinking First Nation education via LUCID insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Thomas William

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on findings from the Learning for Understanding through Culturally-Inclusive Imaginative Development project (LUCID). LUCID has been a 5-year (2004-2009) research and implementation endeavour and a partnership between Simon Fraser University (SFU) and three districts in British Columbia, Canada. Via emotionally engaging pedagogies and a culturally-inclusive curriculum, the project aimed at improving students' educational experience, particularly First Nations learners. Using a combination of Actor Network Theory (Latour, 2005, in: Reassembling the social: an introduction to Actor-Network Theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford) and Hermeneutic Phenomenology (Van Manen, 1990, in: Researching lived experience, The State University of New York, New York), site visits and interview data were examined with reference to the (f)actors influencing project objectives. Although each school district was unique, shared themes included: the importance of creating a community with shared intent; the role of executives as potential "change agents"; the problematic nature of emotionally-engaging teaching; and the complex influences of cultural and historical trauma. The latter theme is explored in particular, presenting the argument that language deficiency and a consequent lack of autonomy might be at the root of many problems experienced in First Nations communities.

  20. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  1. Effects of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and a B Complex Preparation on Dreaming and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Aspy, Denholm J; Madden, Natasha A; Delfabbro, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that supplementation with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) before bed can enhance dream vividness and recall. In a single pilot study, Ebben, Lequerica, and Spielman (2002) found that vitamin B6 had a dose-dependent effect of increasing scores on a composite measure of dream vividness, bizarreness, emotionality, and color. The present research replicated this study using a larger and more diverse sample of 100 participants from across Australia. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects on dreaming and sleep of ingesting 240 mg vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) before bed for five consecutive days. We also included an exploratory condition involving a B complex preparation containing a range of B vitamins. We found that vitamin B6 significantly increased the amount of dream content participants recalled but did not significantly affect dream vividness, bizarreness, or color, nor did it significantly affect other sleep-related variables. In contrast, participants in the B complex group showed significantly lower self-rated sleep quality and significantly higher tiredness on waking. We discuss the potential for using vitamin B6 in research on lucid dreaming.

  2. Dream Work in Grief Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Konrad Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Working with dreams is useful with grief and loss clients who present with dreams. Adlerian dream analysis is one-way of exploring dreams. It incorporates the life-style of the client. This case report demonstrates how Adlerian dream analysis was used with a client. Progress was noted in improved life-style once the client began to talk about her dream. PMID:25035561

  3. Establishing the Reliability and Validity of a Computerized Assessment of Children's Working Memory for Use in Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a brief standardized assessment of children's working memory; "Lucid Recall." Although there are many established assessments of working memory, "Lucid Recall" is fully automated and can therefore be administered in a group setting. It is therefore…

  4. Memory in dreams.

    PubMed

    Giustino, Gabriella

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the author discusses a specific type of dreams encountered in her clinical experience, which in her view provide an opportunity of reconstructing the traumatic emotional events of the patient's past. In 1900, Freud described a category of dreams--which he called 'biographical dreams'--that reflect historical infantile experience without the typical defensive function. Many authors agree that some traumatic dreams perform a function of recovery and working through. Bion contributed to the amplification of dream theory by linking it to the theory of thought and emphasizing the element of communication in dreams as well as their defensive aspect. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the predominant aspect of such dreams is the communication of an experience which the dreamer has in the dream but does not understand. It is often possible to reconstruct, and to help the patient to comprehend and make sense of, the emotional truth of the patient's internal world, which stems from past emotional experience with primary objects. The author includes some clinical examples and references to various psychoanalytic and neuroscientific conceptions of trauma and memory. She discusses a particular clinical approach to such dreams and how the analyst should listen to them.

  5. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).

  6. Dreams, Daydreams and Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. A.; Luckcock, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    It has been discovered that dreams and daydreams can be productive states in the process of scientific innovation. An attempt is made to provide some typical examples of insights which have come to scientists during dream-like states and in sleep. (Author/MA)

  7. Children's Understanding of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sarah A.; Shore, Cecilia M.

    Children's understanding of dreams as mental states was examined as an instance of their development of a "theory of mind." Thirty-five children between three and seven years of age were interviewed to determine how well they understood the reality, location, privacy, origin, and controllability of their own dreams, versus that of a…

  8. Keeping the DREAM Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2007-01-01

    When Congress killed the immigration bill recently, the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act was one casualty as a component of that bill. The DREAM Act is needed to allow the 65,000 American-raised, but undocumented students that graduate from high school each year to apply for conditional residence status. These…

  9. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  10. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  12. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  13. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality. PMID:28539902

  14. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term "sleep experiences," coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions ("general sleep experiences"). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor-measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)-with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., "transliminality"), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a "rebound effect." The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness-including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries-may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  15. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives.

  16. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.

  17. Dreaming and Neuroesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Barcaro, Umberto; Paoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which is limited to the art of painting, aims to support the idea that a substantial insertion of concepts and methods drawn on dream psychology and dream neuroscience can contribute to the advancements of Neuroesthetics. The historical and scientific reasons are discussed that have determined the so far poor role played by the dream phenomenon in the developments of Neuroesthetics. In the light of recent advancements in psychophysiological research, a method of analyzing artistic products is proposed that is based on the recognition of precise features proper of the dreaming experience. Four examples are given for application of this method, regarding works by Giorgione, Leonardo da Vinci, Vermeer, and Millais, respectively. PMID:26157373

  18. Enhancing Dream Pleasure with Senoi Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Marie C.

    1984-01-01

    Implemented a thought-control strategy to increase pleasure and reduce displeasure in dreaming and dream-related behaviors in college students (N=63). Results indicated that dreaming and behaviors associated with dreaming were significantly more pleasurable 12 weeks after the dream interventions and maintenance of a daily dream record. (LLL)

  19. Confirmation and lucidity during conversations with a woman with severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Normann, Hans Ketil; Norberg, Astrid; Asplund, Kenneth

    2002-08-01

    Patients with severe dementia sometimes surprise the care providers because they seem to be much more aware of their situation and function much more adequately than usual. Such episodes are labelled 'episodes of lucidity' (ELs). The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the particular conversations with a woman with severe dementia when ELs occurred as compared with conversations when she was not lucid. A woman with a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was selected. Her Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was estimated as 3. The first author met the woman for 4 hours five times over a period of 2 weeks. RESEARCH ETHODS: The conversations were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The text was divided into 278 content units and analysed. Lucidity is promoted by supporting the patient in various ways, that is sharing the patient's view, repeating and reformulating the patient's utterance, reinforcing the patient by using positive utterances, not emphasizing errors and supporting the patient's language in various ways, and avoiding making demands. The relation between the patient and her conversation partner during ELs is characterized by confirmation and communion. This case study indicates that a supportive attitude in conversation with the patient with severe dementia promotes lucidity. A supportive attitude includes the avoidance on the part of the conversational partner making demands on the patient, confirming the patient as an important, unique and valuable person and creating communion. The connection between supporting and avoiding demands and lucidity/nonlucidity during conversation needs further study.

  20. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  1. The Dreaming Child: Dreams, Religion and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Dreaming is an integral part of human life. Whilst psychology has generated extensive knowledge and understanding about dreams, it was in religious contexts that they were originally understood. This relationship between dreams and religion is still evident in contemporary society in the scriptures of the Abrahamic faiths, which narrate dreams…

  2. Dreaming, fenfluramine, and vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Mullen, A; Wilson, C W; Wilson, B P

    1977-01-08

    The effect of increasing doses of fenfluramine on dream patterns was studied in 20 patients receiving a reducing diet with or without a controlled dietary intake of vitamin C daily. The dream pattern was unchanged in six patients and dreams disappeared in another who normally dreamed often. In 13 patients dreams increased in frequency and intensity, and in five the dreams assumed frightening proportions. There was a significant straight-line relation between response and the size of the dose. When placebo tablets were given to four patients their dreams disappeared or assumed their pretreatment normal pattern. Absence of vitamin C from the diet did not significantly affect the dream pattern. That fenfluramine has dose-related cerebral effects should be remembered in patients with a history of mental illness.

  3. Dreaming, fenfluramine, and vitamin C.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, A; Wilson, C W; Wilson, B P

    1977-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of fenfluramine on dream patterns was studied in 20 patients receiving a reducing diet with or without a controlled dietary intake of vitamin C daily. The dream pattern was unchanged in six patients and dreams disappeared in another who normally dreamed often. In 13 patients dreams increased in frequency and intensity, and in five the dreams assumed frightening proportions. There was a significant straight-line relation between response and the size of the dose. When placebo tablets were given to four patients their dreams disappeared or assumed their pretreatment normal pattern. Absence of vitamin C from the diet did not significantly affect the dream pattern. That fenfluramine has dose-related cerebral effects should be remembered in patients with a history of mental illness. PMID:318898

  4. Dream Chaser Departs NASA Armstrong

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-05

    SNC Dream Chaser is lifted on to a truck in NASA Armstrong’s historic space shuttle hangar where the spacecraft stayed as it was being prepared for testing and flights. Dream Chaser is in Colorado at a SNC facility.

  5. The dream in contemporary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Reiser, M F

    2001-03-01

    This article offers selective reviews of cogent sectors of research regarding the dream in contemporary psychiatry. First, the author discusses relatively recent research (1953-1999) on the neurobiology and clinical psychophysiology of dreaming sleep; second, he reviews experimental cognitive neuroscientific studies of perception, emotion, and memory and the putative interrelationships among them in generating dream imagery; and third, he interprets psychoanalytic studies (1900-1999) on related aspects of dreams and the dream process. Exploration for interrelationships among information from these three areas entails discussion of the mind/brain problem. These considerations illuminate some of the logical and interpretive dilemmas that enter into debates about Freud's theory of the dream. The author proposes a preliminary psychobiologic concept of the dream process and discusses, in light of the foregoing considerations, the importance of collaborative research for developing a realistic perspective concerning the proper place of the dream in contemporary psychiatry.

  6. Threat in dreams: an adaptation?

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark; Turnbull, Oliver; Tredoux, Colin

    2008-12-01

    Revonsuo's influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area (South Africa: n=208) differed significantly from participants in a low crime area (Wales, UK: n=116) in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event (chi([1,N=186])(2)=14.84, p<.00012). Contrary to TST's predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams (chi([1,N=287])(2)=6.11, p<.0134), and did not differ from the Welsh participants in responses to dream threats (Fisher's Exact test, p=.2478). Overall, the incidence of threat in dreams was extremely low-less than 20% of dreams featured realistic survival threats. Escape from dream threats occurred in less than 2% of dreams. We conclude that this evidence contradicts key aspects of TST.

  7. The neural correlates of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Siclari, Francesca; Baird, Benjamin; Perogamvros, Lampros; Bernardi, Giulio; LaRocque, Joshua J; Riedner, Brady; Boly, Melanie; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2017-06-01

    Consciousness never fades during waking. However, when awakened from sleep, we sometimes recall dreams and sometimes recall no experiences. Traditionally, dreaming has been identified with rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, characterized by wake-like, globally 'activated', high-frequency electroencephalographic activity. However, dreaming also occurs in non-REM (NREM) sleep, characterized by prominent low-frequency activity. This challenges our understanding of the neural correlates of conscious experiences in sleep. Using high-density electroencephalography, we contrasted the presence and absence of dreaming in NREM and REM sleep. In both NREM and REM sleep, reports of dream experience were associated with local decreases in low-frequency activity in posterior cortical regions. High-frequency activity in these regions correlated with specific dream contents. Monitoring this posterior 'hot zone' in real time predicted whether an individual reported dreaming or the absence of dream experiences during NREM sleep, suggesting that it may constitute a core correlate of conscious experiences in sleep.

  8. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  9. The use of dreams in spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions.

  10. MS Lucid places samples in the TEHOF aboard the Spektr module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-26

    STS079-S-082 (16-26 Sept. 1996) --- Cosmonaut guest researcher Shannon W. Lucid and Valeri G. Korzun, her Mir-22 commander, are pictured on the Spektr Module aboard Russia's Earth-orbiting Mir Space Station. Korzun was the third of four commanders that Lucid served with during her record-setting 188 consecutive days in space. Later, Lucid returned to Earth with her fourth commander-astronaut William F. Readdy-and five other NASA astronauts to complete the STS-79 mission. During the STS-79 mission, the crew used an IMAX camera to document activities aboard the space shuttle Atlantis and the various Mir modules. A hand-held version of the 65mm camera system accompanied the STS-79 crew into space in Atlantis' crew cabin. NASA has flown IMAX camera systems on many Shuttle missions, including a special cargo bay camera's coverage of other recent Shuttle-Mir rendezvous and/or docking missions.

  11. AFTER 188 DAYS IN SPACE, SHANNON LUCID TALKS TO PRESIDENT CLINTON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    With her historic six-month stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir completed, U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid accepts a congratulatory phone call from President Bill Clinton. Lucid's on-orbit journey began March 22, when she embarked to Mir with the crew of Mission STS-76 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. By the time she returned to Earth earlier today, again aboard Atlantis but with the crew of Mission STS-79, she had logged 188 days in space: a U.S. record for long-duration human spaceflight as well as the longest stay in space by a woman. Lucid and her five fellow STS-79 crew members are spending the night here in the Operations and Checkout Building before returning to Johnson Space Center in Houston. Atlantis touched down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT.

  12. Final gift to Shannon Lucid and farewell during closing of hatches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-04-25

    STS076-356-029 (22 - 31 March 1996) --- Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, cosmonaut guest researcher, shows off a book which will occupy some of her off-duty time and that of her two Mir-21 crew mates aboard Russia's Mir Space Station during the next five months. Lucid was about to bid farewell to STS-76 crew mates Kevin P. Chilton (left), mission commander, and Ronald M. Sega, payload commander. The book was a gift from the STS-76 crew, given to the Mir-21 crew. This photograph was made onboard Mir's Base Block Module. After leaving Lucid to her duties onboard Mir, Chilton, Sega and three other astronauts later returned to Earth aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis.

  13. Person-centred ward climate as experienced by mentally lucid residents in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Bergland, Ådel; Hofoss, Dag; Kirkevold, Marit; Vassbø, Tove; Edvardsson, David

    2015-02-01

    To assess the content validity and reliability of the Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version in long-term care facilities, to describe residents' perceptions of the extent to which their ward climate was person-centred and to explore whether person-centredness was associated with facility and resident characteristics, such as facility and ward size, having a sensory garden and having a primary caregiver. The importance of the physical environment to persons with dementia has been investigated. However, research is lacking regarding the extent to which mentally lucid residents experience their physical and psycho-social ward climate as person-centred and the factors influencing their experience. Cross-sectional survey design. The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version was translated into Norwegian with forward and backward translation. The content validity index for scales was assessed. The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire -Patient version was completed by 145 mentally lucid residents in 17 Norwegian long-term care facilities. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's α and item-total correlations. Test-retest reliability was assessed by paired samples t-test and Spearman's correlation. To explore differences based on facility and resident characteristics, independent-samples t-test and one-way anova were used. The content validity index for scales was satisfactory. The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version was internally consistent and had satisfactory test-retest reliability. The climate was experienced as highly person-centred. No significant differences were found, except that residents in larger facilities experienced the climate as more person-centred in relation to everyday activities (subscale 2) than residents in smaller facilities. The Norwegian version of the Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version can be regarded as reliable in a long-term care facility context. Perceived degree of person

  14. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  15. Foundations: Supporting Your School's Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Principals, teachers, students, and parents all have dreams for improving their schools, but often they do not have the funding to make their dreams come true. How can schools provide the additional financial support to make their dreams come true? Members of the Broughton High School community in Raleigh, North Carolina, found one answer: create…

  16. [Dreams in ancient Hebrew sources].

    PubMed

    Kottek, Samuel S

    2009-01-01

    As in many cultures dreams are, in Hebrew sources, the object of numerous questions where are dreams from? Which is their function? Are they a physical or metaphysical phenomenon? The article analyzes the topic of nature of dreams in the Bible, with a particolar attention devoted to the Joseph's history. Talmudic text are, in particular, rich in references.

  17. Social dreaming: competition or complementation to individual dreaming?

    PubMed

    Noack, Amélie

    2010-11-01

    Social dreaming is presented as a method to explore the unconscious dimension of the social world. The theoretical position of social dreaming and its historical development is described. Two examples are given for the practical application of social dreaming, a professional meeting of psychotherapists and an experiential workshop dealing with the aftermath of trauma. It is suggested that social dreaming is complementary to individual dreaming and offers insights and explanations, as well as guidance on various levels for applications in clinical, organizational, institutional and social settings. © 2010, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Astronaut Shannon Lucid in training for contingency EVA for STS-58 in WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-03

    S93-31697 (3 April 1993) --- Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid participates in training for contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. Behind Lucid, sharing a moveable platform with her, is astronaut David A. Wolf (out of frame). For simulation purposes, the two mission specialists were about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Though the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-2) mission does not include a planned EVA, all crews designate members to learn proper procedures to perform outside the spacecraft in the event of failure of remote means to accomplish those tasks.

  19. Living the Behavioral Dream.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Most of us have had a workday where we left a bit frustrated about one thing or another and thought "if I was in charge, I know I could do it better." We dream of a better tomorrow where we tell our employer goodbye and become our own boss. Is that not the American Dream? We are told from early childhood that anything is possible and we can be anything we want to be if we just work hard. Somewhere between those naive childhood years and today we probably have come to realize these grand promises are more myths than truths and we become content with an approximation of this dream. To some individuals, however, approximations are not close enough.

  20. Dreaming in the Classroom: Practices, Methods, and Resources in Dream Education. SUNY Series in Dream Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Philip; Bulkeley, Kelly; Welt, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Dreaming in the Classroom" provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about…

  1. [Dreaming is a hypnic state of consciousness: getting rid of the Goblot hypothesis and its modern avatars].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, F; Nicolas, A

    2010-08-01

    In the late nineteenth century, French logician Edmond Goblot first hypothesized that dreaming occurred at the moment of awakening only. Revisiting--more or less directly--Goblot's hypothesis, several contemporary authors have since renewed this unusual claim that oniric experience does not occur during sleep. So did some influential analytical philosophers (Wittgenstein, Malcolm, Dennett), with their typical formalism, and famous dream researcher Calvin Hall, who tried to provide experimental evidence for the Goblot's hypothesis. More recently, French neurobiologist Jean-Pol Tassin claimed, on the basis of controversial neurobiological and cognitive principles, that only awakening gives rise to a dream, by instantaneous shaping of information issuing of neural networks activated during preceding sleep. Actually, numerous and robust experimental data in sleep psychophysiology clearly rule out Goblot's hypothesis and its modern avatars. Thus, results of studies using nocturnal awakenings (with or without preceding hypnic stimulation), as well as observations of onirical behaviours (like rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders, or voluntary movements of lucid dreamers) demonstrate that dreaming definitely occurs during sleep. Actually, cortical evoked potentials can be observed during sleep, which likely reflect controlled cognitive processes. Dreaming is a hypnic state of consciousness, and seems to represent a sleep thought which, although uneasily accessible, is nevertheless open to psychological investigation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The neural correlates of dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Siclari, F.; Baird, B.; Perogamvros, L.; Bernardi, G.; LaRocque, J. J.; Riedner, B.; Boly, M.; Postle, B. R.; Tononi, G.

    2017-01-01

    Consciousness never fades during wake. However, if awakened from sleep, sometimes we report dreams and sometimes no experiences. Traditionally, dreaming has been identified with REM sleep, characterized by a wake-like, globally ‘activated’, high-frequency EEG. However, dreaming also occurs in NREM sleep, characterized by prominent low-frequency activity. This challenges our understanding of the neural correlates of conscious experiences in sleep. Using high-density EEG, we contrasted the presence and absence of dreaming within NREM and REM sleep. In both NREM and REM sleep, reports of dream experience were associated with a local decrease in low-frequency activity in posterior cortical regions. High-frequency activity within these regions correlated with specific dream contents. Monitoring this posterior ‘hot zone’ predicted whether an individual reported dreaming or the absence of experiences during NREM sleep in real time, suggesting that it may constitute a core correlate of conscious experiences in sleep. PMID:28394322

  3. On talking-as-dreaming.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2007-06-01

    Many patients are unable to engage in waking-dreaming in the analytic setting in the form of free association or in any other form. The author has found that "talking-as-dreaming" has served as a form of waking-dreaming in which such patients have been able to begin to dream formerly undreamable experience. Such talking is a loosely structured form of conversation between patient and analyst that is often marked by primary process thinking and apparent non sequiturs. Talking-as-dreaming superficially appears to be "unanalytic" in that it may seem to consist "merely" of talking about such topics as books, films, etymology, baseball, the taste of chocolate, the structure of light, and so on. When an analysis is "a going concern," talking-as-dreaming moves unobtrusively into and out of talking about dreaming. The author provides two detailed clinical examples of analytic work with patients who had very little capacity to dream in the analytic setting. In the first clinical example, talking-as-dreaming served as a form of thinking and relating in which the patient was able for the first time to dream her own (and, in a sense, her father's) formerly unthinkable, undreamable experience. The second clinical example involves the use of talking-as-dreaming as an emotional experience in which the formerly "invisible" patient was able to begin to dream himself into existence. The analyst, while engaging with a patient in talking-as-dreaming, must remain keenly aware that it is critical that the difference in roles of patient and analyst be a continuously felt presence; that the therapeutic goals of analysis be firmly held in mind; and that the patient be given the opportunity to dream himself into existence (as opposed to being dreamt up by the analyst).

  4. Delaware's Dream Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    To librarians at the Delaware Division of Libraries, Governor Ruth Ann Minner, Secretary of State Harriet Smith Windsor, and Assistant Secretary of State Rick Geisenberger are "the Delaware Dream Team." The governor and her team supported funding for the 2004 statewide effort that resulted in the Delaware Master Plan for Library Services…

  5. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  6. Television: Stuff of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    The fluctuating effects of media can be observed by a data collection technique which reveals patterns of audience response similar to those which C.G. Jung observed in his analyses on word association and dreaming. The technique is known as Continuous Response Movement (CRM). A typical CRM training session automates the audience feedback process…

  7. Sabotaging the California Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piland, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education, the California dream for well over 2 million undergraduate students, is turning into a nightmare. The Golden State's promise of unparalleled access to community colleges and universities is fast becoming a tarnished relic of the past. And this state of affairs is occurring at a time when the demand for higher education has never…

  8. Daring to Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Somali women are among the most disadvantaged adults in British society. Research consistently shows that their participation and achievement in organised learning is dramatically lower than for the population at large. "Dare to Dream: Learning journeys of Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Somali women" is the report…

  9. The Diverted Dream Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel

    In their book, "The Diverted Dream," Brint and Karabel describe the growth of the American community college movement from 1900 to 1985 and claim that the colleges no longer act as stepping stones to four-year colleges and universities. Instead, the authors claim, the colleges are vocationalizing curricula and focusing on preparing…

  10. A Dream Realized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Center for Inquiry, a school where the teachers are making their dreams come true. As a school designed wholly by teachers, the Center for Inquiry (CFI) in Indianapolis, Indiana, is teaching kids how to take ownership of learning. Originally designed to be a school within a school for exchange and preservice teachers, the…

  11. Spotlight on dream recall: the ages of dreams

    PubMed Central

    Mangiaruga, Anastasia; Scarpelli, Serena; Bartolacci, Chiara; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most of all, the lack of longitudinal psychophysiological studies seems to be the main issue. As a main message, we suggest that future longitudinal studies should collect dream reports

  12. Spotlight on dream recall: the ages of dreams.

    PubMed

    Mangiaruga, Anastasia; Scarpelli, Serena; Bartolacci, Chiara; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most of all, the lack of longitudinal psychophysiological studies seems to be the main issue. As a main message, we suggest that future longitudinal studies should collect dream reports

  13. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  14. A consideration of ketamine dreams.

    PubMed

    Hejja, P; Galloon, S

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to see whether covering of the eyes during and after ketamine anaesthesia would reduce the incidence of dreams. One hundred and fifty patients, randomly divided into three groups, underwent therapeutic abortion with ketamine as the sole anaesthesia. One hundred patients had their eyes completely covered, 50 in the operating room only and 50 in the operating room and in the recovery room. The third 50 were controls, with their eyes uncovered. All patients were questioned post-operatively about dreams, nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness and experiences, and also how frequently they dreamed at home. Although covering the eyes in the recovery room only reduced the incidence of dreams marginally, it became obvious that the patients who dreamed after ketamine (in all 3 groups) were those who normally dreamed at home. There were 82 patients who were recorded as not being home-dreamers, and only two of these dreamed after ketamine. In contrast, of the 68 home-dreamers, 50 dreamed after ketamine, and 17 of these had unpleasant dreams. In the home-dreamers, covering the eyes reduced the incidence of dreams from 86 per cent in Group 1 to 72 per cent in Group 2 and 64 per cent in Group 3. It is suggested that goggles may be advantageous when dealing with home-dreamers, and a question about the patient's tendency to dream should be included in the preoperative questioning. Alterations in premedication and the use of a quiet dark room during recovery may even further reduce unpleasant dreams in this group.

  15. Changes in dream experience in relation with antidepressant escitalopram treatment in depressed female patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Quartini, Adele; Anastasia, Annalisa; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Melcore, Claudia; Albano, Gabriella; Colletti, Chiara; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances have long been considered as a cardinal symptom of endogenous depression and dreams in depressed patients usually differ from those of healthy people. The aim of the present study was to investigate dream subjective experiences and their modifications in relation to clinical response in a group of escitalopram-treated depressed patients. Twenty-seven female patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and starting SSRI therapy were included in the study. Data about psychopathological status and dreaming subjective experiences were collected at baseline (T0), 4 weeks after the beginning of the treatment (T1) and after further 4 weeks of therapy (T2). At T0 dream experience was impaired and negatively toned. Concomitantly with the decrease of symptoms severity, the 8-week escitalopram treatment yielded to significant improvements in the recall of both quantity and quality of dreams; those patients whit lower clinical benefits kept on reporting impaired dream experiences. The results of the present study evidence how the changes in some specific dreaming characteristics, such as the subjective recall of dream activity, the dream recall quality, the dream emotional content and the dream complexity represent reliable markers of the effectiveness of antidepressant therapy.

  16. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dream Images and Creation.

    PubMed

    Masson, Céline; Schauder, Silke; Sausse, Simone Korff

    2017-02-01

    This article links contemporary psychoanalytic theories of the dream, especially Bion's, with the work of the American video artist Bill Viola, who is deeply influenced by altered states of consciousness and produces images of dreamlike quality. We discuss the oneiric and infantile roots of creativity and artistic inspiration, finally taking Viola's monumental artwork The Passing (1991) as paradigmatic of the artist's aesthetic and philosophical elaboration of the relationship between life and death.

  18. From the dreams of a generation to the theory of dreams: Freud's Roman dreams.

    PubMed

    Meghnagi, David

    2011-06-01

    In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud's interpretation of oedipal desires does not occur at the expense of historical and personal desires, which are always there as a backdrop. In the relentless examination of his own dreams that Freud makes in order to show the mechanisms inherent in all oneiric deformation, we are also led to another, specifically historical, aspect of the issue of Jewish emancipation, which he experiences at first hand. By analysing his own dreams, Freud not only shows us the mechanisms governing dream formation, but also develops a pointed critique of his contemporary society and its prejudices. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  19. The genius of the dream.

    PubMed

    Palombo, S R

    1983-01-01

    In Act V of A Midsummer Night's Dream, Theseus and Hippolyta exchange views on the dreamlike adventures reported by the young lovers. Theseus dismisses their stories as fantasies of wish fulfillment, but Hippolyta points out that despite their strangeness, the tales reflect an adaptive change in the psychic reality of the lovers. The dramatic action of the play supports Hippolyta's view. The release of Demetrius from his transferential infatuation with Hermia comes at the moment of awakening from a dream in which he has matched his current feelings for Hermia with a repressed libidinal fantasy of childhood. This example of a correction dream illustrates how condensation in dreams functions adaptively in matching a new experience with previously stored representations of related events in the past. It also illustrates the ability of the matching process to go beyond the narrow logical categories of waking thought to reach deeper levels of experience otherwise inaccessible to the dreamer. This ability accounts for the important role played by dreaming in the creative process generally and in the day-to-day working-through process of psychoanalytic therapy. The adaptive function of dreaming is subject at many points to interference from the censorship mechanisms discovered and emphasized by Freud. A theory of dreaming combining these antagonistic processes is more consistent with the data of the sleep laboratory than the traditional psychoanalytic theory alone. It also provides a better fit with the introspective date more familiar to the analyst as illustrated by Freud's well-documented analysis of his own dreams.

  20. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for…

  1. The Case for Dreaming Big

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    The American educational system is no fairy tale. Students who think that it takes nothing more than a wish upon a star to make their educational dreams come true are sure to be disappointed. The authors agree with Professor Rosenbaum: In order to realize their educational dreams, students must invest considerable effort. Rather than encouraging…

  2. MS Lucid and Blaha with MGBX aboard the Mir space station Priroda module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-26

    STS079-S-092 (16-26 Sept. 1996) --- Astronauts Shannon W. Lucid and John E. Blaha work at a microgravity glove box on the Priroda Module aboard Russia's Mir Space Station complex. Blaha, who flew into Earth-orbit with the STS-79 crew, and Lucid are the first participants in a series of ongoing exchanges of NASA astronauts serving time as cosmonaut guest researchers onboard Mir. Lucid went on to spend a total of 188 days in space before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew. During the STS-79 mission, the crew used an IMAX camera to document activities aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis and the various Mir modules, with the cooperation of the Russian Space Agency (RSA). A hand-held version of the 65mm camera system accompanied the STS-79 crew into space in Atlantis' crew cabin. NASA has flown IMAX camera systems on many Shuttle missions, including a special cargo bay camera's coverage of other recent Shuttle-Mir rendezvous and/or docking missions.

  3. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  4. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  5. Beyond DreamWeaving: Honoring Our Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Martha M.

    DreamWeavers listen for the dreams within themselves and within others. The process of career counseling, career management coaching and career/life planning invites practitioners to consistently listen for the dreams, understand that dreams are visions and that visions guide us to action. This paper highlights how career practitioners are called…

  6. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  7. The Dream Property Scale: an exploratory English version.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Ogilvie, R D; Ferrelli, A V; Murphy, T I; Belicki, K

    2001-09-01

    Our goal is to develop an English version of the Dream Property Scale (DPS-E) based on the original normed scale in Japan (DPS-J). Factor analyses extracted four factors (Emotionality, Rationality, Activity, and Impression) and its factor structure was apparently similar to the DPS-J. The DPS-E was also shown to be related to EEG power spectral values. These results indicate that the DPS-E may provide an exploratory basis for a reliable and valid tool for capturing and quantifying the properties of dream experiences that could reflect physiological activities without the intervention of experimenters. We suggest that the DPS-E will develop into a useful tool to help clarify dream production mechanisms by further investigation. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  9. An assessment of DREAM, appendix E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design realization, evaluation and modelling (DREAM) system is evaluated. A short history of the DREAM research project is given as well as the significant characteristics of DREAM as a development environment. The design notation which is the basis for the DREAM system is reviewed, and the development tools envisioned as part of DREAM are discussed. Insights into development environments and their production are presented and used to make suggestions for future work in the area of development environments.

  10. An Attempt at Matching Waking Events Into Dream Reports by Independent Judges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia Xi; Shen, He Yong

    2018-01-01

    Correlations between memories and dreaming has typically been studied by linking conscious experiences and dream reports, which has illustrated that dreaming reflects waking life events, thoughts, and emotions. As some research suggests that sleep has a function of memory consolidation, and dreams reflect this, researching this relationship further may uncover more useful insights. However, most related research has been conducted using the self-report method which asks participants to judge the relationship between their own conscious experiences and dreams. This method may cause errors when the research purpose is to make comparisons between different groups, because individual differences cannot be balanced out when the results are compared among groups. Based on a knowledge of metaphors and symbols, we developed two operationalized definitions for independent judges to match conscious experiences and dreams, the descriptive incorporation and the metaphorical incorporation, and tested their reliability for the matching purpose. Two independent judges were asked to complete a linking task for 212 paired event-dreams. Results showed almost half dreams can be matched by independent judges, and the independent-judge method could provide similar proportions for the linking task, when compared with the self-report method. PMID:29681873

  11. Bizarreness effect in dream recall.

    PubMed

    Cipolli, C; Bolzani, R; Cornoldi, C; De Beni, R; Fagioli, I

    1993-02-01

    This study aimed to ascertain a) whether morning reports of dream experience more frequently reproduce bizarre contents of night reports than nonbizarre ones and b) whether this effect depends on the rarity of bizarre contents in the dream or on their richer encoding in memory. Ten subjects were awakened in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep three times per night for 4 nonconsecutive nights and asked to report their previous dream experiences. In the morning they were asked to re-report those dreams. Two separate pairs of judges scored the reports: the former identified the parts in each report with bizarre events, characters or feelings and the latter parsed each report into content units using transformational grammar criteria. By combining the data of the two analyses, content units were classified as bizarre or nonbizarre and, according to whether present in both the night and corresponding morning reports, as semantically equivalent or nonequivalent. The proportion of bizarre contents common to night and morning reports was about twice that of nonbizarre contents and was positively correlated to the quantity of bizarre contents present in the night report. These findings support the view that bizarreness enhances recall of dream contents and that this memory advantage is determined by a richer encoding at the moment of dream generation. Such a view would seem to explain why dreams in everyday life, which are typically remembered after a rather long interval, appear more markedly bizarre than those recalled in the sleep laboratory.

  12. Older people's experiences of dream coaching.

    PubMed

    Wadensten, Barbro

    2009-12-01

    Recalling and talking about dreams could initiate dream work among older people and provide an opportunity for self-confrontation and personal growth, which could in turn promote gerotranscendental development. The present article describes older people's opinions about participating in a dream-coaching group; it also briefly describes the theoretical foundation of dream coaching. The study aim was to investigate older people's experience of participating in a dream-coaching group based on Jungian psychology. A descriptive design was used. Retrospective interviews were explored using qualitative content analysis. The participants were satisfied with the arrangement of the dream-coaching groups. All participants believed that they had recalled their dreams and thought much more about their dreams during the period in which the dream-coaching group met. Three diverse appraisals of participating in a dream-coaching group, which had different effects on the participants, were identified: "An activity like any other activity," "An activity that led to deeper thoughts about the meaning of dreams," and "An activity that led to deeper thoughts both about the meaning of dreams and about how dreams can improve one's understanding of the life situation." It is possible to arrange dream-coaching groups for older people and could be a way to promote personal development using this type of intervention. The study provides some guidance as to how such a group could be organized, thus facilitating use of dream-coaching groups in gerontological care.

  13. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested. PMID:24223542

  14. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested.

  15. From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: the changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2010-06-01

    Bion moved psychoanalytic theory from Freud's theory of dream-work to a concept of dreaming in which dreaming is the central aspect of all emotional functioning. In this paper, I first review historical, theoretical, and clinical aspects of dreaming as seen by Freud and Bion. I then propose two interconnected ideas that I believe reflect Bion's split from Freud regarding the understanding of dreaming. Bion believed that all dreams are psychological works in progress and at one point suggested that all dreams contain elements that are akin to visual hallucinations. I explore and elaborate Bion's ideas that all dreams contain aspects of emotional experience that are too disturbing to be dreamt, and that, in analysis, the patient brings a dream with the hope of receiving the analyst's help in completing the unconscious work that was entirely or partially too disturbing for the patient to dream on his own. Freud views dreams as mental phenomena with which to understand how the mind functions, but believes that dreams are solely the 'guardians of sleep,' and not, in themselves, vehicles for unconscious psychological work and growth until they are interpreted by the analyst. Bion extends Freud's ideas, but also departs from Freud and re-conceives of dreaming as synonymous with unconscious emotional thinking - a process that continues both while we are awake and while we are asleep. From another somewhat puzzling perspective, he views dreams solely as manifestations of what the dreamer is unable to think.

  16. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  17. Theoretical trajectories: Dreams and dreaming from Freud to Bion.

    PubMed

    Vinocur Fischbein, Susana; Miramón, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at comparing Freud's and Bion's conceptual models on dreams and dreaming. Beyond both authors' shared disposition vis-à-vis problems posed by knowledge, a critical gap opens regarding their differing clinical practices. It is hypothesized that their ideas do not belong to irreconcilable paradigms, but that there are continuities besides discontinuities more frequently highlighted between Freudian statements on psychic functioning--described in his theory on dreams--and Bion's findings in his development of both the original theory and the connections between dreaming and thinking. Firstly, Freud's and Bion's epistemological sources are examined as well as their creative use and historical environment. Then certain general theoretical and clinical issues are considered concerning their theories on dreams, the evolution of their ideas and corresponding clinical contexts. In a third section, their confluences and dissimilarities are dealt with, including clinical vignettes belonging to the authors to illustrate their interpretative modes of working. This is meant to show both an implicit theoretical-clinical complementarity and the fact that, though their routes bifurcate about the function of dreams, there remain connecting paths. Lastly, the final remarks review certain issues that have frequently been controversial between these lines of thought. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  19. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  20. DREAMING THE ANALYTIC SESSION: A CLINICAL ESSAY.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    This is a clinical paper in which the author describes analytic work in which he dreams the analytic session with three of his patients. He begins with a brief discussion of aspects of analytic theory that make up a good deal of the context for his clinical work. Central among these concepts are (1) the idea that the role of the analyst is to help the patient dream his previously "undreamt" and "interrupted" dreams; and (2) dreaming the analytic session involves engaging in the experience of dreaming the session with the patient and, at the same time, unconsciously (and at times consciously) understanding the dream. The author offers no "technique" for dreaming the analytic session. Each analyst must find his or her own way of dreaming each session with each patient. Dreaming the session is not something one works at; rather, one tries not to get in its way. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  1. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    PubMed

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Dreams of personality disordered subjects.

    PubMed

    Guralnik, O; Levin, R; Schmeidler, J

    1999-01-01

    Dreams provide access to underlying personality structure, defensive and adaptive functions, and they elucidate the psychological forces that lead to overt symptomatic behavior. Two hundred three dreams of 39 personality disordered patients were factor analyzed and compared with Hall and Van de Castle's normative data (Hall C, Van de Castle RI [1966] The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts). Results included a five-factor solution that sheds light on some core issues of the dreamers. Comparisons between the groups resulted in the personality-disordered group demonstrating more estrangement in their dreams, fewer interactions, and more emotionality. In their interactions, they demonstrated a lower ratio of aggressive interactions yet a higher tendency to view themselves as the aggressor. Results are related to theoretical literature on personality and defensive styles, mostly from a psychodynamic perspective.

  3. Dreams, teachers, and legislation.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F

    2010-11-01

    When I accepted the James D. Mills Award from The American College of Emergency Physicians, I had three goals in mind, which I wanted to share with those attending the commemorative dinner meeting. My first goal was to remind those in attendance that each of us must make our academic dreams come true. My next goal was to acknowledge two of my empowering teachers at the dinner, Dr. Peter Rosen and Dr. William Sacco, who have made revolutionary advances in health care; and finally, I wished to remind the membership of the need to work with Congressional leaders to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009. I warned the leaders in emergency medicine of the necessity to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009 to ensure that our emergency medical patients receive prompt and responsible care. This has been our quest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dreams that mirror the session.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2006-06-01

    Dreams in which the analyst appears undisguised almost always depict violations of the setting. Often experienced as special, epiphanic moments, they give a glimpse of an intense, emotional reaction to traumatogenic or otherwise significant events that have occurred during the session or in the most recent previous ones. Probably, the essential aspect of these dreams can be found in the 'form of their content'. This may be paralleled by the narrative technique of mise en abyme or mirror-text. The dream appears as a story within the main story and the scene of the analysis is reflected anti-illusionistically. The fictional structure of the setting is emphasized. Its theatrical self-consciousness quality is revealed at its best. The author postulates that the transformative therapeutic value of these dreams derives from denouncing the referential illusion of 'concrete reality' and of 'what really happened'. For the analysand, they are an effective (i.e. emotionally intense) opportunity to discover the spatial articulations and the staggering refractions of the inside/outside, the textual/extra-textual, the psychic reality/material reality. In the continual comings and goings from one term to another, the work of symbolization is reactivated and the subject is constructed. Dreams that mirror the session, from this point of view, provide a model for conceptualizing the analytic work, and their significance goes beyond the specific phenomena referred to. A clinical case is given, in which some of one patient's dreams are considered as they occurred over a short period. In one of them, the dream-within-a-dream phenomenon is present.

  5. The Super DREAM Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmans, Richard

    2017-09-25

    Despite the fact that DOE provided only a fraction of the requested funds, the goals we defined in the proposal on which award ER41783 was based were essentially all met. This was partially due to the fact that other funding agencies, which supported our collaborators (especially from Italy and Korea) contributed as well, and partially due to the effective solutions that were developed to compensate for the fact that the detector we had proposed to build had to be scaled down. The performance of the SuperDREAM calorimeter is better than anything that has been built or proposed so far. Thismore » has of course not gone unnoticed in the scientific community. Scientists who are preparing experiments for the proposed new generation of particle accelerators (FCCee, CPEC,..) are all very seriously considering the technology developed in this project. Several new collaborations have formed which aim to adapt the dual-readout calorimeter principles to the demands of a 4 environment. Preliminary measurements using silicon photomultipliers as light sensors have already been carried out. This type of readout would make it possible to operate this detector in a magnetic field, and it would also allow for a longitudinal segmentation into electromagnetic and hadronic sections, if so desired. In addition, SiPM readout would eliminate the need for “forests” of fibers sticking out of the rear end of the calorimeter (Figure 1), and obtain an arbitrary fine lateral segmentation, which might be very important for recognizing electrons inside jets. The improvements in our understanding of the fundamental structure of matter and the forces that govern its behavior have always hinged on the availability of detectors that make it possible to explore the possibilities of new, more powerful particle accelerators to the fullest extent. We believe that the SuperDREAM project has created a quantum leap in detector technology, which may turn out to be crucially important for future

  6. Dream Recall and Dream Content in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Sartorius, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep is widely investigated in children with ADHD, dream studies in this group are completely lacking. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming stating that waking life is reflected in dreams would predict that waking-life symptoms are reflected in the dreams of such children. 103 children with ADHD and 100 controls completed a dream…

  7. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2014-10-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  10. Reflections on the self state dream.

    PubMed

    Slap, J W; Trunnell, E E

    1987-04-01

    Self psychologists contend that patients with narcissistic personality disorders have dreams which cannot be understood in terms of current psychoanalytic dream theory and that these dreams, called self state dreams, have a different origin and structure. The manifest content of these dreams is said to reveal the reactions of healthy sectors of the psyche to disturbing changes in the condition of the self. Self psychologists are said to be able to understand these dreams directly, without the patients' associations, as portrayals of the dreamers' dread of threats to the integrity of the self. The authors raise questions about these contentions. They conclude that the self state dream will remain a dubious concept until a more extensive psychology of dreaming is provided by self psychologists.

  11. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  12. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.

  13. What are the memory sources of dreaming?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore A; Stenstrom, Philippe

    2005-10-27

    Investigators since Freud have appreciated that memories of the people, places, activities and emotions of daily life are reflected in dreams but are typically so fragmented that their predictability is nil. The mechanisms that translate such memories into dream images remain largely unknown. New research targeting relationships between dreaming, memory and the hippocampus is producing a new theory to explain how, why and when we dream of waking life events.

  14. The impact of September 11 on dreaming.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly; Kahan, Tracey L

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on a set of dreams related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and their aftermath, using content analysis and cognitive psychology to explore the interweaving of external public catastrophe and internal psychological processes. The study tests several recent claims in contemporary dream research, including the central image theory of Hartmann [Hartmann, E., & Basile, R. (2003). Dream imagery becomes more intense after 9/11/01. Dreaming, 13(2), 61-66; Hartmann, E., & Brezler, T. (2008). A systematic change in dreams after 9/11/01. Sleep, 31(2), 213-218], the media exposure factor postulated by Propper [Propper, R. E., Stickgold, R., Keeley, R., & Christman, S. D. (2007). Is television traumatic? Dreams, stress, and media exposure in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Psychological Science, 18(4), 334-340], the continuity hypothesis of Domhoff [Domhoff, W. G. (1996). Finding meaning in dreams: A quantitative approach. New York: Plenum], the cognitive and metacognitive approach of Kahan [Kahan, T. L. (2001). Consciousness in dreaming: A metacognitive approach. In K. Bulkeley (Ed.), Dreams: A reader on the religious, cultural, and psychological dimensions of dreaming (pp. 333-360). New York: Palgrave], and the threat simulation theory of Revonsuo [Revonsuo, A. (2000). The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 877-901]. Our findings suggest the terrorist attacks had a tangible impact on the content of many people's dreams, but did not fundamentally alter the cognitive processing features of their dreaming. The 9/11 attacks affected what they dreamed about, but not the way they dreamed.

  15. The Visionary Director: Going for Bigger Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    Notes that child-care-center directors feel trapped by financial limitations, and encourages administrators to dream of changes to their programs and then to creatively achieve their dreams. Presents strategies for securing positive changes: assessing current situation; representing pieces of dream with blocks; reinventing idea of quilting bees;…

  16. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  17. Dream recall and the full moon.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  18. Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, David

    Noting that scientific observation of children's dreaming offers unparalleled opportunities to study experience of conscious mental states, this book presents findings from two studies on children's dreaming. Following an argument outlining the problems in equating dreaming with perception, the book explains the use of sleep laboratories and…

  19. Children's Dreams during the Grief Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Catherine A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether grieving children tend to recall dreaming more frequently than nongrieving children. Results reveal that grieving children do tend to recall dreams more frequently and appear to be more aware of their dream worlds. Suggests that counselors interested in creatively assisting clients through the grieving process might utilize this…

  20. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies—through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences—would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus—without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning—within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate—another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a

  1. "Making dreams come true"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    At an exciting stage in the evolution of the European Space Agency's Science Programme, Director-General Antonio Rodota and Director of Science Roger Bonnet will meet the press in ESA Head Office for a frank discussion of progress and problems. The Science Programme serves scientists in all of ESA's Member States, who want to do adventurous research in space of importance to all mankind. Making their dreams come true is more difficult in the face of recent cuts in the Programme's budget. Scientific boldness combined with administrative prudence nevertheless results in a series of current and future projects in which Europe can take pride. Highlights for discussion at the Press Conference will include: * MARS. In 2003, the newly approved mission Mars Express will make Europe's debut at the Red Planet, with innovative science at a very low cost. * THE SUN. SOHO is back in business after a nail-biting summer, Ulysses is heading for its second visit to the polar regions of the Sun, and Cluster II is on schedule for launch in 2000. * ASTRONOMY. Following the outstanding successes of ISO's infrared observations, completed this year, XMM and Integral are preparing to match its achievements by detecting X-rays and gamma-rays from the Universe. Journalists will also be updated about the status of Huygens (already en route for Titan), SMART-1 (new propulsion), Rosetta (comet mission), MiniSTEP (relativity), FIRST (far infra-red astronomy) and Planck (microwave background) -- as well as other adventurous missions under study.

  2. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39–44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  3. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39-44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  4. [Generation and functions of dreams].

    PubMed

    Medrano-Martínez, Pablo; Ramos-Platón, M José

    2014-10-16

    Over the last decade an ever-increasing number of articles have been published on dreams, which reflects the interest that several fields of neuroscience have in the topic. In this work we review the main scientific theories that have contributed to the body of knowledge on how they are produced and what function they serve. The article discusses the evolution of their scientific study, following a neurophysiological and neurocognitive approach. The first of these two methods seeks to determine the neurobiological mechanisms that generate them and the brain structures involved, while the second considers dreams to be a kind of cognition interacting with that of wake-fulness. Several different hypotheses about the function of dreams are examined, and more particularly those in which they are attributed with a role in the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotional states. Although the exact mechanism underlying the generation of dreams has not been determined, neurobiological data highlight the importance of the pontine nuclei of the brainstem, several memory systems, the limbic system and the brain reward system and a number of neocortical areas. Neurocognitive data underline the relation between the cognitive and emotional processing that occurs during wakefulness and during sleep, as well as the influence of the surroundings on the content of dreams. With regard to their function, one point to be stressed is their adaptive value, since they contribute to the reprocessing of the information acquired in wakefulness and the control of the emotions. This suggests that dreams participate in the development of the cognitive capabilities.

  5. 78 FR 19698 - Lucid Energy, Inc., The City of Portland Water Bureau; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14498-000] Lucid Energy, Inc., The City of Portland Water Bureau; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, Protests, Recommendations, and Terms and Conditions Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been...

  6. Dreams and creative problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2017-10-01

    Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. A poem and a dream.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a journalist in analysis had a dream that stimulated the writing of a poem, the two psychic products occurring no more than a few hours apart. Since the analysand had copious free associations to both products, believing both to be culled from the same unconscious raw material, an interesting study of an act of aesthetic creation almost in statu nascendi became possible. A concept called poem work is entertained in this paper and is compared and contrasted with the classical psychoanalytic concept of dream work, allowing some unanswerable questions to be posed and discussed in regard to the formal constitutive elements of poetry.

  8. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  9. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer retrievals have become the standard in modelling of exoplanetary transmission and emission spectra. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain.To address these issues, we have developed the Tau-REx (tau-retrieval of exoplanets) retrieval and the RobERt spectral recognition algorithms. Tau-REx is a bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework using Nested Sampling and cluster computing to fully map these large correlated parameter spaces. Nonetheless, data volumes can become prohibitively large and we must often select a subset of potential molecular/atomic absorbers in an atmosphere.In the era of open-source, automated and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, such manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is build to address these issues. RobERt is a deep belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognise molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles and compositions. Using these deep neural networks, we work towards retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.In this talk I will discuss how neural networks and Bayesian Nested Sampling can be used to solve highly degenerate spectral retrieval problems and what 'dreaming' neural networks can tell us about atmospheric characteristics.

  10. Dreaming of you: client and therapist dreams about each other during psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Clara E; Knox, Sarah; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E; Hess, Shirley A; Miles, Joe; Spangler, Patricia T; Pudasaini, Sakar

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the frequency of therapists' dreams about their clients and clients' dreams about their therapists, to determine how therapists and clients who had such dreams differed from those who did not have such dreams, whether therapy process and outcome differed for those who had and did not have such dreams, and to describe the content and consequences of these dreams. Thirteen doctoral student therapists conducted psychodynamic psychotherapy with 63 clients in a community clinic. Therapists who had dreams about clients had higher estimated and actual dream recall than did therapists who did not dream about clients. Qualitative analyses indicated that therapists' dreams yielded insights about the therapist, clients, and therapy; therapists used insights in their work with the clients. Among the clients, only two (who were particularly high in attachment anxiety and who feared abandonment from their therapists) reported dreams that were manifestly about their therapists. Therapists-in-training dreamed more about their clients than their clients dreamed about them. Dreams about clients can be used by therapists to understand themselves, clients, and the dynamics of the therapy relationship.

  11. Dream recall and dream content in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Sartorius, Heiko

    2010-04-01

    Although sleep is widely investigated in children with ADHD, dream studies in this group are completely lacking. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming stating that waking life is reflected in dreams would predict that waking-life symptoms are reflected in the dreams of such children. 103 children with ADHD and 100 controls completed a dream questionnaire eliciting dream recall frequency and the most recent dream. The dreams of the children with ADHD did not show a heightened occurrence of activities but were more negatively toned and included more misfortunes/threats, negative endings, and physical aggression towards the dreamer. Dream recall frequency and general dream characteristics like dream length and dream bizarreness did not differ from children without ADHD. The dreams seem to reflect the inner world of the child with ADHD. From a clinical point of view, it would be very interesting to study whether the negatively toned dreams change during treatment (pharmacological and/or psychotherapeutic) in a way similar to how sleep quality improves.

  12. Exploring the dreams of hospice workers.

    PubMed

    Hess, Shirley A; Knox, Sarah; Hill, Clara E; Byers, Tara; Spangler, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Nine adults who worked at least 1 year with patients at US hospice centers completed an in-person audiotaped dream session focusing on a dream about a patient. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Patients were generally manifestly present in participants' dreams, and dreams were typically realistic (i.e., not bizarre). In the dream, the dreamer typically interacted with the patient as a caretaker but was also typically frustrated by an inability to help as fully as desired. Dreams gave dreamers insight into the stress of hospice work, their own fears of death, and inter-/intrapersonal interactions beyond hospice work. Dreamers generally sought to take better care of themselves and find balance in their lives after the dream session. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  13. Dream content: Individual and generic aspects.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Allan; Kahn, David

    2007-12-01

    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the individuals who produced them when identifiers like names and gender of friends and family members are removed from the dream report. In addition to using dreams to learn about an individual, we must look at dreams as telling us about important common or generic aspects of human consciousness.

  14. [Configuration of the dream in REM sleep].

    PubMed

    Leonhard, K

    1985-02-01

    Dreams during REM sleep have a characteristic form. They are, so to speak, "chain dreams, in which the scenes follow consecutively and, although distinctly separate from each other, are welded into a coherent dream by the primary integrating thoughts underlying the dream. The contents of the different scenes are difficult to reconcile with the integrating thought behind the dream because they are not stimulated by the thought alone but, in a certain way, also by past experiences. The author describes a dream which apparently filled the REM phase from beginning to end. It has been possible to explain the background of the integrating thought and the origins of the different scenes. The peculiar character of such dreams should find more attention in scientific research.

  15. The dream in midlife women: its impact on mental health.

    PubMed

    Drebing, C E; Gooden, W E; Drebing, S M; Van de Kemp, H; Malony, H N

    1995-01-01

    The current study examines the Dream in midlife women and its impact on mental health functioning. Ninety midlife women filled out a questionnaire examining Dream Status, Dream Success, Dream Content, and Dream Support, as well as mental health factors of depression, anxiety, and purpose-in-life. Neither early nor current Dream Status was not found to be significantly related to mental health factors. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that Dream Success is related to mental health factors. Early Dream Content related to career and current Dream Content related to both marriage/intimacy and career are related to positive performance on mental health factors. Dream Support is positively related both to Dream Success and to mental health factors while resistance to the Dream is not. The results are discussed in light of gender differences in the developmental function and impact of the Dream.

  16. Transcending the caesura: reverie, dreaming and counter-dreaming.

    PubMed

    Bergstein, Avner

    2013-08-01

    The author reflects about our capacity to get in touch with primitive, irrepresentable, seemingly unreachable parts of the Self and with the unrepressed unconscious. It is suggested that when the patient's dreaming comes to a halt, or encounters a caesura, the analyst dreams that which the patient cannot. Getting in touch with such primitive mental states and with the origin of the Self is aspired to, not so much for discovering historical truth or recovering unconscious content, as for generating motion between different parts of the psyche. The movement itself is what expands the mind and facilitates psychic growth. Bion's brave and daring notion of 'caesura', suggesting a link between mature emotions and thinking and intra-uterine life, serves as a model for bridging seemingly unbridgeable states of mind. Bion inspires us to 'dream' creatively, to let our minds roam freely, stressing the analyst's speculative imagination and intuition often bordering on hallucination. However, being on the seam between conscious and unconscious, dreaming subverts the psychic equilibrium and poses a threat of catastrophe as a result of the confusion it affords between the psychotic and the non-psychotic parts of the personality. Hence there is a tendency to try and evade it through a more saturated mode of thinking, often relying on external reality. The analyst's dreaming and intuition, perhaps a remnant of intra-uterine life, is elaborated as means of penetrating and transcending the caesura, thus facilitating patient and analyst to bear unbearable states of mind and the painful awareness of the unknowability of the emotional experience. This is illustrated clinically. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. STS-43 MS Lucid works with BIMDA-02 cell syringes on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    STS043-03-001 (2-11 Aug 1991) --- Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, STS-43 mission specialist, is pictured with a sample from the Bio-serve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA). BIMDA is designed to obtain data on scientific methods and commercial potential for growing large high quality protein crystals in microgravity. The experimental focus is on both synthetic and natural biological processes that provide the foundation of the assembly of large structures from macromolecules. In addition, cell processes and membrane (cell and artificial) processes are being evaluated. BIMDA experiments are stored and operated on the middeck in a refrigerator/incubator module (R/IM). During this flight, the R/IM maintains a constant internal temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. This experiment also flew on NASA?s STS-37 mission.

  18. On dreaming one's patient: reflections on an aspect of countertransference dreams.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence J

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of the countertransference dream. Until very recently, such dreams have tended to be seen as reflecting either unanalyzed difficulties in the analyst or unexamined conflicts in the analytic relationship. While the analyst's dream of his/her patient may represent such problems, the author argues that such dreams may also indicate the ways in which the analyst comes to know the patient on a deep, unconscious level by processing the patient's communicative projective identifications. Two extended clinical examples of the author's countertransference dreams are offered. The author also discusses the use of countertransference dreams in psychoanalytic supervision.

  19. The Five Star Method: A Relational Dream Work Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Thurston, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a systematic method of dream work called the Five Star Method. Based on cocreative dream theory, which views the dream as the product of the interaction between dreamer and dream, this creative intervention shifts the principal focus in dream analysis from the interpretation of static imagery to the analysis of the dreamer's…

  20. Comparison of dream content of depressed vs nondepressed dreamers.

    PubMed

    Barrett, D; Loeffler, M

    1992-04-01

    Dreams of 20 college women classified as depressed by scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were compared with those of 21 nondepressed college women. The depressed group recalled fewer dreams, had significantly shorter dream length, and displayed less anger in their dreams. They also had fewer characters in their dreams and especially fewer strangers.

  1. Art Competition Encourages Student Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartel, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In 1971, members of the Naples Art Association (NAA) in Naples, Florida, initiated a scholarship program designed to encourage local young artists to realize their dreams of becoming professionals in the visual arts. Since then, awards have been given annually by the NAA to Collier County high-school students in conjunction with an exhibition of…

  2. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin)…

  3. The Book of My Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmenci Gundogmus, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    This study offers an opportunity for learning the characteristics of elementary school students' dream books that can increase their willingness to read. In the study, for which the qualitative research method was adopted in line with this main purpose, 275 elementary school students that attended different schools at 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades were…

  4. Dreaming the Future of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterley, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Articulates "romantic intellectualism" of what graduate work in English might mean and be. Avoids giving a detailed description of a doctoral program. Intends to convey something that might best be called visioning or dreamwork, and offers it in the hope that it may be helpful to others in their individual and collective visioning and dreaming.…

  5. Dreaming of Shakespeare in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazou, Rand T.

    2015-01-01

    In September 2011, I travelled to the Palestinian Occupied Territories to participate in an internship with the Al Kasaba Theatre in Ramallah. As part of my internship I was invited to attend rehearsals of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" with students of the Drama Academy Ramallah. Directed by Samer Al-Saber, with movement and choreography…

  6. Bereavement dream? Successful antidepressant treatment for bereavement-related distressing dreams in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mayumi; Onishi, Hideki; Wada, Mei; Wada, Tomomi; Wada, Makoto; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Nomura, Shinobu

    2010-03-01

    The death of a person is a stressful event. Such stress affects the physical and psychological well-being of the bereaved. As an associated mental disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) is common. Some dream of the deceased, and these dreams are called bereavement dreams. Some MDD patients also experience dreams. These two types of dreams are sometimes difficult to differentiate. The dream of the bereaved might be only a bereavement-related dream, yet it might be a symptom of MDD. Herein, we report one patient who had distressing dreams after the death of her mother. A 63-year-old woman was referred for psychiatric consultation because of generalized fatigue and insomnia. Questioning her about recent events, she said that her mother had died of colonic carcinoma 5 months previously. Two months after the death, she suddenly started dreaming of her mother, getting angry with her almost every night. Generalized fatigue, insomnia, and distressing dreams appeared simultaneously. The dream caused much distress, making her afraid to fall asleep. Her psychiatric features fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD, single episode. The death of her mother was considered to be one of the causes of MDD. She was administered 25 mg/day of sertraline hydrochloride. After that, her symptoms gradually disappeared, and the frequency of distressing dreams was reduced. Five months later, physical and psychiatric symptoms of MDD were completely resolved. Subsequently, she has not suffered from any distressing dreams of her mother. This case indicates that dreams experienced after the death of a loved one should not be regarded simply as bereavement dreams. Some of the dreams may be symptoms of MDD. If the dreams are the symptoms of MDD, antidepressant treatment as well as psychotherapy may be useful. Therefore, we should avoid regarding symptoms of MDD as reactions to bereavement.

  7. Daydreams and nap dreams: Content comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-11-01

    Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The informational value of dreams and associations.

    PubMed

    Olsson, G

    1996-03-01

    The manifest dream has usually been the object of study by researchers, while psychotherapists mainly have paid attention to the latent content of the dream, reached through free associations. The question is which aspects of the dream, manifest content or associations, yield information about the dreamer's psychic life. In the present study it is suggested that the manifest dream to a large extent maintains thematic continuity with the dreamer's associations. However, with regard to emotions, there is no clear overlap between the information contained in the manifest dream and in its associations. The associations make the dream into the dreamer's own personal dream. Associating to a dream changes strangers into known people in the life of the dreamer. The dreamer comes to recognize aspects of himself or herself in these people. In associations, the dreamers portray themselves as more responsible of emotions, while they in dreams rather ascribe emotions to others, and they themselves become objects of these emotions. The author argues for the value of both the manifest dream in its own right and the enhanced experiental closeness afforded by the dreamer's associations.

  9. Dreaming: a gateway to the unconscious?

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Barrett, Deirdre; Bulkeley, Kelly; Naiman, Rubin

    2017-10-01

    Where do our dreams originate from, and what do they tell us? Is there a universal set of symbols that are common to all dreams, regardless of a person's ethnicity or culture? What does dreaming reveal about the unconscious? Why do some dreams remain etched in our memories, whereas others are almost instantly forgotten? Some scientists have adopted the position that dreams are little more than noise in the brain, without any substantive purpose or function. Yet, such a stance seemingly runs counter to the experience of many people who reflect upon and even analyze their dreams, often in search of clues to their daily lives or insights into their deeper selves. Similarly, in virtually all wisdom traditions, dreams are invoked as an important source of revelation or prophecy. Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion that included psychologist Deirdre Barrett, dream researcher Kelly Bulkeley, and psychologist and sleep/dream medicine specialist Rubin Naiman; they examined dreams from a variety of perspectives to answer these questions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Last night I had the strangest dream: Varieties of rational thought processes in dream reports.

    PubMed

    Wolman, Richard N; Kozmová, Miloslava

    2007-12-01

    From the neurophysiological perspective, thinking in dreaming and the quality of dream thought have been considered hallucinatory, bizarre, illogical, improbable, or even impossible. This empirical phenomenological research concentrates on testing whether dream thought can be defined as rational in the sense of an intervening mental process between sensory perception and the creation of meaning, leading to a conclusion or to taking action. From 10 individual dream journals of male participants aged 22-59 years and female participants aged 25-49 years, we delimited four dreams per journal and randomly selected five thought units from each dream for scoring. The units provided a base for testing a hypothesis that the thought processes of dream construction are rational. The results support the hypothesis and demonstrate that eight fundamental rational thought processes can be applied to the dreaming process.

  11. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  12. Assessing the Dream-Lag Effect for REM and NREM Stage 2 Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C.; Henley-Einion, Josephine A.; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Davies, Anna C.; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5–7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation. PMID:22046336

  13. The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Revonsuo, A

    2000-12-01

    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is consistently and powerfully modulated by certain types of waking experiences. On the basis of this evidence, I put forward the hypothesis that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events, and to rehearse threat perception and threat avoidance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we need to consider the original evolutionary context of dreaming and the possible traces it has left in the dream content of the present human population. In the ancestral environment human life was short and full of threats. Any behavioral advantage in dealing with highly dangerous events would have increased the probability of reproductive success. A dream-production mechanism that tends to select threatening waking events and simulate them over and over again in various combinations would have been valuable for the development and maintenance of threat-avoidance skills. Empirical evidence from normative dream content, children's dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares, post traumatic dreams, and the dreams of hunter-gatherers indicates that our dream-production mechanisms are in fact specialized in the simulation of threatening events, and thus provides support to the threat simulation hypothesis of the function of dreaming.

  14. "They who dream by day": parallels between Openness to Experience and dreaming.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Colin G; Grazioplene, Rachael G

    2013-12-01

    Individuals high in the personality trait Openness to Experience appear to engage spontaneously (during wake) in processes of elaborative encoding similar to those Llewellyn identifies in both dreaming and the ancient art of memory (AAOM). Links between Openness and dreaming support the hypothesis that dreaming is part of a larger process of cognitive exploration that facilitates adaptation to new experiences.

  15. Dream recall and dream content in obsessive-compulsive patients: is there a change during exposure treatment?

    PubMed

    Kuelz, Anne K; Stotz, Ulrike; Riemann, Dieter; Schredl, Michael; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Very little is known about dreams in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, especially regarding changes over the course of treatment with stimulus exposure and response prevention. By use of dream content analysis, 40 dreams of 9 obsessive compulsive (OC) inpatients were compared with 84 dreams of 10 matched OC outpatients and 63 dreams of 11 healthy control participants. Dream protocols of inpatients were collected at the beginning of treatment and after the first exposure exercises. Controls filled in dream protocols in respective intervals. Before treatment, dreams of patients showed significantly less positive contents than dreams of healthy controls. Under treatment with exposure, a significant reduction of OC themes was observed. The findings support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming by showing a link between day-time symptoms and OC symptoms in dreams. Contrary to expectations, however, exposure treatment does not intensify dreams.

  16. Vicissitudes of the suicidal impulse in dreams.

    PubMed

    Levitan, H

    1984-01-01

    The author presents several dreams reported by psychosomatic patients which contain an overt or disguised act of suicide. In the latter instances various transformations of the act of suicide had been brought about by the defensive functions of the dreaming ego. Paradoxically, in several of these instances it was the very efforts of the dreaming ego to defend itself which allowed the suicidal impulse to reach its consummation.

  17. Dreaming is not controlled by hippocampal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Solms, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Links with the Humanities are to be welcomed, but they cannot be exempted from normal scientific criteria. Any hypothesis regarding the function of dreams that is premised on rapid eye movement (REM)/dream isomorphism is unsupportable on empirical grounds. Llewellyn's hypothesis has the further problem of counter-evidence in respect of its claim that dreaming relies upon hippocampal functions. The hypothesis also lacks face validity.

  18. [Are oppressive dreams indicators in bereavement?].

    PubMed

    Purebl, György; Pilling, János; Konkolÿ, Thege Barna; Bódizs, Róbert; Kopp, Mária

    2012-07-30

    It is widely believed that oppressive dreams are frequent in bereavement--despite the lack of scientific investigations of the subject. The aims of our study were the analysis of dream quality as well as the correlates of oppressive dreams in bereavement. Participants with (N = 473) and without bereavement were compared upon the database of a national representative study (Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel Survey 2006, N = 4329). Dream contents were assessed with the Dream Quality Questionnaire (DQQ). Depressive symptoms (BDI-S) and the presence anxiety were also investigated. Oppressive dreams occurred significantly higher frequency in the first year of bereavement (men: F = 17.525, p < 0.001, women: F = 8.291, p = 0.004). Oppressive dreams were significantly associated with anxiety (F = 37.089, p < 0.001) and with depressive symptoms (F = 50.562, p < 0.001). Oppressive dreams are significantly more frequent in the first year of bereavement, and may act as indicators of bereavement-linked mental health consequences like depression and anxiety. These are often masked by the symptoms of grief and therefore remain untreated. Our preliminary results could be a starting point for the development of further research aiming to clarify the relationship amongst dream contents, anxiety, and depression in bereavement.

  19. Are delusional contents replayed during dreams?

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Armando; Aletti, Giacomo; Carboni, Martina; Cavallotti, Simone; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Marialaura; Scarone, Silvio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between dream content and waking life experiences remains difficult to decipher. However, some neurobiological findings suggest that dreaming can, at least in part, be considered epiphenomenal to ongoing memory consolidation processes in sleep. Both abnormalities in sleep architecture and impairment in memory consolidation mechanisms are thought to be involved in the development of psychosis. The objective of this study was to assess the continuity between delusional contents and dreams in acutely psychotic patients. Ten patients with a single fixed and recurring delusional content were asked to report their dreams during an acute psychotic break. Sixteen judges with four different levels of acquaintance to the specific content of the patients' delusions were asked to group the dreams, expecting that fragments of the delusional thought would guide the task. A mathematical index (f,t) was developed in order to compare correct groupings between the four groups of judges. Most judges grouped the dreams slightly above chance level and no relevant differences could be found between the four groups [F(3,12)=1.297; p=n.s.]. Scoring of dreams for specific delusional themes suggested a continuity in terms of dream and waking mentation for two contents (Grandiosity and Religion). These findings seem to suggest that at least some delusional contents recur within patients' dreams. Future studies will need to determine whether such continuity reflects ongoing consolidation processes that are relevant to current theories of delusion formation and stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  1. The Dream of Home Ownership

    PubMed Central

    Loxterkamp, David

    2009-01-01

    Part of the American Dream involves home ownership and its claim to a stronger investment in one’s family, neighborhood, and community. The medical version of that dream is called private practice. Almost overnight, it seems, we have awakened to the reality that most primary care physicians are now employed by large corporations or hospital networks. What does this mean for our patients and the practice of medicine? Did patients lose a sense of ownership when insurance companies began to speak on their behalf? Have boutique practices, Internet sales, and online information banks restored their control? This essay explores the fundamental question, “Does ownership matter?” and suggests what we all can do to retrieve paradise lost. PMID:19433846

  2. Dreaming and offline memory processing.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-12-07

    The activities of the mind and brain never cease. Although many of our waking hours are spent processing sensory input and executing behavioral responses, moments of unoccupied rest free us to wander through thoughts of the past and future, create daydreams, and imagine fictitious scenarios. During sleep, when attention to sensory input is at a minimum, the mind continues to process information, using memory fragments to create the images, thoughts, and narratives that we commonly call 'dreaming'. Far from being a random or meaningless distraction, spontaneous cognition during states of sleep and resting wakefulness appears to serve important functions related to processing past memories and planning for the future. From single-cell recordings in rodents to behavioral studies in humans, recent studies in the neurosciences suggest a new conception of dreaming as part of a continuum of adaptive cognitive processing occurring across the full range of mind/brain states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The dream of home ownership.

    PubMed

    Loxterkamp, David

    2009-01-01

    Part of the American Dream involves home ownership and its claim to a stronger investment in one's family, neighborhood, and community. The medical version of that dream is called private practice. Almost overnight, it seems, we have awakened to the reality that most primary care physicians are now employed by large corporations or hospital networks. What does this mean for our patients and the practice of medicine? Did patients lose a sense of ownership when insurance companies began to speak on their behalf? Have boutique practices, Internet sales, and online information banks restored their control? This essay explores the fundamental question, "Does ownership matter?" and suggests what we all can do to retrieve paradise lost.

  4. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  5. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  6. Dreams and Mediation in Music Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    The most extensive use of dream imagery in popular culture occurs in the visual arts, and in the past five years it has become evident that music video (a semi-narrative hybrid of film and television) is the most dreamlike media product of all. The rampant depiction and implication of dreams and media fantasies in music video are often strongly…

  7. REM Sleep Behavioral Events and Dreaming.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Maria-Lucia; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Walters, Arthur S; Mollenhauer, Brit; Sixel-Döring, Friederike

    2015-04-15

    To clarify whether motor behaviors and/ or vocalizations during REM sleep, which do not yet fulfill diagnostic criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and were defined as REM sleep behavioral events (RBEs), correspond to dream enactments. 13 subjects (10 patients with Parkinson disease [PD] and 3 healthy controls) originally identified with RBE in a prospective study (DeNoPa cohort) were reinvestigated 2 years later with 2 nights of video-supported polysomnography (vPSG). The first night was used for sleep parameter analysis. During the 2nd night, subjects were awakened and questioned for dream recall and dream content when purposeful motor behaviors and/or vocalizations became evident during REM sleep. REM sleep without atonia (RWA) was analyzed on chin EMG and the cutoff set at 18.2% as specific for RBD. At the time of this investigation 9 of 13 subjects with previous RBE were identified with RBD based upon clinical and EMG criteria. All recalled vivid dreams, and 7 subjects were able to describe dream content in detail. Four of 13 subjects with RBE showed RWA values below cutoff values for RBD. Three of these 4 subjects recalled having non-threatening dreams, and 2 (of these 3) were able to describe these dreams in detail. RBE with RWA below the RBD defining criteria correlate to dreaming in this selected cohort. There is evidence that RBEs are a precursor to RBD. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. The dream: a psychodynamically informative instrument.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, M L

    2001-01-01

    The dream is a unique psychodynamically informative instrument for evaluating the subjective correlates of brain activity during REM sleep. These include feelings, percepts, memories, wishes, fantasies, impulses, conflicts, and defenses, as well as images of self and others. Dream analysis can be used in a variety of clinical settings to assist in diagnostic assessment, psychodynamic formulation, evaluation of clinical change, and the management of medically ill patients. Dreams may serve as the initial indicators of transference, resistance, impending crisis, acting-out, conflict resolution, and decision-making. A clinically functional categorization of dreams can facilitate an understanding of psychopathology, psychodynamics, personality structure, and various components of the psychotherapeutic process. Examples of different types of dreams are provided to illustrate their relevance and use in various clinical situations.

  9. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate resultsmore » than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.« less

  10. Dreaming and waking: similarities and differences revisited.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; LaBerge, Stephen P

    2011-09-01

    Dreaming is often characterized as lacking high-order cognitive (HOC) skills. In two studies, we test the alternative hypothesis that the dreaming mind is highly similar to the waking mind. Multiple experience samples were obtained from late-night REM sleep and waking, following a systematic protocol described in Kahan (2001). Results indicated that reported dreaming and waking experiences are surprisingly similar in their cognitive and sensory qualities. Concurrently, ratings of dreaming and waking experiences were markedly different on questions of general reality orientation and logical organization (e.g., the bizarreness or typicality of the events, actions, and locations). Consistent with other recent studies (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008; Kozmová & Wolman, 2006), experiences sampled from dreaming and waking were more similar with respect to their process features than with respect to their structural features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Word associations contribute to machine learning in automatic scoring of degree of emotional tones in dream reports.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Sabourin, Catherine; De Koninck, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges' scoring of dream report's negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model's accuracy. Word associations were established using words' frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in a dictionary and an encyclopedia. It was hypothesized that this addition would facilitate the machine learning model and improve its predictability beyond those of previous models. With a sample of 458 dreams, this model demonstrated an improvement in accuracy from 59% to 63% (kappa=.485) on the negative emotional tone scale, and for the first time reached an accuracy of 77% (kappa=.520) on the positive scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age Differences in Dreams. II: Distortion and Other Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold

    1981-01-01

    Age-related change in manifest dream content was assessed in dreams recalled from REM sleep by (N=58) men aged (27-64), and in dreams recalled from sleep at home. Evidence indicated a small age-related decline in dream distortion and family-related content. (Author)

  13. The dream between neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Mancia, M

    2004-07-01

    The dream is tackled sometimes from the neurobiological viewpoint, sometimes from the neuropsychological angle, or from the positions of experimental and psychoanalytical psychology. Interest in dreams started with psychoanalysis in 1900, and 53 years later the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinski and Kleitman, and subsequent psychophysiological findings took the dream into the realm of biology. The dichotomous model of REM and non-REM sleep is described, as a basis for thought-like activity (non-REM sleep) and dreaming (REM sleep). This led to Hobson and McCarley's theory of activation-synthesis, suggesting that the mind while dreaming is simply the brain self-activated in REM sleep. Psychophysiological research has shown that people dream in all phases of sleep, from falling asleep to waking, but that the characteristics of the dreams may differ in the different phases. Bio-imaging studies indicate that during REM sleep there is activation of the pons, the amygdala bilaterally, and the anterior cingulate cortex, and disactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex. The images suggest there is a neuroanatomical frame within which dreams can be generated and then forgotten. Psychoanalysis studies the dream from a completely different angle. Freud believed it was the expression of hallucinatory satisfaction of repressed desires. Today it is interpreted as the expression of a representation of the transference in the hic et nunc of the session. At the same time it also has symbol-generating functions which provide an outlet by which affective experiences and fantasies and defences stored as parts of an unrepressed unconscious in the implicit memory can be represented in pictorial terms, then thought and rendered verbally. From the psychoanalytical point of view, the dream transcends neurobiological knowledge, and looks like a process of internal activation that is only apparently chaotic, but is actually rich in meanings, arising from the

  14. The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children.

    PubMed

    Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Pälkäs, Outi; Ismail, Kamaran Hassan; Ali, Karzan Jalal; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2005-03-01

    The threat simulation theory of dreaming (TST) () states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is constantly threatened should have a highly activated dream production and threat simulation system, whereas children living in a safe environment that is relatively free of such threat cues should have a weakly activated system. We tested this hypothesis by analysing the content of dream reports from severely traumatized and less traumatized Kurdish children and ordinary, non-traumatized Finnish children. Our results give support for most of the predictions drawn from TST. The severely traumatized children reported a significantly greater number of dreams and their dreams included a higher number of threatening dream events. The dream threats of traumatized children were also more severe in nature than the threats of less traumatized or non-traumatized children.

  15. Can multiple sclerosis as a cognitive disorder influence patients’ dreams?

    PubMed Central

    Owji, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Dream should be considered as a kind of cognitive ability that is formed parallel to other cognitive capabilities like language. On the other hand, multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease that can involve different aspects of our cognition. Therefore, MS may influence patients’ dreams. In fact, we do not know what the importance of dream is in MS, but further studies may introduce dream and dreaming as a sign of improvement or progression in MS disease. PMID:24250908

  16. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Ketamine--dreams and realities].

    PubMed

    Arditti, J; Spadari, M; de Haro, L; Brun, A; Bourdon, J H; Valli, M

    2002-01-01

    Ketamine is an anaesthetic used in human medicine and veterinary practice, synthesised on 1962 and marketed on 1970 in France. Recreational uses were described during 1992 in the medical community and in 1996 in the dance settings. The chemical name of ketamine is 2--(2chlorophenyl)2-(methylamine)-cyclohexanone, an aryl cyclohexylamine, structurally related to phencyclidine. Ketamine is known under the following street names: Keta K, Kate, Special K, Vitamin K, la Golden, la Vétérinaire. Ketamine is used intranasally, orally and intramusculary in recreational use. Ketamine is manufactured by the chemical industry. Due to the complicated synthesis, it is sold illicitly for recreational use. Ketamine is a dissociative drug, and the user enters in a psychedelic dream with hallucinations, floating sensation, feeling of dissociation of the mind from the body. The dream is forgotten, the user full in reality with loss of self control, risk of acute intoxication. In long-term exposure, tolerance, dependence, withdrawal signs and flash back are described. Ketamine trademarks are subject to control in France through medicine legislation Ketamine and its salts are subject to control under the national legislation on narcotics and psychotropics substance. From September 2001, the theft of medical and veterinary trademarks have to be declared to police, care health authority Pharmacy control authority and French Health Products Safety Agency.

  18. REM Sleep Behavioral Events and Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Maria-Lucia; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Walters, Arthur S.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Sixel-Döring, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To clarify whether motor behaviors and/ or vocalizations during REM sleep, which do not yet fulfill diagnostic criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and were defined as REM sleep behavioral events (RBEs), correspond to dream enactments. Methods: 13 subjects (10 patients with Parkinson disease [PD] and 3 healthy controls) originally identified with RBE in a prospective study (DeNoPa cohort) were reinvestigated 2 years later with 2 nights of video-supported polysomnography (vPSG). The first night was used for sleep parameter analysis. During the 2nd night, subjects were awakened and questioned for dream recall and dream content when purposeful motor behaviors and/or vocalizations became evident during REM sleep. REM sleep without atonia (RWA) was analyzed on chin EMG and the cutoff set at 18.2% as specific for RBD. Results: At the time of this investigation 9 of 13 subjects with previous RBE were identified with RBD based upon clinical and EMG criteria. All recalled vivid dreams, and 7 subjects were able to describe dream content in detail. Four of 13 subjects with RBE showed RWA values below cutoff values for RBD. Three of these 4 subjects recalled having non-threatening dreams, and 2 (of these 3) were able to describe these dreams in detail. Conclusion: RBE with RWA below the RBD defining criteria correlate to dreaming in this selected cohort. There is evidence that RBEs are a precursor to RBD. Citation: Muntean ML, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Mollenhauer B, Sixel-Döring F. REM sleep behavioral events and dreaming. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):537–541. PMID:25665694

  19. Do "Undocumented Aliens" Dream of Neoliberal Sheep?: Conditional DREAMing and Decolonial Imaginaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ríos-Rojas, Anne; Stern, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Dreams have long been thought to be a space of fantasy and utopic hope. From Paulo Freire to Gloria Anzaldúa to Robin Kelley, many scholars have related the ability to dream with the ability to act collectively, to self-actualize, and to call into being worlds yet to be realized--dreaming as a radical political act. What happens, then, when dreams…

  20. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  1. 'Reverberation time', dreaming and the capacity to dream.

    PubMed

    Birksted-Breen, Dana

    2009-02-01

    In this paper the author suggests that understanding the roots of the subjective sense of time can throw light on the disturbances in psychic time which are found in particular in the more severe pathologies. She introduces the argument that the roots of the development of the sense of time rest on a primitive sense of time she calls 'reverberation time'. By this notion she refers to the particular quality of the earliest 'back and forth' internalized exchange with the mother in which the auditory dimension plays a significant part. Referring to a wide range of literature and clinical examples, the author thus suggests that the subjective sense of time is created by the reverberation between mother and infant. Disturbances in this area will be reflected in the pathological 'arresting' of time which is observed in the different pathologies and, in particular, around the negotiation of the depressive position and the oedipal situation.Extending this argument, the author goes on to suggest that it is the internalization of this experience of 'reverberation' which lies at the heart of the experience of dreaming; she considers that dreaming understood as an internal dialogue points both to its roots in the relationship to the maternal object and to its fundamental role in psychic life. The author concludes that 'reverberation time' is also the building block of a psychoanalysis, leading to 'unfreezing' psychic time and enabling the reconnection of 'here and now' with 'there and then' in a flexible way which promotes open possibilities, and that this takes place via the analyst's reverie, or time of reverberation.

  2. Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Donderi, Don C

    2006-04-01

    Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares.

  3. Representation of the Self in REM and NREM Dreams

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; McLaren, Deirdre; Durso, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that representations of the Self (or the dreamer) in dreams would change systematically, from a prereflective form of Self to more complex forms, as a function of both age and sleep state (REM vs. non-REM). These hypotheses were partially confirmed. While the authors found that all the self-concept-related dream content indexes derived from the Hall/Van de Castle dream content scoring system did not differ significantly between the dreams of children and adults, adult Selves were more likely to engage in “successful” social interactions. The Self never acted as aggressor in NREM dream states and was almost always the befriender in friendly interactions in NREM dreams. Conversely, the REM-related dream Self preferred aggressive encounters. Our results suggests that while prereflective forms of Self are the norm in children’s dreams, two highly complex forms of Self emerge in REM and NREM dreams. PMID:19169371

  4. A pilot study for the analysis of dream reports using Maslow's need categories: an extension to the emotional selection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The emotional selection hypothesis describes a cyclical process that uses dreams to modify and test select mental schemas. An extension is proposed that further characterizes these schemas as facilitators of human need satisfaction. A pilot study was conducted in which this hypothesis was tested by assigning 100 dream reports (10 randomly selected from 10 dream logs at an online web site) to one or more categories within Maslow's hierarchy of needs. A "match" was declared when at least two of three judges agreed both for category and for whether the identified need was satisfied or thwarted in the dream narrative. The interjudge reliability of the judged needs was good (92% of the reports contained at least one match). The number of needs judged as thwarted did not differ significantly from the number judged as satisfied (48 vs. 52%, respectively). The six "higher" needs (belongingness, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, and transcendence) were scored significantly more frequently (81%) than were the two lowest or "basic" needs (physiological and safety, 19%). Basic needs were also more likely to be judged as thwarted, while higher needs were more likely to be judged as satisfied. These findings are discussed in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework for investigating theories of dream function, including the emotional selection hypothesis and other contemporary dream theories.

  5. Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... Now 65, he has been permanently grounded by Parkinson's disease, unable, due to the loss of motor control ...

  6. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser was lifted by helicopter from the ramp at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California, before its successful approach and landing flight test on Nov. 11, 2017.

  7. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    After successfully landing on an Edwards Air Force Base runway on Nov. 11, 2017, Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser was prepared for its tow back to NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center in California.

  8. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser facing sunrise over Rogers Dry Lake by NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center in California where it was being prepared for a successful approach and landing test Nov. 11, 2017.

  9. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    After a successful approach and landing flight test on Nov. 11, 2017, Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser was towed back to NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, and placed in the former space shuttle hangar.

  10. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser being towed from the former space shuttle hangar at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center in California where it was housed and prepared for its successful Nov. 11, 2017 approach and landing test.

  11. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser crew prepared for helicopter lift off ramp at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, for its successful approach and landing flight test on Nov. 11, 2017.

  12. On the validity of Freud's dream interpretations.

    PubMed

    Michael, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In this article I defend Freud's method of dream interpretation against those who criticize it as involving a fallacy-namely, the reverse causal fallacy-and those who criticize it as permitting many interpretations, indeed any that the interpreter wants to put on the dream. The first criticism misconstrues the logic of the interpretative process: it does not involve an unjustified reversal of causal relations, but rather a legitimate attempt at an inference to the best explanation. The judgement of whether or not a particular interpretation is the best explanation depends on the details of the case in question. I outline the kinds of probabilities involved in making the judgement. My account also helps to cash out the metaphors of the jigsaw and crossword puzzles that Freudians have used in response to the 'many interpretations' objection. However, in defending Freud's method of dream interpretation, I do not thereby defend his theory of dreams, which cannot be justified by his interpretations alone.

  13. Complex dream-enacting behavior in sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Pillmann, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Currently, dream-enacting behaviors are viewed as occurring typically in association with a REM-sleep behavior disorder. In some cases, dream-like mentation is found also in non-REM parasomnia. We report a case of complex and dramatic sleepwalking behavior in a 26-year-old adult male who tied his 4-month-old daughter to the clothesline in the attic of his house. The explanation of this seemingly senseless behavior, which was related to psychosocial stressors, was found in a detailed dream-like mentation that was reported by the patient. At the same time, an organic factor, namely, a worsening of the patient's asthma, was identified as the cause of an increased fragmentation of sleep. In some cases of non-REM parasomnia, detailed dream-like mentation may act as a bridge between psychosocial stressors and the specific parasomnic behavior.

  14. Analytic process and dreaming about analysis.

    PubMed

    Sirois, François

    2016-12-01

    Dreams about the analytic session feature a manifest content in which the analytic setting is subject to distortion while the analyst appears undisguised. Such dreams are a consistent yet infrequent occurrence in most analyses. Their specificity consists in never reproducing the material conditions of the analysis as such. This paper puts forward the following hypothesis: dreams about the session relate to some aspects of the analyst's activity. In this sense, such dreams are indicative of the transference neurosis, prefiguring transference resistances to the analytic elaboration of key conflicts. The parts taken by the patient and by the analyst are discussed in terms of their ability to signal a deepening of the analysis. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  15. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness.

  16. The underlying emotion and the dream relating dream imagery to the dreamer's underlying emotion can help elucidate the nature of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    There is a widespread consensus that emotion is important in dreams, deriving from both biological and psychological studies. However, the emphasis on examining emotions explicitly mentioned in dreams is misplaced. The dream is basically made of imagery. The focus of our group has been on relating the dream imagery to the dreamer's underlying emotion. What is most important is the underlying emotion--the emotion of the dreamer, not the emotion in the dream. This chapter discusses many studies relating the dream-especially the central image of the dream--to the dreamer's underlying emotion. Focusing on the underlying emotion leads to a coherent and testable view of the nature of dreaming. It also helps to clarify some important puzzling features of the literature on dreams, such as why the clinical literature is different in so many ways from the experimental literature, especially the laboratory-based experimental literature. Based on central image intensity and the associated underlying emotion, we can identify a hierarchy of dreams, from the highest-intensity, "big dreams," to the lowest-intensity dreams from laboratory awakenings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The dream as space, time and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Totlis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Human beings, like all living organisms, use energy ceaselessly with whatever they do. Nothing at all happens without spending some energy, not even a glance or a dream. The Author proposes that dreams happen automatically in sleep to help us release unresolved frustration energy and emotional dilemmas left over from the day before. Energy administration is the common denominator behind the manifold workings of dreams, as it is behind all operations of our consciousness in daytime, and this is far more important than one might at first suspect. In summary, if in waking reality the day prior to a dream, a specific sensory composition (a perception or picture) frustrates our mind such that the mind is unable or unwilling to accept this sensory composition, it forms and traps within us an emotional energy charge that lingers inside till that same night when the dream uses it in order to energize from memory analogous sensory components that form a spatiotemporally similar overall representational composition of the daytime waking event. This ends up as the dream we may remember the next day. For example, if in a real event yesterday a red apple between two green apples were in front of us and for some reason we were unable or unwilling to see and accept this perception, in a dream the next time we sleep, we may see promptly a red peach between two green peaches, which will be energized temporarily from our memory to serve the need of our psyche to represent the unprocessed emotion(s) and balance the tensions inside us. The dream always produces more acceptable symbolic perceptions for us to see or sense, and in doing so uses and releases at the same time the unacknowledged emotional energy inside us pending since yesterday's event. PMID:22540104

  18. DREAM regulates BDNF-dependent spinal sensitization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) controls the expression of prodynorphin and has been involved in the modulation of endogenous responses to pain. To investigate the role of DREAM in central mechanisms of pain sensitization, we used a line of transgenic mice (L1) overexpressing a Ca2+- and cAMP-insensitive DREAM mutant in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Results L1 DREAM transgenic mice showed reduced expression in the spinal cord of several genes related to pain, including prodynorphin and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and a state of basal hyperalgesia without change in A-type currents. Peripheral inflammation produced enhancement of spinal reflexes and increased expression of BDNF in wild type but not in DREAM transgenic mice. The enhancement of the spinal reflexes was reproduced in vitro by persistent electrical stimulation of C-fibers in wild type but not in transgenic mice. Exposure to exogenous BDNF produced a long-term enhancement of dorsal root-ventral root responses in transgenic mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that endogenous BDNF is involved in spinal sensitization following inflammation and that blockade of BDNF induction in DREAM transgenic mice underlies the failure to develop spinal sensitization. PMID:21167062

  19. Psychodynamic Interpretations of the Immigrant's Dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munteanu, Mircea A.

    1994-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees often experience difficulty adjusting to a strange new environment. This article considers Adler's (1993) article, "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory" but recommends a depth psychology approach, including both Freudian and Jungian perspectives, to incorporating dream analysis as a technique in cross-cultural…

  20. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immediate and delayed incorporations of events into dreams: further replication and implications for dream function.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore A; Kuiken, Don; Alain, Geneviève; Stenstrom, Philippe; Powell, Russell A

    2004-12-01

    The incorporation of memories into dreams is characterized by two types of temporal effects: the day-residue effect, involving immediate incorporations of events from the preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, involving incorporations delayed by about a week. This study was designed to replicate these two effects while controlling several prior methodological problems and to provide preliminary information about potential functions of delayed event incorporations. Introductory Psychology students were asked to recall dreams at home for 1 week. Subsequently, they were instructed to select a single dream and to retrieve past events related to it that arose from one of seven randomly determined days prior to the dream (days 1-7). They then rated both their confidence in recall of events and the extent of correspondence between events and dreams. Judges evaluated qualities of the reported events using scales derived from theories about the function of delayed incorporations. Average ratings of correspondences between dreams and events were high for predream days 1 and 2, low for days 3 and 4 and high again for days 5-7, but only for participants who rated their confidence in recall of events as high and only for females. Delayed incorporations were more likely than immediate incorporations to refer to events characterized by interpersonal interactions, spatial locations, resolved problems and positive emotions. The findings are consistent with the possibility that processes with circaseptan (about 7 days) morphology underlie dream incorporation and that these processes subserve the functions of socio-emotional adaptation and memory consolidation.

  2. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  3. The effects of suppressing intrusive thoughts on dream content, dream distress and psychological parameters.

    PubMed

    Kröner-Borowik, Tana; Gosch, Stefanie; Hansen, Kathrin; Borowik, Benjamin; Schredl, Michael; Steil, Regina

    2013-10-01

    Suppressing unwanted thoughts can lead to an increased occurrence of the suppressed thought in dreams. This is explainable by the ironic control theory, which theorizes why the suppression of thoughts might make them more persistent. The present study examined the influence of thought suppression on dream rebound, dream distress, general psychiatric symptomatology, depression, sleep quality and perceived stress. Thirty healthy participants (good sleepers) were investigated over a period of 1 week. Half were instructed to suppress an unwanted thought 5 min prior to sleep, whereas the other half were allowed to think of anything at all. Dream content was assessed through a dream diary. Independent raters assessed whether or not the dreams were related to the suppressed target thought. The results demonstrated increased target-related dreams and a tendency to have more distressing dreams in the suppression condition. Moreover, the data imply that thought suppression may lead to significantly increased general psychiatric symptomatology. No significant effects were found for the other secondary outcomes. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Dreaming scientists and scientific dreamers: Freud as a reader of French dream literature.

    PubMed

    Carroy, Jacqueline

    2006-03-01

    The argument of this paper is to situate The Interpretation of Dreams within an historical context. It is, therefore, impossible to believe Freud entirely when he staged himself in his letters to Fliess as a mere discoverer. In reality Freud also felt he belonged to a learned community of dream specialists, whom I call "dreaming scientists" and "scientific dreamers." Instead of speaking, as Ellenberger does, in terms of influence, I will be offering as an example a portrait of Freud as a reader of two French authors, Maury, and indirectly, Hervey de Saint-Denys. I will analyze how Freud staged himself as replacing Maury and dreaming sometimes like Hervey de Saint-Denys. My premise in this work is that we must forget Freud, in order to adventure into a learned dream culture peculiar to the nineteenth century. Only afterwards can we come back to Freud and place him in this context as a creative heir.

  5. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E.; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed. PMID:24976740

  6. [Tertullianus and Agostinus. Approaches to dreams in ancient Christianity].

    PubMed

    Genovese, Armando

    2009-01-01

    The author analyzes the nature and typologies of dreams in Tertullianus' De anima and, briefly, in the work of Agostinus, two centuries later. What are made dreams of? Are they autonomous productions of psyché or phantasia, or rather messages sent by demons or God, according to dreams' bad or good intimate nature? Is there a relation between time of the night and nature of the dreams? Moreover, is there a relation between seasons and dreams? Does a specific relationship between food, regimen and dreams exist? Which is the soul's faculty able to generate dreams? Is phantasia moved by some other deep and mysterious principle? Which are the connections linking human physiology and dreams?

  7. The fate of the dream in contemporary psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Loden, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Freud's metapsychology of dream formation has implicitly been discarded, as indicated in a brief review of trends in psychoanalytic thinking about dreams, with a focus on the relationship of the dream process to ego capacities. The current bias toward exclusive emphasis on the exploration of the analytic relationship and the transference has evolved at the expense of classical, in-depth dream interpretation, and, by extension, at the expense of strengthening the patient's capacity for self-inquiry. This trend is shown to be especially evident in the treatment of borderline patients, who today are believed by many analysts to misuse the dream in the analytic situation. An extended clinical example of a borderline patient with whom an unmodified Freudian associative technique of dream interpretation is used with good outcome illustrates the author's contrary conviction. In clinical practice, we should neglect neither the uniqueness of the dream as a central intrapsychic event nor the Freudian art of total dream analysis.

  8. Deceased loved ones in the dreams of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Turner, J L; Graffam, J H

    1987-11-01

    Dream reports were collected over a 10-year period as part of an ethnographic study of mentally retarded employees in a sheltered workshop. Deceased loved ones, usually parents or other family members, figured prominently as characters in many of these dreams. Dreams about the dead were often recurring and elicited salient emotional reactions from the dreamers. The various forms that these dreams take and their characteristic thematic content were described for 154 dreams by 60 dreamers. Some of the percepts and feelings that reflect the dreamers' understanding of their dreams were also noted. Findings reveal that the dream life of retarded adults is much more rich and diverse than previous studies suggest. Clinical implications and the occurrence of similar dreams among nonretarded persons were discussed.

  9. On Dreams and Motivation: Comparison of Freud's and Hobson's Views.

    PubMed

    Boag, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The merits of Freudian dream theory continue to be debated and both supporters and critics appeal to empirical evidence to support their respective positions. What receives much less attention is the theoretical coherency of either Freudian dream theory or alternative perspectives. This paper examines Freudian dream theory and J. Allan Hobson's alternative position by addressing the role of motivation in dreams. This paper first discusses motivation in Freudian theory and its relation to dreams and disguise-censorship. The role of motivation in Hobson's theory is then considered. Hobson's claim that dream plot and content selection is random and based on design error and functional imbalance is then discussed in relation to the protoconsciousness theory proposal that dreams serve an adaptive function. While there are apparent inconsistencies in Hobson's position, his appeal to emotions and instincts provides a preliminary platform for understanding the role of motivation in dreams that is consonant with the Freudian position.

  10. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    PubMed

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  12. Dream Spots and Thinking Rocks: Places for Contemplation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Presents examples from children's literature that illustrate types of special "thinking/dream spots." Suggests the following activities: creating a dream place in the library media center, describing or drawing a dream spot, designing a meditation room, making a sculpture garden, and writing monologs. (AEF)

  13. Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM): Phase 2 Usability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…

  14. Truthful Fictions: How Dreams Can Help You Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakil, Ardashir

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a case for recording and using dreams in the teaching of writing. Calling on some well-known statements of Freud and on some recent research, I attempt to show how dreams can provide writers with a route to their unconscious. I also illustrate the role of dreams in furnishing writers with inspiration and source material. I…

  15. After Analysis: A Study of Transference Dreams Following Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Rae

    1986-01-01

    Examined posttreatment consolidation of experience with a script-theoretic analysis of transference dreams. A content-analytic scheme applied to three during-treatment and three posttreatment dreams showed in posttreatment dreams a significant increase in positive affects, a decrease in negative affects, and more effective initatives by the…

  16. Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Caren J.

    Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in…

  17. Homing in on consciousness: Why is a dream conscious?

    PubMed

    Porte, Helene Sophrin

    2016-01-01

    Morsella et al. argue convincingly that consciousness is for adaptive voluntary action. What, then, is consciousness in a dream for? Two prior questions present themselves. In a dream, how do contents get into the conscious field? What are the properties of consciousness in a dream?

  18. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  19. Toward a Phenomenology of Dream Imagery and Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elmer S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The author partially describes a few of the immanent qualities of dreaming imagery and metaphor. The concept of the ineluctable modality is introduced to illustrate the spontaneous synthesizing of cognitive and noncognitive elements. A short dream excerpt is shared to clarify the pervasive contrapuntallike depth of dreaming imagery. (Author/SJL)

  20. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD.

  1. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Mateus C.; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T.; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Barbosa, Egberto R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD. PMID:27051076

  2. Land-Use and Climate : first results from the LUCID experiments ; implications for experimental design in IPCC-AR5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Noblet, N.; Pitman, A.; Participants, Lucid

    2009-04-01

    The project "Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts" (LUCID) was conceived under the auspices of IGBP-iLEAPS and GEWEX-GLASS, to address the robustness of 'local' and possible remote impacts of land-use induced land-cover changes (LCC). LUCID explores, using methodologies that major climate modelling groups recognise, those impacts of LCC that are robust - that is, above the noise generated by model variability and consistent across a suite of climate models. To start with, seven climate models were run, in ensemble mode (5 realisations per 31-years long experiment), with prescribed observed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice extent (SIc). Pre-industrial and present-day simulations were used to explore the impacts of biogeophysical impacts of human-induced land cover change. The imposed LCC perturbation led to statistically significant changes in latent heat flux and near-surface temperature over the regions of land cover change, but few significant changes in precipitation. Our results show no common remote impacts of land cover change. They also highlight a dilemma for both historical hind-casts and future projections; land cover change is regionally important, but it is not feasible within the time frame of the next IPCC (AR5) assessment to implement this change commonly across multiple models. Further analysis are in progress and will be presented to identify the continental regions where changes in LCC may have been more important than the combined changes in SSTs, SIc and CO2 between the pre-industrial times and nowadays.

  3. [Dreams and sensoperception in epicurean theory].

    PubMed

    Pangas, Julio César

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the epicurean vision on sensoperception and dreams. This epicurean vision is known to us, specially, from the wrintings of his roman divulger, Titus Lucretius Caro in his work "On the nature of things" ("De rerum natura"), IV Chant. The epicureans adopted the materialistic conception of nature, based upon Democritus of Abdera atomistic theory and, in this way, they distinguished their theories on dreams from the general principles prevailing in the popular greco-roman litterature, as well as from the divinatory perception of oneirocritics like Artemidorus and also from the first steps of the physiological conception of dreams from philosophers as the presocratics and Aristotle. We end this article with some of the more interesting paragraphs from Chant IV of the work by Lucretius, regarding this subjet.

  4. Dream recall frequency by socioeconomic status of Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Whereas the effect of sex and age on dream recall have been studied widely, socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated. However, two studies reported that higher socioeconomic status was related to greater frequency of dream recall. In the present sample of 612 Chinese students from three different schools, one elite (high socioeconomic status), one rural (low socioeconomic status) and one intermediate, analysis of variance indicated no significant association between frequency of dream recall and socioeconomic status. Researchers could investigate whether "dream socialization," e.g., encouragement of a child to remember his dreams, depends on socioeconomic background, whether these processes are mediated by culture.

  5. Subpersonalities with dreaming functions in a patient with multiple personalities.

    PubMed

    Salley, R D

    1988-02-01

    A case report of the hypnotherapy and unusual dream work of a patient with multiple personality disorder is described. Two of his 13 personalities claimed a dream production function. These personalities claimed the ability to organize and create dreams in order to communicate with the host personality. In the course of therapy, clinical data are described that tend to support this claim. The data of this case are then briefly applied to some current models of dream function. Some dream theories with an information-processing and reprogramming emphasis are particularly supported by this case material.

  6. Thematic and Content Analysis of Idiopathic Nightmares and Bad Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Design: Correlational and descriptive. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. Conclusions: The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer—and more severe—expression of the same basic phenomenon. Citation: Robert G; Zadra A. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams. SLEEP 2014;37(2):409-417. PMID:24497669

  7. Does the Circadian Modulation of Dream Recall Modify with Age?

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi; Münch, Mirjam; Blatter, Katharina; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Study objectives: The ultradian NREM-REM sleep cycle and the circadian modulation of REM sleep sum to generate dreaming. Here we investigated age-related changes in dream recall, number of dreams, and emotional domain characteristics of dreaming during both NREM and REM sleep. Design: Analysis of dream recall and sleep EEG (NREM/REM sleep) during a 40-h multiple nap protocol (150 min of wakefulness and 75 min of sleep) under constant routine conditions. Setting: Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Participants: Seventeen young (20-31 years) and 15 older (57-74 years) healthy volunteers Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Dream recall and number of dreams varied significantly across the circadian cycle and between age groups, with older subjects exhibiting fewer dreams (P < 0.05), particularly after naps scheduled during the biological day, closely associated with the circadian rhythm of REM sleep. No significant age differences were observed for the emotional domain of dream content. Conclusions: Since aging was associated with attenuated amplitude in the circadian modulation of REM sleep, our data suggest that the age-related decrease in dream recall can result from an attenuated circadian modulation of REM sleep. Citation: Chellappa SL; Möunch M; Blatter K; Knoblauch V; Cajochen C. Does the circadian modulation of dream recall modify with age? SLEEP 2009;32(9):1201-1209. PMID:19750925

  8. Ontogeny of dreaming: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-10-01

    The examination of children's sleep-related mental experiences presents many significant challenges for researchers investigating the developmental trajectories of human dreaming. In contrast to the well-explored developmental patterns of human sleep, data from dream research are strikingly divergent with highly ambiguous results and conclusions, even though there is plenty of indirect evidence suggesting parallel patterns of development between neural maturation and dreaming. Thus results from studies of children's dreaming are of essential importance not only to enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming but to also add to our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive and emotional development. This review summarizes research results related to the ontogeny of dreaming: we critically reconsider the field, systematically compare the findings based on different methodologies, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of methods, arguing in favor of methodological pluralism. Since most contradictory results emerge in connection with descriptive as well as content related characteristics of young children's dreams, we emphasize the importance of carefully selected dream collection methods. In contrast nightmare-related studies yield surprisingly convergent results, thus providing strong basis for inferences about the connections between dreaming and cognitive emotional functioning. Potential directions for dream research are discussed, aiming to explore the as yet unraveled correlations between the maturation of neural organization, sleep architecture and dreaming patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R.; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children’s recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults’ recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  10. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies on children's recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults' recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Instilling Dreams: The Promise of Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1999-01-01

    Examines the low expectations of Native American students held by both Indian and non-Indian teachers and asserts that these attitudes of "internalized racism" must change. Reports on teacher education at tribal colleges and advocates preparing teachers to believe in students' dreams of achievement. (VWC)

  12. Dialoguing with Dreams in Existential Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for interactive dialogue and analysis of dream images in existential art therapy. In this phenomenological-existential approach, the client and art therapist are regarded as equal partners with respect to sharing in the process of creation and discovery of meaning (Frankl, 1955,…

  13. What Has Happened to the American Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    Until very recently, the American dream, and most people's perception of it, was realizable--e.g., owning a home, obtaining a job, and old-age security. Reasons for many citizens' disillusionment include the nuclear threat, high costs of a college education, and the high divorce rate. (RM)

  14. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser crew attached the wires that the helicopter would use to pick it up from NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California in preparation for its successful approach and landing test Nov. 11, 2017.

  15. How to Make Their Dreams Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of January--a fresh start. This presents a brand new opportunity to help students plan a bright future. This article provides a step-by-step guide to ensure a student's dreams come true. Each new year gives students another chance to get it right. The author provides the following 12 steps to ensure students' success in achieving…

  16. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser was released from a helicopter for a landing on an Edwards Air Force Base runway after it was lifted from the ramp at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, for its successful approach and landing flight test on Nov. 11, 2017.

  17. Chinese Learning Journeys: Chasing the Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Feng, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Eight students from mainland China chart their learning journeys across national and continental boundaries and socio-cultural contexts. The five women and three men structure their experiences of studying in China and the West around the turning points and life changing choices they made in chasing their dreams. They embody its emergent…

  18. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser is released for a landing on Edwards Air Force Base runway after departing a ramp at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, for its successful approach and landing flight test on Nov. 11, 2017.

  19. Dreams, mnemonics, and tuning for criticality.

    PubMed

    Pearlmutter, Barak A; Houghton, Conor J

    2013-12-01

    According to the tuning-for-criticality theory, the essential role of sleep is to protect the brain from super-critical behaviour. Here we argue that this protective role determines the content of dreams and any apparent relationship to the art of memory is secondary to this.

  20. Dream Chaser ALT-2 Free Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-07

    A lift device was attached to Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser for a helicopter to pick it up to drop for its successful approach and landing test at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California on Nov. 11, 2017.

  1. Is deep dreaming the new collage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Margaret A.

    2017-10-01

    Deep dreaming (DD) can combine and transform images in surprising ways. But, being based in deep learning (DL), it is not analytically understood. Collage is an art form that is constrained along various dimensions. DD will not be able to generate collages until DL can be guided in a disciplined fashion.

  2. Brooklyn Dreams: My Life in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In "Brooklyn Dreams," Sonia Nieto--one of the leading authors and teachers in the field of multicultural education--looks back on her formative experiences as a student, activist, and educator, and shows how they reflect and illuminate the themes of her life's work. Nieto offers a poignant account of her childhood and the complexities of…

  3. Current Research on Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph summarizes an extensive body of sleep and dream research in order to indicate the major trends of work in this area. Although a mosaic of disciplines are represented, a spirit of cooperation has made it possible to knit together data which might have remained unrelated. The research reported here provides knowledge about: (1) the…

  4. Emotional facial expressions during REM sleep dreams.

    PubMed

    Rivera-García, Ana P; López Ruiz, Irma E; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; González-Olvera, Jorge J; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Jiménez-Anguiano, Anabel

    2018-06-04

    Although motor activity is actively inhibited during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, specific activations of the facial mimetic musculature have been observed during this stage, which may be associated with greater emotional dream mentation. Nevertheless, no specific biomarker of emotional valence or arousal related to dream content has been identified to date. In order to explore the electromyographic (EMG) activity (voltage, number, density and duration) of the corrugator and zygomaticus major muscles during REM sleep and its association with emotional dream mentation, this study performed a series of experimental awakenings after observing EMG facial activations during REM sleep. The study was performed with 12 healthy female participants using an 8-hr nighttime sleep recording. Emotional tone was evaluated by five blinded judges and final valence and intensity scores were obtained. Emotions were mentioned in 80.4% of dream reports. The voltage, number, density and duration of facial muscle contractions were greater for the corrugator muscle than for the zygomaticus muscle, whereas high positive emotions predicted the number (R 2 0.601, p = 0.0001) and voltage (R 2 0.332, p = 0.005) of the zygomaticus. Our findings suggest that zygomaticus events were predictive of the experience of positive affect during REM sleep in healthy women. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  6. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, J. Allan; Hong, Charles C.-H.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity – becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain’s generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  7. Marriage: The Dream and the Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano; L'Abate, Bess L.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major polarizations in marriages of workaholic husbands is their pursuit of the "Great American Dream" while their wives are left to pursue the "Petty Realities of Life." Couples must learn to negotiate realistic and functional objectives for themselves, without avoiding the issues. (JAC)

  8. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…

  9. My Galaxy of Memories, Feelings, and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomek, George; Tomek, Marilee

    Young people are encouraged to use this writing journal for kids as a means to think, write, and be creative. The journal helps children to explore their worlds, learn about their families, and record their memories, feelings, and dreams. Following explanatory sections for parents, teachers, and the writer, the journal contains these sections:…

  10. Improving Discipline: The "Dream Team" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhere, Serge

    1998-01-01

    It is impossible to change from a discipline policy of constraint to one of consent and engagement if students lack a legitimate voice in school governance. In middle schools, the "Dream Team" approach can employ sociograms to identify the most broadly respected and most socially isolated students. A student-centered pedagogy enhances…

  11. SNC's Dream Chaser Arrives at NASA Armstrong

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-08

    This 58-second video shows Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) delivering its Dream Chaser spacecraft on Jan. 25, 2017, to NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, located on Edwards Air Force Base. The spacecraft will undergo several months of testing at the Center in preparation for its approach and landing flight on the base's runway. The test series is part of a developmental space act agreement SNC has with NASA’s HYPERLINK Commercial Crew Program. The upcoming test campaign will help SNC validate the aerodynamic properties, flight software and control system performance of the Dream Chaser. The Dream Chaser is also being prepared to deliver cargo to the International Space Station under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services 2 (CRS2) contract beginning in 2019. The data that SNC gathers from this test campaign will help influence and inform the final design of the cargo Dream Chaser, which will fly at least six cargo delivery missions to and from the Space Station by 2024.

  12. Technical Studies Lead to Dream Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraci, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Like many young men, Ty Kropp had no idea what he wanted to do when he graduated from high school. Courses he took as a computer design/manufacturing (CDM) technology student at the Ulster County Career and Technical Education center in Port Ewen, NY, gave him valuable skills that opened the door to his dream job at Orange County Choppers (OCC), a…

  13. Catching the Dream Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, Catching the Dream (CTD) provided college scholarships to 208 American Indian students as well as grants to improve education in schools that serve Native students. This annual report describes CTD's programs and activities in 2002. Contents include short descriptions of CTD's scholarship, fellowship, and internship programs; describe…

  14. [Dream in the land of paradoxical sleep].

    PubMed

    Pire, E; Herman, G; Cambron, L; Maquet, P; Poirrier, R

    2008-01-01

    Paradoxical sleep (PS or REM sleep) is traditionally a matter for neurophysiology, a science of the brain. Dream is associated with neuropsychology and sciences of the mind. The relationships between sleep and dream are better understood in the light of new methodologies in both domains, particularly those of basic neurosciences which elucidate the mechanisms underlying SP and functional imaging techniques. Data from these approaches are placed here in the perspective of rather old clinical observations in human cerebral lesions and in the phylogeny of vertebrates, in order to support a theory of dream. Dreams may be seen as a living marker of a cognitivo-emotional process, called here "eidictic process", involving posterior brain and limbic structures, keeping up during wakefulness, but subjected, at that time, to the leading role of a cognitivo-rational process, called here "thought process". The last one is of instrumental origin in human beings. It involves prefrontal cortices (executive tasks) and frontal/parietal cortices (attention) in the brain. Some clinical implications of the theory are illustrated.

  15. [Interdependance between somatic symptoms, sleep and dreams].

    PubMed

    Todorov, Assya

    2014-03-19

    Even in an established illness, somatic complains can hide other emotional inquiries. The therapist, always with a kind attitude, can ask more about patient's sexual life. This can be use of having a better idea of patient's life and problems. Talking about dreams can also be useful: it gives new and surprising elements about patient's personality and helps to progress on healing's way.

  16. Dream anxiety in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Yazla, Ece; Ozkurt, Sultan; Musmul, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Although low quality of sleep has been reported in kidney transplant patients with functioning allografts, there are no previous studies investigating the dreams of these patients. We aimed to investigate the differences in dream anxiety level between renal transplant patients and healthy control subjects. We also planned to compare depression and anxiety symptoms, sleep quality and sleepiness level between these two groups. Twenty-two living-donor renal transplant recipients followed at an outpatient nephrology clinic and 22 healthy controls were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic Data Collection Form, and the Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS), the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories were used for the assessment of the necessary features. Hemoglobin (Hb), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and glucose levels were measured. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of dream anxiety (p = 0.45), depression (p = 0.76), sleep quality (p = 0.8), insomnia severity (p = 0.08) and Hb (p = 0.11) and glucose levels (p = 0.14). Although, BUN (p = 0.00) and creatinine (p = 0.00) levels differed significantly between the two groups, both parameters were found to be within their normal range. In our study, chronic renal failure patients with a successful kidney transplant were found to be able to completely return to normal in terms of metabolic parameters, sleep quality and mood. Similar levels of dream anxiety are also consistent with these findings.

  17. Frightening dreams and dosage schedule of tricyclic and neuroleptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Strayhorn, J M; Nash, J L

    1978-12-01

    One previous study reported that psychiatric inpatients on bedtime-only doses of tricyclic or neuroleptic drugs reported more frequent frightening dreams than did those on divided daily doses. As a further test of this hypothesis, and in order to see whether differences in frequency of frightening dreams were a function of differences in total dream recall, we administered a questionnaire to outpatients in a Veterans Administration Hospital Mental Hygiene Clinic, asking about frequency of dream recall, frequency of frightening dream recall, and doses and times of any medications taken. Questionnaire reports of medications were checked with the medical record of the patient; for 48 patients on tricyclic or neuroleptic drugs the reports agreed, and the data of these patients were analyzed. Our findings corroborated the previous report of more frequent frightening dreams in patients on bedtime-only dosage schedules (p less than .01). In addition, we found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to frequency of dream recall; thus a difference in the affect of dreams, rather than a difference in quantity of dream recall, constituted the difference between the two groups. When a patient on bedtime doses of tricyclic or neuroleptic drugs has undesirable frightening dreams, the clinician should consider a change to divided daily doses.

  18. An association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness.

    PubMed

    Lipnicki, Darren M

    2009-07-01

    Daily disturbances of the earth's magnetic field produce variations in geomagnetic activity (GMA) that are reportedly associated with widespread effects on human health and behaviour. Some of these effects could be mediated by an established influence of GMA on the secretion of melatonin. There is evidence from unrelated research that melatonin influences dream bizarreness, and it is hypothesised here that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Also reported is a preliminary test of this hypothesis, a case study in which the dreams recorded over 6.5 years by a young adult male were analysed. Reports of dreams from the second of two consecutive days of either low or high GMA (K index sum < or =6 or > or = 28) were self-rated for bizarreness on a 1-5 scale. Dreams from low GMA periods (n=69, median bizarreness=4) were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from high GMA periods (n=85, median bizarreness=3; p=0.006), supporting the hypothesised association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Studies with larger samples are needed to verify this association, and to determine the extent to which melatonin may be involved. Establishing that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness would have relevance for neurophysiological theories of dreaming, and for models of psychotic symptoms resembling bizarre dream events.

  19. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Correlational and descriptive. Participants' homes. Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). N/A. Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer-and more severe-expression of the same basic phenomenon.

  20. Amygdala and hippocampus volumetry and diffusivity in relation to dreaming.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Cipolli, Carlo; Cherubini, Andrea; Assogna, Francesca; Cacciari, Claudia; Marzano, Cristina; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2011-09-01

    Microstructural analyses by MRI brain scans and by DTI analysis of MR images were used to investigate the possible relationship between deep gray matter structures (amygdala and hippocampus) and dreaming in healthy subjects. Thirty-four subjects ranging in age 20s to 70s underwent to a MRI protocol for the assessment of volume and mean diffusivity (MD) in the amygdala and hippocampus and were asked to fill out a dream diary via audiotape recording upon morning awakening for two weeks. Multiple regression analyses evaluated the relationships between anatomical measures and quantitative and qualitative measures of the reported dreams. The main result points to a dissociation between some quantitative and qualitative aspects of dream reports. While the mean number of dreams recalled per day did not show any significant relationship with the neuroanatomical measures, significant associations with some qualitative features of the recalled dreams (emotional load, bizarreness, and vividness) and, to some extent, with the length of dream reports were observed. Particularly, a higher MD of the left amygdala, reflecting a decreased microstructural integrity, was associated with shorter dream reports and lower scores on emotional load. Bizarreness of dream reports was negatively correlated with the left amygdala volume and positively correlated with the right amygdala MD. Some specific, although weaker, relationships were also found between bizarreness and hippocampal measures. These findings indicate some direct relationships between volumetric and ultrastructural measures of the hippocampus-amygdala complex and specific qualitative features of dreaming. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Talking with Young Children about Their Dreams: How to Listen and What to Listen For.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousso, June; Gross, Augusta

    1988-01-01

    Addresses aspects of talking with young children about their dreams. Explains why dreams are worthwhile topics of conversation with young children and what approaches are effective in facilitating discussion of dreams in class. (BB)

  2. Red balloon: approaching dreams as self-narratives.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulou, Athena

    2011-10-01

    In this article, dreams are seen as stories within a self-narrative. Dream stories, like all other stories, are told in an effort to make sense of experiences. Here, dream content is linked to current concerns, some aspects of which are not given voice in waking. Dreams depict restricting themes but also openings in self-narratives. Several examples are provided of how dreams can be linked to early, middle, and late therapy phases associated with recognizing, challenging, revising, and maintaining a revising stance. It is further suggested that dream stories can be used to trace, facilitate, and evaluate the process of reconstructing self-narratives. Finally, a number of therapeutic interventions are briefly presented to facilitate the work of narrative-informed family therapists working with individuals, families, and groups. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  3. The Psychotomimetic Nature of Dreams: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Oliver; Wakerley, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Several theories promote the similarities between dreaming and psychosis, but this has rarely been tested empirically. We assessed dreaming and waking reality using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory, a measure of psychotic-like experience originally designed for drug studies. Twenty participants completed the measure in each of two dream conditions and one waking condition. Dreams were assessed upon waking naturally and also using a movement-activated (actigraph) alarm during the night. Overall, participants reported more quasipsychotic characteristics during dreams (in both conditions) than when awake. This was most marked for paranoia and delusional thinking, but differences were also seen for perceptual abnormalities, mania, and anhedonia. The quality of dream experience seems particularly similar to psychosis in sometimes being highly self-referential and having a paranoid content. Subjective changes to cognition and affect are consistent with alterations in prefrontal cortical activity during REM sleep that mirror those of schizophrenia. PMID:22966450

  4. Beware of being captured by an analogy: dreams are like many things.

    PubMed

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2013-12-01

    Classic traditions have linked dreams to memory (e.g., "dreaming is another kind of remembering" [Freud 1918/1955]) and modern notions like implicit memory subsume dreaming by definition. Llewellyn develops the more specific thesis that rapid eye movement (REM) dreams, because of their similarities to mnemonic techniques, have the function of elaboratively encoding episodic memories. This proposal is premature, requiring exigent testing. Other analogs of dreams, for example, jokes, do not invoke function but do contribute to dream science.

  5. The sense of the body in the dream: Diagnostic capacity in the meanings of dreams.

    PubMed

    Giordo, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    The author investigates the oneiric representation of somatic states and the diagnostic capacity of dreams. He draws on Freud's hypotheses on the procedures by which somatic stimuli insert themselves in oneiric elaboration and restructures them according to the recent neurobiological discoveries and to analytical experiences. In the representations of certain dreams, with a psychic interpretation agreed upon by the patients, somatic alterations unknown to the analytical couple were discriminated and confirmed by radiological investigations. These representations were linked to the manifestation of one aspect of the bodily Self, neglected in the precocious maternal relation, that entered the organization of the Self consolidated in the relation with the paternal figure. This conjunction gave origin to the double meaning (somatic and psychic) of the dream. The entering of the somatic representation in the oneiric one did not appear to be the figurative effect, but of a condensation of diagnostic capacity into the meaning of the dream. This characteristic manifested itself in the particular styles of the dreamers, interpretable by an analyst countertransferentially oriented. The perception or scotomization of the condensation in the interpretation of the dream and of the moment had an effect on the evolution of the analysis. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Dreams are made of memories, but maybe not for memory.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Ruby, Perrine; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's claim that rapid eye movement (REM) dream imagery may be related to the processes involved in memory consolidation during sleep is plausible. However, whereas there is voluntary and deliberate intention behind the construction of images in the ancient art of memory (AAOM) method, there is a lack of intentionality in producing dream images. The memory for dreams is also fragile, and dependent on encoding once awake.

  7. Dream Content in Complicated Grief: A Window into Loss-Related Cognitive Schemas Running Head: Dreams in Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Anne; Shear, Katherine M.; Walsh, Colleen; Buysse, Daniel J.; Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Frank, Ellen; Silowash, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Bereavement and its accompanying psychological response (grief) constitute potent experiences that necessitate the reorganization of cognitive-affective representations of lost significant attachment figures during both wakefulness and dreaming. The goals of this preliminary study were to explore whether the dream content of 77 adults with complicated grief (CG) differed from that of a normative sample, and to explore whether CG patients who dream of the deceased differ from CG patients who do not dream of the deceased on measures of daytime emotional distress. CG dreams were characterized by more family and familiar characters including the deceased (in women), and fewer social interactions and emotions compared to norms. Increased representations of familiar characters in CG dreams may reflect attempts to reorganize relational cognitive schemas to compensate for the loss. PMID:24524436

  8. The marginalisation of dreams in clinical psychological practice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Linda; Dawson, Drew

    2018-04-22

    The longstanding human interest in dreams has led to a significant body of psychological and philosophical discourse, including research. Recently, however, dreams have been relegated to the periphery of clinical psychological practice. This is potentially problematic as clients continue to bring dreams to therapy and many psychologists lack the confidence or competence to respond effectively to dream material. Building on the structural, professional and research cultures surrounding psychology using a cultural-historical activity theory framework, we argue the marginalisation of dreams is due to cultural-historical factors. These factors include the political and economic context in which psychology developed; psychology's early attempts to differentiate from psychoanalysis by identifying with behaviourism and the natural sciences; and a discipline-specific definition of what constitutes evidence-based practice. These factors led to professional discourses within which dreams are seen as of little clinical or therapeutic value, or that dream work is only for long-term therapy and requires extensive therapist training. However, there are diverse models of dream work consistent with most theoretical orientations within contemporary psychological practice. We conclude with recommendations on how to rebuild clinical confidence and competence in the use of dream material within the current professional environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences: a topical debate on dreams.

    PubMed

    Mancia, M

    1999-12-01

    The author begins by pointing out that, whereas Freud first turned his attention to dreams in 1895, they became an object of neuroscientific interest only in the 1950s, after the discovery of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and the observation that a subject woken in an REM phase could remember and narrate them. He discusses the various brain structures found by the neuroscientists to be implicated in dreaming and the associated hypotheses about their involvement in the processes of remembering dreams, their spatial construction and semantic organisation, and the dreamer's emotional participation in and narration of dreams. Attention is drawn to recent psychophysiological research findings indicating that dreaming occurs in all sleep phases and not only in REM episodes. The cognitivist contribution is also discussed. The author goes on to demonstrate the difference between the neuroscientific and psychoanalytic approaches to dreams. Whereas the neuroscientists are interested in the structures involved in dream production and in dream organisation and narratability, psychoanalysis concentrates on the meaning of dreams and on placing them in the context of the analytic relationship in accordance with the affective history of the dreamer and the transference. The brain structures and functions of interest to the neurosciences, while constituting the physical and biological substrate of these aspects, are stated to be irrelevant to their psychoanalytic understanding.

  10. Automatic gender detection of dream reports: A promising approach.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christina; Amini, Reza; De Koninck, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    A computer program was developed in an attempt to differentiate the dreams of males from females. Hypothesized gender predictors were based on previous literature concerning both dream content and written language features. Dream reports from home-collected dream diaries of 100 male (144 dreams) and 100 female (144 dreams) adolescent Anglophones were matched for equal length. They were first scored with the Hall and Van de Castle (HVDC) scales and quantified using DreamSAT. Two male and two female undergraduate students were asked to read all dreams and predict the dreamer's gender. They averaged a pairwise percent correct gender prediction of 75.8% (κ=0.516), while the Automatic Analysis showed that the computer program's accuracy was 74.5% (κ=0.492), both of which were higher than chance of 50% (κ=0.00). The prediction levels were maintained when dreams containing obvious gender identifiers were eliminated and integration of HVDC scales did not improve prediction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How bizarre? A pluralist approach to dream content.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Melanie G

    2018-05-05

    Are dreams bizarre, nonsensical experiences or real-world simulations? I introduce a pluralist approach to dream content that highlights the philosophical and empirical implications of treating dreaming as a highly varied experience that can be anywhere on a spectrum from truly bizarre and incoherent to wake-like and mundane. Here I discuss several explanations for why theorists disagree on whether dreams should be defined as primarily bizarre or convincing, real-world simulations. Rating scales can underestimate or overestimate bizarreness depending on the variables of the scale and interpretation of contextual factors. Although double blind analysis of dream reports is assumed to be the most accurate method of quantifying dream bizarreness, contextual factors can only be clarified by the dreamer themselves, since only they can judge whether an event would be bizarre in their own lives, however the dreamer might find elements bizarre after waking that they did not find unusual during the dream. Dreams can at times be so bizarre and incoherent that that they are difficult or impossible to report accurately, mundane and indistinguishable from waking life or anything in-between. Both bizarre and mundane dreams should be of great interest to philosophers of mind and cognitive scientists. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The dream in the medicine of Asklepieia].

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    1992-01-01

    The passage between theurgical to secular rational medicine in the ancient Greece is due to the naturalistic philosophers of the Ionia and the Hippocratic school, between 5th-4th century. However, we have a testimony that both theurgical and rational medicine coexisted in the temples of healing deified gods of medicine, i.e. Asklepion, Amphiaraos, etc. In fact, inscriptions, lat. sanationes, found in few Asklepíeia, i.e. Epidaurus, Lebena, Rome Tiberina Island, show clinical cases solved by the god. The dream is the bridge between the sick persons and the healer god, who acts during the incubation (incubatio) of semisleeping patients in a forbidden room (the [Greek]), near the temple. On the other hand, the dream in the Hippocratic medicine is useful for diagnostic purpose, other than for therapy. An extraordinary case of therapy for psychoneurotic diseases, such as melancholy or hypochondria, was the example of Aelius Aristides, who described his twelve-year experience of dreams related to Asklepiós in the Asklepieion of Pergamon.

  14. The Hydrometeorological DREAM: A Daily REcharge Assessment Model, for the Israeli Western Mountain Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffer, N. A.; Dafny, E.; Gvirtzman, H.; Frumkin, A.; Navon, S.; Morin, E.

    2008-05-01

    The western part of the Israeli Mountain Aquifer (WMA) supplies 360-400 MCM/y of fresh water to the Israeli water budget, which is approximately 20% of the total consumption. The annually recharge to the WMA is considered to be 25-35% of annual rainfall. The high variability in recharge to the WMA is due to spatial and temporal differences in the rain contributing to the aquifer. Different winters producing the same amount of rain may contribute differently to the aquifer due to the locations of the storms, intensity, duration, dry spells between successive rain events, etc. Moreover, besides the climatic-meteorological factors, the recharge is dependent also on geographical factors, such as lithology, pedology, land-use, slope gradient, slope direction etc. The need for a robust reliable Hydrometeorological Daily basis REcharge Assessment Model (Hydrometeorological DREAM) brought us to develop a model with a relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The concept is based on a relatively simple water budget that states that rainfall over land is added to the soil, and removed later on by means of evapotranspiration, recharge and runoff. The method in use to date at the Hydrological Service for estimating recharge to the WMA is based on an annual regression curve that can be implemented only after the total annual rainfall is known. The DREAM is a near real time estimator of recharge to the WMA using daily rainfall and pan evaporation data. Comparison of the DREAM results with the annual regression curve show a high agreement on an annual basis. The improvements introduced by the DREAM are: 1) Near real time daily values of infiltration, as opposed to calculated annual values established after the rain season is over. 2) High spatial resolution. The DREAM produces daily recharge values in more than 3000 mesh points throughout the 2200 km2 of recharge area. By linking the DREAM output as input to a hydrogeological model (such as FEFLOW, MODFLOW etc.) a

  15. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  16. Resting Brain Activity Varies with Dream Recall Frequency Between Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-01-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5±0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2±1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

  17. Disturbed dreaming during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-06-01

    The majority of women develop sleep impairments during pregnancy, but alterations in dream experiences remain poorly understood. This study aimed to assess prospectively and comparatively the recall of dreaming and of disturbed dreaming in late pregnancy. Fifty-seven nulliparous, third-trimester pregnant women (mean age±SD, 28.7±4.06 years) and 59 non-pregnant controls (mean age±SD, 26.8±4.21 years) completed demographics and psychological questionnaires. A 14-day prospective home log assessed sleep and dream characteristics and the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire measured retrospective dream and disturbed dream recall. Even though pregnant and non-pregnant women showed similar prospective dream recall (P=0.47), pregnant women reported prospectively more bad dreams (P=0.004). More pregnant women (21%) than non-pregnant women (7%) reported a nightmare incidence exceeding moderately severe pathology (>1/week) (P=0.03). Pregnant women also reported overall lower sleep quality (P=0.007) and more night awakenings (P=0.003). Higher prospective recall of bad dreams (r = -0.40, P=0.002) and nightmares (r = -0.32, P=0.001) both correlated with lower sleep quality in pregnant women. Late pregnancy is a period of markedly increased dysphoric dream imagery that may be a major contributor to impaired sleep at this time. Further polysomnographic assessments of pregnant women are needed to clarify relationships between sleep and disturbed dream production in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Use of Dreams in Couples' Group Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nell, Renee

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of Jung's subjective approach to dream interpretation in couples' group therapy to bring unconscious material quickly to the surface. Dreams show the connection between the manifest behavior and the underlying dynamics. They clarify the characteristic behavior of the psychological types. Finally, they aid the therapeutic process.…

  19. Linking psychological need experiences to daily and recurring dreams.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Campbell, Rachel; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    The satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as conceived from a self-determination theory perspective, is said to be conducive to personal growth and well-being. What has been unexamined is whether psychological need-based experiences, either their satisfaction or frustration, manifests in people's self-reported dream themes as well as their emotional interpretation of their dreams. A cross-sectional study ( N  = 200; M age = 21.09) focusing on individuals' recurrent dreams and a three-day diary study ( N  = 110; M age = 25.09) focusing on daily dreams indicated that individuals experiencing psychological need frustration, either more enduringly or on a day-to-day basis, reported more negative dream themes and interpreted their dreams more negatively. The contribution of psychological need satisfaction was more modest, although it related to more positive interpretation of dreams. The discussion focuses on the role of dreams in the processing and integration of psychological need-frustrating experiences.

  20. Demonstrating DREAM: A Digital Resource Exchange about Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is an online tool for exchanging information about digital learning tools for music education. DREAM was designed by our team to encourage music teachers to learn about digital resources related to learning to play a musical instrument, both in classroom and independent music studio settings. In…

  1. DreamBox Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  2. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália B; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P C; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-15

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that "dreams are the royal road to the unconscious" is clinically useful, after all.

  3. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  4. Testing the implicit processing hypothesis of precognitive dream experience.

    PubMed

    Valášek, Milan; Watt, Caroline; Hutton, Jenny; Neill, Rebecca; Nuttall, Rachel; Renwick, Grace

    2014-08-01

    Seemingly precognitive (prophetic) dreams may be a result of one's unconscious processing of environmental cues and having an implicit inference based on these cues manifest itself in one's dreams. We present two studies exploring this implicit processing hypothesis of precognitive dream experience. Study 1 investigated the relationship between implicit learning, transliminality, and precognitive dream belief and experience. Participants completed the Serial Reaction Time task and several questionnaires. We predicted a positive relationship between the variables. With the exception of relationships between transliminality and precognitive dream belief and experience, this prediction was not supported. Study 2 tested the hypothesis that differences in the ability to notice subtle cues explicitly might account for precognitive dream beliefs and experiences. Participants completed a modified version of the flicker paradigm. We predicted a negative relationship between the ability to explicitly detect changes and precognitive dream variables. This relationship was not found. There was also no relationship between precognitive dream belief and experience and implicit change detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the "American Dream" of Homeownership an Equal Opportunity Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham; Halper, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Teaching empathy can be a means to teach multiple perspectives in the social studies classroom. Examining U.S. history through the lens of the pursuit of the "American Dream" will resonate with many high school students. This article suggests a framework using the theme of the "American Dream" of homeownership for a high school…

  6. The Virtual Dream: Rewriting Stories of Loss and Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Robert A.; Torres, Carlos; Smith, Douglas C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the "virtual dream", a technique that entails writing a brief, spontaneous dreamlike story on themes of loss, using a flexible set of assigned elements of setting and characterization to scaffold the writing. After providing several examples of virtual dreams written by workshop participants, the authors…

  7. Dream Incubation: A Reconstruction of Ritual in Contemporary Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Henry

    1976-01-01

    Dream incubation is the ritual of going to sleep in a sacred place in anticipation of receiving a helpful dream from a divine benefactor. Drawing upon a variety of contemporary psychotherapeutic principles and procedures, author constructed an experimental ritual of incubation. (Editor)

  8. Manifest Content in the Dreams of Clinical Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellen, Ronald R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature to examine relationships between dream content and diagnosis of clinical populations. Although many clinical populations remain unexamined in terms of meaningful characterizations of their dream life, relationship between manifest content and differential diagnosis is noted and generalizations are offered for different…

  9. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that ``dreams are the royal road to the unconscious'' is clinically useful, after all.

  10. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  11. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” is clinically useful, after all. PMID:24424108

  12. The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Barbara; Di Palma, Tina; Mascia, Anna

    2005-04-15

    Downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator (DREAM) was originally identified in neuroendocrine cells as a calcium-binding protein that specifically binds to downstream regulatory elements (DRE) on DNA, and represses transcription of its target genes. To explore the possibility that DREAM may regulate the endocrine activity of the thyroid gland, we analyzed its mRNA expression in undifferentiated and differentiated thyroid cells. We demonstrated that DREAM is expressed in the normal thyroid tissue as well as in differentiated thyroid cells in culture while it is absent in FRT poorly differentiated cells. In the present work, we also show that DREAM specifically binds tomore » DRE sites identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the thyroid-specific transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2/FoxE1 in a calcium-dependent manner. By gel retardation assays we demonstrated that thapsigargin treatment increases the binding of DREAM to the DRE sequences present in Pax8 and TTF-2/Foxe1 5' UTRs, and this correlates with a significant reduction of the expression of these genes. Interestingly, in poorly differentiated thyroid cells overexpression of exogenous DREAM strongly inhibits Pax8 expression. Moreover, we provide evidence that a mutated form of DREAM unable to bind Ca{sup 2+} interferes with thyroid cell proliferation. Therefore, we propose that in thyroid cells DREAM is a mediator of the calcium-signaling pathway and it is involved in the regulation of thyroid cell function.« less

  13. Dreaming and cognition in patients with frontotemporal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Teresa; Bugalho, Paulo; Bentes, Carla

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have hallucinations and mild cognitive dysfunction. The objective of this work was to study dreams in PD and TLE patients using a common functional model of dream production involving the limbic and paralimbic structures. Dreams were characterised in early-stage PD (19 males) and TLE patients (52) with dream diaries classified by the Hall van de Castle system and were compared with matched controls. In PD, there were significant differences between patients' dreams and those of controls: animals, physical aggression, and a befriender were more common in patients, and aggressor and bodily misfortunes were less common. The dreams of patients with frontal dysfunction showed more aggressive features. TLE patients had lower recall than PD patients and a higher proportion of dreams involving family and familiar settings, lower proportions involving success, and a higher incidence of frontal dysfunction. The dreams of PD and TLE patients share important features. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Loss of the Mammalian DREAM Complex Deregulates Chondrocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Forristal, Chantal; Henley, Shauna A.; MacDonald, James I.; Bush, Jason R.; Ort, Carley; Passos, Daniel T.; Talluri, Srikanth; Ishak, Charles A.; Thwaites, Michael J.; Norley, Chris J.; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A.; DiMattia, Gabriel; Holdsworth, David W.; Beier, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian DREAM is a conserved protein complex that functions in cellular quiescence. DREAM contains an E2F, a retinoblastoma (RB)-family protein, and the MuvB core (LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, LIN54, and RBBP4). In mammals, MuvB can alternatively bind to BMYB to form a complex that promotes mitotic gene expression. Because BMYB-MuvB is essential for proliferation, loss-of-function approaches to study MuvB have generated limited insight into DREAM function. Here, we report a gene-targeted mouse model that is uniquely deficient for DREAM complex assembly. We have targeted p107 (Rbl1) to prevent MuvB binding and combined it with deficiency for p130 (Rbl2). Our data demonstrate that cells from these mice preferentially assemble BMYB-MuvB complexes and fail to repress transcription. DREAM-deficient mice show defects in endochondral bone formation and die shortly after birth. Micro-computed tomography and histology demonstrate that in the absence of DREAM, chondrocytes fail to arrest proliferation. Since DREAM requires DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinase 1A) phosphorylation of LIN52 for assembly, we utilized an embryonic bone culture system and pharmacologic inhibition of (DYRK) kinase to demonstrate a similar defect in endochondral bone growth. This reveals that assembly of mammalian DREAM is required to induce cell cycle exit in chondrocytes. PMID:24710275

  15. Dream Big: Exploring Empowering Processes of DREAM Act Advocacy in a Focal State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forenza, Brad; Mendonca, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    This original, qualitative research analyzed in-depth interviews with five undocumented, college-age, Latino DREAM Act advocates in a single state. An organizational empowerment framework was utilized to explore processes allied with such advocacy. Four emergent themes transcended the data inductively: (1) Challenging Social Injustice, which…

  16. Big Dreams, Serious Implications: How the DREAM Act can Help America Meet its Workforce Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, James

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act will help undocumented students by: (1) establishing a path to legal status and eventually earn legal residency through two years of higher education or military service; and (2) repealing a provision of federal law that bars states from granting in-state…

  17. Screening wish theories: dream psychologies and early cinema.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Lydia

    2006-03-01

    The analogy between dream and film represents a central thread in the psychoanalytic discussion of cinema. Using examples taken from films created between 1900 and 1906, this paper develops a typology of dream scenes in early film. The basis for the proposed typology is provided by the dream knowledge in circulation toward the end of the nineteenth century. This knowledge was fed by a great variety of sources, some of them in the proximity of scientific research and some of them far from it, including wish-fulfilling prognostic models and those based on the reservoir of memory or on bodily stimuli. By setting cinema in a context of contemporary dream psychologies, it is possible to trace the specific conditions under which the analogy between dream and cinema could become effective.

  18. Ontogenetic patterns in the dreams of women across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Dale, Allyson; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; De Koninck, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The present study supports and extends previous research on the developmental differences in women's dreams across the lifespan. The participants included 75 Canadian women in each of 5 age groups from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85, totaling 375 women. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using the method of content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the ontogenetic pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated significant ontogenetic decreases (linear trends) for female and familiar characters, activities, aggression, and friendliness. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging as postulated by the continuity hypothesis. Limitations and suggestions for future research including the examining of developmental patterns in the dreams of males are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dreaming as inspiration evidence from religion, philosophy, literature, and film.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the history of religion, philosophy, literature, and film to suggest that dreaming is a primal wellspring of creative inspiration. Powerful, reality-bending dreams have motivated the cultural creativity of people all over the world and throughout history. Examples include the dream revelations of Egyptian Pharaohs, the philosophical insights of Socrates, the dark literary themes of Fyodor Dostoevsky, and the cinematic artistry of Akira Kurusawa. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from these sources are limited by several methodological factors, the evidence gives contemporary researchers good reasons to explore the creative potentials of dreaming and the impact on waking life behavior of certain types of extraordinary dream experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  1. The transcription factor DREAM represses A20 and mediates inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B.; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P.; Mishra, Rakesh K.; DebRoy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, Youyang; Christman, John W.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Ma, Averil; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the transcription-repressor DREAM binds to the A20 promoter to repress the expression of A20, the deubiquitinase suppressing inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient (Dream−/−) mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, USF1 binding to the DRE-associated E-box domain activated A20 expression in response to inflammatory stimuli. These studies define the critical opposing functions of DREAM and USF1 in inhibiting and inducing A20 expression, respectively, and thereby the strength of NF-κB signaling. Targeting of DREAM to induce USF1-mediated A20 expression is therefore a potential anti-inflammatory strategy in diseases such as acute lung injury associated with unconstrained NF-κB activity. PMID:24487321

  2. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2010-02-01

    Dreams are a remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that the human brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate an entire world of conscious experiences by itself. Content analysis and developmental studies have promoted understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging and neurophysiology have advanced current knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research to address fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Coping with stress: dream interpretation in the Mapuche family.

    PubMed

    Degarrod, L N

    1990-06-01

    Dreams are shared and interpreted daily within the family unit among the Mapuche Indians of Chile. This anthropological study examines the communicative aspect of dream sharing and interpreting among Mapuche families undergoing emotional and physical stress. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which the Mapuche dream interpretation system provides the family members with another means of interaction and a way of solving their problems. It also examines how individuals influence their attitudes towards one another by communally participating in the dream interpretation process, and in its narrative performance. The data used in this research consists of dreams and of their interpretations, collected in the natural setting, from two families with members suffering of witchcraft, and fear of death. This information was collected over a period of 17 months from October 1985 to March 1987 with a Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation Grant.

  4. Modern Ratio: The Ultimate Arbiter in 17th Century Native Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomedli, Michael

    Seventeenth century Jesuit analysis of Indian attitudes toward dreams was largely negative. While Indians looked on their dreams as ordinances and oracles, the Jesuits criticized reliance on such irrational messages. Jesuit critiques fell into three categories: the dream as a sign of diabolical possession, the dream as illusion purporting to be…

  5. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  6. Dreaming of Justice: Critical Service-Learning and the Need to Wake Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Dan Butin exmines and questions whether the goal, or dream, of service-learning has been actualized in practice. He raises the possibility that what educators dream of-a critical service-learning able to ameliorate persistent real-world inequities-may be a case of their dreaming being fulfilled, rather than their dreams. More specifically, he…

  7. Getting in Touch: Dreaming, the Emotions and the Work of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Bullough, Dawn Ann Mortensen; Mayes, Pamela Blackwell

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the emotional lives of teachers, teacher dreaming has received remarkably little researcher interest or attention. Drawing on recent studies of dreaming that demonstrate a strong connection between dream content and the life conditions of the dreamer, in this study the authors explored teacher dreaming as an avenue for…

  8. Dreams: the convergence of neurobiologic and psychoanalytic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Been, H

    1997-01-01

    Fromm's Aristotelian statement that "Dreaming is a meaningful expression of any kind of mental activity under the condition of sleep" (Fromm, 1951, p. 25) is similar to a modern neurobiological conclusion about the dreaming process. The current data from the neurosciences lead to the definition of dreams as a neuropsychological event during sleep whose manifest contents are affect laden, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. Their functions are adaptive and problem solving in themselves. They are part of the brain's connectionist information-processing system which channel, compare, and integrate current affect-laden memories with memories of past successful strategies. Thus, the neurobiological perspective of dreams provides an underlying neuroanatomical and information-processing matrix for the dream process that further supports the current psychoanalytic view concerning their assimilative and accommodative functions. In conclusion, I would like to return to the termination phase of Mr. M's therapy. This patient planned to leave therapy approximately 22 months after the occurrence of Dream 2, as this dream had predicted. He was to be married and move to another city. Although I felt somewhat anxious about his leaving, despite his significant progress, we agreed to a termination date. Just prior to the second-to-last session Mr. M had the following dream: It took place in a large gothic building in a zoo. It is dark and depressing and filled with cages of rhesus monkeys. I go around with a nurse to inoculate the monkeys. I am scared of the virus. My future wife appears. She is immune to the virus. She is brave and she rescues me. The patient seemed pleased in relating his dream, and it offered resolution and closure for both of us despite a paucity of discussion. Two years later I received a letter from him in which he stated that he was well and had no additional "monkey dreams."

  9. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia.

    PubMed

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-10-01

    The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient's dreams. Dreams can reflect a patient's aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting.

  10. A National Initiative of Teaching, Researching, and Dreaming: Community College Faculty Research in "Achieving the Dream" Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    Dating back to 2004, the Achieving the Dream initiative was established to promote evidence-based programs and interventions to produce and sustain student success. Achieving the Dream has created a new environment and new forms of thinking among the faculty that have spurred some to action research within their classrooms and beyond. Using three…

  11. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Background: The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. Method: This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. Results: The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient’s dreams. Conclusion: Dreams can reflect a patient’s aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting. PMID:22135511

  12. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  13. The erotic transference: dream or delusion?

    PubMed

    De Masi, Franco

    2012-12-01

    The erotic transference can be seen as the Janus face of clinical work in psychoanalysis: it may either arise out of the positive emotions necessary for the building of new shared realities, or be fueled by falsified and distorted constructions. In the former case, the erotic transference expresses the capacity to anticipate, or "dream," the emotional relationship with the object-which is why Freud valued its transformative aspect as one of the "forces impelling [the patient] to . . . make changes"-whereas in the latter it is equivalent to a flight from psychic reality and may be imperceptibly transformed into an actual delusion.

  14. Unconscious cathexis of dream symbols as measured by the Kahn Test of Symbol Arrangement.

    PubMed

    Webb, D E; Craddick, R A

    1993-10-01

    This study measured unconscious cathexis and conscious association with dream content, using the Kahn Test of Symbol Arrangement (KTSA), with subjects reporting recurring, past-recurring, and nonrecurring dreams. Unconscious cathexis of dream content was noted for recurring dreamers; conscious association with dream content was not. The results suggest that the KTSA is a valuable instrument for the empirical study of unconscious processes and that the contents of recurring dreams are particularly salient in a dreamer's unconscious.

  15. Strengths and weaknesses of McNamara's evolutionary psychological model of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Olliges, Sandra

    2010-10-07

    This article includes a brief overview of McNamara's (2004) evolutionary model of dreaming. The strengths and weaknesses of this model are then evaluated in terms of its consonance with measurable neurological and biological properties of dreaming, its fit within the tenets of evolutionary theories of dreams, and its alignment with evolutionary concepts of cooperation and spirituality. McNamara's model focuses primarily on dreaming that occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; therefore this article also focuses on REM dreaming.

  16. Nightmare and Abnormal Dreams: Rare Side Effects of Metformin?

    PubMed Central

    Yanto, Theo Audi; Kosasih, Felicia Nathania

    2018-01-01

    Background Metformin is widely known as an antidiabetic agent which has significant gastrointestinal side effects, but nightmares and abnormal dreams as its adverse reactions are not well reported. Case Presentation Herein we present a case of 56-year-old male patient with no known history of recurrent nightmares and sleep disorder, experiencing nightmare and abnormal dreams directly after consumption of 750 mg extended release metformin. He reported his dream as an unpleasant experience which awakened him at night with negative feelings. The nightmare only lasted for a night, but his dreams every night thereafter seemed abnormal. The dreams were vivid and indescribable. The disappearance and occurrence of abnormal dreams ensued soon after the drug was discontinued and rechallenged. The case was assessed using Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) probability scale and resulted as probable causality. Conclusion Metformin might be the underlying cause of nightmare and abnormal dreams in this patient. More studies are needed to confirm the association and causality of this findings. PMID:29581904

  17. Is the brain of migraineurs "different" even in dreams?

    PubMed

    Lovati, C; DeAngeli, F; D'Amico, D; Giani, L; D'Alessandro, C M; Zardoni, M; Scaglione, V; Castoldi, D; Capiluppi, E; Curone, M; Bussone, G; Mariani, C

    2014-05-01

    Migraineurs brain is hyper-excitable and hypo-metabolic. Dreaming is a mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills and memory are created de novo. To evaluate dreams in different kinds of headache. We included 219 controls; 148 migraineurs (66 with aura-MA, 82 without aura-MO); 45 tension type headache (TTH) patients. ICHD-II diagnostic criteria were used. Ad hoc questionnaire was used to evaluate oneiric activity. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, and the Patient Health Questionnaire were administered to evaluate anxiety and mood. The prevalence of dreamers was similar in different groups. Frequency of visual and auditory dreams was not different between groups. Migraineurs, particularly MA, had an increased frequency of taste dreams (present in 19.6 % of controls, 40.9 % of MA, 23.2 % of MO, 11.1 % of TTH, p < 0.01), and of olfactory dreams (present in 20 % of controls, 36 % of MA, 35 % of MO and 20 % of TTH, p < 0.01). Anxiety and mood did not influence these results. The increased frequency of taste and olfactory dreams among migraineurs seems to be specific, possibly reflecting a particular sensitivity of gustative and olfactory brain structures, as suggested by osmofobia and nausea, typical of migraine. This may suggest the role of some cerebral structures, such as amygdala and hypothalamus, which are known to be involved in migraine mechanisms as well in the biology of sleep and dreaming.

  18. Manifest dream content as a possible predictor of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of suicidal intent remains a clinical problem. This presentation illustrates that a distinction may be made between the manifest dream reports of patients who are potentially or acutely suicidal and those who are not. A review of the literature reveals that the manifest dream reports of clinically depressed, non-suicidal individuals differ from those who are depressed and acutely suicidal. The former contain themes of loss, disappointment, rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, failure, and death. The latter contain themes of dying, death, destruction, and violence directed toward the dreamer or others, as well as hopelessness and helplessness. The author collected manifest dream reports from three clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and three clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. There are apparent differences between the themes of manifest dream reports in the clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and the clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. The former contain themes of death, loss, rejection, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. The latter contain themes of active harm or violence (specifically toward the dreamer), dying or being dead, aloneness, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. Clinical cases and corresponding manifest dream reports are presented. Although this is a preliminary study, it is possible that manifest dream content may be used as one of the predictors of suicidality, in conjunction with latent dream content, diagnosis, life circumstance, and clinical status.

  19. The significance of end-of-life dreams and visions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Pei; Wright, Scott; Depner, Rachel; Luczkiewicz, Debra

    End-of-life dreams and visions (ELDVs) have been well documented through history and across cultures. They appear to affect both dying people and their families deeply, and may be a source of profound meaning and comfort. The aims of the study were to; document hospice patients' ELDV experiences over time using a daily survey, examine the content and subjective significance of ELDVs, and relate the prevalence, content and significance of end-of-life experiences over time until death. Patients (n = 66) in a hospice inpatient unit, between January 2011 and July 2012, were interviewed daily. The interview contained closed questions about the content, frequency and level of comfort or distress of dreams and visions. Most participants reported at least one dream or vision and almost half of the dreams and visions occurred during sleep. Nearly all patients reported that their experience felt real. The most common content featured deceased friends and relatives, followed by living friends and relatives. As participants approached death, comforting dreams and visions of the deceased became more prevalent. End-of-life dreams and visions are commonly experienced during dying. These dreams and visions may be a profound source of potential meaning and comfort to the dying.

  20. Propofol dose and incidence of dreaming during sedation.

    PubMed

    Eer, Audrey Singyi; Padmanabhan, Usha; Leslie, Kate

    2009-10-01

    Dreaming is commonly reported after propofol-based sedation. We measured the incidence of dreaming and bispectral index (BIS) values in colonoscopy patients sedated with combinations of propofol, midazolam and fentanyl. Two hundred patients presenting for elective outpatient colonoscopy were sedated with combinations of propofol, midazolam and fentanyl. BIS was monitored throughout the procedure. Patients were interviewed immediately after they emerged from sedation. The primary end point was a report of dreaming during sedation. Ninety-seven patients were administered propofol alone, 44 were administered propofol and fentanyl, 16 were administered propofol and midazolam and 43 were administered propofol, midazolam and fentanyl. Dreaming was reported by 19% of patients. Dreamers received higher doses of propofol and had lower BIS values during sedation. Age of 50 years or less, preoperative quality of recovery score of less than 14, higher home dream recall, propofol dose of more than 300 mg and time to Observers' Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score equalling 5 of 8 min or less were independent predictors of dreaming. Dreaming during sedation is associated with higher propofol dose and lower BIS values.

  1. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    PubMed Central

    Perogamvros, L.; Dang-Vu, T. T.; Desseilles, M.; Schwartz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia, sleep deprivation) would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations. PMID:23898315

  2. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  3. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  4. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. "In Dreams Begins Responsibility": A Self-Study about How Insights from Dreams May Be Brought into the Sphere of Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that material from dreams offers a resource within the social sphere that has potential for the practice of action research. The modern approach to dream interpretation, following Freud, has almost exclusively been situated at the level of the therapeutic dyad where the significance of dream material is circumscribed within…

  6. [The dream as a tool in diagnosis, healing and life orientation in antiquity].

    PubMed

    Strunz, F

    1994-10-01

    The dream is usually discussed in connection with the work of Freud und Jung and the dreamlore initiated by these two eminent dream scientists. Therefore the dream knowledge gathered by investigators of classical antiquity is almost forgotten, although the same diagnostic and therapeutic aims have been followed by them as they are by modern psychotherapy and medicine. Hippocrates and the other Greek physicians saw in dreams indications of bodily and psychosomatic disturbances. Dreams from the gods, especially Ascelepios, helped those who travelled from afar to be healed while sleeping in the temples. Popular dream interpretation availed itself of just as sophisticated an interpretative system as has been set up by modern depth psychologists. Dreams served to give orientation in life and warn of fateful future events. In spite of its elusive quality truth is sought in dreams today as it was in antiquity. Dream interpretation was then, and is now, one of the preferential techniques of existence.

  7. A template model of embodiment while dreaming: Proposal of a mini-me.

    PubMed

    Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Klimke, Ansgar; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Voss, Ursula

    2016-11-01

    Dreams are usually centered around a dream self capable of tasks generally impossible in waking, e.g. flying or walking through walls. Moreover, the bodily dream self appears relatively stable and insensitive to changes of the embodied wake self, raising the question of whether and to what extent the dream self is embodied. To further explore its determinants, we tested whether the dream self would be affected by either pre-sleep focused attention to a body part or by its experimental alteration during the day. Choosing a repeated-measures design, we analyzed how often key words reflecting the experimental manipulations appeared in the dream reports. Results suggest that the dream self is not affected by these manipulations, strengthening the hypothesis that, in the majority of dreams, the dream self is only weakly embodied, utilizing a standard template of embodiment akin to a prototype of self operating independently from the physical waking self. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  9. Sierra Nevada Corporation's Dream Chaser Test Article Altitude T

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Dream Chaser completed an important step toward orbital flight with a successful captive carry test at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, located on Edwards Air Force Base. A helicopter successfully carried a Dream Chaser test article, which has the same specifications as a flight-ready spacecraft, to the same altitude and flight conditions of an upcoming free flight test. The Dream Chaser is a lifting-body, winged spacecraft that will fly back to Earth in a manner similar to NASA’s space shuttles. The successful captive carry test clears the way for a free flight test of the spacecraft later this year in which the uncrewed Dream Chaser will be released to glide on its own and land.

  10. Autoscopic phenomena and one's own body representation in dreams.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, Piera Carla

    2011-12-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are complex experiences that include the visual illusory reduplication of one's own body. From a phenomenological point of view, we can distinguish three conditions: autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experiences. The dysfunctional pattern involves multisensory disintegration of personal and extrapersonal space perception. The etiology, generally either neurological or psychiatric, is different. Also, the hallucination of Self and own body image is present during dreams and differs according to sleep stage. Specifically, the representation of the Self in REM dreams is frequently similar to the perception of Self in wakefulness, whereas in NREM dreams, a greater polymorphism of Self and own body representation is observed. The parallels between autoscopic phenomena in pathological cases and the Self-hallucination in dreams will be discussed to further the understanding of the particular states of self awareness, especially the complex integration of different memory sources in Self and body representation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dream analysis in the psychodynamic psychotherapy of borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael H

    2012-06-01

    Despite Freud's dictum that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious, the use of dream analysis by therapists working with Borderline Personality Disorder and other severe psychiatric conditions has in the past two decades has fallen into a state of decline, if not outright neglect. The reasons why are not altogether clear, though some have said that the growing popularity of ego psychology and other movements in the domain of psychoanalysis have perhaps pushed dream analysis to one side. To me this marginalization seems unjustified. I hope to demonstrate in this article the enduring utility of dream analysis in working with the more severely disordered patients, with the aim of revivifying its application--and its efficacy--in our work with such patients.

  12. Using dreams to assess clinical change during treatment.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2004-01-01

    This article describes several studies that examine the relationship between the manifest content of selected dreams reported by patients and their clinical progress during psychoanalytic and psychodynamically oriented treatment. There are a number of elements that dreaming and psychotherapy have in common: affect regulation; conflict resolution; problem-solving; self-awareness; mastery and adaptation. Four different studies examined the relationship between the manifest content of selected dreams and clinical progress during treatment. In each study, the ratings of manifest content and clinical progress by independent observers were rank-ordered and compared. In three of the four studies there was a significant correlation between the rankings of manifest content and the rankings of clinical progress. This finding suggests that the manifest content of dreams can be used as an independent variable to assess clinical progress during psychoanalytic and psychodynamically oriented treatment.

  13. [Mauro Mancia: the dream between psychoanalysis and neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Cagli, Vito

    2009-01-01

    "Dreaming, in any case, remains a mental activity and not a physiological process, even though it springs from this process". This sentence of Mauro Mancia encapsulates the entire significance of his studies on sleeping/dreaming. A totality of observations and reflections grounded in neurophysiology and psychoanalysis which led him to study and to "see" the two faces of a problem that has engaged man's attention since the remotest antiquity. Mancia has thus given us the resources to see the dream-and not only the dream-with the marvelled eye of the artist who seeks and finds a sense in things and at the same time with the cold eye of the scientist who demands of things only their how and wherefore.

  14. Biographies of Sports Heroes and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Jon C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines relationships among children's fairy tales, the North American dream of going from rags to riches, the role of sports in North American society, and the uses and misuses of biographies written for young readers. (HOD)

  15. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37

  16. REM dream activity of insomnia sufferers: a systematic comparison with good sleepers.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, Alexandra D; De Koninck, Joseph; Pedneault-Drolet, Maude; Ellis, Jason G; Bastien, Célyne H

    2016-04-01

    The dream activity of patients with primary insomnia (PI) has rarely been studied, especially using in-laboratory dream collection, although dreams could be linked to their state of hyperarousal and their negative waking experiences. The objective of the study was to compare patients with PI and good sleeper controls (GSCs) in terms of dream recall frequency and dream content. Polysomnography was recorded in 12 patients with PI and 12 GSCs (aged between 30 and 45 years) for five consecutive nights. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings were enforced on nights 3 and 5 for dream collections. The REM dream collections revealed that the groups were similar in terms of dream recall frequency (p ≤ 0.7). With respect to dream content variables, the dreams of GSCs tended to comprise more positive emotions (p = 0.06), whereas the dreams of patients with PI were characterized by more negative elements than positive ones (p = 0.001). Subjectively, GSCs characterized their dreams as being more pleasant and containing more joy, happiness, and vividness (p ≤ 0.03) than patients with PI. Finally, elevated negative dream content was associated with lower sleep efficiencies in insomnia (p = 0.004). These results suggest that less positive emotions and greater negative content characterize the dreams of patients with PI, which is in line with their waking experiences. One potential explanation could be hyperarousal exacerbating presleep negative mentation, thus contributing to poorer sleep quality. The lack of difference in dream recall frequency is most likely due to the forced awakening "dream collection" procedure. The study of dream activity seems a promising avenue for understanding the 24-h experience of insomnia better and exploring the potential benefits of dream management techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NewSpace—delivering on the dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, David

    2013-12-01

    After more than half a century of spaceflight, our activities in space are still limited to a relatively small set of markets whose growth is driven mainly by government funding. Worse still, human access to space is restricted to a few people flying very infrequently to a single destination in low Earth orbit (LEO). Contrasting today's reality with the high expectations of the 1960s - as epitomised in Stanley Kubrick's film "2001: A Space Odyssey" - begs two questions: what went wrong and can we fix it? The objective of this paper is to address these questions and, in doing so, indicate how the nascent NewSpace industry may help us realise past dreams by enabling a paradigm shift in our space-based activities.

  18. Dream-Enacting Behaviors in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Svob, Connie; Kuiken, Don

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the prevalence and gender distributions of behaviors enacted during dreaming (“dream-enacting [DE] behaviors”) in a normal population; the independence of such behaviors from other parasomnias; and the influence of different question wordings, socially desirable responding and personality on prevalence. Design: 3-group questionnaire study Setting: University classrooms Participants: Three undergraduate samples (Ns = 443, 201, 496; mean ages = 19.9 ± 3.2 y; 20.1 ± 3.4 y; 19.1 ± 1.6 y) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Subjects completed questionnaires about DE behaviors and Social Desirability. Study 1 employed a nonspecific question about the behaviors, Study 2 employed the same question with examples, and Study 3 employed 7 questions describing specific behavior subtypes (speaking, crying, smiling/laughing, fear, anger, movement, sexual arousal). Somnambulism, somniloquy, nightmares, dream recall, alexithymia, and absorption were also assessed. Factor analyses were conducted to determine relationships among DE behaviors and their independence from other parasomnias. Prevalence increased with increasing question specificity (35.9%, 76.7%, and 98.2% for the 3 samples). No gender difference obtained for the nonspecific question, but robust differences occurred for more specific questions. Females reported more speaking, crying, fear and smiling/laughing than did males; males reported more sexual arousal. When controlling other parasomnias and dream recall frequency, these differences persisted. Factor solutions revealed that DE behaviors were independent of other parasomnias and of dream recall frequency, except for an association between dream-talking and somniloquy. Sexual arousal was related only to age. Behaviors were independent of alexithymia but moderately related to absorption. Conclusions: Dream-enacting behaviors are prevalent in healthy subjects and sensitive to question wording but not social desirability

  19. Point of View--NCLB: Dreams and Nightmares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    The idea of leaving no child behind may sound like a noble dream. But the federal law intended to fulfill that dream is in Houston's opinion so flawed that it has become a nightmare for educators. Sadly, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is a nightmare in which everyone is naked while being pushed off a cliff because of poor test performance.…

  20. The dream interview method in addiction recovery. A treatment guide.

    PubMed

    Flowers, L K; Zweben, J E

    1996-01-01

    The Dream Interview Method is a recently developed tool for dream interpretation that can facilitate work on addiction issues at all stages of recovery. This paper describes the method in detail and discusses examples of its application in a group composed of individuals in varying stages of the recovery process. It permits the therapist to accelerate the development of insight, and once the method is learned, it can be applied in self-help formats.

  1. Women's dreaming: women, sexuality and development.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens by invoking the dreams of women that arise from their life experiences and lead women, despite their powerlessness, to desire to create a different kind of society. The essay continues by exploring the relationship between analysis and practice and the contention that analysis of a problem shapes development practice, social policy, research priorities, and activism. Poverty provides an example of a complex, chaotic phenomenon that is often reduced to simplistic, measurable variables such as income or consumption deprivation. Attention is then paid to the population debate where linkages between the analytical framework and program development are clear. These simplified linkages led to macro analysis of events played out on the micro level and to the choice of women rather than men as the most effective change agents. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, however, gave rise to a new analytical framework emphasizing women's empowerment, women's health, women's rights, and men's participation and responsibility. This approach embraces the complexity of the situation and, thus, provides a road map for effective programs and policies. The next section of the essay considers gender analysis and how this concept leads to a demand on the part of women for access to men's privileges and a climate of confrontation arising from this demand. The inadequacies of using a woman-centered gender analysis as a framework for understanding male behavior are also discussed. Alternative concepts from the feminist movement are explored for their usefulness in generating social change, and the efforts of the Bangladesh Rural Achievement Committee to improve female literacy are used as an example of the value of cooperative, consciousness-raising groups. It is concluded that radical changes will be required to realize women's dreams of social changes.

  2. Delusional Confusion of Dreaming and Reality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Stickgold, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated a generally unappreciated feature of the sleep disorder narcolepsy, in which patients mistake the memory of a dream for a real experience and form sustained delusions about significant events. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls to establish the prevalence of this complaint and identify its predictors. Setting: Academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts and Leiden, The Netherlands. Participants: Patients (n = 46) with a diagnosis of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and age-matched healthy healthy controls (n = 41). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: “Dream delusions” were surprisingly common in narcolepsy and were often striking in their severity. As opposed to fleeting hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations of the sleep/wake transition, dream delusions were false memories induced by the experience of a vivid dream, which led to false beliefs that could persist for days or weeks. Conclusions: The delusional confusion of dreamed events with reality is a prominent feature of narcolepsy, and suggests the possibility of source memory deficits in this disorder that have not yet been fully characterized. Citation: Wamsley E; Donjacour CE; Scammell TE; Lammers GJ; Stickgold R. Delusional confusion of dreaming and reality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(2):419-422. PMID:24501437

  3. Dreams and fantasies in psychodynamic group psychotherapy of psychotic patients.

    PubMed

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate

    2013-09-01

    Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness.

  4. Manifest Dream Content as a Predictor of Suicidality.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2017-01-01

    A number of behavioral, social, biological, and cultural factors are associated with suicide. However, the ability to predict an imminent suicide attempt remains problematic. Prior studies indicate that the manifest dream content of depressed, non-suicidal patients differs from that of depressed, suicidal patients. The dream imagery of depressed, suicidal patients contains themes of death, dying, violence, and departure. The dream imagery of depressed, non-suicidal patients contains themes of rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, humiliation, failure, and loss. In the present study, the dream reports of 52 depressed patients were collected and rated for various themes. Patients were divided into three groups: Depressed and non-suicidal; Depressed, with suicidal ideation; Depressed, with suicidal ideation and/or attempt(s). Themes of death and/or dying, and to a lesser extent, themes of violence, injury, and/or murder occurred with greater frequency in the dream reports of depressed patients with suicidal ideation and/or attempts, than in the dream reports of depressed patients without suicidal ideation or behavior. These observations correspond with the prevailing psychodynamic explanation of suicide; namely, that it is a murderous attack on the self that is identified with hated internalized objects.

  5. DREAM: An Efficient Methodology for DSMC Simulation of Unsteady Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, H. M.; Jermy, M. C.; Tseng, K. C.; Wu, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    A technique called the DSMC Rapid Ensemble Averaging Method (DREAM) for reducing the statistical scatter in the output from unsteady DSMC simulations is introduced. During post-processing by DREAM, the DSMC algorithm is re-run multiple times over a short period before the temporal point of interest thus building up a combination of time- and ensemble-averaged sampling data. The particle data is regenerated several mean collision times before the output time using the particle data generated during the original DSMC run. This methodology conserves the original phase space data from the DSMC run and so is suitable for reducing the statistical scatter in highly non-equilibrium flows. In this paper, the DREAM-II method is investigated and verified in detail. Propagating shock waves at high Mach numbers (Mach 8 and 12) are simulated using a parallel DSMC code (PDSC) and then post-processed using DREAM. The ability of DREAM to obtain the correct particle velocity distribution in the shock structure is demonstrated and the reduction of statistical scatter in the output macroscopic properties is measured. DREAM is also used to reduce the statistical scatter in the results from the interaction of a Mach 4 shock with a square cavity and for the interaction of a Mach 12 shock on a wedge in a channel.

  6. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    PubMed

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  7. Dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bentes, Carla; Costa, João; Peralta, Rita; Pires, Joana; Sousa, Paula; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate morning dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Fifty-two patients with pharmacoresistant TLE submitted to a written dream diary during five consecutive days and continuous video-electroencephalographic (video-EEG) monitoring. A matched control group of 41 healthy subjects completed the same diary at home. The number of recalled dreams (including long dreams) and nonrecalled dream mentation were collected, and the Dream Recall Rate (DRR) was calculated. Hall and Van de Castle dream content analysis was performed. Greater than 70% of patients with TLE (37 of 52) recall their dreams, but DRR rate in these patients is lower than in controls (p ≤ 0.001). Dream recall does not appear to be influenced by the presence of neuropsychological deficits nor seizure frequency. In dreams descriptions, TLE patients (vs. controls) have a higher percentage of familiarity in settings and fewer dreams with at least one success. Onirical activity of patients with TLE is different from that of healthy subjects. Our results support the role of mesial and neocortical temporal structures in dream experience. The selective activation of dysfunctional mesial structures may be responsible for some of the observed variability. However, dream content changes can also mirror social and psychological comorbidities of patients with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Trauma-related dreams of Australian veterans with PTSD: content, affect and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Andrea J; Forbes, David; Hopwood, Malcolm; Creamer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Consensus on the parameters of trauma-related dreams required to meet criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical when: (i) the diagnosis requires a single re-experiencing symptom; and (ii) trauma dreams are prevalent in survivors without PTSD. This study investigated the phenomenology of PTSD dreams in 40 veterans, using structured interview and self-report measures. Dream content varied between replay, non-replay, and mixed, but affect was largely the same as that experienced at the time of trauma across all dream types. ANOVA indicated no difference between dream types on PTSD severity or nightmare distress. The findings provide preliminary support for non-replay dreams to satisfy the DSM B2 diagnostic criterion when the affect associated with those dreams is the same as that experienced at the time of the traumatic event.

  9. 76 FR 79764 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2011-0156] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... DREAM CATCHER is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger charter.'' GEOGRAPHIC REGION: ``Georgia...

  10. Regulation of DREAM Expression by Group I mGluR

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinu; Kim, Insook; Oh, So Ra; Ko, Suk Jin; Lim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Dong Goo

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator) is a calcium-binding protein that regulates dynorphin expression, promotes potassium channel surface expression, and enhances presenilin processing in an expression level-dependent manner. However, no molecular mechanism has yet explained how protein levels of DREAM are regulated. Here we identified group I mGluR (mGluR1/5) as a positive regulator of DREAM protein expression. Overexpression of mGluR1/5 increased the cellular level of DREAM. Up-regulation of DREAM resulted in increased DREAM protein in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, where the protein acts as a transcriptional repressor and a modulator of its interacting proteins, respectively. DHPG (3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine), a group I mGluR agonist, also up-regulated DREAM expression in cortical neurons. These results suggest that group I mGluR is the first identified receptor that may regulate DREAM activity in neurons. PMID:21660149

  11. Gestalt and Other Strategies for Exploring Dreams through a Step-by-Step Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, M. Honore; Allen, G. Edward

    1993-01-01

    The Gestalt dream approach is a practical way to explore personal issues. This article demonstrates how dream work can be adapted by counselors to focus clients to direct forms of personal exploration. A four-step strategy is described. (Authors)

  12. Dreaming and waking experiences in schizophrenia: how should the (dis)continuity hypotheses be approached empirically?

    PubMed

    Noreika, Valdas

    2011-06-01

    A number of differences between the dreams of schizophrenia patients and those of healthy participants have been linked to changes in waking life that schizophrenia may cause. This way, the "continuity hypothesis" has become a standard way to relate dreaming and waking experiences in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, some of the findings in dream literature are not compatible with the continuity hypothesis and suggest some other ways how dream content and waking experiences could interact. Conceptually, the continuity hypothesis could be sharpened into the "waking-to-dreaming" and the "dreaming-to-waking" hypotheses, whereas a less explored type of "discontinuity" could embrace the "compensated waking" and the "compensated dreaming" hypotheses. A careful consideration and empirical testing of each of those hypotheses may reveal a multiplicity of the ways how dreaming and waking life interact in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Swapnaushadhi: the embedded logic of dreams and medical innovation in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2014-09-01

    Numerous medicines in South Asia have their origins in dreams. Deities, saints and other supernatural beings frequently appear in dreams to instruct dreamers about specific remedies, therapeutic techniques, modes of care etc. These therapies challenge available models of historicising dreams. Once we overcome these challenges and unearth the embedded logic of these dreams, we begin to discern in them a dynamic institution that enabled and sustained therapeutic change within a 'traditional' medical milieu.

  14. Studying the relationship between dreaming and sleep-dependent memory processes: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The hypothesis that dreaming is involved in off-line memory processing is difficult to test because major methodological issues have to be addressed, such as dream recall and the effect of remembered dreams on memory. It would be fruitful--in addition to studying the ancient art of memory (AAOM) in a scanner--to study the dreams of persons who use AAOM regularly.

  15. Effects of pyridoxine on dreaming: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ebben, Matthew; Lequerica, Anthony; Spielman, Arthur

    2002-02-01

    The effect of pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6) on dreaming was investigated in a placebo, double-blind study to examine various claims that Vitamin B-6 increases dream vividness or the ability to recall dreams. 12 college students participated in all three treatment conditions, each of which involved ingesting either 100 mg B-6, 250 mg B-6, or a placebo prior to bedtime for a period of five consecutive days. The treatment conditions were completely counterbalanced and a two-day wash-out period occurred between the three five-day treatment blocks. Morning self-reports indicated a significant difference in dream-salience scores (this is a composite score containing measures on vividness, bizarreness, emotionality, and color) between the 250-mg condition and placebo over the first three days of each treatment. The data for dream salience suggests that Vitamin B-6 may act by increasing cortical arousal during periods of rapid eve movement (REM) sleep. An hypothesis is presented involving the role of B-6 in the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin. However, this first study needs to be replicated using the same procedures and also demonstrated in a sleep laboratory before the results can be considered certain.

  16. The importance of dreams and action in the adolescent process.

    PubMed

    Ladame, F

    1995-12-01

    The author argues that after puberty dreams and action are indicators of the capacity of the psychic apparatus to perform the work of binding drive energy. He notes that the development of adult sexuality always involves risk and that effective dream activity affords a definitive solution to the problem of incestuous and parricidal temptations, which attain an unprecedented pitch of intensity with the onset of sexual and procreative potency in adolescence. The author illustrates his thesis by the case of an adolescent patient with particular sexual pathology who broke down at the age of 17 and who, once he became able to dream in the course of analysis, had less need to act out. A 'work of the negative' is presented as a paradoxical but important element in psychic development. Dreaming and action are stated to be inseparable and to constitute an essential safety valve that facilitates the developmental process. A discussion of the connections between dreams and initiation leads to some ethnological considerations on sexuality and society, and the paper ends with a plea not to overlook the death drive.

  17. Darkness into Light: The Dream Journal of an Addicted Trauma Survivor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This article applies dream work to the case of an addicted survivor of sexual abuse trauma using models of C. G. Jung (1974) and L. S. Leonard (1989). It then relates the dreams of the fictional client to St. Teresa of Avila's (1577/1989) classic model for spiritual growth, The Interior Castle. The goal of working with dreams in the context of…

  18. Waking and Dreaming Need Profiles: An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Robert Linton, II

    Research has defined the various adaptive, compensatory and complementary functions of dreams. To investigate the evidence of adaptive functioning in the dream state, 30 medical students (21 males, 9 females) from St. George's University, Grenada, completed personal surveys, a waking psychological profile, and a dreaming psychological profile…

  19. Has the Dream Been Fulfilled? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. & President Barack Hussein Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nichelle Boyd; Moore, Virginia J.; Williams-Black, Thea H.

    2015-01-01

    Equality for all was the dream of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and he knowingly laid the foundation for and inspired the first African-American President of the United States of America, Barack Hussein Obama, who also had the dream of "Change" for America. These men exhibited how working together can make dreams become reality. For the…

  20. Helpful Components Involved in the Cognitive-Experiential Model of Dream Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Chen, Shuh-Chi; Lin, Chia-Huei

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the helpful components involved in the Hill's cognitive-experiential dream work model. Participants were 27 volunteer clients from colleges and universities in northern and central parts of Taiwan. Each of the clients received 1-2 sessions of dream interpretations. The cognitive-experiential dream work model…

  1. The impact of dreams of the deceased on bereavement: a survey of hospice caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott T; Kerr, Christopher W; Doroszczuk, Nicole M; Kuszczak, Sarah M; Hang, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L

    2014-03-01

    Many recently bereaved persons experience vivid and deeply meaningful dreams featuring the presence of the deceased that may reflect and impact the process of mourning. The present study surveyed 278 bereaved persons regarding their own perspective of the relationship between dreams and the mourning process. Fifty eight percent of respondents reported dreams of their deceased loved ones, with varying levels of frequency. Most participants reported that their dreams were either pleasant or both pleasant and disturbing, and few reported purely disturbing dreams. Prevalent dream themes included pleasant past memories or experiences, the deceased free of illness, memories of the deceased's illness or time of death, the deceased in the afterlife appearing comfortable and at peace, and the deceased communicating a message. These themes overlap significantly with previous models of bereavement dream content. Sixty percent of participants felt that their dreams impacted their bereavement process. Specific effects of the dreams on bereavement processes included increased acceptance of the loved one's death, comfort, spirituality, sadness, and quality of life, among others. These results support the theory that dreams of the deceased are highly prevalent among and often deeply meaningful for the bereaved. While many counselors are uncomfortable working with dreams in psychotherapy, the present study demonstrates their therapeutic relevance to the bereaved population and emphasizes the importance for grief counselors to increase their awareness, knowledge, and skills with regards to working with dreams.

  2. Of Wonders Wild and New: Dreams from Zinacantan. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Robert M.

    This collection of 260 dream texts from Zinacantan, Chiapas, Mexico, is an English translation of the original texts recorded in the Tzotzil (Mayan) language. The introduction discusses dreams as a centrally important, but much neglected aspect of Middle American cultures. The dreams of eleven Zinacantecs, two of whom were shamans, are included.…

  3. A replication of the 5-7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Henley-Einion, Josie; Barnett, Amanda; Edwards, Darren; Heidi Seage, C

    2011-06-01

    The dream-lag effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams (the day-residue), a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an increased incorporation of memory elements from 5 to 7 days before the dream. Participants (n=8, all female) kept a daily diary and a dream diary for 14 days and then rated the level of matching between every dream report and every daily diary record. Baseline matching was assessed by comparing all dream reports to all diary records for days that occurred after the dream. A significant dream-lag effect for the 5-7 day period, compared to baseline and compared to the 2-4 day period, was found. This may indicate a memory processing function for sleep, which the dream content may reflect. Participants' and three independent judges' mean ratings also confirmed a significant day-residue effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactor antineutrino detector iDREAM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, M. B.; Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Novikova, G. J.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Oralbaev, A. Y.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Sukhotin, S. V.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Etenko, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Industrial Detector for Reactor Antineutrino Monitoring (iDREAM) is a compact (≈ 3.5m 2) industrial electron antineutrino spectrometer. It is dedicated for remote monitoring of PWR reactor operational modes by neutrino method in real-time. Measurements of antineutrino flux from PWR allow to estimate a fuel mixture in active zone and to check the status of the reactor campaign for non-proliferation purposes. LAB-based gadolinium doped scintillator is exploited as a target. Multizone architecture of the detector with gamma-catcher surrounding fiducial volume and plastic muon veto above and below ensure high efficiency of IBD detection and background suppression. DAQ is based on Flash ADC with PSD discrimination algorithms while digital trigger is programmable and flexible due to FPGA. The prototype detector was started up in 2014. Preliminary works on registration Cerenkov radiation produced by cosmic muons were established with distilled water inside the detector in order to test electronic and slow control systems. Also in parallel a long-term measurements with different scintillator samples were conducted.

  5. New Results from the DREAM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meoni, E.; Dream Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    Dual-Readout calorimetry is a promising new technique for high precision measurements of hadronic showers and jets. The DREAM Collaboration is exploiting the possibilities offered by this technique, a key aspect of which is the simultaneous measurement of the scintillation light and the Cerenkov light generated in the shower development process. By comparing these two signals, the electromagnetic shower fraction can be measured event by event, eliminating the effects of its fluctuations, that are the dominant contribution to the hadronic energy resolution. In the first detector of this type the two signals were provided by two independent active media: scintillating fibers and quartz fibers. In follow-up studies, we have explored the possibilities of heavy crystals such as BGO and PbWO4. The use of homogeneous detectors has the advantage that it eliminates the effects of fluctuations that limit the resolution of the fiber calorimeter: sampling fluctuations and quantum fluctuations in the Cerenkov signals. A very important tool turnes out to be a detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals. In this paper, the latest results of this project will be presented.

  6. The nature of delayed dream incorporation ('dream-lag effect'): Personally significant events persist, but not major daily activities or concerns.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; van Rijn, Elaine; Phelan, Mairéad; Ryder, Larnia; Gaskell, M Gareth; Lewis, Penelope A; P Walker, Matthew; Blagrove, Mark

    2018-04-22

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). After the 14-day period each participant identified the correspondence between items in their daily diaries and subsequent dream reports. The day-residue and dream-lag effects were found for the incorporation of PSEs into dreams (effect sizes of .33 and .27, respectively), but only for participants (n = 19) who had a below-median total number of correspondences between daily diary items and dream reports (termed "low-incorporators" as opposed to "high-incorporators"). Neither the day-residue or dream-lag effects were found for MDAs or MCs. This U-shaped timescale of incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation, possibly related to emotional memory processing. This study had a larger sample size of dreams than any dream-lag study hitherto with trained participants. Coupled with previous successful replications, there is thus substantial evidence supporting the dream-lag effect and further explorations of its mechanism, including its neural underpinnings, are warranted. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  8. Person Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, James

    1977-01-01

    Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

  9. Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser arrival at Armstron

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-25

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Dream Chaser spacecraft arrives by truck at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, located on Edwards Air Force Base. The spacecraft will undergo several months of testing in preparation for its approach and landing flight on the base’s 22L runway. The test series is part of a developmental space act agreement SNC has with NASA’s Commercial Crew Program and will help SNC validate aerodynamic properties, flight software and control system performance. The Dream Chaser is also being prepared to deliver cargo to the International Space Station under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services 2 contract beginning in 2019. The cargo Dream Chaser will fly at least six delivery missions to and from the space station by 2024.

  10. Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser arrival at Armstrong

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-25

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Dream Chaser spacecraft arrives by truck at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, located on Edwards Air Force Base. The spacecraft will undergo several months of testing in preparation for its approach and landing flight on the base’s 22L runway. The test series is part of a developmental space act agreement SNC has with NASA’s Commercial Crew Program and will help SNC validate aerodynamic properties, flight software and control system performance. The Dream Chaser is also being prepared to deliver cargo to the International Space Station under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services 2 contract beginning in 2019. The cargo Dream Chaser will fly at least six delivery missions to and from the space station by 2024.

  11. Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser arrival at Armstron

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-25

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Dream Chaser spacecraft is removed from its delivery truck after arriving at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, located on Edwards Air Force Base. The spacecraft will undergo several months of testing in preparation for its approach and landing flight on the base’s 22L runway. The test series is part of a developmental space act agreement SNC has with NASA’s Commercial Crew Program and will help SNC validate aerodynamic properties, flight software and control system performance. The Dream Chaser is also being prepared to deliver cargo to the International Space Station under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services 2 contract beginning in 2019. The cargo Dream Chaser will fly at least six delivery missions to and from the space station by 2024.

  12. Remembering and forgetting Freud in early twentieth-century dreams.

    PubMed

    Forrester, John

    2006-03-01

    The paper explores the use of Freud's methods of dream interpretation by four English writers of the early twentieth century: T. H. Pear, W. H. R. Rivers, Ernest Jones, and Alix Strachey. Each employed their own dreams in rather different ways: as part of an assessment of Freud's work as a psychological theory, as illustrative of the cogency of Freud's method and theories as part of the psychoanalytic process. Each adopted different approaches to the question of privacy and decorum. The paper argues that assessment of the impact of Freud's work must take account of the application of the method to the researcher's own dreams and the personal impact this process of analysis had upon them, and must also gauge how the dreamers' deployment of Freud's methods influenced their explicit relationship to him and his theories.

  13. The dreaming brain/mind, consciousness and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Manzone, Maria Laura; Scarone, Silvio

    2011-12-01

    Several independent lines of research in neurobiology seem to support the phenomenologically-grounded view of the dreaming brain/mind as a useful model for psychosis. Hallucinatory phenomena and thought disorders found in psychosis share several peculiarities with dreaming, where internally generated, vivid sensorimotor imagery along with often heightened and incongruous emotion are paired with a decrease in ego functions which ultimately leads to a severe impairment in reality testing. Contemporary conceptualizations of severe mental disorders view psychosis as one psychopathological dimension that may be found across several diagnostic categories. Some experimental data have shown cognitive bizarreness to be equally elevated in dreams and in the waking cognition of acutely psychotic subjects and in patients treated with pro-dopaminergic drugs, independent of the underlying disorder. Further studies into the neurofunctional underpinnings of both conditions will help to clarify the use and validity of this model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intraoperative dreams reported after general anaesthesia are not early interpretations of delayed awareness.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, P; Brudin, L; Sandin, R H

    2008-07-01

    Dreams are more frequently reported than awareness after surgery. We define awareness as explicit recall of real intraoperative events during anaesthesia. The importance of intraoperative dreaming is poorly understood. This study was performed to evaluate whether intraoperative dreams can be associated with, or precede, awareness. We also studied whether dreams can be related to case-specific parameters. A cohort of 6991 prospectively included patients given inhalational anaesthesia were interviewed for dreams and awareness at three occasions; before they left the post-anaesthesia care unit, days 1-3 and days 7-14 after the operation. Uni- and multivariate statistical relations between dreams, awareness and case-specific parameters were assessed. Two hundred and thirty-two of 6991 patients (3.3%) reported a dream. Four of those also reported awareness and remembered real events that were distinguishable from their dream. Awareness was 19 times more common among patients who after surgery reported a dream [1.7% vs. 0.09%; odds ratio (OR) 18.7; P=0.000007], but memories of dreams did not precede memories of awareness in any of the 232 patients reporting a dream. Unpleasant dreams were significantly more common when thiopentone was used compared with propofol (OR 2.22; P=0.005). Neutral or pleasant dreams were related to lower body mass index, female gender and shorter duration of anaesthesia. We found a statistically significant association between dreams reported after general anaesthesia and awareness, although intraoperative dreams were not an early interpretation of delayed awareness in any case. A typical dreamer in this study is a lean female having a short procedure.

  15. Another look at dreaming: disentangling Freud's primary and secondary process theories.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Interpretation of Dreams contains Freud's first and most complete articulation of the primary and secondary mental processes that serve as a framework for the workings of mind, conscious and unconscious. While it is generally believed that Freud proposed a single theory of dreaming, based on the primary process, a number of ambiguities, inconsistencies, and contradictions reflect an incomplete differentiation of the parts played by the two mental processes in dreaming. It is proposed that two radically different hypotheses about dreaming are embedded in Freud's work. The one implicit in classical dream interpretation is based on the assumption that dreams, like waking language, are representational, and are made up of symbols connected to latent unconscious thoughts. Whereas the symbols that constitute waking language are largely verbal and only partly unconscious, those that constitute dreams are presumably more thoroughly disguised and represented as arcane hallucinated hieroglyphs. From this perspective, both the language of the dream and that of waking life are secondary process manifestations. Interpretation of the dream using the secondary process model involves the assumption of a linear two-way "road" connecting manifest and latent aspects, which in one direction involves the work of dream construction and in the other permits the associative process of decoding and interpretation. Freud's more revolutionary hypothesis, whose implications he did not fully elaborate, is that dreams are the expression of a primary mental process that differs qualitatively from waking thought and hence are incomprehensible through a secondary process model. This seems more adequately to account for what is now known about dreaming, and is more consistent with the way dream interpretation is ordinarily conducted in clinical practice. Recognition that dreams are qualitatively distinctive expressions of mind may help to restore dreaming to its privileged position as a unique

  16. Minimum alveolar concentration threshold of sevoflurane for postoperative dream recall.

    PubMed

    Aceto, P; Perilli, V; Lai, C; Sacco, T; Modesti, C; Luca, E; De Santis, P; Sollazzi, L; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    Many factors affect postoperative dream recall, including patient characteristics, type of anesthesia, timing of postoperative interview and stress hormone secretion. Aims of the study were to determine whether Bispectral Index (BIS)-guided anesthesia might decrease sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) when compared with hemodynamically-guided anesthesia, and to search for a MAC threshold useful for preventing arousal, dream recall and implicit memory. One hundred thirty patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg kg(-1), fentanyl 3 mcg kg(-1) and cis-atracurium 0.15 mg kg(-1). For anesthesia maintenance, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a BIS-guided group in which sevoflurane MAC was adjusted on the basis of BIS values, and a hemodynamic parameters (HP)-guided group in which MAC was adjusted based on HP. An auditory recording was presented to patients during anesthesia maintenance. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening and approximately after 24 h. Mean sevoflurane MAC during auditory presentation was similar in the two groups (0.85 ± 0.16 and 0.87 ± 0.17 [P = 0.53] in BIS-guided and HP-guided groups, respectively). Frequency of dream recall was similar in the two groups: 27% (N. = 17) in BIS-guided group, 18% (N. = 12) in HP-guided group, P = 0.37. In both groups, dream recall was less probable in patients anesthetized with MAC values ≥ 0.9 (area under ROC curve = 0.83, sensitivity = 90%, and specificity = 49%). BIS-guided anesthesia was not able to generate different MAC values compared to HP-guided anesthesia. Independent of the guide used for anesthesia, a sevoflurane MAC over 0.9 was required to prevent postoperative dream recall.

  17. DREAM-Dependent Activation of Astrocytes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Larrodé, Pilar; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Moreno-Martínez, Laura; de la Torre, Miriam; Moreno-García, Leticia; Molina, Nora; Castiella, Tomás; Iñiguez, Cristina; Pascual, Luis Fernando; Mena, Francisco Javier Miana; Zaragoza, Pilar; Y Cajal, Santiago Ramón; Osta, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin and characterized by a relentless loss of motor neurons that causes a progressive muscle weakness until death. Among the several pathogenic mechanisms that have been related to ALS, a dysregulation of calcium-buffering proteins in motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord can make these neurons more vulnerable to disease progression. Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is a neuronal calcium-binding protein that plays multiple roles in the nucleus and cytosol. The main aim of this study was focused on the characterization of DREAM and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in the brain and spinal cord tissues from transgenic SOD1 G93A mice and ALS patients to unravel its potential role under neurodegenerative conditions. The DREAM and GFAP levels in the spinal cord and different brain areas from transgenic SOD1 G93A mice and ALS patients were analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Our findings suggest that the calcium-dependent excitotoxicity progressively enhanced in the CNS in ALS could modulate the multifunctional nature of DREAM, strengthening its apoptotic way of action in both motor neurons and astrocytes, which could act as an additional factor to increase neuronal damage. The direct crosstalk between astrocytes and motor neurons can become vulnerable under neurodegenerative conditions, and DREAM could act as an additional switch to enhance motor neuron loss. Together, these findings could pave the way to further study the molecular targets of DREAM to find novel therapeutic strategies to fight ALS.

  18. Freud's private mini-monograph on his own dreams. A contribution to the celebration of the centenary of The interpretation of dreams.

    PubMed

    Blum, H P

    2001-10-01

    A virtually unknown brief commentary by Freud on the characteristics of his own dreams is described and discussed. Freud's mini-monograph, discovered after some 80 years, has autobiographical, theoretical and organisational significance in the enigmatic context of the early development of psychoanalysis. Found among papers of Alfred Adler, this extraordinary document adds to our knowledge of psychoanalytic history, including the significance of dreams in the evolution of psychoanalytic thought. Freud's commentary permitted the identification of a particular dream as his own. This dream had been presented in anonymity to the fledgling Vienna Psychoanalytic Society for interpretation. The dream was later inserted, again anonymously, into The Interpretation of Dreams with Freud's own remarkable pre-oedipal interpretation. Freud's conflicted relationships with Adler and Jung are considered in historical context.

  19. Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Louchakova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the “dream scenery” in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, art, and scientific discoveries. PMID:26441729

  20. C. G. Jung's Dream of Siegfried: A Psychobiographical Study.

    PubMed

    Kovary, Zoltan

    2015-08-01

    During the past decades, besides Sigmund Freud, C.G. Jung has been a subject of modern psychobiographical investigations. The revealed documents of Jung and Sabina Speielrein's relationship remarkably changed the narratives of this outstanding story, and it also bears important theoretical consequences. This article focuses on Jung's Siegfried-dream found in his autobiography, since it is closely related to the Freud-Jung-Spielrein triangle, and can be associated with some significant aspects of intellectual history. The text of the dream is treated as an Allportian "first-person document" that can be a starting point of a psychobiographical investigation.

  1. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  2. I know how you felt last night, or do I? Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM sleep dreams.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Pilleriin; Valli, Katja; Virta, Tiina; Revonsuo, Antti

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiences in dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated. Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratory and awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onset of the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dream emotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated the participants' emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The two approaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings, resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams; (c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions represented in dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentation of positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dreams of death: Von Weizsäcker's Dreams in so-called endogenic anorexia: a research note.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C; Beumont, P J; Thornton, C; Lennerts, W

    1993-04-01

    Viktor Von Weizsäcker's paper "Dreams in so-called endogenic Magersucht (anorexia," first published in the Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift in 1937 (translation in M. Kaufman & M. Heiman [1964]. Evolution of psychosomatic concepts: Anorexia nervosa: A paradigm (pp. 181-197), New York: International Universities Press, has been described as a noteworthy and historically important contribution to the recognition of anorexia nervosa as a psychosomatic illness. Von Weizsäcker analyzed the dreams of patients he was treating for "endogenous anorexia" (magersucht). He claimed that in the bulimic phase his patients experienced nightmares dealing with themes of death, but that in the anorectic phases of restricted eating more pleasant dreams dealt with themes of blissful contentment. The authors draw current attention to his work as another early example of the treatment of the theme of death and death symbolism in the literature on eating disorders, and suggest some reappraisal of von Weizsäcker's interpretations of his own material.

  4. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Malinowski, Josie E.; McGee, Shauna L.; Bennett, Paul D.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the “Appreciating dreams” method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the “Listening to the dreamer” method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater

  5. Hierarchical Neural Representation of Dreamed Objects Revealed by Brain Decoding with Deep Neural Network Features.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2017-01-01

    Dreaming is generally thought to be generated by spontaneous brain activity during sleep with patterns common to waking experience. This view is supported by a recent study demonstrating that dreamed objects can be predicted from brain activity during sleep using statistical decoders trained with stimulus-induced brain activity. However, it remains unclear whether and how visual image features associated with dreamed objects are represented in the brain. In this study, we used a deep neural network (DNN) model for object recognition as a proxy for hierarchical visual feature representation, and DNN features for dreamed objects were analyzed with brain decoding of fMRI data collected during dreaming. The decoders were first trained with stimulus-induced brain activity labeled with the feature values of the stimulus image from multiple DNN layers. The decoders were then used to decode DNN features from the dream fMRI data, and the decoded features were compared with the averaged features of each object category calculated from a large-scale image database. We found that the feature values decoded from the dream fMRI data positively correlated with those associated with dreamed object categories at mid- to high-level DNN layers. Using the decoded features, the dreamed object category could be identified at above-chance levels by matching them to the averaged features for candidate categories. The results suggest that dreaming recruits hierarchical visual feature representations associated with objects, which may support phenomenal aspects of dream experience.

  6. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Josie E.; Horton, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains. PMID:26347669

  7. Analysis of the dream contents in Japanese college students by REMP-awakening technique.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, T; Morita, Y; Matsumoto, J

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was performed on 39 college students aged from 19 to 21 years using the REMP-awakening technique. The contents of 297 dreams were analyzed according to the Hall-Van de Castle scale. The recall rate was 76% (home) and 85.5% (laboratory). The dream with past experiences was 75% (home), 64.9% (laboratory) and the bizarre dream was 30.5% (home), 28.8% (laboratory) and the dream experiment was 3.6% (home) and 11.7% (laboratory). Emotional and color dreams were noted more in females than in males. Female dreamers tended to be the victim of aggressive dreams as compared with the males. In our student dreams, there were more characters and they dreamed more about food and less about movement activity than in the American students of Hall & Van de Castle. From the polygraphic records, the relation between verbal activity and submental EMG activity, the pulse rate variability and emotionality in dreams, the number of reported dreams and the amount of body movement, eye movement density and the vividness of dream contents were revealed.

  8. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains.

  9. The Dream as a Model for Psychosis: An Experimental Approach Using Bizarreness as a Cognitive Marker

    PubMed Central

    Scarone, Silvio; Manzone, Maria Laura; Gambini, Orsola; Kantzas, Ilde; Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Hobson, J. Allan

    2008-01-01

    Many previous observers have reported some qualitative similarities between the normal mental state of dreaming and the abnormal mental state of psychosis. Recent psychological, tomographic, electrophysiological, and neurochemical data appear to confirm the functional similarities between these 2 states. In this study, the hypothesis of the dreaming brain as a neurobiological model for psychosis was tested by focusing on cognitive bizarreness, a distinctive property of the dreaming mental state defined by discontinuities and incongruities in the dream plot, thoughts, and feelings. Cognitive bizarreness was measured in written reports of dreams and in verbal reports of waking fantasies in 30 schizophrenics and 30 normal controls. Seven pictures of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) were administered as a stimulus to elicit waking fantasies, and all participating subjects were asked to record their dreams upon awakening. A total of 420 waking fantasies plus 244 dream reports were collected to quantify the bizarreness features in the dream and waking state of both subject groups. Two-way analysis of covariance for repeated measures showed that cognitive bizarreness was significantly lower in the TAT stories of normal subjects than in those of schizophrenics and in the dream reports of both groups. The differences between the 2 groups indicated that, under experimental conditions, the waking cognition of schizophrenic subjects shares a common degree of formal cognitive bizarreness with the dream reports of both normal controls and schizophrenics. Though very preliminary, these results support the hypothesis that the dreaming brain could be a useful experimental model for psychosis. PMID:17942480

  10. DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator) contributes to synaptic depression and contextual fear memory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, binds specifically to DNA and several nucleoproteins regulating gene expression and with proteins outside the nucleus to regulate membrane excitability or calcium homeostasis. DREAM is highly expressed in the central nervous system including the hippocampus and cortex; however, the roles of DREAM in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity have not been investigated. Taking advantage of transgenic mice overexpressing a Ca2+-insensitive DREAM mutant (TgDREAM), we used integrative methods including electrophysiology, biochemistry, immunostaining, and behavior tests to study the function of DREAM in synaptic transmission, long-term plasticity and fear memory in hippocampal CA1 region. We found that NMDA receptor but not AMPA receptor-mediated current was decreased in TgDREAM mice. Moreover, synaptic plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD) but not long-term potentiation (LTP), was impaired in TgDREAM mice. Biochemical experiments found that DREAM interacts with PSD-95 and may inhibit NMDA receptor function through this interaction. Contextual fear memory was significantly impaired in TgDREAM mice. By contrast, sensory responses to noxious stimuli were not affected. Our results demonstrate that DREAM plays a novel role in postsynaptic modulation of the NMDA receptor, and contributes to synaptic plasticity and behavioral memory. PMID:20205763

  11. Financial stress, attitudes toward money, and scores on a Dream Inventory.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Mann, Sonia; Cervantes, Carolina; Jaffe, Matthew; Ristic, Vera

    2010-08-01

    During stock market losses in 2009 and high unemployment, ratings on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with factors of the Money Attitude Scale and items on the Contemporary Financial Stress Inventory for 71 graduate students in Counseling Psychology and Education. Correlations were significant for Retention on the Money Attitude Scale with Dissociative Avoidance (-.31), Dreams of falling (.26), Risk-taking in dreams (.24), and Dreaming of being chased (.28). Also, ratings for the Money Attitude Scale of Distrust correlated with Discontentedness in dreams (.33) and Dreams of being chased (.26), Repetitive trauma (.33), Nightmares (.30), and Recurring nightmares (.35). Concern about retention in graduate school due to finances correlated with recalled frequencies of nightmares (.27) and dreams of flying (.25).

  12. Script-like attachment representations in dreams containing current romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Selterman, Dylan; Apetroaia, Adela; Waters, Everett

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated parallels between romantic attachment styles and general dream content. The current study examined partner-specific attachment representations alongside dreams that contained significant others. The general prediction was that dreams would follow the "secure base script," and a general correspondence would emerge between secure attachment cognitions in waking life and in dreams. Sixty-one undergraduate student participants in committed dating relationships of six months duration or longer completed the Secure Base Script Narrative Assessment at Time 1, and then completed a dream diary for 14 consecutive days. Blind coders scored dreams that contained significant others using the same criteria for secure base content in laboratory narratives. Results revealed a significant association between relationship-specific attachment security and the degree to which dreams about romantic partners followed the secure base script. The findings illuminate our understanding of mental representations with regards to specific attachment figures. Implications for attachment theory and clinical applications are discussed.

  13. The canary in the mind: on the fate of dreams in psychoanalysis and in contemporary culture.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Paul

    2006-06-01

    Dreams have been central in the birth and evolution of psychoanalysis. This paper explores the remarkable story of the relationship between dreams and psychoanalysis as a modern version of the long history of dreams in most healing traditions. But psychoanalysis seems to have turned away from dreams as central inspiration in a way parallel to the general culture's turn away from dreams and the reality of inner life. Yet modern postindustrial culture is transfixed by a version of "dream life" in ways just beginning to be understood (e.g., in the transformation of ancient interest in the inner screen to the external screen). Working with dreams in psychoanalytic psychotherapy was a creative and revolutionary act for our forebears. It is even more so today, in ways that are discussed in this paper.

  14. Specific cytoarchitectureal changes in hippocampal subareas in daDREAM mice.

    PubMed

    Mellström, Britt; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Gonzalez, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Jefferys, John G R; Zhuo, Min; Bliss, Tim V P; Naranjo, Jose R; DeFelipe, Javier

    2016-02-29

    Transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein that regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis through gene regulation and protein-protein interactions. It has been shown that a dominant active form (daDREAM) is implicated in learning-related synaptic plasticity such as LTP and LTD in the hippocampus. Neuronal spines are reported to play important roles in plasticity and memory. However, the possible role of DREAM in spine plasticity has not been reported. Here we show that potentiating DREAM activity, by overexpressing daDREAM, reduced dendritic basal arborization and spine density in CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased spine density in dendrites in dentate gyrus granule cells. These microanatomical changes are accompanied by significant modifications in the expression of specific genes encoding the cytoskeletal proteins Arc, Formin 1 and Gelsolin in daDREAM hippocampus. Our results strongly suggest that DREAM plays an important role in structural plasticity in the hippocampus.

  15. Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? A review.

    PubMed

    Aspy, Denholm J; Delfabbro, Paul; Proeve, Michael

    2015-05-01

    There are two methods commonly used to measure dream recall in the home setting. The retrospective method involves asking participants to estimate their dream recall in response to a single question and the logbook method involves keeping a daily record of one's dream recall. Until recently, the implicit assumption has been that these measures are largely equivalent. However, this is challenged by the tendency for retrospective measures to yield significantly lower dream recall rates than logbooks. A common explanation for this is that retrospective measures underestimate dream recall. Another is that keeping a logbook enhances it. If retrospective measures underestimate dream recall and if logbooks enhance it they are both unlikely to reflect typical dream recall rates and may be confounded with variables associated with the underestimation and enhancement effects. To date, this issue has received insufficient attention. The present review addresses this gap in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Similarities and differences between dreaming and waking cognition: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kahan, T L; LaBerge, S; Levitan, L; Zimbardo, P

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight "practiced" dreamers (Study 1) and 50 "novice" dreamers (Study 2) completed questionnaires assessing the cognitive, metacognitive, and emotional qualities of recent waking and dreaming experiences. The present findings suggest that dreaming cognition is more similar to waking cognition than previously assumed and that the differences between dreaming and waking cognition are more quantitative than qualitative. Results from the two studies were generally consistent, indicating that high-order cognition during dreaming is not restricted to individuals practiced in dream recall or self-observation. None of the measured features was absent or infrequent in reports of either dreaming or waking experiences. Recollections of dreaming and waking experiences were similar for some cognitive features (e.g., attentional processes, internal commentary, and public self-consciousness) and different for other features (e.g., choice, event-related self-reflection, and affect).

  17. Normal body scheme and absent phantom limb experience in amputees while dreaming.

    PubMed

    Alessandria, Maria; Vetrugno, Roberto; Cortelli, Pietro; Montagna, Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    While dreaming amputees often experience a normal body image and the phantom limb may not be present. However, dreaming experiences in amputees have mainly been collected by questionnaires. We analysed the dream reports of amputated patients with phantom limb collected after awakening from REM sleep during overnight videopolysomnography (VPSG). Six amputated patients underwent overnight VPSG study. Patients were awakened during REM sleep and asked to report their dreams. Three patients were able to deliver an account of a dream. In all dreaming recalls, patients reported that the amputated limbs were intact and completely functional and they no longer experienced phantom limb sensations. Phantom limb experiences, that during wake result from a conflict between a pre-existing body scheme and the sensory information on the missing limb, were suppressed during sleep in our patients in favour of the image of an intact body accessed during dream. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can we still dream when the mind is blank? Sleep and dream mentations in auto-activation deficit.

    PubMed

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Czernecki, Virginie; Yelnik, Jerome; Dubois, Bruno; Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Grabli, David; Levy, Richard; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral damage to the basal ganglia causes auto-activation deficit, a neuropsychological syndrome characterized by striking apathy, with a loss of self-driven behaviour that is partially reversible with external stimulation. Some patients with auto-activation deficit also experience a mental emptiness, which is defined as an absence of any self-reported thoughts. We asked whether this deficit in spontaneous activation of mental processing may be reversed during REM sleep, when dreaming activity is potentially elicited by bottom-up brainstem stimulation on the cortex. Sleep and video monitoring over two nights and cognitive tests were performed on 13 patients with auto-activation deficit secondary to bilateral striato-pallidal lesions and 13 healthy subjects. Dream mentations were collected from home diaries and after forced awakenings in non-REM and REM sleep. The home diaries were blindly analysed for length, complexity and bizarreness. A mental blank during wakefulness was complete in six patients and partial in one patient. Four (31%) patients with auto-activation deficit (versus 92% of control subjects) reported mentations when awakened from REM sleep, even when they demonstrated a mental blank during the daytime (n = 2). However, the patients' dream reports were infrequent, short, devoid of any bizarre or emotional elements and tended to be less complex than the dream mentations of control subjects. The sleep duration, continuity and stages were similar between the groups, except for a striking absence of sleep spindles in 6 of 13 patients with auto-activation deficit, despite an intact thalamus. The presence of spontaneous dreams in REM sleep in the absence of thoughts during wakefulness in patients with auto-activation deficit supports the idea that simple dream imagery is generated by brainstem stimulation and is sent to the sensory cortex. However, the lack of complexity in these dream mentations suggests that the full dreaming process (scenario

  19. What is the role of historical anthropogenically-induced land-cover change on the surface climate of West Africa? Results from the LUCID intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souleymane, S.

    2015-12-01

    West Africa has been highlighted as a hot spot of land surface-atmosphere interactions. This study analyses the outputs of the project Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) over West Africa. LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore the impacts of Land Use induced Land Cover Change (LULCC) that are robust and consistent across the climate models. Focusing the analysis on Sahel and Guinea, this study shows that, even though the seven climate models use the same atmospheric and land cover forcing, there are significant differences of West African Monsoon variability across the climate models. The magnitude of that variability differs significantly from model to model resulting two major "features": (1) atmosphere dynamics models; (2) how the land-surface functioning is parameterized in the Land surface Model, in particular regarding the evapotranspiration partitioning within the different land-cover types, as well as the role of leaf area index (LAI) in the flux calculations and how strongly the surface is coupled to the atmosphere. The major role that the models'sensitivity to land-cover perturbations plays in the resulting climate impacts of LULCC has been analysed in this study. The climate models show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC induced cooling is directed by decreases in net shortwave radiation that reduced the available energy (QA) (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as LAI and surface roughness), which decreases during most part of the year. The biophysical impacts of LULCC were compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (CO2SST). The results show that the surface cooling (related a decrease in QA) induced by the biophysical effects of LULCC are insignificant compared to surface warming (related an

  20. Unraveling Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2009-01-01

    If a person were to ask an educator to identify the two most important attributes of an education test, the response most certainly would be "validity and reliability." These two tightly wedded concepts have become icons in the field of education assessment. As far as validity is concerned, the term doesn't refer to the accuracy of a test. Rather,…

  1. Virtual Conferencing in Global Design Education: Dreams and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    The concept and use of the synchronous and asynchronous forms of virtual conferencing is central to the experience of global design education. Easy and ready access to people and information worldwide is at the heart of a paradigm shift in design practice and education, defined by collaboration and digital technology. The dream of smooth, global…

  2. Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltsek, Gustave

    2005-01-01

    Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

  3. Evaluation of the I Have a Dream Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strusinski, Marianne

    "I Have a Dream" (IHAD) is a program designed to enhance the educational opportunities of disadvantaged youth by providing them with sustained care, personal support, and guidance to ensure that they graduate and have the opportunity to pursue postsecondary education. The IHAD project in Dade County (Florida) is based in an elementary…

  4. Berkeley Lab Scientist Co-Leads Breast Cancer Dream Team

    ScienceCinema

    Gray, Joe

    2017-12-27

    An $16.5 million, three-year grant to develop new and more effective therapies to fight breast cancer was awarded today to a multi-institutional Dream Team of scientists and clinicians that is co-led by Joe Gray, a renowned cancer researcher with the U.S. Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/

  5. Dream anxiety is an emotional trigger for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali; Gulec, Mustafa; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Ozdemir, Pinar G; Kilic, Sultan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between nightmares and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurring during sleep, and also to evaluate the influence of several related factors. The sample comprised AMI patients who had been admitted to the coronary care unit. The patients were grouped into two categories; the asleep-AMI group consisted of 36 patients who had the onset of symptoms of AMI during sleep, and the awake-AMI group included 183 patients who had AMI while they were awake. The sleep quality and dream anxiety for the 1-month interval before AMI were assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS), respectively. Asleep-AMI patients reported significantly poorer subjective sleep quality, significantly higher global PSQI scores, and displayed significantly higher nightmare frequency, difficulty in falling asleep after a nightmare, higher autonomic hyperactivity, dream recall frequency, daytime anxiety, psychological problems, and higher global dream anxiety scores than awake-AMI patients. The present study suggests that sleep anxiety and related emotions are associated with AMI during sleep. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Professional Expectations and Shattered Dreams: A Proficiency Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author asserts that learning is about personal growth and enrichment, and at its core it is not about career determinations. Good teachers nurture their students; they encourage them to pursue their dreams, and they find ways to stimulate curiosity and dedication to lifelong learning. They do not become teachers because of…

  7. A Dream Denied: The Black Family in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, James D.

    The extremely conservative political climate and the record-breaking recession have effectively destroyed the hopes and dreams of poor black families, and they seriously threaten the existence of an emerging, still fragile, black middle class. Prior to 1960, no more than 10-12 percent of black families could be counted as members of the middle…

  8. Impossible Dreams, Impossible Choices, and Thoughts about Depolarizing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.; Beckstead, A. Lee; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The titles of the reactions to this major contribution alone set the stage for further exploration of the issues regarding the hopes and dreams of same-sex attracted (SSA) clients in religious conflict and their therapists, issues of choice, and whether or not it is possible - or even appropriate - to depolarize the current debate (Gonsiorek,…

  9. Berkeley Lab Scientist Co-Leads Breast Cancer Dream Team

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe

    2009-05-19

    An $16.5 million, three-year grant to develop new and more effective therapies to fight breast cancer was awarded today to a multi-institutional Dream Team of scientists and clinicians that is co-led by Joe Gray, a renowned cancer researcher with the U.S. Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/

  10. Portraits of Partnership: The Hopes and Dreams Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovacco-Johnson, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an innovative practice in family involvement developed by one early care and education center engaged in professional development. The Hopes and Dreams Project documented family involvement in children's lives and education through the pairing of pictures and narratives about their lives, histories, priorities, goals, and…

  11. Blue Hills Regional Grad Fulfills Dream, Becomes Astronaut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This article features Scott D. Tingle, a former career and technical education (CTE) student who always aimed high. November 4, 2011 marked the official culmination of a cherished, virtually lifelong dream of his--becoming an astronaut. It was a goal he had in mind even when he was a high school student in the 1980s at Blue Hills Regional…

  12. Steps toward Transformation: One College's Achieving the Dream Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawna; Bower, Beverly L.

    2016-01-01

    Tarrant County College's Achieving the Dream transformation has not only changed the college but all who engaged in the initiative. In four years, through ATD TCC became a college with one purpose, one goal, and one focus--student success through data informed decision making. From TCC Chancellor Dr. Erma Johnson Hadley to campus administrators,…

  13. NGOMA: Celebrate the Dream with African-American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2008-01-01

    How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…

  14. I Have A Dream. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "I Have A Dream" is a program that encourages students in low-income communities to complete high school and go on to college. The program guarantees that tuition for higher education will be covered after high school graduation. In addition, it provides participants with tutoring and counseling from elementary school through high…

  15. Estimate of neutrons event-by-event in DREAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptman, John; DREAM Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    We have measured the contribution of neutrons to hadronic showers in the DREAM module event-by-event as a means to estimate the event-by-event fluctuations in binding energy losses by hadrons as they break up nuclei of the Cu absorber. We make a preliminary assessment of the consequences for hadronic energy resolution in dual-readout calorimeters.

  16. Scholarships and School Improvement: Annual Report of Catching the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Native Scholar" is comprised entirely of the annual report of Catching the Dream (CTD), an organization that awards scholarships to Native American students and grants for improving Native American schools. CTD scholarship programs are described, as are scholarships in general and how to find them. Fourteen scholarship websites…

  17. Dreaming and the University as a Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Dolores M.

    2009-01-01

    Those who are in higher education dream of a world of changed values where the inchoate, contested, but urgent constellation of things that they collectively believe in, work for, and seek on college campuses has spread well beyond any specific "quad" and has instead become something of a global norm. Imagine that higher education is no longer…

  18. Stories, Dreams, and Ceremonies--Anishinaabe Ways of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Leanne

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on four of the methods used by aboriginal peoples to transmit knowledge and to teach younger people. Describes the Anishinaabe ways of: learning by doing, story telling, dreaming, and ceremonies. The conclusion discusses the benefits and limitations of using such "ways of knowing" in academic endeavors. (Contains 26 references.) (VWC)

  19. AAFCS Accreditation: From Dream to Reality at Jacksonville State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Debra K.; Roberts, W. Tim; Boggs, Robbie; Townsel, Kim; Frazier, Jeannie; Marsh, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Accreditation by the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) was a long-held dream of the Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Unit at Jacksonville State University in Alabama. After more than 6 decades of preparing FCS students for life and the workplace, the FCS Unit resolutely began the journey to the coveted and honored…

  20. An essay on dreaming, psychical working out and working through.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Barros, Elias M

    2002-10-01

    In this paper the author attempts to expand the idea put forward by Freud who considered dreams as a special form of unconscious thinking. It is the author's contention that the psychical working-out function performed by dreams is a form of unconscious thinking, which transforms affects into memories and mental structures. He also attempts to clarify the way in which meaning is built and transformed in mental life. In that respect the unconscious internal world is seen as a form of unconscious thinking, a private theatre where meaning is generated and transformed. He focuses on what happens to feelings in dreams in connection with the meanings as a result of and an expression of the several stages of working through. The dream world is described as the setting where the mind gives expressive pictorial representation to the emotions involved in a conflict: a first step towards thinkability. The dreamwork also constitutes a process through which meaning is apprehended, built on and transformed at an expressive non-discursive level, based on representation through figurative/pictorial images. The author draws on Meltzer's formulation to conjecture that the working-through function of dreams, mainly in response to interpretations, is performed by a process of progression in formal qualities of the representations made available by dreaming in the form he has called affective pictograms. It is through progression in formal qualities of the representation that the thinking capabilities of the affective life develop and become part of the process of what is called metaphorically the metabolisation of emotional life. This process takes place through migration of meaning across various levels of mental process. In this perspective the analyst's interpretations of dreams effect what linguists call transmutation of the symbolic basis, a process that is necessary to help the mind to improve its capacity to think. Something expressed on the evocative plane and condensed into a