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Sample records for luigi castagnetta italo

  1. Italo Svevo and the first psychoanalytic novel.

    PubMed

    Esman, A

    2001-12-01

    The first fictional work that used psychoanalysis as a central plot device was La Coscienza di Zeno (Confessions of Zeno), published in 1923 by Ettore Schmitz, a Triestino Jewish businessman who wrote under the pseudonym of 'Italo Svevo'. This paper describes Svevo's background, his relations with such important literary figures as James Joyce and with such central figures in Italian psychoanalysis as Dr Edoardo Weiss. It seeks to demonstrate to the Anglophone reader the particular psychoanalytic elements in the novel and to relate them to Svevo's personal experience (including his indirect contacts with Freud) and to the intellectual currents of the period in a city which had, until the aftermath of the First World War, been a crossroads of European culture.

  2. Luigi Galvani's path to animal electricity.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the historical importance of the research that, in the second half of the 18th century, led Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) to lay down the foundation of modern electrophysiology, his scientific personality is largely misrepresented in science history and in popular imagery. He is still considered as a pioneer that by chance incurred some surprising experimental observations and was incapable of pursuing his research in a coherent way. In contrast with these views, Galvani was a high-standard scientist who succeeded, with the strength of experimental science, in demonstrating, in animals, electricity in a condition of disequilibrium between the interior and the exterior of excitable fibres. This electricity, called 'animal electricity', was deemed responsible for nerve conduction. By studying the scientific endeavours of Galvani, through his published and unpublished material, and by situating them in the historical context of the physiology of the Enlightenment, this paper attempts to trace the elusive and complex path that led Galvani to his extraordinary discovery. To cite this article: M. Piccolino, C. R. Biologies 329 (2006).

  3. 75 FR 56992 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Luigi Bormioli Corporation (Distribution of Glassware...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Luigi Bormioli Corporation (Distribution... to establish a special-purpose subzone at the warehouse and distribution facility of Luigi Bormioli... fragrance container warehousing and distribution at the facility of Luigi Bormioli Corporation, located...

  4. [Between Pavia and Brescia: Luigi Porta (1800-1875)].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca

    2007-01-01

    The authors present two records from the Ateneo di Brescia, about Luigi Porta (1800-1875), surgeon at Pavia University (1832-1875). They were written by Bartolomeo Gualla (1810-1870), Porta's student and surgeon in Brescia. A manuscript concerning Porta's lessons on surgery, written by Martino Tommasi, student at Pavia in 1844, and other records concerning another student and surgeon, Antonio Rota (1838-1897), are presented too. All these records allow us to define precisely some aspect of Porta's bioergography, and advance some problem concerning history of Pavia's surgical milieu in 19th century.

  5. Visual images in Luigi Galvani's path to animal electricity.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The scientific endeavor that led Luigi Galvani to his hypothesis of "animal electricity," i.e., of an electricity present in a condition of disequilibrium between the interior and the exterior of excitable animal fibers, is reviewed here with particular emphasis to the role played by visual images in Galvani's path of discovery. In 1791 Galvani formulated his model of neuromuscular physiology on the base of the image of a muscle and a nerve fiber together as in a "minute animal Leyden jar." This was the last instance of a series of physical models that accompanied Galvani's experimental efforts in the search of a theory capable of accounting for the electric nature of nerve conduction in spite of the many objections formulated in the eighteenth century against a possible role of electricity in animal physiology.

  6. [Remembering Luigi Galvani on the bicentennial of his death].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    1999-01-01

    A short outline of the evolution of electrology throughout the XVIII century is presented. Emphasis is done on the topic of so-called animal electricity, whose study mainly developed due to the initial research of the Bolognese professor Luigi Galvani. In 1791, he made known his experimental results, submitting them to the criticism of contemporaneous scientists, Galvani and his pupils thought that the electrical phenomena observed in frogs were due to the electricity inherent to these animals (animal electricity), while their opponents, such as the physicist Alessandro Volta, attributed them to the action of the metallic conductors utilized (contact electricity). They were wrong to admit an unique type of electricity, because both types exist. Galvani's investigations encouraged Volta's research, which gave rise to the invention of the electric battery and its uses. Moreover Galvani's studies opened the immense and rich field of electrophysiology.

  7. Resuscitation great. Luigi Galvani and the foundations of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cajavilca, Christian; Varon, Joseph; Sternbach, George L

    2009-02-01

    Luigi Galvani became one of the greatest scientists of the 18th century with his research and the development of his theory on animal electricity. His work was appreciated by many scientists. Nevertheless, it gave rise to one of the most passionate scientific debates in history when Alessandro Volta postulated that Galvani had confused intrinsic animal electricity with small currents produced by metals. This debate would result in the creation of electrophysiology, electromagnetism, electrochemistry and the electrical battery. Galvani responded to each of the postulated theories of Volta giving irrefutable proof of the involvement of electricity in the contraction of muscles. However, his work was subsequently abandoned and silenced for many years but his ideas and theories were finally confirmed by the creation of new instruments and the interest of new scientists who helped position Galvani as the father of electrophysiology.

  8. Italo-Canadian mothers' beliefs surrounding cause and treatment/cure of childhood disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carr, T; McKeever, P; Yoshida, M

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative design was used to explore Italo-Canadian beliefs about the cause and treatment/cure of childhood disabilities. A convenience sample of eight second-generation Italo-Canadian mothers of children with moderate to severe disabilities was recruited through a pediatric rehabilitation centre in Southern Ontario. The mothers were interviewed using open-ended questions that served as probes to stimulate their thoughts and feelings. Data analysis proceeded concomitantly with data collection, and consisted of content analysis. Three major categories of traditional causation beliefs were identified: (a) punishment for past wrongdoing, (b) "bad blood" caused by intermarriage or a family curse, and (c) supernatural forces such as mal'occhio (the evil eye). The major category identified for cure of childhood disability was magico-religious healing. These traditional beliefs were described by the mothers to be strongest among first-generation Italo-Canadians, especially grandparents. The mothers themselves expressed their acceptance of some of these beliefs, but only minimal acceptance of or resistance to others. Based on this study, it would be premature to formulate implications for practice; however, several directions for future research are identified.

  9. Book review: Research techniques in animal ecology: Controversies and consequences, by Luigi Boitani and Todd K. Fuller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    Review of: Research Techniques in Animal Ecology: Controversies and Consequences. Edited by Luigi Boitani and Todd K. Fuller. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. 2000. xxxii + 442 pp., index. $75.00, ISBN 0231113404 (cloth); $32.00, ISBN 0231113412 (paper).

  10. [The role of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" in international research].

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, P A; Forni, Alessandra M

    2003-01-01

    During its long history, the Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto has produced numerous internationally recognized scientific contributions in the specific field of occupational medicine and health, and in other broader areas as, for example, immunology, toxicology, cytogenetics. Pivotal in this activity was the figure of Enrico C. Vigliani, director of the Clinica for over 35 years. We mention here, in particular, the results of the study of "early" markers of lead intoxication; the research on the carcinogenicity of benzene and aromatic amines; the study of the pathogenesis of silicosis and byssinosis; the study of cytogenetic damage after exposure to industrial toxic chemicals; the technical research for dust abatement in mines. Such research also played a major role in the development of pulmonary medicine, toxicology and immunology in Italy, and conferred scientific dignity on the newborn "industrial hygiene" discipline thanks to the work of Nicola Zurlo. Today, the Clinica's research is maintained at international standards especially by the work of thematic Research Centers recently established within the Clinica, covering fields such as occupational and environmental toxicology, occupational oncology, ergonomics, respiratory disease and allergy, psycho-social risk factors. These Centers are also devoted to the development of innovative methods in epidemiology, toxicology, psychology, molecular biology, and ergonomic measurement for the identification and evaluation of health risks at work.

  11. Physician and dictator: a pictorial essay on Luigi Carlo Farini (1812-1866) in his homeland.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Luigi Carlo Farini (1812-1866) was one of the leading figures in the Italian unification, the Risorgimento. As a physician he always took care of the health problems of its people with a broadminded attitude, promoting for example extensive campaigns of Jennerian vaccination or experimenting the effects of electricity on tetanus. As a political leader - he was proclaimed "Dictator" in 1859 - he made possible the annexation of the Adriatic regions of Emilia and Romagna to the Kingdom of Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy that later, in March 1861, was to become the new Kingdom of Italy. This article, in connection with the project "Himetop - The History of Medicine Topographical Database", offers a brief photographic survey of the location and condition of the monuments and memories of the physician-dictator in his homeland, two hundred years after his birth. Not only the tormented history of his monument in Ravenna, but also his birthplace, hospital, tomb, etc., testify that Farini's memory is well preserved among the people he served as a physician and as a statesman.

  12. Medicine and science in the life of Luigi Galvani (1737-1798).

    PubMed

    Bresadola, M

    1998-07-15

    Together with its companion paper, dealing with the contribution of Luigi Galvani to the history of electrophysiology, this article provides a biographical sketch of the scientist of Bologna in the occasion of the bicentenary of his death. Studies on Galvani have focused mainly on his "discovery" of animal electricity, and on the controversy with Alessandro Volta. Much less is known about Galvani's life and activity as a teacher, physician, and researcher in the fields of comparative anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of life. Yet, a balanced assessment of the significance and the role of Galvani's research in the history of science will be possible only after a historical reconstruction of his entire activity. This should take into account aspects of Galvani's life that have been little studied up to now: Galvani's scientific background, the scientific context in which his interest for muscular physiology arose, the interplay between his activity as a researcher and as a physician, the origin and characteristics of his experimental approach to biological studies, and the development of his experimental research in the crucial period culminating in his electrophysiological explanation of muscular motion. The present article aims at offering a contribution in this direction.

  13. Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1997-10-01

    Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress.

  14. Animal electricity and the birth of electrophysiology: the legacy of Luigi Galvani.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1998-07-15

    Preceded by a companion paper on Galvani's life, this article is written on the occasion of the bicentenary of the death of Luigi Galvani. From his studies on the effects of electricity on frogs, the scientist of Bologna derived the hypothesis that animal tissues are endowed with an intrinsic electricity that is involved in fundamental physiological processes such as nerve conduction and muscle contraction. Galvani's work swept away from life sciences mysterious fluids and elusive entities like "animal spirits" and led to the foundation of a new science, electrophysiology. Two centuries of research work have demonstrated how insightful was Galvani's conception of animal electricity. Nevertheless, the scholar of Bologna is still largely misrepresented in the history of science, because the importance of his researches seems to be limited to the fact that they opened the paths to the studies of the physicist Alessandro Volta, which culminated in 1800 with the invention of the electric battery. Volta strongly opposed Galvani's theories on animal electricity. The matter of the scientific controversy between Galvani and Volta is examined here in the light of two centuries of electrophysiological studies leading to the modern understanding of electrical excitability in nerve and muscle. By surveying the work of scientists such as Nobili, Matteucci, du Bois-Reymond, von Helmholtz, Bernstein, Hermann, Lucas, Adrian, Hodgkin, Huxley, and Katz, the real matter of the debate raised by Galvani's discoveries is here reconsidered. In addition, a revolutionary phase of the 18th century science that opened the way for the development of modern neurosciences is reevaluated.

  15. [Pier Luigi Viola and vinyl chloride: notes that were never published].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C; Bonetti, P

    2010-01-01

    The name and work of Pier Luigi Viola (1917-1985) are unequivocally connected with the history of the discovery of the toxic effects of vinyl chloride, cancer in particular. A biography and a bibliography of Professor Viola are still lacking but his work is well documented; equally well known is his professional career as an occupational physician who spent his entire working life as an employee of one single industrial group, Solvay; his work was dedicated firstly to taking care of the health of the workers of the Corporation and not only in Italy, and secondly to organizing the occupational health departments of all Solvay's establishments in Italy. This positive connection between occupational physician and scientist has recently been challenged in certain historical reconstructions of the discovery of vinyl chloride's carcinogenicity: in particular, these reconstructions (which we do not consider to be coherent with the facts) depict Viola as in constant conflict with his employer. As crucial support to this view are offered on the one hand a statement by Viola, in 1980, that "At the basis of every discovery there is frequently the poetical imagination of a researcher who is always alone in facing the difficulties of the research, difficulties that rise up against him like a wall reaching up to the sky"; and on the other the supposed failure to find some of Professor Viola's notes which should reflect his spiritual testimony, and from which should emerge "the suffering, the torments, and the pressures of that initial period". The true history is very different: the notes do exist: they were personally delivered to one of the authors (PB) by Viola's widow a few months after his death; they are in fact the first pages of a planned book on vinyl chloride that Viola never actually succeeded in writing. In these pages Viola developed some personal reflections from which it is clear that he was conscious of having been in the centre ofa fantastic adventure in the

  16. Localizationism, Antilocalizationism, and the Emergence of the Unitary Construct of Consciousness in Luigi Luciani (1840-1919).

    PubMed

    Morgese, Giorgia; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; De Pascalis, Vilfredo

    2017-07-17

    This article aims to present the construct of unitary consciousness as it emerged in the work of the Italian physiologist Luigi Luciani (1840-1919). We highlight how Luciani's work, conducted during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, integrated experimental research with the clinical observation of patients, enabling him to develop elaborate theoretical conceptions. From our historical analysis of Luciani's main works, an innovative model of unitary consciousness emerges with respect to his contemporary context. We also propose Luciani's model as a contribution to the modern debate on consciousness. An analysis of his work, not considered up to now, leads us to reevaluate the assumption of an ancient opposition between localization and antilocalization in the history of cerebral localization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. [Mobbing and its effects on health. the experience of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" in Milan].

    PubMed

    Punzi, Silvia; Cassitto, Maria Grazia; Castellini, Giovanna; Costa, G; Gilioli, R

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in research, prevention and management of mobbing in the field of occupational psychosocial risks. To describe mobbing and its health effects by analysis of the cases examined from 1997 to 2003 at the Department of Occupational Health "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" in Milan. A total of 226 clinical records of patients who reported a mobbing situation when undergoing medical examination were selected out of 2455 patients examined for stress-related disorders. The percentage of women was higher (53.1%) than in men (46.9%) with a prevalent age range of 35-54 years. There was a great variety of jobs, especially white-collars and workers in large service companies. In one third of the cases, mobbing occurred within 4 years from beginning of employment and mostly after company reorganization and management changes. The most frequent negative acts included social isolation and demotion. The most frequent symptoms were exhaustion, sleep, mood and sexual disorders. The number of symptoms was not related to the duration of mobbing but to the number and frequency of negative actions. 61.1% of the subjects took psychotropic drugs. Occupational health physicians play an essential role in primary prevention (information on occupational risks) and in early diagnosis and rehabilitation and could act as mediators between workers and enterprises.

  18. [The classics of Italian nephrology: the monograph "La nefropatia diabetica" (Diabetic nephropathy) by Luigi Scapellato (1918-1998)].

    PubMed

    Fogazzi, G B

    2007-01-01

    This monograph, published in 1953, describes the findings observed by the author in a cohort of patients affected by diabetes mellitus and renal disease. From a pathological standpoint, the typical renal lesion is represented by ''nodular intercapillary glomerulosclerosis'', which is present in 8 out of 20 patients at postmortem. Marked proteinuria and edema are the most typical clinical features. Urinary sediment examination is the only test allowing to differentiate diabetic nephropathy from other glomerular diseases. In the initial phases, the glomerular filtration rate is increased rather than reduced. The evolution is almost invariably towards end-stage renal disease, and a hypoglucidic diet and insulin are the only therapeutic modalities available. Today this work shows us, on the one hand, how many uncertainties still existed about diabetic nephropathy 17 years after its first description by Kimmelstiel and Wilson in 1936. On the other hand, it shows how much relevant and still valid information was already known at the time. Luigi Scapellato, who is almost completely forgotten today, began his career at the Clinica Medica of the University of Rome under the guidance of Cesare Frugoni (1881-1978). In 1959, he moved to Syracuse (Sicily) to work as director of the internal medicine unit of the ''Umberto I'' Hospital. In April 1957 he was among the 13 founders of the Italian Society of Nephrology.

  19. [The scientific progress of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" as seen through the contents of the journal "La Medicina del Lavoro". ].

    PubMed

    Foà, V; Camerino, Donatella

    2003-01-01

    On occasion of the Centenary of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto", its researchers suggested that awareness of its historical identity and scientific development should constitute the basis for the future of the Institution. The directors of the Institute who have succeeded one to the other over the years have left a vivid report of the vast amount of work developed in several research fields and also of the original results achieved with significant impact on the scientific community and on society. Content analysis of "La Medicina del Lavoro" allowed us to shed light on strong bonds existing between manufacturing techniques, work organization and health, in the different political and social periods in which they developed. Many actions have been defined and several research subjects have been renewed (according to current demands and new methodological possibilities) between the past and the present, nevertheless many new approaches need to be taken in the fields of epidemiology, indoor air quality, ergophthalmology, muskuloskeletal disorders, environmental and molecular toxicology, and further research will be undertaken thanks to the potential of this discipline for the future. The aim of this report is also to express our thanks to all the medical and non-medical staff who have made their contribution over 100 years of engagement.

  20. [The centenary of the founding of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" in Milan (1902-2002). The oldest health organization in the world for the study, treatment, and prevention of occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Grieco, A

    2003-01-01

    The foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro by Luigi Devoto cannot be dated back to the specific date of an event or, worse, to the official inauguration as has happened so far. It can rather be considered as a process started on November 20, 1902 (date of the first resolution by the Milan Municipality Council), continuing with the national law n. 365 of July 9, 1905, then with the laying of the first stone on December 11, 1907 bearing the motto of the Milanese School "In aliis vivimus, movemur et sumus" and finally the official inauguration on March 20, 1910. The Founder Luigi Devoto was born in 1864 at Borzonasca (Genoa) and took a degree of medicine and surgery at the Genoa University in 1888. After a period in Prague and then in Genoa, he was appointed temporary teacher of medical pathology in Pavia. He published several scientific contributions in different fields of occupational health (lead intoxication, ankylostomiasis, strain cardiopathy, etc.) and in other branches (tuberculosis, pellagra, etc.) that he considered as indirectly work-related diseases. He died in Milan in 1936. Three issues characterize the ingenious intuition of Luigi Devoto and his thirty-year direction of the Clinica del Lavoro: 1. Full respect for the principles of discipline and scientific method suggested by Bernardino Ramazzini; 2. The extremely broad conception of the diseases that had to be considered as "workers' diseases"; 3. The constant social attention towards the application of scientific knowledge also through workers' information and updating of regulations to improve working conditions. Many of the conflicts and events associated with the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro can be summarized in the name chosen by the Founder. Actually to those asking why "Clinic of Work" and not "Clinic of Workers", Devoto used to reply that it was work that was ill and therefore it was necessary to treat the work to prevent workers' illnesses.

  1. Geoscience Program for High School Education: the Liceo Magrini Microzonation Experience (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Luigi Magrini", Gemona del Friuli, Udine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, Carla; Contessi, Elisa; Girardi, Mariarosa

    2013-04-01

    The Geoscience Program at Liceo Magrini (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Luigi Magrini", Gemona del Friuli, Udine, Italy) involves teachers and research scientists at the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) to implement education programs with the goal of addressing a critical approach to seismic hazard reduction. The Liceo Magrini is set in Gemona del Friuli (Udine, Italy), the town most affected by the Friuli earthquake in 1976. Due to this reason, the seismic hazard and earthquake mitigation are arguments very close to the school population. Being well known students learn more and enjoy classes more when visual and active learning are incorporated into the lecture, the Geoscience Program is divided into theoretical seminars, demonstrations and hands-on activities in the classroom, summer stages that the students perform at the OGS Seismological Department. In particular, this year, in the framework of the Italian National Initiative "Settimana del Pianeta Terra", the Liceo Magrini promoted a study of how the ground responds to an earthquake at different locations (seismic microzonation) within the area the Gemona del Friuli town. Supported by the OGS researchers, the Magrini students acquired, processed and interpreted seismological data to understand how the effects of an earthquake can be mitigated, starting from the soil response during an earthquake. Targeted analysis of specific physical characteristics of the soil foundation (resonance frequencies, damping or amplification of seismic waves, liquefaction of soils) identify areas of similar seismic behavior. Such bulk of information is fundamental to the planning phase of a new structure or the adaptation of an existing one. Under the guidance of an expert seismologist the students designed and conducted the experiment. They identified 15 target sites (main historical buildings,hospital, fire station, schools), spanning from rock to soft soils. They performed measurements and

  2. Una ricerca sul bilinguismo precoce italo-inglese (Research on Early Italian-English Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeschner, Traute; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to attempt to verify the theory of Taeschner and Volterra (1976) that bilingual children pass through three distinct phases while becoming perfectly bilingual. The 12 subjects were English-Italian bilingual children between the ages of 1.6 and 4.6. (CFM)

  3. Italo-Swiss "Chalk and blackboard interactive 2-day workshop"-participants feedback.

    PubMed

    Camozzi, Pietro; Faré, Pietro B; Lavagno, Camilla; Milani, Gregorio P; Fossali, Emilio F; Bianchetti, Mario G; Lava, Sebastiano A G

    2015-08-20

    Ten "chalk and blackboard interactive workshops" have taken place between 2011 and 2015 in Southern Switzerland or Italy. Students, residents and expert pediatricians meet during 2 days and discuss 10-15 cases. Pediatricians promote reasoning, provide supporting information and correct statements. Emphasis is placed on history taking and examination, and on all participants being involved in a stimulating atmosphere. Thirty-seven participants were asked, ≥3 months after workshop-completion, to evaluate the workshop and a recent teaching session. Thirty answered and scored the workshop as excellent (N = 24) or above average (N = 6). The scores assigned to the workshop were higher (P < 0.001) than those assigned to the lecture-based teaching.

  4. Una ricerca sul bilinguismo precoce italo-inglese (Research on Early Italian-English Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeschner, Traute; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to attempt to verify the theory of Taeschner and Volterra (1976) that bilingual children pass through three distinct phases while becoming perfectly bilingual. The 12 subjects were English-Italian bilingual children between the ages of 1.6 and 4.6. (CFM)

  5. Luigi Amaducci memorial award winner's paper 2003. A neurologist's view of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Robert

    2004-09-01

    Senile dementia was the third most common admission diagnosis for New York psychiatric hospitals at the start of the twentieth century and the distinction between vascular and senile dementia was understood by psychiatrists even then. The term Alzheimer's disease (AD) was originally introduced to distinguish a pre-senile dementia from the common general paresis, but Alzheimer raised the possibility that pre-senile AD might not be distinguishable in clinical or histological terms from senile dementia. By the late 1970s it had become clear that the most common disorder producing dementia in elderly people was clinically and pathologically identical to pre-senile AD. AD is malignant, reducing remaining life expectancy by almost half and raising the risk of death over five years threefold (cancer raises it fourfold). Synapse loss associated with beta amyloid oligomers is a strong determinant of cognitive decline in patients with AD. Tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles usefully track disease severity. Unmodifiable risk factors include mutations in three genes which affect the production or metabolism of beta amyloid, the risk factor gene for Apolipoprotein [see symol in text]4 and female gender. The overriding risk factor is age, the prevalence of AD doubling with every five years of age until 90. Low education, head injury and low folate levels are examples of potentially modifiable risk factors. Since a delay of onset of five years would halve the number of patients with the disease, clinical trials for such putative protective factors as estrogens, folic acid, vitamin E, statins, and NSAIDs have begun. Cognitive and leisure activity may be protective against the development of AD but any protective function can only be confirmed by clinical trials.

  6. Surgical treatment of neglected congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus after walking age in Eritrea: an Italo-Eritrean cooperation.

    PubMed

    Faldini, C; Prosperi, L; Traina, F; Nanni, M; Tesfaghiorghi, S; Tsegay, S; Yosief, M; Pungetti, C; Sanzarello, I

    2016-08-01

    An Italian team of orthopaedic surgeons joined Eritrean colleagues to perform a clinical study in ambulating children affected by neglected idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). This study reports the surgical strategy as well as clinical outcomes, early complications and relapse at a mid-term follow-up. Four expeditions of 7 days were organized between 2012 and 2015 from Italy to the Halibet Hospital of Asmara in Eritrea. In each expedition were included two experienced surgeons, two assistants and one anaesthesiologist. During these expeditions, a total of 468 patients were evaluated together with Eritrean colleagues and 45 cases of neglected talipes equinovarus in ambulating children were diagnosed and selected for surgery. Follow-up range was 1-3 years. During the four expeditions, the Eritrean team of orthopaedic surgeons learned to manage most cases of neglected talipes equinovarus. No major complications were reported. Sixteen feet were considered excellent, 25 good and four poor. No overcorrections were observed. Neglected congenital talipes equinovarus is the result of delayed treatment of congenital deformity in developing countries, and its treatment often requires extensive surgery. Collaboration with foreign expert surgeons may help local doctors to learn how to treat this disease. The current study demonstrates that surgical expeditions in developing countries, when organized in collaboration with local doctors, help to manage on site this severe deformity.

  7. Remarks on neurocybernetics and its links to computing science. To the memory of Prof. Luigi M. Ricciardi.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Díaz, Roberto; Moreno-Díaz, Arminda

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores the origins and content of neurocybernetics and its links to artificial intelligence, computer science and knowledge engineering. Starting with three remarkable pieces of work, we center attention on a number of events that initiated and developed basic topics that are still nowadays a matter of research and inquire, from goal directed activity theories to circular causality and to reverberations and learning. Within this context, we pay tribute to the memory of Prof. Ricciardi documenting the importance of his contributions in the mathematics of brain, neural nets and neurophysiological models, computational simulations and techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  9. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  10. Attrition in the Verb System of Italian in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Marinella

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the loss of morphology expressing temporality in the Italian of second generation Italo-Australians. The purpose of the study is to verify whether the loss of Italian tense and aspect morphology proceeds from marked to unmarked, where markedness is defined on the basis of formal and semantic criteria.…

  11. The Languages of Italian Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Examines the transplantation of dialects of Italian abroad, particularly to Canada. Argues that any discussion of the language of immigrants from Italy has to start from the premise that they brought their dialect, not Italian, to their new home. Conclusions indicate that "Italo-Canadian" shares many linguistic characteristics with…

  12. Comment on «Tidal notches in the Mediterranean Sea: A comprehensive analysis» by Fabrizio Antonioli, Valeria Lo Presti, Alessio Rovere, Luigi Ferranti, Marco Anzidei, Stefano Furlani, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, Paolo E. Orru, Giovanni Scicchitano, Gianmaria Sannino, Cecilia R. Spampinato, Rossella Pagliarulo, Giacomo Deiana, Eleonora de Sabata, Paolo Sansò, Matteo Vacchi and Antonio Vecchio. Quaternary Science Reviews 119 (2015) 66-84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelpidou, Niki; Pirazzoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper of Antonioli et al. (2015) presents observations of 73 sites with erosion notches, which are called tidal notches, which in fact appear to be of various genetic origins, because a combination of several physical chemical and biological processes of formation is considered including, in addition to intertidal bioerosion, also carbonate rock solution, wetting and drying and wave abrasion that would produce different types of notches. Among the erosion notches, some «roof notches», in which the notch lacks a floor, are distinguished. For these isolated roofs, we would tend to ascribe erosion to dissolution by a freshwater spring undercutting a limestone cliff at sea level. Accompanying a rise in sea level, dissolution by freshwater will tend to continuously displace the roof of the notch upwards, while the base of the notch, dissolved, will tend to be missing. For such isolated roof of a solution notch, protruding above the waterline, the term «visor» has been proposed by Evelpidou et al. (2011).

  13. The Institute for the Study of Non–Model Organisms and other fantasies

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William

    2015-01-01

    In his classic novel Invisible Cities, Italo Calvino describes a series of fantastic imagined cities that fulfill core human needs that remain unmet in ordinary cities. In light of the recent founding of a number of high-profile biomedical institutes, Calvino's descriptions encourage us to consider the unmet needs of the biomedical community and imagine unorthodox institutes designed to fulfill these needs. PMID:25633358

  14. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  15. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  16. Volta and Galvani: New Electricity from Old. Experiment No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…

  17. Civil-Military Roles of Indigenous Armed Forces (CRIAF). Volume 1. Executive Summary. Volume 2. Main Report. Volume 3. Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    AD-A009 190 CIVIL-MILITARY ROLES OF INDIGENOUS ARMED FORCES (CRIAF). VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . VOLUME II MAIN REPORT . VOLUME III...H FINAL REPORT VOLUME I - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VOLUME II - MAIN REPORT VOLUME III - APPENDIXES o o DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...Sussex: Conference of Political Development, 1968. 23. Einaudi, Luigi R. The Peruvian Military: A Summary Political Analysis . Santa

  18. 40th Anniversary of the First Proton-Proton Collisions in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Welcome, Luigi di Lella and Rolf HeuerDesign and Construction of the ISR, Kurt HubnerPhysics at small angles, Ugo Amaldi (TERA Foundation)The Impact of the ISR on Accelerator Physics and Technology, Philip J. BryantPhysics at high transverse momentum, Pierre Darriulat (VATLY-Hanoi)Concluding remarks, Rolf Heuer

  19. Commentary on "Syntax at Age Two"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2010-01-01

    In English the nonfinite form is simply a bare verb, but in languages with a morphological distinction it usually takes the form of an infinitive. During the relevant stage the child, unlike an adult, sometimes uses an infinitive as the main verb of a root clause. Luigi Rizzi and certain other researchers therefore favor the term "root…

  20. Application of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy to Studies of Electrode Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Liverpool, England, April 13, 1994. Honors/Awards/Prizes: G. M. Kosolapoff Award, American Chemical Society (Allen J. Bard) Luigi Galvani Medal, SocietA...Chimica Italiana (Allen J. Bard) I was fortunate to receive the Galvani medal from the Italian Chemical Society recognizing our research in the general

  1. Commentary on "Syntax at Age Two"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2010-01-01

    In English the nonfinite form is simply a bare verb, but in languages with a morphological distinction it usually takes the form of an infinitive. During the relevant stage the child, unlike an adult, sometimes uses an infinitive as the main verb of a root clause. Luigi Rizzi and certain other researchers therefore favor the term "root…

  2. A Catholic Pedagogy Founded in Faith and Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintado, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Fr. Luigi Giussani was once asked the following question: "Do you consider yourself an educator?" He replied, "I would certainly like to be one, because a human relationship worthy of its name must include the communication of that truth which has become life experience." The purpose of this article is to examine the writings of Italian…

  3. ISO LWS Spectroscopy of M82: A Unified Evolutionary Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    LORD,6 MICHAEL LUHMAN ,5,7 SHOBITA SATYAPAL,8,9 HOWARD A. SMITH,10 LUIGI SPINOGLIO,11 GORDON STACEY,12 AND SARAH J. UNGER3 Received 1998 May 29...MNRAS, 270, 641 Kaufman, M., WolÐre, M., Hollenbach, D., & Luhman , M. 1998, in prep- aration Kenney, J. D. P., Wilson, C. D., Scoville, N. Z., Devereux, N

  4. Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

    Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially…

  5. Towards agile large-scale predictive modelling in drug discovery with flow-based programming design principles.

    PubMed

    Lampa, Samuel; Alvarsson, Jonathan; Spjuth, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Predictive modelling in drug discovery is challenging to automate as it often contains multiple analysis steps and might involve cross-validation and parameter tuning that create complex dependencies between tasks. With large-scale data or when using computationally demanding modelling methods, e-infrastructures such as high-performance or cloud computing are required, adding to the existing challenges of fault-tolerant automation. Workflow management systems can aid in many of these challenges, but the currently available systems are lacking in the functionality needed to enable agile and flexible predictive modelling. We here present an approach inspired by elements of the flow-based programming paradigm, implemented as an extension of the Luigi system which we name SciLuigi. We also discuss the experiences from using the approach when modelling a large set of biochemical interactions using a shared computer cluster.Graphical abstract.

  6. The bicentennial of the Voltaic battery (1800-2000): the artificial electric organ.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    2000-04-01

    Alessandro Volta invented the electric battery at the end of 1799 and communicated his invention to the Royal Society of London in 1800. The studies that led him to develop this revolutionary device began in 1792, after Volta read the work of Luigi Galvani on the existence of an intrinsic electricity in living organisms. During these studies, Volta obtained a series of results of great physiological relevance, which led him to anticipate some important ideas that marked the inception of modern neuroscience. These results have been obscured by a cultural tradition that has seen Volta exclusively as a physicist, lacking interest for biological problems and opposed in an irreversible way to the physiologist, Luigi Galvani.

  7. Deception Integration in the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    War 1921-1922 Italo-Ethiopian 1935-1936 Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 Sino- Japanese War 1937-1939 Soviet- Japanese Conflicts 1938-1939 Russo-Finnish War...Sino- Japanese 1937-41 0 0 Russo- Japanese 1938-39 0 1 1 WWII 1939-45 5 3 15 23 5 5 30 40 Russo-Finnish 1939-40 0 0 Israeli 1947-49 1 1 2 1 1 Independence...associated with deception, generally at the strategic level. The possession of 30 the Japanese diplomatic cyphers and the ULTRA machine made deceptions on

  8. Robust Behavior-Based Control for Distributed Multi-Robot Collection Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Press: New York. [18] Henrik Hautop Lund and Luigi Pagliarini, \\Robocup jr. with lego mindstorms," in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE Interna- tional...Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, CA, April 2000, IEEE. [19] Mattias Lindstrom, Anders Oreback, and Henrik I. Christensen, \\Berra: A...ior Fusion using Voting, Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Electronic Systems, Alborg University, Denmark, 1998. [23] Paolo Pirjanian, Henrik I. Christensen

  9. Structural Characterisation of Proteins from the Peroxiredoxin Family

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Grant and Jeremy – for assistance with data analysis, beamtime playlist choices, and just knowing when Science requires chocolate . Luigi, from giving...moving over 5 Å toward the next monomer in the toroid ( dark grey), potentially introducing a steric clash. Image created using data deposited by...and dark grey around the toroid, with labels in black and cyan. PDB ID: 3ZVJ. 50 P a g e | 29 1.3 Human Prxs Humans express six Prx isoforms

  10. [Infectious diseases in the short stories written by Verga and Pirandello].

    PubMed

    Giusti, G

    2001-06-01

    The author invites to appreciate some short stories by Giovanni Verga and Luigi Pirandello, Italian writers who lived at the turn of the last century. These tales give an interesting description of two infectious diseases (malaria and cholera), and analyze their relationship with the conditions of poverty and ignorance spread across rural areas in Sicily--a region in the South of Italy--at that times.

  11. Chronovisor - A Dream of the Future or Real Experiments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2006-10-01

    This book, entirely dedicated to the legends concerning "chronovision", is divided into three main parts: a) discussion and criticism of the alleged experiments carried out by father Pellegrino Ernetti; b) in depth study of the "neutrino space theory" by father and physicist Luigi Borello; c) discussion and criticism concerning alleged experiments carried out in the field of chronovision in the past and in recent years, using several methods.

  12. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  13. Marie Bonaparte, her first two patients and the literary world.

    PubMed

    Amouroux, Rémy

    2010-08-01

    Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962) played a critical role in the development of psychoanalysis in France. Her clinical activity is not well known yet she was one of the first female French psychoanalysts. The journalist-writers Alice and Valerio Jahier were Bonaparte's first two patients. She conducted this dual analysis with Rudolph Loewenstein (1898-1976). Alice and Valerio exchanged analysts on several occasions. During his analysis, Valerio began corresponding with Italo Svevo (1861-1928), the author of La Coscienza di Zeno, who imparted his doubts on the therapeutic merits of psychoanalysis. Valerio described his difficult analysis in his letters to Svevo. Bonaparte consulted Freud on the subject, but was not able to prevent Valerio's suicide in 1939. The Princess of Greece encouraged Alice in her vocation as a writer and enabled her to benefit from her connections in literary circles. On the margins of this unpublished story of the two analyses, which is based on archived documents recently made available, we discover the importance of the links which were formed - around Marie Bonaparte - between psychoanalysis and literature. In addition to Italo Svevo, we come across the acerbic writer, Maurice Sachs, as well as the famous novelist, Stefan Zweig. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  14. Where did the motor function of the cerebellum come from?

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Until the end of 18th century, the role of the cerebellum remained obscure. The turning point occurred when Luigi Galvani showed that muscle contraction is due to electricity and Alessandro Volta produced the battery, an apparatus based on the pairing of silver and zinc plates separated by brine soaked paper disks, capable to generate electricity. Luigi Rolando, at beginning of 19th century, was impressed by these two observations. He thought that, since the brain generates the movement, it must contain a device generating electricity. As a battery, it should be formed by overlapping disks and the cerebellum for Rolando seemed to be the right structure for such a characteristic laminar organization. He argued that, if the cerebellum is the battery that produces electricity for muscle activity, its removal would produce paralysis. Consequently, Rolando removed the cerebellum in a young goat and observed that the animal, before dying, could no longer stand up. He concluded that the cerebellum is a motor structure as it generates the electricity which produces the movement. The conclusions of Rolando were criticized by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens who observed that animals undergoing cerebellectomy were still able to move, even if with problems of balance. Flourens concluded that the role of the cerebellum "is to put in order or to coordinate movements wanted by certain parts of the nervous system, excited by others". It was necessary to wait up to 1891 when Luigi Luciani, observing a dog survived the cerebellectomy, described a triad of symptoms (asthenia, atony and astasis), unquestionably of cerebellar origin.

  15. Retraction: Borroto-Escuela et al., The existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A receptor heterocomplexes in midbrain 5-HT neurons of the rat: relevance for neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    2013-07-10

    The Journal of Neuroscience has received a report describing an investigation by the Karolinska Institutet, which found substantial data misrepresentation in the article "The Existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A Receptor Heterocomplexes in Midbrain 5-HT Neurons of the Rat: Relevance for Neuroplasticity" by Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Mileidys Pérez-Alea, Manuel Narvaez, Alexander O. Tarakanov, Giuseppa Mudó , Luigi F. Agnati, Francisco Ciruela, Natale Belluardo, and Kjell Fuxe, which appeared on pages 6295-6303 of the May 2, 2012 issue. Because the results cannot be considered reliable, the editors of The Journal are retracting the paper.

  16. Bibliography of Leishmania and Leishmanial Diseases. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Soc. Path. Exot., 1j(I):44-47. tropicals e infectuosas (Prof. 0. Ver- siani Caldeira) e de anatomia patologica (Prof. Luigi Boglioto), da Faculdade de...i.aeiu Fonseca, humanas criadoras do condicoei favora- 1936 e do algumnas outras esocies. veis ’a dissemina~io de doencas parasit- (Diptera...1910D) Sull’anatomia patol- ogica del’ ala-azar osservato In Calab-,-ca dsr C b VIVOLI, D. (1942A) Anatomia patologica "N ria e Sic Ila

  17. [Management of "complicated" work fitness judgements among health care workers].

    PubMed

    Tonelli, F; Salvioni, M; Cucchi, I; Omeri, E; Piretti, C; Ronchin, M; Carrer, P

    2007-01-01

    The occupational physician, performing health surveillance within a hospital, may face to some difficulties due to the variety and complexity of the tasks and the health risk factors of the health care workers. One of the hardest issue for occupational physician is to provide judgement on worker's fitness. Moreover, this task could be more complicated when a impaired worker could represent an hazard for his patients and colleagues. The authors will illustrate three critical clinical cases examined in Occupational Health Unit of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan; furthermore, the authors will show the difficulties and the applied solutions in order to provide the judgement on worker's fitness.

  18. Italy flags scientific shortcomings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-04-01

    The land that gave us Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei and Enrico Fermi does not regard science as part of culture, but it must do so if it is to avoid being left behind economically and intellectually. That is the message from a working group of 18 academics, sponsored by the Italian government, to find ways of improving the quantity, quality and public perception of science in the country. The group has now put forward a range of measures to combat what the group's chair, left-wing politician and Siena University law professor Luigi Berlinguer, describes as a "national emergency".

  19. Astronomy-Connected Scientific Works in Early Transylvania and Banat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Ladislau

    2008-09-01

    Baron Roland von Eötvös: physicist who demonstrated the proportionality of the inertial and gravitational mass and carried out research on the spatial changes in gravitation. Some of his experiments was made on the territory of Banat and Crisana (south-easter Transylvania). Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli: a very complex personality: engineer, diplomat, spy, scientist (geograph, historian, biologist, astronomer), who made the first astronomical observations in Banat and published them. Maximilian Hell: a mathematician and astronomer who founded the first astronomical observatory in Cluj and made observations on a very interesting natural phenomenon: the transit of the planet Venus.

  20. High-Excitation OH and H2O Lines in Markarian 231: The Molecular Signatures of Compact Far-Infrared Continuum Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Spinoglio Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, CNR via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma, Italy; luigi.spinoglio@ifsi-roma.inaf.it and...arises from a warm (Tdust ¼ 70 100 K), optically thick (100m ¼ 1 2 ) medium of effective diameter 200–400 pc. In our best-fit model of total...component suggests that its infrared emission is dominated by the AGN. The derived column densities N (OH)k 1017 cm 2 and N (H2O)k 6 ; 1016 cm 2 may

  1. Some New Reflections on Mr. Palomar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.

    2009-08-01

    The character Mr. Palomar, the alter-ego of the Italian author Italo Calvino, appeared for the first time in 1975 on the pages of the ``Il Corriere della Sera'', and then more or less regularly till its debut as a book in 1983. Through illuminating thoughts and reflections based on observations, for instance, of sea waves, Mr. Palomar discovers that they induce a peaceful and inspirational state of mind that prevents coronary and mental illnesses, and also holds the key to capturing the complexity of the world reducing it into its most elementary mechanisms. In this contribution I will survey some of Mr. Palomar's thoughts while he observes the sky and speculate on others that he might have explored if he shared our contemporary knowledge of the cosmos. I will also discuss the thoughts of other authors on how, cosmological thinking affects the human condition.

  2. Identity and transculture in Vice Versa.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    Quebec's struggle between francophones and anglophones has deeply affected other immigrant communities' identitarian practices. Within Montreal's eighties and nineties nationalist environment some Italo-Quebecois worked as a bridge between the two groups through the transcultural magazine Vice Versa. The article presents some findings from a case study that looks at how Vice Versa challenged dominant perceptions of identity and its role in society. It assumes that identity is negotiated between individuals, that language and ethnicity are key factors for social mobility and symbolic power on the marketplace, and that these function through hegemony. Through its use of untranslated French, English and Italian and its articles' contents Vice Versa's discourse on transculture undermines the assumption that identity is necessary for social interaction and negotiates new categories that dissolve ethnic boundaries. Vice Versa is a unique example of the emergence of a counter-hegemonic movement questioning identity at its roots.

  3. Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism.

    PubMed

    Cassata, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on the ideological, institutional and intellectual connections between Italian eugenics and American scientific racism, from 1953 to 1967. The paper pays special attention to the scientific links between fascist demographer Corrado Gini (the first president of the Italian Central Statistical Institute - Istat), and geneticist Luigi Gedda (the president of the Gregor Mendel Institute in Rome and head of the Catholic political association Azione Cattolica) on the one hand, and on the other, the members of the IAAEE (International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics) and their journal, "The Mankind Quarterly". Corrado Gini and Luigi Gedda were both members of the honorary advisory board of "The Mankind Quarterly", and Gini was also assistant editor in 1962. Despite the theoretical differences between the "neo-Lamarckians" Gini and Gedda, and the "Mendelians" Robert Gayre and Reginald Ruggles Gates--editor and associate editor of "The Mankind Quarterly"--the relationship grew stronger because of a sort of strategic alliance in the ideological fight against UNESCO's Statements on Race. The main source of the paper is Corrado Gini's personal archive, deposited in Rome at the National State Archive (ACS).

  4. Quantitative determination of un-derivatised amino acids in artistic mural paintings using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Piazza, Rossano; Cairns, Warren R L; Izzo, Francesca C; Vianello, Alvise; Zendri, Elisabetta; Gambaro, Andrea

    2010-08-18

    The tempera painting technique is one of the most common methods used throughout art history. Tempera is defined by the type of binders used and in this work we study protein-based temperas. Proteinaceous binders can be characterized by the chromatographic determination of the amino acids present where techniques are either based on gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective of this work was to develop a derivatisation-free HPLC method with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) of 21 amino acids contained in the protein-based binders of tempera paints. The analytical method identifies the painting techniques of two contemporary artists: Sironi and DeLuigi. The sample data are compared to painting material standards. The results show that the samples from works by DeLuigi contain mainly animal glue binders, while the samples from Sironi paintings contain binders that are an amino acid mixture with an overall composition between that of eggs and casein.

  5. Culto: AN Ontology-Based Annotation Tool for Data Curation in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garozzo, R.; Murabito, F.; Santagati, C.; Pino, C.; Spampinato, C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes CulTO, a software tool relying on a computational ontology for Cultural Heritage domain modelling, with a specific focus on religious historical buildings, for supporting cultural heritage experts in their investigations. It is specifically thought to support annotation, automatic indexing, classification and curation of photographic data and text documents of historical buildings. CULTO also serves as a useful tool for Historical Building Information Modeling (H-BIM) by enabling semantic 3D data modeling and further enrichment with non-geometrical information of historical buildings through the inclusion of new concepts about historical documents, images, decay or deformation evidence as well as decorative elements into BIM platforms. CulTO is the result of a joint research effort between the Laboratory of Surveying and Architectural Photogrammetry "Luigi Andreozzi" and the PeRCeiVe Lab (Pattern Recognition and Computer Vision Lab) of the University of Catania,

  6. The first century of the "clinica del lavoro" in Milan.

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Foà, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The Clinica del Lavoro was created in Milan at the beginning of the 20th century by Luigi Devotto, who deemed it essential for physicians and health researchers to get involved in the life and health problems of working populations. The main roles of the Clinica del Lavoro were to educate medical students and train physicians; study actual workplaces, examine health and safety hazards and their noxious effects; and create initiatives and services to protect and promote workers' health. Important scientific contributions were made in several fields, including chemical carcinogenesis, effects of mineral and biologicalfibers, mechanism of action of silica dust, methods for the detection and measurements of toxic substances in both the work environment and workers' biological media.

  7. From universe to multiverses--and back again.

    PubMed

    Tjersland, O A

    1990-12-01

    A number of concepts and ideas from constructivist and second-order cybernetic family therapy literature are presented and their implications for therapy are examined. I was inspired by and, in this article, refer to videotapes of consultations and therapy sessions shown at an international conference on constructivism and family therapy in Sulitjelma, Norway, June 1988, and to written material from the Tromsø group (Tom Andersen and Anna M. Flåm), the Milan team (Luigi Boscolo and Gianfranco Cecchin), and the Galveston team (Harlene Anderson and Harold Goolishian). The article also represents an attempt to use constructivist concepts and ideas in a reflection on the author's own professional development as a psychologist and family therapist.

  8. Galileo and the Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivotto, Cristina; Testa, Antonella

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the character of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), one of the most famous scientists of all time, as portrayed in three significant movies: Luigi Maggi's Galileo Galilei (1909), Liliana Cavani's Galileo (1968), and Joseph Losey's Galileo (1975), the last one of which was based upon Bertolt Brecht's drama, Das Leben des Galilei (1947). We investigate the relationships between the main characteristics of these fictional Galileos and the most important twentieth-century Galilean historiographic models. We also analyze the veracity of the plots of these three movies and the role that historical and scientific consultants played in producing them. We conclude that connections between these three movies and Galilean historiographic models are far from evident, that other factors deeply influenced the representation of Galileo on the screen.

  9. Dopamine receptor agonists, partial agonists and psychostimulant addiction.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, L; Koob, G F

    1994-10-01

    Despite the epidemic growth of psychostimulant addiction over the past years, few pharmacological means of intervention are available to date for clinical treatment. This is of importance since the withdrawal syndrome that follows abstinence from drugs such as cocaine and the amphetamines is characterized, among other symptoms, by intense craving for the abused drug, and this is considered a critical factor leading into relapse of drug use. In this article, Luigi Pulvirenti and George Koob focus on the modulatory role shown by drugs acting at the dopamine receptor on the various phases of psychostimulant dependence in preclinical models and in human studies, and suggest that a class of compounds with partial agonist properties at the dopamine receptor may have therapeutic potential.

  10. Preface for the special issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, BIOCOMP 2012.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Aniello; Di Crescenzo, Antonio; Hastings, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The International Conference "BIOCOMP2012 - Mathematical Modeling and Computational Topics in Biosciences'', was held in Vietri sul Mare (Italy), June 4-8, 2012. It was dedicated to the Memory of Professor Luigi M. Ricciardi (1942-2011), who was a visionary and tireless promoter of the 3 previous editions of the BIOCOMP conference series. We thought that the best way to honor his memory was to continue the BIOCOMP program. Over the years, this conference promoted scientific activities related to his wide interests and scientific expertise, which ranged in various areas of applications of mathematics, probability and statistics to biosciences and cybernetics, also with emphasis on computational problems. We are pleased that many of his friends and colleagues, as well as many other scientists, were attracted by the goals of this recent event and offered to contribute to its success.

  11. [BODIES ARTIFACTS AND ANATOMICAL MODELS].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Through three different museological approaches, diachronically arranged, the essay intends to introduce some pertinent questions related to the topic of the conference "Bodies and Anatomy: the corpses in the museums from Ruysch to Von Hagens. The first item analyzes a recent line of British museological studies, treating mainly medical British museums of the XVIII and XIX century, with intriguing developments arriving up to nowadays. A second point illustrates several aspects with regards to the donation and the arrangement of the morbid specimina Luigi Gedda collection, coming from the CSS Mendel of Rome to the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of Sapienza University of Rome. Finally, in a crossover between the previous points, it will be presented some recent studies regarding the employment of new communication technologies in the scientific and medical museology.

  12. Animal electricity at the end of the eighteenth century: the many facets of a great scientific controversy.

    PubMed

    Bresadola, Marco

    2008-01-01

    In the 1790s, Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta were the main protagonists of a lively debate on the role of electricity in animal organisms. Significant developments originated from this debate, leading to the foundation of two new disciplines, electrodynamics and electrophysiology, that were to play a crucial role in the scientific and technological progress of the last two centuries. The Galvani-Volta controversy has been repeatedly reconstructed, sometimes in an attempt to identify the merits and the errors of one or the other of the two protagonists, sometimes with the aim of demonstrating that the theories elaborated by the two Italian scholars were irreconcilable, reflecting completely different ways of looking at phenomena and conceiving of scientific research. In this article a different interpretation is offered, based on a discussion of the scientific issues that were central to Galvani's and Volta's research, and with reference to the context of science and society of the eighteenth century.

  13. SUstaiNability: a science communication website on environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravina, Teresita; Muselli, Maurizio; Ligrone, Roberto; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2017-08-01

    Social networks enable anyone to publish potentially boundless amounts of information. However, such information is also highly prone to creating and/or diffusing mistakes and misunderstandings in scientific issues. In 2013 we produced a website (www.sunability.unina2.it) reporting on some research outputs from the University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli (formerly the Second University of Naples, SUN), and shared it on Facebook and Twitter to analyse the effectiveness of these platforms in scientific dissemination. The study results suggest that (i) a regular update of the website stimulates the user's interest, (ii) Campania's citizens are more concerned with pollution problems than natural hazards, and (iii) direct involvement of researchers effectively enhances web-mediated scientific dissemination.

  14. Meteors in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Edmond; Williams, Iwan P.

    2002-09-01

    1. Introduction Iwan Williams and Edmond Murad; 2. The evolution of meteoroid streams Iwan Williams; 3. Space dust measurements Eberhard Grun, Valeri Dikarev, Harald Kruger and Markus Landgraf; 4. Extraterrestrial dust in the near-Earth environment George Flynn; 5. Detection and analysis procedures for visual photographic and image intensified CCD meteor observations Robert Hawkes; 6. Radar observations W. Jack Baggaley; 7. Meteor trails as observed by Lidar Ulf von Zahn, J. Hoffner and William McNeil; 8. In situ measurements of meteoritic ions Joseph Grebowsky and Arthur Aikin; 9. Collected extraterrestrial materials: interplanetary dust particles, micrometeorites, meteorites, and meteoritic dust Frans Rietmeijer; 10. Meteoroid impacts on spacecraft; Luigi Foschini; 11. Models of meteoritic metals in the atmosphere William McNeil, Edmond Murad and John Plane; 12. Laboratory studies of meteoritic metal chemistry John Plane; 13. Summary and future outlook Edmond Murad and Iwan Williams.

  15. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  16. Measurements of seismic wave attenuation for frequencies between 0.1 and 100 Hz in a Paterson Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, C.; Tisato, N.; Delle Piane, C.; Saenger, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The study of wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks over a broad frequency range provides valuable information about reservoir fluid systems, which are inherently composed of multiple phase fluid. Following an original idea initiated by Luigi, we designed and set up a specific instrument, the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM), to experimentally measure the bulk attenuation on partially saturated rocks at frequencies between 0.01 and 100 Hz, using natural rock samples under in situ conditions. We present its bench-top calibration, a series of data collected from different kind of rocks at different confing pressure and the numerical simulations, supporting the obtained results. We employ the sub-resonance test. Assuming that the rock behaves as a linear time invariant (LTI) system, the attenuation factor 1/Q (Q is the quality factor) is equal to the tangent of the phase shift between the stress and the strain signal. The new attenuation measurement equipment is calibrated in a gas apparatus (Paterson rig) using aluminum as elastic standard and Plexiglas as a viscoelastic standard. Measurements were performed on 25.4 mm diameter, 60 mm long samples. Berea sandstone samples with 20% porosity, and ~500 mD permeability have been measured at different saturation conditions. Attenuation measurements show dependence upon saturation. Moreover, measurements on two well-characterized shale samples have been performed. The two shales have significantly different quality factors; which result to be dependent on both the saturation state of the samples and the propagation direction of the oscillatory signal with respect to the sedimentary bedding. The attenuation coefficient parallel to bedding is less than that vertical to bedding. Thanks to Luigi's initiative and inspiration two generations of his Ph.D. students are now able to jointly present these new challenging experimental results.

  17. UAV and Computer Vision in 3D Modeling of Cultural Heritage in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrile, Vincenzo; Gelsomino, Vincenzo; Bilotta, Giuliana

    2017-08-01

    On the Waterfront Italo Falcomatà of Reggio Calabria you can admire the most extensive tract of the walls of the Hellenistic period of ancient city of Rhegion. The so-called Greek Walls are one of the most significant and visible traces of the past linked to the culture of Ancient Greece in the site of Reggio Calabria territory. Over the years this stretch of wall has always been a part, to the reconstruction of Reggio after the earthquake of 1783, the outer walls at all times, restored countless times, to cope with the degradation of the time and the adjustments to the technical increasingly innovative and sophisticated siege. They were the subject of several studies on history, for the study of the construction techniques and the maintenance and restoration of the same. This note describes the methodology for the implementation of a three-dimensional model of the Greek Walls conducted by the Geomatics Laboratory, belonging to DICEAM Department of University “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria. 3D modeling we made is based on imaging techniques, such as Digital Photogrammetry and Computer Vision, by using a drone. The acquired digital images were then processed using commercial software Agisoft PhotoScan. The results denote the goodness of the technique used in the field of cultural heritage, attractive alternative to more expensive and demanding techniques such as laser scanning.

  18. Temporal trends in marital structure and isonymy in S. Paolo Albanese, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pettener, D

    1990-12-01

    In the fifteenth century, after the Turkish conquest of the Balkan area, Albanian communities migrated to Southern Italy. I investigated temporal trends in isolation from 1820 to 1982 in one of these communities, the population of S. Paolo Albanese, Basilicata, which still uses the original language and religious rites. Marital structure is characterized by a high average frequency of village endogamy (75.2%). Among the exogamous marriages there is a preference for mates from Italo-Albanian settlements, with higher values in the 1800s. The distribution of marital distances reflects the positive assortative mating by ethnic community. The mean frequency of isonymous marriages was 9.01% from 1820 to 1982. These results indicate that total inbreeding from isonymy is a reliable indicator of isolation, showing temporal trends related to changes in endogamy. Fr accounts for the greater percentage of Ft in relation to the small population size and regularly decreases with time. The breakdown of isolation, as documented by the decrease in population size, endogamy, and inbreeding, is a recent feature (since 1960).

  19. The Genetic Polymorphisms and Colonization Process of Olive Fly Populations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

  20. Isla Hispaniola: A trans-boundary flood risk mitigation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Brath, Armando; Castellarin, Attilio; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di

    It is sadly known that over the past decades Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been exposed to the devastating passage of several hurricanes and tropical storms. Territories that are economically weak and extremely poor in terms of natural resources have been shaken by severe flood events that caused the loss of thousands of human lives, displacement of people and damage to the environment. On May 24th 2004, the flooding of the trans-boundary river Soliette killed over 1000 Haitian and Dominican people, wiping out villages and leaving behind desolation and poverty. After this catastrophic flood event, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded through the Istituto Italo-Latino Americano (IILA, www.iila.org) an international cooperation initiative (ICI), coordinated and directed by the University of Bologna. The ICI involved Haitian and Dominican institutions and was twofold: (a) institutional capacity building on flood risk management and mitigation measures and policies; (b) hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures.

  1. Panic attacks and possession by djinns: lessons from ethnopsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This clinical case report shows how important it is for a psychiatrist to have a knowledge of the cultural and religious context of the patient, in order to understand fully his or her complaints. Culture and religion, in fact, are not neutral, but convey symbols, meanings, and myths that should be properly explored to shed light on the patient’s inner world. Patient D was a 19-year-old Muslim Italo-Tunisian girl, who consulted a psychiatrist for anxiety and panic attacks, and reported being possessed by djinns (ie, “evil creatures”, as described in the Qur’an). A culturally informed interview was carried out, together with administration of psychometric scales, including the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness. Based on her scores and the results of this multidimensional assessment, patient D was treated with transcultural psychotherapy and fluoxetine. After a year of follow-up, she reported no further episodes of panic disorder. For proper assessment and treatment, a combined anthropological, sociological, and psychopathological approach was necessary. PMID:23293545

  2. Panic attacks and possession by djinns: lessons from ethnopsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This clinical case report shows how important it is for a psychiatrist to have a knowledge of the cultural and religious context of the patient, in order to understand fully his or her complaints. Culture and religion, in fact, are not neutral, but convey symbols, meanings, and myths that should be properly explored to shed light on the patient's inner world. Patient D was a 19-year-old Muslim Italo-Tunisian girl, who consulted a psychiatrist for anxiety and panic attacks, and reported being possessed by djinns (ie, "evil creatures", as described in the Qur'an). A culturally informed interview was carried out, together with administration of psychometric scales, including the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness. Based on her scores and the results of this multidimensional assessment, patient D was treated with transcultural psychotherapy and fluoxetine. After a year of follow-up, she reported no further episodes of panic disorder. For proper assessment and treatment, a combined anthropological, sociological, and psychopathological approach was necessary.

  3. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  4. An unusual recovery from traumatic brain injury in a young man

    PubMed Central

    Ratnasingam, Denesh; Lovick, Darren S.; Weber, Dennis M.; Buonocore, Richard V.; Williams, William V.

    2015-01-01

    Context Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a complex neurological traumatic incident where brain function is disrupted due to physical trauma, can be categorized in multiple ways and is commonly scored using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Severe closed head injury is a form of TBI with a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 8. The outcomes and prognosis are not uniform in the population but mortality is estimated at 30–50 percent. In this case of severe closed head injury, the patient was able to make a near full recovery after several neurosurgery and medical treatments and intercessory prayer to Saint Luigi Guanella. Findings A 21-year-old male patient received a severe closed head TBI and bilateral hemotympanum while rollerblading without a helmet. After imaging, a left frontal craniotomy and evacuation of epidural and subdural hematomas and resection of a left frontal contusion were performed. Intracranial pressure increased and the patient experienced a transtentorial herniation. He underwent a right frontotemporal and subtemporal craniectomy and evacuation of a frontotemporal subdural hematoma. The patient had intraventricular hemorrhage to which a ventriculostomy was performed and later converted to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt for recurrent hydrocephalus. The patient was not expected to regain consciousness, but made a recovery after 24 days in the hospital and 10 days in rehabilitation. The patient followed up 6 months after injury for a cranioplasty and soon after returned to near baseline. Conclusions/clinical relevance In this extraordinary case, the severe closed head injury the patient sustained required intensive neurosurgical and medical treatment and the prognosis for recovery of consciousness was very poor; however, with treatment and rehabilitation and intercessory prayer to Saint Luigi Guanella, this patient was able to recover close to baseline from a Glasgow Coma Scale of 7. Lay Summary Head injuries vary in severity and traumatic brain injuries can be

  5. Snow accumulation variability in Adelie Land (East Antarctica) derived from radar and firn core data. A 600 km transect from Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verfaillie, D.; Fily, M.; Le Meur, E.; Magand, O.; Jourdain, B.; Arnaud, L.; Favier, V.

    2012-07-01

    Polar ice sheets mass balance is a timely topic intensively studied in the context of global change and sea-level rise. However, obtaining mass balance estimates in Antarctica in particular, remains difficult due to various logistical problems. In the framework of the TASTE-IDEA program, labeled as an International Polar Year project, continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements were carried out during a traverse realised in Adelie Land (East Antarctica) during the 2008-2009 austral summer between the Italo-French Dome C (DC) polar plateau site and French Dumont D'Urville (DdU) coastal station. The aim of this study was to process and interpret GPR data in terms of snow accumulation, to analyse its spatial and temporal variability along the DC-DdU traverse and compare it with historical data and modeling. The emphasis has been put on the last 300 yr, from the pre-industrial to recent time period. Beta-radioactivity counting and gamma spectrometry were studied in cores at LGGE laboratory, providing a depth-age calibration for radar measurements. Over the 600 km of usable GPR data, depth and snow accumulation were determined with the help of three distinct layers visible on the radargrams (≈1730, 1799 and 1941 AD). Preliminary results reveal a gradual accumulation increase towards the coast and the occurrence of previously undocumented undulating structures between 300 and 600 km from DC. Results agree fairly well with data from previous studies and modeling. Concluding on temporal variations is difficult because of the margin of error introduced by density estimation. This study should have various applications such as for model validation.

  6. Second-order overtone and combination Raman modes of graphene layers in the range of 1690-2150 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Cong, Chunxiao; Yu, Ting; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Gene F; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-03-22

    Though graphene has been intensively studied by Raman spectroscopy, in this letter, we report a study of the second-order overtone and combination Raman modes in a mostly unexplored frequency range of 1690-2150 cm(-1) in nonsuspended commensurate (AB-stacked), incommensurate (folded) and suspended graphene layers. On the basis of the double resonance theory, four dominant modes in this range have been assigned to (i) the second order out-of-plane transverse mode (2oTO or M band), (ii) the combinational modes of in-plane transverse acoustic mode and longitudinal optical mode (iTA+LO), (iii) in-plane transverse optical mode and longitudinal acoustic mode (iTO+LA), and (iv) longitudinal optical mode and longitudinal acoustic mode (LO+LA). Differing from AB-stacked bilayer graphene or few layer graphene, single layer graphene shows the disappearance of the M band. Systematic analysis reveals that interlayer interaction is essential for the presence (or absence) of the M band, whereas the substrate has no effect on the presence (or absence) of the M band. Dispersive behaviors of these "new" Raman modes in graphene have been probed by laser excitation energy-dependent Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the appearance of the M band strictly depends on the AB stacking, which could be used as a fingerprint for AB-stacked bilayer graphene. This work expands upon the unique and powerful abilities of Raman spectroscopy to study graphene and provides another effective way to probe phonon dispersion, electron-phonon coupling, and to exploit the electronic band structure of graphene layers.

  7. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century.

  8. Learning curve for endorectal ultrasound in young and elderly: lights and shades

    PubMed Central

    Surace, Alessandra; Gentile, Valentina; Bindi, Marco; Cumbo, Jacopo; Solej, Mario; Enrico, Stefano; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim of the study is to highlight difficulties faced by an inexperienced surgeon in approaching endorectal-ultrasound, trying to define when learning curve can be considered complete. A prospective analysis was conducted on endorectal-ultrasound performed for subperitoneal rectal adenocarcinoma staging in the period from January 2008 to July 2013, reported by a single surgeon of Department of Oncology, Section of General Surgery, “San Luigi Gonzaga” Teaching Hospital, Orbassano (Turin, Italy); the surgeon had no previous experience in endorectal-ultrasound. Fourty-six endorectal-ultrasounds were divided into two groups: early group (composed by 23 endorectal-ultrasounds, made from January 2008 to May 2009) and late group (composed by 23 endorectal-ultrasound, carried out from June 2009 to July 2013). In our experience, the importance of a learning curve is evident for T staging, but no statystical significance is reached for results deal with N stage. We can conclude that ultrasound evaluation of anorectal and perirectal tissues is technically challenging and requires a long learning curve. Our learning curve can not be closed down, at least for N parameter. PMID:28352830

  9. [Occupational epidemiology: from analysis of the apparent to investigation of the unknown].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C; Pesatori, Angela; Consonni, D

    2003-01-01

    This paper, as a contribution for the centenary celebration of the establishment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" in Milan (Italy), presents a brief 30 year history of the activities of its Department of Occupational Epidemiology. Studies and methodological contributions that characterized the first decade of activity are presented and grouped under the heading of analysis of known health effects. The second decade was dominated by the studies and activities that originated from the Seveso accident (dioxin), with an initial interest towards molecular epidemiology, which became increasingly relevant during the third decade when we addressed topics like melanoma, lung cancer, and benzene, in addition to dioxin. More traditional occupational approaches were not dismissed and cohort mortality studies are currently under way (textile dyeing and finishing industry, sulfuric acid, tetrafluoroethylene). Pros and cons of the epidemiologic approach are discussed in the context of occupational health and the strength of its methodological apparatus is suggested as a fundamental tool for studying adverse occupational health effects. In contrast, it is stressed how occupational epidemiology has been poorly used in the application of law 626/94. Considering that contemporary epidemiology is much more inclined towards the discovery of new work-related risks (electromagnetic fields, air pollution) than the description of known health effects, the paper suggests that occupational epidemiology enlarge its interests: people and environment outside the factories might be good candidates for study.

  10. PREFACE: Physics and Mathematics of Nonlinear Phenomena 2013 (PMNP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Landolfi, G.; Martina, L.; Vitolo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Modern theory of nonlinear integrable equations is nowdays an important and effective tool of study for numerous nonlinear phenomena in various branches of physics from hydrodynamics and optics to quantum filed theory and gravity. It includes the study of nonlinear partial differential and discrete equations, regular and singular behaviour of their solutions, Hamitonian and bi- Hamitonian structures, their symmetries, associated deformations of algebraic and geometrical structures with applications to various models in physics and mathematics. The PMNP 2013 conference focused on recent advances and developments in Continuous and discrete, classical and quantum integrable systems Hamiltonian, critical and geometric structures of nonlinear integrable equations Integrable systems in quantum field theory and matrix models Models of nonlinear phenomena in physics Applications of nonlinear integrable systems in physics The Scientific Committee of the conference was formed by Francesco Calogero (University of Rome `La Sapienza', Italy) Boris A Dubrovin (SISSA, Italy) Yuji Kodama (Ohio State University, USA) Franco Magri (University of Milan `Bicocca', Italy) Vladimir E Zakharov (University of Arizona, USA, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) The Organizing Committee: Boris G Konopelchenko, Giulio Landolfi, Luigi Martina, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi' and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Raffaele Vitolo, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi'. A list of sponsors, speakers, talks, participants and the conference photograph are given in the PDF. Conference photograph

  11. Emerging aspects of psychosocial risks: violence and harassment at work.

    PubMed

    Gilioli, R; Campanini, P; Fichera, G P; Punzi, S; Cassitto, M G

    2006-01-01

    In the last twenty years, psychosocial risks have become crucial in Occupational Health. Particularly, there is an increasing interest about psychological and physical violence at the workplaces. Psychological violence (mobbing or workplace bullying) is described as a situation in which the person has been the victim of negative acts directed to the person and work, with offences, discriminations and isolation. Physical violence at work, still underestimated in many parts of the world, is becoming a topical subject both for its frequency and its pathogenic potential and consist of violence among workers (internal violence) and between workers and external persons (external violence). Examples of external violence are bank robberies, which are prevalent in many European countries, particulary in Italy. The costs of psychological and physical workplace violence are very high at all levels; individual, for the implication of violence for health and quality of life as well as organizational, for the increase of absenteeism, turnover and health care demands and claims. The Medical Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment (CDL) of the "Clinica de Lavoro Luigi Devoto" was set up in 1996 with a day-hospital service for the diagnosis, rehabilitation and prevention of work related psychological diseases. From its opening, about 5000 patients have been examined.

  12. Stereoscopic CAD and Environmental Sculpture: Enhancement of the Design Process in the Visual Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Bandini, Pier L.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper, co-authors Robert Fisher and Pier Luigi Bandini describe their personal observations concerning stereo enhancements of computer graphics images employed in their research. in Part One, Robert Fisher, a professional sculptor, Professor and Artist-in-Residence in the College of Engineering at Penn State, cites three recent environmental sculpture projects: "See-scape," "A Page from the Book of Skies," and an as yet untitled work. Wireframe images, interior views of architectural spaces, and complex imagery are rendered comprehensible by stereo 3-D. In Part Two, Pier L. Bandini, Associate Professor of Architecture and Director of the Architecture CAD Lab at Penn State, describes the virtues of the stereo-enhanced wireframe model--the benefits of the "see-through coupled with a complete awareness of the whole space." The final example, of a never-realized XVIII-century project, suggests a new and profound application of stereo 3-D to historical inquiry, namely, the experience of ancient spaces and structures that are no longer existing or that were never constructed.

  13. Cesare Lombroso, cortical dysplasia, and epilepsy: keen findings and odd theories.

    PubMed

    Chiò, A; Spreafico, R; Avanzini, G; Ghiglione, P; Vercellino, M; Mutani, R

    2003-11-25

    Cesare Lombroso supported a common origin of criminality, genius, and epilepsy as caused by factors impairing the embryonic development of the CNS, mainly affecting the hierarchically superior neural centers. To describe the first observations of cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy by Cesare Lombroso and his coworkers in 1896. To confirm his theories, Lombroso emphasized the need for the direct observation of the patient, using anthropologic, social, neurophysiologic, economic, and pathologic data. With the collaboration of his pupil Luigi Roncoroni, Lombroso described a prevalence of large, giant pyramidal neurons and polymorphous cells through the gray matter of the frontal cortex in 13 patients with epilepsy. Most of the large pyramidal neurons were haphazardly arranged, presenting also an abnormal orientation of their apical dendrites. The number of nervous cells was noticeably reduced, with the presence of abundant gliosis. Moreover, the granular layers were dramatically reduced or absent in most patients, and numerous nervous cells were present in the subcortical white matter. This particular finding was never observed in specimens from criminal and healthy control subjects. Lombroso and Roncoroni explained their finding as evidence of an arrest of CNS development. More than one century ago, Cesare Lombroso and collaborators described developmental lesions in the frontal cortex of patients with epilepsy, which correspond to what currently is called Taylor's dysplasia. However, they used their observations to support their scientific misconception on the relationship between criminality, epilepsy, and genius.

  14. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love - an analysis of the perception of subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    This article is based on analysis of 4 couple's personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma - MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale - Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux - Firenze - ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis.

  15. [Naples: the historic capital of Italian paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F

    2008-06-01

    No other Italian city has contributed to the birth and development of paediatrics more than Naples. This is why it can be considered the historic capital of Italian paediatrics. Here are the main reasons: Luigi Somma was the first professor of Italian paediatrics whereas Francesco Fede was the first president of the Italian Paediatrics Association. Neapolitan paediatricians have been the most numerous amongst the founder members. The first three Italian journals of paediatrics were founded in Naples as well as the journal ''La Pediatria'' which was the most distributed and long-lasting journal in this field. Moreover, Neapolitans have been the most numerous presidents of the Italian Paediatrics Association, while Rocco Jemma was the one who remained the longest in charge. ''Rocco Jemma's school'' taught not only to most professors in paediatrics who afterwards taught in most Italian universities, but also four out of five paediatricians who took charge of the position as president. The first regional department of the Italian Paediatrics Association was founded in Naples as well as the Association of Nipiology.

  16. [The experience of the EPM (Ergonomics of Posture and Movement) Research Unit in risk analysis and the prevention of work-related musculo-skeletal diseases (WMSDs)].

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, Daniela; Molteni, G

    2003-01-01

    The twenty-year experience of the "Ergonomics of Posture and Movement (epm)" Research Unit for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) is briefly summarized. The epm research unit is the outcome of an agreement between Milan University (Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto), Milan Polytechnic, Don Gnocchi Foundation IRCCS (Bioengineering Centre) and the Regional Health Service (CEMOC of ICP Hospital). Early activities of epm (1985-1993) are first outlined: they are characterized by a wide range of laboratory studies allowing the development of original methods and criteria for on-site analysis of fixed postures and awkward movements and for ad hoc clinical examination of the musculoskeletal apparatus in working populations. Epm contributions are reviewed for the analysis of working activity involving manual load handling (adapted NIOSH method) and hospital patients (MAPO method) as well as for standardization of health surveillance protocols of spinal diseases. Updated contributions are reported on analysis and prevention of upper limb MSDs connected with upper limb repetitive movements (OCRA method). Finally epm's main collaborations with national and international Authorities are summarized as well as the major technical (health promotion) publications addressed to operators and workers, in different working situations, for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders due to biomechanical overload.

  17. The history of the development of the cerebellar examination.

    PubMed

    Fine, Edward J; Ionita, Catalina C; Lohr, Linda

    2002-12-01

    The cerebellar examination evolved from observations of experimental lesions made by neurophysiologists and clinical descriptions of patients with trauma to the cerebellum. At the beginning of the 19th century, neurophysiologists such as Luigi Rolando, Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens, and John Call Dalton, Jr. ablated portions of the cerebellum of a variety of animals and observed staggering gait, clumsiness, and falling from side to side without loss of strength. They concluded that the cerebellum coordinated voluntary movements. In 1899, Joseph Francois Félix Babinski observed that patients with cerebellar lesions could not execute complex movements without breaking down into their elemental movements and described the defect as dysmetria. In 1902, Babinski coined the term dysdiodochokinesis to describe the inability to perform rapid execution of movements requiring alternate contractions of agonist and antagonist muscles. Gordon Holmes in 1904 described the phenomena of rebound, noting that if a limb ipsilateral to a cerebellar lesion is suddenly released from tension, the appendage will flail. In 1917, Gordon Holmes reported hypotonia and dysmetria in men wounded by gunshot wounds to their cerebellum. These observations were rapidly included in descriptions of the cerebellar examination in popular contemporaneous textbooks of neurology. Modern observations have demonstrated that the cerebellum influences such cognitive functions such as planning, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning, prosody, and use of correct grammar.

  18. Millie Hughes-Fulford, Scientist and Prior Astronaut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-13

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - Researcher and former NASA payload specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford, of the Hughes-Fulford Laboratory, San Francisco, Calif., accepts the European Space Agency ESA T-cell experiment flight units being handed over in a Space Station Processing Facility laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. From left are Raimondo Fortezza of ESA, Hughes-Fulford, and Pier Luigi Ganga, Marco Vukich and Fabio Creati of Kayser Italia, manufacturer of the hardware. The immunology experiment will launch on SpaceX-3 and focus on the effects of microgravity on early T-cell signaling pathways. Current work aims to identify and compare the gene expression of microRNAs miRNAs during T-cell activation under normal gravity and in microgravity, and compare those patterns to changes seen in aging populations. The experiment will be the first flown on SpaceX funded by the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Hughes-Fulford flew aboard space shuttle mission STS-40 in June 1991, the first Spacelab mission dedicated to biomedical studies. For more information on the T-cell experiment, visit http://hughesfulfordlab.com and http://www.nasa.gov/ames/research/space-biosciences/t-cell-activation-in-aging-spacex-3/. Photo credit: NASA/Cory Huston

  19. Millie Hughes-Fulford, Scientist and Prior Astronaut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-13

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - Researcher and former NASA payload specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford, of the Hughes-Fulford Laboratory, San Francisco, Calif., accepts the European Space Agency ESA T-cell experiment flight units being handed over in a Space Station Processing Facility laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. From left are Raimondo Fortezza of ESA, Hughes-Fulford, and Pier Luigi Ganga and Fabio Creati of Kayser Italia, manufacturer of the hardware. The immunology experiment will launch on SpaceX-3 and focus on the effects of microgravity on early T-cell signaling pathways. Current work aims to identify and compare the gene expression of microRNAs miRNAs during T-cell activation under normal gravity and in microgravity, and compare those patterns to changes seen in aging populations. The experiment will be the first flown on SpaceX funded by the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Hughes-Fulford flew aboard space shuttle mission STS-40 in June 1991, the first Spacelab mission dedicated to biomedical studies. For more information on the T-cell experiment, visit http://hughesfulfordlab.com and http://www.nasa.gov/ames/research/space-biosciences/t-cell-activation-in-aging-spacex-3/. Photo credit: NASA/Cory Huston

  20. Millie Hughes-Fulford, Scientist and Prior Astronaut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-13

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - Researcher and former NASA payload specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford, of the Hughes-Fulford Laboratory, San Francisco, Calif., accepts the European Space Agency ESA T-cell experiment flight units being handed over in a Space Station Processing Facility laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. From left are Hughes-Fulford shaking hands with Pier Luigi Ganga of Kayser Italia, manufacturer of the hardware, with Raimondo Fortezza of ESA looking on. The immunology experiment will launch on SpaceX-3 and focus on the effects of microgravity on early T-cell signaling pathways. Current work aims to identify and compare the gene expression of microRNAs miRNAs during T-cell activation under normal gravity and in microgravity, and compare those patterns to changes seen in aging populations. The experiment will be the first flown on SpaceX funded by the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Hughes-Fulford flew aboard space shuttle mission STS-40 in June 1991, the first Spacelab mission dedicated to biomedical studies. For more information on the T-cell experiment, visit http://hughesfulfordlab.com and http://www.nasa.gov/ames/research/space-biosciences/t-cell-activation-in-aging-spacex-3/. Photo credit: NASA/Cory Huston

  1. Chemical mapping of paleontological and archeological artifacts with synchrotron X-rays.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Uwe; Manning, Phillip L; Wogelius, Roy A

    2012-01-01

    The application of the recently developed synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) technique to the mapping of large objects is the focus of this review. We discuss the advantages of SRS-XRF over traditional systems and the use of other synchrotron radiation (SR) techniques to provide corroborating spectroscopic and diffraction analyses during the same analytical session. After reviewing routine techniques used to analyze precious specimens, we present several case studies that show how SR-based methods have been successfully applied in archeology and paleontology. For example, SRS-XRF imaging of a seventh-century Qur'ān palimpsest and an overpainted original opera score from Luigi Cherubini is described. We also review the recent discovery of soft-tissue residue in fossils of Archaeopteryx and an ancient reptile, as well as work that has successfully resolved the remnants of pigment in Confuciusornis sanctus, a 120-million-year-old fossil of the oldest documented bird with a fully derived avian beak.

  2. Misidentifications in Pirandello's plays and short stories.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Kilcline, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Luigi Pirandello was an Italian playwright, novelist, short story writer, poet, and one of the leading dramatists of the twentieth century. Pirandello used his plays and short stories to express his life philosophy which included the irony and bitterness of self-deception. In his works, his characters possess highly complex personalities, portrayed by ongoing and overlapping conflicts between illusion and reality. These manifestations of double personalities and confusion between imagination and reality are today known as psychopathological phenomena, classified as both delusional misidentification and reduplication syndromes. Here, individuals misidentify and reduplicate places, people, or events. These delusional syndromes (Capgras, Frégoli, intermetamorphosis, syndrome of subjective doubles) occur primarily in psychiatric illnesses (i.e. schizophrenia) and organic illnesses (i.e. right hemispheric stroke). For Pirandello, reality was highly subjective in all humans. However, misidentification and reduplication syndromes can manifest when this subjectivity gets out of control. With his works, Pirandello made philosophical concepts which had previously only been discussed by intellectuals available to a much larger audience. Pirandello continued to elaborate upon this concept of mutable ego, established by Blaise Pascal in the 1600s and carried on by the French psychologist Alfred Binet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834.

  4. Syntropy, Teleology and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannini, Antonella; Di Corpo, Ulisse

    2012-09-01

    The energy/momentum/mass equation of Einstein's Special Relativity is a quadratic equation: E2 = m2c4 + p2c2 Where E is energy, m is mass, p momentum and c the constant of the speed of light. Quadratic equations always have two solutions: one positive and one negative. The variable time is in the momentum (p) and consequently the positive solution describes energy which diverges from a cause, whereas the backward in time solution describes energy which diverges backward in time from a future cause and corresponds, for us moving forward in time, to energy which converges towards an attractor. The backward in time solution implies retrocausality and was therefore considered unacceptable. Einstein solved the problem assuming that the momentum (p) is always equal to zero, since the speed of physical bodies is extremely small when compared to the speed of light (c). In this way the equation simplifies into the famous E = mc2, which always has positive solution. However, in quantum mechanics the spin of particles nears the speed of light and the full energy/momentum/mass equation is required with its unwanted negative solution. In 1941 Luigi Fantappiè, listing the mathematical properties of the negative solution found that they coincide with the properties of life: concentration of energy, increase in differentiation and complexity, and came to the conclusion that the unwanted negative solution is real. This solution implies retrocausality, a teleological universe and provides the ground for the scientific discussion of theology.

  5. Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

  6. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love – an analysis of the perception of subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article is based on analysis of 4 couple’s personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma – MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale – Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux – Firenze – ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis. PMID:22037756

  7. Using ChEMBL web services for building applications and data processing workflows relevant to drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Nowotka, Michał M; Gaulton, Anna; Mendez, David; Bento, A Patricia; Hersey, Anne; Leach, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    ChEMBL is a manually curated database of bioactivity data on small drug-like molecules, used by drug discovery scientists. Among many access methods, a REST API provides programmatic access, allowing the remote retrieval of ChEMBL data and its integration into other applications. This approach allows scientists to move from a world where they go to the ChEMBL web site to search for relevant data, to one where ChEMBL data can be simply integrated into their everyday tools and work environment. Areas covered: This review highlights some of the audiences who may benefit from using the ChEMBL API, and the goals they can address, through the description of several use cases. The examples cover a team communication tool (Slack), a data analytics platform (KNIME), batch job management software (Luigi) and Rich Internet Applications. Expert opinion: The advent of web technologies, cloud computing and micro services oriented architectures have made REST APIs an essential ingredient of modern software development models. The widespread availability of tools consuming RESTful resources have made them useful for many groups of users. The ChEMBL API is a valuable resource of drug discovery bioactivity data for professional chemists, chemistry students, data scientists, scientific and web developers.

  8. An outstanding female figure in the history of occupational health: Ersilia Majno Bronzini.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Starting with the obituary "Ersilia Majno Bronzini: an outstanding female figure in Occupational Health", probably written by Luigi Devoto and published in the journal La Medicina del Lavoro (1933), a reappraisal is made of Majno Bronzini's contribution to occupational health. Most references were collected from the archives of the journal Il Lavoro (1901), the archives of the association "Union of Women", the periodical founded by Majno Bronzini (1899) and other material. Majno Bronzini's selected published papers (1895, 1900, 1902) on the working conditions of women and child labour proposing a national occupational health law were found. The importance of a women's network for occupational health is also shown in Majno Bronzini's correspondence with Anna Celli Frantzel and Maria Montessori. In 1902 Angelo Celli officially congratulated Majno Bronzini's (and Anne Kuliscioff's) efforts to promulgate the first law on women and child labour during his speech before the Italian Parliament, published by II Lavoro. Majno Bronzini and Nina Rignano Sullam were the only two women participating in the First International Congress on Occupational Health in Milan (1906). The correspondence between Majno Bronzini and Devoto (1901-1933) and Devoto's formal acknowledgement of Majno Bronzini (1910) when inaugurating the new "Clinica del Lavoro" institute is well documented. Majno Bronzini dedicated a significant part of her life to occupational health, together with Anna Celli Frantzel and Maria Montessori along with many others. This research shows how important her contribution was to occupational health development.

  9. Nonlinear system identification for prostate cancer and optimality of intermittent androgen suppression therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taiji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    These days prostate cancer is one of the most common types of malignant neoplasm in men. Androgen ablation therapy (hormone therapy) has been shown to be effective for advanced prostate cancer. However, continuous hormone therapy often causes recurrence. This results from the progression of androgen-dependent cancer cells to androgen-independent cancer cells during the continuous hormone therapy. One possible method to prevent the progression to the androgen-independent state is intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) therapy, which ceases dosing intermittently. In this paper, we propose two methods to estimate the dynamics of prostate cancer, and investigate the IAS therapy from the viewpoint of optimality. The two methods that we propose for dynamics estimation are a variational Bayesian method for a piecewise affine (PWA) system and a Gaussian process regression method. We apply the proposed methods to real clinical data and compare their predictive performances. Then, using the estimated dynamics of prostate cancer, we observe how prostate cancer behaves for various dosing schedules. It can be seen that the conventional IAS therapy is a way of imposing high cost for dosing while keeping the prostate cancer in a safe state. We would like to dedicate this paper to the memory of Professor Luigi M. Ricciardi.

  10. The frog's dancing master: science, séances, and the transmission of myths.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Myths are not uncommon in the history of neuroscience and their tenacity even when faced with suitable correctives is impressive. The possible origins and transmission of one such myth is examined: the oft repeated quotation, attributed to Luigi Galvani, that he was the "frog's dancing master." The statement does not occur in Galvani's writing and appears to have accrued features in the early nineteenth century, largely from French writers. In the 1870s, the quotation was used by William Crookes, the discoverer of thallium and inventor of Crookes' tube, in implicit support of his investigations into spiritualist phenomena. Crookes arranged séances with the psychic Daniel Dunglas Home and, being unable to explain them, introduced the concept of psychic force. A related myth concerns Galvani's accidental discovery of the neuromuscular action of electricity in the course of preparing a beneficial broth for his ailing wife. The two myths became entwined in the tangled web woven by commentators of Galvani's work. The myth-information is magnified by the World Wide Web.

  11. Acoustics of the Intonarumori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2005-04-01

    The Intonarumori were a family of musical instruments invented by the Italian futurist composer and painter Luigi Russolo. Each Intonarumori was made of a wooden parallelepiped sound box, inside which a wheel of different sizes and materials was setting into vibration a catgut or metal string. The pitch of the string was varied by using a lever, while the speed of the wheel was controlled by the performer using a crank. At one end of the string there was a drumhead that transmitted vibrations to the speaker. Unfortunately, all the original Intonarumori were destroyed after a fire during World War II. Since then, researchers have tried to understand the sound production mechanism of such instruments, especially by consulting the patents compiled by Russolo or by reading his book ``The art of noise.'' In this paper we describe the acoustics of the Intonarumori. Based on such description, we propose physical models that simulate such instruments. The intonarumori's string is modeled using a one dimensional waveguide, which is excited either by an impact or a friction model. The body of the instrument is modeled using a 3-D rectangular mesh, while the horn is considered as an omnidirectional radiator.

  12. Electricity and Vital Force: Discussing the Nature of Science Through a Historical Narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Hermann; Guerra, Andreia

    2015-05-01

    Seeking a historical-philosophical approach to science teaching, narrative texts have been used as pedagogical tools to improve the learning experience of students. A review of the literature of different types of narrative texts and their different rates of effectiveness in science education is presented. This study was developed using the so-called Historical Narrative as a tool to introduce science content from a historical-philosophical approach, aiming to discuss science as a human construction. This project was carried out in a 9th grade Physics class in K-12 school, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The steps involved in constructing a Historical Narrative based on the controversy over animal electrical fluid between Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta is reported herein. Finally, qualitative research results of the activities inspired by this Historical Narrative are presented with the purpose of answering the research question: to what extent do Historical Narratives support and enhance discussions about the Nature of Science (NOS), through teaching the scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach with 9th grade students? The results indicate that Historical Narrative, based on historical episodes, is a good "door opener" to teach scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach, introducing discussions about the Nature of Science without neglecting the scientific content or simplifying the discussions about the NOS.

  13. Electricity and Vital Force: Discussing the Nature of Science Through a Historical Narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Hermann; Guerra, Andreia

    2014-08-01

    Seeking a historical-philosophical approach to science teaching, narrative texts have been used as pedagogical tools to improve the learning experience of students. A review of the literature of different types of narrative texts and their different rates of effectiveness in science education is presented. This study was developed using the so-called Historical Narrative as a tool to introduce science content from a historical-philosophical approach, aiming to discuss science as a human construction. This project was carried out in a 9th grade Physics class in K-12 school, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The steps involved in constructing a Historical Narrative based on the controversy over animal electrical fluid between Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta is reported herein. Finally, qualitative research results of the activities inspired by this Historical Narrative are presented with the purpose of answering the research question: to what extent do Historical Narratives support and enhance discussions about the Nature of Science (NOS), through teaching the scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach with 9th grade students? The results indicate that Historical Narrative, based on historical episodes, is a good "door opener" to teach scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach, introducing discussions about the Nature of Science without neglecting the scientific content or simplifying the discussions about the NOS.

  14. Conservation of Stone Cladding on the FAÇADE of Royal Palace in Caserta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titomanlio, I.

    2013-07-01

    The beauty of cultural heritage and monumental architecture, is often linked to their non-structural elements and decorative stones façades cladding. The collapse of these elements causes significant consequences that interest the social, the economic, the historical and the technical fields. Several regulatory documents and literature studies contain methods to address the question of relief and of the risk analysis and due to the non - structural stones security. Among the references are widespread international regulatory documents prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States by Applied Technology Council and California. In Italy there are some indications contained in the Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni and the Direttiva del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri in 2007, finalize to the reduction of seismic risk assessment of cultural heritage. The paper, using normative references and scientific researches, allows to analyze on Royal Palace of Caserta the safety and the preservation of cultural heritage and the vulnerability of non-structural stones façade cladding. Using sophisticated equipments of Laboratory ARS of the Second University of Naples, it was possible to analyze the collapse of stone elements due to degradation caused by natural phenomena of deterioration (age of the building, type of materials, geometries , mode of fixing of the elements themselves). The paper explains the collapse mechanisms of stones façade cladding of Luigi Vanvitelli Palace.

  15. "Phthisiophobia": the difficult recognition of transmission of tuberculosis to health care workers.

    PubMed

    Riva, M A; Ploia, Paola Roberta; Rocca, S; Cesana, G

    2013-01-01

    Even if the contagious nature of tuberculosis was universally accepted during the nineteenth century, its transmission to health care workers (HCWs) was initially denied by the scientific community. Working among TB patients was not considered dangerous for healthy adults, so the potential risks for HCWs were branded as unwarranted "phthisiophobia" (fear of contracting tuberculosis). This study aims at analyzing the problem of tuberculosis transmission among health care workers from an historical perspective, particularly highlighting the contribution made by the Italian Occupational Medicine community. Scientific literature and historical sources on different theories regarding tuberculosis transmission were investigated, specially focusing on the period at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Luigi Devoto (1864-1936), an Italian pioneer in the field of Occupational Medicine, was one of the first scientists to conduct research on the transmission of tuberculosis among nurses. Since the 1920s several studies, conducted mainly on medical and nursing students, confirmed the risk for HCWs. However an international consensus on this issue was only achieved during the 1950s, when the institution of mandatory chest radiographs on admission for all patients significantly decreased the cases of tuberculosis among HCWs. Devoto was one of the first scholars who postulated the transmission of tuberculosis to HCWs. He also theorized that hospital personnel with active disease could also be a source of contagion to patients. Nowadays, "third party risk" and latent tuberculosis infection pose a new challenge for occupational physicians in hospitals.

  16. CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams: experimental characterization of the fundamental underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.; Mazzotti, M.

    2012-04-01

    trough the coal core, thus including mass balances accounting for gas flow, gas sorption and swelling, and mechanical constitutive equations for the description of porosity and permeability changes during injection. The combination of the experimental data with the model predictions allow to successfully relate the dynamics of gas flow to parameters such as the effective pressure on the sample, sorption capacity and swelling, and to estimate important parameters, such as the mass transfer coefficient describing gas diffusion into the porous matrix of the coal. In particular, an increase in permeability is observed with decreasing effective pressure on the sample and, when an adsorbing gas is injected, a reduction in permeability caused by swelling, with CO2 having a much stronger effect as compared to N2. This last observation represents the starting point to the investigation of attractive options aimed at optimizing the ECBM operation, such as the use of CO2/N2 mixtures (flue gas) as a way of keeping the permeability in the reservoir sufficiently high. Acknowledgment Luigi Burlini was at the heart of this co-operation, and made it possible a synergy between engineers and geologists that has been extremely fruitful. With this contribution we would like to acknowledge Luigi's humanity and scientific visions and to remember a friend.

  17. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    anticipate enjoying another successful FLUIDOS meeting to be held in one of the main cultural centres of the continent. Italo Bove, Cecilia Cabeza, Arturo C Martí, and Gustavo SarasúaEditors

  18. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity

  19. EduGeoPark: international students exchanges for promoting Earth Science knowledge and Geoheritage awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Dellarole, Edoardo; Kiuttu, Mikko

    2015-04-01

    Geoparks are the ideal destination for international study tours based on the sustainable tourism concept, in which the travel is conceived as an opportunity for sharing both scientific knowledge and intangible and tangible culture. Equally, they are the appropriate places for testing and practicing innovative educational strategies, shareable in an international context. The innovative idea of EduGeoPark project is to involve students and teachers in research activities in Geoparks, including sampling and digital mapping: practical field and laboratory activities for stimulating the geological interpretation of an unknown territory. An approach devoted to improve teamwork and problem solving competences. By means of a partnerships between the Rokua (Finland) and the Sesia-Val Grande (Italy) Geoparks, an exchange program for Secondary School's students started during 2014 (Vaala High School; I.I.S. Luigi Cobianchi High School in Verbania). The study and the visit of both territories was an opportunity for students to observe some relevant geological elements and processes that do not exist in their own country. Moreover, the hosting in families allowed them to feel the culture of the area. Teachers and staff of the Geoparks led field trips to the main geological and cultural attractions of both areas. During the activities, students used mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) and GPS to track field trips, to catch and gather georeferenced data and pictures. They acted as researchers, by using both digital and traditional tools: they observed, asked questions, gathered data, and made hypothesis. By sharing ideas, together with the local guides, they reconstructed the cultural and geological history of the area. Students appreciated the experience: not only they had the opportunity of visiting a different country, but also of deepening the geological awareness on their own territory. EduGeoPark project is opening the participation to other Geoparks, in order to

  20. Carlo Moreschi (1876-1921): co-founder of the journal "La Medicina del Lavoro" and often forgotten pioneer of modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Riva, M A; Smith, D R; Cesana, G

    2011-01-01

    Carlo Moreschi (1876-1921) was founding co-editor of the journal "Il Lavoro" (now known as "La Medicina del Lavoro"), together with Luigi Devoto in 1901. Despite this fact, many of his pioneering contributions to 20th century scientific debate are not well known outside Italy. The aim of this paper therefore was to recall Moreschi' achievements and the groundbreaking work of this remarkable Italian physician. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on scientific papers written by Carlo Moreschi between 1901 and 1920, extending the investigation to his original manuscripts and private correspondence with family and colleagues. Careful examination of Moreschi's work reveals several studies in the field of social medicine, epidemiology of infectious diseases, general pathology and oncology. In particular, his main interest in haematology and immunology enabled Moreschi to be one of the first to understand the mechanisms of complement fixation and the formation pathways ofantiglobulin sera. In this manner, Moreschi significantly contributed to the work of Wassermann regarding the diagnosis of syphilis, as well as contributing to the discovery of the "antiglobulin test", first described by Coombs in 1945. Furthermore, Moreschi co-founded "Il Lavoro" and "Haematologica", the oldest journals in their respective fields. According to Devoto, Moreschi can be remembered as the archetype modern researcher and clinician. His role in the 20th century scientific debate and his pioneering work in the field of immunology and haematology, that are often forgotten due to his premature death, deserve to be reconsidered and re-assessed by the Italian and international scientific community.

  1. Modifications of the isolated frog heart preparation in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute: relevance for cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    2000-01-01

    Carl Ludwig was the first physiologist to systematically study isolated organs (heart, muscle, kidney, liver, lung). In his Leipzig Physiological Institute, the isolated perfused frog heart preparation was established in 1866 by Elias Cyon. This preparation was subsequently subjected to various modifications, and many important observations were made by scientists such as Joseph Coats, Henry Pickering Bowditch, Luigi Luciani, Michael Joseph Rossbach, Hugo Kronecker and Otto Frank. The influence of filling pressure on contraction amplitude, the all-or-none law of the heart, the absolute refractory period, postextrasystolic potentiation, the staircase ('Treppe') phenomenon and the dependence of heart function on oxidative metabolism were discovered. The negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of vagus nerve stimulation were also first documented, and a model to induce arrhythmias was established. The isolated frog heart preparation became a widely used standard model for teaching and for basic cardiovascular research. Sidney Ringer discovered the essential role of calcium ions for heart function. Otto Loewi discovered the chemical transduction mechanism of the vagus with acetylcholine as transmitter. In more recent times, the cyclical changes in cAMP and cGMP that occur during the cardiac cycle were first described in the frog heart by Wollenberger and associates. Thus, the isolated perfused frog heart established and modified in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute led not only to the discovery of basic phenomena, but also to observations that became the basis for concepts to be developed and elaborated later. Furthermore, the isolated perfused frog heart was the starting point for the development of the isolated mammalian heart in the retrogradely perfused, nonworking mode in the heart-lung modification and in the working heart preparation.

  2. Corrosive effects from the deposition of gaseous pollutants on surfaces of cultural and artistic value inside museums.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, N A; De Santis, F; Cordoba, A; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F; Pasella, D

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the project were to assess the critical relationships between environmental factors and damage of the artifacts and other cultural property exposed inside museums, by studying: (a) the outdoor/indoor pollutant concentration and their transfer inside the museum; (b) the distribution and circulation of pollutants inside the museum influenced by various factors; (c) chemical interactions between pollutants in the gas phase leading to removal and/or formation of secondary pollutants; (d) the final deposition of the indoor pollutants on surfaces of artistic interest and the damage on them, governed by strictly defined physicochemical parameters. All the above information, together with the main factors influencing each stage, were obtained by applying the methodology developed and described in detail here. Measurements of rate constants of reactions in the gas phase, of physicochemical deposition parameters on artefacts, and the synergistic effects of pollutants on the deposition parameters, were conducted. Seven PC programmes for analysing the experimental data were written and used. The pollutants, the solid materials and the museums chosen in this programme are only examples needed to develop the necessary methodology. The numerical results obtained serve the purpose of exemplifying the procedures and not enriching the world's bibliography with useless empirical information. Two commercially available protectives for marble were investigated from the point of view of their reactivity towards SO2 by using a diffusional technique. From measurements of SO2 concentration carried out on three types of marble, the deposition velocities have been calculated. Indoor monitoring of the church of San Luigi dei Francesi and of the Museo della Civiltá Romana in Rome has shown that indoor production of nitrous acid most likely results from heterogeneous reactions indoors, on the walls and the exposed surfaces.

  3. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Alba Paolo (Università di Torino) Becattini Francesco (Università di Firenze) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonaccorso Angela (INFN Pisa) Colonna Maria (INFN-LNS Catania) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) De Angelis Giacomo (INFN-LNL Legnaro) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Gattobigio Mario (INLN, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, France) Gensini Paolo (INFN Lecce) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (Università del Salento) Giusti Carlotta (Università di Pavia) Greco Vincenzo (Università di Catania) Grossi Eduardo (Università di Firenze) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Lavagno Andrea (Politecnico di Torino) Logoteta Domenico (Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Lombardo Maria Paola (INFN-LNF Frascati) Lo Meo Sergio (ENEA Bologna) Mannarelli Massimo (INFN-LNGS Assergi) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pirrone Sara (INFN Catania) Puglisi Armando (Università di Catania) Radici Marco (INFN Pavia) Rinaldi Matteo (Università di Perugia) Roggero Alessandro (Università di Trento) Rolando Valentina (Università di Ferrara) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Ruggieri Marco (Università di Catania) Salmè Gianni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Scopetta Sergio (Università di Perugia) Taiuti Mauro (Università di Genova) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Viviani Michele (INFN Pisa) Vorabbi Matteo (Università di Pavia)

  4. [Romantic origins of electrophysiology].

    PubMed

    Isler, H

    1992-12-01

    Research on static electricity and its effects on the human body date back to the invention of the electrizing or Wimshurst machine and the Leyden jar of 1743 and 1746. Such experiments often served as social pastimes, but they yielded many publications on medical aspects of static electricity. Attempts to explain the 'life force' of the vitalists and the old concept of the active principle of the nervous system, the 'spiritus animales', as electrical phenomena were unsuccessful because of the skeptic comments of leading experimental scientists such as Albrecht von Haller. When Mesmer reinvented 'animal magnetism' in 1776 as a fashionable term for treatment by suggestion, he appropriated theoretical, technical and social methods from the established ways of the experiments on static electricity. Therefore, the scientific character of Luigi Galvani's investigations was already compromised by his term 'animal electricity' when he published his famous 'Commentarius' in 1781. Volta in Pavia turned against Galvani, proving that galvanic currents are produced by metals alone, and rejecting 'animal electricity'. Volta's doctrine prevailed over Galvani's school after Volta's breakthrough with his pile, or battery, until Galvani's ideas were rehabilitated by Nobili, who in 1828 measured the 'frog current' with his galvanometer. This led to a flurry of bizarre experiments on rows of half-dismembered animals and severed parts of human cadavers. Johannes Müller in Berlin, who, with his students, established new principles of biology and neurology, asked Du Bois-Reymond to study these experiments. Du Bois-Reymond found that measurements of muscle currents in intact animals were more useful, and he compared them with his own observations on electric fishes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. [Experience of a centre for the study of occupational adjustment disorders referred to psychological harassment-related diseases at the workplace].

    PubMed

    Buselli, R; Gonnelli, Chiara; Moscatelli, M; Cioni, Valentina; Guglielmi, G; Gattini, V; Foddis, R; Mignani, A; Ottenga, F; Cristaudo, A

    2006-01-01

    The rising awareness of psychological harassment at the workplace means that it is ever more important to collect clinical data and test tools to assess psychiatric disease connected with this phenomenon. The aim of the study was to assess the experience gained by the centre for work maladjustment of the University Hospital of Pisa on a sample of patients, using the methods proposed by the centre at the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto". The patients were submitted to a diagnostic protocol consisting of work history, medical examination, psychological assessment, psychiatric examination, subjective questionnaires, mood scale and Neutest. The analysis was made in two phases in which 109 subjects were examined to check occupational stress effects in the period March 2002 - July 2004, after which 50 subjects were selected (45.9%) with the adaptation disorder and a history of adverse working conditions. The data gathered showed a slight predominance of workers from the public administration sector. The most representative range of duration of the psychological violence varied from 6 months to 2 years (46%). From close examination of the causes of the maladjustment disorders, structural changes in organization appeared to be the most frequent (13 cases). Among patients with positive diagnosis of disorder caused by psychological violence at the workplace, three situations were prominent: attitude to being a social outcast, behaviour to ignore proposals, and professional declassing. The multidisciplinary approach was culturally very stimulating and fundamental in reaching a final diagnosis of occupational disease: diagnosis of bullying at work and related disease was possible only thanks to the fact that three specialists agreed on the aetiological role of psychological harassment at the workplace. Our experience confirms that psychological harassment can cause health impairment and the most common diagnosis is maladjustment disorder.

  6. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Comparison between the effect of two geomagnetic storms with the same seasonal and daily characteristics and different intensity on the European ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Bouza, Marta; Herraiz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracía; Paparini, Claudia; Otero, Xurxo; Radicella, Sandro M.

    2016-04-01

    This work presents an analysis of the ionospheric disturbance caused by two geomagnetic storms occurred on the same day, 17th March, but one in 2013 and other in 2015. The greatest intensity of both storms occurs after sunset when geomagnetic indexes (Dst index, Kp and Ap) reached the peak values. Both geomagnetic storms can be classified as intense according to the Dst index criteria. The storm of March 17, 2015, ("St Patricḱs storm"), can be considered even "severe" because the Dst index dropped off -200nT. The solar origins of both geomagnetic storms were magnetic filament eruptions followed by Coronal Mass Ejections, CME. The ionospheric behavior has been studied through the total electron content, TEC. This parameter is obtained from RINEX files processed using the calibration technique developed by Prof. Luigi Ciraolo. RINEX files from selected GNSS stations on Europe belonging to International GPS Service, IGS, and EUREF Permanent Network, have been used. The calibration technique assumes the ionospheric thin shell model to obtain vertical total electron content (vTEC) from slant total electron content (sTEC) at the Ionospheric Pierce Point. The data were obtained in periods of the geomagnetic storms and during quite days surrounding the storms days, at 1 minute sampling. The behavior of the ionosphere during the two geomagnetic storms was similar. In both cases, a positive ionospheric storm, defined as an increase on the TEC, occurred during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms on 17th of March. These increases were followed by a negative ionospheric storm, a decreasing of TEC, in the recuperation phase. However, in the event of 2015, the positive ionospheric storm of the main phase had more intensity but the same duration than that of 2013 and for the negative ionospheric storm both, intensity and duration, were largest in 2015 than in 2013.

  8. Sicily 2002 Balloon Flight Campaign: A Test of the HASI Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettanini, C.

    A mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30 th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere and furthermore to investigate impact at ground to check the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI in the surface phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system has been developed, based on PC architecture and soft -real-time application. Sensors channels have been sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software has been developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy.

  9. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  10. The ACES Mission: System Tests Results and Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) testing fundamental laws of physics with high-performance atomic clocks1 . Operated on-board the International Space Station, the ACES payload will distribute a clock signal with fractional frequency instability and inaccuracy of 1·10-16 . This frequency reference is resulting from the medium-term stability of an active hydrogen maser (SHM) and the long-term stability and accuracy of a primary standard based on samples of laser cooled Cs atoms (PHARAO). The ACES clocks are combined by two servo-loops, the first stabilizing the PHARAO local oscillator on SHM, the second controlling the long-term instabilities of SHM using the error signal generated by the PHARAO Cesium resonator. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks, connecting them in a worldwide network. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. The ACES main instruments and subsystems have now reached an advanced status of devel-opment, demonstrated by the completion and the successful test of their engineering models. In particular, a dedicated test campaign has recently verified the performance of the ACES system, where PHARAO and SHM, locked together via the ACES servo loops, are operated as a unique oscillator to generate the ACES frequency reference. The test campaign conducted 1 Luigi Cacciapuoti and Christophe Salomon, Space Clocks and Fundamental Tests: The ACES Experiment, EPJ Special topics 172, 57 (2009). at CNES premises in Toulouse between July and November 2009 concluded

  11. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Universit

  12. The 8th International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism (HFM 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. S.; Kao, Y. J.

    2017-04-01

    The 8th International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism 2016 (HFM 2016) took place between the 7th and 11th of September 2016 at the GIS Convention Center at National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Over 260 participants from all over the world, attended the meeting making it the largest HFM to-date and revealing the impressive growth in the community since the original meeting in Waterloo, Canada where 80 participants attended. Preceding the meeting a school was held at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center to help those new to the field understand the material they were likely to see at HFM2016. Our thanks to the international speakers who attended this school John Chalker, Michel Kenzelmann, Philippe Mendels, Luigi Paolasini, Kirrily Rule, Yixi Su, Isao Watanabe and those from Taiwan W. T. Chen, Y-J, Kao, L. J. Chang and C. S. Ku, for their enlightening presentations. The HFM 2016 conference consisted of five plenary talks by H Takagi, B D Gaulin, L Balents, Y Tokura and S T Bramwell, 20 invited and 40 contributed presentations, and about 160 poster presentations from all aspects of theoretical and experimental frustrated magnetism. During the conference period, many stimulating discussions were held both inside and outside the conference room. Excursions to Taipei 101 and the National Palace Museum, as well as several organized dinners and receptions allowed the participants to initiate collaborations and discuss the hottest issues. The subjects covered in the conference included: · Quantum frustrated magnetism and spin liquids · Novel ordering of geometrically frustrated magnets · Frustration effect on the coupling to lattice, orbital and charge degrees of freedom · Exotic phenomena induced by macroscopic degeneracy · Field effect on frustrated magnetism etc. These proceeding represent a very small, but valuable contribution to the community. I hope you enjoy reading them. In view of the rapid growth of the field, it has been

  13. Cradles of industry and occupational medicine in the modern world: Milan 1906 -- Annus Mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Baldasseroni, A; Carnevale, F; Tomassini, L

    2013-01-01

    The example examined is Milan, Italy's main industrial city, where the great International Exhibition was held in 1906. This was the culmination of a period of accelerated industrial growth that modern-day historiography considers to be when Italy's first real industrial revolution began. The twenty-five years between the National Industrial Exhibition of 1881, which was also held in Milan, and the 1906 Exhibition truly reflected a period which was crucial for this transformation to take of. Alongside industry, which was then going through a phase of reorganization and development, Milanese civil society was increasingly turning its interest and attention to what was called the "social question". In an atmosphere of debate and exchange of ideas and experience with Turin, another major industrial city of the north and the birthplace of the Italian engineering and automobile industries, social organizations, political parties and trade unions began to be established thus heralding the Italian approach towards twentieth-century welfare. This is the context in which the first International Congress on Occupational Diseases was held in Milan from 9 to 14 June 1906 within the framework of the International Exhibition. The success achieved with this initiative. organized by Luigi Devoto and Malachia De Cristoforis, which was to continue with the founding of the International Permanent Commission on Occupational Health, showed that the time was ripe for a new subject to appear on the scene--the occupational health physician--who from then on was to play an important role in the promotion of workers' health. The article outlines the main features of the Italian industrial transformation at the turn of the new century with special attention focused on Milan, the capital of industry in Italy. It also describes the impact on public opinion caused by the events surrounding the epic construction of the transalpine railway tunnels which began in 1856 with the Mont Cenis tunnel

  14. Whole genome sequencing for the molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated at the Italian ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco Hospital, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Sara Giordana; Gentile, Bernardina; Pagani, Cristina; Di Gregorio, Annamaria; Anselmo, Anna; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fortunato, Antonella; Pittiglio, Valentina; Ridolfo, Anna Lisa; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Lista, Florigio

    2017-10-10

    The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is threatening antimicrobial treatment. Sixty-eight carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated at Luigi Sacco University Hospital-ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco (Milan, Italy) between 2012 and 2014 were characterised microbiologically and molecularly. They were tested for drug susceptibility and carbapenemase phenotypes, investigated by means of repetitive extra-genic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), and fully sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing for the in silico analysis of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), their resistome, virulome and plasmid content, and their core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. All of the samples were resistant to carbapenems, other β-lactams and ciprofloxacin; many were resistant to aminoglycosides and tigecycline; and seven were resistant to colistin. Resistome analysis revealed the presence of blaKPC genes and, less frequently blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M and blaOXA, which are related to resistance to carbapenem and other β-lactams. Other genes conferring resistance to aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone, phenicol, sulphonamide, tetracycline, trimethoprim and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin were also detected. Genes related to AcrAB-TolC efflux pump-dependent and pump-independent tigecycline resistance mechanisms were investigated, but it was not possible to clearly correlate the genomic features with tigecycline resistance because of the presence of a common mutation in susceptible, intermediate and resistant strains. Concerning colistin resistance, the mgrB gene was disrupted by an IS5-like element, and the mobile mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes were not detected in two cases. The virulome profile revealed type-3 fimbriae and iron uptake system genes, which are important during the colonisation stage in the mammalian host environment. The in silico detected plasmid replicons were classified as IncFIB(pQil), IncFIB(K), Col

  15. Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    university Nicholson, Amy University of Maryland Nishida, Yusuke Los Alamos National Laboratory Petreczky, Peter Brookhaven National Laboratory Sakai, Yuji RIKEN Sasaki, Takahiro Kyushu University Schmidt, Christian University of Bielefeld Scorzato, Luigi ECT* - Trento, Italy Shi, Zhifeng The College of William and Mary Shuryak, Edward Stony Brook University Skokov, Vladimir Brookhaven National Laboratory Strickland, Michael Gettysburg College Teaney, Derek Stony Brook University Wang, Qun University of Science and Technology of China Xu, Nu CCNU/LBNL Xu, Xiao-Ming Shanghai University Yamamoto, Naoki Institute for Nuclear Theory Conference photograph

  16. PREFACE: Applications of Novel Scintillators for Research and Industry (ANSRI 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    Scintillator detectors are used widely in the field of γ- and X-ray spectroscopy, particularly in the mid 1900s when the invention of NaI(Tl) by nobel laureate Robert Hofstadter in 1948, spurred the creation of new scintillator materials. In the development of such new scintillators, important characteristics such as its intrinsic efficiency, position sensitivity, robustness, energy and timing response, light output, etc, need to be addressed. To date, these requirements cannot be met by a single type of scintillator alone and therefore the development of an ''ideal'' scintillator remains the holy grail of nuclear instrumentation. Consequently, the last two decades have seen significant progress in the development of scintillator crystals, driven largely by technological advances. Conventional inorganic scintillators such as NaI(Tl) and BGO are now being replaced with better, novel organic, inorganic, ceramic and plastic scintillators offering a wider variety of options for many applications. The workshop on the Applications of Novel Scintillators in Research and Industry was held at University College Dublin in January 2015 and covered a wide range of topics that characterise modern advances in the field of scintillator technology. This set of proceedings covers areas including the growth, production and characterisation of such contemporary scintillators, along with their applications in various fields, such as; Medical Imaging; Defence/Security; Astrophysics; and Nuclear/Particle Physics. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent results on their research at the workshop. These proceedings atest to the excitement and interest in such a broad field, that pervades the pursuit of the development of novel materials for future applications. We would also like to thank Professor Luigi Piro, for giving an interesting public talk during the conference, and to the Institute of Physics Ireland Group for supporting the event. We thank ORTEC for

  17. KSC-98pc246

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-30

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. -- In the International Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, senior government officials from 15 countries participating in the space station program signed agreements in Washington D.C. on Jan. 29 to establish the framework of cooperation among the partners on the design, development, operation and utilization of the space station. Acting Secretary of State Strobe Talbott signed the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on Space Station Cooperation with representatives of Russia, Japan, Canada, and participating countries of the European Space Agency ESA -- Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Some of these officials then toured Kennedy's Space Station Processing Facility SSPF with NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, at front, sixth from the left. They are, left to right, front to back: Hidetoshi Murayama, National Space Development Agency of Japan NASDA Louis Laurent, Embassy of France Haakon Blankenborg, Norwegian Parliament Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs His Excellency Joris Vos, ambassador of the Netherlands His Excellency Tom Vraalsen, ambassador of Norway Goldin Luigi Berlinguer, Italian minister for education, scientific, and technological research Antonio Rodota, director general, ESA Yvan Ylieff, Belgian minister of science and chairman of the ESA Ministerial Council Jacqueline Ylieff Masaaki Komatsu, Kennedy local NASDA representative and interpreter Serge Ivanets, space attache, Embassy of Russia Hiroshi Fujita, Science and Technology Agency of Japan Akira Mizutani, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs Peter Grognard, science attache', Royal Embassy of Belgium Michelangelo Pipan, Italian diplomatic counselor to the minister His Excellency Gerhard Fulda, German Federal Foreign Office Jorg Feustel-Buechl, ESA director of manned space flight and microgravity A. Yakovenko, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Jo

  18. Representatives of countries participating in the International Space Station toured KSC's Space Sta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Senior government officials from 15 countries participating in the International Space Station (ISS) signed agreements in Washington D.C. on Jan. 29 to establish the framework of cooperation among the partners on the design, development, operation and utilization of the Space Station. Acting Secretary of State Strobe Talbott signed the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on Space Station Cooperation with representatives of Russia, Japan, Canada, and participating countries of the European Space Agency (ESA), including Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Some of these officials then toured KSC's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) with NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, at front, sixth from the left. They are, left to right, front to back: Hidetoshi Murayama, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Louis Laurent, Embassy of France; Haakon Blankenborg, Norwegian Parliament Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs; His Excellency Joris Vos, ambassador of the Netherlands; His Excellency Tom Vraalsen, ambassador of Norway; Daniel Goldin; Luigi Berlinguer, Italian minister for education, scientific, and technological research; Antonio Rodota, director general, European Space Agency (ESA); Yvan Ylieff, Belgian minister of science and chairman of the ESA Ministerial Council; Jacqueline Ylieff; Masaaki Komatsu, KSC local NASDA representative and interpreter; Serge Ivanets, space attache, Embassy of Russia; Hiroshi Fujita, Science and Technology Agency of Japan; Akira Mizutani, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Peter Grognard, science attache, Royal Embassy of Belgium; Michelangelo Pipan, Italian diplomatic counselor to the minister; His Excellency Gerhard Fulda, German Federal Foreign Office; Jorg Feustel-Buechl, ESA director of manned space flight and microgravity; A. Yakovenko, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director for Advanced Development

  19. Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Luigi; Meixner, Hilda; Sancho, Francisco; Damiano, Antimo; Lazaro, David

    2007-01-01

    mission up to routine. The activities performed to validate all the Flight Dynamics functions, characterize the behaviour of the satellite and monitor the performances of the Flight Dynamics facility will be highlighted. The MetOp Flight Dynamics Operations team is led by Anders Meier Soerensen and composed by Pier Luigi Righetti, Francisco Sancho, Antimo Damiano and David Lazaro. The team is supported by Hilda Meixner, responsible for all Flight Dynamics validation activities.

  20. Representatives of countries participating in the International Space Station toured KSC's Space Sta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Senior government officials from 15 countries participating in the International Space Station (ISS) signed agreements in Washington D.C. on Jan. 29 to establish the framework of cooperation among the partners on the design, development, operation and utilization of the Space Station. Acting Secretary of State Strobe Talbott signed the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on Space Station Cooperation with representatives of Russia, Japan, Canada, and participating countries of the European Space Agency (ESA), including Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Some of these officials then toured KSC's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) with NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, at front, sixth from the left. They are, left to right, front to back: Hidetoshi Murayama, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Louis Laurent, Embassy of France; Haakon Blankenborg, Norwegian Parliament Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs; His Excellency Joris Vos, ambassador of the Netherlands; His Excellency Tom Vraalsen, ambassador of Norway; Daniel Goldin; Luigi Berlinguer, Italian minister for education, scientific, and technological research; Antonio Rodota, director general, European Space Agency (ESA); Yvan Ylieff, Belgian minister of science and chairman of the ESA Ministerial Council; Jacqueline Ylieff; Masaaki Komatsu, KSC local NASDA representative and interpreter; Serge Ivanets, space attache, Embassy of Russia; Hiroshi Fujita, Science and Technology Agency of Japan; Akira Mizutani, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Peter Grognard, science attache, Royal Embassy of Belgium; Michelangelo Pipan, Italian diplomatic counselor to the minister; His Excellency Gerhard Fulda, German Federal Foreign Office; Jorg Feustel-Buechl, ESA director of manned space flight and microgravity; A. Yakovenko, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director for Advanced Development

  1. How Are the Interests of Incapacitated Research Participants Protected through Legislation? An Italian Study on Legal Agency for Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Sabina; Fusari Imperatori, Susanna; Spila-Alegiani, Stefania; Maggiore, Laura; Galeotti, Francesca; Vanacore, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Raschetti, Roberto; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with dementia may have limited capacity to give informed consent to participate in clinical research. One possible way to safeguard the patients' interests in research is the involvement of a proxy in the recruitment process. In Italy, the system of proxy is determined by the courts. In this study we evaluate the timing for appointment of a legal proxy in Italy and identify predictive variables of appointment. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were recruited among the outpatients seeking medical advice for cognitive complaints at the Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions, University of Milan, “Luigi Sacco” Hospital. The Centre was participating to the AdCare Study, a no-profit randomised clinical trial coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health. The requirement that informed consent be given by a legal representative dramatically slowed down the recruitment process in AdCare, which was prematurely interrupted. The Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions collected data on the timing required to appoint the legal representatives. Patients diagnosed with dementia and their caregivers were provided information on the Italian law on legal agency (law 6/2004). At each scheduled check-up the caregiver was asked whether she/he had applied to appoint a legal proxy for the patient and the time interval between the presentation of the law, the registration of the application at the law court chancellery and the sentence of appointment was registered. The study involved 169 demented patients. Seventy-eight patients (46.2%) applied to appoint a legal proxy. These subjects were usually younger, had been suffering from dementia for a longer time, had less than two children and made more use of memantine. The mean interval time between the presentation of the law and the patients' application to the law court chancellery was two months. The mean interval time between the patient's application to

  2. The Museum of Vesuvius Observatory and its public. Years 2005 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maddalena; Ottaiano, Mena; Limoncelli, Bianca; Parlato, Luigi; Scala, Omar; Siviglia, Vittoria

    2010-05-01

    The museum of Vesuvius Observatory was created through the enlargement and updating of a permanent exhibition called "Vesuvius: 2000 years of observations", set up in 2000 with the aim of make citizens aware of volcanic phenomena, volcanic hazard and surveillance of active volcanoes in high risk areas, such as Naples and surroundings. The museum is located in the nineteenth-century historical building of the Vesuvius Observatory, the first volcanological observatory in the world, currently part of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. In the museum the dominant theme is the volcano Vesuvius: along the exhibition scientific issues are strictly interlaced with historical, archaeological and literary topics. The exhibition path begins with the presentation of eruptive phenomena, and related hazard for people and things. It traces the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius pointing out the most famous eruptions, occurred in 79 AD and 1944, and the methodologies used by volcanologists to define the eruptive history of a volcano through the study of its products. In the octagonal room the products of effusive and explosive eruptions, and minerals formed in volcanic environments, are displayed. The path, consisting of panels and video on big screen, is enriched by the exhibition of historical documents as the geological map of Somma-Vesuvius by Henry James Johnston-Lavis and of copies of Ercolano and Pompeii casts. Also historical scientific instruments once used for surveillance are on display, including the first electromagnetic seismograph, built in 1856 by Luigi Palmieri, director of the Vesuvius Observatory from 1855 to 1896. The tour ends with a practical experience of simulation of an earthquake. Communication tools used in the museum are basically video and panels. The museum admission is free; visitors enter the museum by guided tours only. Since the year 2000 checking of visiting public was carried out, either through booking requests received by the

  3. Some contributions from the doctor of the miners in the Simplon tunnel: The most human of victories. The Provinces of Italy to the Simplon tunnel. The family of the miner at Simplon. 1906.

    PubMed

    Volante, G

    2006-01-01

    he worked under Luigi Devoto (1864-1936) in Milan. After that, he returned to his native Turin where he practised urology. According to his direct descendents, he died aged 64 from respiratory insufficiency the causes of which included a "pneumoconiosis" diagnosed by Prof. Quarelli (1881-1954), a renowned doctor of work-related illnesses, which he had obviously contracted in the period when he had been the doctor of the miners (Gius Volante, 2006).

  4. Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) test by a stratospheric balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Gaborit, V.; Aboudam, A.; Angrilli, F.; Antonello, M.; Bastianello, S.; Bettanini, C.; Bianchini, G.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Lion Stoppato, P.

    2002-09-01

    We developped a series of balloon experiments parachuting a 1:1 scale mock up of the Huygens probe from an altitude larger than 30 km in order to simulate at planetary scale the final part of the descent of the probe in the Titan atmosphere. The Earth atmosphere represents a natural laboratory where most of the physical parameters meet quite well the bulk condition of Titan's environment, with the exception of temperature. A first balloon experiment has been carried out in June 2001 and the results have been reported at the last DPS (V. Gaborit et al., BAAS 33, 38.03) The mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI sensors, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens SSP Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are i) to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere; ii) to investigate impact at ground to check the

  5. Sicily 2002 balloon campaign: a test of the HASI instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettanini, C.; Fulchignoni, M.; Angrilli, F.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Antonello, M.; Bastianello, S.; Bianchini, G.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Flamini, E.; Gaborit, V.; Aboudan, A.

    2004-01-01

    A mock-up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere as part of the Huygens Cassini Mission was successfully launched and recovered on 30th May 2002 after a stratospheric balloon launch from the Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Trapani, Sicily. To simulate the Huygens mission at Titan, the probe was lifted to an altitude of 32 km and then released to perform a 45 min parachute decelerated descent. The probe was hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 76 acquired sensor channels and sampled during the ascent, drift and descent phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system was developed, based on PC architecture and soft-real-time application. Sensors channels were sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software was developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy. The main goal of this flight was to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test for HASI hardware in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those of the Titan atmosphere as well as the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI during ground landing. Aerodynamic study of the probe has contributed in achieving descent velocity and spin rate profiles close to the ones envisioned for the Huygens Titan descent. Profiles have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe through the Earth's atmosphere during parachute aided descent. Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. Passive thermal control of the probe has also been designed and implemented in order to guarantee proper temperature ranges on critical components

  6. Effects of surface states, defects and dopants on the optical and magnetic properties of low-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podila, Ramakrishna

    a range of magnetic properties in ZnO can result, depending on the sample preparation and annealing conditions. For example, within the same ZnO sample we have observed ferro- to para- and diamagnetic responses depending on the annealing conditions. We also explored the effects of surface states on the magnetic behavior of nanoscale ZnO through detailed calculations. In the case of grapheme, we have observed new combination modes in the range from 1650 to 2300 cm-1 in single-(SLG), bi-, few-layer and incommensurate bilayer graphene (IBLG) on silicon dioxide substrates. A peak at ˜1860 cm-1 (iTALO- ) is observed due to a combination of the in-plane transverse acoustic (iTA) and the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons. The intensity of this peak decreases with increasing number of layers and this peak is absent for bulk graphite. The overtone of the out-of-plane transverse optical (oTO) phonon at ˜1750 cm-1, also called the M band, is suppressed for both SLG and IBLG. In addition, two previously unidentified modes at ˜2200 and ˜1880 cm-1 are observed in SLG. The 2220 cm -1 (1880 cm-1) mode is tentatively assigned to the combination mode of in-plane transverse optical (iTO) and TA phonons (oTO+LO phonons) around the K point in the graphene Brillouin zone. Finally, the peak frequency of the 1880 (2220) cm-1 mode is observed to increase (decrease) linearly with increasing graphene layers. Finally, we find that the high curvature in sub-nm SWCNTs leads to (i) an unusual S-like dispersion of the G-band frequency due to perturbations caused by the strong electron-phonon coupling, (ii) an activation of diameter-selective intermediate frequency modes that are as intense as the radial breathing modes (RBMs), and (iii) a clear observation of the IR modes.

  7. Understanding the role of heteroreceptor complexes in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Fisone, Gilberto; Agnati, Luigi F; Tanganelli, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This special issue is based on a mini-symposium in the area of neurosciences with the title "Understanding the role of heteroreceptor complexes in the central nervous system" held at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institutet on December 17th, 2012, organized by Kjell Fuxe, Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela and Luigi F. Agnati. It consists of seven mini-reviews in the field receptor heteromers. The early work on negative cooperativity and neuropeptide-monoamine receptor-receptor interactions in the central nervous system gave the first indications of the existence of homomers and heteromers of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), respectively, and the GPCR field began to expand from monomers into dimers and receptor mosaics (higher-order dimers). It was underlined that the existence of receptor heteromers with allosteric receptor-receptor interactions increases the diversity and bias of GPCR recognition and signalling. The molecular phenomenon of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions is proposed to give a better understanding of brain function through molecular integration of signals. An alteration in specific receptor-receptor interactions is in fact considered to play a role in pathogenic mechanisms leading to several diseases, inter alia Parkinson's disease, hypertension, schizophrenia, addiction and depression. It is a new principle in molecular medicine. Therefore, pharmacological targeting of receptor-receptor interactions in heteromers will become an important area for developing more selective drugs with reduced side-effects including heterobivalent compounds and optimal types of combined treatments. In other words , it will lead to novel strategies for treatment, and finally novel drugs for treatment of disease. The first mini-review by Dr. Tena-Campus and colleagues introduces the field of GPCR oligomerization as emerging signalling units with new opportunities for drug design and discusses the technologies involved for detection of receptor heteromers. Then the

  8. Ancient views on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: an historical and epistemological perspective.

    PubMed

    Toni, R

    2000-10-01

    , Mondino envisaged the possibility that the third ventricle was implicated in the regulation of the animal behavior by processing sensory, cognitive and emotional informations. No trace of these Mondino's ideas can be found throughout the Renaissance, despite the leading anatomical work of the period, the Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius, remained apparently inclined to the Galenic dogma of the rete mirabilis. After Vesalius, the Galenic anatomy and physiology of the infundibular region survived for at least two more centuries, and we owe Luigi Galvani, the discoverer of animal electricity, the first detailed anatomical observation that in humans the nasal secretions were not a "drainage" waste of the brain ventricles, as postulated by Galen, but the product of nasal mucous glands. From an epistemological standpoint, Aristotle anticipated the possibility that the "set point" for energy intake and behavioral adaptation was determined by the interplay between the brain activity and a thermogenic principle present in the blood, in a manner very close to a circuitry devoted to maintain the energetic and thermic steady state of the living organism (homeostasis). The Galenic modelling of brain-thyroid interaction is an evolution of the Aristotelian one, since it postulates an anatomical and functional loop linking the transport of body energy to the brain through the arteries, and the transformation of this energy into neural output directed to the peripheral glands, "thyroid" included, by the mediation of the pituitary gland. Finally, the proposal by Mondino de' Liuzzi provides a scheme of brain-thyroid interaction that merges together the "homeostatic" Aristotelian with the "pituitary/autonomic" Galenic models, suggesting that the thyroid plays a "thermoregulatory" role linked to the control of body energy. This remarkable set of ideas has never been credited to Mondino by the modern historical critique, possibly due to the impact that the methodological reform of anatomy by

  9. Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Diodato, A.; de Leonibus, L.; Zauli, F.; Biron, D.; Melfi, D.

    2009-04-01

    Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium). Cap. Attilio DI DIODATO(*), T.Col. Luigi DE LEONIBUS(*), T.Col Francesco ZAULI(*), Cap. Daniele BIRON(*), Ten. Davide Melfi(*) Satellite Application Facilities (SAFs) are specialised development and processing centres of the EUMETSAT Distributed Ground Segment. SAFs process level 1b data from meteorological satellites (geostationary and polar ones) in conjunction with all other relevant sources of data and appropriate models to generate services and level 2 products. Each SAF is a consortium of EUMETSAT European partners lead by a host institute responsible for the management of the complete SAF project. The Meteorological Service of Italian Air Force is the host Institute for the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). HSAF has the commitment to develop and to provide, operationally after 2010, products regarding precipitation, soil moisture and snow. HSAF is going to provide information on error structure of its products and validation of the products via their impacts into Hydrological models. To that purpose it has been structured a specific subgroups. Accumulated precipitation is computed by temporal integration of the instantaneous rain rate achieved by the blended LEO/MW and GEO/IR precipitation rate products generated by Rapid Update method available every 15 minutes. The algorithm provides four outputs, consisting in accumulated precipitation in 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, delivered every 3 hours at the synoptic hours. These outputs are our precipitation background fields. Satellite estimates can cover most of the globe, however, they suffer from errors due to lack of a direct relationship between observation parameters and precipitation, the poor sampling and algorithm imperfections. For this reason the 3 hours accumulated precipitation is

  10. MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN VORTEX VEIN VARICES.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Chiara; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Marco; Maiolo, Chiara; Primavera, Laura; Morara, Mariachiara; Armstrong, Grayson W; Ciardella, Antonio P

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of vortex vein varices with multimodal imaging. The authors carried out a retrospective case series of eight patients (7 female, 1 male) with an average age of 60.2 years (min 8, max 84, median 68.5) presenting with vortex vein varices. All patients were evaluated at the Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy and at Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment, and fundus examination. Imaging studies, including fundus color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography were also performed. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography and ultra-widefield indocyanine angiography using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph and the Staurenghi 230 SLO Retina Lens were used to demonstrate the disappearance of all retinal lesions when pressure was applied to the globe. All eight cases initially presented to the emergency room. One patient presented secondary to trauma, two patients presented for suspected hemangioma, whereas the other five were referred to the authors' hospitals for suspected retinal lesions. On examination, retinal abnormalities were identified in all 8 patients, with 7 (87.5%) oculus dexter and 1 (12.5%) oculus sinister, and with 1 (12.5%) inferotemporally, 3 (37.5%) superonasally, 3 (37.5%) inferonasally, and 1 (12.5%) inferiorly. Fundus color photography showed an elevated lesion in seven patients and a nonelevated red lesion in one patient. In all patients, near-infrared reflectance imaging showed a hyporeflective lesion in the periphery of the retina. Fundus autofluorescence identified round hypofluorescent rings surrounding weakly hyperfluorescent lesions in all

  11. Prefazione al volume 9 di Gerbertus in Transitu Mercurii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The papers published in this volume deal with historical and contemporary themes of physics and astronomy, always with the focus in didactics, as in the style of Gerbert of Aurillac, "rogatus a pluribus" (required by several students to write down the basics of new sciences). 1. Christopher Columbus in the voyage to America of 1492 discovered the deviation of the Magnetic North from the Celestial North; his measurements could have been done with the technology available to Gerbert, here we present the astronomical aspects of them. 2. On the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli (1702) we repeated the experiences of Cassini in characterizing the refraction of the atmosphere by the difference between observed and calculated positions of the center of the Sun: 3. The collection of astronomical instruments in the Vatican Museums gives the opportunity to present the role of Astronomy in Catholic Church, starting from the calculation of Easter, present in the Chair of Hyppolitus. 4. The Eucharistic Miracle in Lanciano is dated VIII century AD, and the recognition of 1574 found the miracle of weights, where the five drops weigthed like one only. A discussion on that result is made on the light of sensibility of the scales of that time, which does not depart from the one of Gerbert's time. 5. The climate of X century allowed crossing the Alps: Luigi Mariani presents parallel evidences. 6. A list of 44 questions aswered by Paolo Rossi on modern physics/astrophysics is presented as a wish list of the level of culture of a secondary student. Three decades ago these topics were achievable only to University students: now are part of the public opinion, and a new framework has to be set by the teachers. 7. The dynamics of a micro-probe sent to alpha Centauri in 20 years is studied numerically. 8. The azimut of the Pyramid Cestia and 9. the height of the Vatican obelisk are studied exploiting solar ephemerides 10. The phases of pollen production of Cypress for 2016 are

  12. Very Large Array Detects Radio Emission from Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to make the first detection of radio emission from a cosmic gamma-ray burst. This sheds the first light on longstanding questions about the actual physics of these mysterious, tremendously energetic events. "The mere discovery of radio emission from this gamma-ray burst rules out some theoretical models," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. "We are still observing it and each additional observation will help further discriminate among competing models." "This detection may finally tell us what these mysterious gamma-ray bursts are, helping to resolve one of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics," said Hugh Van Horn, Director of the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences. The VLA detection was made by some of the same scientists who announced yesterday that optical observations showed that gamma-ray bursts come from great distances. In addition to Frail, the VLA astronomers are: Shri Kulkarni of Caltech and the BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Burst Team, consisting of Luciano Nicastro, Eliana Palazi, Enrico Costa, Marco Feroci, Luigi Piro, Fillipo Frontera, and John Heise. The burst of gamma rays was detected May 8 by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. Hundreds of such bursts have been recorded by satellites in the past 30 years, but last week's event already has become the most scientifically significant of them all. For years, the difficulty of precisely locating the bursts' position in the sky made it nearly impossible to study them with optical and radio instruments. In late 1996, this situation improved with the launch of BeppoSAX, which can pinpoint the bursts' location much more accurately than previous spacecraft. Following BeppoSAX discoveries, optical and radio astronomers have been able to make quick observations of the burst locations. The largest unanswered question about gamma-ray bursts has been their

  13. PREFACE: International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruccio, Giuseppe; Sanvito, Stefano; Hoffmann, Germar; Wiesendanger, Roland; Rowan, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Dublin, Ireland), Germar Hoffmann and Roland Wiesendanger (Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany), and Alan Rowan (NSRIM Institute Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands). This group also acted as the Publication Committee and managed all the submitted papers that were reviewed by expert referees in order to meet the standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Conference photographNobel Laureate A Fert with some members of the organizing committee. The conference would not have been possible without the support from the local organizing committee at the University of Salento and NNL Institute Nanoscience-CNR, including Anna Paola Caricato, Luigi Martina and the Conference Secretaries Maria Concetta Gerardi, Adriana Amato, and Gabriella Zammillo. We are grateful for the technical assistance of Michele Linciano, Antonio Guerrieri, Carmine Mangia, Luciano Carluccio, and Tommaso Moscara e Francesco Sabetta. We also gratefully acknowledge Serena Chiriacó, Anna Grazia Mondeduro and Massimo Corrado who helped to run the conference. The conference was made possible by the financial support from the European Commission through the SpiDME project (EU-FP6-029002), the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the University of Lecce and its Department of Physics, and all of the sponsors (Lot Oriel, Attocube, Schaefer, Cryogenic Ltd, Oxford Instruments, MTI Corporation, Cantele, Monte dei Paschi di Siena). Conference Chair and Co-Chairs Giuseppe MaruccioStefano SanvitoGermar HoffmannRoland WiesendangerAlan Rowan Logos

  14. PREFACE: 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure - achievements of the past two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    shell model. Then, as usual, the program of the meeting consisted of general talks and more specialized contributions, which covered five main topics: i) From nuclear forces to nuclear structure; ii) Exploring nuclear structure toward the drip line; iii) Role of the shell model in the study of exotic nuclei; iv) Nuclear structure aspects outside the shell model; and v) Special topics. The main conclusions were drawn in two keynote talks given by Amand Faessler and Franco Iachello. The Conference had about 90 participants from some 20 countries [please see the list of participants]. This is well in line with the tradition of these meetings, as is the fact that more than 50% of the present participants attended one or more of the previous Seminars. We received 58 manuscripts out of the 73 invited papers and contributions presented at the Seminar. All of these have been peer reviewed and are collected in this volume. We would like to thank all the colleagues who have acted as referees to assess the suitability of the various articles for publication in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are confident that the high quality of both invited and contributed papers contained in these Proceedings will be appreciated by the nuclear physics community. We gratefully acknowledge the members of the Advisory Committee for their valuable cooperation in preparing the scientific program as well as the financial support of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, the University of Naples Federico II, and the Dipartimento di Fisica who helped make the Seminar possible. Angela Gargano Luigi Coraggio Nunzio Itaco Editors

  15. Brittle onset of monodispersed magmatic suspensions: from spheres to spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordonnier, B.; Kaus, B.; Manga, M.; Caricchi, L.; Pistone, M.; Castro, J.; Hess, K.-U.; Gottschaller, S.; Dingwell, D. B.; Burlini, L.

    2012-04-01

    This abstract describes one of the last projects engaged by Dr. Luigi Burlini. It highlights his wish to make a close link between experimental and numerical studies, and push even further our understanding of rock mechanics. His students, engaged in this study, wish to credit these results to the legacy left by him owing to his constant involvement in Science and in educating the next generation of rheologists. While he could not see this project to fruition, his constant support and help during the conception of the project made it possible. The brittle-ductile transition remains a central question of modern geology as rock failure is the main parameter in mitigating geological risks, such as, for volcanic eruptions, the transitions from effusive to explosive eruptive style. Although numerical simulations are the only way to fully understanding the physical processes involved, we are in a strong need of an experimental validation of the proposed models. We first recall some experimental results obtained under torsion and uni-axial compression on both pure melts and crystal-bearing magmas. Torsion experiments were performed at high temperature (600 to 900 degC) and high pressure (200 to 300 MPa) using a Paterson-type rock deformation apparatus (ETH Zurich). We characterized the brittle onset of two phases magmas from 0 to 65 vol% crystals. The strain-rates span 5 orders of magnitude, with a change in the behavior of the material from viscous to brittle (10^-5- 100 s^-1). The materials tested are a standard borosilicate glass (NIST717), a natural crystal bearing rhyolitic melt (Mt Unzen volcano) and a suspension of haplogranitic synthetic sample with corundum particles. To characterize the physical processes leading to failure in the experiments, we performed 2D and 3D numerical simulations on monodispersed rigid spheroids with eccentricities ranging from 10^-2 to 10^2. The model is numerically solved with Finite Elements Methods. The pre-processing, processing and

  16. The physics of non-volcanic tremor: insights from laboratory-scale earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Toro, G.; Meredith, P.

    2012-04-01

    Due to his extensive early experience in field structural geology, Luigi Burlini's experimental research was always aimed at using laboratory techniques and simulations to improve our understanding of the physics of natural rock deformation. Here we present an example of collaborative work from the later part of his scientific career in which the main goal was unravelling the physics of non-volcanic tremor in subduction zones. This was achieved by deforming typical source rocks (serpentinites) under conditions (300 MPa and 600oC) that approach those expected in nature (up to 1 GPa and 500oC). The main technical challenge was to capture deformation-induced microseismicity (in the form of acoustic emissions) released under such extreme conditions by means of in-situ transducers designed to work at only modest temperatures (up to 200oC). The main scientific challenges were (1) to link the acoustic emission output to specific physical processes, such as cracking, fluid flow or fluid-crack interactions, by means of waveform and microstructural analysis; and (2) to extrapolate the laboratory acoustic emission signals (kHz to MHz frequency) associated with mm to cm-scale processes, to natural seismicity (0.1-1 Hz frequency) associated with km-scale rock volumes by means of frequency scaling (Aki and Richards, 1980). Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been correlated with rupture phenomena in subducting oceanic lithosphere at 30 to 45 km depth, where high Vp/Vs ratios, suggestive of high-fluid pressure, have also been observed. ETS, by accommodating slip in the down-dip portion of the subduction zone, may trigger megathrust earthquakes up-dip in the locked section. In our experiments we measured the output of acoustic emissions during heating of serpentinite samples to beyond their equilibrium dehydration temperature. Experiments were performed on cores samples 15 mm in diameter by 30 mm long under hydrostatic stresses of 200 or 300 MPa in a Paterson high

  17. The origin of the Dargom canal in the oasis of Samarkand (Uzbekistan). A new scenario from geoarcheological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Mantellini, S.; Picotti, V.; Gabbianelli, G.; Tosi, M.

    2009-04-01

    As the main oases developed in the arid regions of Central Asia, the region of Samarkand is the outcome of large hydraulic works carried out since the past times. The main result of such a great landscape transformation is a complex irrigation network formed by several artificial channels and useful for both urban water supply and irrigation purposes. Within the framework of the Italo-Uzbek Archaeological Project begun in 2001, a specific study was aimed to reconstruct the history of Dargom, the primary canal on the South of the city, and its relationships with the settlement dynamics. According to the most accepted theories, the Dargom was dug during the Achaemenid Age (6th-4th c. BC) as a consequence of a master plan linked to a strong central political power. The new investigations carried out by a joined team of Archaelogists and Geologists from the University Bologna allowed a new hypothesis on the way of digging and the chronology of the Dargom itself. The analyses on the historical settlement patterns seem to suggest a low development of Samarkand's territory during the Achaemenid times, whilst the increasing of sites during the Early Middle Age (5th-8th c.) can be explained throughout the rich trades along the Silk Road as well as the development of irrigated agriculture. The present-day Dargom is a high sinuosity channel deeply incised into the bedrock flowing to the east, strongly resembling a natural channel. It has been excavated for around 70 km along an apron of alluvial fans sourced by a southern mountain range. Its morphology clearly document a natural evolution after excavation: incision and meandering took place, likely due to the increasing gradient related to the headward migration of lowering of the base-level and the decrease of the bed load through time. Field survey around the fortress of Kafir Kala, the main archeological site geographically linked to the Dargom, allowed reconstructing the original bed of the canal, marked by a layer of

  18. Gamma-ray Bursts May Originate in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    New findings from two X-ray satellites suggest that gamma-ray bursts, some of the most intense blasts in the universe, may be created in the same area where stars are born. Dr. Luigi Piro of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, presented data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Italian-Dutch ASI BeppoSAX observatory today at the Gamma Ray 2001 conference in Baltimore, MD. "We know that when a gamma-ray burst explodes, it produces a blast of material called a fireball, which expands at relativistic speeds like a rapidly inflating bubble," said Piro, who works within CNR's Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. "Our team found evidence that the blast wave caused by the fireball brakes against a wall of very dense gas, which we believe is the crowded region where stars form." Several theories exist about what causes gamma-ray bursts. Among more popular theories are that gamma-ray bursts come from various combinations of merging neutron stars and black holes, or, from the explosion of massive stars, called hypernovae. "Because gamma-ray bursts are going off in extremely distant galaxies, it is difficult to 'see' the regions that harbor them," said Piro. "We can only gather circumstantial evidence as to where and how they form." Piro's observations support the hypernova model. Scientists believe that within dense star-forming regions, the massive star required for a hypernova explosion evolves extremely rapidly. On astronomical time scales, the supermassive star would evolve over the course of only about one million years. Thus, the hypernova explosion may occur in the same stellar environment that originally produced the massive star itself, and perhaps may trigger even more star formation. The hint that gamma-ray bursts can occur in dense media came during a Chandra observation of an afterglow that occurred on September 26, 2000. Prof. Gordon Garmire of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, found X-ray emission to be greater

  19. The Project Serapis: High Resolution Seismic Imagingof The Campi Flegrei Caldera Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Virieux, J.; Capuano, P.; Chiarabba, C.; de Franco, R.; Makris, J.; Michelini, A.; Musacchio, G.; Serapis Group

    expected NE-SW and SE-NW structural trends and it has been designed to get 2D/3D images of the crustal structure at a regional scale. A denser 2D network of 35 OBSs has been deployed in the bay of Pozzuoli aimed at detecting and modeling reflected/converted waves from 1 the possible shallow to deep discontinuities beneath the Campi Flegrei caldera. The main target of this particular receiver lay-out is the detailed imaging of the magma chamber top, expected at 4-5 km depth, according to temperature measurements in wells and sparse seismic observations. About 5000 shots have been performed dur- ing the SERAPIS experiment, at an average spatial spacing of 125 m, for a total ship travel path of 620 km. All of the seismic lines have been re-sampled at least twice, using a staggered configuration, which results in a smaller source spacing (less than 65m). In the gulf of Pozzuoli the source array had a geometry of a 5x5 km grid, slightly shifted south with respect to the OBS array. Seismic signals produced by air- guns have been well detected up to 50-60 km distance and the whole Campi Flegrei, Ischia and Procida on-land networks have recorded high quality seismograms pro- duced by the gridded source array in the bay of Pozzuoli. Due to the extended and very dense source and receiver arrays used for SERAPIS, this campaign can provide an innovative contribution to the accurate reconstruction of the Campi Flegrei caldera structure and to the definition of its feeding system at depth. *SERAPIS group: Auger Emmanuel, Bernard Marie-Lise, Bobbio Antonella, Bonagura Mariateresa, Cantore Luciana, Convertito Vincenzo, D'Auria Luca, De Matteis Raffaella, Emolo Anto- nio, Festa Gaetano, Gasparini Paolo, Giberti Grazia, Herrero Andre, Improta Luigi, Lancieri Maria Flora, Nielsen Stefan, Nisii Vincenzo, Russo Guido, Satriano Clau- dio, Simini Mariella, Vassallo Maurizio, Bruno Pier Paolo, Buonocunto Ciro, Capello Marco, Del Pezzo Edoardo, Galluzzo Danilo, Gaudiosi Germana, Giuliana Alessio

  20. Light echoes whisper the distance to a star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    Astronomers have used ESO's Very Large Telescope to measure the distribution and motions of thousands of galaxies in the distant Universe. This opens fascinating perspectives to better understand what drives the acceleration of the cosmic expansion and sheds new light on the mysterious dark energy that is thought to permeate the Universe. ESO PR Photo 04a/08 ESO PR Photo 04a/08 Large-scale structures (Computer Simulation) "Explaining why the expansion of the Universe is currently accelerating is certainly the most fascinating question in modern cosmology," says Luigi Guzzo, lead author of a paper in this week's issue of Nature, in which the new results are presented. "We have been able to show that large surveys that measure the positions and velocities of distant galaxies provide us with a new powerful way to solve this mystery." Ten years ago, astronomers made the stunning discovery that the Universe is expanding at a faster pace today than it did in the past. "This implies that one of two very different possibilities must hold true," explains Enzo Branchini, member of the team. "Either the Universe is filled with a mysterious dark energy which produces a repulsive force that fights the gravitational brake from all the matter present in the Universe, or, our current theory of gravitation is not correct and needs to be modified, for example by adding extra dimensions to space." Current observations of the expansion rate of the Universe cannot distinguish between these two options, but the international team of 51 scientists from 24 institutions found a way that could help in tackling this problem. The technique is based on a well-known phenomenon, namely the fact that the apparent motion of distant galaxies results from two effects: the global expansion of the Universe that pushes the galaxies away from each other and the gravitational attraction of matter present in the galaxies' neighbourhood that pulls them together, creating the cosmic web of large

  1. Chandra Helps Put The Pieces Together On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected never-before-seen properties in the X-ray afterglow of a gamma-ray burst. This discovery strengthens the case for a “hypernova” model, where massive collapsed stars generate these mysterious blasts of high-energy radiation believed to be the most powerful explosions in the universe. An international team of scientists used Chandra to observe iron emission lines from ejected material surrounding the gamma-ray burst (GRB) known as GRB991216. This is the first time emission lines associated with GRBs have been unambiguously detected and their properties precisely measured at X-ray wavelengths. Astronomers have long debated how GRBs originate. One theory contends that GRBs result when two “compact objects,” that is, neutron stars or black holes, collide and coalesce. Another theory speculates that a “hypernova,” a gigantic star collapsing on itself under its own weight, could cause these extremely energetic outbursts. “The discovery of iron lines in the X-ray spectrum is an important clue to our understanding of GRBs,” said Luigi Piro, lead author of the paper that appeared in the November 3 issue of the journal Science. “Studying the immediate area around the GRB tells us a great deal about the origin of the GRB itself.” A shift in the wavelength, or energy, of the detected iron line emission (relative to what would be seen in a laboratory) tells the researchers the distance to the GRB. The Chandra team determined that it has taken roughly 8 billion years for the X rays from GRB991216 to reach the Earth, in agreement with an independent estimate from an absorption feature in the optical light from the host galaxy. From the distance and the intensities of the detected X-ray emission lines, the investigators deduced the properties of the ejected material and its relationship to the GRB. The team was able to determine the mass of the medium within a light day or two of the GRB as approximately equivalent

  2. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

  3. Charting the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    the very massive galaxy cluster RXCJ1131.9-1955 at redshift z = 0.306 [3] in a very rich galaxy field with two major concentrations. It was originally found by George Abell and designated "Abell 1300". The image was obtained with the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope and the WFI camera at La Silla. ESO PR Photo 18c/04 ESO PR Photo 18c/04 Galaxy Cluster RXCJ0937.9-2020 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 746 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1491 pix - 1.3M] [HiRes - JPEG: 2380 x 4437 pix - 14.2M] Caption: PR Photo 18c/04 shows the much smaller, more nearby galaxy group RXCJ0937.9-2020 at a redshift of z = 0.034 [3]. It is dominated by the massive elliptical galaxy seen at the top of the image. The photo covers only the southern part of this group. Such galaxy groups with typical masses of a few 1013 solar masses constitute the smallest objects included in the REFLEX catalogue. This image was obtained with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on the ESO 8.2-m VLT Antu telescope. ESO PR Video Clip 05/04 ESO PR Video Clip 05/04 Galaxy Clusters in the REFLEX Catalogue (3D-visualization) [MPG - 11.7Mb] Caption: ESO PR Video Clip 05/04 illustrates the three-dimensional distribution of the galaxy clusters identfied in the ROSAT All-Sky survey in the northern and southern sky. In addition to the galaxy clusters in the REFLEX catalogue this movie also contains those identified during the ongoing, deeper search for X-ray clusters: the extension of the southern REFLEX Survey and the northern complementary survey that is conducted by the MPE team at the Calar Alto observatory and at US observatories in collaboration with John Huchra and coworkers at the Harvard-Smithonian Center for Astrophysics. In total, more than 1400 X-ray bright galaxy cluster have been found to date. (Prepared by Ferdinand Jamitzky.) Following this idea, a European team of astronomers [2], under the leadership of Hans Böhringer (MPE, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (INAF, Milano, Italy), Chris A. Collins (JMU, Liverpool), and Peter

  4. The Dark Side of Nature: the Crime was Almost Perfect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy), Guido Chincarini (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera & Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy), Nino Panagia (Space Telescope Science Institute, USA), Gianpiero Tagliaferri, Dino Fugazza, Sergio Campana, Stefano Covino, and Paolo D'Avanzo (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy), Daniele Malesani (SISSA/ISAS, Italy and Dark Cosmology Centre, Copenhagen), Vincenzo Testa, L. Angelo Antonelli, Silvia Piranomonte, and Luigi Stella (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), Vanessa Mangano (INAF/IASF Palermo, Italy), Kevin Hurley (University of California, Berkeley, USA), I. Felix Mirabel (ESO), and Leonardo J. Pellizza (Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio). The Danish-led team is composed of Johan P. U. Fynbo, Darach Watson, Christina C. Thöne, Tamara M. Davis, Jens Hjorth, José Mará Castro Cerón, Brian L. Jensen, Maximilian D. Stritzinger, and Dong Xu (Dark Cosmology Centre, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Jesper Sollerman (Dark Cosmology Centre and Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Sweden), Uffe G. Jørgensen, Tobias C. Hinse, and Kristian G. Woller (Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen), Joshua S. Bloom, Daniel Kocevski, Daniel Perley (Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, USA), Páll Jakobsson (Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, UK), John F. Graham and Andrew S. Fruchter (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA), David Bersier (Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, UK), Lisa Kewley (University of Hawaii, Institute of Astronomy, USA), Arnaud Cassan and Marta Zub (Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Germany), Suzanne Foley (School of Physics, University College Dublin, Ireland), Javier Gorosabel (Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Granada, Spain), Keith D. Horne (SUPA Physics/Astronomy, University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK), Sylvio

  5. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    ), Luigi Guiffrida (SOIMI), Gianpietro Marchiori (EIE) and Prof. Massimo Tarenghi (ESO), describing the very successful implementation of this major VLT contract that was awarded by ESO in September 1991 [2]. All speakers praised the good collaboration between ESO and its industrial partners and Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO, expressed his satisfaction `with the splendid performance of the ESO-Industry team which was bringing us close to the realisation of the premier telescope array in optical ground-based astronomy in the world'. The participants were also pleased to listen to several of the Italian engineers present who commented on the very positive experience of being personally involved in the world's largest telescope project. The VLT telescope structures incorporate many new technological concepts. Thanks to these and careful planning of the many components and their integration, it has been possible to achieve, among others, light weight construction, high mechanical stiffness, good thermal equilibrium with the ambient air (of importance for the seeing during the observations), low electromagnetic emissitivity (i.e. low interference with the sensitive astronomical instruments) and easy maintainability. Of particular interest is also the giant, direct drive system with a diameter of 9 metres and the sophisticated, innovative laser encoder system. In this way, there is no direct contact between the moving parts and the friction during the rotation is kept at an absolute minimum. The Next Steps The ESO VLT project is now entering into a decisive phase and the next years will see an increasing number of telescope parts and instruments from the scientific and industrial laboratories of Europe converging towards the VLT observatory at Cerro Paranal in Chile. It is gratifying that, despite its high degree of complexity and incorporation of a substantial number of new technologies, the project is within schedule and budget. There will be several

  6. PREFACE: Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, Jan L.; Ferapontov, Eugene V.; Kitaev, Alexander V.; Nimmo, Jonathan J. C.

    2009-10-01

    Geometric ideas are present in many areas of modern theoretical physics and they are usually associated with the presence of nonlinear phenomena. Integrable nonlinear systems play a prime role both in geometry itself and in nonlinear physics. One can mention general relativity, exact solutions of the Einstein equations, string theory, Yang-Mills theory, instantons, solitons in nonlinear optics and hydrodynamics, vortex dynamics, solvable models of statistical physics, deformation quantization, and many others. Soliton theory now forms a beautiful part of mathematics with very strong physical motivations and numerous applications. Interactions between mathematics and physics associated with integrability issues are very fruitful and stimulating. For instance, spectral theories of linear quantum mechanics turned out to be crucial for studying nonlinear integrable systems. The modern theory of integrable nonlinear partial differential and difference equations, or the `theory of solitons', is deeply rooted in the achievements of outstanding geometers of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, such as Luigi Bianchi (1856-1928) and Jean Gaston Darboux (1842-1917). Transformations of surfaces and explicit constructions developed by `old' geometers were often rediscovered or reinterpreted in a modern framework. The great progress of recent years in so-called discrete geometry is certainly due to strong integrable motivations. A very remarkable feature of the results of the classical integrable geometry is the quite natural (although nontrivial) possibility of their discretization. This special issue is dedicated to Jean Gaston Darboux and his pioneering role in the development of the geometric ideas of modern soliton theory. The most famous aspects of his work are probably Darboux transformations and triply orthogonal systems of surfaces, whose role in modern mathematical physics cannot be overestimated. Indeed, Darboux transformations play a central

  7. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    wave space experiment, the European Space Agency's Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) that will be launched in about 10 years' time, will be sufficiently sensitive to be able to reveal this radiation from RX J0806.3+1527 with a high degree of confidence. Such an observational feat would open an entirely new window on the universe. More information The results described in this Press Release were announced in IAU Circular 7835 and will shortly appear in print in the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters ("RX J0806.3+1527: a double degenerate binary with the shortest known orbital period (321 s)" by G.L. Israel and co-authors), cf. astro-ph/0203043. The 5-min optical modulation was detected independently by another group led by G. Ramsay, cf. astro-ph/0203053. Note [1]: The team consists of GianLuca Israel and Luigi Stella at the Astronomical Observatory of Rome (Italy), Stefano Covino and Sergio Campana at the Astronomical Observatory of Brera (Milan, Italy), Wolfgang Hummel, Gianni Marconi and Gero Rupprecht at the European Southern Observatory, Immo Appenzeller and Otmar Stahl at the University of Heidelberg (Germany), Wolfgang Gassler and Karl-Heinz Mantel at the University of Munich (Germany), Christopher Mauche at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Ulisse Munari at the Astronomical Observatory of Padua (Italy), Ignacio Negueruela at the Astronomical Observatory of Strasbourg (France), Harald Nicklas at the University of Göttingen (Germany), and Richard Smart at the Astronomical Observatory of Turin (Italy). [2]: See the research article by Israel et al. (1999, Astronomy &A, Vol. 349, p. L1). Contact GianLuca Israel Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Italy Tel.: +39 06 9428 6437 email: gianluca@ulysses.mporzio.astro.it Technical information about the photos PR Photo 10a/02 is reproduced from FORS1-exposures, obtained in November 1999 in the U- and R-bands, and both lasting 300 sec. The field measures 2.0 x 1.5 arcmin 2. PR

  8. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  9. A Tale of Two Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    the primordial 24% value (created by the Big Bang) to the present solar 28% value, and yet in a globular cluster that formed only 1 or 2 billion years after the Big Bang, stars were produced with 39% of helium! Contamination from supernovae ESO PR Photo 08d/05 ESO PR Photo 08d/05 The Supernova Scenario [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 483 pix - 33k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 966 pix - 371k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2332 x 2816 pix - 1.9M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 08d/05 shows the possible scenario that may explain the production of two distinct populations of stars in Omega Centauri. The obvious question is now: "Where does all this helium come from?" Luigi Bedin (ESO), another member of the team, suggests that the solution might be connected to supernovae: "The scenario we presently favour is one in which the high helium content originates from material ejected during the supernovae explosions of massive stars. It is possible that the total mass of Omega Centauri was just right to allow the material expelled by high-mass supernovae to escape, while the matter from explosions of stars with about 10-12 times the mass of the Sun was retained." According to this scenario, Omega Centauri must therefore have seen two generations of stars. The first generation, with primordial helium abundance, produced the redder stars. A few tens of million years later, the most massive stars of this first generation exploded as supernovae. The helium-enriched matter that was expelled during the explosions of stars with 10-12 times the mass of the Sun "polluted" the globular cluster. Then a second population of stars, the bluer ones, formed from this helium-rich gas. The scientists acknowledge that certain problems still remain and that the last word may not yet have been said about this unusual globular cluster. But the new results constitute an important step towards the solution of the biggest mystery of all: why is Omega Centauri the only one among the galactic globular cluster that was able to produce super

  10. The Making of the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    observation of its kind Although this effect has long been predicted, it had so far been difficult to find unambiguous evidence for this kind of strong disruption of a globular cluster in the Galactic halo. It appears that NGC 6712 shows this particularly clearly because it passes through especially dense regions in the galactic plane. With its excellent ability to produce sharp images of even very faint stars, however, the VLT has now made it possible to study the lightest stars in a distant globular cluster. Adds Francesco Paresce : "NGC 6712 is the first real example of "evaporation" of stars, allowing us to watch the process unfold in front of our eyes." VLT research programmes soon to begin Subsequent, even more detailed measurements of the steady loss of stars from NGC 6712 will provide key information about the evolution of structure in our Galaxy and deeper insight into the history of its formation. This successful study is only one example of what is about to come and nobody doubts that the VLT will soon provide other demonstrations of its great potential for front-line research. Just some weeks from now, on April 1, 1999, the first research programmes by "visiting" astronomers will start with the FORS1 and ISAAC instruments at the VLT UT1. Notes: [1]: The group consists of Guido De Marchi, Francesco Paresce, Bruno Leibundgut and Luigi Pulone , all from the the European Southern Observatory. An article on the work described in this Press Release will appear in the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics on March 1, 1999. [2]: The New General Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Stars (NGC) contains nearly 8000 entries. It was published in 1888 by the British astronomer Johan Ludvig Dreyer (1852 - 1926). How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../ ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory . Please note that for PR Photo 06a

  11. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) high in orbit around the Earth, suddenly registered an intense burst of gamma-ray radiation from a direction less than 10° from the celestial south pole. Independently, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM) on board the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite also detected the event (see GCN GRB Observation Report 304 [2]). Following the BATSE alert, the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Cameras (WFC) quickly localized the sky position of the burst within a circle of 3 arcmin radius in the southern constellation Chamaeleon. It was also detected by other satellites, including the ESA/NASA Ulysses spacecraft , since some years in a wide orbit around the Sun. The event was designated GRB 990510 and the measured position was immediately distributed by BeppoSAX Mission Scientist Luigi Piro to a network of astronomers. It was also published on Circular No. 7160 of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Paul Vreeswijk, Titus Galama , and Evert Rol of the Amsterdam/Huntsville GRB follow-up team (led by Jan van Paradijs ) immediately contacted astronomers at the 1-meter telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) (Sutherland, South Africa) of the PLANET network microlensing team, an international network led by Penny Sackett in Groningen (The Netherlands). There, John Menzies of SAAO and Karen Pollard (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) were about to begin the last of their 14 nights of observations, part of a continuous world-wide monitoring program looking for evidence of planets around other stars. Other PLANET sites in Australia and Tasmania where it was still nighttime were unfortunately clouded out (some observations were in fact made that night at the Mount Stromlo observatory in Australia, but they were only announced one day later). As soon as possible - immediately after sundown and less than 9 hours after the initial burst was recorded