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Sample records for lumbar posterolateral fusion

  1. The role of spinal instrumentation in augmenting lumbar posterolateral fusion.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Y; Cunningham, B W; Cappuccino, A; Kaneda, K; McAfee, P C

    1996-02-01

    Using a sheep model, clinically practical posterolateral intertransverse process fusion was successfully achieved and biomechanically tested to determine the load-sharing environment provided by spinal instrumentation and posterolateral fusion mass following solid arthrodesis. To quantify the in vivo load-sharing capacity of spinal instrumentation on augmenting the posterolateral intertransverse fusion. The hypothesis was that transpedicular screw fixation maintains the biomechanical contribution to the posterolateral fusion stability even after successful arthrodesis because of its providing anterior and middle column support. Although many previous studies have documented the biological and biomechanical advantages of posterolateral fusion, it is known that posterolateral fusion without spinal instrumentation allowed significant remaining motion at the fused segment even after the solid arthrodesis. Whether spinal instrumentation, especially transpedicular screw fixation, augments in vivo posterolateral fusion stability after solid arthrodesis has not been previously investigated. Radiographic, macroscopic, and biomechanical analyses of a posterolateral intertransverse process fusion model were performed on 18 sheep at 4 months postoperatively. The load-sharing contribution of the spinal instrumentation was calculated based on the stability with or without spinal instrumentation tested in five loading modalities. Histomorphometry of the vertebral body spanned by spinal instrumentation provided the information regarding the biological effect of the load-sharing capacity of spinal instrumentation on bone remodeling. All sheep who received posterolateral intertransverse process fusion demonstrated successful solid arthrodesis and high biomechanical quality of the posterolateral fusion mass when compared to previous posterolateral fusion models. The significant difference in stiffness between fixation and subsequent fixation removal was observed in flexion, despite

  2. Is lumbar facet fusion biomechanically equivalent to lumbar posterolateral onlay fusion?

    PubMed

    Toth, Jeffrey M; Foley, Kevin T; Wang, Mei; Seim, Howard B; Simon Turner, A

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed with the following research objectives: 1) to determine the efficacy of facet fusion with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) in an ovine lumbar facet fusion model; 2) to radiographically and histologically compare the efficacy of lumbar facet fusion with rhBMP-2/ACS to facet fusion with an iliac crest bone graft (ICBG); and 3) to biomechanically compare lumbar facet fusion with rhBMP-2/ACS to lumbar posterolateral fusion (PLF) with ICBG. METHODS The efficacies of the 3 treatments to induce fusion were evaluated in an instrumented ovine lumbar fusion model. Eight sheep had 10 cm(3)/side ICBG placed as an onlay graft for PLF at L2-3. At the adjacent L3-4 level, 0.5 cm(3)/side ICBG was placed for facet fusion. Finally, 0.5 cm(3)/side rhBMP-2/ACS (0.43 mg/ml) was placed for facet fusion at L4-5. CT scans were obtained at 2, 4, and 6 months postoperatively with 2 reviewers conducting an evaluation of the 6-month results for all treated spinal levels. All 8 sheep were killed at 6 months, and all posterolateral instrumentation was removed at this time. The spines were then sectioned through L3-4 to allow for nondestructive unconstrained biomechanical testing of the L2-3 and L4-5 segments. All treated spinal levels were analyzed using undecalcified histology with corresponding microradiography. Statistical comparisons were made between the treatment groups. RESULTS The PLF with ICBG (ICBG PLF group) and the rhBMP-2 facet fusion (rhBMP-2 Facet group) treatment groups demonstrated similar levels of stiffness, with the rhBMP-2 Facet group having on average slightly higher stiffness in all 6 loading directions. All 8 levels in the autograft facet fusion treatment group demonstrated CT radiographic and histological fusion. All 8 levels in the rhBMP-2 Facet group showed bilateral CT radiographic and histological fusion. Six of 16 rhBMP-2/ACS-treated facet defects demonstrated small

  3. The importance of proximal fusion level selection for outcomes of multi-level lumbar posterolateral fusion.

    PubMed

    Nam, Woo Dong; Cho, Jae Hwan

    2015-03-01

    There are few studies about risk factors for poor outcomes from multi-level lumbar posterolateral fusion limited to three or four level lumbar posterolateral fusions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of multi-level lumbar posterolateral fusion and to search for possible risk factors for poor surgical outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 37 consecutive patients who underwent multi-level lumbar or lumbosacral posterolateral fusion with posterior instrumentation. The outcomes were deemed either 'good' or 'bad' based on clinical and radiological results. Many demographic and radiological factors were analyzed to examine potential risk factors for poor outcomes. Student t-test, Fisher exact test, and the chi-square test were used based on the nature of the variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to exclude confounding factors. Twenty cases showed a good outcome (group A, 54.1%) and 17 cases showed a bad outcome (group B, 45.9%). The overall fusion rate was 70.3%. The revision procedures (group A: 1/20, 5.0%; group B: 4/17, 23.5%), proximal fusion to L2 (group A: 5/20, 25.0%; group B: 10/17, 58.8%), and severity of stenosis (group A: 12/19, 63.3%; group B: 3/11, 27.3%) were adopted as possible related factors to the outcome in univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that only the proximal fusion level (superior instrumented vertebra, SIV) was a significant risk factor. The cases in which SIV was L2 showed inferior outcomes than those in which SIV was L3. The odds ratio was 6.562 (95% confidence interval, 1.259 to 34.203). The overall outcome of multi-level lumbar or lumbosacral posterolateral fusion was not as high as we had hoped it would be. Whether the SIV was L2 or L3 was the only significant risk factor identified for poor outcomes in multi-level lumbar or lumbosacral posterolateral fusion in the current study. Thus, the authors recommend that proximal fusion levels be carefully determined when

  4. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. Methods: 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4th, 8th and 16th weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. Results: No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. Conclusions: The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar. PMID:26885221

  5. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4(th), 8(th) and 16(th) weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar.

  6. Delayed Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage due to Lumbar Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old female patient presented with lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication and underwent L3-L4 posterolateral fusion. To prepare the bone fusion bed, the transverse process of L3 and L4 was decorticated with a drill. On the 9th post-operative day, the patient complained of a sudden onset of severe abdominal pain and distension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal hematoma in the right psoas muscle and iatrogenic right L3 transverse process fracture. Lumbar spinal angiography showed the delayed hematoma due to rupture of the 2nd lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and coil embolization was done at the ruptured lumbar artery pseudoaneusyrm. Since then, the patient's postoperative progress proceeded normally with recovery of the hemodynamic parameters. PMID:24294460

  7. Comparison of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Monosegmental Vacuum Phenomenon within an Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    An, Ki-Chan; Kong, Gyu-Min; Park, Dae-Hyun; Youn, Ji-Hong; Lee, Woon-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective. Purpose To compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in monosegmental vacuum phenomenon within an intervertebral disc. Overview of Literature The vacuum phenomenon within an intervertebral disc is a serious form of degenerative disease that destabilizes the intervertebral body. Outcomes of PLIF and PLF in monosegmental vacuum phenomenon are unclear. Methods Monosegmental instrumented PLIF and PLF was performed on 84 degenerative lumbar disease patients with monosegmental vacuum phenomenon (PLIF, n=38; PLF, n=46). Minimum follow-up was 24 months. Clinical outcomes of leg and back pain were assessed using visual analogue scales for leg pain (LVAS) and back pain (BVAS), and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The radiographic outcome was the estimated bony union rate. Results LVAS, BVAS, and ODI improved in both groups. There was no significant difference in the degree of these improvements between PLIF and PLF patients (p>0.05). Radiological union rate was 91.1% in PLIF group and 89.4% in PLF group at postoperative 24 months (p>0.05). Conclusions No significant differences in clinical results and union rates were found between PLIF and PLF patients. Selection of the operation technique will reflect the surgeon's preferences and patient condition. PMID:26949464

  8. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion versus instrumented posterolateral fusion in Grade I/II spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pooswamy, Shanmugasundaram; Muralidharagopalan, Niranjanan Raghavn; Subbaiah, Sivasubramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spondylolisthesis refers to slippage of one vertebra over the other, which may be caused by a variety of reasons such as degenerative, trauma, and isthmic. Surgical management forms the mainstay of treatment to prevent further slip and worsening. However, there is no consensus regarding the best surgical option to treat these patients. This study compares TLIF and instrumented PLF in patients with Grade I and II spondylolisthesis and analysis the outcome with respect to functional outcome, pain, fusion rate, adequacy of medial facetectomy for decompression, and complications. Materials and Methods: Forty patients operated for spondylolisthesis by instrumented posterolateral or transforaminal fusion between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 were included in this retrospective study. They were followed up for 3 years. Twenty one cases were of instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) and 19 cases were of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The patients were asked to fill up the Oswestry disability index (ODI), Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ), and low back pain rating scale (LBPRS) preoperatively, at 1-month postoperatively, and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Radiological parameters were assessed using radiographs. Results: No significant differences were found in DPQ, LBPRS, or ODI scores preoperative, 1-month postoperative, and at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months followup. No significant difference was found between the two groups in blood loss. The only significant difference between the two groups was in the operative time, in which the instrumented PLF group had a mean of 50 min lesser than the TLIF group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: TLIF and instrumented PLF are equally efficacious options in the treatment of Grade I and II spondylolisthesis, except lytic type. PMID:28400657

  9. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion versus instrumented posterolateral fusion in Grade I/II spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Pooswamy, Shanmugasundaram; Muralidharagopalan, Niranjanan Raghavn; Subbaiah, Sivasubramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis refers to slippage of one vertebra over the other, which may be caused by a variety of reasons such as degenerative, trauma, and isthmic. Surgical management forms the mainstay of treatment to prevent further slip and worsening. However, there is no consensus regarding the best surgical option to treat these patients. This study compares TLIF and instrumented PLF in patients with Grade I and II spondylolisthesis and analysis the outcome with respect to functional outcome, pain, fusion rate, adequacy of medial facetectomy for decompression, and complications. Forty patients operated for spondylolisthesis by instrumented posterolateral or transforaminal fusion between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 were included in this retrospective study. They were followed up for 3 years. Twenty one cases were of instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) and 19 cases were of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The patients were asked to fill up the Oswestry disability index (ODI), Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ), and low back pain rating scale (LBPRS) preoperatively, at 1-month postoperatively, and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Radiological parameters were assessed using radiographs. No significant differences were found in DPQ, LBPRS, or ODI scores preoperative, 1-month postoperative, and at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months followup. No significant difference was found between the two groups in blood loss. The only significant difference between the two groups was in the operative time, in which the instrumented PLF group had a mean of 50 min lesser than the TLIF group (P = 0.02). TLIF and instrumented PLF are equally efficacious options in the treatment of Grade I and II spondylolisthesis, except lytic type.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of interbody fusions versus posterolateral fusions in 137 patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamed; Abt, Nicholas B; Witham, Timothy F; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2015-03-01

    Reimbursements for interbody fusions have declined recently because of their questionable cost-effectiveness. A Markov model was adopted to compare the cost-effectiveness of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (/TLIF) versus noninterbody fusion and posterolateral fusion (PLF) in patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. Decision model analysis based on retrospective data from a single institutional series. One hundred thirty-seven patients underwent first-time instrumented lumbar fusions for degenerative or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Quality of life adjustments and expenditures were assigned to each short-term complication (durotomy, surgical site infection, and medical complication) and long-term outcome (bowel/bladder dysfunction and paraplegia, neurologic deficit, and chronic back pain). Patients were divided into a PLF cohort and a PLF plus PLIF/TLIF cohort. Anterior techniques and multilevel interbody fusions were excluded. Each short-term complication and long-term outcome was assigned a numerical quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), based on time trade-off values in the Beaver Dam Health Outcomes Study. The cost data for short-term complications were calculated from charges accrued by the institution's finance sector, and the cost data for long-term outcomes were estimated from the literature. The difference in cost of PLF plus PLIF/TLIF from the cost of PLF alone divided by the difference in QALY equals the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER). We do not report any study funding sources or any study-specific appraisal of potential conflict of interest-associated biases in this article. Of 137 first-time lumbar fusions for spondylolisthesis, 83 patients underwent PLF and 54 underwent PLIF/TLIF. The average time to reoperation was 3.5 years. The mean QALY over 3.5 years was 2.81 in the PLF cohort versus 2.66 in the PLIFo/TLIF cohort (p=.110). The mean 3.5-year costs of $54,827.05 after index interbody fusion were

  11. Long-term result of posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine using the Tadpole system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of pedicle screw fixation is often seen in patients with severe osteoporosis. We developed new lumbar spinal instrumentation (Tadpole system) for elderly patients who have osteoporotic bone and poor general health status. The objective of this study was to document the long-term clinical outcomes after Tadpole system fixation, the rate of spinal fusion, the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, the rate of instrumentation failure, and the overall complications. Methods Sixty patients who underwent posterolateral spinal fusion using the Tadpole system, in whom a radiograph of the lumbar spine was taken at more than 5 years after operation, were involved in this study. The improvement rate of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, rate of spinal fusion, presence or absence of adjacent segment degeneration, rate of instrumentation failure, and postoperative complications of each patient were assessed at 5 years postoperatively. Results The mean JOA score improvement was 72.5%, and the posterolateral spinal fusion rate was 93.3% (56 of 60 patients) at the last follow-up. Adjacent segment degeneration occurred in only two patients who showed decreased intervertebral disc height, and instrumentation failure (hook deviation) was observed in one patient. No other complications were observed in any patients. Conclusion Tadpole system fixation shows favorable long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:24886530

  12. Risk factors for L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Gen; Takaso, Masashi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2014-07-01

    This is a retrospective study. To investigate the risk factors for radiographic L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery. We investigated data from 86 patients (45 men) who underwent posterolateral floating fusion surgery from 2007 to 2010. The follow-up was from 2 to 6 years. The mean age of the patients was 65.4 years. L5-S1 disk height was calculated and >2 mm reduction was defined as significant. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, number of fused levels, grade of disk degeneration, disk height and diameter, sacrolumbar alignment, alignment of fused level, achievement of union, and proximal adjacent segment disorder at final follow-up were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. L5-S1 disk height reduction occurred in 14 patients (30.2%). The number of fused levels was significantly greater (1.8±0.8 vs. 1.4±0.6) in patients without disk height reduction. Radiology showed a significant change of L1-S1 sacrolumbar alignment after surgery in patients without disk height reduction (0.3±6.6 vs. -4.5±7.6 degrees). The height of the disk posterior to the L5-S1 intervertebral disk before surgery was significantly greater (7.3±2.1 vs. 6.1±2.1 mm) in patients without disk height reduction. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, fusion of >3 levels was a significant risk factor for L5-S1 disk height reduction. In posterolateral floating fusion surgery, there was a higher risk of L5-S1 disk height reduction and consequent foraminal stenosis in patients with multiple-level fusion. Surgical methods and fusion levels should be chosen after considering their association with L5-S1 disk height reduction.

  13. The cost effectiveness of single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion at 5 years after surgery.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Steven D; Polly, David W; Dimar, John R; Carreon, Leah Y

    2012-04-20

    Cost effectiveness analysis for single-level instrumented fusion during a 5-year postoperative interval. To determine the cost/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion for degenerative lumbar spine conditions during a 5-year period. Cost/QALY has become a standard measure among healthcare economists because it is generic and can be used across medical treatments. Prior studies have reported widely variable estimates of cost/QALY for lumbar spine fusion. This variability may be related to factors including study design, sample population, baseline assumptions, and length of the observation period. To determine QALY, the Short Form 6D (SF-6D), a utility index derived from the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) was used. Cost analysis was performed based on actual reimbursements from third-party payors, including those for the index surgical procedure, treatment of complications, emergency room outpatient visits, and revision surgery. A second cost analysis using only the contemporaneous Medicare Fee schedule was also performed, in addition to a subanalysis including indirect costs from days off work. The mean SF-6D health utility value showed a gradual increase throughout the follow-up period. The mean health utility value gained in each year postoperatively was 0.12, 0.14, 0.13, 0.15, and 0.15, for a cumulative 0.69 QALY improvement during the 5-year interval. Mean direct medical costs based on actual reimbursements for 5 years after surgery, including the index and revision procedures, was $22,708. The resultant cost per QALY gained at the 5-year postoperative interval was $33,018. The analogous mean direct cost based on Medicare reimbursement for 5 years was $20,669, with a resultant cost per QALY gained of $30,053. The mean total work productivity cost for 5 years was $14,377. The resultant total cost (direct and indirect) per QALY gained ranged from $53,949 to $53,914 at 5 years postoperatively. In

  14. Local autogenous bone mixed with bone expander: an optimal option of bone graft in single-segment posterolateral lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Lin, Mou-Zen; Chen, Yen-Jen; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Chen, Hsien-Te

    2008-12-01

    This was a retrospective study of clinical results for single-segment posterolateral lumbar fusion using local autograft bone with bone expander. Sixty-six patients underwent single-segment decompression with instrumented posterolateral fusion. Locally harvested morselized bone from the decompressive site mixed with 2 mL calcium sulfate (OSTEOSET, Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) was used for the fusion at the posterolateral aspect of the lumbar spine. The minimum follow-up period was 15 months. The status of the fusion was evaluated by plain film, flexion-extension view, and fine-cut computed tomography (CT) with coronal reconstruction. Radiographic fusion criteria included less than 5 degrees of angular motion, less than 2 mm of translation, and evidence of bridging bone in the posterolateral lumbar area on the CT scan. The clinical outcome was recorded using VAS score and the ODI. The results were then compared with the result of the other group who had received the same procedure except that a pure autogenous bone graft harvested from the PSIS was used. In the group using local bone and OSTEOSET, the fusion rate was 92.3% by the strict criteria. The VAS scores for leg pain and back pain were decreased in the 2 groups, but there was no significant difference between them. The improvement in the ODI was also similar between the 2 groups. Intraoperative blood loss and the time needed for the operation were significantly decreased in the group using local bone and OSTEOSET as the bone graft. In the group using autogenous bone graft, donor site morbidity was still encountered. Using local laminectomy bone with calcium sulfate as bone graft is a practical option in posterolateral lumbar fusion with the advantages of less operative time, less blood loss, and avoidance of donor site morbidity.

  15. The perioperative cost of Infuse bone graft in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y; Campbell, Mitchell J; Johnson, John R; Puno, Rolando M; Djurasovic, Mladen; Dimar, John R

    2008-01-01

    There is mounting evidence supporting the efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) for both anterior interbody and posterolateral lumbar fusion. However, the relative cost of BMP remains an important concern for physicians, hospitals, and payers. The purpose of this study is to report on the perioperative costs for patients treated with rhBMP-2 as compared with an iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) supplemented with graft extenders. A prospective randomized controlled trial of rhBMP-2/ACS (Infuse Bone Graft; Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) versus ICBG+/-graft extender for lumbar spine fusion in patients over 60 years old. One hundred two patients over 60 years old who required a posterolateral lumbar spine fusion randomized between receiving rhBMP-2/ACS or ICBG. All health-care costs over the first 3 months after surgery. As part of a prospective randomized trial of rhBMP-2/ACS versus ICBG+/-graft extender for lumbar spine fusion, all costs over the first 3 months after surgery were directly recorded by a dedicated coder funded by Norton Healthcare, Louisville, KY. A dedicated research nurse also followed all patients throughout their hospital stay and posthospitalization recovery to identify any adverse events or additional outpatient medical care. Fifty patients received rhBMP-2/ACS and 52 underwent ICBG harvest. The mean hospital cost for the index admission was $24,736 for the rhBMP-2/ACS group and $21,138 for the ICBG group. Mean inpatient physician costs were $5,082 in the rhBMP-2/ACS group and $5,316 in the ICBG group. Costs associated with posthospital rehabilitation averaged $4,906 in the rhBMP-2/ACS group versus $6,820 in the ICBG group. Total payer expenditure for the 3-month perioperative period averaged $33,860 in the rhBMP-2/ACS group and $37,227 in the ICBG group. The hospital carries the cost burden associated with the utilization of rhBMP-2/ACS. In contrast, the payer in a Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) model achieves a net savings, based

  16. The outcome of pedicle screw instrumentation removal for ongoing low back pain following posterolateral lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Mario G; Brumby-Rendell, Oscar P; McDonald, Ben; Fisher, Tom; Tsimiklis, Christovalantis; Yoon, Wai Weng; Osti, Orso L

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether patients derived benefit from removal of pedicle screw instrumentation for axial pain without other cause using our surgical technique and patient selection. A secondary aim was to investigate factors that were associated with poorer outcomes for this procedure as well as complication rate in this cohort. Theater records from a single spinal surgeon's practice were reviewed to identify patients that had undergone lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain with subsequent pedicle screw instrumentation removal (Expedium, DePuy Synthes) in the preceding 3 years with a minimum of 18 months follow-up. Inclusion criteria were persisting midline axial back pain with computed tomography (CT)-confirmed solid fusion with non-radicular symptoms and nil other potential causes found, e.g., infection. Case note review along with pre- and post-operative Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaires and visual analog scores (VAS) were assessed for all patients. Surgical technique included re-use of previous midline posterior incision and the Wiltse approach with removal of implants, confirmation of a solid fusion mass, washout and bone grafting of removal sites. From 50 consecutive patients who underwent removal of posterolateral instrumentation for an index elective lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain, 34 patients were identified that met the criteria with a mean follow-up of 25 months (range, 18-36 months). The VAS and ODI improved in 22/34 (65%) of participants. The mean cohort VAS score was 6.6 pre-surgery and 4.3 post-surgery (P=0.04). Preoperative and postoperative mean Oswestry disability scores were 64 and 41, respectively (P=0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with poorer compared to satisfactory outcomes with regards to compensable status, preoperative grade II opioid use and shorter time between fusion and removal procedure. Complications were one postoperative hematoma and one

  17. Clinical outcomes after posterolateral lumbar fusion in workers' compensation patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; Kantamneni, Neha R; Mugavin, Mark O; Djurasovic, Mladen

    2010-09-01

    Case-control propensity matched. To compare clinical outcomes after lumbar fusion in patients receiving workers' compensation with a case-matched control group who are not on workers' compensation. Previous studies have demonstrated poor outcomes in patients receiving workers' compensation after lumbar fusion. However, a case-control study where patients are matched for covariates known to affect outcomes after lumbar fusion, including baseline clinical outcome measures, has not been done. From 783 patients who underwent posterolateral fusion with complete preoperative and 2-year postoperative outcome measures, 60 patients who were receiving workers' compensation were identified. Outcome measures included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and back and leg pain numerical rating scales. Propensity scoring technique was used to match these patients with a control group not receiving workers' compensation using sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, diagnosis, number of levels fused, preoperative ODI, SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS), SF-36 Mental Component Summary, and back and leg pain scores, producing 58 matched pairs. There were no significant differences between the demographics, job classification, and preoperative outcome scores in the two groups. At 2 years after operation, patients not receiving workers' compensation had a significantly greater improvement in ODI (P=0.009) and SF-36 PCS (P=0.007) compared with those receiving workers' compensation. Although patients not receiving workers' compensation had greater improvements in back and leg pain compared with those receiving workers' compensation, this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.079). The mean 2-year ODI, SF-36 PCS, and back pain raw scores of patients receiving workers' compensation were significantly lower than those not receiving workers' compensation. Only 19% of workers' compensation patients achieved minimum clinically important difference in terms

  18. Platelet-rich plasma enhances bone union in posterolateral lumbar fusion: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Ito, Michihiro; Yamashita, Masaomi; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2017-07-20

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in vivo in a rodent model of spinal fusion surgery. However, PRP's effect on bone union after spinal surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PRP after posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) surgery. Single-center prospective randomized controlled clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. The patient sample included a total 62 patients (31 patients in the PRP group or 31 patients in the control group). The outcome measures included the bone fusion rate, the area of bone fusion mass, the duration of bone fusion, and the clinical score using the visual analog scale (VAS). We randomized 62 patients who underwent one- or two-level instrumented PLF for lumbar degenerative spondylosis with instability to either the PRP (31 patients) or the control (31 patients) groups. Platelet-rich plasma-treated patients underwent surgery using an autograft bone chip (local bone), and PRP was prepared from patient blood samples immediately before surgery; patients from the control group underwent PLF without PRP treatment. We assessed platelet counts and growth factor concentrations in PRP prepared immediately before surgery. The duration of bone union, the postoperative bone fusion rate, and the area of fusion mass were assessed using plain radiography every 3 months after surgery and by computed tomography at 12 or 24 months. The duration of bone fusion and the clinical scores for low back pain, leg pain, and leg numbness before and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery were evaluated using VAS. Data from 50 patients with complete data were included. The bone union rate at the final follow-up was significantly higher in the PRP group (94%) than in the control group (74%) (p=.002). The area of fusion mass was significantly higher in the PRP group (572 mm(2)) than in the control group (367 mm(2)) (p=.02). The mean period necessary for union was 7.8 months in the PRP group and 9.8 months in the

  19. Bone Union Rate Following Instrumented Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion: Comparison between Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Woo Dong

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To compare the union rate of posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) versus hydroxyapatite (HA) as bone graft extender. Overview of Literature To our knowledge, there has been no clinical trial to compare the outcomes of DBM versus HA as a graft material for PLF. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected data from consecutive 79 patients who underwent instrumented PLF. Patients who received DBM were assigned to group B (n=38), and patients who received HA were assigned into group C (n=41). The primary study outcome was fusion rate assessed with radiographs. The secondary outcomes included pain intensity using a visual analogue scale, functional outcome using Oswestry disability index score, laboratory tests of inflammatory profiles and infection rate. Results One year postoperatively, bone fusion was achieved in 73% in group B and 58% in group C without significant difference between the groups (p=0.15). There were no differences between the groups with respect to secondary outcomes. Conclusions DBM would provide noninferior outcomes compared to the HA as a fusion material for PLF, and could be a notable alternative. PMID:27994793

  20. Predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion.

    PubMed

    Cobo Soriano, Javier; Sendino Revuelta, Marcos; Fabregate Fuente, Martín; Cimarra Díaz, Ignacio; Martínez Ureña, Paloma; Deglané Meneses, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    There has been no agreement among different authors on guidelines to specify the situations in which arthrodesis is justified in terms of results, risks and complications. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion. A prospective observational study design was performed on 203 consecutive patients. Potential preoperative predictors of outcome included sociodemographic factors as well as variables pertaining to the preoperative clinical situation, diagnosis, expectations and surgery. Separate multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between selected predictors and outcome variables, defined as the improvement after 1 year on the visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain, VAS for leg pain, physical component scores (PCS) of SF-36 and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Follow-up was available for 184 patients (90.6%). Patients with higher educational level and optimistic preoperative expectations had a more favourable postoperative leg pain (VAS) and ODI. Smokers had less leg pain relief. Patients with better mental component score (emotional health) had greater ODI improvement. Less preoperative walking capacity predicted more leg pain relief. Patients with disc herniation had greater relief from back pain and more PCS and ODI improvement. More severe lumbar pain was predictive of less improvement on ODI and PCS. Age, sex, body mass index, analgesic use, surgeon, self-rated health, the number of decompressed levels and the length of fusion had no association with outcome. This study concludes that a higher educational level, optimistic expectations for improvement, the diagnosis of "disc herniation", less walking capacity and good emotional health may significantly improve clinical outcome. Smoking and more severe lumbar pain are predictors of worse results.

  1. Predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sendino Revuelta, Marcos; Cimarra Díaz, Ignacio; Martínez Ureña, Paloma; Deglané Meneses, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    There has been no agreement among different authors on guidelines to specify the situations in which arthrodesis is justified in terms of results, risks and complications. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion. A prospective observational study design was performed on 203 consecutive patients. Potential preoperative predictors of outcome included sociodemographic factors as well as variables pertaining to the preoperative clinical situation, diagnosis, expectations and surgery. Separate multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between selected predictors and outcome variables, defined as the improvement after 1 year on the visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain, VAS for leg pain, physical component scores (PCS) of SF-36 and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Follow-up was available for 184 patients (90.6%). Patients with higher educational level and optimistic preoperative expectations had a more favourable postoperative leg pain (VAS) and ODI. Smokers had less leg pain relief. Patients with better mental component score (emotional health) had greater ODI improvement. Less preoperative walking capacity predicted more leg pain relief. Patients with disc herniation had greater relief from back pain and more PCS and ODI improvement. More severe lumbar pain was predictive of less improvement on ODI and PCS. Age, sex, body mass index, analgesic use, surgeon, self-rated health, the number of decompressed levels and the length of fusion had no association with outcome. This study concludes that a higher educational level, optimistic expectations for improvement, the diagnosis of “disc herniation”, less walking capacity and good emotional health may significantly improve clinical outcome. Smoking and more severe lumbar pain are predictors of worse results. PMID:20135333

  2. Comparison of a novel oxysterol molecule and rhBMP2 fusion rates in a rabbit posterolateral lumbar spine model.

    PubMed

    Scott, Trevor P; Phan, Kevin H; Tian, Haijun; Suzuki, Akinobu; Montgomery, Scott R; Johnson, Jared S; Atti, Elisa; Tetratis, Sotirios; Pereira, Renata C; Wang, Jeffrey C; Daubs, Michael D; Stappenbeck, Frank; Parhami, Farhad

    2015-04-01

    The nonunion rate after lumbar spinal fusion is as high as 25%. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) has been used as a biological adjunct to promote bony fusion. However, recently there have been concerns about BMP2. Oxysterol 133 (Oxy133) has been shown to promote excellent fusion rates in rodent lumbar spine models and offers a potential alternative to rhBMP2. The purpose of this study was to compare the fusion rate of rhBMP2 and Oxy133 in a randomized controlled trial using a posterolateral lumbar rabbit spinal fusion model. This was a randomized control animal study. Twenty-four male adult white New Zealand rabbits (3-3.5 kg) underwent bilateral posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion at L4-L5. Rabbits were divided into four groups: control (A), 30-μg rhBMP2 (B), 20-mg Oxy133 (C), and 60-mg Oxy133 (D). At 4 weeks, fusion was evaluated by fluoroscopy, and at 8 weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed and fusion was evaluated radiographically, by manual palpation, and with microcomputed tomography. Fusion rates by radiographic analysis at 8 weeks were Group A, 40.0%; Group B, 91.7%; Group C, 91.7%; and Group D, 100%. Evaluation of fusion masses by manual palpation of excised spines after sacrifice showed the following fusion rates: Group A, 0%; Group B, 83.3%; Group C, 83.3%; and Group D, 90%. Microcomputed tomography scanning confirmed these findings. These findings in a rabbit model demonstrate that both 20- and 60-mg Oxy133 doses promote fusion that is equivalent to fusion induced by 30-μg rhBMP2 and significantly greater than the control group. The present findings confirm that Oxy133 is a promising candidate for therapeutic development as an alternative to rhBMP2 to promote spinal fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) versus posterolateral instrumented fusion (PLF) in degenerative lumbar disorders: a randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Høy, Kristian; Bünger, Cody; Niederman, Bent; Helmig, Peter; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Li, Haisheng; Andersen, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze outcome, with respect to functional disability, pain, fusion rate, and complications of patients treated with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in compared to instrumented poserolateral fusion (PLF) alone, in low back pain. Spinal fusion has become a major procedure worldwide. However, conflicting results exist. Theoretical circumferential fusion could improve functional outcome. However, the theoretical advantages lack scientific documentation. Prospective randomized clinical study with a 2-year follow-up period. From November 2003 to November 2008 100 patients with severe low back pain and radicular pain were randomly selected for either posterolateral lumbar fusion [titanium TSRH (Medtronic)] or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion [titanium TSRH (Medtronic)] with anterior intervertebral support by tantalum cage (Implex/Zimmer). The primary outcome scores were obtained using Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ), Oswestry disability Index, SF-36, and low back pain Rating Scale. All measures assessed the endpoints at 2-year follow-up after surgery. The overall follow-up rate was 94 %. Sex ratio was 40/58. 51 patients had TLIF, 47 PLF. Mean age 49(TLIF)/45(PLF). No statistic difference in outcome between groups could be detected concerning daily activity, work leisure, anxiety/depression or social interest. We found no statistic difference concerning back pain or leg pain. In both the TLIF and the PLF groups the patients had significant improvement in functional outcome, back pain, and leg pain compared to preoperatively. Operation time and blood loss in the TLIF group were significantly higher than in the PLF group (p < 0.001). No statistic difference in fusion rates was detected. Transforaminal interbody fusion did not improve functional outcome in patients compared to posterolateral fusion. Both groups improved significantly in all categories compared to preoperatively. Operation time and blood loss were

  4. The outcome of pedicle screw instrumentation removal for ongoing low back pain following posterolateral lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brumby-Rendell, Oscar P.; McDonald, Ben; Fisher, Tom; Tsimiklis, Christovalantis; Yoon, Wai Weng; Osti, Orso L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to determine whether patients derived benefit from removal of pedicle screw instrumentation for axial pain without other cause using our surgical technique and patient selection. A secondary aim was to investigate factors that were associated with poorer outcomes for this procedure as well as complication rate in this cohort. Methods Theater records from a single spinal surgeon’s practice were reviewed to identify patients that had undergone lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain with subsequent pedicle screw instrumentation removal (Expedium, DePuy Synthes) in the preceding 3 years with a minimum of 18 months follow-up. Inclusion criteria were persisting midline axial back pain with computed tomography (CT)−confirmed solid fusion with non-radicular symptoms and nil other potential causes found, e.g., infection. Case note review along with pre- and post-operative Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaires and visual analog scores (VAS) were assessed for all patients. Surgical technique included re-use of previous midline posterior incision and the Wiltse approach with removal of implants, confirmation of a solid fusion mass, washout and bone grafting of removal sites. Results From 50 consecutive patients who underwent removal of posterolateral instrumentation for an index elective lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain, 34 patients were identified that met the criteria with a mean follow-up of 25 months (range, 18-36 months). The VAS and ODI improved in 22/34 (65%) of participants. The mean cohort VAS score was 6.6 pre-surgery and 4.3 post-surgery (P=0.04). Preoperative and postoperative mean Oswestry disability scores were 64 and 41, respectively (P=0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with poorer compared to satisfactory outcomes with regards to compensable status, preoperative grade II opioid use and shorter time between fusion and removal procedure. Complications were one

  5. Posterolateral lumbar fusion: Relationship between computed tomography Hounsfield units and symptomatic pseudoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Shabani, Saman; Patel, Mohit; Maiman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of bone quality can guide spinal surgery. However, surgeons infrequently evaluate bone quality in a quantitative manner. Recent literature suggests a role for computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield units (HUs) as a marker for bone quality. Limited data exist regarding its utility with respect to posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF). From fall 2010 to winter 2012, 10 patients underwent revision surgery for symptomatic pseudoarthrosis (defined as intractable pain associated with either radiographic evidence of nonunion or intraoperative evidence of nonunion) after a prior L4-S1 PLF. These patients were age-matched (±5 years) to 10 patients who underwent L4-S1 PLF with no clinical signs of pseudoarthrosis at 1-year follow-up. Available CT imaging (with or without instrumentation) was evaluated from L1 to L5 for the averaged HU. Data were pooled among L1-L3 values and between L4 and L5 values. Within the pseudoarthrosis group, the pooled L1-L3 HU value was similar to the pooled L4-L5 HU value (168.39 ± 22.84 HU vs. 166.98 ± 23.20 HU respectively, P = 0.89). The same pattern was observed for the control group (190.24 ± 37.13 HU vs. 201.89 ± 36.59 HU respectively, P = 0.44). On the other hand, the pooled L1-L3 and L4-L5 HU values were larger for the control group compared to the pseudoarthrosis group, with the pooled L4-L5 HU demonstrating statistical significance, P = 0.01. Currently, CT imaging is typically not obtained prior to lumbar fusion. Results demonstrated that CT HU values were significantly larger for patients who did not exhibit symptomatic pseudoarthrosis at 1-year follow-up compared to those who required revision surgery. As such, CT HU values may serve as a predictor for bony fusion to guide surgical management of patients under consideration for PLF.

  6. Posterolateral lumbar fusion: Relationship between computed tomography Hounsfield units and symptomatic pseudoarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Shabani, Saman; Patel, Mohit; Maiman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assessment of bone quality can guide spinal surgery. However, surgeons infrequently evaluate bone quality in a quantitative manner. Recent literature suggests a role for computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield units (HUs) as a marker for bone quality. Limited data exist regarding its utility with respect to posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF). Methods: From fall 2010 to winter 2012, 10 patients underwent revision surgery for symptomatic pseudoarthrosis (defined as intractable pain associated with either radiographic evidence of nonunion or intraoperative evidence of nonunion) after a prior L4–S1 PLF. These patients were age-matched (±5 years) to 10 patients who underwent L4–S1 PLF with no clinical signs of pseudoarthrosis at 1-year follow-up. Available CT imaging (with or without instrumentation) was evaluated from L1 to L5 for the averaged HU. Data were pooled among L1–L3 values and between L4 and L5 values. Results: Within the pseudoarthrosis group, the pooled L1–L3 HU value was similar to the pooled L4–L5 HU value (168.39 ± 22.84 HU vs. 166.98 ± 23.20 HU respectively, P = 0.89). The same pattern was observed for the control group (190.24 ± 37.13 HU vs. 201.89 ± 36.59 HU respectively, P = 0.44). On the other hand, the pooled L1–L3 and L4–L5 HU values were larger for the control group compared to the pseudoarthrosis group, with the pooled L4–L5 HU demonstrating statistical significance, P = 0.01. Conclusion: Currently, CT imaging is typically not obtained prior to lumbar fusion. Results demonstrated that CT HU values were significantly larger for patients who did not exhibit symptomatic pseudoarthrosis at 1-year follow-up compared to those who required revision surgery. As such, CT HU values may serve as a predictor for bony fusion to guide surgical management of patients under consideration for PLF. PMID:26693390

  7. Single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion of lumbar spine with beta-tricalcium phosphate versus autograft: a prospective, randomized study with 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Yang; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-05-20

    A prospective, randomized clinical study comparing beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) with autograft bone graft with follow-up of 3 years. To determine the efficacy of beta-TCP as a bone graft substitute combined with local autograft obtained from decompression compared with the use of autologous iliac crest bone graft in single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. A variety of bone graft substitutes have been used in posterolateral lumbar fusion with different efficacy reported, but no controlled study was conducted on the clinical performance of beta-TCP in instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. Sixty-two patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis were treated with single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. They were randomly assigned to fusion with beta-TCP combined with local bone obtained from the decompression (group A, n = 32) or autogenous iliac crest bone graft plus decompression bone (group B, n = 30). The patients were observed up for 3 years after surgery. The results were assessed clinically and radiographically. There were no significant differences in recovery rate of Japanese Orthopedic Association score and SF-36 score at all time intervals. Successful radiographic fusion was documented in all patients in both treatment groups. All patients in group B, however, complained bone graft donor site pain although significant improvement of pain was observed during the follow-up. Instrumented posterolateral fusion with beta-TCP combined with local autograft results in the same radiographic fusion rates and similar improvement of clinical outcomes and life quality compared with autograft alone. The authors therefore recommend the use of beta-TCP as bone graft substitute for instrumented posterolateral fusion of lumbar spine to eliminate the need of bone grafting harvesting from the ilium.

  8. Complications of rhBMP-2 utilization for posterolateral lumbar fusions requiring reoperation: a single practice, retrospective case series report.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Martin F; Jones, Clifford B; Sietsema, Debra L

    2013-10-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (INFUSE, Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) has been used off-label for posterolateral lumbar fusions for many years. The goal of this study was to evaluate the complications requiring reoperation associated with rhBMP-2 application for posterolateral lumbar fusions. During a 7-year period of time (2002-2009), all patients undergoing lumbar posterolateral fusion using rhBMP-2 (INFUSE) were retrospectively evaluated within a large orthopedic surgery private practice. A total of 1,158 consecutive patients were evaluated with 468 (40.4%) males and 690 (59.6%) females. Complications related to rhBMP were defined as reoperation secondary to symptomatic failed fusion (nonunion), symptomatic seroma formation, symptomatic reformation of foraminal bone, and infection. Inclusion criteria were posterolateral fusion with rhBMP-2 implant and age equal to or older than 18 years. Surgical indications and treatment were performed in accordance with the surgeon's best knowledge, discretion, and experience. Patients consented to lumbar decompression and arthrodesis using rhBMP-2. All patients were educated and informed of the off-label utilization of rhBMP-2. Patient follow-up was performed at regular intervals of 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and later if required or indicated. Average age was 59.2 years, and body mass index was 30.7 kg/m². Numbers of levels fused were 1 (414, 35.8%), 2 (469, 40.5%), 3 (162, 14.0%), 4 (70, 6.0%), 5 (19, 1.6%), 6 (11, 0.9%), 7 (7, 0.6%), 8 (4, 0.3%), and 9 (2, 0.2%). Patients having complications requiring reoperation were 117 of 1,158 (10.1%): symptomatic nonunion requiring redo fusion and instrumentation 41 (3.5%), seroma with acute neural compression 32 (2.8%), excess bone formation with delayed neural compression 4 (0.3%), and infection requiring debridement 26 (2.2%). Nonunion was related to male sex and previous BMP exposure. Seroma formation was significantly higher in

  9. The use of cultured bone marrow cells in type I collagen gel and porous hydroxyapatite for posterolateral lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Minamide, Akihito; Yoshida, Munehito; Kawakami, Mamoru; Yamasaki, Satoru; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Boden, Scott D

    2005-05-15

    Posterolateral lumbar transverse process fusion was completed using the cultured bone marrow cells in type I collagen gel and porous hydroxyapatite. To compare the efficacy of cultured bone marrow cells with that of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) as a graft alternative to autologous bone for posterolateral spine fusion. The clinical application of BMP for spinal fusion may be limited by high dose and cost. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have been studied in various fields because of their capability to differentiate into various cells, including those in the osteogenic lineage. Thirty adult rabbits were used. Each underwent single-level, bilateral, posterolateral intertransverse process fusions at L4-L5. The animals were divided into 4 groups, each according to the material implanted: (1) autologous bone (autograft, n = 9); (2) porous hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and type I collagen sheet with 100 microg rhBMP-2 (BMP-HA, n = 7); (3) bone marrow cells (1 x 10(6) cells/mL, low-marrow-HA, n = 7); and (4) bone marrow cells (1 x 10(8) cells/mL, high-marrow-HA, n = 7). Before implantation for groups 3 and 4, fresh bone marrow cells from the iliac crest of each animal were cultured in a standard medium for 2 weeks. For one additional week, the marrow cells were cultured in 10(-8) M dexamethasone, type I collagen gel, and HA. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks after surgery. Spinal fusions were evaluated by radiograph, manual palpation, and histology. The fusion rates were 4 of 7 in the autograft group, 7 of 7 in the BMP-HA group, 0 of 7 in the low-marrow-HA group, and 5 of 7 in the high-marrow-HA group. The histology in the BMP-HA and high-marrow-HA groups showed that grafted HA fragments were connected with mature new bone. The pores of HA fragments were filled up with bone matrix. In the low-marrow-HA group, fibrous tissue was predominant in the grafted fragments. This study shows that the cultured bone marrow cells can act as a substitute for autograft or BMP in

  10. A comparative study of radiographic results using HEALOS collagen-hydroxyapatite sponge with bone marrow aspiration versus local bone graft in the same patients undergoing posterolateral lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Kunakornsawat, Sombat; Kirinpanu, Arthithat; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Sathira-Angkura, Vera

    2013-08-01

    Autologous bone harvested from the iliac crest is the gold standard for lumbar spinal fusion. However postoperative donor site pain and morbidity have been reported. Local bone graft is insufficient and contains some soft-tissue attachment. Therefore, Healos (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA) is currently bone graft substitute that was introduced for spinal fusion with good results but radiographic fusion rate has not been clearly defined yet. To assess the radiographic fusion rate of HEALOS with bone marrow aspiration versus autologous bone graft in the same patients undergoing posterolateral lumbar fusion. A retrospective radiographic outcome study of radiographic fusion rate from plain radiographs in 55patients indicatedforposterolateral lumbar fusion in Lerdsin General Hospital between April 2005 and December 2006 was done. The patients were implanted with HEALOS collagen-hydroxyapatite sponge with bone marrow aspiration and local bone graft on each side of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion. Twenty-seven patients were included in the present study according to the authors'inclusion criteria. Plain radiographs were collected and radiographic fusion rate was assessed for at least two years follow-up. The two years post operative radiographic fusion rate was 29.63% (8/27) in Healos/BMA group and 62.96% (17/27) in LBG group. At three-years follow-up, radiographic fusion rate of 36.84% (7/19) was achieved in the Healos/ BMA group and 78.93% (15/19) in the LBG group. In the present study, Healos collagen-hydroxyapatite sponge with bone marrow aspiration had lower radiographic fusion rate when compared to local bone graft in posterolateral lumbar fusion at two years post operative. The results of the Healos/BMA group was increased fusion rate with time but remained lower than LBG group at three and four years follow-up.

  11. Comparison of Clinical and Radiological Results of Posterolateral Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of L4 Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuraishi, Shugo; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ikegami, Shota; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Tateiwa, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Hisatoshi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Multicenter analysis of two groups of patients surgically treated for degenerative L4 unstable spondylolisthesis. Purpose To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of posterolateral fusion (PLF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for degenerative L4 unstable spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis is widely performed. However, few reports have compared the outcome of PLF to that of PLIF for degenerative L4 unstable spondylolisthesis. Methods Patients with L4 unstable spondylolisthesis with Meyerding grade II or more, slip of >10° or >4 mm upon maximum flexion and extension bending, and posterior opening of >5 degree upon flexion bending were studied. Patients were treated from January 2008 to January 2010. Patients who underwent PLF (n=12) and PLIF (n=19) were followed-up for >2 years. Radiographic findings and clinical outcomes evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were compared between the two groups. Radiographic evaluation included slip angle, translation, slip angle and translation during maximum flexion and extension bending, intervertebral disc height, lumbar lordotic angle, and fusion rate. Results JOA scores of the PLF group before surgery and at final follow-up were 12.3±4.8 and 24.1±3.7, respectively; those of the PLIF group were 14.7±4.8 and 24.2±7.8, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups. Correction of slip estimated from postoperative slip angle, translation, and maintenance of intervertebral disc height in the PLIF group was significantly (p<0.05) better than those in the PLF group. However, there was no significant difference in lumbar lordotic angle, slip angle and translation angle upon maximum flexion, or extension bending. Fusion rates of the PLIF and PLF groups had no significant difference. Conclusions The L4–L5 level posterior instrumented fusion for unstable spondylolisthesis using both PLF and PLIF

  12. Formation of painful seroma and edema after the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in posterolateral lumbar spine fusions.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Mark P; Kakarla, Udaya K; Porter, Randall W; Sonntag, Volker K H

    2010-06-01

    The use of bone morphogenetic proteins for fusion augmentation in spine surgery has increased dramatically in recent years. Information is continually emerging regarding the effectiveness and safety profile of these compounds. We have noted an increased incidence in sterile seroma formation and painful edema after the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for posterolateral lumbar fusion. We present a retrospective review to determine the incidence of seroma formation and to discuss its clinical implications. We retrospectively reviewed the operative reports of patients who underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with the addition of rhBMP-2. We identified all patients who required surgical exploration of a postoperative sterile seroma. Of the 130 patients who underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with rhBMP-2, 6 (4.6%) were returned to the operating room for exploration of a sterile seroma. The total amount of rhBMP-2 delivered to the posterolateral space per patient was 2.1 to 14.7 mg (mean, 8.4 mg per patient). The patients were returned to the operating room 5 to 13 days (mean, 7.7 days) after their initial surgery, and infection was ruled out in all cases by intraoperative cultures. There seems to be an increased incidence of formation of sterile seroma and painful edema in the lumbar region after posterolateral fusion with rhBMP-2. This report, along with other series highlighting the potential complications of bone morphogenetic proteins, suggests that more caution should be used when these compounds are used. Further studies are required to better define the risks and benefits of using bone morphogenetic proteins for spine surgery.

  13. Modeled cost-effectiveness of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion compared with posterolateral fusion for spondylolisthesis using N(2)QOD data.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; McGirt, Matthew J; Asher, Anthony L

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has become the most commonly used fusion technique for lumbar degenerative disorders. This suggests an expectation of better clinical outcomes with this technique, but this has not been validated consistently. How surgical variables and choice of health utility measures drive the cost-effectiveness of TLIF relative to posterolateral fusion (PSF) has not been established. The authors used health utility values derived from Short Form-6D (SF-6D) and EQ-5D and different cost-effectiveness thresholds to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of TLIF compared with PSF. METHODS From the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD), 101 patients with spondylolisthesis who underwent PSF were propensity matched to patients who underwent TLIF. Health-related quality of life measures and perioperative parameters were compared. Because health utility values derived from the SF-6D and EQ-5D questionnaires have been shown to vary in patients with low-back pain, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were derived from both measures. On the basis of these matched cases, a sensitivity analysis for the relative cost per QALY of TLIF versus PSF was performed in a series of cost-assumption models. RESULTS Operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, and 30-day and 90-day readmission rates were similar for the TLIF and PSF groups. Both TLIF and PSF significantly improved back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, and EQ-5D and SF-6D scores at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, patients who had undergone TLIF had greater improvements in mean ODI scores (30.4 vs 21.1, p = 0.001) and mean SF-6D scores (0.16 vs 0.11, p = 0.001) but similar improvements in mean EQ-5D scores (0.25 vs 0.22, p = 0.415) as patients treated with PSF. At a cost per QALY threshold of $100,000 and using SF-6D-based QALYs, the authors found that TLIF would be cost-prohibitive compared with PSF at a

  14. Micro-computed tomography-based three-dimensional kinematic analysis during lateral bending for spinal fusion assessment in a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomonori; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Lee, Yu-Po; Taborek, Alexander P; Williams, Gregory M; Moseley, Timothy A; Bae, Won C; Masuda, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Rat posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) models have been used to assess the safety and effectiveness of new bone substitutes and osteoinductive growth factors using palpation, radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology as standard methods to evaluate spinal fusion. Despite increased numbers of PLF studies involving alternative bone substitutes and growth factors, the quantitative assessment of treatment efficacy during spinal motion has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spinal fusion on lumbar spine segment stability during lateral bending using a μCT-based three-dimensional (3D) kinematic analysis in the rat PLF model. Fourteen athymic male rats underwent PLF surgery at L4/5 and received bone grafts harvested from the ilium and femurs of syngeneic rats (Isograft, n=7) or no graft (Sham, n=7). At 8 weeks after the PLF surgery, spinal fusion was assessed by manual palpation, plain radiography, μCT, and histology. To determine lumbar segmental motions at the operated level during lateral bending, 3D kinematic analysis was performed. The Isograft group, but not the Sham group, showed spinal fusion on manual palpation (6/7), solid fusion mass in radiographs (6/7), as well as bone bridging in μCT and histological images (5/7). Compared to the Sham group, the Isograft group revealed limited 3D lateral bending angular range of motion and lateral translation during lateral bending at the fused segment where disc height narrowing was observed. This μCT-based 3D kinematic analysis can provide a quantitative assessment of spinal fusion in a rat PLF model to complement current gold standard methods used for efficacy assessment of new therapeutic approaches.

  15. One, two-, and three-level instrumented posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine with a local bone graft: a prospective study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Inage, Kazuhide; Ohtori, Seiji; Koshi, Takana; Suzuki, Munetaka; Takaso, Masashi; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Takane; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2011-08-01

    Prospective trial. To examine the difference in bone union and clinical results after one-, two-, and three-level instrumented posterolateral fusion surgery using a local bone graft. The iliac crest bone graft technique for lumbar posterolateral fusion surgery is widely used; however, donor site problems such as pain and sensory disturbance have been reported. Local bone has been used for fusion surgery; however, its reliability as a graft for multiple segments has not been fully reported. One hundred twenty-two patients diagnosed with degenerated spondylolisthesis were divided into three groups [spondylolisthesis at 1 level (n = 42), at 2 levels (n = 40), and at 3 levels (n = 40)]. All patients underwent decompression and instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft. The amount of bone graft, proportion of patients with (rate) and duration of bone union, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, Japanese Orthopedic Association Score (JOAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated before and 2 years after therapy. VAS score, JOA score, and ODI were not significantly different among the three groups before and after surgery (P > 0.05). Average amount of local bone graft used for one segment significantly decreased in proportion to the number of fusion levels (P < 0.05). The rate of bone union was 88% in the one-level group, 85% in the two-level group, and 62.5% in the three-level group, which was significantly lower than that in the one- and two-level groups (P < 0.05). If one- and two-level posterolateral fusion were performed, the local bone graft technique provides a good and uniform bone union rate; however, for three-level fusion poor results were obtained because of an insufficient amount of local bone.

  16. Posterolateral instrumented fusion with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: A randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Etemadifar, Mohammad Reza; Hadi, Abdollah; Masouleh, Mehran Feizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spondylolisthesis is a common cause of surgery in patients with lower back pain. Although posterolateral fusion and pedicle screw fixation are a relatively common treatment method for the treatment of spondylolisthesis, controversy exists about the necessity of adding interbody fusion to posterolateral fusion. The aim of our study was to assess the functional disability, pain, and complications in patients with spondylolisthesis treated by posterolateral instrumented fusion (PLF) with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: From February 2007 to February 2011, 50 adult patients with spondylolisthesis were randomly assigned to be treated with PLF or PLF+TLIF techniques (25 patients in each group) by a single surgeon. Back pain, leg pain, and disability were assessed before treatment and until 2 years after surgical treatment using visual analog scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI). Patients were also evaluated for postoperative complications such as infection, neurological complications, and instrument failure. Results: All patients completed the 24 months of follow-up. Twenty patients were females and 30 were males. Average age of the patients was 53 ± 11 years for the PLF group and 51 ± 13 for the PLF + TLIF group. Back pain, leg pain, and disability score were significantly improved postoperatively compared to preoperative scores (P < 0.001). At 3 months of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS score for back pain and leg pain in both groups; however, after 6 months and 1 year and 2 years follow-up, the reported scores for back pain and leg pain were significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group (P < 0.05). The ODI score was also significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group at 1 year and 2 years of follow-up (P < 0.05). One screw breakage and one superficial infection occurred in the PLF+TLIF group, which had no statistical significance (P = 0

  17. Effectiveness of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Varies with the Physical Properties of Demineralized Bone Matrix Strip

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hee; Park, Ji-Hun; Johnstone, Brian; Yoo, Jung-U

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A randomized, controlled animal study. Purpose To investigate the effectiveness of fusion and new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix (DBM) strips with jelly strengths. Overview of Literature The form of the DBM can make a difference to the outcome. The effect of different jelly strengths on the ability of DBM to form new bone is not known. Methods Forty-eight rabbits were randomized into a control group and two experimental groups. In the control group (group 1), 1.4 g of autologous iliac crest bone was placed bilaterally. In the experimental groups, a high jelly strength DBM-hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin strip (group 2) and a low jelly strength DBM-HA-gelatin strip (group 3) were used. The fusion was assessed with manual manipulation and radiographs. The volume of the fusion mass was determined from computed tomographic images. Results The fusion rates as determined by manual palpation were 37.5%, 93.8% and 50.0% in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p<0.05). By radiography, the fusion rate of High jelly strength DBM strip was statistically significantly greater than that of the other alternatives (p<0.05). The mean bone volume of the fusion mass as determined by computed tomography was 2,142.2±318.5 mm3, 3,132.9±632.1 mm3, and 2,741.5±380.4 mm3 in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that differences in the structural and mechanical properties of gelatin that are associated with jelly strength influenced cellular responses such as cell viability and bony tissue ingrowth, facilitating greater bone fusion around high jelly strength implants. PMID:26097660

  18. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumented posterolateral fusion in adult spondylolisthesis: description and association of clinico-surgical variables with prognosis in a series of 36 cases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Moreta, Juan A.; Hernandez-Vicente, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background We present our experience in the treatment of patients with isthmic or degenerative spondylolisthesis, by means of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and instrumented posterolateral fusion (IPLF), and we compare them with those published in the literature. We analyse whether there exists any statistical association between the clinical characteristics of the patient, radiological characteristics of the disease and our surgical technique, with the complications and the clinical-radiological prognosis of the cases. Method We designed a prospective study. A total of 36 cases were operated. The patients included were 14 men and 22 women, with an average age of 57.17±27.32 years. Our technique consists of PLIF+IPLF, using local bone for the fusion. The clinical results were evaluated with the Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) and the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria. The radiological evaluation followed the Bratingan (PLIF) and Lenke (IPLF) methodology. A total of 42 variables were statistically analysed by means of SPSS18. We used the Paired Student's T-test, logistic regression and Pearson's Chi-square-test. Results The spondylolisthesis was isthmic in 15 cases and degenerative in 21 cases. The postoperative evaluations had excellent or good results in 94.5% (n = 34), with a statistically significant improvement in the back pain and sciatica (p < 0.01). The rate of circumferential fusion reached was approximately 92%. We had 13.88% of transitory morbility and 0% of mortality associated with our technique. A greater age, degree of listhesis or length of illness before the intervention, weakly correlated with worse clinical results (p< -0.2). In our series, the logistical regression showed that the clinical characteristics of the patient, radiological characteristics of the lesion and our surgical technique were not associated with greater postoperative complications. Conclusion Although a higher level of training is necessary, we believe that the described

  19. Impact of iliac crest bone graft harvesting on fusion rates and postoperative pain during instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllopoulos, Dimitrios; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Stafylas, Kosmas

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of bone harvesting on postoperative pain and fusion rates. Group 1 patients received iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) either alone or augmented with local bone. Group 2 received only local bone. No statistical significance was found in radiological union or in the Oswestry Disability Index scores. Visual Analogue Scale scores showed less pain in group 2. Logistic regression showed no correlation between residual pain and occurrence of fusion. Harvesting ICBG did not appear to increase fusion rates and no relation was found between radiological non-union and pain. PMID:17724591

  20. Outcomes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in mature adults: posterolateral non-instrument-assisted lumbar decompression and fusion.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D Kojo; Jones-Quaidoo, Sean M; Sansur, Charles; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Oskouian, Rod; Jane, John A

    2008-05-01

    Bone morphogenic protein products enable lumber spine fusion. Few outcome studies have been performed to evaluate function and pain relief after posterior lumber decompression for degenerative disease, and few studies have provided detailed results of posterior lumbar fusion in elderly patients. This retrospective analysis presents a comprehensive examination of spinal fusion, functional outcomes, and pain relief in a growing elderly population in which a BMP was used. Fifty-five patients, 25 men and 30 women (moderately disabled to bedridden), with both mean and median ages of 68 years, underwent surgery for symptoms of lumbar degenerative disease between August 2003 and June 2004. Surgery involved multilevel lumbar total laminectomies with medial facetectomies and posterior lateral fusion, which was performed using INFUSE Bone Graft (Medtronic Sofamor Dane K. Inc, Minneapolis, MN) with recombinant human BMP-2 as the active ingredient. Forty-seven patients (22 men and 25 women) were available for follow-up and participated in this study. Of these 47 patients, the average number of levels decompressed and fused was 2. Thirteen patients had 1 level, 18 patients with 2 levels, 15 patients with 3 levels, and 1 patient with 4 levels. An analysis of fusion was performed using computed tomography beginning at an average of 6 months (range, 3-36 months) postsurgery. At an average of 34 months (range, 29-36 months) of follow-up, 2 questionnaires--the Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 Health Survey--were completed by the patient. Long-term follow-up indicates that more than 85% of patients exhibited high functioning ability and had improved index scores and pain relief. Patients with improved pain and function scores also had better than average health status. In addition, grading the patients' fusion rates with the Lenke fusion scale [J Spinal Disord 5(4) (1992) 433-442] showed an 80% fusion (Lenke Grades A and B) rate. The use of rh

  1. Comparison of three calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes from biomechanical, histological, and crystallographic perspectives using a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Hsien; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Hu, Jin-Jia

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of three calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes with different chemical compositions on spinal fusion using a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model. Specifically, two recently developed non-dispersive tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous-based calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), namely a CPC consisting of equimolar amounts of the two compounds (nd-CPC) and a CPC consisting of a two-fold greater amount of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP-rich CPC), were compared with a commercial calcium phosphate bone graft (c-CPG) consisting of hydroxyapatite (60%) and β-tricalcium phosphate (40%). Single-level posterolateral lumbar fusion was performed at the L4-L5 vertebrae in fifteen adult rats (n=5 for each group). Spinal fusion was evaluated with radiographs, manual palpation, mechanical testing, micro-CT, and histology 8 weeks post-surgery. In particular, the crystallographic phases in the three substitutes were identified before and 8 weeks after their implantation. Manual palpation revealed stable constructs in nearly all of the spine specimens. The stiffness and bending load of fused spines in the two CPC groups were comparable to those in the c-CPG group. The radiographs specifically revealed implant resorption and bone remodeling in the DCP-rich CPC group. Analysis of 3D micro-CT images revealed that the bone volume ratio in the DCP-rich CPC group was significantly greater than those in the nd-CPC and c-CPG groups. Histology showed that the DCP-rich CPC group exhibited the highest degree of bone regeneration and osseointegration. Notably, DCP-rich CPC led to a pronounced phase transformation, generating the greatest amount of poorly crystalline apatite among the three groups, which together with adequate resorption may explain the aforementioned positive findings. We therefore conclude that of the bone graft substitutes considered, DCP-rich CPC has the greatest potential to be used in spinal fusion. Copyright

  2. Comparison of the osteogenesis and fusion rates between activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) and rhBMP-2 in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar spine model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guang Bin; Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2017-10-01

    Activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) could promote bone healing more effectively than recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) with much lower dose in a rodent model, but there is no report about the effectiveness of AB204 in a large animal model. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenesis and fusion rate between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a carrier in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar fusion model. This is a randomized control animal study. Seventeen male beagle dogs were included. Bilateral posterolateral fusion was performed at the L1-L2 and L4-L5 levels. Biphasic calcium phosphate (2 cc), rhBMP-2 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc), or AB204 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc) were implanted into the intertransverse space randomly. X-ray was performed at 4 and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and new bone formation and fusion rate were evaluated by manual palpation, computed tomography (CT), and undecalcified histology. The AB204 group showed significantly higher fusion rate (90%) than the rhBMP-2 group (15%) or the Osteon group (6.3%) by manual palpation. On x-ray and CT assessment, fusion rate and the volume of newly formed bone were also significantly higher in AB204 group than other groups. In contrast, more osteolysis was found in rhBMP-2 group (40%) than in AB204 group (10%) on CT study. In histologic results, new bone formation was sufficient between transverse processes in AB204 group, and obvious trabeculation and bone remodeling were observed. But in rhBMP-2 group, new bone formation was less than AB204 group and osteolysis was observed between the intertransverse spaces. A low dose of AB204 with BCP as a carrier significantly promotes the fusion rate in a large animal model when compared with the rhBMP-2. These findings demonstrate that AB204 could be an alternative to rhBMP-2 to improve fusion rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Within Patient Radiological Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Two Bone Graft Extenders Utilized in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Geoffrey; Gage, Gary B.; Neidert, Gary; Adkisson, Huston Davis

    2016-01-01

    Two bone graft extenders differing in chemical composition were implanted contralaterally in 27 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion as standard-of-care. Bone marrow aspirate and autogenous bone graft were equally combined either with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or a hybrid biomaterial [containing hyaluronic acid (HyA) but lacking a calcium salt] and implanted between the transverse processes. Fusion status on each side of the vertebrae was retrospectively graded (1–5 scale) on AP planar X-ray at multiple visits as available, through approximately 12 months. Additionally, consolidation or resorption since prior visit for each treatment was recorded. Sides receiving β-TCP extender showed marked resorption prior to bone consolidation during the first 6 months. By contrast, sides receiving the hybrid biomaterial containing integrated HyA showed rapid bone consolidation by week 6–8, with maintenance of initial bone volume through 12 months. Fusion grade was superior for the hybrid biomaterial, differing significantly from β-TCP at day 109 and beyond. Fusion success at >12 months was 92.9 vs. 67.9% for the hybrid biomaterial and β-TCP-treated sides, respectively. The hybrid biomaterial extender demonstrated a shortened time-to-fusion compared to the calcium-based graft. Mode of action has been demonstrated in the literature to differ between these compositions. Therefore, choice of synthetic biomaterial composition may significantly influence the mode of action of cellular events regulating appositional bone growth. PMID:26835455

  4. Efficacy of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in posterolateral lumbar fusion: an open, active-controlled, randomized, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Hwan; Lee, Jae Hyup; Yeom, Jin Sup; Chang, Bong-Soon; Yang, Jae Jun; Koo, Ki Hyoung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Kwang Bok; Kim, Ho-Joong; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kim, Hyoungmin; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Nam, Woo Dong; Han, Jumi

    2017-06-23

    The efficacy and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) as a bone graft substitute in spinal fusion has been widely researched. However, no study of the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli-derived rhBMP-2 (E.BMP-2) with a hydroxyapatite (HA) carrier has been proposed. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of fusion materials between E.BMP-2 and autogenous iliac bone graft in posterolateral fusion (PLF). An open, active-controlled, randomized, multicenter trial was carried out. This study included 93 patients who underwent single-level lumbar or lumbosacral PLF. The primary outcome measure was computed tomography (CT)-based fusion rate at 12 and 24 weeks. Secondary outcome measures were fusion grade by radiographs and CT at 12 and 24 weeks and changes in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey, and visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients who underwent 1-level PLF (between L1 and S1) for severe spinal stenosis or grade 1 spondylolisthesis were randomized to receive E.BMP-2 with an HA carrier (E.BMP-2 group) or autogenous iliac bone graft (AIBG group). Thin-section CT (<2 mm), VAS, ODI, and SF-36 were obtained pre- and postoperatively at 12 and 24 weeks. Outcome measures were compared between the groups. A total of 100 patients were enrolled in this trial. Among them, 93 patients underwent planned surgery. Preoperative demographic and clinical data showed no difference between groups. CT-based fusion rates were 100.0% (41/41) for the E.BMP-2 group and 90.2% (46/51) for the AIBG group (p=.062) at 12 weeks and 100.0% (41/41) and 94.1% (48/51) (p=.251) at 24 weeks, respectively. Fusion grade based on radiographs and CT showed non-inferiority of the E.BMP-2 group compared with the AIBG group. All clinical parameters improved postoperatively. However, there was no difference in changes in VAS, ODI, or SF-36 between the groups. No serious adverse event related to E.BMP-2 was found. The fusion rate of

  5. Single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine with a local bone graft versus an iliac crest bone graft: a prospective, randomized study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Koshi, Takana; Takaso, Masashi; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Inoue, Gen; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2011-04-01

    The iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG) technique for lumbar posterolateral fusion surgery is widely used; however, donor site problems such as pain and sensory disturbance have been reported. Local bone is available for fusion surgery, but its reliability as a graft has not been fully reported. In the current study, we examined single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft versus an ICBG in a prospective randomized study. Eighty-two patients diagnosed with L4 degenerated spondylolisthesis were divided into two groups at random. Forty-two patients underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft (L4-L5 level), and 40 patients underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion with an ICBG (L4-L5 level). Rate and duration of bone union, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Japanese orthopedic association score (JOAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and complications were evaluated before and 2 years after therapy. VAS score, JOAS, and ODI were not significantly different between the two groups before and after surgery (P > 0.05). Rate and average duration of bone union were 90% and 8.5 months in the local bone graft group, and 85% and 7.7 months in the ICBG group, but without significant difference (P > 0.05). Prolonged surgical time and complications such as donor site pain (8 patients) and sensory disturbance (6 patients) were observed in the ICBG group. If single-level posterolateral fusion was performed, local bone graft technique has the same bone union rate compared with ICBG, requires less surgical time, and has fewer complications.

  6. Effect of Freeze-Dried Allograft Bone With Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Containing a Collagen-Binding Domain From Clostridium histolyticum Collagenase on Bone Formation After Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion Surgery in Rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Gen; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsushita, Osamu; Fujimaki, Hisako; Saito, Wataru; Miyagi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Nozomu; Ohtori, Seiji; Yogoro, Mizuki; Takaso, Masashi

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study. To evaluate the effectiveness of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) fused with the polycystic kidney disease domain (PKD) and the collagen-binding domain (CBD) of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, for the acceleration of lumbar posterolateral fusion in rats. Reports indicate bFGF is an effective growth factor with osteogenic potential for promoting bone regeneration, although its efficiency decreases rapidly following its diffusion in body fluid from the host site. We developed a bFGF fusion protein containing the PKD and the CBD of C histolyticum collagenase (bFGF-PKD-CBD), which markedly enhanced bone formation at a relatively low concentration when applied to the surface of rat femurs in a previous study. The potential of this novel protein to accelerate bone fusion in a rat model of lumbar posterolateral fusion has yet to be investigated. Bilateral L4-L5 posterolateral fusions were performed, using 150 mg of FDBA powder per side. A total of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 to 250 g/each were divided into two groups of 10 rats: FDBA was incubated with either phosphate-buffered saline (control group) or 0.58 nmol bFGF-PKD-CBD (bFGF-PKD-CBD group) before fusion surgery. The effect of bFGF-PKD-CBD was estimated using radiographs, microcomputed tomography, and histology (hematoxylin-eosin and von Kossa staining). Both grafted bone volume in the posterolateral lesion and the volume of new bone formation on the surface of laminae and spinal processes were significantly higher in the bFGF-PKD-CBD group than in the control group. Histologically, new bone formation and surrounding chondrocytes and fibroblasts were prominent in the bFGF-PKD-CBD group. FDBA infused with bFGF-PKD-CBD may be a promising material for accelerating spinal fusion, and the FDBA-based delivery system for localizing bFGF-PKD-CBD may offer novel therapeutic approaches to augment spinal fusion. N/A.

  7. Percutaneous Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (pTLIF) with a Posterolateral Approach for the Treatment of Degenerative Disk Disease: Feasibility and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interbody fusion by open discectomy is the usual treatment for degenerative disk disease but requires a relatively long recovery period. The transforaminal posterolateral approach is a well-known standard in endoscopic spine surgery that allows direct access to the disk with progressive tissue dilation. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of percutaneous transforaminal interbody fusion (pTLIF) with percutaneous insertion of an expandable or a standard rigid interbody implant for patients with degenerative disk disease with or without spondylolisthesis and for revision surgery with the endoscopic posterolateral approach. Methods Between 2009 and 2014, the pTLIF procedure was performed in 30 patients. Ten patients underwent insertion of a rigid implant (group A) and the remaining 20 underwent insertion of an expandable titanium interbody implant as the initial procedure (n = 10) (group B) or after failed back surgery (n = 10) (group C). Patient outcomes were scored with visual analogic scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and modified Macnab criteria. Results The mean follow-up period was 38 (17) (range 11 to 67) months. The outcome was excellent in 18, good in 10 and fair in 2. No poor results and no major complications were reported. No significant (p<0.05) differences in VAS and ODI scores according to the study group were found. Median postoperative time until hospital discharge was 26 hours (20 to 68 hours). Postoperative values for VAS and ODI scores improved significantly (p<0.05) compared to preoperative data in all study groups. Conclusions These preliminary results have shown the feasibility and efficacy of the pTLIF procedure using a percutaneous posterolateral approach for the treatment of degenerative disk disease with or without spondylolisthesis up to grade 2 and in revision surgery. No significant differences in outcome were observed between an expandable and a rigid cage. Median postoperative time until hospital

  8. Enhancement of posterolateral lumbar spine fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and mesenchymal stem cells delivered in fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zunpeng; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Haitao; He, Xiaoning; Liu, Xinchun

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have shown great potential for accelerating bone healing. In the present study, we evaluate the efficacy of fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite for posterolateral spinal fusion in a rabbit model. Forty adult rabbits underwent posterolateral intertransverse fusion at the L5-L6 level. The animals were randomly divided into four groups based on the implant material: fibrin glue, fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells composite, fibrin glue-recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2) composite, and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite. After six weeks, the rabbits were euthanized for manual palpation, radiographic examination, biomechanical testing, and histology. Manual palpation results showed that the fusion rate for fibrin glue, fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was 0, 0, 40%, and 70%, respectively. Moreover, fusion rate determined by radiographic examination for fibrin glue, fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was 0, 0, 40%, and 80%, respectively. Gray analysis showed that fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 group had higher ossification area and density than fibrin glue group; and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 group had higher ossification area and density than fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 group. Formation of continuous bone masses between L5 and L6 level in mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/fibrin glue group was further confirmed by computed

  9. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite–collagen composite) –alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union–related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone. PMID:27833116

  10. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite-collagen composite) -alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union-related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone.

  11. Outcome of Salvage Lumbar Fusion after Lumbar Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose This study aims to define the role of lumbar fusion for persistent back pains after the lumbar disc replacement. Overview of Literature Little is written about lumbar fusion after optimally placed lumbar arthroplasty in patients with persistent lower back pains. Methods Retrospective review of cases of lumbar artificial disc requiring subsequent fusion because of persistent back pains despite optimally placed artificial discs. Outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Clinical improvements indicated 25% improvement in ODI and VAS values. Results Five patients met the study criteria. The mean baseline ODI for the five patients was 52. The mean baseline VAS scores for back and leg pains were 76 and 26, respectively. All the five patients had optimally placed prosthesis. The indication for surgery was the constant low back pains found in all the patients. Revision surgery involved disc explantation and fusion in two of the patients and posterolateral fusion without removing the prosthesis in three. None of the patients achieved adequate pain control after the revision surgery despite the solid bony fusion documented by postoperative computed tomography. The mean ODI value after the fusion was 55. The mean values for back and leg pains VAS were 72 and 30, respectively. Conclusions Lack of good pain relief after successful lumbar artifical disc replacements may indicate different etiology for the back pains. The spine-treating surgeons should have a high threshold level to perform salvage fusion at that level. PMID:24596600

  12. Outcomes of Posterolateral Fusion with and without Instrumentation and of Interbody Fusion for Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Endler, Peter; Ekman, Per; Möller, Hans; Gerdhem, Paul

    2017-05-03

    Various methods for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis are available. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes after posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, posterolateral fusion with instrumentation, and interbody fusion. The Swedish Spine Register was used to identify 765 patients who had been operated on for isthmic spondylolisthesis and had at least preoperative and 2-year outcome data; 586 of them had longer follow-up (a mean of 6.9 years). The outcome measures were a global assessment of leg and back pain, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) Questionnaire, the Short Form-36 (SF-36), a visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, and satisfaction with treatment. Data on additional lumbar spine surgery was searched for in the register, with the mean duration of follow-up for this variable being 10.6 years after the index procedure. Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of covariance or competing-risks proportional hazards regression, adjusted for baseline differences in the studied variables, smoking, employment status, and level of fusion. Posterolateral fusion without instrumentation was performed in 102 patients; posterolateral fusion with instrumentation, in 452; and interbody fusion, in 211. At 1 year, improvement was reported in the global assessment for back pain by 54% of the patients who had posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, 68% of those treated with posterolateral fusion with instrumentation, and 70% of those treated with interbody fusion (p = 0.009). The VAS for back pain and reported satisfaction with treatment showed similar patterns (p = 0.003 and p = 0.017, respectively), whereas other outcomes did not differ among the treatment groups at 1 year. At 2 years, the global assessment for back pain indicated improvement in 57% of the patients who had undergone posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, 70% of those who had posterolateral fusion with instrumentation

  13. Posterolateral versus posterior interbody fusion in isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Majid Reza; Rahmanian, Abdolkarim; Masoudi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-05-20

    Spondylolisthesis is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by subluxation of a vertebral body over another in the sagittal plane. Its most common form is isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS). This study aims to compare clinical outcomes of posterolateral fusion (PLF) with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with posterior instrumentation in the treatment of IS. We performed a randomized prospective study in which 80 patients out of a total of 85 patients with IS were randomly allocated to one of two groups: PLF with posterior instrumentation (group I) or PLIF with posterior instrumentation (group II). Posterior decompression was performed in the patients. The Oswestry low back pain disability (OLBP) scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) and pain, respectively. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate fusion rate and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare categorical data. Fusion in group II was significantly better than in group I (p=0.012). Improvement in low back pain was statistically more significant in group I (p=0.001). The incidence of neurogenic claudication was significantly lower in group I than in group II (p=0.004). In group I, there was no significant correlation between slip Meyerding grade and disc space height, radicular pain, and low back pain. There was no significant difference in post-operative complications at 1-year follow-up. Our data showed that PLF with posterior instrumentation provides better clinical outcomes and more improvement in low back pain compared to PLIF with posterior instrumentation despite the low fusion rate.

  14. Reliability analysis of radiographic methods for determination of posterolateral lumbossacral fusion.

    PubMed

    Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm; Pomar, Felipe de Moraes; Carneiro Neto, Nicola Jorge; Franzin, Fernando José; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis; Poletto, Patricia Rios

    2014-04-01

    To analyze intra and interobserver agreement of two radiographic methods for evaluation of posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis. Twenty patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral fusion were evaluated by anteroposterior and dynamic lateral radiographs in maximal flexion and extension. The images were evaluated initially by 6 orthopedic surgeons, and after 8 weeks, reassessed by 4 of them, totaling 400 radiographic measurements. Intra and interobserver reliability were analyzed using the Kappa coefficient and Landis and Koch criteria. Intra and interobserver agreement regarding anteroposterior radiographs were, respectively, 76 and 63%. On lateral views, these values were 78 and 84%, respectively. However, the Kappa analysis showed poor intra and interobserver agreement in most cases, regardless of the radiographic method used. There was poor intra and interobserver agreement in the evaluation of lumbosacral fusion by plain film in anteroposterior and dynamic lateral views, with no statistical superiority between the methods.

  15. Reliability analysis of radiographic methods for determination of posterolateral lumbossacral fusion

    PubMed Central

    Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm; de Moraes Pomar, Felipe; Carneiro, Nicola Jorge; Franzin, Fernando José; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis; Poletto, Patricia Rios

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze intra and interobserver agreement of two radiographic methods for evaluation of posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis. Methods Twenty patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral fusion were evaluated by anteroposterior and dynamic lateral radiographs in maximal flexion and extension. The images were evaluated initially by 6 orthopedic surgeons, and after 8 weeks, reassessed by 4 of them, totaling 400 radiographic measurements. Intra and interobserver reliability were analyzed using the Kappa coefficient and Landis and Koch criteria. Results Intra and interobserver agreement regarding anteroposterior radiographs were, respectively, 76 and 63%. On lateral views, these values were 78 and 84%, respectively. However, the Kappa analysis showed poor intra and interobserver agreement in most cases, regardless of the radiographic method used. Conclusion There was poor intra and interobserver agreement in the evaluation of lumbosacral fusion by plain film in anteroposterior and dynamic lateral views, with no statistical superiority between the methods. PMID:25003926

  16. Posterolateral Fusion Versus Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ryan C; Mobbs, Ralph J; Lu, Victor M; Xu, Joshua; Rao, Prashanth J; Phan, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis. Current surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) involves decompression of the spinal canal followed by fusion with or without interbody. The additional functional and operative benefits derived from interbody inclusion has yet to be thoroughly established with a number of recent studies producing conflicting results. Thus, we aim to compare the functional and operative outcomes after fusion against interbody fusion in the treatment of DS. This systematic review of the literature comparing posterolateral fusion (PLF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) outcomes in the treatment of DS was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Electronic searches of 6 databases yielded 386 articles from database inception to July 2016, which were screening against established criteria for inclusion into this study. A total of 6 studies, satisfied criteria and reported outcomes for 721 patients. Fusion alone was performed in 458 (63.5%) patients and interbody fusion was performed in 263 (36.5%) patients. Functional outcomes Oswestry Disability Index (P = .29) and visual analog scale (P = .13) were not statistically different between the 2 approaches. Furthermore, there was no significant inferiority between fusion alone and with interbody in terms of the operative outcomes of blood loss (P = .38), reoperation rate (P = .66), hospital stay (P = .96), complication rate (P = .78), or fusion rate (P = .15). There was no statistically significant difference in functional and operative outcomes following fusion alone versus with interbody. Additional subgroup analysis of intrinsic DS features in future large, prospective, randomized controlled trials will improve the validity of these findings.

  17. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Alan

    2002-04-01

    Indication and technique of TLIF procedure are described. TLIF provides for anterior column support and posterior tension band. It is a unilateral approach to the spine, and there is no need to expose or manipulate the dura. It provides the benefits of a 360 degrees fusion without performing an anterior approach. It restores the normal anatomy of the motion segment and maintains normal lumbar lordosis. Patients are mobilized quickly and resume activities early.

  18. Evaluation of a novel silicate substituted hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute in a rabbit posterolateral fusion model.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Douglas C; Petersen, Emily B; Sahai, Nikhil; Corley, Katherine Gibson N; DeVries, Nicole; Grosland, Nicole M; Smucker, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting. Blinded observations/assessment of study outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance characteristics of a novel silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute (BGS), SiCaP EP (Baxter Healthcare/ ApaTech, Elstree, UK), in a stand-alone mode, a stand-alone with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) mode, and an extender mode with iliac crest autograft (ICBG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model. The investigational BGS is compared to a standard iliac crest autograft (ICBG) control. The rabbit posterolateral fusion model is an established environment for testing of fusion efficacy. It offers the opportunity to obtain radiographic, histological, and biomechanical data on novel bone graft substitutes. One hundred and twenty rabbits were entered into the study with 116 used for analysis. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorti cated and covered with graft material in the following five groups: ICBG, SiCaP EP stand-alone, SiCaP EP with BMA (1:0.5 by volume), and SiCaP EP with ICBG (1:3 by volume). Rabbits were necropsied at 4, 8, and 12-week time points and fusion rate, quantity, and quality was evaluated based on manual palpation, mechanical stiffness testing, pqCT, and histological assessment. SiCaP EP, ICBG+SiCaP EP (3:1), and SiCaP EP+BMA (1:0.5) compare favorably to iliac crest autologous bone by multiple metrics in this rabbit posterolateral fusion model. Fusion efficacy via manual palpation and mechanical stiffness testing metrics indicate that all SiCaP EP groups had similar group-to-group performance, and were not significantly different than the ICBG control at each time period evaluated. In this commonly used rabbit posterolateral fusion model, SiCaP EP utilized as a stand-alone, as a stand-alone with BMA, and as an autograft (ICBG) extender produces results that are

  19. Diagnostic accuracy and reliability of fine-cut CT scans with reconstructions to determine the status of an instrumented posterolateral fusion with surgical exploration as reference standard.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Leah Y; Djurasovic, Mladen; Glassman, Steven D; Sailer, Philip

    2007-04-15

    Accuracy of a diagnostic test referenced to the gold standard. This study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of fine-cut computed tomography scans with coronal and sagittal reconstructions to determine the status of an instrumented posterolateral fusion by using surgical exploration as the reference standard. There is still a need for a reliable and accurate noninvasive method to determine the status of a spinal fusion. Three spine surgeons reviewed 93 prerevision fine-cut CT scans over 163 fused levels of consecutive patients who had revision surgery after an instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. The facet joints and posterolateral gutters at each level were classified as fused or not. The surgeons were unaware of the findings on surgical exploration. Interobserver variability and likelihood ratios for a solid fusion when both, one, or none of the facets and when both, one, or none of the posterolateral gutters were fused, were calculated. There were 42 males and 51 females with a mean age of 57 years (range, 19-86 years) at revision. On exploration, there were 32 (19.6%) nonunions over 163 levels. The kappa for interobserver variability for evaluating facet fusions (0.42) was moderate and for posterolateral fusions (0.62) was substantial. The probability of a solid fusion on exploration was higher when both posterolateral gutters were fused on CT scan (89%) than when both facets were fused on CT scan (74%). When both facets and both posterolateral gutters were fused on CT scan, the probability of a solid fusion on exploration is 96%. The absence of fusion of one or both facets or one posterolateral gutter were poor predictors of nonunion on surgical exploration. The CT scan reading of either one or both posterolateral gutters fused or both facets fused were moderately predictive of a solid fusion on surgical exploration. Fine-cut CT scans with reconstructions are moderately predictive of the presence of nonunion when both facets are not fused.

  20. The outcome of posterolateral fusion in highly selected patients with discogenic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Parker, L M; Murrell, S E; Boden, S D; Horton, W C

    1996-08-15

    A prospective analysis of the clinical outcome of a consecutive series of patients treated with posterior lumbar arthrodesis. Preoperative data were collected retrospectively by chart review. To measure by independent review the clinical outcome of posterolateral intertransverse fusion as a treatment for discogenic low back pain in a highly selected group of patients. Although numerous studies have reported on the surgical management of degenerative disc disease, they have been difficult to interpret because they lack patient-oriented outcome assessment and objective pain measurement criteria, independent review, and include patients with diagnoses other than degenerative disc disease. Between 1991 and February 1993 all patients seen by a single surgeon, evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and discography, and treated with posterolateral lumbar fusion were reviewed by independent investigation. Outcome was assessed in the areas of radiographic fusion, pain, function, and patient satisfaction. Twenty-three patients (12 women, 11 men; 100% follow-up an average of 47 months after surgery [range, 24-84 months]) met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 39% had a good or excellent result, 13% fair, and 48% poor. Nine of 10 patients receiving worker's compensation had a poor result, four of five patients with radiographic pseudarthrosis had a poor result. Statistically significant improvement in the visual analogue scale was noted in the good and excellent group (P = 0.0001) and the fair group (P = 0.002) with no change in the poor group. Patients out of work more than 3 months before surgery tended to have poor results. Overall, 56% of patients were extremely satisfied with the result of their surgery. Posterolateral intertransverse fusion can be used to successfully manage chronic discogenic back pain. However, patient selection remains a challenge, and successful outcome appears to be limited in the subset of patients receiving worker's compensation and those

  1. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Posterolateral Spinal Fusion: What's the Right Dose?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clifford Barry; Sietsema, Debra Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Single center retrospective cohort analysis. Purpose The goal was to evaluate the influence of varying amount of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) per level on fusion rates and complications in posterolateral spinal fusions. Overview of Literature rhBMP-2 has been utilized for lumbar posterolateral fusions for many years. Initial rhBMP-2 recommendations were 20 mg/level of fusion. Dose and concentration per level in current studies vary from 4.2 to 40 mg and 1.5 to 2.0 mg/mL, respectively. Variable fusion and complication rates have been reported. Methods Patients (n=1,610) undergoing instrumented lumbar spinal fusion (2003–2009) with utilization of rhBMP-2 were retrospectively evaluated. Patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, number of levels, associated interbody fusion, and types of bone void filler were analyzed. Fusions rates and nonunions were subdivided into number of levels and amount of rhBMP-2 used per level. Results Patients (n=559) were evaluated with 58.5% females having an average age of 63 years, BMI of 31 kg/m2. Number of levels fused ranged from 1 to 8. rhBMP-2 averaged 7.3 mg/level (range, 1.5–24 mg/level) based upon length of collagen sponge in relation to length of fusion levels. Patients with non-union formation had lower rhBMP-2 dose per level (p=0.016). A significant difference in non-union rate was found between patients undergoing fusion with <6 mg/level compared to those with >6 mg/level (9.1% vs. 2.4%, χ2=0.012). No significant differences were noted between 6–11.9 mg/level and ≥12 mg/level. No threshold was found for seroma formation or bone overgrowth. Conclusions Previous recommendation of 20 mg/level of rhBMP-2 is more than what is required for predictable fusion rates of 98%. No dose related increase of infection, seroma formation, and bone overgrowth has been found. In order to provide variable dosing and cost reduction, industry generated rhBMP-2 kit size should be

  2. Evaluation of a new formulation of demineralized bone matrix putty in a rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Paul D; Brecevich, Antonio T; Taher, Fadi; Nguyen, Joseph T; Cammisa, Frank P; Abjornson, Celeste

    2014-09-01

    Alternatives to autologous bone graft (ABG) with osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic potential continue to prove elusive. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) however, with its osteoconductive and osteoinductive potential remains a viable option to ABG in posterolateral spine fusion. To compare the efficacy of a new formulation of DBM putty with that of ABG in a rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model. Efficacy of a new formulation of DBM was studied in an experimental animal posterolateral spinal fusion model. Twenty-four male New Zealand White rabbits underwent bilateral posterolateral spine arthrodesis of the L5-L6 intertransverse processes, using either ABG (control group, n=12) or DBM (DBM made from rabbit bone) putty (test group, n=12). The animals were killed 12 weeks after surgery and the lumbar spines were excised. Fusion success was evaluated by manual palpation, high resolution X-rays, microcomputed tomography imaging, biomechanical four-point bending tests, and histology. Two animals were lost because of anesthetic related issues. Manual palpation to assess fusion success in the explanted lumbar spines showed no statistical significant difference in successful fusion in 81.8% (9/11) of DBM group and 72.7% (8/11) of ABG group (p=.99). Reliability of these assessments was measured between three independent observers and found near perfect agreement (intraclass correlation cofficient: 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fusion using high resolution X-rays was solid in 10 of the DBM group and 9 of the ABG group (p=.59). Biomechanical testing showed no significant difference in stiffness between the control and test groups on flexion, extension, and left lateral and right lateral bends, with p values accounting for .79, .42, .75, and .52, respectively. The bone volume/total volume was greater than 85% in the DBM treated fusion masses. Histologic evaluation revealed endochondral ossification in both groups, but the fusion masses were more mature in the DBM

  3. Lumbar lordosis restoration following single-level instrumented fusion comparing 4 commonly used techniques.

    PubMed

    Dimar, John R; Glassman, Steven D; Vemuri, Venu M; Esterberg, Justin L; Howard, Jennifer M; Carreon, Leah Y

    2011-11-09

    A major sequelae of lumbar fusion is acceleration of adjacent-level degeneration due to decreased lumbar lordosis. We evaluated the effectiveness of 4 common fusion techniques in restoring lordosis: instrumented posterolateral fusion, translumbar interbody fusion, anteroposterior fusion with posterior instrumentation, and anterior interbody fusion with lordotic threaded (LT) cages (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, Tennessee). Radiographs were measured preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. Parameters measured included anterior and posterior disk space height, lumbar lordosis from L3 to S1, and surgical level lordosis.No significant difference in demographics existed among the 4 groups. All preoperative parameters were similar among the 4 groups. Lumbar lordosis at final follow-up showed no difference between the anteroposterior fusion with posterior instrumentation, translumbar interbody fusion, and LT cage groups, although the posterolateral fusion group showed a significant loss of lordosis (-10°) (P<.001). Immediately postoperatively and at follow-up, the LT cage group had a significantly greater amount of lordosis and showed maintenance of anterior and posterior disk space height postoperatively compared with the other groups. Instrumented posterolateral fusion produces a greater loss of lordosis compared with anteroposterior fusion with posterior instrumentation, translumbar interbody fusion, and LT cages. Maintenance of lordosis and anterior and posterior disk space height is significantly better with anterior interbody fusion with LT cages. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Unilateral Fixation for Degenerative Lumbar Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Wang; Hu, Yong-Cheng; Wu, Zhan-Yong; Wu, Hua-Rong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Lian-Suo; Xu, Wei-Kun; Fan, Hui-Long; Cai, Jin-Sheng; Ma, Jian-Qing

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of the minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterolateral fusion and unilateral fixation using a tubular retractor in the management of degenerative lumbar disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted to analyze the clinical outcome of 58 degenerative lumbar disease patients who were treated with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterolateral fusion and unilateral fixation during December 2012 to January 2015. The spine was unilaterally approached through a 3.0-cm skin incision centered on the disc space, located 2.5 cm lateral to the midline, and the multifidus muscles and longissimus dorsi were stripped off. After transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterolateral fusion the unilateral pedicle screw fixation was performed. The visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the MacNab score were applied to evaluate clinical effects. The operation time, peri-operative bleeding, postoperative time in bed, hospitalization costs, and the change in the intervertebral height were analyzed. Radiological fusion based on the Bridwell grading system was also assessed at the last follow-up. The quality of life of the patients before and after the operation was assessed using the short form-36 scale (SF-36). Fifty-eight operations were successfully performed, and no nerve root injury or dural tear occurred. The average operation time was 138 ± 33 min, intraoperative blood loss was 126 ± 50 mL, the duration from surgery to getting out of bed was 46 ± 8 h, and hospitalization cost was 1.6 ± 0.2 ten thousand yuan. All of the 58 patients were followed up for 7-31 months, with an average of 14.6 months. The postoperative VAS scores and ODI score were significantly improved compared with preoperative data (P < 0.05). The evaluation of the MacNab score was excellent in 41 patients, good

  5. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-Yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  6. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  7. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with local bone graft instead of iliac crest bone graft in posterolateral lumbar spine arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Daniel K; Kim, Sung S; Thakur, Nikhil; Boden, Scott D

    2013-05-20

    Prospective clinical study. Compare fusion rates between recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) with rhBMP-2 and local bone graft (LBG) (±bone graft extenders) in posterolateral fusion. Previous reports have shown higher fusion rates when adding rhBMP-2 to ICBG in lumbar posterolateral fusion, compared with ICBG alone. We compared the fusion success rates between rhBMP-2 delivered with ICBG versus that with LBG. Fusion rates were compared in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis (1-2 levels) with accompanying lumbar stenosis. RhBMP-2 (INFUSE, Medtronic) was delivered on an absorbable collagen sponge (6 mg/side at 1.5 mg/mL) with ICBG alone or with LBG wrapped inside the sponge. Thin slice computed tomographic scans were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months. In a consecutive series, 16 patients (30 levels) received ICBG with rhBMP-2 and 35 patients (49 levels) received LBG with rhBMP-2. For the ICBG cohort, 80.0%, 93.4%, 96.7% of levels were fused at 6, 12, and 24 months. In contrast, for the local bone with rhBMP-2 cohort, 87.7%, 98.0%, and 98.0% were fused at 6, 12, and 24 months. There was no statistically significant difference in fusion success rates between the 2 groups at any time point. As for fusion quality, the fusion mass showed superior quality in ICBG group than in the local bone group at each time point. This study validates the high fusion success rates previously reported by adding rhBMP-2 to ICBG and shows that local bone may be safely substituted for ICBG in 1- to 2-level posterolateral fusion. The fusion rates were comparable. The avoidance of ICBG harvest has implications for operative time, blood loss, and morbidity. Lastly, this is the first study that directly compares the fusion success rate and quality using local bone with rhBMP-2 versus ICBG with rhBMP-2 at various times. 4.

  8. rhBMP-2 (ACS and CRM formulations) overcomes pseudarthrosis in a New Zealand white rabbit posterolateral fusion model.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, James P; Waked, Walid; Gillon, Thomas J; White, Andrew P; Spock, Christopher R; Biswas, Debdut; Rosenberger, Patricia; Troiano, Nancy; Albert, Todd J; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2007-05-15

    The study design consisted of a New Zealand white rabbit model of pseudarthrosis repair. Study groups consisting of no graft, autograft, or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) or compression resistant matrix (CRM) were evaluated. To evaluate the relative efficacy of bone graft materials (autograft, ACS, and CRM). rhBMP-2 has been shown to have a 100% fusion rate in a primary rabbit fusion model, even in the presence of nicotine, which is known to inhibit fusion. Seventy-two New Zealand white rabbits underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with iliac crest autograft. To establish pseudarthroses, nicotine was administered to all animals. At 5 weeks, the spines were explored and all pseudarthroses were redecorticated and implanted with no graft, autograft, rhBMP-2/ACS, or rhBMP-2/CRM. At 10 weeks, fusions were assessed by manual palpation and histology. Eight rabbits (11%) were lost to complications. At 5 weeks, 66 (97%) had pseudarthroses. At 10 weeks, attempted pseudarthrosis repairs were fused in 1 of 16 of no graft rabbits (6%), 5 of 17 autograft rabbits (29%), and 31 of 31 rhBMP-2 rabbits (with ACS or CRM) (100%). Histologic analysis demonstrated more mature bone formation in the rhBMP-2 groups. The 2 rhBMP-2 formulations led to significantly higher fusion rates and histologic bone formation than no graft and autograft controls in this pseudarthrosis repair model.

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of posterolateral approach for percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yokosuka, Junichi; Oshima, Yasushi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Takano, Yuichi; Inanami, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is one of the less invasive treatments for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), and has 3 different operative approaches. This study focused on the posterolateral approach (PLA) and investigated the appropriate operative indication. Methods PLA was performed in 29 patients with foraminal and extraforaminal LDH. The height and width of the foramen, LDH type, and positional relationship between LDH and the foramen were radiologically evaluated. Foraminoplasty was also performed in 12 cases including those combined with intra-canal LDH or osseous foraminal stenosis. Pre- and postoperative status was evaluated using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores. Results Patient mean age was 56.8 years; there was single-level involvement at L3/4 (13 cases) and at L4/5 (13 cases). The mean pre- and postoperative NRS scores were 6.1 and 1.8, respectively. Early recurrence developed in a patient who was found to have local scoliosis at the corresponding vertebral level. Conclusions PLA can be safely used to treat foraminal and extraforaminal LDH with foraminal height ≥13 mm and foraminal width ≥7 mm. The procedure is effective for preserving the facet joint; however, we should carefully consider the indications when local scoliosis and/or instability are present. PMID:27757427

  10. Effect of Hydroxyapatite porous characteristics on healing outcomes in rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model.

    PubMed

    Motomiya, Makoto; Ito, Manabu; Takahata, Masahiko; Kadoya, Ken; Irie, Kazuharu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Minami, Akio

    2007-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been commonly used as a bone graft substitute in various kinds of clinical fields. To improve the healing capability of HA, many studies have been performed to reveal its optimal structural characteristics for better healing outcomes. In spinal reconstruction surgery, non-interconnected porous HAs have already been applied as a bone graft extender in order to avoid autogenous bone harvesting. However, there have been few experimental studies regarding the effects of the structural characteristics of HA in posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process spine fusion (PLF). The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of HA porous characteristics on healing outcomes in a rabbit PLF model in order to elucidate appropriate structural characteristics of HA as a bone graft extender. Thirty-six adult female Japanese White rabbits underwent bilateral intertransverse process fusion at the level of L5-6 without internal fixation. We prepared three types of HA with different porosities: HA with 15% porosity (HA15%), HA with 50% porosity (HA50%), and HA with 85% porosity (HA85%), all of which were clinically available materials. The HA15% and HA50% had few interconnecting pores, whereas the HA85%, which was a recently developed material, had abundant interconnecting pores. All rabbits were randomly divided into the following four groups according to the grafted materials: (1) HA15% + autogenous bone, (2) HA50% + autogenous bone, (3) HA85% + autogenous bone, (4) pure autogenous bone graft. The animals were euthanized at 5 weeks after surgery, and post-mortem analyses including biomechanical testing, radiographical and histological evaluations were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in either fusion rate and/or bending stiffness among the three HA groups. However, in histological and radiological analyses, both bone ingrowth rate and direct bone bonding rate in the HA85% group were significantly higher than those in the HA

  11. Erythropoietin augments bone formation in a rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model.

    PubMed

    Rölfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal; Bendtsen, Michael; Jensen, Jonas; Stiehler, Maik; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Hellfritzsch, Michel Bach; Bünger, Cody

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that erythropoietin (EPO) enhances bone formation after posterolateral spinal fusion (PLF) in a rabbit model. Thirty-four adult rabbits underwent posterolateral intertransverse arthrodesis at the L5-L6 level using 2.0 g autograft per side. The animals were randomly divided into two groups receiving subcutaneous daily injections of either EPO or saline for 20 days. Treatment commenced 2 days preoperatively. Hemoglobin was monitored at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after fusion surgery. After euthanasia 6 weeks postoperatively, manual palpation, radiographic, and histomorphometric examinations were performed. Bone volume of the fusion mass was estimated by CT after 6 weeks. EPO increased bone fusion volume to 3.85 ccm (3.66-4.05) compared with 3.26 ccm (2.97-3.55) in the control group (p<0.01). EPO treatment improved vascularization of the fusion mass and increased hemoglobin levels (p<0.01). Fusion rate tended to be higher in the EPO group based on manual palpation, CT, and radiographic examinations. For the first time EPO has shown to augment bone formation after autograft PLF in a rabbit model. Increased vascularization provides a partial explanation for the efficacy of EPO as a bone autograft enhancer.

  12. Outcomes of Demineralized Bone Matrix Enriched with Concentrated Bone Marrow Aspirate in Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Eckardt, Mark A.; Hamamoto, Jason T.; Plotkin, Benjamin; Daubs, Michael D.; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that a significant amount of variability exists in various demineralized bone matrix (DBM) formulations, which casts doubts on its reliability in consistently promoting fusion. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) is a cellular based graft that contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and growth factors can confer osteogenic and osteoinductive potential to DBM. The goal of this study was to describe the outcome of DBM enriched with concentrated BMA in patients undergoing combined lumbar interbody and posterolateral fusion. Methods Eighty patients with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up were evaluated. Fusion and rates of complication were evaluated. Functional outcomes were assessed based on the modified Odom’s criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects of independent variables on fusion outcome. Results The overall rate of solid fusion (i.e patients with both solid posterolateral and interbody fusion) was 81.3% (65/80). Specifically, the radiographic evidence of solid posterolateral and interbody fusions were 81.3% (65/80) and 92.5% (74/80), respectively. Seven (8.75%) patients developed hardware-related complications, 2 (2.5%) patients developed a postoperative infection and 2 (2.5%) patients developed clinical pseudarthrosis. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores of 3 and 4 were associated with non-solid unions (CCI-3, p = 0.048; CCI-4, p = 0.03). Excellent or good outcomes were achieved in 58 (72.5%) patients. Conclusions Patients undergoing lumbar fusion using an enriched bone graft containing concentrated BMA added to DBM can achieve successful fusion with relatively low complications and good functional outcomes. Despite these findings, more studies with higher level of evidence are needed to better understand the efficacy of this promising graft option. PMID:27909656

  13. Outcomes of Demineralized Bone Matrix Enriched with Concentrated Bone Marrow Aspirate in Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Remi M; Eckardt, Mark A; Hamamoto, Jason T; Plotkin, Benjamin; Daubs, Michael D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that a significant amount of variability exists in various demineralized bone matrix (DBM) formulations, which casts doubts on its reliability in consistently promoting fusion. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) is a cellular based graft that contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and growth factors can confer osteogenic and osteoinductive potential to DBM. The goal of this study was to describe the outcome of DBM enriched with concentrated BMA in patients undergoing combined lumbar interbody and posterolateral fusion. Eighty patients with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up were evaluated. Fusion and rates of complication were evaluated. Functional outcomes were assessed based on the modified Odom's criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects of independent variables on fusion outcome. The overall rate of solid fusion (i.e patients with both solid posterolateral and interbody fusion) was 81.3% (65/80). Specifically, the radiographic evidence of solid posterolateral and interbody fusions were 81.3% (65/80) and 92.5% (74/80), respectively. Seven (8.75%) patients developed hardware-related complications, 2 (2.5%) patients developed a postoperative infection and 2 (2.5%) patients developed clinical pseudarthrosis. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores of 3 and 4 were associated with non-solid unions (CCI-3, p = 0.048; CCI-4, p = 0.03). Excellent or good outcomes were achieved in 58 (72.5%) patients. Patients undergoing lumbar fusion using an enriched bone graft containing concentrated BMA added to DBM can achieve successful fusion with relatively low complications and good functional outcomes. Despite these findings, more studies with higher level of evidence are needed to better understand the efficacy of this promising graft option.

  14. Posterolateral spinal fusion with nano-hydroxyapatite-collagen/PLA composite and autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Bin; Cao, Jun-Kai; Wen, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Jin; Duan, Cui-Mi; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Wang, Chang-Yong

    2012-04-01

    Spinal fusion is routinely performed to treat low back pain caused by degeneration of intervertebral discs. An autologous bone graft derived from the iliac crest is the standard procedure used for spinal fusion. However, several shortcomings, including pseudarthrosis, pain and the need for blood transfusion are known to be associated with the procedure. Our study analysed the effectiveness of a new mineralized collagen matrix, nano-hydroxyapatite-collagen-polylactic acid (nHAC-PLA), combined with autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) as a graft material for posterolateral spinal fusion in a rabbit model. Forty rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: autologous iliac crest bone group (ACB), nHAC-PLA composite group (nHAC-PLA), autologous iliac crest bone mixed with nHAC-PLA composite group (ACB + nHAC-PLA), and nHAC-PLA composite combined with ADMSCs (ADMSCs + nHAC-PLA). The viability and the proliferation of the ADMSCs seeded on the scaffolds were evaluated by live/dead kit and MTT assay in vitro, respectively. Lumbar posterolateral fusions were assessed by manual palpation, radiographical and histological procedures, mechanical strength and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) in 10 weeks of observation. The results showed that the rate of fusion was significantly higher in the ACB and ADMSCs + nHAC-PLA groups than that in the nHAC-PLA and ACB + nHAC-PLA groups. It was not significantly higher in the ACB group than in the ADMSCs + nHAC-PLA group. From microstructural analysis of the samples using histological staining methods, there was more new bone-like tissue formation in the ACB and ADMSCs + nHAC-PLA groups than that in the other two groups at the 10th postoperative week. Our study demonstrated the effective impact of nHAC-PLA combined with ADMSCs in rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Radiological Comparison of Anterior Fusion Rates in Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M. J. H.; Ng, L.; Vermeersch, G.; Chan, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To compare anterior fusion in standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using cage and screw constructs and anterior cage–alone constructs with posterior pedicle screw supplementation but without posterior fusion. Methods Eighty-five patients underwent single- or two-level ALIF procedure for degenerative disk disease or lytic spondylolisthesis (SPL). Posterior instrumentation was performed without posterior fusion in all cases of lytic SPL and when the anterior cage used did not have anterior screw through cage fixation. Results Seventy (82%) patients had adequate radiological follow-up at a mean of 19 months. Forty patients had anterior surgery alone (24 single level and 16 two levels) and 30 had front-back surgery (15 single level and 15 two levels). Anterior locked pseudarthrosis was only seen in the anterior surgery–alone group when using the STALIF cage (Surgicraft, Worcestershire, UK) (37 patients). This occurred in five of the single-level surgeries (5/22) and nine of the two-level surgeries (9/15). Fusion was achieved in 100% of the front-back group and only 65% (26/40) of the anterior surgery–alone group. Conclusion Posterior pedicle screw supplementation without posterolateral fusion improves the fusion rate of ALIF when using anterior cage and screw constructs. We would recommend supplementary posterior fixation especially in cases where more than one level is being operated. PMID:24353968

  16. High lumbar noninstrumented fusion rates using lamina autograft and Nanoss/bone marrow aspirate

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with marked osteoporosis and/or obesity/morbid obesity and severe multilevel lumbar stenosis and other pathology often undergo multilevel laminectomies with non instrumented posterolateral fusions (PLF). The other pathology may include combinations of degenerative spondylolisthesis/lysis, foraminal/far lateral discs, and/or synovial cysts requiring more extensive facet resections. Presently, spine surgeons often use bone graft expanders to supplement the lamina autograft harvested in the course of laminectomy/decompressions for the PLF mass. Methods: In 59 patients, we prospectively analyzed the fusion rates following multilevel laminectomies/noninstrumented fusions using lamina autograft and the bone graft expander Nanoss (RTI Surgical Alachua, FL, and USA) with autogenous bone marrow aspirate (BMA). Patients averaged 66.1 years of age; many exhibited marked osteoporosis (48 patients) and obesity (13 of 27 morbidly obese). Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) studies documented stenosis/ossified yellow ligament (OYL) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (51 patients)/lysis (2 patients), synovial cysts (32 patients), and disc herniations (10 of 21 far lateral). Patients were followed remove up for an average of 3.12 years. Results: Average 4.0 level laminectomies/1.2 level noninstrumented fusions utilized lamina autograft and Nanoss/BMA. Both X-ray/CT studies performed an average of 4.9 months postoperatively documented a 97% fusion rate (57 of 59 patients). Two patients with severe osteoporosis, morbid obesity, and smoking histories exhibited pseudarthroses; neither was sufficiently symptomatic to require secondary surgery. Conclusions: Fifty-nine patients with multilevel lumbar stenosis/OYL and other pathology underwent multilevel lumbar laminectomies/noninstrumented fusions using lamina autograft and Nanoss/BMA. Both dynamic X-ray/CT studies confirmed a 97% fusion rate an average of 4.9 months postoperatively. Nanoss

  17. Posterolateral spinal fusion in a rabbit model using a collagen–mineral composite bone graft substitute

    PubMed Central

    Vizesi, F.; Cornwall, G. B.; Bell, D.; Oliver, R.; Yu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Choosing the appropriate graft material to participate in the healing process in posterolateral spinal fusion continues to be a challenge. Combining synthetic graft materials with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and autograft is a reasonable treatment option for surgeons to potentially reduce or replace the need for autograft. FormaGraft, a bone graft material comprising 12% bovine-derived collagen and 88% ceramic in the form of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was evaluated in three possible treatment modalities for posterior spinal fusion in a standard rabbit model. These three treatment groups were FormaGraft alone, FormaGraft soaked in autogenous BMA, and FormaGraft with BMA and iliac crest autograft. No statistically demonstrable benefits or adverse effects of the addition of BMA were found in the current study based on macroscopic, radiology or mechanical data. This may reflect, in part, the good to excellent results of the collagen HA/TCP composite material alone in a well healing bony bed. Histology did, however, reveal a benefit with the use of BMA. Combining FormaGraft with autograft and BMA achieved results equivalent to autograft alone. The mineral and organic nature of the material provided a material that facilitated fusion between the transverse processes in a standard preclinical posterolateral fusion model. PMID:19475437

  18. Comparison of TLIF with rhBMP-2 versus no TLIF and higher posterolateral rhBMP-2 dose at L5-S1 for long fusions to the sacrum with sacropelvic fixation in patients with primary adult deformity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, RaʼKerry K; Buchowski, Jacob M; Stephens, Bradley; Dorward, Ian G; Koester, Linda A; Bridwell, Keith H

    2013-12-15

    Comparvative case series. Data was prospectively entered and retrospectively analyzed. To evaluate the need for distal lumbar interbody fusion when sufficient recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is used posterolaterally at L5-S1 in long spinal constructs for adult deformity via costs and radiographical and patient-reported outcome comparisons. Many authors and investigators have suggested that an interbody fusion is mandatory at L5-S1 with long fusion to the sacrum with sacropelvic fixation. Past studies have shown competitive fusion rates using rhBMP-2 versus iliac crest bone graft for long fusions. There are various advocates for anterior lumbar interbody fusion versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The optimal strategy remains elusive. Fifty-seven patients were studied at one institution. Thirty-one patients had no interbody fusion (NI group) with 20 mg of rhBMP-2 posterolaterally on 10 mL of carrier and 26 patients had TLIF at L5-S1 (TLIF group) with 6 mg of rhBMP-2 in the interbody space along with local bone graft and 6 mg of rhBMP-2 on carrier posterolaterally at L5-S1. Patients were followed for 24 to 87 months (mean follow-up, 3.92 yr). Demographics of the 2 groups were similar. There were no detected nonunions at L5-S1 in either group. By our limited cost analysis, the expense of performing a TLIF at L5-S1 is higher than that of using extra rhBMP-2 posterolaterally at that segment. Improvement in outcomes scores, namely Scoliosis Research Society-22 and Oswestry Disability Index, were the same statistically in both groups. Blood loss was greater in the TLIF group than the NI group. There were no identified rhBMP-2 adverse events in either group. Utilization of 20 mg of rhBMP-2 at L5-S1 has the potential to be less expensive than an interbody fusion in most patients having a primary long fusion for adult spinal deformity. The apparent fusion rates at L5-S1 were identical in both

  19. Sagittal spinal balance after lumbar spinal fusion: the impact of anterior column support results from a randomized clinical trial with an eight- to thirteen-year radiographic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Videbaek, Tina S; Bünger, Cody E; Henriksen, Mads; Neils, Egund; Christensen, Finn B

    2011-02-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To analyze the long-term clinical impact of anterior column support on sagittal balance after lumbar spinal fusion. Several investigators have stressed the importance of maintaining sagittal balance in relation to spinal fusion to avoid lumbar 'flat back,' accelerated adjacent segment degeneration, pain, and inferior functional outcome. Only limited evidence exists on how sagittal alignment affects clinical outcome. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterolateral fusion has been proved superior to posterolateral fusion alone regarding outcome and cost-effectiveness. No randomized controlled trial has been published analyzing the effect of anterior support on radiographic measurements of sagittal balance. Between 1996 and 1999, 148 patients with severe chronic low back pain were randomly selected for posterolateral lumbar fusion plus anterior support (PLF + ALIF) or posterolateral lumbar fusion. A total of 92 patients participated. Sagittal balance parameters were examined on full lateral radiographs of the spine: pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and positioning of C7 plumb line. The type of lumbar lordosis was evaluated and outcome assessed by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Follow-up rate was 74%. Sagittal balance parameters were similar between randomization groups. None of the parameters differed significantly between patients with an ODI from 0 to 40 and patients with ODI over 40. Balanced patients had a significantly superior outcome as measured by ODI (P < 0.05) compared with unbalanced patients. No difference in the investigated sagittal balance parameters was seen between patients treated with PLF + ALIF or posterolateral fusion alone. Lumbar lordosis and type of lordosis correlated with outcome but could not explain the superior outcome in the group with anterior support. Whether sagittal balance and anterior support during fusion provide a protective effect

  20. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ .

  1. [Mechanical studies of lumbar interbody fusion implants].

    PubMed

    Bader, R J; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Mittelmeier, W; Bertagnoli, R; Gradinger, R

    2002-05-01

    In addition to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages composed of metal or plastic are being used increasingly as spacers for interbody fusion of spinal segments. The goal of this study was the mechanical testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) fusion cages used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. With a special testing device according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, the mechanical properties of the implants were determined under four different loading conditions. The implants (UNION cages, Medtronic Sofamor Danek) provide sufficient axial compression, shear, and torsional strength of the implant body. Ultimate axial compression load of the fins is less than the physiological compression loads at the lumbar spine. Therefore by means of an appropriate surgical technique parallel grooves have to be reamed into the endplates of the vertebral bodies according to the fin geometry. Thereby axial compression forces affect the implants body and the fins are protected from damaging loading. Using a supplementary anterior or posterior instrumentation, in vivo failure of the fins as a result of physiological shear and torsional spinal loads is unlikely. Due to specific complications related to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages made of metal or carbon fiber reinforced plastic are an important alternative implant in interbody fusion.

  2. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  3. Complications and Rates of Subsequent Lumbar Surgery Following Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty and Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Eliasberg, Claire D; Kelly, Michael P; Ajiboye, Remi M; SooHoo, Nelson F

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective analysis. To examine complications and rates of subsequent surgery following lumbar spinal fusion (LF) and lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA) at up to 5-year follow-up. LF is commonly used in the management of degenerative disc disease causing pain refractory to nonoperative management. Lumbar TDA was developed as an alternative to fusion with the theoretical advantage of reducing rates of adjacent segment pathology and reoperation. Most prior reports comparing these 2 interventions have come from industry-sponsored investigational device exemption trials and no large-scale administrative database comparisons exist. The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database was queried for patients aged 18 to 65 years undergoing lumbar TDA and LF for degenerative disc disease from 2004 to 2010. Patient characteristics were collected, and rates of complications and readmission were identified. Rates of repeat lumbar surgery were calculated at 90-day and 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up intervals. A total of 52,877 patients met the inclusion criteria (LF = 50,462, TDA = 2415). Wound infections were more common following LF than TDA (1.03% vs. 0.25%, P < 0.001). Rates of subsequent lumbar surgery at 90-day and 1-year follow-up were lower with lumbar TDA than LF (90-day-TDA: 2.94% vs. LF: 4.01%, P = 0.007; 1-yr-TDA: 3.46% vs. LF: 4.78%, P = 0.009). However, there were no differences in rates of subsequent lumbar surgery between the 2 groups at 3-year and 5-year follow-up. Lumbar TDA was associated with fewer early reoperations, though beyond 1 year, rates of reoperation were similar. Lumbar TDA may be associated with fewer acute infections, though this may be approach related and unrelated to the device itself. 3.

  4. Complications and Rates of Subsequent Lumbar Surgery Following Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty and Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Eliasberg, Claire D.; Kelly, Michael P.; Ajiboye, Remi M.; SooHoo, Nelson F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Objectives To examine complications and rates of subsequent surgery following lumbar spinal fusion (LF) and lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA) at up to 5 years follow-up. Summary of Background Data LF is commonly used in the management of degenerative disc disease causing pain refractory to nonoperative management. Lumbar TDA was developed as an alternative to fusion with the theoretical advantage of reducing rates of adjacent segment pathology and reoperation. Most prior reports comparing these two interventions have come from industry-sponsored investigational device exemption trials and no large-scale administrative database comparisons exist. Methods The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database was queried for patients aged 18 to 65 years undergoing lumbar TDA and LF for degenerative disc disease from 2004 to 2010. Patient characteristics were collected, and rates of complications and readmission were identified. Rates of repeat lumbar surgery were calculated at 90-day and 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up intervals. Results A total of 52,877 patients met the inclusion criteria (LF = 50462, TDA = 2415). Wound infections were more common following LF than TDA (1.03% vs. 0.25%, p<0.001). Rates of subsequent lumbar surgery at 90-day and 1-year follow-up were lower with lumbar TDA than LF (90-day – TDA: 2.94% vs. LF: 4.01%, p=0.007; 1-year – TDA: 3.46% vs. LF: 4.78%, p=0.009). However, there were no differences in rates of subsequent lumbar surgery between the two groups at 3-year and 5-year follow-up. Conclusions Lumbar TDA was associated with fewer early reoperations, though beyond one year, rates of reoperation were similar. Lumbar TDA may be associated with fewer acute infections, though this may be approach-related and unrelated to the device itself. PMID:26751061

  5. Efficacy comparison of Accell Evo3 and Grafton demineralized bone matrix putties against autologous bone in a rat posterolateral spine fusion model.

    PubMed

    Brecevich, Antonio T; Kiely, Paul D; Yoon, B Victor; Nguyen, Joseph T; Cammisa, Frank P; Abjornson, Celeste

    2017-06-01

    Spinal fusion procedures are intended to stabilize the spinal column for a multitude of disorders including abnormal curvature, traumatic instability, degenerative instability, and damage from infections or tumors. As an aid in the bone healing response, bone graft materials are used to bridge joints for arthrodesis and promote unions in pseudoarthrosis. Currently, the gold standard for stabilizing fusion masses in spinal procedures involves using the osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive properties of autologous iliac crest corticocancellous bone. However, considerable morbidity is associated with harvesting the autologous graft. Donor site complications including infection, large hematomas, and pain have been reported at rates as high as 50% (Boden and Jeffrey, 1995). Biologically, the rate of bone repair dictates the rate at which the fusion mass will unite under autologous graft conditions. The purpose of this study is to compare the quality and rate of fusion between Accell Evo3 and Grafton demineralized bone matrix (DBM), with the gold standard iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) as the control, in athymic rat posterolateral fusion. This study was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City. Blinded observations were made, which created an assessment of outcomes for successful fusions between each method. Forty-eight (48) athymic rats were used in this study and underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion. They were assessed at either 3 weeks or 9 weeks to see the rate and efficacy of fusion. Outcome measures will be the efficacy of the different bone grafts and their success rates of fusion in the rats. A comparison of the quality and rate of fusion between Accell Evo3® (DBM A) and Grafton (DBM B), with the gold standard iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) as the control, was performed using the established posterolateral intertransverse process on an athymic rat model. Materials were evaluated for

  6. Radiographic Results of Minimally Invasive (MIS) Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) Compared with Conventional Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sung Min

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the radiographic results of minimally invasive (MIS) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Twelve and nineteen patients who underwent MIS-ALIF, MIS-TLIF, respectively, from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed with a minimum 24-months' follow-up. Additionally, 18 patients treated with single level open TLIF surgery in 2007 were evaluated as a comparative group. X-rays and CT images were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. Fusion and subsidence rates were determined, and radiographic parameters, including lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), fused segment angle (FSA), sacral slope angle (SSA), disc height (DH), and foraminal height (FH), were analyzed. These parameters were also compared between the open and MIS-TLIF groups. In the MIS interbody fusion group, statistically significant increases were observed in LLA, FSA, and DH and FH between preoperative and final values. The changes in LLA, FSA, and DH were significantly increased in the MIS-ALIF group compared with the MIS-TLIF group, but SSA and FH were not significantly different. No significant differences were seen between open and MIS-TLIF except for DH. The interbody subsidence and fusion rates of the MIS groups were 12.0±4% and 96%, respectively. Radiographic results of MIS interbody fusion surgery are as favorable as those with conventional surgery regarding fusion, restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and lumbar lordosis. MIS-ALIF is more effective than MIS-TLIF for intervertebral disc height restoration and lumbar lordosis.

  7. Radiographic Results of Minimally Invasive (MIS) Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) Compared with Conventional Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radiographic results of minimally invasive (MIS) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Methods Twelve and nineteen patients who underwent MIS-ALIF, MIS-TLIF, respectively, from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed with a minimum 24-months' follow-up. Additionally, 18 patients treated with single level open TLIF surgery in 2007 were evaluated as a comparative group. X-rays and CT images were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. Fusion and subsidence rates were determined, and radiographic parameters, including lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), fused segment angle (FSA), sacral slope angle (SSA), disc height (DH), and foraminal height (FH), were analyzed. These parameters were also compared between the open and MIS-TLIF groups. Results In the MIS interbody fusion group, statistically significant increases were observed in LLA, FSA, and DH and FH between preoperative and final values. The changes in LLA, FSA, and DH were significantly increased in the MIS-ALIF group compared with the MIS-TLIF group, but SSA and FH were not significantly different. No significant differences were seen between open and MIS-TLIF except for DH. The interbody subsidence and fusion rates of the MIS groups were 12.0±4% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion Radiographic results of MIS interbody fusion surgery are as favorable as those with conventional surgery regarding fusion, restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and lumbar lordosis. MIS-ALIF is more effective than MIS-TLIF for intervertebral disc height restoration and lumbar lordosis. PMID:24757461

  8. Methods of evaluating lumbar and cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Gruskay, Jordan A; Webb, Matthew L; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-03-01

    Introduced in 1911, spinal fusion is now widely used to stabilize the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Despite advancements in surgical techniques, including the use of instrumentation and optimizing bone graft options, pseudarthrosis remains one of the most significant causes of clinical failure following attempted fusion. Diagnosis of this common complication is based on a focused clinical assessment and imaging studies. Pseudarthrosis classically presents with the onset of or return of axial or radicular symptoms during the first postoperative year. However, this diagnosis is complicated because other diagnoses can mimic these symptoms (such as infection or adjacent segment degeneration) and because many cases of pseudarthrosis are asymptomatic. Computed tomography and assessment of motion on flexion/extension radiographs are the two preferred imaging modalities for establishing the diagnosis of pseudarthrosis. The purpose of this article was to review the current status of imaging and clinical practices for assessing fusion following spinal arthrodesis.

  9. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sanjay; Chauhan, Vijendra; Sharma, Sansar; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Juyal, Anil; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra

    2009-07-01

    Autologous cancellous bone is the most effective biological graft material. However, harvest of autologous bone is associated with significant morbidity. Since porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate are biodegradable materials and can be replaced by bone tissue, but it lacks osteogenic property. We conducted a study to assess their use as a scaffold and combine them with bone marrow aspirate for bone regeneration using its osteogenic property for posterolateral spinal fusion on one side and autologous bone graft on the other side and compare them radiologically in terms of graft incorporation and fusion. Thirty patients with unstable dorsal and lumbar spinal injuries who needed posterior stabilization and fusion were evaluated in this prospective study from October 2005 to March 2008. The posterior stabilization was done using pedicle screw and rod assembly, and fusion was done using hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute over one side of spine and autologous bone graft obtained from iliac crest over other side of spine. The patients were followed up to a minimum of 12 months. Serial radiographs were done at an interval of 3, 6, and 12 months and CT scan was done at one year follow-up. Graft incorporation and fusion were assessed at each follow-up. The study was subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square and kappa test to assess graft incorporation and fusion. At the end of the study, radiological graft incorporation and fusion was evident in all the patients on the bone graft substitute side and in 29 patients on the autologous bone graft side of the spine (P > 0.05). One patient showed lucency and breakage of distal pedicle screw in autologous bone graft side. The interobserver agreement (kappa) had an average of 0.72 for graft incorporation, 0.75 for fusion on radiographs, and 0.88 for the CT scan findings. Hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow

  10. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sanjay; Chauhan, Vijendra; Sharma, Sansar; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Juyal, Anil; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autologous cancellous bone is the most effective biological graft material. However, harvest of autologous bone is associated with significant morbidity. Since porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate are biodegradable materials and can be replaced by bone tissue, but it lacks osteogenic property. We conducted a study to assess their use as a scaffold and combine them with bone marrow aspirate for bone regeneration using its osteogenic property for posterolateral spinal fusion on one side and autologous bone graft on the other side and compare them radiologically in terms of graft incorporation and fusion. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with unstable dorsal and lumbar spinal injuries who needed posterior stabilization and fusion were evaluated in this prospective study from October 2005 to March 2008. The posterior stabilization was done using pedicle screw and rod assembly, and fusion was done using hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute over one side of spine and autologous bone graft obtained from iliac crest over other side of spine. The patients were followed up to a minimum of 12 months. Serial radiographs were done at an interval of 3, 6, and 12 months and CT scan was done at one year follow-up. Graft incorporation and fusion were assessed at each follow-up. The study was subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square and kappa test to assess graft incorporation and fusion. Results: At the end of the study, radiological graft incorporation and fusion was evident in all the patients on the bone graft substitute side and in 29 patients on the autologous bone graft side of the spine (P > 0.05). One patient showed lucency and breakage of distal pedicle screw in autologous bone graft side. The interobserver agreement (kappa) had an average of 0.72 for graft incorporation, 0.75 for fusion on radiographs, and 0.88 for the CT scan findings. Conclusion: Hydroxyapatite

  11. Financial incentives for lumbar surgery: a critical analysis of physician reimbursement for decompression and fusion procedures.

    PubMed

    Whang, Peter G; Lim, Moe R; Sasso, Rick C; Skelton, Alta; Brown, Zoe B; Greg Anderson, David; Albert, Todd J; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective case-control study/economic analysis. To determine the treatment times required for isolated lumbar decompressions and for combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedures to compare the relative reimbursements for each type of operation as a function of time expenditure by the surgeon. Under current Medicare fee schedules, the payment for a fusion procedure is higher than of an isolated decompression. It has been recently suggested in the lay press that the greater reimbursement for a lumbar arthrodesis may inappropriately influence the manner in which surgeons elect to treat lumbar degenerative conditions, resulting in what they believe to be a substantial number of unnecessary spinal fusions. A consecutive series of 50 single-level decompression cases performed by single surgeon were retrospectively analyzed and compared with an equivalent cohort of subjects who underwent single-level decompression and instrumented posterolateral fusion with autogenous iliac crest bone grafting. The operative reports, office charts, and billing records were reviewed to determine the total clinical time invested by the surgeon and the Medicare reimbursement for each surgery. Relative to the corresponding values of the decompression group, combined decompression and fusion procedures were associated with a longer mean surgical time (134.6 min vs. 47.3 min, P<0.0001), a greater number of postoperative visits (1.0 vs. 3.2, P<0.0001), a higher mean total clinical time expenditure (186.6 min vs. 62.2 min, P<0.0001), and a lower mean dollars received per minute of surgeon time ($12.51 vs. $15.51, P<0.001). These findings challenge the assertion that spine surgeons have an undue financial incentive to recommend a combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedure over an isolated decompression to patients with symptomatic lumbar degeneration, especially when considering the greater time, effort, and risk characteristic of this more complex operation.

  12. Instrumented Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Adult Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ching-Hsiao; Wang, Chen-Ti

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether using artificial cages increases fusion rates compared with use of bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized artificial cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion would provide better clinical and radiographic outcomes than bone chips alone. We assumed solid fusion would provide good clinical outcomes. We clinically and radiographically followed 34 patients with spondylolisthesis having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with mixed autogenous and allogeneic bone chips alone and 42 patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of artificial cages packed with morselized bone graft. Patients with the artificial cage had better functional improvement in the Oswestry disability index than those with bone chips alone, whereas pain score, patient satisfaction, and fusion rate were similar in the two groups. Postoperative disc height ratio, slip ratio, and segmental lordosis all decreased at final followup in the patients with bone chips alone but remained unchanged in the artificial cage group. The functional outcome correlated with radiographic fusion status. We conclude artificial cages provide better functional outcomes and radiographic improvement than bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis, although both techniques achieved comparable fusion rates. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18846411

  13. Healos and bone marrow aspirate used for lumbar spine fusion: a case controlled study comparing healos with autograft.

    PubMed

    Neen, Daniel; Noyes, David; Shaw, Matthew; Gwilym, Stephen; Fairlie, Neil; Birch, Nicholas

    2006-08-15

    A prospective case controlled study to compare the clinical and radiographic performance of Healos soaked in bone marrow aspirate (BMA) to iliac crest autograft when used in lumbar spinal fusion. To evaluate the null hypothesis: Healos used with BMA is not an effective alternative to iliac crest autograft in lumbar spine fusions. Healos (a Type 1 collagen/hydroxyapatite matrix) is osteoconductive and when soaked for at least 20 minutes in BMA becomes osteoinductive. It is nontoxic and straightforward to use, avoiding the morbidity of autograft harvest. Animal studies and early clinical series in humans have suggested that Healos and BMA are an effective substitute for autograft in certain circumstances. From July 2000, Healos and BMA were used as the graft material, instead of autograft harvested from the iliac crest, in all patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion. Clinical outcome measures used were the Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS), a Patient Satisfaction Score, and the Prolo Economic Score (after Schnee). Standing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were taken at 12- and 24-month follow-up visits. The first 50 cases in this consecutive series were age, sex, and operative intervention matched to historical controls who underwent surgery between 1997 and 2000 and in whom autograft from the iliac crest had been used as the graft material. Surgical outcome data in these patients had also been gathered prospectively. An independent radiologist, blinded to the graft material, using standard plain radiograph criteria for fusion, examined all the radiographs. An independent surgeon assessed clinical outcomes. For posterolateral lumbar fusions, there were equivalent radiologic fusion rates for the 2 groups with no significant difference in the subjective and objective clinical outcomes. The radiologic fusions rate was significantly lower when Healos had been used for lumbar interbody fusions. Clinical outcomes for both groups were similar. There were no lasting

  14. Sacroiliac joint pain after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Recently, the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) has gained increased attention as a source of persistent or new pain after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion. The underlying pathophysiology of SIJ pain may be increased mechanical load, iliac crest bone grafting, or a misdiagnosis of SIJ syndrome. Imaging studies show more frequent degeneration of the SIJ in patients with lumbar/lumbosacral fusion than in patients without such fusion. Using injection tests, it has been shown that SIJ pain is the cause of persistent symptoms in a considerable number of patients after fusion surgery. Recent articles reporting on surgical outcomes of SIJ fusion include a high percentage of patients who had lumbar/lumbosacral fusion or surgery before, although well-controlled clinical studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment. Taking these findings into consideration, the possibility that the SIJ is the source of pain should be considered in patients with failed back surgery syndrome after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion.

  15. Effect of daily parathyroid hormone (1-34) on lumbar fusion in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, James P; Ennis, Frank; White, Andrew P; Magit, David; Polzhofer, Gert; Drespe, Inneke; Troiano, Nancy W; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2006-01-01

    Despite numerous studies evaluating the anabolic effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone, there are no published studies examining its effect on spinal fusion outcomes. To determine the effect of daily injection of human recombinant PTH(1-34) on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Prospective, case-controlled, preclinical animal study. Manual palpation and serum osteocalcin. Single-level, intertransverse process spinal fusions were performed with iliac crest autograft in 56 Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals received daily injections of placebo or PTH(1-34). At 6 weeks, fusion masses were assessed by manual palpation. Serum osteocalcin levels were assessed in a subset of the animals. Manual palpation revealed the control group to have a fusion rate of 37% (10/27) and the PTH(1-34)-treated group to have a fusion rate of 52% (15/29). Mean serum osteocalcin levels were 59.8 and 88.6 ng/L for the control and PTH(1-34) groups, respectively. There was a trend towards greater fusion rate in the PTH(1-34) group as compared with the placebo group. Further, PTH(1-34) administration was associated with a significant increase in osteocalcin levels. Certainly, further investigations are warranted, as an injectable agent capable of increasing fusion rates would be of great clinical value.

  16. Fusion rate following extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Berjano, Pedro; Langella, Francesco; Damilano, Marco; Pejrona, Matteo; Buric, Josip; Ismael, Maryem; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Lamartina, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Lumbar fusion has been found to be a clinically effective procedure in adult patients. The lateral transpsoas approach allows for direct visualization of the intervertebral space, significant support of the vertebral anterior column, while avoiding the complications associated with the posterior procedures. The aim of this study is to determine the fusion rate of inter body fusion using computed tomography in patients treated by extreme lateral intersomatic fusion (XLIF) technique. All patients intervened by XLIF procedure between 2009 and 2013 by a single operating team at a single institution were recruited for this study. A clinical evaluation and a CT scan of the involved spinal segments were then performed with at least 1-year follow-up following the standard clinical practice in the center. A total of 77 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 53 were available for review with a mean follow-up of 34.5 (12-62) months. A total of 68 (87.1 %) of the 78 operated levels were considered as completely fused, 8 (10.2 %) were considered as stable, probably fused, and 2 (2.6 %) of the operated levels were diagnosed as pseudarthrosis. When stratified by type of graft material complete fusion was obtained in 75 % of patients in which autograft was used to fill the cages, compared to 89 % of patients in which calcium triphosphate was used, and 83 % of patients in which Attrax™ was used. Reports of XLIF fusion rate in the literature vary from 85 to 93 % at 1-year follow-up. Fusion rate in our series corroborates data from previous publications. The results of this series confirm that anterior inter body fusion by means of XLIF approach is a technique that achieves high fusion rate and satisfactory clinical outcomes.

  17. Transplanted xenogenic bone marrow stem cells survive and generate new bone formation in the posterolateral lumbar spine of non-immunosuppressed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Park, Jong-Beom; Lee, Jin Kyung; Park, Eun-Young; Park, Eun-Ae; Riew, K Daniel; Rhee, Seung-Koo

    2008-11-01

    remaining CRM. Histologically, mature lamellar and woven bone with osteoblasts and osteocytes were identified in all eight rabbits in the xenogenic BMSCs + CRM group at 4 and 6 months postimplantation, but in none of the eight rabbits at 1 and 2 months postimplantation. None of CRM alone group showed new bone formation at 1-6 months postimplantation. Mild-to-moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells was identified around the CRM carriers in both the groups. No post-operative wound infection was found in either group. Our results indicate that xenogenic BMSCs loaded onto CRM survive and generate new bone formation when placed into the posterolateral lumbar spine of rabbits without immunosuppression. To determine if a solid fusion can be achieved with such techniques, further studies are needed to investigate the appropriate dose of xenogenic BMSCs, amounts of CRM, and the requisite incubation time.

  18. Surgical results of lumbar interbody fusion using calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Motohiro; Mure, Hideo; Toi, Hiroyuki; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar interbody fusion using artificial fusion cages filled with calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were retrospectively reviewed. Between 2002 and 2011, 25 patients underwent lumbar interbody fusion at Tokushima University Hospital, and 22 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 5 patients received autologous local bone grafts and 17 received CPC. Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used for clinical outcome assessments. Lumbar radiography and computed tomography (CT) were performed at 12, 24 months and last follow-up period to assess bony fusion. The mean JOA score of all patients improved from 9.3 before surgery to 21.0 at 24 months after surgery. Fusion had occurred in 5 of 5 patients in the local bone graft group and in 16 of 17 patients in CPC group at 24 months postoperatively. No surgically related complication was occurred in both groups. CPC is a useful and safe graft material for lumbar interbody fusion.

  19. Effects of combined teriparatide and zoledronic acid on posterior lumbar vertebral fusion in an aged ovariectomized rat model of osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Yishake, Mumingjiang; Yasen, Miersalijiang; Jiang, Libo; Liu, Wangmi; Xing, Rong; Chen, Qian; Lin, Hong; Dong, Jian

    2017-08-10

    There has been no study regarding the effect of a combination of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZA) on vertebral fusion. In this study, we investigate the effect of single and combined TPTD and ZA treatment on lumbar vertebral fusion in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty two-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and underwent bilateral L4-5 posterolateral intertransverse fusion after ten months. The OVX rats received vehicle (control) treatment, or ZA (100µg/kg, once), or TPTD (60µg/kg/2 d for 42 d), or ZA + TPTD until they were euthanized at six weeks following lumbar vertebral fusion. The lumbar spine was harvested. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone fusion, bone volume (BV), and bone formation rate (BFR)were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histomorphometry. Compared with vehicle (control) treatment, ZA and TPTD monotherapy increased bone volume (BV) at fusion site, and ZA + TPTD combined therapy had an additive effect. Treatment with TPTD and ZA + TPTD increased the bone fusion rate when compared with the control group. ZA monotherapy did not alter the rate of bone fusion. The TPTD and ZA + TPTD treatment groups had increased mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralizing surfaces/bone surface ((MS/BS) and BFR/BS compared with the OVX group. Our experiment confirm that the monotherapy with TPTD and combination therapy with ZA + TPTD in an OVX rat model of osteopenia following lumbar vertebral fusion surgery increased bone fusion mass and bone fusion rate, and ZA + TPTD combined therapy had an additive effect on bone fusion mass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of aging on posterior intertransverse lumbar fusion: a New Zealand white rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Daubs, Michael D; Tyser, Andy; Lawrence, Brandon D; Sinclair, Sarina K; Patel, Alpesh A; Adams, Jacob; Brodke, Darrel S

    2015-03-01

    In vivo assessment of lumbar spinal fusion between a younger and older cohort of New Zealand white rabbits. Directly compare fusion within young and aged New Zealand white rabbits to establish an aged spinal fusion model translational research. Prior studies have utilized skeletally mature young rabbits (6-12 mo old) that may not be appropriate as an analog for studying the aging human spine. Ten aged (>36 mo old) and 10 young (12 mo old) New Zealand white rabbits underwent a single-level, bilateral, L5-6 posterolateral intertransverse fusion using autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The animals were killed at 6 weeks postoperatively, and the specimens were then evaluated with quantitative microcomputerized tomography and manual palpation by 6 orthopedic surgeons. The fusions were graded as either fused or not fused by each examiner. The spines were then embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) and cut into 2-mm-thick sections for histologic analysis. A higher percentage of young rabbits were determined to be successfully fused through manual palpation testing compared with the aged rabbits. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis revealed a significantly greater fusion mass volume in the younger rabbits than in the older cohort. In addition, the fusion density of the younger rabbits was found to be significantly lower than that of the older rabbits when normalized to the bone density in the nonfused portion of the spine. Histologic analysis showed that the quality of the bone within the fusion mass was consistent between the young and old rabbits. A greater number of young animals had bilateral continuous bone graft compared with the aged animals. The aged (>36 mo) New Zealand white rabbit model appears to be a valid model to evaluate the effect of aging on lumbar fusion and has the potential to more accurately model conditions that are present in the older human spine.

  1. Ureter Injury as a Complication of Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Choon Keun

    2017-06-01

    Oblique lumbar interbody fusion is a commonly used surgical method of achieving lumbar interbody fusion. There have been some reports about complications of oblique lumbar interbody fusion at the L2-L3 level. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports about ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion. We report a case of ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion to share our experience. A 78-year-old male patient presented with a history of lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication. He was diagnosed with spinal stenosis at L2-L3, L4-L5 level and spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 level. Symptoms were not improved after several months of medical treatments. Then, oblique lumbar interbody fusion was performed at L2-L3, L4-L5 level. During the surgery, anesthesiologist noticed hematuria. A retrourethrogram was performed immediately by urologist, and ureter injury was found. Ureteroureterostomy and double-J catheter insertion were performed. The patient was discharged 2 weeks after surgery without urologic or neurologic complications. At 2 months after surgery, an intravenous pyelogram was performed, which showed an intact ureter. Our study shows that a low threshold of suspicion of ureter injury and careful manipulation of retroperitoneal fat can be helpful to prevent ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion at the upper level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is type of compensation a predictor of outcome after lumbar fusion?

    PubMed

    Gum, Jeffrey L; Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y

    2013-03-01

    Propensity-matched case-control study. To examine the impact of compensation status on clinical outcomes after lumbar spine fusion. Workers' compensation has been associated with inferior outcomes after treatment of low back pain. However, patients receiving other forms of compensation, such as long-term disability or government-supported insurance, have not been studied independently. Patients with complete preoperative and 2-year postoperative data, including Oswestry disability index, 36-item short form health survey, and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, after 1- or 2-level posterolateral lumbar fusion from a single spine surgery practice, were retrospectively identified. Fifty-nine patients 50 years or younger receiving disability compensation and 38 patients receiving workers' compensation were identified from 1144 patients with complete outcome measures. Propensity scoring was used to match cohorts not receiving compensation. Each group was matched for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, surgical indication, number of levels fused, and baseline outcome measures. Fifty-one and 37 matched pairs were successfully identified for disability and workers' compensation cohorts, respectively. Consistent with propensity matching, no statistically significant difference between cohorts was observed for demographics and baseline outcome measures. At 2-year follow-up, the disability compensation group demonstrated similar degrees of improvement for all outcome measures compared with its matched nondisability cohort, whereas the workers' compensation group demonstrated less improvement than its matched cohort. This study demonstrates a difference in outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion between long-term disability and workers' compensation populations. Although, these populations achieve only marginal improvement, it seems that the type of compensation status influences outcome. Workers' compensation has a clear, negative influence on outcome when

  3. Costs and effects in lumbar spinal fusion. A follow-up study in 136 consecutive patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Christiansen, Terkel; Bünger, Cody

    2006-01-01

    Although cost-effectiveness is becoming the foremost evaluative criterion within health service management of spine surgery, scientific knowledge about cost-patterns and cost-effectiveness is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to establish an activity-based method for costing at the patient-level, (2) to investigate the correlation between costs and effects, (3) to investigate the influence of selected patient characteristics on cost-effectiveness and, (4) to investigate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of (a) posterior instrumentation and (b) intervertebral anterior support in lumbar spinal fusion. We hypothesized a positive correlation between costs and effects, that determinants of effects would also determine cost-effectiveness, and that posterolateral instrumentation and anterior intervertebral support are cost-effective adjuncts in posterolateral lumbar fusion. A cohort of 136 consecutive patients with chronic low back pain, who were surgically treated from January 2001 through January 2003, was followed until 2 years postoperatively. Operations took place at University Hospital of Aarhus and all patients had either (1) non-instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion, (2) instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion, or (3) instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion + anterior intervertebral support. Analysis of costs was performed at the patient-level, from an administrator’s perspective, by means of Activity-Based-Costing. Clinical effects were measured by means of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire and the Low Back Pain Rating Scale at baseline and 2 years postoperatively. Regression models were used to reveal determinants for costs and effects. Costs and effects were analyzed as a net-benefit measure to reveal determinants for cost-effectiveness, and finally, adjusted analysis (for non-random allocation of patients) was performed in order to reveal the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of (a) posterior instrumentation and

  4. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using one diagonal fusion cage with transpedicular screw/rod fixation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Hou, Tiesheng; Wang, Xinwei; Ma, Shengzhong

    2003-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using threaded cages has gained wide popularity for lumbosacral spinal disease. Our biomechanical tests showed that PLIF using a single diagonal cage with unilateral facetectomy does add a little to spinal stability and provides equal or even higher postoperative stability than PLIF using two posterior cages with bilateral facetectomy. Studies also demonstrated that cages placed using a posterior approach did not cause the same increase in spinal stiffness seen with pedicle screw instrumentation, and we concluded that cages should not be used posteriorly without other forms of fixation. On the other hand, placement of two cages using a posterior approach does have the disadvantage of risk to the bilateral nerve roots. We therefore performed a prospective study to determine whether PLIF can be accomplished by utilizing a single diagonal fusion cage with the application of supplemental transpedicular screw/rod instrumentation. Twenty-seven patients underwent a PLIF using one single fusion cage (BAK, Sulzer Spine-Tech, Minneapolis, MN, USA) inserted posterolaterally and oriented anteromedially on the symptomatic side with unilateral facetectomy and at the same level supplemental fixation with a transpedicular screw/rod system. The internal fixation systems included 12 SOCON spinal systems (Aesculap AG, Germany) and 15 TSRH spinal systems (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, USA). The inclusion criteria were grade 1 to 2 lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis, lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, and recurrent lumbar disc herniations with instability. Patients had at least 1 year of low back pain and/or unilateral sciatica and a severely restricted functional ability in individuals aged 28-55 years. Patients with more than grade 2 spondylolisthesis or adjacent-level degeneration were excluded from the study. Patients were clinically assessed prior to surgery by an independent assessor; they were then reassessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24

  5. Evaluation of Outcome of Posterior Decompression and Instrumented Fusion in Lumbar and Lumbosacral Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ravikant; Kiyawat, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background For surgical treatment of lumbar and lumbosacral tuberculosis, the anterior approach has been the most popular approach because it allows direct access to the infected tissue, thereby providing good decompression. However, anterior fixation is not strong, and graft failure and loss of correction are frequent complications. The posterior approach allows circumferential decompression of neural elements along with three-column fixation attained via pedicle screws by the same approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome (functional, neurological, and radiological) in patients with lumbar and lumbosacral tuberculosis operated through the posterior approach. Methods Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis of the lumbar and lumbosacral region from August 2012 to August 2013. Of these, 13 patients had progressive neurological deterioration or increasing back pain despite conservative measures and underwent posterior decompression and pedicle screw fixation with posterolateral fusion. Antitubercular therapy was given till signs of radiological healing were evident (9 to 16 months). Functional outcome (visual analogue scale [VAS] score for back pain), neurological recovery (Frankel grading), and radiological improvement were evaluated preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Results The mean VAS score for back pain improved from 7.89 (range, 9 to 7) preoperatively to 2.2 (range, 3 to 1) at 1-year follow-up. Frankel grading was grade B in 3, grade C in 7, and grade D in 3 patients preoperatively, which improved to grade D in 7 and grade E in 6 patients at the last follow-up. Radiological healing was evident in the form of reappearance of trabeculae formation, resolution of pus, fatty marrow replacement, and bony fusion in all patients. The mean correction of segmental kyphosis was 9.85° postoperatively. The mean loss of correction at final follow-up was 3.15°. Conclusions

  6. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Baculovirus-Engineered Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Enhance Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jen-Chung

    2016-07-05

    Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) genetically modified with baculoviral bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bac-BMP-2) vectors could achieve successful fusion in a femur defect model or in a spinal fusion model. In this study, BMDMSCs expressing BMP-7 (Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs) were generated. We hypothesized that Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs could secrete more BMP-7 than untransduced BMDMSCs in vitro and achieve spinal posterolateral fusion in a rabbit model. Eighteen rabbits underwent posterolateral fusion at L4-5. Group I (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-hydroxyapatite (HA), Group II (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-TCP-HA plus BMDMSCs, and Group III (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-TCP-HA plus Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs. In vitro production of BMP-7 was quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Spinal fusion was examined using computed tomography (CT), manual palpation, and histological analysis. ELISA demonstrated that Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs produced four-fold to five-fold more BMP-7 than did BMDMSCs. In the CT results, 6 fused segments were observed in Group I (50%, 6/12), 8 in Group II (67%, 8/12), and 12 in Group III (100%, 12/12). The fusion rate, determined by manual palpation, was 0% (0/6) in Group I, 0% (0/6) in Group II, and 83% (5/6) in Group III. Histology showed that Group III had more new bone and matured marrow formation. In conclusion, BMDMSCs genetically transduced with the Bac-BMP-7 vector could express more BMP-7 than untransduced BMDMSCs. These Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs on collagen-β-TCP-HA scaffolds were able to induce successful spinal fusion in rabbits.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells expressing baculovirus-engineered BMP-2 and VEGF enhance posterolateral spine fusion in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Han; Wong, Chak-Bor; Wang, I-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy and gene transfer have converged and show great potential for accelerating bone healing. Gene therapy can provide more sustained expression of osteogenic factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). We previously demonstrated that low-dose BMP-2 enhanced spinal posterolateral fusion by MSCs in a rabbit model. Herein, we genetically modified rabbit MSCs with a recombinant baculovirus encoding BMP-2 (Bac-CB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Bac-VEGF) seeded into porous scaffolds to enhance spinal fusion. This study evaluates the success rate of the MSC-based cell therapy and gene transfer approach for single-level posterolateral spine fusion. We hypothesize that combining three-dimensional tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds and genetically modified allogeneic MSCs with baculovirus-mediated growth factor expression would increase the success rate of spinal fusion. The study design was based on an animal model (approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) using 18 adult male New Zealand rabbits. This study included 18 male New Zealand rabbits, weighing 3.5 to 4 kg. Allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and genetically modified with Bac-CB and Bac-CV seeded onto TCP scaffolds (MSC/Bac/TCP). The animals were divided into three groups according to the material implanted into the bilateral L4-L5 intertransverse space: TCP scaffold (n=6), MSC/TCP (n=6), and MSC/Bac/TCP (n=6). After 12 weeks, the rabbits were euthanized for radiographic examination, manual palpation, and histologic study. Bilateral fusion areas in each animal were evaluated independently. The radiographic fusion rates at 12 sites were 0 of 12 in the TCP scaffold group, 4 of 12 in the MSC/TCP group, and 10 of 12 in the MSC/Bac/TCP group. By manual palpation, there were zero solid fusions in the TCP scaffold group, two solid fusions in the MSC/TCP group, and five solid fusions in the MSC/Bac/TCP group. Fusion rates

  8. Minimally invasive percutaneous posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Larry T; Palmer, Sylvain; Laich, Daniel T; Fessler, Richard G

    2002-11-01

    The wide exposure required for a standard posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) can cause unnecessary trauma to the lumbar musculoligamentous complex. By combining existing microendoscopic, percutaneous instrumentation and interbody technologies, a novel, minimally invasive, percutaneous PLIF technique was developed to minimize such iatrogenic tissue injury (MIP-PLIF). The MIP-PLIF technique was validated in three cadaveric torsos with six motion segments decompressed and fused. Preoperative variables measured from imaging included interpedicular distance, pedicular height and width, interspinous distance, lordosis, intervertebral height, Cobb angle, and foraminal height and volume. Using the METRx and MD spinal access systems (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN), bilateral laminotomies were performed using a hybrid of microsurgical and microendoscopic techniques. The intervertebral disc spaces were then distracted and prepared with the Tangent (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) interbody instruments. Either a 10 or 12 by 22 mm interbody graft was then placed. Using the Sextant (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) system, percutaneous pedicle screw-rod fixation of the motion segment was completed. We then applied MIP-PLIF in three patients. For segments with preoperative intervertebral/foraminal height loss, MIP-PLIF was effective in restoring both heights in all cases. The amount of improvement (9.7 to 38% disc height increase; 7.7 to 29.9% foraminal height increase) varied directly with the size of the graft used and the original degree of disc and foraminal height loss. Segmental lordosis improved by 29% on average. Graft and screw placement was accurate in the cadavers, except for a single Grade 1 screw violation of one pedicle. The average operative time was 3.5 hours per level. In our three clinical cases, the MIP-PLIF procedure required a mean of 5.4 hours, estimated blood loss was 185 ml, and inpatient stay was 2.8 days, with no intravenous narcotic use after 2 days in

  9. Midline Lumbar Fusion with Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Masaki; KURAISHI, Keita; UMEDA, Yasuyuki; SANO, Takanori; TSUJI, Masanori; SUZUKI, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    A novel cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique provides an alternative fixation technique for lumbar spine. Trajectory of CBT screw creates a caudo-cephalad path in sagittal plane and a medio-lateral path in axial plane, and engages cortical bone in the pedicle. The theoretical advantage is that it provides enhanced screw grip and interface strength. Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) is composed of posterior mid-line approach, microsurgical laminectomy, and CBT screw fixation. We adopted the MIDLF technique for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Advantages of this technique include that decompression and fusion are available in the same field, and it minimizes approach-related damages. To determine whether MIDLF with CBT screw is as effective as traditional approach and it is minimum invasive technique, we studied the clinical and radiological outcomes of MIDLF. Our results indicate that MIDLF is effective and minimum invasive technique. Evidence of effectiveness of MIDLF is that patients had good recovery score, and that CBT screw technique was safety in clinical and stable in radiological. MIDLF with CBT screw provides the surgeon with additional options for fixation. This technique is most likely to be useful for treating lumbar spondylolisthesis in combination with midline decompression and insertion of an interbody graft, such as the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques. PMID:25169139

  10. Beta-tricalcium phosphate as a substitute for autograft in interbody fusion cages in the canine lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Takashiro; Kubo, Yoshichika; Iwata, Hiroo; Taki, Waro

    2002-10-01

    An interbody fusion cage has been introduced for cervical anterior interbody fusion. Autogenetic bone is packed into the cage to increase the rate of union between adjacent vertebral bodies. Thus, donor site-related complications can still occur. In this study a synthetic ceramic, beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), was examined as a substitute for autograft bone in a canine lumbar spine model. In 12 dogs L-1 to L-4 vertebrae were exposed via a posterolateral approach, and discectomy and placement of interbody fusion cages were performed at two intervertebral disc spaces. One cage was filled with autograft (Group A) and the other with TCP (Group B). The lumbar spine was excised at 16 weeks postsurgery, and biomechanical, microradiographic, and histological examinations were performed. Both the microradiographic and histological examinations revealed that fusion occurred in five (41.7%) of 12 operations performed in Group A and in six (50%) of 12 operations performed in Group B. The mean percentage of trabecular bone area in the cages was 54.6% in Group A and 53.8% in Group B. There were no significant intergroup differences in functional unit stiffness. Good histological and biomechanical results were obtained for TCP-filled interbody fusion cages. The results were comparable with those obtained using autograft-filled cages, suggesting that there is no need to harvest iliac bone or to use allo- or xenografts to increase the interlocking strength between the cage and vertebral bone to achieve anterior cervical interbody fusion.

  11. Effects of Local Administration of Boric Acid on Posterolateral Spinal Fusion with Autogenous Bone Grafting in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Kaymaz, Burak; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Göksel, Ferdi; Cevizci, Sibel; Adam, Gürhan; Ozden, Raif

    2015-09-01

    Spinal fusion is among the most frequently applied spinal surgical procedures. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the local administration of boric acid (BA) improves spinal fusion in an experimental spinal fusion model in rats. Currently, there is no published data that evaluates the possible positive effects if the local administration of BA on posterolateral spinal fusion. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four independent groups: no material was added at the fusion area for group 1; an autogenous morselized corticocancellous bone graft was used for group 2; an autogenous morselized corticocancellous bone graft with boric acid (8.7 mg/kg) for group 3; and only boric acid was placed into the fusion area for group 4. The L4-L6 spinal segments were collected at week 6, and the assessments included radiography, manual palpation, and histomorphometry. A statistically significant difference was determined between the groups with regard to the mean histopathological scores (p = 0.002), and a paired comparison was made with the Mann-Whitney U test to detect the group/groups from which the difference originated. It was determined that only the graft + BA practice increased the histopathological score significantly with regard to the control group (p = 0.002). Whereas, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the manual assessment of fusion and radiographic analysis (respectively p = 0.328 and p = 0.196). This preliminary study suggests that BA may clearly be useful as a therapeutic agent in spinal fusion. However, further research is required to show the most effective dosage of BA on spinal fusion, and should indicate whether BA effects spinal fusion in the human body.

  12. [Recalibration via a postero-lateral approach in recent traumatic stenosis of the dorsal and lumbar spine. Modalities and results apropos of 31 cases].

    PubMed

    Richaud, J; Bousquet, P; Ealet, G; Clamens, J; Beltchika, K; Lazorthes, Y

    1990-01-01

    The authors present 31 cases of spinal trauma affecting thoraco lumbar level with severe spinal canal stenosis secondary to compressive trauma of the anterior disco-corpereal region. Associated neurological disorders were of varying severity. 23 cases were investigated by computed tomography. In all cases, the surgical procedure involved rectification of spinal deformities, with initially a unilateral postero-lateral approach permitting anterior spinal canal recalibration, either by impaction of protrusive fragments or ablation of free disc fragments. The stabilization was usually achieved by complementary bilateral plates using Roy-Camille or Privat material in 22 cases, associated with postero-lateral arthrodesis by grafting with reconstruction of the articulo-pedicular structure in 19 cases. Emergency operation was done in 14 cases; in 5 cases operation was done on the 2nd or 3rd day and in 11 cases after the 3rd day. The functional spinal result was excellent, and recalibration was verified by tomography in all cases. In those cases showing neurological deficiency, good and early recovery was attributable to the suppression of spinal canal stenosis, and a consequently neurological improvement was always obtained, even for the most serious of lesions except those at the thoracis level superior to T10. The application of this postero-lateral approach for severe spinal trauma seems to represent, in all cases of recent lesions, an alternative to the anterior or combined methods. We do not share the opinion that delay in decompression does not influence the neurological prognosis and emergency operation is advisable.

  13. Variables Affecting Fusion Rates in the Rat Posterolateral Spinal Fusion Model with Autogenic/Allogenic Bone Grafts: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Wataru; Elder, Benjamin D; Holmes, Christina; Lo, Sheng-Fu L; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-11-01

    The rat posterolateral spinal fusion model with autogenic/allogenic bone graft (rat PFABG) has been increasingly utilized as an experimental model to assess the efficacy of novel fusion treatments. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of the rat PFABG model and examine the effects of different variables on spinal fusion. A web-based literature search from January, 1970 to September, 2015, yielded 26 studies, which included 40 rat PFABG control groups and 449 rats. Data regarding age, weight, sex, and strain of rats, graft volume, graft type, decorticated levels, surgical approach, institution, the number of control rats, fusion rate, methods of fusion assessment, and timing of fusion assessment were collected and analyzed. The primary outcome variable of interest was fusion rate, as evaluated by manual palpation. Fusion rates varied widely, from 0 to 96%. The calculated overall fusion rate was 46.1% with an I (2) value of 62.4, which indicated moderate heterogeneity. Weight >300 g, age >14 weeks, male rat, Sprague-Dawley strain, and autogenic coccyx grafts increased fusion rates with statistical significance. Additionally, an assessment time-point ≥8 weeks had a trend towards statistical significance (p = 0.070). Multi-regression analysis demonstrated that timing of assessment and age as continuous variables, as well as sex as a categorical variable, can predict the fusion rate with R (2) = 0.82. In an inter-institution reliability analysis, the pooled overall fusion rate was 50.0% [44.8, 55.3%], with statistically significant differences among fusion outcomes at different institutions (p < 0.001 and I (2) of 72.2). Due to the heterogeneity of fusion outcomes, the reliability of the rat PFABG model was relatively limited. However, selection of adequate variables can optimize its use as a control group in studies evaluating the efficacy of novel fusion therapies.

  14. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817

  15. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on instrumented posterolateral spinal fusion and device-related stress shielding.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Fay, L A; Ito, Y; Yuan, M R; Edwards, W T; Yuan, H A

    1997-02-15

    This study was designed to examine stress-shielding effects on the spine caused by rigid implants and to investigate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the instrumented spine. To investigate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on posterolateral spinal fusion, and to determine if osteopenia induced by rigid instrumentation can be diminished by pulsed electromagnetic fields. Although device-related osteopenia on vertebral bodies is of a great clinical importance, no method for preventing bone mineral loss in vertebrae by stiff spinal implants has been effective. Twenty-eight adult beagles underwent L5-L6 destabilization followed by posterolateral spinal fusion. The study was divided into four groups: 1) Group CNTL: without instrumentation, without pulsed electromagnetic fields, 2) Group PEMF: without Steffee, with pulsed electromagnetic fields, 3) Group INST: with Steffee, without pulsed electromagnetic fields, 4) Group PEMF + INST: with Steffee, with pulsed electromagnetic fields. At the end of 24 weeks, the dogs were killed, and L4-L7 segments were tested biomechanically without instrumentation. Radiographs and quantitative computed tomography assessed the condition of the fusion mass. Stress shielding was induced in the anterior vertebral bodies of L6 with the Steffee plates; bone mineral density was increased with the addition of pulsed electromagnetic fields, regardless of the presence or absence of fixation. A decrease in flexion and bending stiffness was observed in the Group INST; pulsed electromagnetic fields did increase the flexion stiffness regardless of the presence or absence of fixation, although this was not statistically significant. Use of pulsed electromagnetic fields has the potential to minimize device-related vertebral-bone mineral loss.

  16. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 3: assessment of economic outcome.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Whitmore, Robert G; Watters, William C; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Resnick, Daniel K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    A comprehensive economic analysis generally involves the calculation of indirect and direct health costs from a societal perspective as opposed to simply reporting costs from a hospital or payer perspective. Hospital charges for a surgical procedure must be converted to cost data when performing a cost-effectiveness analysis. Once cost data has been calculated, quality-adjusted life year data from a surgical treatment are calculated by using a preference-based health-related quality-of-life instrument such as the EQ-5D. A recent cost-utility analysis from a single study has demonstrated the long-term (over an 8-year time period) benefits of circumferential fusions over stand-alone posterolateral fusions. In addition, economic analysis from a single study has found that lumbar fusion for selected patients with low-back pain can be recommended from an economic perspective. Recent economic analysis, from a single study, finds that femoral ring allograft might be more cost-effective compared with a specific titanium cage when performing an anterior lumbar interbody fusion plus posterolateral fusion.

  17. Minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion for adult degenerative scoliosis with 1 or 2 dislocated levels.

    PubMed

    Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Ratte, Louis; Poignard, Alexandre; Auregan, Jean-Charles; Queinnec, Steffen; Hernigou, Philippe; Allain, Jérôme

    2015-12-01

    Frequent complications of posterolateral instrumented fusion have been reported after treatment of degenerative scoliosis in elderly patients. Considering that in some cases, most of the symptomatology of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) is a consequence of the segmental instability at the dislocated level, the use of minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) to manage symptoms can be advocated to reduce surgical morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the midterm outcomes of 1- or 2-level minimally invasive ALIFs in ADS patients with 1- or 2-level dislocations. A total of 47 patients (average age 64 years; range 43-80 years) with 1- or 2-level ALIF performed for ADS (64 levels) in a single institution were included in the study. An independent spine surgeon retrospectively reviewed all the patients' medical records and radiographs to assess operative data and surgery-related complications. Clinical outcome was reported using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the visual analog scale (VAS) for lumbar and leg pain. Intraoperative data and complications were collected. Fusion and risk for adjacent-level degeneration were assessed. The mean follow-up duration was 3 years (range 1-10 years). ODI, and back and leg pain VAS scores were significantly improved at last follow-up. A majority of patients (74%) had a statistically significant improvement in their ODI score of more than 20 points at latest follow-up and 1 had a worsening of his disability. The mean operating time was 166 minutes (range 70-355 minutes). The mean estimated blood loss was 410 ml (range 50-1700 ml). Six (5 major and 1 minor) surgical complications (12.7% of patients) and 13 (2 major and 11 minor) medical complications (27.7% of patients) occurred without death or wound infection. Fusion was achieved in 46 of 47 patients. Surgery resulted in a slight but significant decrease of the Cobb angle, and improved the pelvic parameters and lumbar lordosis, but had no

  18. Enhancement of Lumbar Fusion and Alleviation of Adjacent Segment Disc Degeneration by Intermittent PTH(1-34) in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuang; Tian, Fa-Ming; Gou, Yu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Heng; Song, Hui-Ping; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporosis, which is prevalent in postmenopausal or aged populations, is thought to be a contributing factor to adjacent segment disc degeneration (ASDD), and the incidence and extent of ASDD may be augmented by osteopenia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34) has already been shown to be beneficial in osteoporosis, lumbar fusion and matrix homeostasis of intervertebral discs. However, whether PTH(1-34) has a reversing or retarding effect on ASDD in osteopenia has not been confirmed. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intermittent PTH(1-34) on ASDD in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. One hundred 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent L4 -L5 posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) with spinous-process wire fixation 4 weeks after OVX surgery. Control groups were established accordingly. PTH(1-34) was intermittently administered immediately after PLF surgery and lasted for 8 weeks using the following groups (n = 20) (V = vehicle): Sham+V, OVX+V, Sham+PLF+V, OVX+PLF+V, OVX+PLF+PTH. The fused segments showed clear evidence of eliminated motion on the fusion-segment based on manual palpation. Greater new bone formation in histology was observed in PTH-treated animals compared to the control group. The extent of ASDD was significantly increased by ovariotomy. Intermittent PTH(1-34) significantly alleviated ASDD by preserving disc height, microvessel density, relative area of vascular buds, endplate thickness and the relative area of endplate calcification. Moreover, protein expression results showed that PTH(1-34) not only inhibited matrix degradation by decreasing MMP-13, ADAMTS-4 and Col-I, but also promote matrix synthesis by increasing Col-II and Aggrecan. In conclusion, PTH(1-34), which effectively improves lumbar fusion and alleviates ASDD in ovariectomized rats, may be a potential candidate to ameliorate the prognosis of lumbar fusion in osteopenia. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion via a unilateral approach.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Chul; Yi, Seong; Kim, Keung Nyun; Kim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2006-06-30

    This study sought to determine the outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), via a unilateral approach, in selected patients who presented with unilateral leg pain and segmental instability of the lumbar spine. Patients with a single level of a herniated disc disease in the lumbar spine, unilateral leg pain, chronic disabling lower back pain (LBP), and a failed conservative treatment, were considered for the procedure. A total of 41 patients underwent a single-level PLIF using two PEEK (Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone) cages filled with iliac bone, via a unilateral approach. The patients comprised 21 women and 20 men with a mean age of 41 years (range: 22 to 63 years). Two cages were inserted using a unilateral medial facetectomy and a partial hemilaminectomy. At follow-up, the outcomes were assessed using the Prolo Scale. The success of the fusion was determined by dynamic lumbar radiography and/or computerized tomography scanning. All the patients safely underwent surgery without severe complications. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, 1 patient underwent percutaneous pedicle screw fixation due to persistent LBP. A posterior displacement of the cage was found in one patient. At the last follow up, 90% of the patients demonstrated satisfactory results. An osseous fusion was present in 85% of the patients. A PLIF, via a unilateral approach, enables a solid union with satisfactory clinical results. This preserves part of the posterior elements of the lumbar spine in selected patients with single level instability and unilateral leg pain.

  20. Comparison of open and minimally invasive techniques for posterior lumbar instrumentation and fusion after open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Yu, Anthony L; Gruskay, Jordan A; Delasotta, Lawrence A; Radcliff, Kristen E; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Anderson, D Greg; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2013-05-01

    Minimally invasive techniques for spinal fusion have theoretical advantages for the reduction of iatrogenic injury. Although this topic has been investigated previously for posterior-only interbody surgery, such as transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, similar studies have not evaluated these techniques after anteroposterior spinal fusion, a study design that can more accurately determine the effect of pedicle screw placement and decompression via a minimally invasive technique without the confounding effect of simultaneous interbody cage placement. To compare process measures that provide insight into the morbidity of surgery, such as surgical time and the length of postoperative hospital stay between open and minimally invasive anteroposterior lumbar fusion; and to compare the complications during the intraoperative and early postoperative period between open and minimally invasive anteroposterior lumbar fusion. Retrospective case-control study. One hundred sixty-two patients. Estimated blood loss, length of surgery, intraoperative fluoroscopy time, length of postoperative hospital stay, malpositioned instrumentation on postoperative imaging, and postoperative complications, including pulmonary embolus and surgical site infection. Patients who underwent open anterior lumbar interbody fusion followed by either traditional open posterior fusion (Open group) or minimally invasive posterior fusion (minimally invasive surgery [MIS] group) were matched by the number of surgical levels. A chart review was performed to document the intraoperative and postoperative process measures and associated complications in the two groups. Secondary analyses were performed to compare the subgroups of patients, who did and did not undergo a posterior decompression at the time of posterior instrumentation to determine the effect of decompression. Baseline characteristics were similar between the Open and MIS groups. Estimated blood loss and postoperative transfusion rate were

  1. Evaluation of autologous platelet concentrate for intertransverse process lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Paul M; Miranda, Jose J; Kadiyala, Sudha; Patel, Tushar Ch; Panjabi, Manohar; Troiano, Nancy; Friedlaender, Gary E

    2008-04-01

    Data on the role of platelet concentrate (PC) in spinal fusion are limited. Using the New Zealand white rabbit model, we compared fusion rates at L5-L6 using 2 different volumes (1.5 cm(3), 3.0 cm(3)) of iliac crest autograft with and without PC (4 groups total, 10 animals in each). PC was collected from donor rabbits and adjusted to a concentration of 1 x 10(6) platelets/mL. Bone growth and fusion were evaluated using biomechanical, radiographic, and histologic testing. At 1.5 cm(3), autograft alone had a 29% fusion rate, compared with autograft plus PC, which had a 57% fusion rate (P = .06). At 3.0 cm(3), the fusion rate approached 90% in both groups. Radiologic fusion had a 70% correlation with biomechanical test results. Huo/Friedlaender scores were 4.3 (SD, 2.9) for 1.5-cm(3) autograft alone; 5.0 (SD, 3.5) for 1.5-cm(3) autograft plus PC; 4.7 (SD, 2.5) for 3.0-cm(3) autograft alone; and 7.7 (SD, 0.6) for 3.0-cm(3) autograft plus PC. For 1.5-cm(3) autograft, a trend toward improvement in biomechanically defined fusion was found when PC was added, which suggests that, when the amount of bone graft is limited, PC may function as a graft extender in posterolateral fusion. At higher volumes of bone graft, no appreciable difference was noted between groups. Although radiography revealed fusion masses, the technique was not useful in identifying pseudarthrosis. On histologic analysis, adding PC seemed to result in more mature bone at both volumes, with the most mature bone in the group with 3.0-cm(3) autograft plus PC.

  2. Roseomonas spinal epidural abscess complicating instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Bantouna, Vasiliki; Lianoudakis, Efstratios; Stavrakakis, Ioannis; Scoulica, Efstathia

    2013-07-01

    The first case of a spinal epidural abscess caused by Roseomonas mucosa following instrumented posterior lumbar fusion is presented. Although rare, because of its highly resistant profile, Roseomonas species should be included in the differential diagnosis of epidural abscesses in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts.

  3. Lumbar facet cyst resolution following anterior interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Massey, Gene M; Caputo, Adam M; Michael, Keith W; Isaacs, Robert E; Brown, Christopher R

    2013-12-01

    Facet cysts are a relatively common source of neural compression in the lumbar spine. Open decompression and fusion are frequently used to treat the stenosis and instability associated with this pathology. Recently, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has increased in popularity for the treatment of lumbar degenerative conditions. ALIF may achieve indirect decompression of the neural elements with less surgical morbidity than conventional open approaches. To date, there are no published reports describing the use of indirect decompression or interbody fusion for the treatment of facet cysts. We report a patient who developed an L4-L5 facet cyst secondary to degenerative changes and spondylolisthesis. ALIF with posterior instrumentation was used to address his condition. Six months after surgery, the patient had complete resolution of his symptoms. MRI revealed complete resolution of the facet cyst. This patient provides previously unreported evidence that interbody fusion alone may result in facet cyst resolution. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate if interbody fusion can consistently relieve the symptoms associated with facet cysts without the use of direct decompression.

  4. Local effect of zoledronic acid on new bone formation in posterolateral spinal fusion with demineralized bone matrix in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Pawel; Farei-Campagna, Jan; Jentzsch, Thorsten; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Werner, Clément M

    2017-10-10

    Posterolateral spinal fusion is a common orthopaedic surgery performed to treat degenerative and traumatic deformities of the spinal column. In posteriolateral spinal fusion, different osteoinductive demineralized bone matrix products have been previously investigated. We evaluated the effect of locally applied zoledronic acid in combination with commercially available demineralized bone matrix putty on new bone formation in posterolateral spinal fusion in a murine in vivo model. A posterolateral sacral spine fusion in murine model was used to evaluate the new bone formation. We used the sacral spine fusion model to model the clinical situation in which a bone graft or demineralized bone matrix is applied after dorsal instrumentation of the spine. In our study, group 1 received decortications only (n = 10), group 2 received decortication, and absorbable collagen sponge carrier, group 3 received decortication and absorbable collagen sponge carrier with zoledronic acid in dose 10 µg, group 4 received demineralized bone matrix putty (DBM putty) plus decortication (n = 10), and group 5 received DBM putty, decortication and locally applied zoledronic acid in dose 10 µg. Imaging was performed using MicroCT for new bone formation assessment. Also, murine spines were harvested for histopathological analysis 10 weeks after surgery. The surgery performed through midline posterior approach was reproducible. In group with decortication alone there was no new bone formation. Application of demineralized bone matrix putty alone produced new bone formation which bridged the S1-S4 laminae. Local application of zoledronic acid to demineralized bone matrix putty resulted in significant increase of new bone formation as compared to demineralized bone matrix putty group alone. A single local application of zoledronic acid with DBM putty during posterolateral fusion in sacral murine spine model increased significantly new bone formation in situ in our model. Therefore, our

  5. Injectable and compression-resistant low-viscosity polymer/ceramic composite carriers for rhBMP-2 in a rabbit model of posterolateral fusion: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Stefanie M; Talley, Anne D; McGough, Madison A P; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J; Kalpakci, Kerem; Shimko, Daniel; Guelcher, Scott A; Wenke, Joseph C

    2017-07-11

    The challenging biological and mechanical environment of posterolateral fusion (PLF) requires a carrier that spans the transverse processes and resists the compressive forces of the posterior musculature. The less traumatic posterolateral approach enabled by minimally invasive surgical techniques has prompted investigations into alternative rhBMP-2 carriers that are injectable, settable, and compression-resistant. In this pilot study, we investigated injectable low-viscosity (LV) polymer/composite bone grafts as compression-resistant carriers for rhBMP-2 in a single-level rabbit PLF model. LV grafts were augmented with ceramic microparticles: (1) hydrolytically degradable bioactive glass (BG), or (2) cell-degradable 85% β-tricalcium phosphate/15% hydroxyapatite (CM). Material properties, such as pore size, viscosity, working time, and bulk modulus upon curing, were measured for each LV polymer/ceramic material. An in vivo model of posterolateral fusion in a rabbit was used to assess the grafts' capability to encourage spinal fusion. These materials maintained a working time between 9.6 and 10.3 min, with a final bulk modulus between 1.2 and 3.1 MPa. The LV polymer/composite bone grafts released 55% of their rhBMP-2 over a 14-day period. As assessed by manual palpation in vivo, fusion was achieved in all (n = 3) animals treated with LV/BG or LV/CM carriers incorporating 430 μg rhBMP-2/ml. Images of μCT and histological sections revealed evidence of bone fusion near the transverse processes. This study highlights the potential of LV grafts as injectable and compression-resistant rhBMP-2 carriers for posterolateral spinal fusion.

  6. MIS Fusion of the SI Joint: Does Prior Lumbar Spinal Fusion Affect Patient Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a challenging condition to manage as it can mimic discogenic or radicular low back pain, and present as low back, hip, groin and/or buttock pain. Patients may present with a combination of lumbar spine and SI joint symptoms, further complicating the diagnosis and treatment algorithm [1-3]. SI joint pain after lumbar spinal fusion has been reported in the literature. Both clinical and biomechanical studies show the SI joint to be susceptible to increased motion and stress at the articular surface with up to 40-75% of patients developing significant SI joint degeneration after 5 years. In a recent case series study of 50 patients who underwent minimally invasive SI joint arthrodesis, 50% had undergone previous lumbar spinal fusion and 18% had symptomatic lumbar spine pathology treated conservatively [4]. The purpose of this study is to determine if history of previous lumbar fusion or lumbar pathology affects patient outcomes after MIS SI joint fusion surgery. We report on 40 patients with 24 month follow up treated with MIS SI joint fusion using a series of triangular porous plasma coated titanium implants (iFuse, SI-Bone, Inc. San Jose, CA). Outcomes using a numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain were obtained at 3-, 6-, 12- and 24 month follow up intervals. Additionally, patient satisfaction was collected at the latest follow up interval. Patients were separated into 3 cohorts: 1) underwent prior lumbar spine fusion (PF), 2) no history of previous lumbar spine fusion (NF), 3) no history of previous lumbar spine fusion with symptomatic lumbar spine pathology treated conservatively (LP). A repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) was used to determine if the change in NRS pain scores differed across timepoints and subgroups. A decrease in NRS by 2 points was deemed clinically significant [5]. Mean age was 54 (±13) years and varied slightly but not statistically between groups. All subgroups experienced a clinically and

  7. Posterolateral Arthrodesis in Lumbar Spine Surgery Using Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Cancellous Bone Substitute: An Osteoinductive and Osteoconductive Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Roberto; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Mancarella, Cristina; Rullo, Marika; Ferrazza, Giancarlo; Barrella, Gianna; Martini, Sergio; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objectives To analyze the effectiveness and practicality of using cancellous bone substitute with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in posterolateral arthrodesis. Methods Twenty consecutive patients underwent posterolateral arthrodesis with implantation of cancellous bone substitute soaked with PRP obtained directly in the operating theater on the right hemifield and cancellous bone substitute soaked with saline solution on the right. Results Computed tomography scans at 6 and 12 months after surgery were performed in all patients. Bone density was investigated by comparative analysis of region of interest. The data were analyzed with repeated-measures variance analyses with value of density after 6 months and value of density after 12 months, using age, levels of arthrodesis, and platelet count as covariates. The data demonstrated increased bone density using PRP and heterologous cancellous block resulting in an enhanced fusion rate during the first 6 months after surgery. Conclusions PRP used with cancellous bone substitute increases the rate of fusion and bone density joining osteoinductive and osteoconductive effect. PMID:25083353

  8. Minimally Invasive Scoliosis Surgery with Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Single Surgeon Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hamid; Miller, Lynn; Abbasi, Ali; Orandi, Vali; Khaghany, Kamran

    2017-06-25

    Degenerative deformities of the spine have traditionally been treated with extensive open surgeries. However, these open procedures are associated with a high degree of surgical morbidity. In this study, we explore whether clinical improvement in patients with spinal deformities can be achieved using a new minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (OLLIF). OLLIF is a MIS single surgeon procedure in which the disc is approached through Kambin's triangle. OLLIF can achieve correction of spinal deformities through careful cage placement. The purpose of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of using OLLIF to correct spinal deformities and to collect early outcome data. Collected data includes perioperative outcomes, patient reported outcomes, and radiographic outcomes. This study is a retrospective review of 37 OLLIF surgeries in 36 patients with symptomatic degenerative spinal deformity. Collected perioperative data included surgery time, blood loss, and hospital stay. Follow-up was conducted at least 150 days post surgery. We recorded complications and patient reported outcomes such as Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and pain scale. Imaging was conducted pre- and post-surgery. Fusion rates and changes in Cobb angle were also measured. A total of 37 surgeries that treated 100 vertebral levels were performed. For two and three level procedures, respectively, the mean blood loss was 83 and 178 ml, the average surgery time was 74 and 158 minutes and the average hospital stay was 2.6 and 3.3 days. The patients ambulated within 24 hours in all but two cases. The patients reported pain improvements on the ten-point pain scale from 8.3 to 3.7 (p<0.001) and on the ODI from 53% to 32%. Cobb angles decreased from 16° to 9.3° (p<0.001), amounting to 2.5° of correction per level of surgery. Detailed imaging was reviewed by independent radiologists for 24 cases and 100% interbody fusion was achieved along with 71% right

  9. Minimally Invasive Scoliosis Surgery with Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Single Surgeon Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid; Miller, Lynn; Orandi, Vali; Khaghany, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Background Degenerative deformities of the spine have traditionally been treated with extensive open surgeries. However, these open procedures are associated with a high degree of surgical morbidity. In this study, we explore whether clinical improvement in patients with spinal deformities can be achieved using a new minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (OLLIF). OLLIF is a MIS single surgeon procedure in which the disc is approached through Kambin’s triangle. OLLIF can achieve correction of spinal deformities through careful cage placement. Purpose The purpose of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of using OLLIF to correct spinal deformities and to collect early outcome data. Collected data includes perioperative outcomes, patient reported outcomes, and radiographic outcomes. Study design/setting This study is a retrospective review of 37 OLLIF surgeries in 36 patients with symptomatic degenerative spinal deformity. Collected perioperative data included surgery time, blood loss, and hospital stay. Follow-up was conducted at least 150 days post surgery. We recorded complications and patient reported outcomes such as Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and pain scale. Imaging was conducted pre- and post-surgery. Fusion rates and changes in Cobb angle were also measured. Results A total of 37 surgeries that treated 100 vertebral levels were performed. For two and three level procedures, respectively, the mean blood loss was 83 and 178 ml, the average surgery time was 74 and 158 minutes and the average hospital stay was 2.6 and 3.3 days. The patients ambulated within 24 hours in all but two cases. The patients reported pain improvements on the ten-point pain scale from 8.3 to 3.7 (p<0.001) and on the ODI from 53% to 32%. Cobb angles decreased from 16° to 9.3° (p<0.001), amounting to 2.5° of correction per level of surgery. Detailed imaging was reviewed by independent radiologists for 24 cases and 100

  10. Osteotomies through a fusion mass in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Vital, Jean-Marc; Boissière, Louis; Bourghli, Anouar; Castelain, Jean-Etienne; Challier, Vincent; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Flat-back syndrome is one of the main causes of surgical failure after lumbar fusion and can lead to a revision surgery to correct it. Three-column pedicle subtraction osteotomy is an efficient technique to restore lumbar lordosis (LL) for fixed sagittal malalignment. The fusion mass stemming from the past surgeries makes the procedure demanding as most anatomical landmarks are missing. This review article will focus on the correction of this lack of LL through the fusion mass. We will successively review the preoperative management, the surgical specificities, and various types of clinical cases that can be encountered in flat-back syndromes. PSO in the fixed fusion mass is technically demanding. Preoperative CT-scan and preoperative navigation allow us to push the limits when anatomical landmarks disappear. Bleeding and neurologic are the two major complications feared by the surgeon. The best way to avoid these revision surgeries is to restore a proper lumbar lordosis at the time of initial surgery by considering lumbo-pelvic indexes.

  11. Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion via a Unilateral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Chul; Yi, Seong; Kim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine the outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), via a unilateral approach, in selected patients who presented with unilateral leg pain and segmental instability of the lumbar spine. Patients with a single level of a herniated disc disease in the lumbar spine, unilateral leg pain, chronic disabling lower back pain (LBP), and a failed conservative treatment, were considered for the procedure. A total of 41 patients underwent a single-level PLIF using two PEEK™ (Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone) cages filled with iliac bone, via a unilateral approach. The patients comprised 21 women and 20 men with a mean age of 41 years (range: 22 to 63 years). Two cages were inserted using a unilateral medial facetectomy and a partial hemilaminectomy. At follow-up, the outcomes were assessed using the Prolo Scale. The success of the fusion was determined by dynamic lumbar radiography and/or computerized tomography scanning. All the patients safely underwent surgery without severe complications. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, 1 patient underwent percutaneous pedicle screw fixation due to persistent LBP. A posterior displacement of the cage was found in one patient. At the last follow up, 90% of the patients demonstrated satisfactory results. An osseous fusion was present in 85% of the patients. A PLIF, via a unilateral approach, enables a solid union with satisfactory clinical results. This preserves part of the posterior elements of the lumbar spine in selected patients with single level instability and unilateral leg pain. PMID:16807980

  12. Use of autologous growth factors in lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Lowery, G L; Kulkarni, S; Pennisi, A E

    1999-08-01

    The results of spinal fusion, especially posteriorly above the lumbosacral junction, have been mixed. Autologous growth factor concentrate (AGF) prepared by ultraconcentration of platelets contains multiple growth factors having a chemotactic and mitogenic effect on mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts and may play a role in initiating bone healing. The purpose of this retrospective study is to review our results with AGF in lumbar spinal fusions. To date, AGF has been used in 39 patients having lumbar spinal fusion. The study group consisted of the first 19 consecutive cases to allow at least 6 months follow-up. The average follow-up was 13 months (range 6 to 18 months). Follow-up compliance was 91%. There were 7 men and 12 women. Average age was 52 years (range 30-72 years). Nine patients had prior back surgery. There were 8 smokers. AGF was used in posterior (n = 15) or anterior intradiscal (n = 4) fusions. AGF was used with autograft and coraline hydroxyapatite in all posterior fusions, and autograft, coral, and intradiscal spacer (carbon fiber spinal fusion cages or Synthes femoral ring) in intradiscal fusions. Posterior stabilization was used in all cases. Eight cases were single-level fusions, 6 were two-level, and 1 was a three-level fusion. Autologous iliac crest bone graft was taken in 14 cases and local autograft used in 5 cases. Posteriorly, a total of 23 levels were fused; of these, nine were at L5-S1, eight at L4-L5, five at L3-L4, and one at L2-L3. No impending pseudoarthroses were noted on plain radiographic examination at last follow-up visit. Solid fusion was confirmed in 3 patients having routine hardware removal, and in 2 patients who had surgery at an adjacent level. There was one posterior wound infection, which was managed without sequelae. When used as an adjunct to autograft, AGF offers theoretical advantages that need to be examined in controlled studies. Further study is necessary to determine whether coralline hydroxyapatite used as a

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion versus Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Three-Level Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoxin; Wu, Xinbo; Yu, Shunzhi; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to directly compare the clinical outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in three-level lumbar spinal stenosis. This retrospective study involved a total of 60 patients with three-level degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent MIS-TLIF or PLIF from January 2010 to February 2012. Back and leg visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scale were used to assess the pain, disability, and health status before surgery and postoperatively. In addition, the operating time, estimated blood loss, and hospital stay were also recorded. There were no significant differences in back VAS, leg VAS, ODI, SF-36, fusion condition, and complications at 12-month follow-up between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, significantly less blood loss and shorter hospital stay were observed in MIS-TLIF group (P < 0.05). Moreover, patients undergoing MIS-TLIF had significantly lower back VAS than those in PLIF group at 6-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Compared with PLIF, MIS-TLIF might be a prior option because of noninferior efficacy as well as merits of less blood loss and quicker recovery in treating three-level lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:27747244

  14. Acute epidural lipedema: a novel entity and potential complication of bone morphogenetic protein use in lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Michael T; Hamilton, Kendall D; Russo, Scott S

    2013-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteogenesis, making them useful for decreasing time to union and increasing union rates. Although the advantages of BMP-2 as a substitute for iliac crest graft have been elucidated, less is known about the safety profile and adverse events linked to their use in spinal fusion. An accumulation of reactive edema in the epidural fat may lead to neural compression and significant morbidity after lumbar spinal fusion. Bone morphogenetic protein has never been implicated as a cause of spinal epidural lipedema. We report on a case of rapid accumulation of edematous adipose tissue in the epidural space after lumbar spine decompression and fusion with bone morphogenic protein. Case report. The patient was a 45-year-old woman with chronic back pain, worsening bilateral L5 radiculopathy, and degenerative disc disease. Surgery consisting of a one-level transpedicular decompression, transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, and posterolateral fusion was performed using BMP-2 as an adjunct for arthrodesis. Two days postoperatively, the patient developed progressive cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed edematous epidural fat extending above the initial laminectomy, compromising the spinal canal, and compressing the thecal sac. Emergent laminectomies at L3, L4, and L5 were performed, and intraoperative pathology revealed edematous epidural adipose tissue. The patient's cauda equina syndrome resolved after spinal decompression and the removal of epidural fat. Final cultures were negative for infection, and histology report yielded an accumulation of edematous fibroadipose tissue. We present a case of rapid accumulation of edematous adipose tissue causing cauda equina syndrome after a lumbar decompression and fusion surgery. The acute nature and extensive development of the lipedema presented in this case indicate an intense inflammatory reaction. We hypothesize that there may be a link between the use of BMP-2

  15. Prospective outcomes evaluation after decompression with or without instrumented fusion for lumbar stenosis and degenerative Grade I spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Benzel, Edward C; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Barker, Fred G; Harrington, J Fred; Magge, Subu N; Strugar, John; Coumans, Jean-Valéry C E; Borges, Lawrence F

    2004-10-01

    There is considerable debate among spine surgeons regarding whether fusion should be used to augment decompressive surgery in patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis involving Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis. The authors prospectively evaluated the outcomes of patients treated between 2000 and 2002 at two institutions to determine whether fusion improves functional outcome 1 year after surgery. Patients ranged in age from 50 to 81 years. They presented with degenerative Grade I (3- to 14-mm) spondylolisthesis and lumbar stenosis without gross instability (< 3 mm of motion at the level of subluxation). Those in whom previous surgery had been performed at the level of subluxation were excluded. Each patient completed Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires preoperatively and at 6 to 12 months postoperatively. Some patients underwent decompression alone (20 cases), whereas others underwent decompression and posterolateral instrumentation-assisted fusion (14 cases), at the treating surgeon's discretion. Baseline demographic data, radiographic features, and ODI and SF-36 scores were similar in both groups. The 1-year fusion rate was 93%. Both forms of surgery independently improved outcome compared with baseline status, based on ODI and SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) results (p < 0.001). Decompression combined with fusion led to an improvement in ODI scores of 27.5 points, whereas decompression alone was associated with a 13.6-point increase (p = 0.02). Analysis of the SF-36 PCS data also demonstrated a significant intergroup difference (p = 0.003). Surgery substantially improved 1-year outcomes based on established outcomes instruments in patients with Grade I spondylolisthesis and stenosis. Fusion was associated with greater functional improvement.

  16. Effect of Oxy133, an osteogenic oxysterol, on new bone formation in rat two-level posterolateral fusion model.

    PubMed

    Buser, Zorica; Drapeau, Susan; Stappenbeck, Frank; Pereira, Renata C; Parhami, Farhad; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2017-05-25

    The aim of our study was to determine the effect of Oxy133 and rhBMP2 on fusion rates and new bone formation in a rat posterolateral fusion (PLF) model. Furthermore, we examined whether Oxy133 could inhibit the adipogenesis that is often present in rhBMP2-induced fusions. Sixty-four male Lewis rats underwent two levels PLF (L3-L5). All animals were randomly divided into eight groups based on the test compound that they received: control (DMSO), low-dose rhBMP2 (0.5 µg), high-dose rhBMP2 (5 µg), low-dose Oxy133 (5 mg), high-dose Oxy133 (20 mg), low rhBMP2 + high Oxy133, high rhBMP2 + high Oxy133, and low rhBMP2 + low Oxy133. Fusion rates were assessed 8 weeks after surgery with manual palpation and plain radiographs. Bone parameters were measured using microCT. Histology was used to evaluate adipogenesis. No fusion was observed in the control group. Based on the manual palpation, 100% fusion was observed in all other groups except in the low-dose rhBMP2 group (69%). At 8 weeks based on X-rays, 100% fusion was observed in the following groups: high-dose rhBMP2, low-dose Oxy133, and low rhBMP2 + low Oxy133. In the other groups, the fusion rates were between 95 and 97%, except for the low rhBMP2 group (72%). We observed similar values in BV/TV ratio at L3-4 when Oxy133 groups were compared to rhBMP2 groups alone (44.62% in high-dose Oxy133 vs. 41.47% in high-dose rhBMP2 and 47.18% in low-dose Oxy133 vs. 54.98% in low-dose rhBMP2). Trabecular thickness was slightly lower in Oxy133 groups compared to rhBMP2 when comparing low- and high-dose groups from each group (118.44 µm for high-dose Oxy133 vs. 122.39 µm for high-dose rhBMP2 and 123.51 µm for low-dose Oxy133 vs. 135.74 µm for low-dose rhBMP2). At the same time, trabecular separation was lower in Oxy133 groups compared to rhBMP2 groups. Similar trends in bone parameters were observed at the L4-5 levels. Fusion masses with low- and high-dose Oxy133 had significantly less adipocytes than rhBMP2

  17. Reliability of the rabbit postero-lateral spinal fusion model: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Alexander M; Rangarajan, Rajesh; Balts, Joshua W; Hsu, Wellington K; Anderson, Paul A

    2013-08-01

    The rabbit model of spinal fusion with the autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) control is widely used to evaluate bone graft substitutes and enhancers. This study examined the reliability of this model using meta-analysis. A systematic literature search from January 1995 to May 2011 identified 56 studies, involving 733 animals. The primary outcome was fusion success calculated as logit event rate. Study design, surgical technique, rabbit characteristics (gender, species, age, weight), and institution were analyzed. Overall fusion success was 52.4%. Important positive variables were time-point >4 weeks, ICBG dose >1 cm(3) , initial weight of animals ≥3 kg, level at L4-5 or L5-6, and age ≥6 months. Inter- and intra-institutional reliability was excellent. The rabbit model ICBG control group is reliable, although several factors can affect results. Fusion under normal handling occurs reliably in 5 weeks. The volume of bone graft should be >1 cm(3) but no benefits are present with >2 cm(3) . The animals should weigh a minimum of 3 kg and be at least 6 months old. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. Morphological analysis of interbody fusion following posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Kwang; Kim, Myeong Jong; Roh, Sung Woo; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2017-08-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using cages in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disorders due to its biomechanical stability and high fusion rate. However, research regarding patterns of fusion in the interbody space during the early postoperative period is lacking.Sixty consecutive patients were recruited from May 2013 to June 2015. All patients underwent PLIF using 2 titanium cages filled with local bone chips from decompressed lamina and facet bone in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation. Computed tomography scans were obtained 3 to 6 months following surgery in order to evaluate the partial fusion state. Computed tomography (CT) classification of fusion morphology was divided into 8 groups and then into compartments according to fusion space, and the rate of fusion for each was calculated. Further follow-up was conducted to confirm fusion state and assess outcomes.The most frequent pattern of interbody fusion was bilateral intra-cage fusion with unilateral lateral bridging of extra-cage areas (N = 36, 43.4%); the least frequent was interspace bridging of the 2 cages alone (N = 0, 0%). The fusion rate for the intra-cage area (Compartment 1) reached 100%. However, the fusion in the lateral space outside of cages (Compartment 2) was not satisfactory, though reasonable (72.3%). All patients were confirmed as achieving adequate fusion at the final follow-up, with improved clinical outcomes.Widening of the contact area between the vertebral body and cages is recommended to promote increased interbody fusion during the early postoperative period.

  19. Morphological analysis of interbody fusion following posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages using computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong Kwang; Kim, Myeong Jong; Roh, Sung Woo; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using cages in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disorders due to its biomechanical stability and high fusion rate. However, research regarding patterns of fusion in the interbody space during the early postoperative period is lacking. Sixty consecutive patients were recruited from May 2013 to June 2015. All patients underwent PLIF using 2 titanium cages filled with local bone chips from decompressed lamina and facet bone in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation. Computed tomography scans were obtained 3 to 6 months following surgery in order to evaluate the partial fusion state. Computed tomography (CT) classification of fusion morphology was divided into 8 groups and then into compartments according to fusion space, and the rate of fusion for each was calculated. Further follow-up was conducted to confirm fusion state and assess outcomes. The most frequent pattern of interbody fusion was bilateral intra-cage fusion with unilateral lateral bridging of extra-cage areas (N = 36, 43.4%); the least frequent was interspace bridging of the 2 cages alone (N = 0, 0%). The fusion rate for the intra-cage area (Compartment 1) reached 100%. However, the fusion in the lateral space outside of cages (Compartment 2) was not satisfactory, though reasonable (72.3%). All patients were confirmed as achieving adequate fusion at the final follow-up, with improved clinical outcomes. Widening of the contact area between the vertebral body and cages is recommended to promote increased interbody fusion during the early postoperative period. PMID:28834885

  20. Results of lumbar spondylodeses using different bone grafting materials after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF).

    PubMed

    vonderHoeh, Nicolas Heinz; Voelker, Anna; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard

    2017-05-25

    Can a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and autologous bone from decompression sites produce similar results when used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)? In the current literature, autologous iliac crest bone grafts (ICBGs) have been reported the gold standard for this procedure. Indeed, to date, no clinical data have confirmed that a mixture of equal volumes of HA and local autologous bone produce similar results in term of fusion as the same volume of autologous ICBG alone. Study design/setting This study was approved by the local ethics committee and completed in a prospective, randomized, single-blinded manner. The results of lumbar fusion using TLIF and different bone grafting materials were compared. Patient sample The patient sample included patients with spinal lumbar degenerative disease. Outcome measures The clinical outcome was determined using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The radiological outcomes and fusion rates were determined with radiographs evaluated using the McAfee criteria and computed tomography (CT) data evaluated by the Williams criteria. Three blinded investigators (one radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons) assessed the data. The secondary variables included donor site morbidity. Methods The patients were admitted to our department for orthopedic surgery with degenerative lumbar pathologies (L2-S1) that required stabilization in one or two segments using a TLIF procedure. The patients were 18-80 years old. Only those patients who had degenerative lumbar pathologies and agreed to be educated about the study were included. The patients were divided into the following two randomized groups: group A: TLIF procedure using autologous ICBGs alone; and group B: TLIF procedure using local bone from decompression site mixed with hydroxyapatite. Each group received equal graft volumes. The mixture in group B consisted of equal volumes of local autograft (5 cc) and synthetic

  1. Intervertebral Fusion with Mobile Microendoscopic Discectomy for Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-Shan; Liu, Yue; Xu, Hai-Wei; Yang, Qiang; Ma, Xin-Long; Hu, Yong-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a technique for lumbar intervertebral fusion that incorporates mobile microendoscopic discectomy (MMED) for lumbar degenerative disc disease. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion is frequently performed to treat degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine; however, the scope of such surgery and vision is limited by what the naked eye can see through the expanding channel system. To expand the visual scope and reduce trauma, we perform lumbar intervertebral fusion with the aid of a MMED system that provides a wide field through freely tilting the surgical instrument and canals. We believe that this technique is a good option for treating lumbar degenerative disc disease that requires lumbar intervertebral fusion. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Lumbar fusion in achondroplasia: does fusion to the sacrum affect function?

    PubMed

    Farmer, Kevin W; Brinkley, Michael F; Skolasky, Richard L; Sponseller, Paul D; Ain, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Stenosis and kyphosis are common in achondroplasia, often requiring lumbar fusion, sometimes to the sacrum. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional effect of lumbar fusion to the sacrum in patients with achondroplasia. Functional and SF-36 questionnaires were sent to the 66 patients with achondroplasia who underwent instrumented lumbar fusion at our institution from 1991 to 2006. Of the 35 who returned questionnaires, 13 had fusions to the sacrum and 22 did not. Chi-square analysis and a t test were used to evaluate outcomes. Significance was set at P<0.05 or a 95% confidence interval that did not cross 1. There were no statistical differences in SF-36 scores. There was a trend toward more pain in the group fused to the sacrum (P=0.1). There were no statistically significant differences in difficulty with activities, but there was a trend toward increased difficulty with hygiene after toileting in the group with fusion to the sacrum (odds ratio: 3.76, confidence interval: 0.53-26.87, P=0.19). Fusion to the sacrum did not significantly affect function in patients with achondroplasia, although there was a trend toward increased pain and greater difficulty with hygiene after toileting.

  3. Fusion rate and clinical outcome in anterior lumbar interbody fusion with beta-tricalcium phosphate and bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute. A prospective clinical study in fifty patients.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Ricarda; Putzer, David; Liebensteiner, Michael; Bach, Christian; Thaler, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Bone graft substitutes have been successfully used in posterolateral lumbar fusion, anterior cervical fusion and animal studies. This study has been conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure. In a prospective clinical study, ALIF cages were prefilled with β-TCP and additionally fixated with posterior pedicle screw. Computed tomography (CT) and X-rays were performed one year after surgery. Fusion was assessed and functional status was evaluated before and one year after surgery. X-ray evaluation showed a definite fusion in 85.48 % of treated levels. CT assessment showed anterior and posterior intersegemental bone bridging in 77.78 % of treated levels. The X-ray fusion rate presented is comparable with those published for ALIF procedures with bone graft. Fusion rates β-TCP are similar to autologous bone. ALIF with β-TCP and additional posterior fixation is a safe and effective procedure.

  4. Workers' Compensation, Return to Work, and Lumbar Fusion for Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis is associated with consistent outcomes in the general population. However, workers' compensation is a risk factor for worse outcomes. Few studies have evaluated prognostic factors within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work among patients with workers' compensation claims after fusion for spondylolisthesis. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify 686 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation who underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis from 1993 to 2013. Positive return to work status was recorded in patients who returned to work within 2 years of fusion and remained working for longer than 6 months. The criteria for return to work were met by 29.9% (n=205) of subjects. The authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify prognostic factors for return to work. Negative preoperative prognostic factors for postoperative return to work included: out of work for longer than 1 year before fusion (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.16); depression (P=.007; OR<0.01); long-term opioid analgesic use (P=.006; OR, 0.41); lumbar stenosis (P=.043; OR, 0.55); and legal representation (P=.042; OR, 0.63). Return to work rates associated with these factors were 9.7%, 0.0%, 10.0%, 29.2%, and 25.0%, respectively. If these subjects were excluded, the return to work rate increased to 60.4%. The 70.1% (n=481) of subjects who did not return to work had markedly worse outcomes, shown by higher medical costs, chronic opioid dependence, and higher rates of failed back syndrome, total disability, and additional surgery. Psychiatric comorbidity increased after fusion but was much higher in those who did not return to work. Future studies are needed to identify how to better facilitate return to work among similar patients with workers' compensation claims. Copyright 2016

  5. Review of early clinical results and complications associated with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF).

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-09-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research.

  6. The Multiple Benefits of Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery: Results Comparing Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Starkweather, Angela R.; Witek-Janusek, Linda; Nockels, Russ P.; Peterson, Jonna; Mathews, Herb L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) offers equivalent postoperative fusion rates compared to posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) and minimizes the amount of iatrogenic injury to the spinal muscles. The objective of this study was to examine the difference in pain perception, stress, mood disturbance, quality of life, and immunological indices throughout the perioperative course among patients undergoing TLIF and PLF. A prospective, nonrandomized descriptive design was used to evaluate these measures among patients undergoing TLIF (n = 17) or PLF (n = 18) at 1 week prior to surgery (T1), the day of surgery (T2), 24 hours postoperatively (T3), and 6 weeks postoperatively (T4). Among TLIF patients, pain, stress, fatigue, and mood disturbance were significantly decreased at the 6-week follow-up visit (T4) compared to patients who underwent PLF. The TLIF group also demonstrated significantly higher levels (near baseline) of CD8 cells atT4 than the PLF group. Interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the TLIF group as well, which may be an indicator of ongoing nerve regeneration and healing. Knowledge concerning the effect of pain and the psychological experience on immunity among individuals undergoing spinal fusion can help nurses tailor interventions to improve outcomes, regardless of the approach used. PMID:18330408

  7. A Biomechanical Stability Study of Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion on the Cadaveric Lumbar Spine Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Yan, Meijun; Han, Yingchao; Xia, Dongdong; Sun, Guixin; Li, Lijun; Tan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an effective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease. However, this fusion technique requires resection of inferior facet joint to provide access for superior facet joint resection, which results in reduced lumbar spinal stability and unnecessary trauma. We have previously developed extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF) that can avoid back muscle injury with direct nerve root decompression. This study aims to show that ELIF enhances lumbar spinal stability in comparison to TLIF by comparing lumbar spinal stability of L4–L5 range of motion (ROM) on 12 cadaveric spine specimens after performing TLIF or ELIF. Methods 12 cadaveric spine specimens were randomly divided and treated in accordance with the different internal fixations, including ELIF with a unilateral pedicle screw (ELIF+UPS), TLIF with a unilateral pedicle screw (TLIF+UPS), TLIF with a bilateral pedicle screw (TLIF+BPS), ELIF with a unilateral pedicle screw and translaminar facet screw (ELIF+UPS+TLFS) and ELIF with a bilateral pedicle screw (ELIF+BPS). The treatment groups were exposed to a 400-N load and 6 N·m movement force to calculate the angular displacement of L4-L5 during anterior flexion, posterior extension, lateral flexion and rotation operation conditions. Results The ROM in ELIF+UPS group was smaller than that of TLIF+UPS group under all operating conditions, with the significant differences in left lateral flexion and right rotation by 36.15% and 25.97% respectively. The ROM in ELIF+UPS group was higher than that in TLIF+BPS group. The ROM in the ELIF+UPS+TLFS group was much smaller than that in the ELIF+UPS group, but was not significantly different than that in the TLIF+BPS group. Conclusions Despite that TLIF+BPS has great stability, which can be comparable by that of ELIF+UPS. Additionally, ELIF stability can be further improved by using translaminar facet screws without causing more tissue damage to patient. PMID

  8. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuguang; Sun, Junying; Tang, Genlin

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47-72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column spinal stability. Attention was given to ensure the correct pre-operative fenestration, complete decompression and the prevention of adhesions. After an average follow-up of 26.4 months, the one year post-operative X-ray radiographs suggested that the successful fusion rate was 88.1%, and this was 100% in the two-year post-operative radiographs. Moreover, the functional recovery rate was 97.9%. Bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion is an ideal surgical method for the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The surgical method retains the spinal posterior column and middle column and results in full decompression and reliable fusion by a limited yet effective surgical approach.

  9. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHUGUANG; SUN, JUNYING; TANG, GENLIN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47–72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column spinal stability. Attention was given to ensure the correct pre-operative fenestration, complete decompression and the prevention of adhesions. After an average follow-up of 26.4 months, the one year post-operative X-ray radiographs suggested that the successful fusion rate was 88.1%, and this was 100% in the two-year post-operative radiographs. Moreover, the functional recovery rate was 97.9%. Bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion is an ideal surgical method for the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The surgical method retains the spinal posterior column and middle column and results in full decompression and reliable fusion by a limited yet effective surgical approach. PMID:23407794

  10. Radiological and functional outcome after anterior lumbar interbody spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Christensen, F B; Karlsmose, B; Hansen, E S; Bünger, C E

    1996-01-01

    Outcome after anterior spinal fusion has mainly been studied radiologically and reported fusion rates vary greatly. The aim of this study was to investigate radiological and long-term clinical outcome. The study comprised 120 consecutive patients, operated on during the period 1979-1987, with single-or two-level anterior interbody spinal fusion due to disc degeneration or isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbar instability. In 64 patients a supplemental facet joint fusion was performed. Clinical outcome was evaluated 5-13 years after surgery using the patient-administered Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ). Radiological outcome was determined on the basis of radiographs taken at a 2-year follow-up assessed by independent observers. The radiological follow-up rate was 98%. Complete fusion was found in 52%, questionable fusion in 24%, and definitive pseudoarthrosis in 24% of patients. Radiological results were poor in patients who had undergone previous spinal surgery (P < 0.05) and in those with two-level fusion (P < 0.05). The DPQ reply rate was 80%. Sixty-six patients claimed improvement in all functional groups. Patients with complete or questionable union had significantly better results than did those with non-union (P < 0.01). Poorer functional outcome was found in patients who had undergone previous spinal surgery (P < 0.01) or fusion at the L4/L5 level (P < 0.05), in those who had responded poorly to the preoperative test brace (P < 0.05), and in those above 45 years old at the time of surgery (P < 0.05). Radiological and functional outcome did not vary according to whether patients were treated postoperatively with a plaster jacket or with facet screw fixation. The study demonstrated a functional success rate of approximately 66% following anterior lumbar spinal fusion after a mean follow-up of 8 years. There was a clear tendency for poorer prognosis for patients who had undergone previous spinal surgery, those aged above 45 years, those operated at the L4/L5

  11. Midline lumbar fusion using cortical bone trajectory screws. Preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Mateusz; Prokopienko, Marek; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Czernicki, Tomasz; Marchel, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) using cortical bone trajectory is an alternative method of transpedicular spinal fusion for degenerative disease. The new entry points’ location and screwdriving direction allow the approach-related morbidity to be reduced. Aim To present our preliminary experience with the MIDLF technique on the first 5 patients with lumbar degenerative disease and with follow-up of at least 6 months. Material and methods Retrospective analysis was performed on the first 5 patients with foraminal (4) or central (1) stenosis operated on between December 2014 and February 2015. Three patients were fused at L4–L5 and two at the L5–S1 level. Results No intra- or post-operative complications occurred with this approach. An improvement regarding the leading symptom in the early postoperative period (sciatica 4/4, claudication 1/1) was achieved in all patients. The mean improvements in the visual analogue scale for low back and leg pain were 2.2 and 4.8 respectively. The mean Oswestry Disability Index scores were 52% (range: 16–82%) before surgery and 33% (range: 12–56%) at 3-month follow-up (mean improvement 19%). At the most recent follow-up, 4 patients reported the maintenance of the satisfactory result. The early standing and follow-up X-rays showed satisfactory screw placement in all patients. Conclusions In our initial experience, the MIDLF technique seems to be an encouraging alternative to traditional transpedicular trajectory screws when short level lumbar fusion is needed. Nevertheless, longer observations on larger groups of patients are needed to reliably evaluate the safety of the method and the sustainability of the results. PMID:27829938

  12. Pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch predisposes to adjacent segment disease after lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Mueller, Daniel A; Rothenfluh, Esin; Min, Kan

    2015-06-01

    to predispose to adjacent segment disease. Patients with such pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch exhibit a 10-times higher risk for undergoing revision surgery than controls if sagittal malalignment is maintained after lumbar fusion surgery.

  13. Adverse Event Recording and Reporting in Clinical Trials Comparing Lumbar Disk Replacement with Lumbar Fusion: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hiratzka, Jayme; Rastegar, Farbod; Contag, Alec G; Norvell, Daniel C; Anderson, Paul A; Hart, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives (1) To compare the quality of adverse event (AE) methodology and reporting among randomized trials comparing lumbar fusion with lumbar total disk replacement (TDR) using established AE reporting systems; (2) to compare the AEs and reoperations of lumbar spinal fusion with those from lumbar TDR; (3) to make recommendations on how to report AEs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) so that surgeons and patients have more-detailed and comprehensive information when making treatment decisions. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration database, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse through May 2015 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials with at least 2 years of follow-up comparing lumbar artificial disk replacement with lumbar fusion were included. Patients were required to have axial or mechanical low back pain of ≥3 months' duration due to degenerative joint disease defined as degenerative disk disease, facet joint disease, or spondylosis. Outcomes included the quality of AE acquisition methodology and results reporting, and AEs were defined as those secondary to the procedure and reoperations. Individual and pooled relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals comparing lumbar TDR with fusion were calculated. Results RCTs demonstrated a generally poor description of methods for assessing AEs. There was a consistent lack of clear definition or grading for these events. Furthermore, there was a high degree of variation in reporting of surgery-related AEs. Most studies lacked adequate reporting of the timing of AEs, and there were no clear distinctions between acute or chronic AEs. Meta-analysis of the pooled data demonstrated a twofold increased risk of AEs in patients having lumbar fusion compared with patients having lumbar TDR at 2-year follow-up, and this relative risk was maintained at 5 years. Furthermore, the pooled data demonstrated a 1.7 times greater relative risk of

  14. Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Vastardis, Georgios; Zelenakova, Julia; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zindrick, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) will function biomechanically similar to a traditional anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) plus posterior instrumentation (FIREBIRD, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX). Purpose of this study was to determine if an Integrated Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA) can stabilize single motion segments as well as an anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL) + pedicle screw construct (FIREBIRD). Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines (age: 43.9±4.3 years) were used. Each specimen's range of motion was tested in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) under intact condition, after L4-L5 PILLAR SA with intervertebral screws and after L4-L5 360° fusion (PILLAR AL + Pedicle Screws and rods (FIREBIRD). Each specimen was tested in flexion (8Nm) and extension (6Nm) without preload (0 N) and under 400N of preload, in lateral bending (±6 Nm) and axial rotation (±5 Nm) without preload. Results Integrated fusion using the PILLAR SA device demonstrated statistically significant reductions in range of motion of the L4-L5 motion segment as compared to the intact condition for each test direction. PILLAR SA reduced ROM from 8.9±1.9 to 2.9±1.1° in FE with 400N follower preload (67.4%), 8.0±1.7 to 2.5±1.1° in LB, and 2.2±1.2 to 0.7±0.3° in AR. A comparison between the PILLAR SA integrated fusion device versus 360° fusion construct with spacer and bilateral pedicle screws was statistically significant in FE and LB. The 360° fusion yielded motion of 1.0±0.5° in FE, 1.0±0.8° in LB (p0.05). Conclusions The PILLAR SA resulted in motions of less than 3° in all modes of motion and was not as motion restricting as the traditional 360° using bilateral pedicle screws. The residual segmental motions compare very favorably with published biomechanical studies of other interbody integrated fusion devices. PMID:25694931

  15. Comparison of outcomes between minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and traditional posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion in obese patients with lumbar disk prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Peng; An, Ji-Long; Sun, Ya-Peng; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the curative effect between minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) and the posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in obese patients with lumbar disk prolapse. Patients and methods In this study, 72 patients who underwent lumbar disk prolapse therapy in the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between March 2011 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and were divided into two groups, MIS-TLIF group (n=35) and PLIF group (n=37), according to different surgical procedures. Several clinical parameters were compared between these two groups. Results Compared with PLIF, MIS-TLIF was associated with longer operative time, less blood loss, less postoperative drainage and shorter postoperative time in bed; moreover, patients in the MIS-TLIF group had lower levels of serum creatine kinase on 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days. At the 3- and 6-month follow-up, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of low back pain of patients in the MIS-TLIF group were significantly reduced and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores were increased, whereas the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion Obese patients can achieve good efficacy with MIS-TLIF or PLIF treatment, but MIS-TLIF surgery showed longer operative time, fewer traumas and bleeding volume, less incidence of short-term pain, low complication rate and faster postoperative recovery. PMID:28176906

  16. Change of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum after Indirect Decompression Using Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the ligamentum flavum thickness and remodeling of the spinal canal after anterior fusion during a 10-year follow-up. Overview of Literature Extreme lateral interbody fusion provides minimally invasive treatment of the lumbar spine; this anterior fusion without direct posterior decompression, so-called indirect decompression, can achieve pain relief. Anterior fusion may restore disc height, stretch the flexure of the ligamentum flavum, and increase the spinal canal diameter. However, changes in the ligamentum flavum thickness and remodeling of the spinal canal after anterior fusion during a long follow-up have not yet been reported. Methods We evaluated 10 patients with L4 spondylolisthesis who underwent stand-alone anterior interbody fusion using the iliac crest bone. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 10 years after surgery. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the dural sac and the ligamentum flavum at L1–2 to L5–S1 was calculated using a Picture Archiving and Communication System. Results Spinal fusion with correction loss (average, 4.75 mm anterior slip) was achieved in all patients 10 years postsurgery. The average CSAs of the dural sac and the ligamentum flavum at L1–2 to L5–S1 were 150 mm2 and 78 mm2, respectively. The average CSA of the ligamentum flavum at L4–5 (30 mm2) (fusion level) was significantly less than that at L1–2 to L3–4 or L5–S1. Although patients had an average anterior slip of 4.75 mm, the average CSA of the dural sac at L4–5 was significantly larger than at the other levels. Conclusions Spinal stability induced a lumbar ligamentum flavum change and a sustained remodeling of the spinal canal, which may explain the long-term pain relief after indirect decompression fusion surgery. PMID:28243378

  17. [Posterior interbody fusion versus improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in segmental spinal fixation for aged spondylolisthesis with lumbar spinal canal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Wu, Ji-bin; Zhao, Meng; Dai, Wei-xiang; Wu, De-hui; Wang, Zhao-hong; Feng, Jie; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Qing-hua; Tian, Ji-wei

    2012-03-06

    To assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes of posterior lumbar fixation and posterior interbody fusion or improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for Meyerding grade II/III spondylolisthesis so as to address the suitability of a dynamic stabilization. A total of 28 consecutive patients underwent posterior lumbar fixation and posterior interbody fusion or improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for Meyerding grade II/III spondylolisthesis. Among them, 13 patients underwent posterior interface fusion (PLIF) and pedicle screw fixation. And improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ITLIF) and placement of the same system were performed in 15 patients. Their clinical, economic, functional, and radiographic data were recorded both pre- and postoperatively. The average changes of economic and functional scores on the Prolo scale were 1.36 and 1.48 respectively. In patients with posterior interbody fusion; the average preoperative vertebral slippage was 46.9% (range: 25 - 75%) versus 14.6% (range: 15 - 25%) postoperatively. In patients with ITLIF, the average changes in economic and functional scores were 1.75 and 1.63 respectively. And the average preoperative vertebral slippage was 45.2% (range: 28 - 78%) compared with 26.3% (range: 14 - 28%) postoperatively. When two fusion techniques were compared, an overall superior reliability and resistance of systems was associated with the ITLIF procedure. But their clinical outcomes did not differ greatly (P > 0.05). The application of a segmental pedicle screw fixation is both feasible and efficacious.

  18. Factors influencing segmental lumbar lordosis after lateral transpsoas interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Huang, Russel C; Sharma, Amit K; Meredith, Dennis S; Metitiri, Ochuko; Sama, Andrew A; Girardi, Federico P; Cammisa, Frank P

    2012-05-01

    Although contributions to sagittal alignment have been characterized for anterior, posterior and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, sagittal alignment after lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) has not yet been characterized. This study examined the ability of LTIF to restore lumbar lordosis and identified factors associated with change in sagittal alignment. Twenty-nine patients and 67 levels were studied. Segmental lordosis, anterior-posterior cage position, and cage obliquity were measured on preoperative and postoperative radiographs and CT scans. Change in sagittal alignment was analyzed with respect to demographic information and measures of cage position and obliquity to identify factors associated with segmental alignment change. Mean lordosis increased 3.7° at instrumented segments, increasing from 4.1° preoperatively to 7.8° postoperatively. Although increases at each level were significant, there were no significant differences between levels. Lordosis increase was inversely-associated with preoperative lordosis; levels with the least preoperative lordosis gained the most lordosis. Cage obliquity and height were not significantly associated with lordosis change. Anterior cage placement resulted in the largest lordosis gain (+7.4°/level) while posterior placement was prokyphotic (-1.2°/level). There were no significant associations with age, sex or body mass index. Anteroposterior cage placement is an important intraoperative determinant of postoperative alignment; anterior placement results in greater lordosis while middle/posterior placement has a minimal effect on sagittal alignment. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Transforaminal Endoscopic Decompression for Displaced End Plate Fracture After Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ralf; Telfeian, Albert E; Krzok, Guntram; Iprenburg, Menno

    2017-10-01

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive approach to anterior spinal column fusion, deformity correction, and indirect decompression of the lumbar spine. A rarely reported possible complication of the procedure is end plate fracture, which has the potential for nerve root compression. Here we present a case of end plate fracture and nerve compression after stand-alone lateral lumbar interbody fusion, its diagnosis, and its subsequent successful treatment with transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery. The case highlights the possible role for minimally invasive endoscopic surgery as a rescue procedure after fusion complication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subsidence following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF): a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Giang, Gloria; Maharaj, Monish M.; Phan, Steven; Mobbs, Ralph J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a widely used surgical technique for disorders of the lumbar spine. One potential complication is the subsidence of disc height in the post-operative period. Few studies have reported the rate of subsidence in ALIF surgery prospectively. We prospectively evaluated the rate of subsidence in adult patients undergoing ALIF. Methods Results were obtained by reviewing scans of 147 patients. Disc heights were measured on radiographic scans taken pre-operatively in addition to post-operatively immediately, at 6 weeks and at 18 months. The anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights were measured. Subsidence was defined as greater than or equal to 2 mm loss of height. Results A total of 15 patients (10.2%) had subsidence, with 7 being male. Each case was of delayed cage subsidence (DCS) >6 weeks postoperatively. The mean subsidence was 4.7 mm (range, 2.4–7.8). Mean anterior disc height was 8.6±0.4 mm preoperatively, which improved to 15.1±0.5 mm at latest follow-up. Mean posterior disc height was 4.7±0.2 mm preoperatively, which improved to 8.7±0.4 mm at latest follow-up. The mean lumbar lordosis (LL) angle was 42.5°±10.8° and the mean local disc angle (LDA) was 6.7°±4.0°. The 91.2% (n=114/125) of patients with appropriate radiological follow-up demonstrated fusion by latest follow-up. There was no correlation between subsidence rate with patient reported outcomes [Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form 12 Item survey (SF-12)] and fusion rates. There was a significant negative correlation between LL and extent of subsidence (Pearson correlation =−0.754, P=0.012). Conclusions In conclusion, we found that the subsidence rate at follow-up was generally low following standalone ALIF for this patient series. Patient clinical outcomes and bony fusion rates were not significantly influenced by subsidence. PMID:28744497

  1. Subsidence following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF): a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Prashanth J; Phan, Kevin; Giang, Gloria; Maharaj, Monish M; Phan, Steven; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2017-06-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a widely used surgical technique for disorders of the lumbar spine. One potential complication is the subsidence of disc height in the post-operative period. Few studies have reported the rate of subsidence in ALIF surgery prospectively. We prospectively evaluated the rate of subsidence in adult patients undergoing ALIF. Results were obtained by reviewing scans of 147 patients. Disc heights were measured on radiographic scans taken pre-operatively in addition to post-operatively immediately, at 6 weeks and at 18 months. The anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights were measured. Subsidence was defined as greater than or equal to 2 mm loss of height. A total of 15 patients (10.2%) had subsidence, with 7 being male. Each case was of delayed cage subsidence (DCS) >6 weeks postoperatively. The mean subsidence was 4.7 mm (range, 2.4-7.8). Mean anterior disc height was 8.6±0.4 mm preoperatively, which improved to 15.1±0.5 mm at latest follow-up. Mean posterior disc height was 4.7±0.2 mm preoperatively, which improved to 8.7±0.4 mm at latest follow-up. The mean lumbar lordosis (LL) angle was 42.5°±10.8° and the mean local disc angle (LDA) was 6.7°±4.0°. The 91.2% (n=114/125) of patients with appropriate radiological follow-up demonstrated fusion by latest follow-up. There was no correlation between subsidence rate with patient reported outcomes [Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form 12 Item survey (SF-12)] and fusion rates. There was a significant negative correlation between LL and extent of subsidence (Pearson correlation =-0.754, P=0.012). In conclusion, we found that the subsidence rate at follow-up was generally low following standalone ALIF for this patient series. Patient clinical outcomes and bony fusion rates were not significantly influenced by subsidence.

  2. Matched Comparison of Fusion Rates between Hydroxyapatite Demineralized Bone Matrix and Autograft in Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Nam; Shin, Dong Ah; Yi, Seong; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the fusion rate of a hydroxyapatite demineralized bone matrix (DBM) with post-laminectomy acquired autograft in lumbar interbody fusion surgery and to evaluate the correlation between fusion rate and clinical outcome. Methods From January 2013 to April 2014, 98 patients underwent lumbar interbody fusion surgery with hydroxyapatite DBM (HA-DBM group) in our institute. Of those patients, 65 received complete CT scans for 12 months postoperatively in order to evaluate fusion status. For comparison with autograft, we selected another 65 patients who underwent lumbar interbody fusion surgery with post-laminectomy acquired autograft (Autograft group) during the same period. Both fusion material groups were matched in terms of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the clinical outcomes, we analyzed the results of visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results We reviewed the CT scans of 149 fusion levels in 130 patients (HA-DBM group, 75 levels/65 patients; Autograft group, 74 levels/65 patients). Age, sex, BMI, and BMD were not significantly different between the groups (p=0.528, p=0.848, p=0.527, and p=0.610, respectively). The HA-DBM group showed 39 of 75 fused levels (52%), and the Autograft group showed 46 of 74 fused levels (62.2%). This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.21). In the HA-DBM group, older age and low BMD were significantly associated with non-fusion (61.24 vs. 66.68, p=0.027; -1.63 vs. -2.29, p=0.015, respectively). VAS and ODI showed significant improvement after surgery when fusion was successfully achieved in both groups (p=0.004, p=0.002, HA-DBM group; p=0.012, p=0.03, Autograft group). Conclusion The fusion rates of the hydroxyapatite DBM and Autograft groups were not significantly different. In addition, clinical outcomes were similar between the groups. However, older age and low BMD are risk factors that might

  3. Mini-Open Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Combined with Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Corrective Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Chung, Sung-Soo; Lee, Jun-Young; Yum, Tae-Hoon; Shin, Seong-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Purpose To introduce the techniques and present the surgical outcomes of mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) at the most caudal segments of the spine combined with lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) for the correction of adult spinal deformity Overview of Literature Although LLIF is increasingly used to correct adult spinal deformity, the correction of sagittal plane deformity with LLIF alone is reportedly suboptimal. Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients with adult spinal deformity underwent LLIF combined with mini-open ALIF at the L5–S1 or L4–S1 levels followed by 2-stage posterior fixation. ALIF was performed for a mean 1.3 levels and LLIF for a mean 2.7 levels. Then, percutaneous fixation was performed in 11 patients (percutaneous group), open correction with facetectomy with or without laminectomy in 16 (open group), and additional pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) in 5 (PSO group). Spinopelvic parameters were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Hospitalization data and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results No major medical complications developed, and clinical outcomes improved postoperatively in all groups. The mean postoperative segmental lordosis was greater after ALIF (17.5°±5.5°) than after LLIF (8.1°±5.3°, p <0.001). Four patients (12.5%) had lumbar lordosis with a pelvic incidence of ±9° preoperatively, whereas this outcome was achieved postoperatively in 30 patients (93.8%). The total increase in lumbar lordosis was 14.7° in the percutaneous group, 35.3° in the open group, and 57.0° in the PSO group. The ranges of potential lumbar lordosis increase were estimated as 4°–25°, 23°–42°, and 45°–65°, respectively. Conclusions Mini-open ALIF combined with LLIF followed by posterior fixation may be a feasible technique for achieving optimal sagittal balance and reducing the necessity of more extensive surgery. PMID:27994777

  4. Comparison of the Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization System and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Shan, Jian-Lin; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Li, Fang; Guan, Kai; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been few studies comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes between the Dynesys dynamic stabilization system and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Dynesys and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods Of 96 patients with lumbar degenerative disease included in this retrospectively analysis, 46 were treated with the Dynesys system and 50 underwent PLIF from July 2008 to March 2011. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. We also evaluated the occurrence of radiographic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Results The mean follow-up time in the Dynesys group was 53.6 ± 5.3 months, while that in the PLIF group was 55.2 ± 6.8 months. At the final follow-up, the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale score were significantly improved in both groups. The range of motion (ROM) of stabilized segments in Dynesys group decreased from 7.1 ± 2.2° to 4.9 ± 2.2° (P < 0.05), while that of in PLIF group decreased from 7.3 ± 2.3° to 0° (P < 0.05). The ROM of the upper segments increased significantly in both groups at the final follow-up, the ROM was higher in the PLIF group. There were significantly more radiographic ASDs in the PLIF group than in the Dynesys group. The incidence of complications was comparable between groups. Conclusions Both Dynesys and PLIF can improve the clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to PLIF, Dynesys stabilization partially preserves the ROM of the stabilized segments, limits hypermobility in the upper adjacent segment, and may prevent the occurrence of ASD. PMID:26824851

  5. Changes in bone mineral density in the intertransverse fusion mass after instrumented single-level lumbar fusion: a prospective 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hagenmaier, Femke; Kok, Dennis; Hol, Annemiek; Rijnders, Ton; Oner, F Cumhur; van Susante, Job L C

    2013-04-15

    Prospective cohort. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the intertransverse fusion mass as representative for the process of bone remodeling after spinal fusion. Intertransverse bone graft is frequently applied to facilitate bony fusion between 2 spinal levels. The biological process of bone graft remodeling leading to eventual fusion is, however, poorly understood. In 20 patients with a single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion for low-grade spondylolisthesis, radiographs, and clinical outcome scores (visual analogue scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-36) were obtained. Locally harvested laminectomy bone was used as intertransverse bone graft. The BMD in selected "regions of interest" at both intertransverse fusion areas was assessed on days 4 and 3, after a period of 6 and 12 months after surgery using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Eventual fusion status was assessed on computed tomographic scan at 12 months. All clinical outcome scores significantly improved at the final follow-up (P < 0.05). Baseline BMD in both paraspinal fusion areas was expressed as 100%, which significantly decreased from 81% to 75% and 77% to 70% at 3 and 6 months, for regions of interest 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). From 6 to 12 months, there was an increase in BMD from 90% to 80%, for regions of interest 1 and 2 (P = 0.296). On computed tomography scan a complete fusion was noticed in 70% of the patients. Repeated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was able to elucidate the biological process of bone graft remodeling in the intertransverse fusion mass. An active bone remodeling process was quantified with profound resorption or demineralization of the graft during the first 6 months, followed by subsequent bone apposition and restoration of BMD at the final follow-up. No difference in trend in BMD change between patients with and without fusion could be established; however, no firm

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Mini Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Ehab M.; Elmorsy, Haitham M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mini-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Mini-TLIF) and other minimally invasive approaches introduced for the purpose of treating lumbar degenerative disc disease and instability are achieving high success and safety rates as the conventional approaches. Moreover, it has less soft tissue damage, minimal blood loss, and less hospital stay. Methods A prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 on 28 patients who were subjected to Mini-open TLIF combined with transpedicular screw fixation for spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease. Two paramedian approaches were done, 4 cm for each, to insert the pedicular screws, along with inserting unilateral TLIF cage with autologous bone graft. Decompression was done either unilateral or bilateral according to the patient side of radiculopathy. Sixteen patients (57.2%) were diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 7 patients (25%) were diagnosed with isthmic type spondylolisthesis, and 5 patients (17.8%) were diagnosed with degenerative disc disease, 2 of them(7.1%) had previous operations at the same level. Twenty patients (71.4%) were operated at the L4/5 level, and 8 patients (28.6%) at the L5/S1 level. Results All patients were able to ambulate the next day of surgery. The mean estimated blood loss was 251.79mL. The average hospital stay was 4.14 days. The average follow-up was 9 months. The mean visual analog scale was 1.86 at discharge, 1.68 after 3 months, and 1.38 after 6 months. After 6 months of the operation, MacNab's criteria were good in 23 patients and excellent in 5 patients. We had one case with transient weakness, 2 cases of screw malposition without clinical manifestations, and one case of infection. Conclusion Mini-TLIF approach is an efficient and safe approach for treating instability and degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. The clinical outcome is encouraging and it may be an operation of choice for lumbar spinal fusion in selected patients. PMID:28127376

  7. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Discogenic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianqiang; Fang, Xiutong; Zhong, Weiye; Liu, Ning; Wood, Kirkham B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The treatment of degenerative discogenic pain is controversial, and anterior lumbar fusion for the treatment of degenerative discogenic low back pain has also been a controversial topic for over a generation. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the outcome of different anterior lumbar fusion levels for degenerative discogenic low back pain. In this study, we performed a clinical outcome subgroup analysis. The outcomes of 84 consecutive patients who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) results, and complication rate were recorded separately. Medical indications were degenerative disc disease (73.8%), postdiscectomy disc disease (16.1%), and disc herniation (9.5%). Patients with severe spondylolysis or disc degeneration, with more than 3 or multilevel lesions, were excluded. The mean operative time was 124.5 ± 10.9 min (range 51–248 min), the mean intraoperative blood loss was 242.1 ± 27.7 mL (range 50–2700 mL), the mean hospital stay was 3.9 ± 1.1 days (range 3–6 days), the mean preoperative VAS score was 7.5 ± 1.4, and the mean preoperative ODI score was 60.0 ± 5.7. At the 1-year follow-up, the mean postoperative VAS score was 3.3 ± 1.3 and the mean postoperative ODI score was 13.6 ± 3.4 (P < 0.05). L4–L5 disc fusion led to better clinical results than 2-level L4–L5/L5–S1 disc fusion. Additionally, the 2-level fusion of L4–L5/L5–S1 had better clinical results than the L5–S1 disc fusion at both the 1 and 2-year postoperative follow-ups regarding the VAS score and the ODI score. The rate of complications was more frequent in the 2-level L4–L5/L5–S1 group (27.3%) (group C) than in the L4–L5 group (9.1%) (group A) and the L5–S1 group (12.5%) (group B). There was no difference between the L4–L5 group (9.1%) and the L

  8. A cell attracting composite of lumbar fusion cage.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Busra; Hasirci, Nesrin; Hasirci, Vasif

    2017-06-01

    Lumbar fusion cages are devices used in spinal fusion procedures for disorders such as spondylosis and degenerative disc diseases that may occur due to age, trauma or genetic reasons. These devices are most frequently made of metals and polymers. The mechanical properties of such devices should be comparable to the bone to avoid stress shielding. Besides, cages should interact with the cells to prevent extrusion and achieve satisfactory fusion. In this study, poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) were compounded to create products with HAp contents up to 40% (w/w), processed by hot melt extrusion and injection molded to produce composites with maximum polymer-mineral interaction. The morphology, interaction with the plates and rate of proliferation of human osteoblast-like (HOB) cells were studied in vitro. We learned that cells interact more with HAp when the HAp content is higher than 20%. Tensile and compressive properties of PMMA were significantly increased with increasing HAp content; from an elastic modulus (E) of 2.08 to 3.92 GPa in tension, and from 349 to 562 MPa in compression. High HAp content of the samples increased the roughness from 0.69 μm for pure PMMA to 1.35 μm for 40% (w/w) HAp loaded PMMA, increased cell proliferation and as a result the cells presented filopodia indicating a satisfactory level of interaction with the cage surface. Based on mechanical and in vitro studies, a HAp content of around 30% (w/w) was found to be appropriate for good cell adhesion and satisfactory mechanical properties for use in the construction of a fusion cage. It was concluded that when PMMA and HAp were compounded at an optimal value, a cage material with adequate mechanical properties and increased cell attachment can be obtained for use in spinal fusion applications.

  9. Hospital competitive intensity and perioperative outcomes following lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Durand, Wesley M; Johnson, Joseph R; Li, Neill Y; Yang, JaeWon; Eltorai, Adam E M; DePasse, J Mason; Daniels, Alan H

    2017-09-04

    Inter-hospital competition has been shown to influence adoption of surgical techniques and approaches, clinical patient outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization for select surgical procedures. However, little is known regarding these dynamics as they relate to spine surgery. This investigation sought to examine the relationship between inter-hospital competitive intensity and perioperative outcomes following lumbar spinal fusion. This study utilized the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) dataset, years 2003, 2006, and 2009. Patients were included based on the presence of International Classification of Disease, 9(th) Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes corresponding to lumbar spinal fusion, as well as on the presence of data on the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). Perioperative complications, defined using an ICD-9-CM coding algorithm. The HHI, a validated measure of competition within a market, was utilized to assess hospital market competitiveness. HHI was calculated based on hospital cachement area. Multiple regression was performed to adjust for confounding variables including: patient age, sex, primary payer, severity of illness score, primary vs. revision fusion, anterior vs. posterior approach, national region, hospital bed size, location/teaching status, ownership, and year. Perioperative clinical outcomes were assessed based on ICD-9-CM codes with modifications. In total, 417,520 weighted patients (87,999 unweighted records) were analyzed. The mean cachement area HHI was 0.31 (range 0.099 - 0.724). The average patient age was 55.4 years (SE = 0.194), and the majority of patients were female (55.8%, n=232,727). The majority of procedures were primary spinal fusions (92.7%, n=386,998), and fusions with posterior-only technique (81.5%, n=340,271). Most procedures occurred in the South (42.5%, n=177,509) or Midwest (27.0%, n=112,758) regions. In multiple regression analysis, increased hospital competitive intensity was associated with

  10. Analysis of Internet Information on Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Belayneh, Rebekah; Mesfin, Addisu

    2016-07-01

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a surgical technique that is being increasingly used. The authors' objective was to examine information on the Internet pertaining to the LLIF technique. An analysis was conducted of publicly accessible websites pertaining to LLIF. The following search engines were used: Google (www.google.com), Bing (www.bing.com), and Yahoo (www.yahoo.com). DuckDuckGo (www.duckduckgo.com) was an additional search engine used due to its emphasis on generating accurate and consistent results while protecting searchers' privacy and reducing advertisements. The top 35 websites providing information on LLIF from the 4 search engines were identified. A total of 140 websites were evaluated. Each web-site was categorized based on authorship (academic, private, medical industry, insurance company, other) and content of information. Using the search term lateral lumbar interbody fusion, 174,000 Google results, 112,000 Yahoo results, and 112,000 Bing results were obtained. DuckDuckGo does not display the number of results found for a search. From the top 140 websites collected from each website, 78 unique websites were identified. Websites were authored by a private medical group in 46.2% of the cases, an academic medical group in 26.9% of the cases, and the biomedical industry in 5.1% of the cases. Sixty-eight percent of websites reported indications, and 24.4% reported contraindications. Benefits of LLIF were reported by 69.2% of websites. Thirty-six percent of websites reported complications of LLIF. Overall, the quality of information regarding LLIF on the Internet is poor. Spine surgeons and spine societies can assist in improving the quality of the information on the Internet regarding LLIF. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e701-e707.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Dissection of left iliac artery during anterior lumbar interspace fusion: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Uwe M; Davies, Mark G; El Sayed, Hosam

    2015-04-01

    Vascular injury is an uncommon complication of spine surgery. Among the different approaches, anterior lumbar interbody fusion has increased potential for vascular injuries, since the great vessels and their branches overly the disc spaces to be operated on, and retraction of these vessels is necessary to gain adequate surgical exposure. The reported incidence for anterior lumbar interbody fusion-associated vascular injuries ranges from 0% to 18.1%, with venous laceration as the most common type. We report a case of anterior lumbar interbody fusion-associated left common iliac artery dissection leading to delayed acute limb ischemia developing in early post-operative period.

  12. Minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Villavicencio, Alan T.; Roeca, Cassandra M.; Nelson, E. Lee; Mason, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Background Available clinical data are insufficient for comparing minimally invasive (MI) and open approaches for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). To date, a paucity of literature exists directly comparing minimally invasive (MI) and open approaches for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The purpose of this study was to directly compare safety and effectiveness for these two surgical approaches. Materials and Methods Open or minimally invasive TLIF was performed in 63 and 76 patients, respectively. All consecutive minimally invasive TLIF cases were matched with a comparable cohort of open TLIF cases using three variables: diagnosis, number of spinal levels, and history of previous lumbar surgery. Patients were treated for painful degenerative disc disease with or without disc herniation, spondylolisthesis, and/or stenosis at one or two spinal levels. Clinical outcome (self-report measures, e.g., visual analog scale (VAS), patient satisfaction, and MacNab's criteria), operative data (operative time, estimated blood loss), length of hospitalization, and complications were assessed. Average follow-up for patients was 37.5 months. Results: The mean change in VAS scores postoperatively was greater (5.2 vs. 4.1) in theopen TLIF patient group (P = 0.3). MacNab's criteria score was excellent/good in 67% and 70% (P = 0.8) of patients in open and minimally invasive TLIF groups, respectively. The overall patient satisfaction was 72.1% and 64.5% (P = 0.4) in open and minimally invasive TLIF groups, respectively. The total mean operative time was 214.9 min for open and 222.5 min for minimally invasive TLIF procedures (P = 0.5). The mean estimated blood loss for minimally invasive TLIF (163.0 ml) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than the open approach (366.8 ml). The mean duration of hospitalization in the minimally invasive TLIF (3 days) was significantly shorter (P = 0.02) than the open group (4.2 days). The total rate of neurological deficit was

  13. Modified Mini-open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Pakzaban, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To describe a modified technique for mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) that improves visualization for decompression, fusion, and freehand pedicle screw insertion. Accuracy of freehand pedicle screw placement with this technique was assessed. Summary of Background Data. Mini-open TLIF is a minimally invasive technique that allows limited visualization of the bone and neural anatomy via an expandable tubular retractor inserted through the Wiltse plane. No significant modification that of this technique has been described in detail. Methods. In this study, 92 consecutive patients underwent one-level modified mini-open TLIF (MOTLIF). MOTLIF modifications consisted of (i) transmuscular dissection through the multifidus muscle rather than intermuscular dissection in the Wiltse plane; (ii) microsurgical detachment of multifidus from the facet rather than muscle dilation; (iii) en bloc total facetectomy (unilateral or bilateral, as needed for decompression); (iv) facet autograft used for interbody fusion; and (v) solid pedicle screws placed bilaterally by a freehand technique under direct vision. Results. The mean age was 53 years. Mean follow-up was 35 months (minimum 2 yrs). By 6 months, mean Visual Analog Scale for back and leg pain had improved from 51 to 19 and from 58 to 17, respectively, and mean Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) improved from 53 to 16. These improvements persisted at 2 years. Solid fusion, defined by computed tomography at 1 year, was achieved in 88.1%, whereas satisfactory fusion was achieved in 95.2% of patients. Pedicle screws were accurately placed in 335 of 336 imaged pedicles (pedicle breach grades: 91.1% grade 1; 8.6% grade 2; and 0.3% grade 3). Mean fluoroscopy time was 29.3 seconds. Conclusion. MOTLIF is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique with a high fusion rate. It allows accurate pedicle screw placement by a freehand technique. By eliminating bi

  14. Minimally-invasive technique for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF).

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Burak M; Yoo, Kevin; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Taylor, William R

    2005-11-01

    Minimal access surgical techniques have been described for diskectomy and laminectomy procedures performed through tubular exposures. Tubular exposures, however, restrain visibility to a fixed diameter and require co-axial instrument manipulation. An independent blade retractor system has been developed to overcome the obstacles of working through a tube. Decompression and circumferential fusion can be accomplished through this minimal access exposure via a combination of laminectomy and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) coupled with minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation. Herein, we describe a minimally-invasive technique for TLIF exposure. Illustrations, intraoperative photographs, and fluoroscopic images supplement this technique. We found that the described minimally-invasive system provides comparable exposure to the traditional-open techniques with the benefits of minimally-invasive techniques. Additionally, it does not have the added constraints of a tubular system. We were able to perform TLIFs without any additional complications. Minimal access decompression and TLIF can be performed safely and effectively using this minimally-invasive system. Besides the retractor system, no additional specialized instruments are required. An operative microscope is not required, in fact, all our cases were performed using operative loupes. The light attachment provides superb visbility without the discomfort of having to wear a headlight. Thus far we have found no added risks or complications using this system. We are currently working on long-term analysis and follow-up to further evaluate this system's efficacy.

  15. Comparative charge analysis of one- and two-level lumbar total disc arthroplasty versus circumferential lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Levin, David A; Bendo, John A; Quirno, Martin; Errico, Thomas; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Spivak, Jeffrey

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective, independent study comparing 2 groups of patients treated surgically for discogenic low back pain associated with degenerative disc disease (DDD) in the lumbosacral spine. To compare the surgical and hospitalization charges associated with 1- and 2-level lumbar total disc replacement and circumferential lumbar fusion. Reported series of lumbar total disc replacement have been favorable. However, economic aspects of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) have not been published or studied. This information is important considering the recent widespread utilization of new technologies. Recent studies have demonstrated comparable short-term clinical results between TDR and lumbar fusion recipients. Relative charges may be another important indicator of the most appropriate procedure. We report a hospital charge-analysis comparing ProDisc lumbar disc replacement with circumferential fusion for discogenic low back pain. In a cohort of 53 prospectively selected patients with severe, disabling back pain and lumbar disc degeneration, 36 received Synthes ProDisc TDR and 17 underwent circumferential fusion for 1- and 2-level degenerative disc disease between L3 and S1. Randomization was performed using a 2-to-1 ratio of ProDisc recipients to control spinal fusion recipients. Charge comparisons, including operating room charges, inpatient hospital charges, and implant charges, were made from hospital records using inflation-corrected 2006 U.S. dollars. Operating room times, estimated blood loss, and length of stay were obtained from hospital records as well. Surgeon and anesthesiologist fees were, for the purposes of comparison, based on Medicare reimbursement rates. Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-tailed Student t test. For patients with 1-level disease, significant differences were noted between the TDR and fusion control group. The mean total charge for the TDR group was $35,592 versus $46,280 for the fusion group (P = 0.0018). Operating

  16. Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Does Not Impact Fusion Rates in a Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2–Dependent Rat Posterolateral Arthrodesis Model

    PubMed Central

    Ghodasra, Jason H.; Nickoli, Michael S.; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; Nelson, John T.; Mendoza, Marco; Nicolas, Joseph D.; Bellary, Sharath S.; Sonn, Kevin; Ashtekar, Amruta; Park, Christian J.; Babu, Jacob; Yun, Chawon; Ghosh, Anjan; Kannan, Abhishek; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Randomized, controlled animal study. Objective Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is frequently utilized as a bone graft substitute in spinal fusions to overcome the difficult healing environment in patients with osteoporosis. However, the effects of estrogen deficiency and poor bone quality on rhBMP-2 efficacy are unknown. This study sought to determine whether rhBMP-2-induced healing is affected by estrogen deficiency and poor bone quality in a stringent osteoporotic posterolateral spinal fusion model. Methods Aged female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent an ovariectomy (OVX group) or a sham procedure, and the OVX animals were fed a low-calcium, low-phytoestrogen diet. After 12 weeks, the animals underwent a posterolateral spinal fusion with 1 μg rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge. Representative animals were sacrificed at 1 week postoperative for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin serum analyses. The remaining animals underwent radiographs 2 and 4 weeks after surgery and were subsequently euthanized for fusion analysis by manual palpation, micro–computed tomography (CT) imaging, and histologic analysis. Results The ALP and osteocalcin levels were similar between the control and OVX groups. Manual palpation revealed no significant differences in the fusion scores between the control (1.42 ± 0.50) and OVX groups (1.83 ± 0.36; p = 0.07). Fusion rates were 100% in both groups. Micro-CT imaging revealed no significant difference in the quantity of new bone formation, and histologic analysis demonstrated bridging bone across the transverse processes in fused animals from both groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates that estrogen deficiency and compromised bone quality do not negatively influence spinal fusion when utilizing rhBMP-2, and the osteoinductive capacity of the growth factor is not functionally reduced under osteoporotic conditions in the rat. Although osteoporosis is a risk factor

  17. Lymphocele formation after anterior lumbar interbody fusion at L4-5. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pee, Yong Hun; Kim, Ki Joon; Choi, Young-Geun; Jeon, Sang Hyeop; Park, Jong Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2007-11-01

    In this report, the authors present the case of patient with a lymphocele in the retroperitoneal area following anterior lumbar interbody fusion at L4-5. A lymphocele is a rare complication of spinal operations, especially lower lumbar spinal surgeries. The authors discuss this complicating factor and describe its features and treatments.

  18. Particular Features of Surgical Site Infection in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Go We

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous reports have observed differences only in infection rates between posterolateral fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). There have been no reports that describe the particular features of surgical site infection (SSI) in PLIF. In this study, we endeavor to identify the distinguishing characteristics and risk factors of SSI in PLIF. Methods Our study undertook a review of a case series of an institute. Patients who had undergone PLIF consecutively in the author's hospital were reviewed. Two proactive procedures were introduced during the study period. One was irrigation of the autolocal bone, and the other was the intradiscal space irrigation with a nozzle. Infection rate and risk factors were analyzed. For subgroup analysis, the elapsed time to a diagnosis (ETD), clinical manifestations, hematologic findings, and causative bacteria were examined in patients with SSI. Results In a total of 1,831 cases, there were 30 cases of SSI (1.6%). Long operation time was an independent risk factor (p = 0.008), and local bone irrigation was an independent protective factor (p = 0.001). Two cases of referred SSI were included in the subgroup analysis. There were 6/32 (19%) superficial incisional infections (SII), 6/32 (19%) deep incisional infections (DII), and 20/32 (62%) organ/space infections (O/SI). The difference of incidence among three groups was significant (p = 0.002).The most common bacteria encountered were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis followed by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in incisional infections, and no growth followed by S. epidermidis in O/SI. ETD was 8.5 ± 2.3 days in SII, 8.7 ± 2.3 days in DII and 164.5 ± 131.1 days in O/SI (p = 0.013). Conclusions The rate of SSI in PLIF was 1.6%, with the most common type being O/SI. The causative bacteria of O/SI was of lower virulence than in the incisional infection, and thus diagnosis was delayed due to its latent and insidious feature. Contamination of auto

  19. The impact of preoperative epidural injections on postoperative infection in lumbar fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anuj; Yang, Scott; Werner, Brian C; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Shimer, Adam L; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Shen, Francis H

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Lumbar epidural steroid injections (LESIs) are performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes for a variety of indications, including low-back pain, the leading cause of disability and expense due to work-related conditions in the US. The steroid agent used in epidural injections is reported to relieve nerve root inflammation, local ischemia, and resultant pain, but the injection may also have an adverse impact on spinal surgery performed thereafter. In particular, the possibility that preoperative epidural injections may increase the risk of surgical site infection after lumbar spinal fusion has been reported but has not been studied in detail. The goal of the present study was to use a large national insurance database to analyze the association of preoperative LESIs with surgical site infection after lumbar spinal fusion. METHODS A nationwide insurance database of patient records was used for this retrospective analysis. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to query the database for patients who had undergone LESI and 1- or 2-level lumbar posterior spinal fusion procedures. The rate of postoperative infection after 1- or 2-level posterior spinal fusion was analyzed. These study patients were then divided into 3 separate cohorts: 1) lumbar spinal fusion performed within 1 month after LESI, 2) fusion performed between 1 and 3 months after LESI, and 3) fusion performed between 3 and 6 months after LESI. The study patients were compared with a control cohort of patients who underwent lumbar fusion without previous LESI. RESULTS The overall 3-month infection rate after lumbar spinal fusion procedure was 1.6% (1411 of 88,540 patients). The infection risk increased in patients who received LESI within 1 month (OR 2.6, p < 0.0001) or 1-3 months (OR 1.4, p = 0.0002) prior to surgery compared with controls. The infection risk was not significantly different from controls in patients who underwent lumbar fusion more than 3 months after LESI

  20. PEEK Cages in Lumbar Fusion: Mid-term Clinical Outcome and Radiologic Fusion.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Janneke J P; Poeschmann, Marcel S; Horsting, Philip P; Schönfeld, Dirk H W; van Limbeek, Jacques; Pavlov, Paul W

    2016-06-01

    Historical cohort analysis. Evaluation of mid-term clinical outcome and radiologic fusion in patients treated with a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion can be a good alternative in chronic low back pain when conservative treatment fails. Although titanium alloy cages give good fusion rates, disadvantages are the subsidence of the cage in the adjacent vertebrae and problematic radiologic evaluation of fusion. PEEK cages such as the Synfix-LR cage (Synthes, Switzerland) should overcome this. From December 2004 until August 2007, 95 patients (21 double-level and 74 single-level) with degenerative disk disease from L3-S1 were operated by a single surgeon. The number of reoperations was counted. Radiologic fusion on computed tomography scan was scored with a new scoring system by an independent skeletal radiologist and orthopedic surgeon. Intraobserver agreement and specificity were assessed. Clinical improvement was measured by the Oswestry Disability Index score. The median duration of clinical follow-up was 47.7 months (range 29.9-61.6). In total, 26 patients were reoperated after a median period of 17.6 months (range 6.7-46.9) of the initial surgery. Of the 26 patients, 23 patients (18 single-level and 5 double-level) were reoperated for symptomatic pseudarthrosis. A moderate agreement (κ=0.36) and a specificity of 70% and 37% for the radiologist and orthopedic surgeon, respectively, were found for scoring bony bridging. The Oswestry Disability Index score improved after initial surgery; however, reoperated patients reported a significantly lower improvement. A high number of reoperations after an anterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure with the Synfix-LR cage were found, mainly because of symptomatic pseudarthrosis. The absence of posterior fixation in combination with lower stiffness and the hydrophobic characteristics of PEEK probably lead to insufficient initial stability, creating suboptimal conditions for bony bridging, and

  1. Work intensity in sacroiliac joint fusion and lumbar microdiscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Clay; Kondrashov, Dimitriy; Meyer, S Craig; Dix, Gary; Lorio, Morgan; Kovalsky, Don; Cher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence base supporting minimally invasive sacroiliac (SI) joint fusion (SIJF) surgery is increasing. The work relative value units (RVUs) associated with minimally invasive SIJF are seemingly low. To date, only one published study describes the relative work intensity associated with minimally invasive SIJF. No study has compared work intensity vs other commonly performed spine surgery procedures. Methods Charts of 192 patients at five sites who underwent either minimally invasive SIJF (American Medical Association [AMA] CPT® code 27279) or lumbar microdiscectomy (AMA CPT® code 63030) were reviewed. Abstracted were preoperative times associated with diagnosis and patient care, intraoperative parameters including operating room (OR) in/out times and procedure start/stop times, and postoperative care requirements. Additionally, using a visual analog scale, surgeons estimated the intensity of intraoperative care, including mental, temporal, and physical demands and effort and frustration. Work was defined as operative time multiplied by task intensity. Results Patients who underwent minimally invasive SIJF were more likely female. Mean procedure times were lower in SIJF by about 27.8 minutes (P<0.0001) and mean total OR times were lower by 27.9 minutes (P<0.0001), but there was substantial overlap across procedures. Mean preservice and post-service total labor times were longer in minimally invasive SIJF (preservice times longer by 63.5 minutes [P<0.0001] and post-service labor times longer by 20.2 minutes [P<0.0001]). The number of postoperative visits was higher in minimally invasive SIJF. Mean total service time (preoperative + OR time + postoperative) was higher in the minimally invasive SIJF group (261.5 vs 211.9 minutes, P<0.0001). Intraoperative intensity levels were higher for mental, physical, effort, and frustration domains (P<0.0001 each). After taking into account intensity, intraoperative workloads showed substantial overlap. Conclusion

  2. A Change in Lumbar Sagittal Alignment After Single-level Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis With Normal Sagittal Balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Sung Bae; Yang, Seung Heon; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2017-08-01

    Retrospective analysis. The object is to assess the correlation between whole lumbar lordosis (LL) and the segmental angle (SA) after single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. The restoration of the SA at lower lumbar spine is meaningful, considering it contributes approximately 60% of LL, and revision surgery due to flat back or adjacent segment pathology was necessary decades after the initial surgery. However, little is known about the change of whole lumbar curvature after single-level lower lumbar fusion surgery, especially for balanced spine. We included 41 consecutive patients (M:F=9:32; mean age, 59.8±9.3 y) with a single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery for low-grade degenerative spinal spondylolisthesis, with C7 plumb line of <5 cm and ≥2-year follow-up period. The operated levels were L4-L5 in 34 patients and L5-S1 in 7 patients. Whole LL, SA, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope were compared. According to the Macnab criteria, a favorable outcome (excellent, 21; good, 15) was achieved in 36/41 (88%; excellent, 21; good, 15) patients. LL and SA were significantly changed from -50.8±9.9 to -54.6±11.1 degrees and -15.6±6.1 to -18.7±5.1 degrees (P<0.01), and a positive correlation (r=0.43, P=0.01) was observed between LL and SA at postoperative month 24. The changes to the pelvic tilt and sacral slope were not significant. Whole lumbar sagittal alignment was influenced by single SA. Therefore, obtaining adequate segmental lordosis is desirable considering the effect on the whole spine for a long time.

  3. Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2015-03-01

    A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20 years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature.

  4. Effect of steerable cage placement during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion on lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Timothy E; Viljoen, Stephanus V; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2014-03-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) is commonly used for the treatment of a variety of degenerative spine disorders. Recently, steerable interbody cages have been developed which potentially allow for greater restoration of lumbar lordosis. Here we describe a technique and radiographic results following minimally invasive placement of steerable cages through a bilateral approach. A retrospective review was conducted of the charts and radiographs of 15 consecutive patients who underwent 19 levels of bilateral MIS-TLIF with the placement of steerable cages. These were compared to 10 patients who underwent 16 levels of unilateral MIS-TLIF with the placement of bullet cages. The average age, body mass index, distribution of the levels operated and follow-up were similar in both groups. The average height of the steerable cage placed was 10.9 mm compared to 8.5mm for bullet cages. The preoperative focal Cobb's angle per level was similar between both groups with a mean of -5.3 degrees for the steerable cage group and -4.8 degrees for the bullet cage group. There was a significant improvement in postoperative Cobb's angle after placement of a steerable cage with a mean of -13.7 (p<0.01) and this persisted at the last follow-up with -13 degrees (p<0.01). There was no significant change in Cobb's angle after bullet cage placement with -5.7 degrees postoperatively and a return to the baseline preoperative Cobb's angle of -4.8 at the last follow-up. Steerable cage placement for MIS-TLIF improves focal lordosis compared to bullet cage placement.

  5. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion for the management of spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Devkota, P; Shrestha, S K; Krishnakumar, R; Renjithkumar, J

    2011-03-01

    The ideal surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis still remains controversial. There are several methods of treatment and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is one of them. We analyze the results of spondylolisthesis treated by PLIF in term of radiological union, improvement of pre-operative symptoms like back pain, radiating pain and return to normal activities including that of employment, by the review of the medical records. Total of 72 patients, 20 male and 52 female and the age ranges from 15 to 68 years with the mean age being 44.38 years were included in the study. Thirty (41.66%) patients had isthmic spondylolisthesis, 26 (36.12%) had congenital spondylolisthesis, and 16 (22.22%) cases had degenerative spondylolisthesis. There were 38 (52.77%) cases of grade I, 14 (19.44%) cases of grade II and 20 (27.77%) cases of grade III according to the grading criteria of Meyerding. According to the evaluation criteria used by Stauffer and Coventry, 59 patients (81.94%) got good results, eight patients (11.11%) belonged to the fair group and five cases (6.94%) had the poor results. This study showed that PLIF is one of the effective and reliable techniques for the management of spondylolisthesis.

  6. Neutral spine control exercises in rehabilitation after lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Tarnanen, Sami P; Neva, Marko H; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kankaanpää, Markku; Ylinen, Jari; Kraemer, William J; Newton, Robert U; Häkkinen, Arja

    2014-07-01

    Lumbar spine fusion (LSF) has been reported to change the biomechanics of the spine and therefore the rehabilitation after LSF is important. In this study, the effect of selected neutral spine control exercises on activation of trunk muscles after LSF was evaluated. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, longissimus, and multifidus muscles during 6 exercises in 22 LSF patients (mean age = 59 years; age range = 25-84 years; 50% women). Muscle activity concurrent with trunk flexion and extension during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used as a reference value. Pain during the effort was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). The highest activity in the rectus abdominis muscles was measured during bilateral shoulder extension (51% of MVIC), and in the external oblique, it occurred during unilateral shoulder horizontal adduction (48% of MVIC) and unilateral hip extension (46% of MVIC) exercises. The highest activation of the multifidus and longissimus muscles (60-104%) was measured during bilateral shoulder flexion and modified Roman chair exercises. The mean (SD) self-reported back pain VAS scores during exercises varied from 3 (7) to 16 (26). Neutral spine control exercises activate trunk muscles and cause minimal pain and are therefore feasible exercises for home-based training to improve muscle endurance and postural control after LSF. In addition, the level of muscle activity during bilateral shoulder flexion and modified Roman chair exercises was over 60% of MVIC, justifying their use in training for strength of the trunk extensor muscles.

  7. Radiographic results of single level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in degenerative lumbar spine disease: focusing on changes of segmental lordosis in fusion segment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Bum; Jeon, Taek-Soo; Heo, Youn-Moo; Lee, Woo-Suk; Yi, Jin-Woong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Hwang, Cheol-Mog

    2009-12-01

    To assess the radiographic results in patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), particularly the changes in segmental lordosis in the fusion segment, whole lumbar lordosis and disc height. Twenty six cases of single-level TLIF in degenerative lumbar diseases were analyzed. The changes in segmental lordosis, whole lumbar lordosis, and disc height were evaluated before surgery, after surgery and at the final follow-up. The segmental lordosis increased significantly after surgery but decreased at the final follow-up. Compared to the preoperative values, the segmental lordosis did not change significantly at the final follow-up. Whole lumbar lordosis at the final follow-up was significantly higher than the preoperative values. The disc height was significantly higher in after surgery than before surgery (p = 0.000) and the disc height alter surgery and at the final follow-up was similar. When performing TLIF, careful surgical techniques and attention are needed to restore and maintain the segmental lordosis at the fusion level.

  8. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Ossification of the Yellow Ligament in the Lumbar Spine: First Reported Case

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tetsuya; Funayama, Toru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Keita; Miura, Kousei; Nagashima, Katsuya; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    When ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) occurs in the lumbar spine and extends to the lateral wall of the spinal canal, facetectomy is required to remove all of the ossified lesion and achieve decompression. Subsequent posterior fixation with interbody fusion will then be necessary to prevent postoperative progression of the ossification and intervertebral instability. The technique of lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) has recently been introduced. Using this procedure, surgeons can avoid excess blood loss from the extradural venous plexus and detachment of the ossified lesion and the ventral dura mater is avoidable. We present a 55-year-old male patient with OYL at L3/4 and anterior spondylolisthesis of L4 vertebra, with concomitant ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, who presented with a severe gait disturbance. He underwent a 2-stage operation without complications: LLIF for L3/4 and L4/5 was performed at the initial surgery, and posterior decompression fixation using pedicle screws from L3 to L5 was performed at the second surgery. His postoperative progress was favorable, and his interbody fusion was deemed successful. Here, we present the first reported case of LLIF for OYL of the lumbar spine. This procedure can be a good option for OYL of the lumbar spine. PMID:28352485

  9. Lumbar interbody fusion: techniques, indications and comparison of interbody fusion options including PLIF, TLIF, MI-TLIF, OLIF/ATP, LLIF and ALIF

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Malham, Greg; Seex, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine is common in the ageing population, and is one of the most frequent causes of disability. Lumbar spondylosis may result in mechanical back pain, radicular and claudicant symptoms, reduced mobility and poor quality of life. Surgical interbody fusion of degenerative levels is an effective treatment option to stabilize the painful motion segment, and may provide indirect decompression of the neural elements, restore lordosis and correct deformity. The surgical options for interbody fusion of the lumbar spine include: posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF), oblique lumbar interbody fusion/anterior to psoas (OLIF/ATP), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The indications may include: discogenic/facetogenic low back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy due to foraminal stenosis, lumbar degenerative spinal deformity including symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis. In general, traditional posterior approaches are frequently used with acceptable fusion rates and low complication rates, however they are limited by thecal sac and nerve root retraction, along with iatrogenic injury to the paraspinal musculature and disruption of the posterior tension band. Minimally invasive (MIS) posterior approaches have evolved in an attempt to reduce approach related complications. Anterior approaches avoid the spinal canal, cauda equina and nerve roots, however have issues with approach related abdominal and vascular complications. In addition, lateral and OLIF techniques have potential risks to the lumbar plexus and psoas muscle. The present study aims firstly to comprehensively review the available literature and evidence for different lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) techniques. Secondly, we propose a set of recommendations and guidelines

  10. Adjacent Disc Stress Following Floating Lumbar Spine Fusion: A Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Gunti Ranga; Kumar, Malhar N; Deb, Anindya

    2017-08-01

    Experimental study. The study aimed to develop a finite element (FE) model to determine the stress on the discs adjacent to the fused segment following different types of floating lumbar spinal fusions. The quantification of the adjacent disc stress following different types of floating lumbar fusions has not been reported. The magnitude of the stress on the discs above and below the floating fusion remains unknown. A computer-aided engineering-based approach using implicit FE analysis was employed to assess the stress on the lumbar discs above and below the floating fusion segment (L4-L5) following anterior and posterior lumbar spine fusions at one, two, and three levels (with and without instrumentation). Both discs suprajacent and infrajacent to the floating fusion experienced increased stress, but the suprajacent disc experienced relatively high stress level. Instrumentation increased the stress on the discs suprajacent and infrajacent to the floating fusion, but the magnitude of stress on the suprajacent disc remained relatively high. The FE model was employed under similar loading and boundary conditions to provide quantitative data, which will be useful for clinicians to understand the probable long-term effects of floating fusions.

  11. Adjacent Disc Stress Following Floating Lumbar Spine Fusion: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Gunti Ranga; Deb, Anindya

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Experimental study. Purpose The study aimed to develop a finite element (FE) model to determine the stress on the discs adjacent to the fused segment following different types of floating lumbar spinal fusions. Overview of Literature The quantification of the adjacent disc stress following different types of floating lumbar fusions has not been reported. The magnitude of the stress on the discs above and below the floating fusion remains unknown. Methods A computer-aided engineering-based approach using implicit FE analysis was employed to assess the stress on the lumbar discs above and below the floating fusion segment (L4–L5) following anterior and posterior lumbar spine fusions at one, two, and three levels (with and without instrumentation). Results Both discs suprajacent and infrajacent to the floating fusion experienced increased stress, but the suprajacent disc experienced relatively high stress level. Instrumentation increased the stress on the discs suprajacent and infrajacent to the floating fusion, but the magnitude of stress on the suprajacent disc remained relatively high. Conclusions The FE model was employed under similar loading and boundary conditions to provide quantitative data, which will be useful for clinicians to understand the probable long-term effects of floating fusions. PMID:28874971

  12. Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Xu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhang, Bi; Lin, Qiuyan; He, Mingchang

    2013-08-01

    Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases has won the support of many surgeons. However, few data are available regarding clinical research on unilateral pedicle screw fixation associated with minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of lumbar spinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes in a selected series of patients with lumbar degenerative diseases treated with minimally invasive unilateral vs classic bilateral pedicle screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion. Patients in the unilateral group (n=43) underwent minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation with the Quadrant system (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee). The bilateral group (n=42) underwent bilateral instrumentation via the classic approach. Visual analog scale pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index scores, fusion rate, operative time, blood loss, and complications were analyzed. Mean operative time was 75 minutes in the unilateral group and 95 minutes in the bilateral group. Mean blood loss was 220 mL in the unilateral group and 450 mL in the bilateral group. Mean postoperative visual analog scale pain score was 3.10±0.16 in the unilateral group and 3.30±1.10 in the bilateral group. Mean postoperative Oswestry Disability Index score was 15.67±2.3 in the unilateral group and 14.93±2.6 in the bilateral group. Successful fusion was achieved in 92.34% of patients in the unilateral group and 93.56% of patients in the bilateral group. Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation is an effective and reliable option for the surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. It causes less blood loss, requires less operative time, and has a fusion rate comparable with that of conventional bilateral fixation. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. [Early clinical effect of intervertebral fusion of lumbar degenerative disease using nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 intervertebral fusion cage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; An, Hong; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Li, Kaiting

    2014-10-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the early clinical effects of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 intervertebral fusion cage (n-HA/PA66 cage) for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. We selected 27 patients with lumbar degenerative diseases who were managed by posterior decompression or reset operation combined with n-HA/PA66 cage intervertebral fusion and internal fixation from August 2010 to January 2012. The oswestry disability index (ODI), low back and leg pain visual analogue score (VAS), and intervertebral height (IH) were evaluated at preoperation, 1 week postoperation and the last follow-up period, respectively. Intervertebral bony fusion was evaluated at the last follow-up time. The patients were followed up for 12-24 months (averaged 19 months). The ODI, VAS and IH were significantly improved at 1 week postoperation and the last follow-up time compared with those at preoperative period (P < 0.05). But there was no significant difference between 1 week postoperative and the last follow-up time (P < 0.05). Brantigan's standard was used to evaluate fusion at the last follow-up time. There were 19 patients with grade 5 fusion, 8 with grade 4 fusion, with a fusion rate of 100%, and none with grade 1-3 fusions. There was no cage translocation and internal fixation breakage. These results suggested that n-HA/PA66 cage was an ideal biological material in the posterior lumbar interbody fusion and internal fixation operation for treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. It can effectively maintain the intervertebral height and keep a high rate of bony fusion. The early clinical effect has been satisfactory.

  14. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion: a systematic review of complication rates.

    PubMed

    Hijji, Fady Y; Narain, Ankur S; Bohl, Daniel D; Ahn, Junyoung; Long, William W; DiBattista, Jacob V; Kudaravalli, Krishna T; Singh, Kern

    2017-10-01

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a frequently used technique for the treatment of lumbar pathology. Despite its overall success, LLIF has been associated with a unique set of complications. However, there has been inconsistent evidence regarding the complication rate of this approach. To perform a systematic review analyzing the rates of medical and surgical complications associated with LLIF. Systematic review. 6,819 patients who underwent LLIF reported in clinical studies through June 2016. Frequency of complications within cardiac, vascular, pulmonary, urologic, gastrointestinal, transient neurologic, persistent neurologic, and spine (MSK) categories. This systematic review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant studies that identified rates of any complication following LLIF procedures were obtained from PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. Articles were excluded if they did not report complications, presented mixed complication data from other procedures, or were characterized as single case reports, reviews, or case series containing less than 10 patients. The primary outcome was frequency of complications within cardiac, vascular, pulmonary, urologic, gastrointestinal, transient neurologic, persistent neurologic, and MSK categories. All rates of complications were based on the sample sizes of studies that mentioned the respective complications. The authors report no conflicts of interest directly or indirectly related to this work, and have not received any funds in support of this work. A total of 2,232 articles were identified. Following screening of title, abstract, and full-text availability, 63 articles were included in the review. A total of 6,819 patients had 11,325 levels fused. The rate of complications for the categories included were as follows: wound (1.38%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00%-1.85%), cardiac (1.86%; CI=1.33%-2.52%), vascular (0.81%; CI=0

  15. Morbid Obesity and Lumbar Fusion in Patients Older Than 65 Years: Complications, Readmissions, Costs, and Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Werner, Brian C; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Jain, Amit; Pehlivan, Hakan; Shimer, Adam L; Singla, Anuj; Shen, Francis; Hassanzadeh, Hamid

    2017-01-15

    Retrospective database review. The aim of this study was to determine how both morbid obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥40) and obesity (BMI 30-39.9) modify 90-day complication rates and 30-day readmission rates following 1- to 2-level, primary, lumbar spinal fusion surgery for degenerative pathology in an elderly population. In the United States, both obese and elderly patients are known to have increased risk of complication, yet both demographics are increasingly undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery. Medicare data from 2005 to 2012 were queried for patients who underwent primary 1- to 2-level posterolateral lumbar fusion for degenerative pathology. Elderly patients undergoing elective surgery were selected and separated into three cohorts: morbidly obese (BMI ≥40; n = 2594), obese (BMI ≥30, < 40] (n = 5534), and nonobese controls (n = 48,210). Each pathologic cohort was matched to a unique subcohort from the control population. Ninety-day medical and surgical complication rates, 30-day readmission rates, length of stay (LOS), and hospital costs were then compared. Both morbidly obese and obese patients had significantly higher odds of experiencing any one major medical complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.79; P < 0.0001 and OR 1.32; P < 0.0001, respectively). Wound infection (OR 3.71; P < 0.0001 and OR 2.22; P < 0.0001) and dehiscence (OR 3.80; P < 0.0001 and OR 2.59; P < 0.0001) rates were increased in morbidly obese and obese patients, respectively. Thirty-day readmissions, length of stay, and in-hospital costs were increased, with patients with morbid obesity incurring charges almost $8000 greater than controls. Patients with both obesity and morbid obesity are at significantly increased risk of major medical complications, wound complications, and 30-day readmissions. Additionally, both groups of patients have significantly increased LOS and hospital costs. Both obese and morbidly obese patients should be

  16. Comparison between Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Conventional Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: An Updated Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lei; Wu, Wen-Jian; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The previous studies agree that minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has better function outcomes, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay, when compared to open-TLIF. However, there are no significance differences on operative time, complication, and reoperation rate between the two procedures. This could be from less relative literatures and lower grade evidence. The further meta-analysis is needed with more and higher grade evidences to compare the above two TLIF procedures. Methods: Prospective and retrospective studies that compared open-TLIF and MIS-TLIF were identified by searching the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP database (the literature search comprised Medical Subject Heading terms and key words or Emtree term). The retrieval time ranged from the date when the database was founded to January 2015. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the clinical outcomes and perioperative data. Results: Twenty-four studies (n = 1967 patients) were included in this review (n = 951, open-TLIF, n = 1016, MIS-TLIF). MIS-TLIF was associated with a significant decrease in the visual analog score (VAS)-back pain score (WMD = −0.44; P = 0.001), Oswestry Disabilities Index (WMD = −1.57; P = 0.005), early ambulation (WMD = −1.77; P = 0.0001), less blood loss (WMD = −265.59; P < 0.00001), and a shorter hospital stay (WMD = −1.89; P < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences in the fusion rate (RR = 0.99; P = 0.34), VAS-leg pain (WMD = −0.10; P = 0.26), complication rate (RR = 0.84; P = 0.35), operation time (WMD = −5.23; P = 0.82), or reoperation rate (RR = 0.73; P = 0.32). Conclusions: MIS-TLIF resulted in a similar fusion rate with better functional outcome, less blood loss, shorter ambulation, and hospital stay; furthermore, it did not increase the complication or

  17. Biomechanical evaluation of lateral lumbar interbody fusion with secondary augmentation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marco T; Reyes, Phillip M; Bse; Altun, Idris; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Singh, Vaneet; Chang, Steve W; Kelly, Brian P; Crawford, Neil R

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) has emerged as a popular method for lumbar fusion. In this study the authors aimed to quantify the biomechanical stability of an interbody implant inserted using the LLIF approach with and without various supplemental fixation methods, including an interspinous plate (IP). METHODS Seven human cadaveric L2-5 specimens were tested intact and in 6 instrumented conditions. The interbody implant was intended to be used with supplemental fixation. In this study, however, the interbody was also tested without supplemental fixation for a relative comparison of these conditions. The instrumented conditions were as follows: 1) interbody implant without supplemental fixation (LLIF construct); and interbody implant with supplemental fixation performed using 2) unilateral pedicle screws (UPS) and rod (LLIF + UPS construct); 3) bilateral pedicle screws (BPS) and rods (LLIF + BPS construct); 4) lateral screws and lateral plate (LP) (LLIF + LP construct); 5) interbody LP and IP (LLIF + LP + IP construct); and 6) IP (LLIF + IP construct). Nondestructive, nonconstraining torque (7.5 Nm maximum) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, whereas 3D specimen range of motion (ROM) was determined optoelectronically. RESULTS The LLIF construct reduced ROM by 67% in flexion, 52% in extension, 51% in lateral bending, and 44% in axial rotation relative to intact specimens (p < 0.001). Adding BPS to the LLIF construct caused ROM to decrease by 91% in flexion, 82% in extension and lateral bending, and 74% in axial rotation compared with intact specimens (p < 0.001), providing the greatest stability among the constructs. Adding UPS to the LLIF construct imparted approximately one-half the stability provided by LLIF + BPS constructs, demonstrating significantly smaller ROM than the LLIF construct in all directions (flexion, p = 0.037; extension, p < 0.001; lateral bending, p = 0.012) except axial rotation (p = 0

  18. Ventral Dural Injury After Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, JaeChil; Kim, Jin-Sung; Jo, Hyunjin

    2017-02-01

    Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) through the oblique corridor between the aorta and anterior border of psoas muscle is favored among spinal surgeons who employ minimally invasive techniques. We report a case of ventral dural tear after OLIF that was associated with the inaccurate trajectory direction of endplate preparation. This is the first report to our knowledge of ventral dural tear associated with OLIF. A 72-year-old woman presented with right leg pain and numbness. X-rays showed degenerative spondylolisthesis and loss of disc height at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed right-sided paracentral disc herniation at the L3-L4 level and foraminal disc herniation at L4-L5. The initial surgical plan was OLIF of L3-L4 and L4-L5 after percutaneous screw fixation without laminectomy. With the patient in the lateral position, discectomy and endplate preparation were done successfully at the L3-L4 level, and the same procedure was done at the L4-L5 level for OLIF. A sharp Cobbs elevator for endplate preparation triggered a ventral dural defect at the L4-L5 level. We changed the patient's position to attempt dural repair. The ventral dural defect could not be repaired because it was too large. After the herniated rootlets were repositioned, TachoComb was patched over the defect site. Postoperatively, the patient has no definite neurologic deficits. When a surgeon performs OLIF, ventral dural injury should be avoided during the procedure of endplate preparation and contralateral annular release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lumbar Interspinous Process Fixation and Fusion with Stand-Alone Interlaminar Lumbar Instrumented Fusion Implant in Patients with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Undergoing Decompression for Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Postacchini, Franco; Menchetti, Pier Paolo Maria; Sessa, Pasquale; Paolino, Michela; Cinotti, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To assess the ability of a stand-alone lumbar interspinous implant (interspinous/interlaminar lumbar instrumented fusion, ILIF) associated with bone grafting to promote posterior spine fusion in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) with vertebral instability. Overview of Literature A few studies, using bilateral laminotomy (BL) or bilateral decompression by unilateral laminotomy (BDUL), found satisfactory results in stenotic patients with decompression alone, but others reported increased olisthesis, or subsequent need for fusion in DS with or without dynamic instability. Methods Twenty-five patients with Grade I DS, leg pain and chronic low back pain underwent BL or BDUL and ILIF implant. Olisthesis was 13% to 21%. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 4 to 12 months up to 25 to 44 months (mean, 34.4). Outcome measures were numerical rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI) and short-form 36 health survey (SF-36) of body pain and function. Results Fusion occurred in 21 patients (84%). None had increased olisthesis or instability postoperatively. Four types of fusion were identified. In Type I, the posterior part of the spinous processes were fused. In Type II, fusion extended to the base of the processes. In Type III, bone was present also around the polyetheretherketone plate of ILIF. In Type IV, even the facet joints were fused. The mean NRS score for back and leg pain decreased by 64% and 80%, respectively. The mean ODI score was decreased by 52%. SF-36 bodily pain and physical function mean scores increased by 53% and 58%, respectively. Computed tomography revealed failed fusion in four patients, all of whom still had vertebral instability postoperatively. Conclusions Stand-alone ILIF with interspinous bone grafting promotes vertebral fusion in most patients with lumbar stenosis and unstable Grade I DS undergoing BL or BDUL. PMID:26949455

  20. Risk Factors for and Complications after Surgical Delay in Elective Single-Level Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Butler, Joseph S; Kaye, Ian D; Sebastian, Arjun; Morrissey, Patrick B; Kepler, Christopher

    2017-06-09

    Retrospective cohort Objective: To assess the incidence of and risk factors for delay of elective lumbar fusion surgery, as well as medical and surgical complications associated with surgical delay. Lumbar fusion is a well-established treatment for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis with stenosis who have failed conservative management. Rarely, patients admitted for elective lumbar fusion may experience a delay in surgery past the day of admission. The incidence of, and risk factors for, delay of elective lumbar fusion surgery and the complications associated therewith have never been previously evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed the ACS-NSQIP registry utilizing Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 22612, 22558, 22630 and 22633 to identify all patients undergoing a single level spinal fusion. The data were then subdivided to into cohorts consisting of patients with and without surgical delay. Demographic information, preoperative risk factors for delay, as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications were compared between the groups. We identified 2,758 (5.46%) patients as experiencing a delay before lumbar fusion. Multivariate analysis was then performed and identified male sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 and 4, and chronic steroid use as risk factors increasing the rate of surgical delay. Multiple complication rates were also significantly higher in the delayed group, including an almost ten-fold increase in mortality rate (0.2% vs. 1.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). Delays in elective surgery can affect medical system resource utilization, increasing costs and leading to worse patient outcomes. Patients with chronic steroid use and higher ASA class may be at risk for surgical delay in lumbar fusion beyond the day of admission, and are at increased risk for significant complications postoperatively. Thorough medical evaluation and preoperative optimization may be indicated for these patients. 4.

  1. Circumferential Fusion: A Comparative Analysis Between Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Posterior Pedicle Screw Fixation and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for L5-S1 Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Tye, Erik Y; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Alonso, Andrea S; Xiao, Roy; Steinmetz, Michael P; Mroz, Thomas E; Savage, Jason W

    2017-08-15

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) or anterior lumbar interbody fusion with percutaneous pedicle screws (ALIFPS) offer significantly higher radiographic fusion rates than other fusion techniques for L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS). As it stands, there is a relative paucity of comparative data of the two techniques. To define the clinical, radiographic, and financial differences between TLIF and ALIFPS for L5-S1 IS. A retrospective cohort study conducted at a single-tertiary care center. 66 patients who underwent either TLIF or ALIPFS for L5-S1 IS at a single-tertiary care center between 2009-2014. Self-reported health status measures, including the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Radiographic parameters including pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, segmental lordosis, total lordosis, degree of slip, disc height, and L1-Axis S1 Distance (LASD). Cost measures included in-hospital charges, hospital length of stay (LOS), and post-admission costs out to 1 year. Quality of life (QoL) outcome scores, radiographic data, and financial data were collected with a minimum of 1-year follow up. Clinical results were investigated using the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and EuroQol-5 Dimension Health State (EQ-5D). Radiographic measurements included lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, height of disc, L-1 axis S-1 distance (LASD), and the degree of slip. Cost data were generated based on patient-level resource utilization. Comparative data were presented as median with interquartile range (IQR). Continuous variables were compared using either independent student t-tests assuming unequal variance or Whitney-Mann U tests for parametric and non-parametric variables, respectively. The minimally clinical important difference (MCID) used for each questionnaire was as follows: PDQ (26), PHQ-9 (5), and EQ-5D

  2. Iliac Crest Bone Graft versus Local Autograft or Allograft for Lumbar Spinal Fusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tuchman, Alexander; Brodke, Darrel S.; Youssef, Jim A.; Meisel, Hans-Jörg; Dettori, Joseph R.; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S. Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design  Systematic review. Objective  To compare the effectiveness and safety between iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) and local autologous bone and allograft in the lumbar spine. Methods  A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases identified studies evaluating spinal fusion in patients with degenerative joint disease using ICBG, local autograft, or allograft in the thoracolumbar spine. Results  Six comparative studies met our inclusion criteria. A “low” strength of the overall body of evidence suggested no difference in fusion percentages in the lumbar spine between local autograft and ICBG. We found no difference in fusion percentages based on low evidence comparing allograft with ICBG autograft. There were no differences in pain or functional results comparing local autograft or allograft with ICBG autograft. Donor site pain and hematoma/seroma occurred more frequently in ICBG autograft group for lumbar fusion procedures. There was low evidence around the estimate of patients with donor site pain following ICBG harvesting, ranging from 16.7 to 20%. With respect to revision, low evidence demonstrated no difference between allograft and ICBG autograft. There was no evidence comparing patients receiving allograft with local autograft for fusion, pain, functional, and safety outcomes. Conclusion  In the lumbar spine, ICBG, local autograft, and allograft have similar effectiveness in terms of fusion rates, pain scores, and functional outcomes. However, ICBG is associated with an increased risk for donor site-related complications. Significant limitations exist in the available literature when comparing ICBG, local autograft, and allograft for lumbar fusion, and thus ICBG versus other fusion methods necessitates further investigation. PMID:27556001

  3. Progression of Coronal Cobb Angle After Short-Segment Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam; Yi, Seong; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2016-05-01

    The progression of scoliosis after fusion surgery is a poor prognostic factor of long-term outcomes in patients with degenerative lumbar stenosis (DLS). In this study we aimed to investigate changes in coronal alignment and identify risk factors related to progression of scoliosis after fusion. There were 540 patients with symptomatic DLS treated by short-segment lumbar fusion surgery. Among them, 50 patients had coronal Cobb angles >10° at the final follow-up. Sixteen patients had increases >5° (progression group), and 34 patients had increases <5° (nonprogression group). Radiologic parameters that may affect the progression of scoliosis were compared. The mean progression of the Cobb angle was 7.92° in the progression group and 1.25° in the nonprogression group. The progression group had significantly longer follow-up periods and a lower preoperative Cobb angle. The apical vertebra (AV) of the major curve was more frequently thoracic in the progression group. Progression of the Cobb angle was correlated with the follow-up period, preoperative Cobb angle, and location of the AV. Multivariate regression analysis showed that progression of the Cobb angle was significantly associated with a lower preoperative Cobb angle, and both facet degeneration of the upper instrumented vertebra at the fusion site and vertebral spur formation on the concave side also appeared to be associated with progression of the Cobb angle. The global magnitude of progression of the Cobb angle after short-segment lumbar fusion surgery in patients with DLS is similar to the natural curve progression of adult degenerative scoliosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Quality and Readability of Information Available on the Internet Regarding Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dafang; Schumacher, Charles; Harris, Mitchel B; Bono, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Study Design An Internet-based evaluation of Web sites regarding lumbar fusion. Objective The Internet has become a major resource for patients; however, the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion is unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion and to determine whether these measures changed with Web site modality, complexity of the search term, or Health on the Net Code of Conduct certification. Methods Using five search engines and three different search terms of varying complexity ("low back fusion," "lumbar fusion," and "lumbar arthrodesis"), we identified and reviewed 153 unique Web site hits for information quality and readability. Web sites were specifically analyzed by search term and Web site modality. Information quality was evaluated on a 5-point scale. Information readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid score for reading grade level. Results The average quality score was low. The average reading grade level was nearly six grade levels above that recommended by National Work Group on Literacy and Health. The quality and readability of Internet information was significantly dependent on Web site modality. The use of more complex search terms yielded information of higher reading grade level but not higher quality. Conclusions Higher-quality information about lumbar fusion conveyed using language that is more readable by the general public is needed on the Internet. It is important for health care providers to be aware of the information accessible to patients, as it likely influences their decision making regarding care.

  5. [Nursing Care of Lumbar Spine Fusion Surgery Using a Semi-Rigid Device (ISOBAR)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Shan; Su, Shu-Fen

    2016-04-01

    Aging frequently induces degenerative changes in the spine. Patients who suffer from lumbar degenerative disease tend to have lower back pain, neurological claudication, and neuropathy. Furthermore, incontinence may be an increasing issue as symptoms become severe. Lumbar spine fusion surgery is necessary if clinical symptoms continue to worsen or if the patient fails to respond to medication, physical therapy, or alternative treatments. However, this surgical procedure frequently induces adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is evidenced by the appearance of pathological changes in the upper and lower sections of the spinal surgical sites. In 1997, ISOBAR TTL dynamic rod stabilization was developed for application in spinal fusion surgery to prevent ASD-related complications. The device has proven effective in reducing pain in the lower back and legs, decreasing functional disability, improving quality of life, and retarding disc degeneration. However, the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing the incidence of ASD requires further research investigation, and relevant literature and research in Taiwan is still lacking. This article discusses lumbar degenerative disease, its indications, the contraindications of lumbar spine fusion surgery using ISOBAR, and related postoperative nursing care. We hope this article provides proper and new knowledge to clinical nurses for the care of patients undergoing lumbar spine fusion surgery with ISOBAR.

  6. Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu-Jung; Suk, Se-Il; Park, Seung-Rim; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Young-Hyun; Won, Man-Hee

    2009-04-01

    There is a debate regarding the distal fusion level for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Whether a healthy L5-S1 motion segment should be included or not in the fusion remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal indication for the fusion to the sacrum, and to compare the results of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in the long instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A total of 45 patients who had undergone long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis were evaluated with a minimum 2 year follow-up. Twenty-four patients (mean age 63.6) underwent fusion to L5 and 21 patients (mean age 65.6) underwent fusion to the sacrum. Supplemental interbody fusion was performed in 12 patients in the L5 group and eleven patients in the sacrum group. The number of levels fused was 6.08 segments (range 4-8) in the L5 group and 6.09 (range 4-9) in the sacrum group. Intraoperative blood loss (2,754 ml versus 2,938 ml) and operative time (220 min versus 229 min) were similar in both groups. The Cobb angle changed from 24.7 degrees before surgery to 6.8 degrees after surgery in the L5 group, and from 22.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees in the sacrum group without statistical difference. Correction of lumbar lordosis was statistically better in the sacrum group (P = 0.03). Less correction of lumbar lordosis in the L5 group seemed to be associated with subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration. The change of coronal and sagittal imbalance was not different in both groups. Subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration occurred in 58% of the patients in the L5 group. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 developed in five patients. Interestingly, the development of adjacent segment disease was not related to the preoperative grade of disc degeneration, which proved minimal degeneration in the five patients. In the L5 group, there were nine patients of complications at L5-S1 segment, including adjacent segment disease at

  7. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cortical bone trajectory screw fixation versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion using traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Several biomechanical studies have demonstrated the favorable mechanical properties of the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw. However, no reports have examined surgical outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with CBT screw fixation for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) compared with those after PLIF using traditional pedicle screw (PS) fixation. The purposes of this study were thus to elucidate surgical outcomes after PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS and to compare these results with those after PLIF using traditional PS fixation. METHODS Ninety-five consecutive patients underwent PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS (CBT group; mean followup 35 months). A historical control group consisted of 82 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with traditional PS fixation (PS group; mean follow-up 40 months). Clinical status was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale score. Fusion status was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT. The need for additional surgery and surgery-related complications was also evaluated. RESULTS The mean JOA score improved significantly from 13.7 points before surgery to 23.3 points at the latest follow-up in the CBT group (mean recovery rate 64.4%), compared with 14.4 points preoperatively to 22.7 points at final follow-up in the PS group (mean recovery rate 55.8%; p < 0.05). Solid spinal fusion was achieved in 84 patients from the CBT group (88.4%) and in 79 patients from the PS group (96.3%, p > 0.05). Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease developed in 3 patients from the CBT group (3.2%) compared with 9 patients from the PS group (11.0%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS provided comparable improvement of clinical symptoms with PLIF using traditional PS fixation. However, the successful fusion rate tended to be lower in the CBT group than in the PS group, although the difference was not statistically significant between the 2 groups.

  8. Association between insurance status and patient safety in the lumbar spine fusion population.

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Alentado, Vincent J; Miller, Jacob A; Lubelski, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    Lumbar fusion is a common and costly procedure in the United States. Reimbursement for surgical procedures is increasingly tied to care quality and patient safety as part of value-based reimbursement programs. The incidence of adverse quality events among lumbar fusion patients is unknown using the definition of care quality (patient safety indicators [PSI]) used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The association between insurance status and the incidence of PSI is similarly unknown in lumbar fusion patients. This study sought to determine the incidence of PSI in patients undergoing inpatient lumbar fusion and to quantify the association between primary payer status and PSI in this population. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. The sample comprised all adult patients aged 18 years and older who were included in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) that underwent lumbar fusion from 1998 to 2011. The incidence of one or more PSI, a validated and widely used metric of inpatient health-care quality and patient safety, was the primary outcome variable. The NIS data were examined for all cases of inpatient lumbar fusion from 1998 to 2011. The incidence of adverse patient safety events (PSI) was determined using publicly available lists of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between primary payer status (Medicaid and self-pay relative to private insurance) and the incidence of PSI. A total of 539,172 adult lumbar fusion procedures were recorded in the NIS from 1998 to 2011. Patients were excluded from the secondary analysis if "other" or "missing" was listed for primary insurance status. The national incidence of PSI was calculated to be 2,445 per 100,000 patient years of observation, or approximately 2.5%. In a secondary analysis, after adjusting for patient demographics and hospital characteristics, Medicaid

  9. Early experience with endoscopic revision of lumbar spinal fusions.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Lynn B; Madhavan, Karthik; Chieng, Lee Onn; Wang, Michael Y; Hofstetter, Christoph P

    2016-02-01

    Approximately half a million spinal fusion procedures are performed annually in the US. It is estimated that up to one-third of arthrodesis constructs require revision surgeries. In this study the authors present endoscopic treatment strategies targeting 3 types of complications following arthrodesis surgery: 1) adjacent-level foraminal stenosis; 2) foraminal stenosis at an arthrodesis segment; and 3) stenosis caused by a displaced interbody cage. A retrospective chart review of 11 patients with a mean age of 68 ± 15 years was performed (continuous variables are shown as the mean ± SEM). All patients had a history of lumbar arthrodesis surgery and suffered from unilateral radiculopathy. Endoscopic revision surgeries were done as outpatient procedures, and there were no intraoperative or perioperative complications. The cohort included 3 patients with foraminal stenosis at the level of previous arthrodesis. They presented with unilateral radicular leg pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score: 7.3 ± 2.1) and were severely disabled, as evidenced by an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) of 46 ± 4.9. Transforaminal endoscopic foraminotomies were performed, and at a mean follow-up time of 9.0 ± 2.5 months VAS was reduced by an average of 6.3. The cohort also includes 7 patients suffering unilateral radiculopathy due to adjacent-level foraminal stenosis. Preoperative VAS for leg pain of the symptomatic side was 6.0 ± 1.6, VAS for back pain was 5.2 ± 1.7, and ODI was 40 ± 6.33. Endoscopic decompression led to reduction of the ipsilateral leg VAS score by an average of 5, resulting in leg pain of 1 ± 0.5 at an average of 8 months of follow-up. The severity of back pain remained stable (VAS 4.2 ± 1.4). Two of these patients required revision surgery for recurrent symptoms. Finally, this study includes 1 patient who presented with weakness and pain due to retropulsion of an L5/S1 interbody spacer. The patient underwent an endoscopic interlaminar approach with partial

  10. Restoration of lordosis and disk height after single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Radcliff, Kristen E; Patel, Amar A; Anderson, D Greg; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Hilibrand, Alan S; Albert, Todd J

    2012-02-01

    To study radiographic and clinical outcomes after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in order to determine the impact of TLIF on lumbar lordosis, intervertebral height and improvement in clinical outcome measures. Forty-five patients who had undergone a single-level TLIF procedure for a single-level degenerative condition were retrospectively reviewed and their clinical histories, degree of pre- and post-operative lumbar lordosis, intervertebral height, and cage position recorded. Clinical assessment included use of modified Odom's criteria and a visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain. At 21 months, the patients had gained an average of 3.6° of lumbar lordosis and 4.5 mm disc height. Change in disc height was significantly associated with an anterior cage position while lumbar lordosis was unaffected by cage position. A spondylolisthesis subgroup demonstrated 31% reduction in the magnitude of anterior slip. Less lordosis was associated with worse back and leg pain as assessed by VAS and greater disk heights were associated with higher Odom's criteria scores. Patients with persistent leg pain at final follow-up had less lumbar lordosis and intervertebral height than patients without leg pain. Intervertebral height and lumbar lordosis reconstruction are important for achieving good surgical results; guidance regarding the likely changes in lumbar lordosis and disk height after TLIF is provided by our findings. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 15: electrophysiological monitoring and lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is commonly used during lumbar fusion surgery for the prevention of nerve root injury. Justification for its use stems from the belief that IOM can prevent nerve root injury during the placement of pedicle screws. A thorough literature review was conducted to determine if the use of IOM could prevent nerve root injury during the placement of instrumentation in lumbar or lumbosacral fusion. There is no evidence to date that IOM can prevent injury to the nerve roots. There is limited evidence that a threshold below 5 mA from direct stimulation of the screw can indicate a medial pedicle breach by the screw. Unfortunately, once a nerve root injury has taken place, changing the direction of the screw does not alter the outcome. The recommendations formulated in the original guideline effort are neither supported nor refuted with the evidence obtained with the current studies.

  12. Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Pathology after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Adult Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after fusion surgery for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) has been reported to be relatively low compared with other lumbar disease entities. However, there has been no study of symptomatic ASP incidence using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screw instrumentation. We investigated the incidence of symptomatic ASP after PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation for adult low-grade IS and identified significant risk factors for symptomatic ASP. We retrospectively studied records of 40 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Japan. The patients were followed for ≥ 4 years. Patients' medical records were retrospectively examined for evidence of symptomatic ASP. Age at time of surgery, sex, fusion level, whole lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, preexisting laminar inclination angle, and facet tropism at the cranial fusion segment were analyzed to identify risk factors for symptomatic ASP. Four patients (ASP group) developed symptomatic ASP at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion. There were no significant differences in age, sex, fusion level, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, or facet tropism at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion between the ASP and the non-ASP groups. In contrast, laminar inclination angle at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was significantly higher in the ASP group than in the non-ASP group. Four patients (10%) developed symptomatic ASP after PLIF with transpedicular fixation for adult low-grade IS. Preexisting laminar horizontalization at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was a significant risk factor for symptomatic ASP. PMID:24436872

  13. Interobserver and Intraobserver Reliability in the Radiologic Assessment of Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Kroeze, Robert J; Graat, Harm C A; Pluymakers, Winand J; Marting, Louis N; van Dijk, Martijn; van Dijke, Cees F; Vd Klis, Anton H; Verberne, Steven J; de Gruyter, Albert J; Temmerman, Olivier P P

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective cohort study comparing intraobserver and interobserver reliability of 3 different radiologic fusion classifications following uninstrumented single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The objective of the study was to compare the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of 3 different radiologic spinal fusion scoring systems. Knowledge regarding radiologic spinal fusion is crucial when studying patients that were treated with lumbar interbody fusion. The scoring system should be reliable and reproducible. Various radiologic classification systems coexist, but the reliability of these systems has thus far not been compared in a single consecutive group of patients. The aim of the present study was the identification of the most valid scoring system in the assessment of interbody fusion. We studied a retrospective consecutive cohort of 50 patients who underwent an anterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure by a single surgeon using a stand-alone cage performed between 1993 and 2002. Plain anterior-posterior, lateral radiographs, and flexion-extension radiographs were made during follow-up visits and were used for analysis. The interbody fusion was scored on these radiographic images using the 3 classification systems (Brantigan, Burkus, and the Radiographic Score) by 2 experienced musculoskeletal radiologists and 2 senior orthopedic spinal surgeons all of whom were blinded to clinical data and outcome. Of the 3 classifications included in the current study, the Burkus classification had a moderate interobserver agreement and a substantial to perfect intraobserver agreement. The other classifications (Bratingan and the Radiographic Score) showed only fair interobserver agreement and moderate to substantial agreement among all observers. No significant differences in reliability between orthopedic surgeons and radiologists were found for all 3 classifications. The Burkus classification system was classified as most reliable in this, but showed only

  14. Bone marrow concentrate with allograft equivalent to autograft in lumbar fusions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert G

    2014-04-20

    Prospective randomized study. To compare autologous bone marrow concentrate mixed with allograft cancellous bone to iliac crest autograft in lumbar fusions. Bone marrow has been shown to be a rich source of osteoprogenitor cells. Osteoprogenitor cells have been shown in animals, and some human studies, to have potential in use as a bone graft substitute. Twenty-five patients underwent from 1- to 3-level lumbar fusions. One patient was lost to follow-up. On one half of the spine, allograft plus autologous bone marrow concentrate was used, whereas on the other half, autologous iliac crest bone was used. Cellular analysis, consisting of nucleated cell count, mononuclear cell count, CD34+ count, and colony-forming-units-fibroblast count, was done on marrow aspirates and concentrates. At 1 year postoperation, computed tomographic scans of the fusions were evaluated on a blinded basis by 2 neuroradiologists independent of each other. Radiographical fusion was the primary outcome measure. There was no statistical difference in fusion scores between allograft and autograft in the lateral gutters, interbody cages, or facet joints. There was a positive trend between CD34+ counts and radiographical fusion. The study shows equivalence between cancellous allograft mixed with bone marrow concentrate and autologous iliac crest bone for lumbar fusions. 2.

  15. A Preliminary Report on the CO2 Laser for Lumbar Fusion: Safety, Efficacy and Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Villavicencio, Alan T; Burneikiene, Sigita; Babuska, Jason M; Nelson, Ewell L; Mason, Alexander; Rajpal, Sharad

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential technical advantages of the CO2 laser technology in mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries and report our preliminary clinical data on the safety and clinical outcomes. There is currently no literature discussing the recently redeveloped CO2 laser technology application for lumbar fusion. Safety and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups: 24 patients that underwent CO2 laser-assisted one-level TLIF surgeries and 30 patients that underwent standard one-level TLIF surgeries without the laser. There were no neural thermal injuries or other intraoperative laser-related complications encountered in this cohort of patients. At a mean follow-up of 17.4 months, significantly reduced lower back pain scores (P=0.013) were reported in the laser-assisted patient group compared to a standard fusion patient group. Lower extremity radicular pain intensity scores were similar in both groups. Laser-assisted TLIF surgeries showed a tendency (P = 0.07) of shorter operative times that was not statistically significant. Based on this preliminary clinical report, the safety of the CO2 laser device for lumbar fusion surgeries was assessed. There were no neural thermal injuries or other intraoperative laser-related complications encountered in this cohort of patients. Further investigation of CO2 laser-assisted lumbar fusion procedures is warranted in order to evaluate its effect on clinical outcomes.

  16. Bone Morphogenic Protein Is a Viable Adjunct for Fusion in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M Mashfiqul Arafin; Sta.Ana, Ana Rosario P.; Yeo, William

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Comparison of prospectively collected data of patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) with and without recombinant human bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP). Purpose To compare the clinical, radiological outcome and complications of patients undergoing MIS-TLIF with and without BMP. Overview of Literature BMP is an effective fusion enhancer with potential complications. Direct comparison of MIS-TLIF with and without BMP is limited to retrospective studies with short follow-up. Methods From June 2005 to February 2011, consecutive cases of MIS-TLIF performed by a single surgeon were included. North American Spine Society (NASS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and visual analogue score (VAS) were assessed preoperatively and at 6 and 24 months postoperatively. Fusion rates and complications were noted. Results The 252 cases comprised 104 non-BMP and 148 BMP cases. The BMP group was significantly older (mean age, 60.2 vs. 53.9; p<0.01). Preoperative scores were similar. Immediate postoperative morphine usage was significantly lower in the BMP group (12.4 mg vs. 20.1 mg, p<0.01). At 6 months, the BMP group had lower VAS back and leg pain scores (p<0.01). At 2 years, the BMP group had better leg pain scores (p<0.01), ODI (15.4 vs. 20.3, p=0.04) and NASS scores (8.8 vs. 15.8, p<0.01). Both groups showed significant clinical improvement compared to their preoperative levels. The BMP group attained a significantly higher rate of fusion at 6 months follow-up (88.4% vs. 76.8%, p=0.016) with no difference at 2 years. The non-BMP and BMP group had 12 (11.5%) and 9 (6.1%) complications and 5 (4.8%) and 2 (1.4%) reoperations, respectively. Conclusions The use of BMP to augment fusion in MIS-TLIF is an acceptable alternative that has potential benefits of less pain in early and intermediate postoperative follow-up. PMID:27994786

  17. Long vs. short fusions for adult lumbar degenerative scoliosis: does balance matters?

    PubMed

    Faldini, Cesare; Di Martino, Alberto; Borghi, Raffaele; Perna, Fabrizio; Toscano, Angelo; Traina, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Surgery of adult scoliosis was based upon coronal plane radiographical analysis using Cobb angle measurements, but recently it has been demonstrated that sagittal spinopelvic alignment plays a critical role in determining the final outcome. The aim of this paper is to compare the clinical and radiological results of 81 patients affected by adult scoliosis, treated with short or long fusions, and followed for 2-5 year follow-up. 81 patients affected by degenerative lumbar scoliosis managed by posterior-only surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty-seven patients underwent to a short fusion procedure, while 24 had a long fusion. Clinical and radiographic coronal and sagittal spinopelvic parameters were compared between the two groups. Coronal Cobb angle was 24° preoperatively and passed to 12° in the short fusion group, while changed from 45° to 10° in the long fusion group. Lumbar lordosis was 45° preoperatively and 60° at final follow-up in the short fusion group passed from 24° to 55° in the long fusion group. Sacral slope passed from 25° to 45° in the short fusion group, while from 10° to 40° in the long fusion group. Pelvic tilt passed from 24° to 13° in the short fusion group, and from 28° to 23° in the long fusion group. Surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar scoliosis improved balance and alignment of the spine, and also the coronal plane in terms of Cobb angle. These results were associated to a consistent clinical improvement and an acceptable rate of complications.

  18. Clinical efficacy of lumbar interbody fusion using a channel system combined with ozone therapy for the treatment of central-type L3-L4 lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Hong; Qin, Shuzhen

    2017-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion via the intervertebral foramen combined with ozone (O3) therapy for the treatment of L3-L4 central-type lumbar disc herniation was explored. We recruited patients with sciatica who attended our hospital between July 2013 and October 2015 and underwent lumbar X-ray (anteroposterior and lateral view), lumbar flexion-extension radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging after admission. Seventy-four patients with central-type lumbar disc herniation but no other complications were randomly selected and divided into the observation and control groups. The observation group comprised 37 patients treated with lumbar fusion using a channel system combined with O3 therapy, whereas the control group comprised 37 patients treated with lumbar fusion alone. The effects of the two therapies were evaluated using visual analog scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association, and MacNab scores. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). The scores of the observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those before surgery and those of the control group (P<0.05). One patient in the observation group experienced no obvious improvement in symptoms after surgery, and two patients in the control group experienced postoperative recurrence; these three patients subsequently underwent laminectomy combined with planted bone fusion and internal fixation. There was no significant difference in total efficacy rates between the two groups (P>0.05). Lumbar fusion using a channel system combined with O3 therapy for the treatment of L3-L4 central-type lumbar disc herniation is safe and effective. It has the advantages of reduced trauma, fewer complications, and rapid pain relief, and it promotes the recovery of lumbar function. Strict mastery of the surgical indications is key to the success of the procedure; however, it is worth expanding its use in

  19. Effect of sagittal spinal balance, levels of posterior instrumentation, and length of follow-up on low back pain in patients undergoing posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar spine disease: a multifactorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Repantis, Thomas; Papazisis, Zisis; Iliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2010-04-15

    Prospective controlled clinical study on low back pain (LBP). To investigate the possible effects of radiographic and other related parameters on LBP in patients underwent decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar spine disease. Sagittal balance of the spine after spine surgery has gained increasing interest regarding its correlation with LBP and fusion rate. To our knowledge, no advanced statistical analysis on the effects of sagittal roentgenographic and other parameters on LBP after lumbar surgery has been published. Forty-five patients with an average age of 63 years, who underwent pedicle-screw fixation in 2, 3, and 4 vertebrae for degenerative lumbar spine disease were selected to be included in this study. Radiographic and self-assessment (bodily pain, short form-36) data were evaluated using advanced statistics (multifactorial analysis) to investigate all possible correlations between a dependent parameter (LBP) and independent parameters (sex, extension of instrumentation, sagittal spinal balance, and angular motion at the adjacent free level above instrumentation). All patients were observed for an average of 5.5 years (range, 5-7 years). Male patients showed significantly more improvement of LBP than female counterparts (P = 0.024). LBP improved after surgery by the first year (P < 0.000) and thereafter decreased (P < 0.000) at the final evaluation, but remained at levels significantly higher than before surgery (P < 0.000). The deviation of the apical lumbar vertebra from C7-plumbline was correlated with LBP (P < 0.000). Patients, who received third- and fourth- level instrumentation had less LBP (P = 0.0245) than their counterparts, who received second-level instrumentation. Improvement of sagittal deviation of apical lumbar vertebra, instrumentation of third or fourth vertebrae, male gender, and fusion success were correlated with postoperative improvement of LBP after posterior decompression and pedicle screw

  20. Perioperative and short-term advantages of mini-open approach for lumbar spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vela, J.; Joven-Aliaga, E.; Herrera, A.; Vicente, J.; Suñén, E.; Loste, A.; Tabuenca, A.

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely reported a vascular and neurologic damage of the lumbar muscles produced in the classic posterior approach for lumbar spinal fusions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a better clinical and functional outcome in the postoperative and short term in patients undergoing minimal invasive surgery (“mini-open”) for this lumbar spinal arthrodesis. We designed a prospective study with a 30 individuals cohort randomized in two groups, depending on the approach performed to get a instrumented lumbar circumferential arthrodesis: “classic posterior” (CL group) or “mini-open” approach (MO group). Several clinical and functional parameters were assessed, including blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesic requirements and daily life activities during hospital stay and at the 3-month follow-up. Patients of the “mini-open approach” group had a significant lower blood loss and hospital stay during admission. They also had significant lower analgesic requirements and faster recovery of daily life activities (specially moderate efforts) when compared to the patients of the “classic posterior approach” group. No significant differences were found between two groups in surgery timing, X-rays exposure or sciatic postoperative pain. This study, inline with previous investigations, reinforces the concept of minimizing the muscular lumbar damage with a mini-open approach for a faster and better recovery of patients’ disability in the short term. Further investigations are necessary to confirm these findings in the long term, and to verify the achievement of a stable lumbar spinal fusion. PMID:19399538

  1. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion: Do the cons outweigh the pros?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF). Although anticipated pros of MIS XLIF included reduced blood loss, operative time, and length of stay (LOS), they also included, higher fusion, and lower infection rates. Unanticipated cons, however, included increased morbidity/mortality rates. Methods: We assessed the pros and cons (e.g., risks, complications, comparable value/superiority/inferiority, morbidity/mortality) of MIS XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Results: Pros of XLIF included various biomechanical and technical surgical advantages, along with multiple cons vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. For example, XLIF correlated with a considerably higher frequency of major neurological deficits vs. other constructs; plexus injuries 13.28%, sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%), motor deficits 0.7–33.6%, and anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. XLIF also disproportionately contributed to other major morbidity/mortality; sympathectomy, major vascular injuries (some life-ending others life-threatening), bowel perforations, and seromas. Furthermore, multiple studies documented no superiority, and the potential inferiority of XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Conclusion: Reviewing the pros of XLIF (e.g. radiographic, technical, biomechanical) vs. the cons (inferiority, increased morbidity/mortality) vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF, we question whether XLIF should remain part of the lumbar spinal surgical armamentarium. PMID:27843688

  2. Factors associated with lumbar fusion surgery: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ialynytchev, Anna; Sear, Alan M; Williams, Arthur R; Langland-Orban, Barbara; Zhang, Nanhua

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the demographic and payer factors that are associated with lumbar fusion surgery. A case-control study was conducted utilizing a population of 38,092 patients from the 2010 Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA), USA hospital discharge data. The case population included 16,236 records with any of five ICD-9-CM principal procedure codes for initial lumbar fusion. The control group was comprised of 21,856 patients who were admitted for the same principal diagnoses as the cases, but who did not have initial fusion surgery. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of age, gender, race and principal payer type with initial lumbar fusions. The interaction between age and payer was also examined, as payer type may moderate the association between age and lumbar fusion surgery. Gender, race, principal payer and age were all found to be significantly associated with lumbar fusion surgery. The interaction of payer and age was also found to be significant. Being female was significantly associated with having a fusion (OR = 1.11, 95 % CI 1.07-1.16). The association between age and receiving surgery was greatest for the less than 20 age group (OR = 10.43, 95 % CI 8.74-12.45). Employees and dependents of Federal government agencies (Tricare, etc.) and patients with commercial insurance were significantly associated with surgery (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI 1.29-1.70 and OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.04-1.20, respectively). Patients insured through Medicaid (a social health care program for those with low incomes and limited resources), and the uninsured were negatively associated with surgery (OR = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.47-0.60 and OR = 0.52, 95 % CI 0.46-0.58, respectively). Lumbar fusion surgery is not recommended in clinical practice guidelines for the top four principal diagnoses in this study. Yet, patients covered by certain types of insurance were found to be significantly associated with fusion surgery.

  3. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Stundner, O.; Chiu, Y-L.; Sun, X.; Ramachandran, S-K.; Gerner, P.; Vougioukas, V.; Mazumdar, M.; Memtsoudis, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84 655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.50, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians. PMID:24493191

  4. [Short-term effectiveness of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66 intervertebral cage for lumbar interbody fusion in patients with lower lumbar degenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Song, Yueming; Kong, Qingquan; Gong, Quan; Pei, Fuxing; Tu, Chongqi

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the short-term effectiveness of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66 (n-HA/PA66) intervertebral cage for lumbar interbody fusion in the patients with lower lumbar degenerative diseases. Between January and October 2011, 20 patients with lower lumbar degenerative diseases underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with n-HA/PA66 intervertebral cage. There were 8 males and 12 females, aged 22-80 years (mean, 51 years). The disease duration was 1 to 24 months (mean, 4 months). L4,5 fusion was performed in 8 cases, L5, S1 fusion in 9 cases, and L4-S1 fusion in 3 cases. Among 20 cases, 3 were diagnosed as having recurrent lumbar disc protrusion, 5 as having lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 9 as having lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis, and 3 as having lumbar spinal stenosis. The intervertebral height and lordosis were measured on X-ray film to assess the surgical correction and postoperative sustain while osseous fusion was observed on 3-dimensional CT. The Oswestry disability index (ODI) and short-form 36 health survey scale (SF-36) scores were obtained to assess the status of clinical recovery. All patients had incision healing by first intention. The pain and numb were relieved in varying degrees after operation. No cerebrospinal leakage, nerve root injury, or wound infection was occurred. All patients were followed up 6-9 months (mean, 7 months). No cage displacement or collapse was found. The intervertebral height and lordosis of single fusion segment were significantly improved at 3 days and 3, 6 months after operation when compared with those at preoperation (P < 0.01); there was no significant difference among each time point after operation (P > 0.05). The fusion rate was 74% at 3 months after operation and 96% at 6 months after operation, with an average of 4 months (range, 3-9 months) for interbody fusion. The ODI and SF-36 scores were significantly improved at 3 days and 6 months after operation when compared with the scores at

  5. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 16: bone graft extenders and substitutes as an adjunct for lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Michael G; Groff, Michael W; Watters, William C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Resnick, Daniel K

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to enhance the potential to achieve a solid arthrodesis and avoid the morbidity of harvesting autologous iliac crest bone (AICB) for a lumbar fusion, numerous alternatives have been investigated. The use of these fusion adjuncts has become routine despite a lack of convincing evidence demonstrating a benefit to justify added costs or potential harm. Potential alternatives to AICB include locally harvested autograft, calcium-phosphate salts, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and the family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In particular, no option has created greater controversy than the BMPs. A significant increase in the number of publications, particularly with respect to the BMPs, has taken place since the release of the original guidelines. Both DBM and the calciumphosphate salts have demonstrated efficacy as a graft extender or as a substitute for AICB when combined with local autograft. The use of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) as a substitute for AICB, when performing an interbody lumbar fusion, is considered an option since similar outcomes have been observed; however, the potential for heterotopic bone formation is a concern. The use of rhBMP-2, when combined with calcium phosphates, as a substitute for AICB, or as an extender, when used with local autograft or AICB, is also considered an option as similar fusion rates and clinical outcomes have been observed. Surgeons electing to use BMPs should be aware of a growing body of literature demonstrating unique complications associated with the use of BMPs.

  6. Utility of postoperative radiographs after anterior lumbar interbody fusion with or without posterior instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew K; Osler, Polina; Wood, Kirkham B

    2013-11-01

    Retrospective clinical and radiographical review. To evaluate the utility of plain radiographical surveillance after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and determine to what extent radiographical findings affect postoperative decision making. Postoperative radiographical surveillance is a ubiquitous practice among spine surgeons, which lacks evidence and has received growing attention in an environment of increasing health care cost and receding resources. Lumbar interbody fusions are being performed with increasing frequency from numerous approaches; nonetheless, there are no evidence-based guidelines for postoperative radiographical evaluation of patients after these procedures. One hundred forty-six consecutive patients who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion with or without short segment posterior fusion from 2008 to 2011 were reviewed. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 months of follow-up, prior surgery, hybrid constructs with disc arthroplasty, and concurrent posterior fusion of greater than 3 levels. Three hundred fifty-nine radiographical series and 330 clinic notes of the included 67 patients were reviewed. Radiographs were evaluated for abnormalities and clinic notes reviewed for any changes in clinical management by multiple reviewers. Interobserver reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. There was no single instance of a change in treatment course based on radiographical findings alone in any of the 330 clinic visits of the 67 included patients during an average 15.8-month postoperative follow-up period. Thirty-four of the 67 patients (51%) had some change in their management on the basis of their clinical symptoms and/or examination. Interobserver agreement for change in management was 0.96 (κ = 0.918). Sensitivity (6%), specificity (97%), positive predictive value (67%), and negative predictive value (50%) were calculated. Routine postoperative radiographical surveillance has minimal

  7. Evaluation of the Etoricoxib-Mediated Pain-Relieving Effect in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Fusion Procedures for Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis: A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongxiang; Wang, Ping; Hu, Xinlei; Ye, Zhaoming

    2015-04-01

    This randomized, double-blind study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of etoricoxib in controlling the pain during lumbar fusion surgery of the degenerative lumbar scoliosis patients. We found that perioperative use of etoricoxib produced a significant reduction in the degree of pain compared to the patients treated with placebo. Etoricoxib eased the pain and helped to manage the discomfort of lumbar fusion surgery. In addition, etoricoxib was well tolerated as it caused no serious adverse reaction, suggesting a safe profile. Etoricoxib also appeared to ensure and promote the positive effect of surgery, however, insignificantly. Thus, the results suggest that etoricoxib was effective in safely managing the pain during the lumbar fusion surgery and recovery thereafter.

  8. Quantitative Data-driven Utilization of Hematologic Labs Following Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Yew, Andrew Y; Hoffman, Haydn; Li, Charles; McBride, Duncan Q; Holly, Langston T; Lu, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    Retrospective case series. Large national inpatient databases estimate that approximately 200,000 lumbar fusions are performed annually in the United States alone. It is common for surgeons to routinely order postoperative hematologic studies to rule out postoperative anemia despite a paucity of data to support routine laboratory utilization. To describe quantitative criteria to guide postoperative utilization of hematologic laboratory assessments. A retrospective analysis of 490 consecutive lumbar fusion procedures performed at a single institution by 3 spine surgeons was performed. Inclusion criteria included instrumented and noninstrumented lumbar fusions performed for any etiology. Data were acquired on preoperative and postoperative hematocrit, platelets, and international normalized ratio as well as age, sex, number of levels undergoing operation, indication for surgery, and intraoperative blood loss. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine correlation to postoperative transfusion requirement. A total of 490 patients undergoing lumbar fusion were identified. Twenty-five patients (5.1%) required postoperative transfusion. No patients required readmission for anemia or transfusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that reduced preoperative hematocrit and increased intraoperative blood loss were independent predictors of postoperative transfusion requirement. Intraoperative blood loss >1000 mL had an odds ratio of 8.9 (P=0.013), and preoperative hematocrit <35 had an odds ratio of 4.37 (P=0.008) of requiring a postoperative transfusion. Routine postoperative hematologic studies are not necessary in many patients. High intraoperative blood loss and low preoperative hematocrit were independent predictors of postoperative blood transfusion. Our results describe quantitative preoperative and intraoperative criteria to guide data-driven utilization of postoperative hematologic studies following lumbar fusion.

  9. Commentary on: Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis by Ghogawala Z, Dziura J, Butler WE, Dai F, Terrin N, Magge SN, et al. NEJM 2016;374 (15):1424-34

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: How does an article involving only 66 patients randomized into two spinal surgical groups get into the New England Journal of Medicine? Nevertheless, this one did. The article by Ghogawala et al. entitled Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis, compared the efficacy/outcomes of pedicle/screw/rod instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusions vs. decompressions alone for treating lumbar stenosis with grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods: They designed a randomized controlled study involving only 66 patients between the ages of 50–80 (average age: 67) with lumbar stenosis and stable DS (3–14 mm). Outcomes were measured utilizing the physical measures from the Short Form 36 (SF-36) up to 4 postoperative years, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) upt to 2 postoperative years. Data were available for 86% of patients at 2, but only for 68% of the patients at 4 postoperative years. Results: At 2 postoperative years, SF-36 scores were higher for the instrumented patients (28 patients) vs. decompressed (29 patients) patients. However, the scores were comparable for both groups using the ODI at 4 years. SF-36 scores, however, remained higher for the 19 remaining instrumented patients. Additionally, reoperation rates were 14% for fusions and a staggering 34% for decompressions alone. Conclusions: The authors concluded; laminectomy with fusion offered a “slightly greater but clinically meaningful improvement in overall physical health-related quality of life vs. laminectomy alone.” Rather, it should have read there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups and an insufficient number of patients were included in the study at all stages. PMID:27843677

  10. Improving the Clinical Evidence of Bone Graft Substitute Technology in Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wellington K.; Nickoli, M. S.; Wang, J. C.; Lieberman, J. R.; An, H. S.; Yoon, S. T.; Youssef, J. A.; Brodke, D. S.; McCullough, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes have been used routinely for spine fusion for decades, yet clinical evidence establishing comparative data remains sparse. With recent scrutiny paid to the outcomes, complications, and costs associated with osteobiologics, a need to improve available data guiding efficacious use exists. We review the currently available clinical literature, studying the outcomes of various biologics in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion, and establish the need for a multicenter, independent osteobiologics registry. PMID:24353975

  11. Prosthetic Dislocation and Revision After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty in Lumbar Fusion Patients: A Propensity Score Matched-Pair Analysis.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Dean C; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Buckland, Aaron J; Paulino, Carl B; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M

    2017-05-01

    Lumbar-pelvic fusion reduces the variation in pelvic tilt in functional situations by reducing lumbar spine flexibility, which is thought to be important in maintaining stability of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). We compared dislocation and revision rates for patients with lumbar fusion and subsequent THA to a matched comparison cohort with hip and spine degenerative changes undergoing only THA. We identified patients in New York State who underwent primary elective lumbar fusion for degenerative disc disease pathology and subsequent THA between January 2005 and December 2012. A propensity score match was performed to compare 934 patients with prior lumbar fusion to 934 patients with only THA according to age, gender, race, Deyo comorbidity score, year of surgery, and surgeon volume. Revision and dislocation rates were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months post-THA. At 12 months, patients with prior lumbar fusion had significantly increased rates of THA dislocation (control: 0.4%; fusion: 3.0%; P < .001) and revision (control: 0.9%; fusion: 3.9%; P < .001). At 12 months, fusion patients were 7.19 times more likely to dislocate their THA (P < .001) and 4.64 times more likely to undergo revision (P < .001). Patients undergoing lumbar fusion and subsequent THA have significantly higher risks of dislocation and revision of their hip arthroplasty than a matched cohort of patients with similar hip and spine pathology but only undergoing THA. During preoperative consultation for patients with prior lumbar fusion, orthopedic surgeons must educate the patient and family about the increased risk of dislocation and revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of a narrow-surface cage in full endoscopic minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    He, Er-Xing; Guo, Jing; Ling, Qin-Jie; Yin, Zhi-Xun; Wang, Ying; Li, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Spinal endoscopy has been widely applied in lumbar discectomy and decompression. However, endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion still remains a technical challenge due to the limited space within the working trocar for cage implantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a narrow-surface fusion cage in full endoscopic minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. From Jun 2013 to Dec 2014, a total of 42 patients (23 males, 19 females) underwent full endoscopic MIS-TLIF at our hospital was recruited. An 8-mm-wide narrow-surface fusion cage was selected for all cases. Perioperative parameters and complications were recorded. Comparisons on visual analog scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI) scores before and after surgery were performed. At the last follow-up, Nakai grading system was applied to assess patients' satisfaction; meanwhile, interbody fusion was evaluated by computed tomography. Mean operation time was 233.1 ± 69.5 min, and mean blood loss during surgery was 221.8 ± 98.5 ml. Two patients (4.8%) developed neurological complications. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 24 to 36 months (mean 27.6 ± 3.8 months). VAS and ODI scores were significantly improved 3 months after surgery and at the final follow-up, respectively (P < 0.05). Outcome of surgery was graded as excellent for 32 patients, good for 8 patients, and acceptable for 2 patients, corresponding to a success rate ("good" and "excellent") of 95.2%. Thirty-nine of the 42 patients demonstrated solid interbody fusion at the last follow-up, indicating a fusion rate of 92.9%. Application of a narrow-surface fusion cage in full endoscopic MIS-TLIF for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease is feasible and effective. The clinical outcome and fusion success of this procedure were acceptable and promising. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd

  13. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion: two-year results with a modular interbody device.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Keith Lynn; Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Retrospective case series. To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures.

  14. Loss of lumbar lordosis. A complication of spinal fusion for scoliosis.

    PubMed

    La Grone, M O

    1988-04-01

    Symptomatic loss of lumbar lordosis is a disabling complication of scoliosis surgery. This so-called "flat-back syndrome" is characterized by an inability to stand erect and by upper back pain. Distraction instrumentation extending into the lower lumbar spine or sacrum is the most frequently identified etiologic factor responsible for loss of lordosis. The more distal the level of instrumentation, the severer the loss of lumbar lordosis. Other factors that may aggravate the loss of lordosis include thoracolumbar kyphosis, fixed thoracic kyphosis, hip flexion contractures, and pseudoarthrosis. Because of the wide range of values for kyphosis and lordosis in normal individuals, there is no absolute value that can be considered "normal." It is the overall sagittal plane balance that is most important. The most useful radiographic measurement to evaluate this sagittal plane balance is the full-length standing lateral radiograph with the knees extended. On this view, the C7-S1 measurement should fall within 2 cm of the anterior aspect of the sacrum. Surgical treatment for symptomatic loss of lumbar lordosis consists of closing wedge osteotomies through the fusion mass. This should generally be preceded by an anterior release and interbody fusion. Correction should be obtained at the site of the deformity with particular attention paid to the thoracolumbar junction. The surgery is difficult and the risk of complication is high. The most important aspect of this postural disorder is prevention. Avoid distraction instrumentation that extends into the lumbar spine if possible. When distraction instrumentation is used, the techniques described will help preserve lumbar lordosis. When performing a fusion to the sacrum, distraction instrumentation should not be used.

  15. Impact of obesity on complications and outcomes: a comparison of fusion and nonfusion lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Onyekwelu, Ikemefuna; Glassman, Steven D; Asher, Anthony L; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Carreon, Leah Y

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Prior studies have shown obesity to be associated with higher complication rates but equivalent clinical outcomes following lumbar spine surgery. These findings have been reproducible across lumbar spine surgery in general and for lumbar fusion specifically. Nevertheless, surgeons seem inclined to limit the extent of surgery, perhaps opting for decompression alone rather than decompression plus fusion, in obese patients. The purpose of this study was to ascertain any difference in clinical improvement or complication rates between obese and nonobese patients following decompression alone compared with decompression plus fusion for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). METHODS The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD), formerly known as the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD), was queried for patients who had undergone decompression plus fusion (D+F group) versus decompression alone (D+0 group) for LSS and were stratified by a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (obese) or < 30 kg/m(2) (nonobese). Demographic, surgical, and health-related quality of life data were compared. RESULTS In the nonobese cohort, 947 patients underwent decompression alone and 319 underwent decompression plus fusion. In the obese cohort, 844 patients had decompression alone and 337 had decompression plus fusion. There were no significant differences in the Oswestry Disability Index score or in leg pain improvement at 12 months when comparing decompression with fusion to decompression without fusion in either obese or nonobese cohorts. However, absolute improvement in back pain was less in the obese group when decompression alone had been performed. Blood loss and operative time were lowest in the nonobese D+0 cohort and were higher in obese patients with or without fusion. Obese patients had a longer hospital stay (4.1 days) than the nonobese patients (3.3 days) when fusion had been performed. In-hospital stay was similar in both obese and nonobese D+0 cohorts. No

  16. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. The mean follow-up was 36.9 months (range: 24-62 months). The kyphotic angle ranged from 15.2-35.1° preoperatively, with an average measurement of 27.8°. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score system was used to evaluate the neurological deficits and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) used to judge the activity of TB. Spinal TB was completely cured in all 17 patients. There was no recurrent TB infection. The postoperative kyphotic angle was 6.6-10.2°, 8.1° in average, and there was no significant loss of the correction at final follow-up. Solid fusion was achieved in all cases. Neurological condition in all patients was improved after surgery. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation can be a feasible and effective method the in treatment of single-segment lumbar spinal TB.

  17. Subsidence of polyetheretherketone intervertebral cages in minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Le, Tien V; Baaj, Ali A; Dakwar, Elias; Burkett, Clinton J; Murray, Gisela; Smith, Donald A; Uribe, Juan S

    2012-06-15

    A retrospective review. The objective is to evaluate subsidence related to minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion by reviewing our experience with this procedure. Polyetheretherketone intervertebral cages of different lengths, widths, and heights filled with various allograft types are commonly used as spacers in lumbar fusions. Subsidence is a potential complication. To date, there are no published reports specifically addressing subsidence, because it relates to a series of patients undergoing minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion. An institutional review board-approved, retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was conducted. One hundred forty consecutive patients who underwent this procedure between L1 and L5 during a 2-year period were included. All patients had T scores of -2.5 or more. Postoperative radiographs during routine follow-ups were reviewed for subsidence, defined as any violation of the vertebral end plate. Radiographical subsidence occurred in 14.3% (20 of 140), whereas clinical subsidence occurred in 2.1%. Subsidence occurred in 8.8% (21 of 238) of levels fused. Construct length had a significant positive correlation with increasing subsidence rates. Subsidence rates decreased progressively with lower levels in the lumbar spine, but had a higher than expected rate at L4-L5. Subsidence rates of 14.1% (19 of 135) and 1.9% (2 of 103) were associated with 18-and 22-mm-wide cages, respectively. No significant trends were observed with cage lengths. Supplemental lateral plates had a higher rate of subsidence than bilateral pedicle screws. Subsidence occurred at the superior end plate 70% of the time. The use of wider intervertebral cages leads to a significantly lower rate of subsidence, but a longer cage does not necessarily offer a similar advantage. Wide cages are protective against subsidence, and the widest cages should be used whenever feasible for interbody

  18. Negative effect of rapidly resorbing properties of bioactive glass-ceramics as bone graft substitute in a rabbit lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Do-Yoon; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics have the ability to directly bind to bones and have been widely used as bone graft substitutes due to their high osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics are known to have good osteoconductivity and are used as bone graft extenders. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the resorbing properties of glass-ceramics in bone fusion after producing and analyzing three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with high osteoconductivity that had enhanced resorption by having an increased B2O3 content. The three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with B2O3 contents of 8.0, 9.0, and 9.5 weight % were designated and grouped as P20B80, P10B90, and P5B95, respectively. Glass-ceramic types were tested for fusion rates and bone formation by employing the lumbar 5-6 intertransverse process fusion model in 51 New Zealand male rabbits. Bioactivity was assessed by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro study results showed sufficient hydroxycarbonate apatite layer formation occurred for P20B80 in1 day, for P10B90 in 3 days, and for P5B95 in 5 days after soaking in SBF. For the rabbit lumbar spine posterolateral fusion model, the autograft group recorded a 100% fusion rate with levels significantly higher than those of P20B80 (29.4%), P10B90 (0%), and P5B95 (14.3%), with high resorbing properties. Resorbing property differences among the three glass-ceramic groups were not significant. Histological results showed new bone formation confirming osteoconductivity in all three types of glass-ceramics. Radiomorphometric results also confirmed the resorbing properties of the three glass-ceramic types. The high resorbing properties and osteoconductivity of porous glass-ceramics can be advantageous as no glass-ceramics remain in the body. However, their relatively fast rate of resorption in the body negatively affects their role as an osteoconductive scaffold as glass-ceramics are resorbed before bony fusion.

  19. Negative Effect of Rapidly Resorbing Properties of Bioactive Glass-Ceramics as Bone Graft Substitute in a Rabbit Lumbar Fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Do-Yoon; Chang, Bong-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioactive glass-ceramics have the ability to directly bind to bones and have been widely used as bone graft substitutes due to their high osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics are known to have good osteoconductivity and are used as bone graft extenders. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the resorbing properties of glass-ceramics in bone fusion after producing and analyzing three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with high osteoconductivity that had enhanced resorption by having an increased B2O3 content. The three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with B2O3 contents of 8.0, 9.0, and 9.5 weight % were designated and grouped as P20B80, P10B90, and P5B95, respectively. Glass-ceramic types were tested for fusion rates and bone formation by employing the lumbar 5-6 intertransverse process fusion model in 51 New Zealand male rabbits. Bioactivity was assessed by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results In vitro study results showed sufficient hydroxycarbonate apatite layer formation occurred for P20B80 in1 day, for P10B90 in 3 days, and for P5B95 in 5 days after soaking in SBF. For the rabbit lumbar spine posterolateral fusion model, the autograft group recorded a 100% fusion rate with levels significantly higher than those of P20B80 (29.4%), P10B90 (0%), and P5B95 (14.3%), with high resorbing properties. Resorbing property differences among the three glass-ceramic groups were not significant. Histological results showed new bone formation confirming osteoconductivity in all three types of glass-ceramics. Radiomorphometric results also confirmed the resorbing properties of the three glass-ceramic types. Conclusions The high resorbing properties and osteoconductivity of porous glass-ceramics can be advantageous as no glass-ceramics remain in the body. However, their relatively fast rate of resorption in the body negatively affects their role as an osteoconductive scaffold as glass

  20. Establishing benchmarks for the volume-outcome relationship for common lumbar spine surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Sturgeon, Daniel J; Burns, Camden B; Hunt, Tyler J; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-09-05

    The importance of surgeon volume as a quality measure has been defined for a number of surgical specialties. Meaningful procedural volume benchmarks have not been established, however, particularly with respect to lumbar spine surgery. To establish surgeon volume benchmarks for the performance of four common lumbar spine surgical procedures (discectomy, decompression, lumbar interbody fusion, lumbar posterolateral fusion). Retrospective review of data in the Florida Statewide Inpatient Dataset (2011-2014). Patients who underwent one of the four lumbar spine surgical procedures under study. The development of a complication or hospital readmission within 90-days of the surgical procedure. For each specific procedure, individual surgeon volume was separately plotted against the number of complications and readmissions in a spline analysis that adjusted for co-variates. Spline cut points were used to create a categorical variable of procedure volume for each individual procedure. Log-binomial regression analysis was then separately performed using the categorical volume-outcome metric for each individual procedure and for the outcomes of 90-day complications and 90-day readmissions. In all, 187,185 spine surgical procedures met inclusion criteria, performed by 5,514 different surgeons at 178 hospitals. Spline analysis determined that the procedure volume cut-point was 25 for decompressions, 40 for discectomy, 43 for interbody fusion and 35 for posterolateral fusions. For surgeons who failed to meet the volume metric, there was a 63% increase in the risk of complications following decompressions, a 56% increase in the risk of complications following discectomy, a 15% increase in the risk of complications following lumbar interbody fusions and a 47% increase in the risk of complications following posterolateral fusions. Findings were similar for readmission measures. The results of this work allow us to identify meaningful volume-based benchmarks for the performance of

  1. Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

    2013-10-01

    This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases.

  2. Overpowering posterior lumbar instrumentation and fusion with hyperlordotic anterior lumbar interbody cages followed by posterior revision: a preliminary feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Abhijeet; Wigner, Nathan; Saville, Philip; Arlet, Vincent

    2017-09-29

    OBJECTIVE The authors' aim in this study was to evaluate whether sagittal plane correction can be obtained from the front by overpowering previous posterior instrumentation and/or fusion with hyperlordotic anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cages in patients undergoing revision surgery for degenerative spinal conditions and/or spinal deformities. METHODS The authors report their experience with the application of hyperlordotic cages at 36 lumbar levels for ALIFs in a series of 20 patients who underwent revision spinal surgery at a single institution. Included patients underwent staged front-back procedures: ALIFs with hyperlordotic cages (12°, 20°, and 30°) followed by removal of posterior instrumentation and reinstrumentation from the back. Patients were divided into the following 2 groups depending on the extent of posterior instrumentation and fusion during the second stage: long constructs (≥ 6 levels with extension into thoracic spine and/or pelvis) and short constructs (< 6 levels). Preoperative and postoperative standing radiographs were evaluated to measure segmental lordosis (SL) along with standard sagittal parameters. Radiographic signs of pseudarthrosis at previously fused levels were also sought in all patients. RESULTS The average patient age was 54 years (range 30-66 years). The mean follow-up was 11.5 months (range 5-26 months). The mean SL achieved with 12°, 20°, and 30° cages was 13.1°, 19°, and 22.4°, respectively. The increase in postoperative SL at the respective surgically treated levels for 12°, 20°, and 30° cages that were used to overpower posterior instrumentation/fusion averaged 6.1° (p < 0.05), 12.5° (p < 0.05), and 17.7° (p < 0.05), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in SL correction at levels in patients who had pseudarthrosis (n = 18) versus those who did not (n = 18). The mean overall lumbar lordosis increased from 44.3° to 59.8° (p < 0.05). In the long-construct group, the mean

  3. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Discogenic Low Back Pain: Evaluation of L4-S1 Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianqiang; Fang, Xiutong; Zhong, Weiye; Liu, Ning; Wood, Kirkham B

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of degenerative discogenic pain is controversial, and anterior lumbar fusion for the treatment of degenerative discogenic low back pain has also been a controversial topic for over a generation.The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the outcome of different anterior lumbar fusion levels for degenerative discogenic low back pain.In this study, we performed a clinical outcome subgroup analysis. The outcomes of 84 consecutive patients who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) results, and complication rate were recorded separately.Medical indications were degenerative disc disease (73.8%), postdiscectomy disc disease (16.1%), and disc herniation (9.5%). Patients with severe spondylolysis or disc degeneration, with more than 3 or multilevel lesions, were excluded.The mean operative time was 124.5 ± 10.9 min (range 51-248 min), the mean intraoperative blood loss was 242.1 ± 27.7 mL (range 50-2700 mL), the mean hospital stay was 3.9 ± 1.1 days (range 3-6 days), the mean preoperative VAS score was 7.5 ± 1.4, and the mean preoperative ODI score was 60.0 ± 5.7. At the 1-year follow-up, the mean postoperative VAS score was 3.3 ± 1.3 and the mean postoperative ODI score was 13.6 ± 3.4 (P < 0.05). L4-L5 disc fusion led to better clinical results than 2-level L4-L5/L5-S1 disc fusion. Additionally, the 2-level fusion of L4-L5/L5-S1 had better clinical results than the L5-S1 disc fusion at both the 1 and 2-year postoperative follow-ups regarding the VAS score and the ODI score. The rate of complications was more frequent in the 2-level L4-L5/L5-S1 group (27.3%) (group C) than in the L4-L5 group (9.1%) (group A) and the L5-S1 group (12.5%) (group B). There was no difference between the L4-L5 group (9.1%) and the L5-S1 group (12.5%). A venous tear

  4. Minimally Invasive Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Spinal Endoscope Assistance: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Hwa; Choi, Won Suh; Park, Choon-Keun; Kim, Jin-Sung

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the surgical methodology and effectiveness of minimally invasive oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) assisted by spinal endoscopy, which can treat disk herniation from the central to contralateral foramen. OLIF showed indirect decompression effects on reduction of spondylolisthesis and a foraminal widening effect on disk height restoration. In this study, the indirect decompression effect of OLIF was augmented by direct endoscopic decompression and spinal endoscopy for removal of herniated disk materials. Twelve patients with confirmed degenerative lumbar stenosis, herniated lumbar disks, and degenerative spondylolisthesis were treated using OLIF with spinal endoscopic discectomy. Direct ventral decompression was achieved by removal of herniated disk materials. The symptoms of all patients improved postoperatively. OLIF with spinal endoscopic discectomy can achieve neural decompression without additional posterior decompression and can be used as an alternative treatment in selected cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Segmental and global lordosis changes with two-level axial lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Melgar, Miguel A; Tobler, William D; Ernst, Robert J; Raley, Thomas J; Anand, Neel; Miller, Larry E; Nasca, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Background Loss of lumbar lordosis has been reported after lumbar interbody fusion surgery and may portend poor clinical and radiographic outcome. The objective of this research was to measure changes in segmental and global lumbar lordosis in patients treated with presacral axial L4-S1 interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation and to determine if these changes influenced patient outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective, multi-center review of prospectively collected data in 58 consecutive patients with disabling lumbar pain and radiculopathy unresponsive to nonsurgical treatment who underwent L4-S1 interbody fusion with the AxiaLIF two-level system (Baxano Surgical, Raleigh NC). Main outcomes included back pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Odom's outcome criteria, and fusion status using flexion and extension radiographs and computed tomography scans. Segmental (L4-S1) and global (L1-S1) lumbar lordosis measurements were made using standing lateral radiographs. All patients were followed for at least 24 months (mean: 29 months, range 24-56 months). Results There was no bowel injury, vascular injury, deep infection, neurologic complication or implant failure. Mean back pain severity improved from 7.8±1.7 at baseline to 3.3±2.6 at 2 years (p < 0.001). Mean ODI scores improved from 60±15% at baseline to 34±27% at 2 years (p < 0.001). At final follow-up, 83% of patients were rated as good or excellent using Odom's criteria. Interbody fusion was observed in 111 (96%) of 116 treated interspaces. Maintenance of lordosis, defined as a change in Cobb angle ≤ 5°, was identified in 84% of patients at L4-S1 and 81% of patients at L1-S1. Patients with loss or gain in segmental or global lordosis experienced similar 2-year outcomes versus those with less than a 5° change. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance Two-level axial interbody fusion supplemented with posterior fixation does not alter segmental or global lordosis in most patients. Patients with

  6. An association can be found between hounsfield units and success of lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Joseph J; Hughes, Alexander P; Taher, Fadi; Girardi, Federico P

    2014-02-01

    Measuring Hounsfield units (HUs) from computed tomography (CT) scans has recently been proposed as a tool for assessing vertebral bone quality, as it has been associated with bone mineral density, compressive strength, and fracture risk. Vertebral bone quality is believed to be an important determinant of outcome and complication rates following spine surgery and potentially influences success of interbody spinal fusion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HU on CT scans and fusion success in patients with lateral transpsoas surgery for lumbar interbody fusion (LIF). The CT scans of 28 patients with a combined 52 levels of stand-alone LIF were evaluated at a minimum of 12 weeks postoperatively. Coronal and sagittal images were evaluated for evidence of fusion, and HU values were collected from axial images. HU measurements were also taken from vertebral bodies proximal to the construct to evaluate global bone quality. Of the 52 LIF levels, 73% were assessed as fused and 27% were nonunited at the time of evaluation. The successful fusion levels had significantly higher HU measurements than the nonunion levels (203.3 vs. 139.8, p < 0.001). Patients with successful fusion constructs also had higher global bone density when vertebral bodies proximal to the construct were compared (133.7 vs. 107.3, p < 0.05). With the aging population and increasing prevalence of osteoporosis, preoperative assessment of bone quality prior to spinal fusion deserves special consideration. We found that a successful lumbar fusion was associated with patients with higher bone density, as assessed with HU, both globally and within the fusion construct, as compared to patients with CT evidence of nonunion.

  7. Dislocation of a primary total hip arthroplasty is more common in patients with a lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Buckland, A J; Puvanesarajah, V; Vigdorchik, J; Schwarzkopf, R; Jain, A; Klineberg, E O; Hart, R A; Callaghan, J J; Hassanzadeh, H

    2017-05-01

    Lumbar fusion is known to reduce the variation in pelvic tilt between standing and sitting. A flexible lumbo-pelvic unit increases the stability of total hip arthroplasty (THA) when seated by increasing anterior clearance and acetabular anteversion, thereby preventing impingement of the prosthesis. Lumbar fusion may eliminate this protective pelvic movement. The effect of lumbar fusion on the stability of total hip arthroplasty has not previously been investigated. The Medicare database was searched for patients who had undergone THA and spinal fusion between 2005 and 2012. PearlDiver software was used to query the database by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedural code for primary THA and lumbar spinal fusion. Patients who had undergone both lumbar fusion and THA were then divided into three groups: 1 to 2 levels, 3 to 7 levels and 8+ levels of fusion. The rate of dislocation in each group was established using ICD-9-CM codes. Patients who underwent THA without spinal fusion were used as a control group. Statistical significant difference between groups was tested using the chi-squared test, and significance set at p < 0.05. At one-year follow-up, 14 747 patients were found to have had a THA after lumbar spinal fusion (12 079 1 to 2 levels, 2594 3 to 7 levels, 74 8+ levels). The control group consisted of 839 004 patients. The dislocation rate in the control group was 1.55%. A higher rate of dislocation was found in patients with a spinal fusion of 1 to 2 levels (2.96%, p < 0.0001) and 3 to 7 levels (4.12%, p < 0.0001). Patients with 3 to 7 levels of fusion had a higher rate of dislocation than patients with 1 to 2 levels of fusion (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, p < 0.0001). When groups were matched for age and gender to the unfused cohort, patients with 1 to 2 levels of fusion had an OR of 1.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42 to 2.32, p < 0.001), and those with 3 to 7 levels of fusion an OR of 2.77 (CI

  8. Do Trunk Muscles Affect the Lumbar Interbody Fusion Rate?: Correlation of Trunk Muscle Cross Sectional Area and Fusion Rates after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Stand-Alone Cage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man Kyu; Park, Bong Jin; Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Sung Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although trunk muscles in the lumbar spine preserve spinal stability and motility, little is known about the relationship between trunk muscles and spinal fusion rate. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between trunk muscles cross sectional area (MCSA) and fusion rate after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using stand-alone cages. Methods A total of 89 adult patients with degenerative lumbar disease who were performed PLIF using stand-alone cages at L4–5 were included in this study. The cross-sectional area of the psoas major (PS), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles were quantitatively evaluated by preoperative lumbar magnetic resonance imaging at the L3–4, L4–5, and L5–S1 segments, and bone union was evaluated by dynamic lumbar X-rays. Results Of the 89 patients, 68 had bone union and 21 did not. The MCSAs at all segments in both groups were significantly different (p<0.05) for the PS muscle, those at L3–4 and L4–5 segments between groups were significantly different (p=0.048, 0.021) for the ES and MF muscles. In the multivariate analysis, differences in the PS MCSA at the L4–5 and L5–S1 segments remained significant (p=0.048, 0.043 and odds ratio=1.098, 1.169). In comparison analysis between male and female patients, most MCSAs of male patients were larger than female's. Fusion rates of male patients (80.7%) were higher than female's (68.8%), too. Conclusion For PLIF surgery, PS muscle function appears to be an important factor for bone union and preventing back muscle injury is essential for better fusion rate. PMID:27226860

  9. Operative treatment of symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis and mild isthmic spondylolisthesis in young patients: direct repair of the defect or segmental spinal fusion?

    PubMed

    Schlenzka, D; Seitsalo, S; Poussa, M; Osterman, K

    1993-08-01

    Summary. The results of 23 patients with symptomatic spondylolysis or mild isthmic spondylolisthesis treated by Scott's direct repair of the defect (secclusion) were analyzed with particular reference to spinal mobility and the condition of the intervertebral discs, and compared with the outcome of 25 patients treated by posterolateral segmental fusion without instrumentation. The two groups were comparable as to age at operation (17.4 +/- 5.7 vs. 15.6 +/- 2.6 years), follow-up time (54 +/- 8 vs. 54 +/- 25 months), gender, and preoperative subjective symptoms. The mean preoperative vertebral slip was greater in the fusion group (7.2 +/- 8.4 vs. 13.1 +/- 4, P = 0.003). The follow-up assessment was carried out by an independent observer. It included an interview, Oswestry questionnaire, pain scale drawing, physical examination, plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional testing (lumbar spine mobility, static lifting power). For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test, the chi2 test, and the paired t-test were used. At followup, 87% of the Scott's group and 96% of the fusion group had occasional pain, not interfering with daily activities, or no pain at all. There was no statistical difference in the subjective, clinical, or functional outcome between the two operation groups. Plain radiographs in both groups showed significant loss of disc height in the operated segment during follow-up, indicating postoperative progression of disc degeneration. In flexion/extension radiographs the total range of movement in the three lowermost lumbar segments was slightly greater after secclusion. This difference was not significant. In MRI there was no statistical difference in disc hydration index between the two groups. The condition of the disc above the fusion was not worse than that of the corresponding disc above the secclusion. There was no correlation between pathologic disc findings in MRI and clinical outcome. It is concluded that in a small

  10. Variability in Standard Outcomes of Posterior Lumbar Fusion Determined by National Databases.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jacob R; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-01-01

    National databases are used with increasing frequency in spine surgery literature to evaluate patient outcomes. The differences between individual databases in relationship to outcomes of lumbar fusion are not known. We evaluated the variability in standard outcomes of posterior lumbar fusion between the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) database and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS). NIS and UHC databases were queried for all posterior lumbar fusions (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 81.07) performed in 2012. Patient demographics, comorbidities (including obesity), length of stay (LOS), in-hospital mortality, and complications such as urinary tract infection, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, durotomy, and surgical site infection were collected using specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Analysis included 21,470 patients from the NIS database and 14,898 patients from the UHC database. Demographic data were not significantly different between databases. Obesity was more prevalent in UHC (P = 0.001). Mean LOS was 3.8 days in NIS and 4.55 in UHC (P < 0.0001). Complications were significantly higher in UHC, including urinary tract infection, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, surgical site infection, and durotomy. In-hospital mortality was similar between databases. NIS and UHC databases had similar demographic patient populations undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. However, the UHC database reported significantly higher complication rate and longer LOS. This difference may reflect academic institutions treating higher-risk patients; however, a definitive reason for the variability between databases is unknown. The inability to precisely determine the basis of the variability between databases highlights the limitations of using administrative databases for spinal outcome analysis. Copyright

  11. Subsidence of metal interbody cage after posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Ajiro, Yasumitsu; Umezawa, Natsuki

    2009-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion is considered to be an excellent fusion procedure to stabilize anterior support, correct alignment in the sagittal and coronal plane, and achieve foraminal decompression by lifting the disk height. The metal interbody cage in posterior lumbar interbody fusion is thought to be useful to prevent collapse of the graft bone and to correct and maintain disk height; however, some studies have noted a gradual decrease of disk height due to cage subsidence. Therefore, to investigate the significance of cage subsidence, 86 disk levels radiographically confirmed to have good union in 66 patients with posterior lumbar interbody fusion combined with pedicle screw fixation and a single metal cage for degenerative lumbar disease were retrospectively evaluated. The follow-up period ranged from 3 years to 10 years 3 months, with a mean of 7 years 9 months. Cage subsidence often showed a gradual increase over time. At final follow-up, subsidence averaged 4.0 mm on the cranial surface and 2.7 mm on the caudal surface. Although the average increase of disk height was 3.2 mm immediately postoperatively, the final disk height decreased by 4.2 mm on average from that time. The degree of cage subsidence and decrease of disk height were not correlated with the final clinical results. Subsidence was not correlated with bone mineral density in the vertebral body, body weight, or site of the insertion. On the other hand, the wedge shape of the cage and the thickness of the resected endplate had a significant influence on cage subsidence.

  12. Comparative outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for posterior lumbar fusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Christina L; Macwan, Kevin; Sundararajan, Kala; Rampersaud, Y Raja

    2014-06-01

    Although minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches to the lumbar spine for posterior fusion are increasingly being utilized, the comparative outcomes of MIS and open posterior lumbar fusion remain unclear. In this systematic review, we compared MIS and open transforaminal or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF/PLIF), specifically with respect to (1) surgical end points (including blood loss, surgical time, and fluoroscopy time), (2) clinical outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] and VAS pain scores), and (3) adverse events. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE(®), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Reference lists were manually searched. We included studies with 10 or more patients undergoing MIS compared to open TLIF/PLIF for degenerative lumbar disorders and reporting on surgical end points, clinical outcomes, or adverse events. Twenty-six studies of low- or very low-quality (GRADE protocol) met our inclusion criteria. No significant differences in patient demographics were identified between the cohorts (MIS: n = 856; open: n = 806). Equivalent operative times were observed between the cohorts, although patients undergoing MIS fusion tended to lose less blood, be exposed to more fluoroscopy, and leave the hospital sooner than their open counterparts. Patient-reported outcomes, including VAS pain scores and ODI values, were clinically equivalent between the MIS and open cohorts at 12 to 36 months postoperatively. Trends toward lower rates of surgical and medical adverse events were also identified in patients undergoing MIS procedures. However, in the absence of randomization, selection bias may have influenced these results in favor of MIS fusion. Current evidence examining MIS versus open TLIF/PLIF is of low to very low quality and therefore highly biased. Results of this systematic review suggest equipoise in surgical and clinical outcomes with equivalent rates of intraoperative surgical complications and perhaps a slight decrease

  13. Failure of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer implant used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4-L5 and L5-S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5-S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability.

  14. Failure of a Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Implant Used for Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4–L5 and L5–S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5–S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability. PMID:24436878

  15. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  16. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  17. Lumbar Fusion for Degenerative Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yavin, Daniel; Casha, Steven; Wiebe, Samuel; Feasby, Thomas E; Clark, Callie; Isaacs, Albert; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Hurlbert, R John; Quan, Hude; Nataraj, Andrew; Sutherland, Garnette R; Jette, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Due to uncertain evidence, lumbar fusion for degenerative indications is associated with the greatest measured practice variation of any surgical procedure. To summarize the current evidence on the comparative safety and efficacy of lumbar fusion, decompression-alone, or nonoperative care for degenerative indications. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to June 30, 2016). Comparative studies reporting validated measures of safety or efficacy were included. Treatment effects were calculated through DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. The literature search yielded 65 studies (19 randomized controlled trials, 16 prospective cohort studies, 15 retrospective cohort studies, and 15 registries) enrolling a total of 302 620 patients. Disability, pain, and patient satisfaction following fusion, decompression-alone, or nonoperative care were dependent on surgical indications and study methodology. Relative to decompression-alone, the risk of reoperation following fusion was increased for spinal stenosis (relative risk [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.28) and decreased for spondylolisthesis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.83). Among patients with spinal stenosis, complications were more frequent following fusion (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.18-2.96). Mortality was not significantly associated with any treatment modality. Positive clinical change was greatest in patients undergoing fusion for spondylolisthesis while complications and the risk of reoperation limited the benefit of fusion for spinal stenosis. The relative safety and efficacy of fusion for chronic low back pain suggests careful patient selection is required (PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews number, CRD42015020153).

  18. More nerve root injuries occur with minimally invasive lumbar surgery, especially extreme lateral interbody fusion: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the lumbar spine, do more nerve root injuries occur utilizing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques versus open lumbar procedures? To answer this question, we compared the frequency of nerve root injuries for multiple open versus MIS operations including diskectomy, laminectomy with/without fusion addressing degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and/or degenerative spondylolisthesis. Methods: Several of Desai et al. large Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial studies showed the frequency for nerve root injury following an open diskectomy ranged from 0.13% to 0.25%, for open laminectomy/stenosis with/without fusion it was 0%, and for open laminectomy/stenosis/degenerative spondylolisthesis with/without fusion it was 2%. Results: Alternatively, one study compared the incidence of root injuries utilizing MIS transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) techniques; 7.8% of PLIF versus 2% of TLIF patients sustained root injuries. Furthermore, even higher frequencies of radiculitis and nerve root injuries occurred during anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIFs) versus extreme lateral interbody fusions (XLIFs). These high frequencies were far from acceptable; 15.8% following ALIF experienced postoperative radiculitis, while 23.8% undergoing XLIF sustained root/plexus deficits. Conclusions: This review indicates that MIS (TLIF/PLIF/ALIF/XLIF) lumbar surgery resulted in a higher incidence of root injuries, radiculitis, or plexopathy versus open lumbar surgical techniques. Furthermore, even a cursory look at the XLIF data demonstrated the greater danger posed to neural tissue by this newest addition to the MIS lumbar surgical armamentariu. The latter should prompt us as spine surgeons to question why the XLIF procedure is still being offered to our patients? PMID:26904372

  19. Computational comparison of three posterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques by using porous titanium interbody cages with 50% porosity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Heng; Chung, Chi-Jen; Wang, Chih-Wei; Peng, Yao-Te; Chang, Chih-Han; Chen, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Yen-Nien; Li, Chun-Ting

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the biomechanical response of porous cages and lumbar spine segments immediately after surgery and after bone fusion, in addition to the long-term effects of various posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) techniques, by using the finite element method. Lumbar L3-L4 models based on three PLIF techniques (a single cage at the center of the intervertebral space, a single cage half-anterior to the intervertebral space, and two cages bilateral to the intervertebral space) with and without bone ingrowth were used to determine the biomechanical response of porous cages and lumbar segments instrumented with porous titanium cages (cage porosity=50%, pore diameter=1mm). The results indicated that bone fusion enhanced the stability of the lumbar segments with porous cages without any posterior instrumentation and reduced the peak von Mises stress in the cortical bones and porous cages. Two cages placed bilateral to the intervertebral space achieved the highest structural stability in the lumbar segment and lowest von Mises stress in the cages under both bone fusion conditions. Under identical loading (2-Nm), the range of motion in the single cage at the center of the intervertebral space with bone fusion decreased by 11% (from 1.18° to 1.05°) during flexion and by 66.5% (from 4.46° to 1.5°) during extension in the single cage half-anterior to the intervertebral space with bone fusion compared with no-fusion models. Thus, two porous titanium cages with 50% porosity can achieve high stability of a lumbar segment with PLIF. If only one cage is available, placing the cage half-anterior to the intervertebral space is recommended for managing degenerated lumbar segments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using the ACS-NSQIP to identify factors affecting hospital length of stay after elective posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Basques, Bryce A.; Fu, Michael C.; Buerba, Rafael A.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Golinvaux, Nicholas S.; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database from 2005 to 2010 that included 1,861 patients who had undergone elective posterior lumbar fusion. Objective To characterize factors that were independently associated with increased hospital length of stay (LOS) in patients who had undergone elective posterior lumbar fusion. Summary of Background Data Posterior lumbar spine fusion is a common surgical procedure used to treat lumbar spine pathology. LOS is an important clinical variable and a major determinant of inpatient hospital costs. There is lack of studies in the literature using multivariate analysis to specifically examine the predictors of LOS after elective posterior lumbar fusion. Methods Patients who underwent elective posterior lumbar fusion from 2005 to 2010 were identified in the ACS-NSQIP database. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were extracted for each case and a multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the contribution of each variable to LOS. Results A total of 1,861 elective posterior lumbar fusion patients were identified. The average age for patients in this cohort was 60.6 ± 13.9 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) with a body mass index (BMI) of 30.3 ± 6.2 kg/m2. 44.7% of patients were male. LOS ranged from 0 days to 51 days. Multivariate linear regression identified age (p < 0.001), morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (p = 0.001), operative time (p < 0.001), multilevel procedure (p = 0.001), and intraoperative transfusion (p < 0.001) as significant predictors of extended LOS. Conclusion The identified preoperative and intraoperative variables associated with extended LOS after elective posterior lumbar fusion may be helpful to clinicians for patient counseling and postoperative planning. PMID:24384669

  1. Comparison of Outcomes of Anterior, Posterior, and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery at a Single Lumbar Level with Degenerative Spinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yi, Seong; Ha, Yoon; Shin, Dong Ah; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keun Su

    2017-05-01

    The fusion rate in spinal surgery may vary in relation to the technique, and it remains unknown which surgical technique provides the best fusion rate and surgical outcome. We aimed to compare radiologic and surgical results between 3 surgical techniques used for lumbar interbody fusion. Participants included 77 patients diagnosed with degenerative spinal stenosis including spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to surgical technique: anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF, n = 26), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF, n = 21), and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF, n = 30). Various radiologic parameters were measured, including fusion rates. Significant changes after surgery were observed in the ALIF group for the percentage of vertebral body slippage, anterior disk height, posterior disk height, and segmental range of movement (ROM). The fusion rate on computed tomography (CT) scan at the final follow-up was 69.2% in the ALIF group, 72.7% in the TLIF group, and 64.3% in the PLIF group. The cage subsidence rate 2 years after surgery was 15.4% in the ALIF group, 38.1% in the TLIF group, and 10% in the PLIF group. ALIF was associated with better restoration of segmental lordosis. The fusion rate on CT scan and with segmental ROM did not differ between the 3 groups. TLIF was associated with a better postoperative visual analog scale. PLIF showed the lowest cage subsidence rate. Therefore, it is difficult to know which surgical technique is better among the 3 groups because each surgical method has its own advantages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of zoledronic acid on lumbar spinal fusion in osteoporotic patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qirui; Chen, Jian; Fan, Jin; Li, Qingqing; Yin, Guoyong; Yu, Lipeng

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) on lumbar spinal fusion in patients with osteoporosis. This retrospective study includes 94 osteoporotic patients suffering from lumbar degenerative diseases or lumbar fracture who underwent lumbar spinal fusion in our institution from January 2013 to August 2014. They were divided into ZA group and control group according to whether the patient received ZA infusion or not. The patients in ZA group were given 5 mg intravenous ZA at the 3rd-5th days after operation. All patients took daily oral supplement of 600 mg calcium carbonate and 800 IU vitamin D during the follow-up after operation. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores were recorded preoperatively and post-operatively to evaluate the clinic outcomes; the spinal fusion was assessed by X-ray or CT Scan. 64 patients finished the final follow-up, including 30 patients in ZA group and 34 patients in control group. No significant difference was observed in gender, age, and preoperative BMI VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). The post-operative VAS and ODI scores decreased rapidly at 3 and 6 months, but rose back slightly at 12 and 24 months in both groups. On the contrary, post-operative SF-36 scores increased rapidly at 3 and 6 months, while fell back slightly at 12 and 24 months, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups at 12 months, but not at 3 and 6 month post-operation. The spinal fusion rate in ZA group was 90% at 6 months, 92% at 12 months, while it was 75% at 6 months, 92.86% at 12 months in control group, significantly different between the two groups at 12 months, but not at 6 months. In the whole follow-up period, adjacent vertebral compressing fracture occurred in five patients in control group, none in ZA group. No pedicle screw loosening was observed in ZA group, with six in control group. Zoledronic acid accelerates

  3. Hybrid Biosynthetic Autograft Extender for Use in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Safety and Clinical Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Mokbel K; Tundo, Kelly M; Block, Jon E; Muir, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Autologous iliac crest bone graft is the preferred option for spinal fusion, but the morbidity associated with bone harvest and the need for graft augmentation in more demanding cases necessitates combining local bone with bone substitutes. The purpose of this study was to document the clinical effectiveness and safety of a novel hybrid biosynthetic scaffold material consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA, 75:25) combined by lyophilization with unmodified high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (10-12% wt:wt) as an extender for a broad range of spinal fusion procedures. We retrospectively evaluated all patients undergoing single- and multi-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion at an academic medical center over a 3-year period. A total of 108 patients underwent 109 procedures (245 individual vertebral levels). Patient-related outcomes included pain measured on a Visual Analog Scale. Radiographic outcomes were assessed at 6 weeks, 3-6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Radiographic fusion or progression of fusion was documented in 221 of 236 index levels (93.6%) at a mean (±SD) time to fusion of 10.2+4.1 months. Single and multi-level fusions were not associated with significantly different success rates. Mean pain scores (+SD) for all patients improved from 6.8+2.5 at baseline to 3.6+2.9 at approximately 12 months. Improvements in VAS were greatest in patients undergoing one- or two-level fusion, with patients undergoing multi-level fusion demonstrating lesser but still statistically significant improvements. Overall, stable fusion was observed in 64.8% of vertebral levels; partial fusion was demonstrated in 28.8% of vertebral levels. Only 15 of 236 levels (6.4%) were non-fused at final follow-up.

  4. Biomechanical analysis of lateral interbody fusion strategies for adjacent segment degeneration in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Melodie F; Robinson, Samuel T; Maldonado, Ruben C; Rawlinson, Jeremy; Liu, John; Acosta, Frank L

    2017-07-01

    Surgical treatment of symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) typically involves extension of previous instrumentation to include the newly affected level(s). Disruption of the incision site can present challenges and increases the risk of complication. Lateral-based interbody fusion techniques may provide a viable surgical alternative that avoids these risks. This study is the first to analyze the biomechanical effect of adding a lateral-based construct to an existing fusion. The study aimed to determine whether a minimally invasive lateral interbody device, with and without supplemental instrumentation, can effectively stabilize the rostral segment adjacent to a two-level fusion when compared with a traditional posterior revision approach. This is a cadaveric biomechanical study of lateral-based interbody strategies as add-on techniques to an existing fusion for the treatment of ASD. Twelve lumbosacral specimens were non-destructively loaded in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion. Sequentially, the tested conditions were intact, two-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) (L3-L5), followed by lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedures at L2-L3 including interbody alone, a supplemental lateral plate, a supplemental spinous process plate, and then either cortical screw or pedicle screw fixation. A three-level TLIF was the final instrumented condition. In all conditions, three-dimensional kinematics were tracked and range of motion (ROM) was calculated for comparisons. Institutional funds (<$50,000) in support of this work were provided by Medtronic Spine. The addition of a lateral interbody device superadjacent to a two-level fusion significantly reduced motion in flexion, extension, and lateral bending (p<.05). Supplementing with a lateral plate further reduced ROM during lateral bending and torsion, whereas a spinous process plate further reduced ROM during flexion and extension. The addition of posterior cortical screws provided the

  5. Complication rates following elective lumbar fusion in patients with diabetes: insulin dependence makes the difference.

    PubMed

    Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Varthi, Arya G; Bohl, Daniel D; Basques, Bryce A; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-01

    Retrospective cohort. To determine the effect of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on postoperative complications after elective lumbar fusion surgery. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic disease. The effects of NIDDM and IDDM on rates of postoperative complications, extended length of stay, and readmission after lumbar fusion surgery are not well established. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients undergoing lumbar fusion between 2005 and 2012 were identified and characterized as having NIDDM, IDDM, or neither. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to test patients with NIDDM and IDDM for increased risk of adverse postoperative outcomes over the initial 30 postoperative days. A total of 15,480 patients who underwent lumbar fusion were identified (13,043 were patients without DM, 1,650 patients had NIDDM, and 787 patients had IDDM).NIDDM was independently associated with an increased risk of wound dehiscence (relative risk = 2.3; P = 0.033) and extended length of stay (1.2; P < 0.003).IDDM was independently associated with an increased risk of death (2.7; P = 0.020), sepsis (2.2; P = 0.002), septic shock (3.3; P = 0.032), unplanned intubation (2.8; P = 0.003), ventilator-assisted respiration for more than 48 hours postoperatively (2.8; P = 0.005), wound-related infection (1.9; P = 0.001), urinary tract infection (1.6; P = 0.011), pneumonia (3.1; P < 0.001), extended length of stay (1.5; P < 0.001), and readmission within 30 days (1.5; P = 0.036). Compared with patients without DM, IDDM was associated with an increased risk of a considerably higher number of postoperative complications than NIDDM. These complications were also of greater severity. This important designation may improve preoperative risk stratification and counseling of patients with diabetes prior to lumbar fusion

  6. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Two-Year Results with a Modular Interbody Device

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M.; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Overview of Literature Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Methods Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Results Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). Conclusions The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures. PMID:25346811

  7. Vertebral osteolysis originating from subchondral cyst end plate defects in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using rhBMP-2. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, Sarah; Nottmeier, Eric W

    2010-07-01

    Vertebral osteolysis has been reported as a complication of off-label recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). It has been postulated that end plate violation during disc space preparation, rhBMP-2 overdosing, or a combination thereof can contribute to the development of vertebral osteolysis when rhBMP-2 is used in the lumbar interspace. To present two cases of vertebral osteolysis that occurred after TLIF in which rhBMP-2 was used. In each case, the osteolysis originated from subchondral cysts that were present on preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans. Case report. Two patients underwent instrumented TLIF using INFUSE (Medtronic, Inc., Littleton, MA, USA) on an absorbable collagen sponge carrier. In each patient, approximately 4 mg of rhBMP-2 was placed anteriorly in the disc space with 0.1 mg of rhBMP-2 being placed inside a polyetheretherketone interbody cage. Morcellized allograft bone mixed with demineralized bone matrix was also placed in the disc space and cage. The remaining rhBMP-2 was placed posterolaterally on the contralateral side. Each patient presented with worsening back pain approximately 3 to 4 months postoperatively and CT scans revealed osteolysis affecting the L4 and L5 vertebral bodies. The osteolysis appeared to originate from preoperative vertebral defects caused by subchondral cysts. One patient underwent removal of the interbody cage at the L4-L5 level and revision of the fusion with iliac crest autograft. At 15-month follow-up, he had no complaints of back pain, and CT scanning revealed solid fusion across the L4-L5 disc space. The other patient was offered revision of his fusion but declined any further surgery. At 2-year follow-up, that patient had persistent back pain but still declined any further surgery. A CT scan revealed unchanged osteolysis at the L4 and L5 levels. It has been proposed that rhBMP-2-induced vertebral osteolysis occurring in TLIF

  8. Intrathecal Versus Intravenous Morphine in Minimally Invasive Posterior Lumbar Fusion: A Blinded Randomized Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Araimo Morselli, Fabio Silvio Mario; Zuccarini, Francesco; Caporlingua, Federico; Scarpa, Ilaria; Imperiale, Carmela; Caporlingua, Alessandro; De Biase, Lorenzo; Tordiglione, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    A blinded, randomized, comparative prospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the use of intrathecal morphine to endovenous morphine on postoperative pain after posterior lumbar surgery. Intrathecal morphine can provide significant safe analgesia for at least 12 hours and up to 24 hours in patients undergoing major surgery. Its dosages have been decreasing in the last 30 years, but currently, the optimal dose remains unknown. As of today, there are no studies comparing the efficacy and the side effects of this technique with intravenous morphine administration after minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery. We randomized and compared two groups of 25 patients, who were given either 100 μg intrathecal (ITM group) or 5 ± 2 mg intravenous morphine delivered intravenously for 24 hours at 2 mL/h (IVM group) after minimally invasive posterior lumbar fusion. VAS score at 0, 6, 12, 24 hours, mobilization out of bed at 6 hours, hospitalization duration and complications as lower limbs paresthesia, urinary retention at 6 and 12 hours, nausea, vomit, itch, and constipation were evaluated. Data showed a lower VAS score, a reduction of constipation, lower limbs paresthesia, or urinary retention at 12 hours in ITM rather than in the IVM group. None suffered of vomit, itch, or nausea in both groups. Urinary retention was observed more frequently in ITM group at 6 hours. Patients of ITM group were mobilized out bed earlier than those from IVM group. A low dosage of intrathecal morphine is safe and effective after minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery. The reduction of pain in the study group permitted a shorter hospitalization and earlier mobilization out of bed, augmenting patients' comfort. 2.

  9. Effect of lordosis angle change after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion on sacrum angular displacement: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ningfang; Shi, Jian; He, Dawei; Xie, Yang; Bai, Yushu; Wei, Xianzhao; Shi, Zhicai; Li, Ming

    2014-11-01

    To assess and characterize the sacrum angular displacements in response to lumbar lordosis after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion. A finite element model of the lower lumbar spine-pelvis was established and used to simulate the posterior fusion at L3-L5 and L4-S1. The lordosis angle in the fusion segments was set to five different conditions with respect to the intact model: 10° less than intact, 5° less than intact, same as intact, 5° more than intact, and 10° more than intact. Variations of the sacrum angular displacements with lordosis changes were analyzed under loading setting of axial compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Compared with the intact lordosis, both increased and decreased lumbar lordosis angles caused the sacrum angular displacements to be increased. The lordosis angle increased by 10° induced the most substantial increase in sacrum angular displacements. In addition, the sacrum angular displacements of the L4-S1 fusion model at different lordosis angles were higher than those of the L3-L5 fusion model. The sacrum angular displacements occur as a result of the fusion surgery (L4-S1) and the changes in lumbar lordosis.

  10. Retrograde ejaculation after anterior lumbar interbody fusion: transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal exposure.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Rick C; Kenneth Burkus, J; LeHuec, Jean-Charles

    2003-05-15

    In this multicenter, prospective, 2-year study, 146 male patients underwent a single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion with a tapered threaded titanium fusion device. All the patients were advised before surgery of the risk for retrograde ejaculation. After surgery, any case of retrograde ejaculation was recorded as an adverse event, and the patient was observed up for the remainder of the study. To determine the incidence of retrograde ejaculation in male patients treated for single-level degenerative lumbar disc disease at L4-L5 or L5-S1 with a stand-alone anterior interbody fusion using tapered, threaded titanium fusion cages. The incidence of retrograde ejaculation in men after anterior lumbosacral spinal surgery has been reported to range from 0.42% to 5.9%. Various risk factors that increase the chance of retrograde ejaculation have been proposed. In this prospective study, 146 male patients underwent an open surgical exposure of the lumbosacral junction and a single-level interbody fusion at either L4-L5 or L5-S1. Assessment of a patient's clinical outcome was based on written questionnaires at 6 weeks and then 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Patients were questioned about adverse events at each of these assessments, and any case of retrograde ejaculation was recorded and followed. Retrograde ejaculation developed in 6 of the 146 men after open anterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery. Two cases (1.7%; 2/116) involved patients who underwent a retroperitoneal surgical exposure. Four cases (13.3%; 4/30) involved patients who had a transperitoneal surgical exposure. This difference is statistically significant according to Fisher's exact test (P = 0.017). At 12 months after surgery, 2 patients had resolution of their symptoms: 1 in the retroperitoneal approach group and 1 in the transperitoneal group. At the final 2-year follow-up, no changes in symptoms were reported. One patient in the retroperitoneal approach group (0.86%) and three patients in

  11. A Biomechanical Comparison of Shape Design and Positioning of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cages.

    PubMed

    Comer, Garet C; Behn, Anthony; Ravi, Shashank; Cheng, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Cadaveric biomechanical analysis. The aim of this study was to compare three interbody cage shapes and their position within the interbody space with regards to construct stability for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Twenty L2-L3 and L4-L5 lumbar motion segments from fresh cadavers were potted in polymethyl methacrylate and subjected to testing with a materials testing machine before and after unilateral facetectomy, diskectomy, and interbody cage insertion. The three cage types were kidney-shaped, articulated, and straight bullet-shaped. Each cage type was placed in a common anatomic area within the interbody space before testing: kidney, center; kidney, anterior; articulated, center; articulated, anterior; bullet, center; bullet, lateral. Load-deformation curves were generated for axial compression, flexion, extension, right bending, left bending, right torsion, and left torsion. Finally, load to failure was tested. For all applied loads, there was a statistically significant decrease in the slope of the load-displacement curves for instrumented specimens compared with the intact state (p < 0.05) with the exception of right axial torsion (p = 0.062). Among all instrumented groups, there was no statistically significant difference in stiffness for any of the loading conditions or load to failure. Our results failed to show a clearly superior cage shape design or location within the interbody space for use in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

  12. A Biomechanical Comparison of Shape Design and Positioning of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cages

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Garet C.; Behn, Anthony; Ravi, Shashank; Cheng, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Cadaveric biomechanical analysis. Objective  The aim of this study was to compare three interbody cage shapes and their position within the interbody space with regards to construct stability for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Methods  Twenty L2–L3 and L4–L5 lumbar motion segments from fresh cadavers were potted in polymethyl methacrylate and subjected to testing with a materials testing machine before and after unilateral facetectomy, diskectomy, and interbody cage insertion. The three cage types were kidney-shaped, articulated, and straight bullet-shaped. Each cage type was placed in a common anatomic area within the interbody space before testing: kidney, center; kidney, anterior; articulated, center; articulated, anterior; bullet, center; bullet, lateral. Load-deformation curves were generated for axial compression, flexion, extension, right bending, left bending, right torsion, and left torsion. Finally, load to failure was tested. Results  For all applied loads, there was a statistically significant decrease in the slope of the load-displacement curves for instrumented specimens compared with the intact state (p < 0.05) with the exception of right axial torsion (p = 0.062). Among all instrumented groups, there was no statistically significant difference in stiffness for any of the loading conditions or load to failure. Conclusions  Our results failed to show a clearly superior cage shape design or location within the interbody space for use in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. PMID:27433426

  13. Biomechanical analysis of cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Fantigrossi, Alfonso; Galbusera, Fabio; Raimondi, Manuela Teresa; Sassi, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Interbody fusions using intervertebral cages have become increasingly common in spinal surgery. Computational simulations were conducted in order to compare different cage designs in terms of their biomechanical interaction with the spinal structures. Differences in cage design and surgical technique may significantly affect the biomechanics of the fused spine segment, but little knowledge is available on this topic. In the present study, four 3D finite element models were developed, reproducing the human L4-L5 spinal unit in intact condition and after implantation of three different cage models. The intact model consisted of two vertebral bodies and relevant laminae, facet joints, main ligaments and disc. The instrumented models reproduced the post-operative conditions resulting after implant of the different cages. The three considered devices were hollow threaded titanium cages, the BAK (Zimmer Centerpulse, Warsaw, IN, USA), the Interfix and the Interfix Fly (both by Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA). Simulations were run imposing various loading conditions, under a constant compressive preload. A great increase in the stiffness induced on the spinal segment by all cages was observed in all the considered loading cases. Stress distributions on the bony surface were evaluated and discussed. The differences observed between the biomechanics of the instrumented models were associated with the geometrical and surgical features of the devices.

  14. Wearable monitoring of lumbar spine curvature by inertial and e-textile sensory fusion.

    PubMed

    Bartalesi, R; Lorussi, F; De Rossi, D; Tesconi, M; Tognetti, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design, the development and the preliminary testing of a wearable system able perform a real time estimation of the local curvature and the length of the spine lumbar arch. The system integrate and fuse information gathered from textile based piezoresistive sensor arrays and tri-axial accelerometers. E-textile strain sensing garments suffer from non-linearities, hysteresis and long transient, while accelerometers, used as inclinometers, present biased values and are affected by the system acceleration due to subject movements. In this work, focused on the wearability and comfort of the user, we propose a fusion of the information deriving from the two class of sensors to reduce their intrinsic errors affecting measurements. Comparative evaluation of system performances with stereophotogrammetric techniques shows a 2% error in lumbar arch length reconstruction.

  15. Surgical Outcomes of Post-Fusion Lumbar Flatback Deformity with Sagittal Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Seong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review surgical results of post-fusion lumbar flatback treated with pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) or Smith-Petersen osteotomies (SPOs). Methods Twenty-eight patients underwent osteotomies. Radiological outcomes by sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic tilt (PT), T1 pelvic angle (T1PA), and pelvic incidence (PI)-lumbar lordosis (LL) at preoperative, postoperative 1 month, and final were evaluated. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) score of back pain/leg pain, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 score (SRS-22r) were analyzed and compared. Patients were divided into 2 groups (SVA ≤5 cm : normal, SVA >5 cm : positive) at final and compared outcomes. Results Nineteen patients (68%) had PSO and the other 9 patients had SPOs with anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIFs) (Mean age : 65 years, follow-up : 31 months). The PT, PI-LL, SVA, T1PA were significantly improved at 1 month and at final (p<0.01). VAS score, ODI, and SRS-22r were also significantly improved at the final (p<0.01). 23 patients were restored with normal SVA and the rest 5 patients demonstrated to positive SVA. SVA and T1PA at 1 month and SVA, PI-LL, and T1PA at final were significantly different (p<0.05) while the ODI, VAS, and SRS-22r did not differ significantly between the groups (p>0.05). Common reoperations were early 4 proximal junctional failures (14%) and late four rod fractures. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that PSO and SPOs with ALIFs at the lower lumbar are significantly improves sagittal balance. For maintenance of normal SVA, PI-LL might be made negative value and T1PA might be less than 11° even though positive SVA group was also significantly improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27847576

  16. Automated Pressure-Controlled Discography in Patients Undergoing Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Discogenic Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Hyoung Ihl; Yi, Seong; Ha, Yoon; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To compare the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with or without automated pressure-controlled discography (APCD) before the procedure. Patients (n = 36) who underwent ALIF for lumbar discogenic back pain between 2008 and 2013 and were followed for more than 6 months were enrolled in this study. APCD was performed to identify discogenic back pain. Preoperative x-rays, computed tomography images, and magnetic resonance images were obtained. The intervertebral disc height, type of Modic change, grade of disc degeneration, and fusion rate were determined. Additionally, the presence or absence of high-intensity zone and vacuum disc were checked preoperatively. Clinical evaluation was performed by visual analog scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain imaginable), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey before surgery and every 6 months postoperatively. The average patient age was 53.3 years (range, 31-73 years). The mean follow-up durations were 19.7 months. Seventeen patients (the APCD-ALIF group) underwent ALIF after APCD, and 19 patients underwent ALIF without APCD. The APCD-ALIF group had significantly improved clinical outcomes compared with the control group (visual analog scale score 1.8 ± 1.6 vs. 3.3 ± 2.4; P = 0.039: ODI score 6.7 ± 6.3 vs. 12.1 ± 6.8; P = 0.019). The surgical improvement rate was significantly associated with ODI score (P = 0.005). The results of this study confirm that APCD aids surgical outcomes of ALIF in patients with suspected lumbar discogenic pain. We recommend performing APCD before ALIF to confirm lumbar discogenic pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Large volume inside the cage leading incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual back pain after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Osuka, Koji; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare intervertebral bone fusion and clinical outcomes in L4-5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using the same posterior instrumentation with four combinations of one of three types of interbody cage with one of two bone grafts, iliac and local or only local. In 67 patients who underwent L4-5 PLIF, 19 patients had the Brantigan cage and iliac and local bone graft, 18 with the TELAMON C cage and iliac and local bone graft, 16 with the TELAMON C cage and local bone graft (TL), and 14 with the OIC PEEK cage and local bone graft. Clinical assessments were based on Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and on the visual analogue scale (VAS). The bone fusion assessments were based on radiography and CT scans according to the Brantigan, Steffee, and Fraser criteria. More than 2 years after surgery, these assessments were made. In the results, the fusion outcome for the group receiving TL was significantly less than those for the other three groups. In TL, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the inside volume of the cage of ≥2.0 mL was the only significant factor for incomplete fusion. Moreover, the VAS (low back pain) score was significantly higher for TL than for the other three groups. In conclusions, we believe that the large volume inside the cage (≥2.0 mL) with local bone graft may lead incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual postsurgical low back pain after PLIF.

  18. Miniopen Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Unilateral Fixation: A Comparison between Ipsilateral and Contralateral Reherniation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors between ipsilateral and contralateral reherniation and to compare the effectiveness of miniopen transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with unilateral fixation for each group. From November 2007 to December 2014, clinical and radiographic data of each group (ipsilateral or contralateral reherniation) were collected and compared. Functional assessment (Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA)) and radiographic evaluation (fusion status, disc height, lumbar lordosis (LL), and functional spine unit (FSU) angle) were applied to compare surgical effect for each group preoperatively and at final followup. MacNab questionnaire was applied to further evaluate the satisfactory rate after the discectomy and fusion. No difference except pain-free interval was found between ipsilateral and contralateral groups. There was a significant difference in operative time between two groups. No differences were found in clinical and radiographic data for assessment of surgical effect between two groups. The satisfactory rate was decreasing in both groups with time passing after discectomy. Difference in pain-free interval may be a distinction for ipsilateral and contralateral reherniation. Miniopen TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation can be a recommendable way for single level reherniation regardless of ipsilateral or contralateral reherniation. PMID:27885358

  19. [PRELIMINARY EFFECTIVENESS OF POLYAMINOACID/NANO-HYDROXYAPATITE/CALCIUM SULFATE CAGE IN LUMBAR FUSION SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Ma, Longbing; Jia, Yunbing; Li, Tao; Liu, Limin; Gong, Quan; Liu, Hao; Zeng, Jiancheng; Zhou, Zhongjie; Ma, Litai

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the early effectiveness of polyaminoacid/nano-hydroxyapatite/calcium sulfate (PAA/HA/CS) Cage (PHC Cage) in lumbar fusion surgery. Thirty cases undergoing lumbar fusion of single segment between March and September 2014 were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the trial group (n = 20) and the control group (n = 10). The PHC Cage was implanted in the trial group, while the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage was implanted in the control group. The patients of 2 groups mainly presented lumbocrural pain and lower limb radiation pain or numbness. There was no significant difference in gender, age, type, affected segment, disease duration, preoperative intervertebral height, the lordosis angle of fusion segments, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Lateral lumbar X-ray films and three dimensional CT were taken preoperatively and at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The intervertebral height and the lordosis angle of fusion segments at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after operation and ODI at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation were measured; and the bone graft fusion rate was evaluated according to Brantigan criteria. There was no significant difference in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and the amount of autologous blood transfusion between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Healing by first intention as obtained in 30 cses. All patients were followd up 12 months. The intervertebral height of fusion segments, the lordosis angle of fusion segments, and ODI at each time point after operation were significantly improved when compared with preoperative ones (P < 0.05). The ODI showed significant difference between 3 months and 6, 12 months (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the other time points after operation (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the intervertebral height and the lordosis angle of fusion segments between groups at different time points (P

  20. Comparison of complication rates of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and lateral lumbar interbody fusion: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jacob R; Smith, Brandon W; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) are 2 currently popular techniques for lumbar arthrodesis. The authors compare the total risk of each procedure, along with other important complication outcomes. METHODS This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant studies (up to May 2015) that reported complications of either MI-TLIF or LLIF were identified from a search in the PubMed database. The primary outcome was overall risk of complication per patient. Secondary outcomes included risks of sensory deficits, temporary neurological deficit, permanent neurological deficit, intraoperative complications, medical complications, wound complications, hardware failure, subsidence, and reoperation. RESULTS Fifty-four studies were included for analysis of MI-TLIF, and 42 studies were included for analysis of LLIF. Overall, there were 9714 patients (5454 in the MI-TLIF group and 4260 in the LLIF group) with 13,230 levels fused (6040 in the MI-TLIF group and 7190 in the LLIF group). A total of 1045 complications in the MI-TLIF group and 1339 complications in the LLIF group were reported. The total complication rate per patient was 19.2% in the MI-TLIF group and 31.4% in the LLIF group (p < 0.0001). The rate of sensory deficits and temporary neurological deficits, and permanent neurological deficits was 20.16%, 2.22%, and 1.01% for MI-TLIF versus 27.08%, 9.40%, and 2.46% for LLIF, respectively (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.002, respectively). Rates of intraoperative and wound complications were 3.57% and 1.63% for MI-TLIF compared with 1.93% and 0.80% for LLIF, respectively (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.034, respectively). No significant differences were noted for medical complications or reoperation. CONCLUSIONS While there was a higher overall complication rate with LLIF, MI-TLIF and LLIF both have

  1. Interdisciplinary Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Part of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Lindgreen, Pil; Rolving, Nanna; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients receiving lumbar spinal fusion surgery often have persisting postoperative pain negatively affecting their daily life. These patients may be helped by interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral therapy which is recognized as an effective intervention for improving beneficial pain coping behavior, thereby facilitating the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic pain. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of patients recovering from lumbar spinal fusion surgery and to explore potential similarities and disparities in pain coping behavior between receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 10 patients; 5 receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy in connection with their lumbar spinal fusion surgery and 5 receiving usual care. We conducted a phenomenological analysis to reach our first aim and then conducted a comparative content analysis to reach our second aim. RESULTS: Patients' postoperative experience was characterized by the need to adapt to the limitations imposed by back discomfort (coexisting with the back), need for recognition and support from others regarding their pain, a relatively long rehabilitation period during which they “awaited the result of surgery”, and ambivalence toward analgesics. The patients in both groups had similar negative perception of analgesics and tended to abstain from them to avoid addiction. Coping behavior apparently differed among receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Receivers prevented or minimized pain by resting before pain onset, whereas nonreceivers awaited pain onset before resting. CONCLUSION: The postoperative experience entailed ambivalence, causing uncertainty, worry and insecurity. This ambivalence was relieved when others recognized the patient's pain and offered support. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as part of

  2. Metabolic syndrome and lumbar spine fusion surgery: epidemiology and perioperative outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Kirksey, Meghan; Ma, Yan; Chiu, Ya Lin; Mazumdar, Madhu; Pumberger, Matthias; Girardi, Federico P.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Analysis of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2008. Objective To identify if metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for increased major perioperative complications, cost, length of stay and non-routine discharge. Summary of Background Data Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that has been shown to increase the health risk of the general population. No study has analyzed its impact in the perioperative spine surgery setting. Methods We obtained the National Inpatient Sample from the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project for each year between 2000 and 2008. All patients undergoing primary posterior lumbar spine fusion were identified and separated into groups with and without metabolic syndrome. Patient demographics and health care system related parameters were compared. The outcomes of major complications, non-routine discharge, length of hospital stay and hospitalization charges were assessed for both groups. Regression analysis was performed to identify if the presence of metabolic syndrome was an independent risk factor for each outcome. Results An estimated 1,152,747 primary posterior lumbar spine fusion were performed between 2000 and 2008 in the US. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well as the comorbidities of the patients increased significantly over time. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly longer length of stay, higher hospital charges, higher rates of non-routine discharges and increased rates of major life-threatening complications compared to patients without metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing primary posterior lumbar spinal fusion represent an increasing financial burden on the health care system. Clinicians should recognize that metabolic syndrome represents a risk factor for increased perioperative morbidity. PMID:22024892

  3. Metabolic syndrome and lumbar spine fusion surgery: epidemiology and perioperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Kirksey, Meghan; Ma, Yan; Chiu, Ya Lin; Mazumdar, Madhu; Pumberger, Matthias; Girardi, Federico P

    2012-05-15

    Analysis of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2008. To identify whether metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for increased major perioperative complications, cost, length of stay, and nonroutine discharge. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that has been shown to increase the health risk of the general population. No study has analyzed its impact in the perioperative spine surgery setting. We obtained the National Inpatient Sample from the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project for each year between 2000 and 2008. All patients undergoing primary posterior lumbar spine fusion were identified and separated into groups with and without metabolic syndrome. Patient demographics and health care system-related parameters were compared. The outcomes of major complications, nonroutine discharge, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization charges were assessed for both groups. Regression analysis was performed to identify whether the presence of metabolic syndrome was an independent risk factor for each outcome. An estimated 1,152,747 primary posterior lumbar spine fusions were performed between 2000 and 2008 in the United States. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well as the comorbidities of the patients increased significantly over time. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly longer length of stay, higher hospital charges, higher rates of nonroutine discharges, and increased rates of major life-threatening complications than patients without metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing primary posterior lumbar spinal fusion represent an increasing financial burden on the health care system. Clinicians should recognize that metabolic syndrome represents a risk factor for increased perioperative morbidity.

  4. Validation of Using Claims Data to Measure Safety of Lumbar Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel K; Moses, Rachel A; Martin, Brook I; Lurie, Jon D; Mirza, Sohail K

    2017-05-01

    Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing elective lumbar fusion operations, comparing rates of repeat spine surgery based on method of ascertainment. We report the accuracy of a claims-based approach for reporting repeat surgery compared with medical records abstraction as the "gold standard." Previous studies have reported the validity of a claims-based algorithm for grouping patients by surgical indication and classifying operative features, but their accuracy in measuring surgical quality indicators has not been widely examined. We identified a subset of patients undergoing elective lumbar fusion operations at a single institution from 1996 to 2011, excluding those with spinal fracture, spinal cord injury, or cancer. From the medical record we abstracted the incidence of repeat spine operation or rehospitalization at 1 year. We cross-classified each event record with its corresponding value derived from claims. The sensitivity and specificity of the claims-based approach were calculated for reoperation within 30, 90, and 365 days, and all-cause hospital readmission within 30 days. Medical records linked to claims data were obtained for 520 patients undergoing elective lumbar fusion. Reoperation rates based on chart review were 1.0%, 1.3%, 3.6%, compared with 0.8%, 1.7%, and 3.8% based on the final claims methods at 30, 90, and 365 days, respectively. The claims-based algorithm had sensitivities of 80.0%, 100%, and 94.1% and specificities of 100%, 99.6%, 99.2% for repeat surgery within 30, 90, and 365 days, respectively. The sensitivity for all-cause readmission was 50%. Health care quality improvement efforts often rely on administrative data to report surgical safety. We found that claims-based ascertainment of safety at a single institution was very accurate. However, accuracy depended on careful attention to the timing of outcomes, as well as the definitions and coding of repeat surgery, including how orthopedic device removal codes are classified. 3.

  5. Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Interspinous Fastener Provides Comparable Clinical Outcome and Fusion Rate to Pedicle Screws.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Min; Yu, Xing-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Duo; Song, Ruo-Xian; Yu, Li-Li; Yu, Xiu-Chun

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the clinical feasibility and validity of interspinous fastener (ISF) for lumbar degenerative diseases. From October 2013 to March 2014, a total of 46 patients suffering from lumbar degenerative diseases underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) randomly augmented by ISF or pedicle screws. The clinical outcome was primarily measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score. The minimal clinical important difference (MCID) was defined as an eight-point decrease in ODI. The second clinical outcome measurement was Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Interbody fusion rates were evaluated by lumbar plain radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan. Complications were also compared between groups. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 13.0. Sample size calculation was performed before the study. The type I error α was set at 0.05 and the type II error β at 0.1. Based on these assumptions and adding 10% for possible drop-outs, sample size calculations indicated that a total of 46 patients were required for the study. Parametric data was compared by independent t-test and categorical variables were compared using χ(2) -tests or Fisher exact tests depending on the sample size. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significantly statistically different. Fleiss kappa coefficients were calculated for intra-observer and inter-observer reliability. A total of 43 patients completed the follow-up, with 22 cases in the ISF group and 21 patients in the pedicle screws group, respectively. Less intraoperative blood loss and shorter operation time were observed in the ISF group. The mean ODI significantly declined in both groups, with the ISF group's decreasing from preoperative 43.3 ± 8.2 to 21.4 ± 3.5 at 24-month follow-up and the pedicle screws group's decreasing from preoperative 42.9 ± 7.9 to 22.5 ±3.8 at 24-month follow-up, respectively. The ODI changes between groups had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). Of the 43

  6. [Comparison of clinical efficacies of single segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with cage versus autogenous morselized bone for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Peisheng; Liu, Xiaozhen; Qiao, Xuejing; Du, Wennan; Luo, Dawei; Zheng, Xiujun

    2014-09-23

    To compare the clinical efficacies of single segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with cage versus autogenous morselized bone for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. A total of 87 patients undergoing single segment TLIF were randomly divided into 2 groups. A cage was implanted into intervertebral space in group A patients while autogenous morselized bone in group B patients. Operative duration, blood loss, length of stay and cost of hospitalization of two groups were recorded. They were followed up at 1 week, 12, 24 months post-operation. Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS) fusion rates, intervertebral space and foramen height restoration, lumbar lordosis and postoperative complications were compared between two groups. No significant inter-group difference existed in operative duration, blood loss or length of stay. However, the average hospitalization cost in group A were 18% higher than that of group B (P < 0.05). Both groups achieved excellent clinical outcomes within 2 years. ODI, VAS score improvement rates and postoperative complication rates were not statistically different. Lumbar fusion rate was 86.7% in group A versus 85.7% in group B after 2 years. And there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). The heights of intervertebral space and foramen in group A achieved a better recovery than those of group B. Both groups had similar improvements of lumbar lordosis. For degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, usage of interbody cage is more effective in terms of recovery of intervertebral space and foraminal height compared with usage of bone graft. However it brings no better clinical efficacy while the usage of autogenous morselized bone is more cost-effective. Two grafting methods yield similar overall clinical outcomes.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and 30-Day Outcomes in Elective Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Andrew S; Campbell, David; Waldrop, Robert; Crandall, Dennis

    2017-08-29

    Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the effect of MetS on 30-day morbidity and mortality following elective lumbar spinal fusion SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a variable combination of hypertension, obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia.MetS has been associated with an increased risk of post-operative morbidity and mortality in multiple surgical settings. To our knowledge, the effect of MetS on 30-day outcomes following elective lumbar spinal fusion has not been well studied. An analysis of ACS-NSQIP data was performed between 2006-2013. Patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar fusion were identified. Emergency procedures, infections, tumor cases, and revision surgeries were excluded. Patients were defined as having MetS if they had a history of hypertension requiring medication, diabetes, and a BMI ≥ 30. 1,590 (10.2%) patients with MetS were identified. A mild increase in major (p = 0.040) and minor complications (p = 0.003) in patients with MetS was noted. MetS was associated with increased rates of pulmonary complications (1.9% compared to 1.0%; p = 0.001), sepsis (1.7% compared to 0.9%; p = 0.005), and acute post-op renal failure (0.4% compared to 0%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed MetS to be an independent predictor of pulmonary complications (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.00 - 2.27; p = 0.048), sepsis (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.42; p = 0.039), and acute post-operative renal failure (OR 6.95; 95% CI 2.23 to 21.67; p = 0.001). MetS status was associated with a mild increase in total hospital length of stay (4.38 days compared to 3.81 days; p < 0.001). While MetS is a predictor of post-operative acute renal failure, it only slightly increases the risk of overall complications and is not associated with increased rates of 30-day re-operations or re-admissions following elective lumbar fusion. 3.

  8. Computerized tomography evaluation of a resorbable implant after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kuklo, Timothy R; Rosner, Michael K; Polly, David W

    2004-03-15

    Synthetic bioabsorbable implants have recently been introduced in spinal surgery; consequently, the indications, applications, and results are still evolving. The authors used absorbable interbody spacers (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) packed with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (Infuse; Medtronic Sofamor Danek) for single- and multiple-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedures over a period of 18 months. This is a consecutive case series in which postoperative computerized tomography (CT) scanning was used to assess fusion status. There were 22 patients (17 men, five women; 39 fusion levels) whose mean age was 41.6 years (range 23-70 years) and in whom the mean follow-up duration was 12.4 months (range 6-18 months). Bridging bone was noted as early as the 3-month postoperative CT scan when obtained; solid arthrodesis was routinely noted between 6 and 12 months in 38 (97.4%) of 39 fusion levels. In patients who underwent repeated CT scanning, the fusion mass appeared to increase with time, whereas the disc space height remained stable. Although the results are early (mean 12-month follow-up duration), there was only one noted asymptomatic delayed union/nonunion at L5-S1 in a two-level TLIF with associated screw breakage. There were no infections or complications related to the cages. The bioabsorbable cages appear to be a viable alternative to metal interbody spacers, and may be ideally suited to spinal interbody applications because of their progressive load-bearing properties.

  9. Dynesys dynamic stabilization: less good outcome than lumbar fusion at 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Behrooz; Makki, Daoud; Konan, Sujith; Park, Derek; Khan, Wasim; Okafor, Ben

    2013-02-01

    Dynamic semirigid stabilization of the lumbar spine was introduced in 1994 in an attempt to overcome the drawbacks of fusion. It is supposed to preserve motion at the treated levels, while avoiding hypermobility and thus spondylosis at the adjacent levels. Although the early reports showed promising results, the long term effects are still debated. We retrospectively compared outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization with those of the traditional fusion technique. Thirty-two patients who had undergone Dynesys between 2004 and 2006 (group 1) were compared to 32 patients who had been treated with fusion between 2005 and 2006 (group 2). VAS for back and leg pain, and ODI improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.001). These scores were all better in the fusion group, and even significantly so as far as VAS for back pain was concerned (p = 0.014). Similarly, more patients were satisfied or very satisfied after fusion than after Dynesys: 87.5% versus 68.8% (p = 0.04). Interestingly, in the Dynesys group scatter plot graphs showed a positive correlation between older age and improvement in the two VAS scores and in ODI. Dynamic stabilization with Dynesys remains controversial. Older patients are relatively more satisfied about it, probably because of their low level of demands.

  10. Biomechanical and clinical study of single posterior oblique cage POLIF in the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Zagra, Antonino; Scaramuzzo, Laura; Galbusera, Fabio; Minoia, Leone; Archetti, Marino; Giudici, Fabrizio

    2015-11-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability and the clinical efficacy of a lumbar interbody fusion obtained by single oblique cage implanted by a posterior approach. Through the realization of three finite element models (FEMs), the biomechanics of POLIF was compared to PLIF and TLIF. Ninety-four patients underwent interbody fusion by POLIF with instrumented posterolateral fusion. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated at regular intervals for at least 6 months. The FEMs showed no statistically significant differences in stability in compression and flexion-extension. Mean preoperative VAS score was 7.1, decreased to 2.1 at follow-up. Mean preoperative SF-12 value was 34.5 %, increased to 75.4 % at follow-up. All patients showed a good fusion rate and no hardware failure. POLIF associated to instrumented posterolateral fusion is a viable and safe surgical technique, which ensures a biomechanical stability similar to other surgical techniques.

  11. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on mesenchymal stem cells for lumbar fusion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Ueng, Steve W N; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Lih-Huei; Lin, Song-Shu; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2010-03-19

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been proved in improving bone healing, but its effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vivo is not clear. The aims of this study are to clarify whether the HBO therapy has the same enhancing effect on MSCs with regard to bone formation and maturation and to ascertain whether the transplanted MSCs survive in the grafted area and contribute to new bone formation. Twenty-three adult rabbits underwent posterolateral fusion at L4-L5 level. The animals were divided into three groups according to the material implanted and subsequent treatment: (1) Alginate carrier (n = 6); (2) Alginate-MSCs composite (n = 11); and (3) Alginate-MSCs composite with HBO therapy (n = 6). After 12 weeks, spine fusion was examined using radiographic examination, manual testing, and histological examination. Using a PKH fluorescence labeling system, whether the transplanted MSCs survived and contributed to new bone formation in the grafted area after HBO therapy was also examined. The bilateral fusion areas in each animal were evaluated independently. By radiographic examination and manual palpation, union for the Alginate, Alginate-MSCs, and Alginate-MSCs-HBO groups was 0 of 12, 10 of 22, and 6 of 12 respectively. The difference between the Alginate-MSCs and Alginate-MSCs-HBO groups was not significant (P = 0.7997). The fluorescence microscopy histological analysis indicated that the transplanted PKH67-labeled MSCs survived and partly contributed to new bone formation in the grafted area. This study demonstrated that the preconditioned MSCs could survive and yield bone formation in the grafted area. HBO therapy did not enhance the osteogenic ability of MSCs and improve the success of spine fusion in the rabbit model. Although there was no significant effect of HBO therapy on MSCs for spine fusion, the study encourages us to research a more basic approach for determining the optimal oxygen tension and pressure that are required to maintain and enhance the

  12. A novel synthetic material for spinal fusion: a prospective clinical trial of porous bioactive titanium metal for lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Doi, Kenji; Ito, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Akira; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of porous bioactive titanium metal for use in a spinal fusion device, based on a prospective human clinical trial. A high-strength spinal interbody fusion device was manufactured from porous titanium metal. A bioactive surface was produced by simple chemical and thermal treatment. Five patients with unstable lumbar spine disease were treated surgically using this device in a clinical trial approved by our Ethics Review Committee and the University Hospital Medical Information Network. Clinical and radiological results were reported at the minimum follow-up period of 1 year. The optimal mechanical strength and interconnected structure of the porous titanium metal were adjusted for the device. The whole surface of porous titanium metal was treated uniformly and its bioactive ability was confirmed before clinical use. Successful bony union was achieved in all cases within 6 months without the need for autologous iliac crest bone grafting. Two specific findings including an anchoring effect and gap filling were evident radiologically. All clinical parameters improved significantly after the operation and no adverse effects were encountered during the follow-up period. Although a larger and longer-term follow-up clinical study is mandatory to reach any firm conclusions, the study results show that this porous bioactive titanium metal is promising material for a spinal fusion device.

  13. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Blake P.; Lindley, Emily M.; Turner, A. Simon; Seim III, Howard B.; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L.

    2010-01-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies. PMID:20694847

  14. Subsidence of polyetheretherketone cage after minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Chung, Hung-Tae; Cho, Jae-Lim; Kim, Dong-Jun; Chung, Nam-Su

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective case series. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of cage subsidence after minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) conducted using a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage, and to identify associated risk factors. Although various rates of cage subsidence after lumbar interbody fusion have been reported, few studies have addressed subsidence rate after MITLIF using PEEK cage. A total of 104 consecutive patients who had undergone MITLIF using a PEEK cage with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in this study. Cage subsidence was defined to have occurred when a cage was observed to sink into an adjacent vertebral body by ≥2 mm on the postoperative or serial follow-up lateral radiographs. The demographic variables considered to affect cage subsidence were the following: age, sex, body mass index, bone mineral density, diagnosis, number of fusion segment, and the quality/quantity of back muscle, and the cage-related variables considered were: level of fusion, intervertebral angle, cage size, cage position, and postoperative distraction of disc height. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore relations between these variables and cage subsidence. : For the 122 cages inserted, the rate of cage subsidence was 14.8% (18 cages), and cage subsidence occurred within 7.2±8.5 (1-25) months of surgery. The odds ratios for factors found to significantly increase the risk of cage subsidence were; 1.950 (95% confidence interval, 1.002-4.224) for L5-S1 level, and 1.018 (95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.066) for anterior cage position. The rate of PEEK cage subsidence after MITLIF was relatively low. End-plate manipulation and cage insertion during MITLIF were not influenced by a small operation window.

  15. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Blake P; Lindley, Emily M; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L; Patel, Vikas V

    2010-12-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies.

  16. Malnutrition Predicts Infectious and Wound Complications Following Posterior Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Daniel D; Shen, Mary R; Mayo, Benjamin C; Massel, Dustin H; Long, William W; Modi, Krishna D; Basques, Bryce A; Singh, Kern

    2016-11-01

    A retrospective review of data collected prospectively by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative hypoalbuminemia, a marker for malnutrition, and complications during the 30 days following posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Malnutrition is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may contribute to complications following spinal surgery. Although prior studies have identified associations between malnutrition, delayed wound healing, and surgical site infection (SSI), the evidence for such a relationship within spine surgery is mixed. Patients who underwent posterior lumbar spinal fusion of one to three levels as part of the ACS-NSQIP were identified. Patients without preoperative serum albumin concentration were excluded. Outcomes were compared between patients with and without hypoalbuminemia (defined as serum albumin concentration <3.5 g/dL). All comparisons were adjusted for baseline differences between populations. Four thousand three hundred ten patients were included. The prevalence of hypoalbuminemia was 4.8%. In comparison to patients with normal albumin concentration, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher risk for occurrence of wound dehiscence [1.5% vs. 0.2%, adjusted relative risk (RR) = 5.8, P = 0.006], SSI (5.4% vs. 1.7%, adjusted RR = 2.3, P = 0.010), and urinary tract infection (5.4% vs. 1.5%, adjusted RR = 2.5, P = 0.005). Similarly, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher risk for unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days of surgery (11.7% vs. 5.4%, RR = 1.8, P < 0.001). Finally, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a longer mean inpatient stay (5.2 vs. 3.7 days, RR = 1.2, P < 0.001). The present study suggests that malnutrition is an independent risk factor for infectious and wound complications following posterior lumbar fusion. Malnutrition was also associated with an

  17. Retrograde ejaculation after anterior lumbar interbody fusion using rhBMP-2: a cohort controlled study.

    PubMed

    Carragee, Eugene J; Mitsunaga, Kyle A; Hurwitz, Eric L; Scuderi, Gaetano J

    2011-06-01

    The commercially available growth factor recombinant bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) used in spinal fusion has been associated with numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory reactions in soft tissue, heterotopic bone formation, radiculitis, osteolysis, and cage or graft subsidence. The original Food and Drug Administration Summary of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) reported 12 retrograde ejaculation (RE) events (8%) in the rhBMP-2 groups compared with (1.4%) in the control group. It had been debated whether this finding was related to rhBMP-2 use. To compare the incidence of RE after ALIF in patients with and without rhBMP-2 use. Retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered outcomes data on consecutive subjects having ALIF with and without rhBMP-2 use. Male patients with lumbar spondylosis or spondylolisthesis having ALIF of the lowest one or two lumbar levels with and without rhBMP-2. Report of RE as a new finding after ALIF. From the comprehensive outcome database at a high-volume university practice, male subjects having ALIF for one- (L5/S1) or two-level (L4/L5, L5/S1) lumbar fusion were identified. Retrograde ejaculation events were recorded and comparative incidence compared. The two groups were comparable for age and additional procedures performed. There were 69 L5/S1 ALIFs performed with rhBMP-2 and 174 ALIFs performed without rhBMP-2 during the study period. Of those, 24 and 64 were two-level ALIFs performed with and without rhBMP-2, respectively. There were five RE events (7.2%) reported in the rhBMP-2 group and 1 (0.6%) in the control group. Comparing single-level L5/S1 ALIF, there was a 6.7% and 0% rate of RE in the rhBMP-2 versus control groups, respectively. At 1 year after surgery, three of six affected subjects reported resolution of the RE. This study confirms previous reports of a higher rate of RE in ALIF procedures using rhBMP-2. This may be an important consideration in subjects concerned with sterility after surgery

  18. Clinical and radiological outcomes of spinal endoscopic discectomy-assisted oblique lumbar interbody fusion: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Hwa; Kim, Jin-Sung

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct neural decompression cannot be achieved by performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF). To overcome the indirect decompressive effect of LLIF, additional endoscopic discectomy with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) has been attempted. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients who underwent OLIF with additional endoscopic discectomy. METHODS Spinal endoscopic discectomy-assisted OLIF was attempted to remove herniated disc material. Only patients with a follow-up time that exceeded 12 months were enrolled. Clinical parameters examined were the Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale scores of back and leg pain. Postoperative MRI was also performed. RESULTS Fourteen patients were enrolled. Central and foraminal disc herniations were evident in 8 and 6 patients, respectively. Concomitant central or foraminal herniated discs were removed completely after additional endoscopic discectomy, and disc removal was confirmed by postoperative MRI. Mean preoperative visual analog scale scores and Oswestry Disability Index scores improved postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS OLIF with additional endoscopic discectomy results in successful direct neural decompression without posterior decompressive procedures. Endoscopic assistance might overcome the limitations of LLIF.

  19. Neurological complications using a novel retractor system for direct lateral minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Sedra, Fady; Lee, Robert; Dominguez, Ignacio; Wilson, Lester

    2016-09-01

    We describe our experience using the RAVINE retractor (K2M, Leesburg, VA, USA) to gain access to the lateral aspect of the lumbar spine through a retroperitoneal approach. Postoperative neurological adverse events, utilising the mentioned retractor system, were recorded and analysed. We included 140 patients who underwent minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion (MI-LLIF) for degenerative spinal conditions between 2011 and 2015 at two major spinal centres. A total of 228 levels were treated, 35% one level, 40% two level, 20% three level and 5% 4 level surgeries. The L4/5 level was instrumented in 28% of cases. 12/140 patients had postoperative neurological complications. Immediately after surgery, 5% of patients (7/140) had transient symptoms in the thigh ranging from sensory loss, pain and paraesthesia, all of which recovered within 12weeks following surgery. There were five cases of femoral nerve palsy (3.6% - two ipsilateral and three contralateral), all of which recovered completely with no residual sensory or motor deficit within 6months. MI-LLIF done with help of the described retractor system has proved a safe and efficient way to achieve interbody fusion with minimal complications, mainly nerve related, that recovered quickly. Judicious use of the technique to access the L4/5 level is advised.

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Sufentanil and Fentanyl Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia after Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Keun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Ji Yong; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Kim, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Postoperative pain is one of the major complaints of patients after lumbar fusion surgery. The authors evaluated the effects of intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using fentanyl or sufentanil on postoperative pain management and pain-related complications. Methods Forty-two patients that had undergone surgery with lumbar instrumentation and fusion at single or double levels constituted the study cohort. Patients were equally and randomly allocated to a sufentanil group (group S) or a fentanyl group (group F) for patient controlled analgesia (PCA). Group S received sufentanil at a dose of 4 μg/kg IV-PCA and group F received fentanyl 24 μg/kg IV-PCA. A numeric rating scale (NRS) of postoperative pain was applied before surgery, and immediately and at 1, 6, and 24 hours (hrs) after surgery. Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores were obtained before surgery and one month after surgery. Opioid-related side effects were also evaluated. Results No significant intergroup difference was observed in NRS or ODI scores at any of the above-mentioned time points. Side effects were more frequent in group F. More specifically, nausea, vomiting rates were significantly higher (p=0.04), but pruritus, hypotension, and headache rates were non-significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion Sufentanil displayed no analgesic advantage over fentanyl postoperatively. However, sufentanil should be considerable for patients at high risk of GI issues, because it had lower postoperative nausea and vomiting rates than fentanyl. PMID:28061485

  1. Effect of one- or two-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion on global sagittal balance.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Hwan; Joo, Youn-Suk; Lim, Cheongsu; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Choon Sung

    2017-06-02

    Sagittal imbalance is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with degenerative lumbar disease. However, there is no consensus on the impact of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) on local and global sagittal balance. To reveal the effect of one- or two-level PLIF on global sagittal balance. A retrospective case-control study. This study included 88 patients who underwent a one- or two-level PLIF for spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Clinical and radiological parameters were measured pre- and postoperatively. All patients were followed up for >2 years. Clinical outcomes included a visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D). Radiological parameters were measured using whole-spine standing lateral radiographs. Fusion, loosening, subsidence rates, and adverse events were also evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to their preoperative C7-S1 sagittal vertical axis (SVA): Group N: SVA≤5 cm vs Group I: SVA>5 cm; they were also divided according to postoperative changes in C7-S1 SVA. Clinical and radiological outcomes were compared between the groups. All clinical outcomes and radiological parameters improved postoperatively. C7-S1 SVA improved (-1.6 cm) after L3-L5 fusion, but it was compromised (+3.6 cm) after L4-S1 fusion (p=.001). Preoperative demographic and clinical data showed no difference except in the anxiety or depression domain of EQ-5D. No differences were found in postoperative clinical outcomes. Lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and thoracic kyphosis slightly improved in Group N, whereas C7-S1 SVA decreased from 9.5 cm to 3.8 cm (p<.001) in Group I. Furthermore, all sagittal parameters improved in Group I. On comparing the postoperative changes in C7-S1 SVA, we found that the decreasing trend in the postoperative C7-S1 SVA was related to a larger preoperative C7-S1 SVA (p=.030) and a more proximal level fusion (L3-L5 vs L4-S1, p=.033). Global sagittal

  2. CRP and leukocyte-count after lumbar spine surgery: fusion vs. nucleotomy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and white blood cell (WBC) count are routine blood chemistry parameters for the early assessment of wound infection after surgical procedures, little is known about the natural history of their serum values after major and minimally invasive spinal procedures. Methods Pre- and postoperative CRP serum levels and WBC count in 347 patients were retrospectively assessed after complication-free, single-level open posterior lumbar interlaminar fusion (PLIF) (n = 150) for disc degeneration and spinal stenosis and endoscopically assisted lumbar discectomy (n = 197) for herniated lumbar disc. Confounding variables such as overweight, ASA classification, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and perioperative antibiotics were recorded to evaluate their influence on the kinetics of CRP values and WBC count postoperatively. Results In both procedures, CRP peaked 2–3 days after surgery. The maximum CRP level was significantly higher after fusion: mean 127 (SD 57) (p < 0.001). A rapid fall in CRP within 4–6 days was observed for both groups, with almost normal values being reached after 14 days. Only BMI > 25 and long duration of surgery were associated with higher peak CRP values. WBC count did not show a typical and therefore interpretable profile. Conclusion CRP is a predictable and responsive serum parameter in postoperative monitoring of inflammatory responses in patients undergoing spine surgery, whereas WBC kinetics is unspecific. We suggest that CRP could be measured on the day before surgery, on day 2 or 3 after surgery, and also between days 4 and 6, to aid in early detection of infectious complications. PMID:21657968

  3. Non-neurological major complications of extreme lateral and related lumbar interbody fusion techniques

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complications exclusive of new neurological deficits/injuries that follow extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and related lateral lumbar interbody techniques should be better recognized to determine the safety of these procedures. Unfortunately, a review of the XLIF literature did not accurately reflect the frequency of these “other complications” as few US surgeons publish such adverse events that may lead to medicolegal suits. Methods: Major complications occurring with XLIF included sympathectomy, major vascular injuries, bowel perforations, sterile seromas, and instrumentation failures. Results: The frequency of sympathectomy was 4% for XLIF vs. 15% for anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). There were three major vascular injuries for XLIF; one fatal intraoperative event, one life-threatening retroperitoneal hematoma, and one iatrogenic lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully embolized. Two bowel perforations were reported, whereas a third was a “direct communication.” One patient developed a sterile recurrent seroma due to vancomycin powder utilized for an XLIF. One study cited malpositioning of an XLIF cage resulting in a lateral L3–L4 extrusion, whereas the second series looked at the 45% risk of cage-overhang when XLIF devices were placed in the anterior one-third of the vertebral body. Conclusion: Excluding new neurological deficits, XLIF techniques resulted in multiple other major complications. However, these small numbers likely reflect just the tip of the iceberg (e.g., 10%) and the remaining 90% may never be known as many US-based spine surgeons fail to publish such adverse events as they are discoverable in a court of law and may lead to medicolegal suits. PMID:27843680

  4. Risk Factors and Management of Incidental Durotomy in Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Enders, Frederik; Ackemann, Amelie; Müller, Simon; Kiening, Karl; Orakcioglu, Berk

    2017-08-28

    This is a retrospective study analysis. In this retrospective study we evaluated risk factors for incidental durotomy and its impact on the postoperative course. Lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) is increasingly applied for the treatment of degenerative instability. A known complication is incidental durotomy. A cohort of 541 patients who underwent primary LIF surgery between 2005 and 2015 was analyzed. Previous lumbar surgery, age, surgeon's experience, intraoperative use of a microscope, and the number of operated levels were assessed and the risk for incidental durotomy was estimated using the Log-likelihood test and Wald test, respectively. The association of incidental durotomy and outcome parameters was analyzed using the quantile regression model. In 77 (14.2%) patients intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula was observed. Previous lumbar surgery (P<0.001), number of operated levels (P=0.03), and surgeon's experience (P=0.01) were significantly associated with incidental durotomy. Incidental durotomy was significantly associated with a prolonged bed rest (P<0.001), hospital stay (P=0.041), and an increased use of postoperative antibiotics (P<0.001). Eleven of 77 patients with incidental durotomy (14.3%) developed postoperative CSF fistula of whom 10 (91%) needed revision surgery for dural repair. We could identify important risk factors for incidental durotomy in LIF surgery. In patients who had undergone previous lumbar surgery and those with multilevel disease particular precaution is required. Furthermore, we were able to verify the morbidity associated with CSF fistula as shown by increased immobilization and follow-up surgeries for postoperative CSF fistula which emphasizes the importance to develop strategies to minimize the risk for incidental durotomy.

  5. Multilevel lumbar fusion and postoperative physiotherapy rehabilitation in a patient with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A

    2011-04-01

    There are no comparative randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy modalities for chronic low back and radicular pain associated with multilevel fusion. Physiotherapy-based rehabilitation to control pain and improve activation levels for persistent pain following multilevel fusion can be challenging. This is a case report of a 68-year-old man who was referred for physiotherapy intervention 10 months after a multilevel spinal fusion for spinal stenosis. He reported high levels of persistent postoperative pain with minimal activity as a consequence of his pain following the surgery. The physiotherapy interventions consisted of three phases of rehabilitation starting with pool exercise that progressed to land-based walking. These were all combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that was used consistently for up to 8 hours per day. As outcome measures, daily pain levels and walking distances were charted once the pool programme was completed (in the third phase). Phase progression was determined by shuttle test results. The pain level was correlated with the distance walked using linear regression over a 5-day average. Over a 5-day moving average, the pain level reduced and walking distance increased. The chart of recorded pain level and walking distance showed a trend toward decreased pain with the increased distance walked. In a patient undergoing multilevel lumbar fusion, the combined use of TENS and a progressive walking programme (from pool to land) reduced pain and increased walking distance. This improvement was despite poor medication compliance and a reported high level of postsurgical pain.

  6. Retrospective radiological outcome analysis following teriparatide use in elderly patients undergoing multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kaliya-Perumal, Arun-Kumar; Lu, Meng-Ling; Luo, Chi-An; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer; Niu, Chi-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Elderly patients with chronic nonresolving symptoms due to degenerative spine pathologies are prone to have poor surgical outcomes and hardware-related complications, especially following multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion surgeries. With intention of analyzing if teriparatide can be an effective adjunct therapy to surgical management, radiological outcomes are studied. Sixty-two elderly patients were divided into 2 similar groups. Group 1 (n = 30; mean age = 69.83 years; fusion levels = 137; screws = 269) had taken teriparatide (20 mcg SC injection, once daily) for a duration of 7.4 ± 2.4 months following surgery and Group 2 (n = 32; mean age = 70.38 years; fusion levels = 144; screws = 283) did not take teriparatide. Radiological evaluation was done to determine the state of postero lateral fusion mass and to investigate the incidence of pedicle screw loosening at 1-year follow-up. Unilateral or bilateral bridging bone formation across the transverse process of adjacent vertebras showing continuous trabeculation suggestive of solid fusion was obtained in 66.7% patients in the teriparatide group and 50% patients in the control group (P = 0.20). 13.4% of the total no. of screws showed signs of loosening in the teriparatide group, compared to 24.4% in the control group (P = 0.001). Percentage of patients achieving solid fusion following teriparatide use was found to be more than that of the control group. This difference may have clinical importance but was not statistically significant. However, teriparatide use was more significantly influential in reducing the incidence of subsequent pedicle screw loosening. PMID:28151894

  7. Assessment of spontaneous correction of lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Mizusaki, Danilo; Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiographic response of the lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic, in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of Lenke type 1. Methods Forty-two patients with Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent operations via the posterior route with pedicle screws were prospectively evaluated. Clinical measurements (size of the hump and translation of the trunk in the coronal plane, by means of a plumb line) and radiographic measurements (Cobb angle, distal level of arthrodesis, translation of the lumbar apical vertebral and Risser) were made. The evaluations were performed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and two years after surgery. Results The mean Cobb angle of the main thoracic curve was found to have been corrected by 68.9% and the lumbar curve by 57.1%. Eighty percent of the patients presented improved coronal trunk balance two years after surgery. In four patients, worsening of the plumb line measurements was observed, but there was no need for surgical intervention. Less satisfactory results were observed in patients with lumbar modifier B. Conclusions In Lenke 1 patients, fusion of the thoracic curve alone provided spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve and led to trunk balance. Less satisfactory results were observed in curves with lumbar modifier B, and this may be related to overcorrection of the main thoracic curve. PMID:26962505

  8. Economic Effects of Anti-Depressant Usage on Elective Lumbar Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sayadipour, Amirali; Kepler, Chrisopher K.; Mago, Rajnish; Certa, Kenneth M.; Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Albert, Todd J.; Anderson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested, although not proven, that presence of concomitant psychiatric disorders may increase the inpatient costs for patients undergoing elective surgery. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that elective lumbar fusion surgery is more costly in patients with under treatment for depression. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of 142 patients who underwent elective lumbar fusion. Of those 142 patients, 41 patients were chronically using an antidepressant medication that considered as a “study group”, and 101 patients were not taking an antidepressant medication that considered as a “control group”. Data was collected for this cohort regarding antidepressant usage patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index scores and cost. Costs were compared between those with a concomitant antidepressant usage and those without antidepressant usage using multivariate analysis. Results: Patients using antidepressants and those with no history of antidepressant usage were similar in terms of gender, age and number of operative levels. The LOS demonstrated a non-significant trend towards longer stays in those using anti-depressants. Total charges, payments, variable costs and fixed costs were all higher in the antidepressant group but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Using Total Charges as the dependent variable, gender and having psychiatric comorbidities were retained independent variables. Use of an antidepressant was independently predictive of a 36% increase in Total Charges. Antidepressant usage as an independent variable also conferred a 22% increase in cost and predictive of a 19% increase in Fixed Cost. Male gender was predictive of a 30% increase in Total Charges. Conclusion: This study suggests use of antidepressant in patients who undergo elective spine fusion compared with control group is associated with increasing total cost and length of

  9. Complication rate during multilevel lumbar fusion in patients above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Bijjawara; Upendra, Bidre; Vijay, S; Kumar, GC Arun; Reddy, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spine surgery in elderly with comorbidities is reported to have higher complication rates and increased cost. However, the surgical outcome is good irrespective of the complications. Hence, it is essential to identify the factors affecting the complication rates in such patients and the measures to reduce them. This retrospective observational study determines the perioperative complications, their incidence and the measures to reduce complications in the elderly with comorbidities, operated by instrumented multilevel lumbar fusion. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 60 years and above with one or more comorbidities operated by multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion in our center between January 2012 and December 2013 were included in the study. Perioperative complications and their incidence were calculated. Age, number of levels fused, operative time, blood loss, and complication rates were correlated with the duration of stay and the incidence of perioperative complications using SPSS software. Measures to reduce complications are determined by these results and by review of literature. Results: Fifty two patients were included in the study (28 females and 24 males) with an average age of 69 years (range 60-84 years). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes. Spondylolisthesis was the most common indication. Eleven complications were noted with an incidence of 21%. Three were systemic complications which required transfer to Intensive Care Unit. Local complications were incidental durotomy (three), transient root deficits (two), wound infections (one), and persistent radicular pain (two). Operative time and blood loss were significantly higher in patients with complications. Conclusion: Complication rates strongly correlate with the blood loss and operative time. Reducing the operative time and blood loss by intraoperative tranexamic acid, laminectomy using osteotome, simultaneous bilateral exposure and instrumentation and

  10. Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion at the L5-S1 Level: Technical Considerations and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Kurzbuch, Arthur Robert; Kaech, Denis; Baranowski, Pawel; Baranowska, Alicja; Recoules-Arche, Didier

    2017-09-01

    Background Extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF) surgery is a muscle-sparing approach that allows the treatment of various degenerative spinal diseases. It is technical challenging to perform the ELIF approach at the L5-S1 level because the sacral ala obstructs the view of the intervertebral disk space. Methods We reported earlier on the ELIF technique in which the intervertebral disk is targeted at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the midline. In this article we describe the technical process we developed to overcome the anatomic relation between the sacral ala and the intervertebral disk space L5-S1 that hinders the ELIF approach at this level. We then report in a retrospective analysis on the short-term clinical and radiologic outcome of 100 consecutive patients with degenerative L5-S1 pathologies who underwent ELIF surgery. Results The L5-S1 ELIF approach could be realized in all patients. The short-term clinical outcome was evaluated 5 months after surgery: 92% of the patients were satisfied with their postoperative result; 8% had a poor result. Overall, 17% of the patients presented light radicular or low back pain not influencing their daily activity, and 82% of the patients working before surgery returned to work 3 to 7 months after surgery. The radiologic outcome was documented by computed tomography at 5 months after surgery and showed fusion in 99% of the patients. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging performed in 5 patients at 6 months after surgery revealed the integrity of the paraspinal muscles. Conclusions ELIF surgery at the L5-S1 level is technically feasible for various degenerative spinal diseases. Analysis of the clinical and radiologic data in a consecutive retrospective cohort of patients who underwent this surgical procedure showed a good short-term clinical outcome and fusion rate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Fully endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion using a percutaneous unilateral biportal endoscopic technique: technical note and preliminary clinical results.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Hwa; Son, Sang Kyu; Eum, Jin Hwa; Park, Choon Keun

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Minimally invasive spine surgery can minimize damage to normal anatomical structures. Recently, fully endoscopic spine surgeries have been attempted for lumbar fusion surgery. In this study, the authors performed a percutaneous unilateral biportal endoscopic (UBE) technique as a minimally invasive surgery for lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to present the UBE technique of fully endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) and to analyze the clinical results. METHODS Patients who were to undergo single-level fusion surgery from L3-4 to L5-S1 were enrolled. Two channels (endoscopic portal and working portal) were used for endoscopic lumbar fusion surgery. All patients underwent follow-up for more than 12 months. Demographic characteristics, diagnosis, operative time, and estimated blood loss were evaluated. MRI was performed on postoperative Day 2. Clinical evaluations (visual analog scale [VAS] for the leg and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] scores) were performed preoperatively and during the follow-up period. RESULTS A total of 69 patients (24 men and 45 women) were enrolled in this study. The mean follow-up period was 13.5 months. Postoperative MRI revealed optimal direct neural decompression after fully endoscopic fusion surgery. VAS and ODI scores significantly improved after the surgery. There was no postoperative neurological deterioration. CONCLUSIONS Fully endoscopic LIF using the UBE technique may represent an alternative minimally invasive LIF surgery for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. Long-term follow-up and larger clinical studies are needed to validate the clinical and radiological results of this surgery.

  12. Evaluation of the stress distribution change at the adjacent facet joints after lumbar fusion surgery: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianxiong; Jia, Haobo; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Weiguo; Yu, Jingtao; Feng, Rui; Wang, Jie; Xing, Dan; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Shaowen; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yang; Ma, Baoyi

    2014-07-01

    Spinal fusion surgery has been widely applied in clinical treatment, and the spinal fusion rate has improved markedly. However, its postoperative complications, especially adjacent segment degeneration, have increasingly attracted the attention of spinal surgeons. The most common pathological condition at adjacent segments is hypertrophic degenerative arthritis of the facet joint. To study the stress distribution changes at the adjacent facet joint after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation, human cadaver lumbar spines were used in the present study, and electrical resistance strain gauges were attached on L1-L4 articular processes parallel or perpendicular to the articular surface of facet joints. Subsequently, electrical resistance strain gauge data were measured using anYJ-33 static resistance strain indicator with three types of models: the intact model, the laminectomy model, and the fusion model with pedicle screw fixation. The strain changes in the measurement sites indirectly reflect the stress changes. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and laminectomy state at all facet joints. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and the pedicle screw fixation fusion state at the L1/2 and L3/4 facet joints. The increased stress on the facet joints after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation may be the cause of adjacent segment degeneration.

  13. Automatic lumbar vertebrae detection based on feature fusion deep learning for partial occluded C-arm X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yinlong; An, Haibo; Tan, Jindong; Yang Li; Wei Liang; Yinlong Zhang; Haibo An; Jindong Tan; Li, Yang; Liang, Wei; Tan, Jindong; Zhang, Yinlong; An, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    Automatic and accurate lumbar vertebrae detection is an essential step of image-guided minimally invasive spine surgery (IG-MISS). However, traditional methods still require human intervention due to the similarity of vertebrae, abnormal pathological conditions and uncertain imaging angle. In this paper, we present a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) model to automatically detect lumbar vertebrae for C-arm X-ray images. Training data is augmented by DRR and automatic segmentation of ROI is able to reduce the computational complexity. Furthermore, a feature fusion deep learning (FFDL) model is introduced to combine two types of features of lumbar vertebrae X-ray images, which uses sobel kernel and Gabor kernel to obtain the contour and texture of lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate that our proposed model performs more accurate in abnormal cases with pathologies and surgical implants in multi-angle views.

  14. Preoperative anemia does not predict complications after single-level lumbar fusion: a propensity score-matched multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bobby D; Edelstein, Adam I; Patel, Alpesh A; Lovecchio, Francis; Kim, John Y S

    2014-11-01

    Multicenter retrospective cohort study. To estimate the impact of preoperative anemia on 30-day complications in patients undergoing single-level lumbar fusion. Anemia has been widely implicated as a risk factor in various surgical procedures including elective spine surgery. No large-scale study has been performed to examine this relationship in single-level lumbar fusion surgery. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was retrospectively reviewed to identify all patients who underwent single-level lumbar fusion procedures during 2006 to 2011. A propensity score-matching algorithm was used to match scores of anemic patients with that of nonanemic patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of unadjusted and propensity score-matched cohorts was performed to examine the effect of preoperative anemia on 30-day postoperative complication rates and length of hospital stay. A total of 2960 patients met inclusion criteria. The propensity score-matching procedure yielded scores of 491 pairs of well-matched nonanemic and anemic patients. The multivariate analysis of propensity score-matched population found preoperative anemia to carry no significant association with any of the complications analyzed, including overall complications, medical complications, surgical complications, reoperation, mortality, or length of total hospital stay. For patients undergoing single-level lumbar fusion, preoperative anemia is not independently associated with increased risk of 30-day complications or increased length of stay. Further studies are needed to independently validate this relationship in other spine surgical procedures. 3.

  15. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stundner, O; Chiu, Y-L; Sun, X; Ramachandran, S-K; Gerner, P; Vougioukas, V; Mazumdar, M; Memtsoudis, S G

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84,655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% (n = 6163) also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood product transfusion and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (odds ratio (OR) 1.50, confidence interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood product transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians.

  16. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment Objective To determine the relationship of pain intensity (back and leg) on patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks when deciding whether or not to undergo lumbar spinal fusion. Background To formulate informed decisions regarding lumbar fusion surgery, preoperative discussions should include a review of the risk of complications balanced with the likelihood of symptom relief. Pain intensity has the potential to influence a patient’s decision to consent to lumbar fusion. We hypothesized that pain intensity is associated with a patient’s acceptance of surgical complication risks. Methods Patients being seen for the first time by a spine surgeon for treatment of a non-traumatic or non-neoplastic spinal disorder completed a structured questionnaire. It posed 24 scenarios, each presenting a combination of risks of 3 complications (nerve damage, wound infection, nonunion) and probabilities of symptom relief. For each scenario, the patient indicated whether he/she would/would not consent to a fusion for low back pain (LBP). The sum of the scenarios in which the patient responded that he or she would elect surgery was calculated to represent acceptance of surgical complication risks. A variety of other data were also recorded, including age, gender, education level, race, history of non-spinal surgery, duration of pain, and history of spinal injections. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses. Results The mean number of scenarios accepted by 118 enrolled subjects was 10.2 (median 8, standard deviation 8.5, range 0 to 24, or 42.5% of scenarios). In general, subjects were more likely to accept scenarios with lower risks and higher efficacy. Spearman’s rank correlation estimates demonstrated a moderate association between the LBP intensity and acceptance of surgical complication risks (r=0.37, p=0.0001) while leg pain intensity had a weak but positive

  17. Mini posterior lumbar interbody fusion with presacral screw stabilization in early lumbosacral instability

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Arjun; Kini, Abhishek R; Chacko, A; Sunil, Upadhyaya; Vinod, K; Geover, Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical options for the management of early lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with instability vary from open lumbar interbody fusion with transpedicular fixation to a variety of minimal access fusion and fixation procedures. We have used a combination of micro discectomy and axial lumbosacral interbody fusion with presacral screw fixation to treat symptomatic patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis or lumbosacral degenerative disc disease, which needed surgical stabilization. This study describes the above technique along with analysis of results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with symptomatic lumbosacral (L5-S1) instability and degenerative lumbosacral disc disease were treated by micro discectomy and interbody fusion using presacral screw stabilization. Patients with history of bowel, bladder dysfunction and local anorectal diseases were excluded from this study. Postoperatively all patients were evaluated neurologically and radiologically for screw position, fusion and stability. Oswestry disability index was used to evaluate results. Results: We had nine females and three males with a mean age of 47.33 years (range 26–68 years). Postoperative assessment revealed three patients to have screw placed in anterior 1/4th of the 1st sacral body, in rest nine the screws were placed in the posterior 3/4th of sacral body. At 2 years followup, eight patients (67%) showed evidence of bridging trabeculae at bone graft site and none of the patients showed evidence of instability or implant failure. Conclusion: Presacral screw fixation along with micro discectomy is an effective procedure to manage early symptomatic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with instability. PMID:26015626

  18. Long-term follow-up of minimal-access and open posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Ferch, Richard D; Ghahreman, Ali; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2013-03-01

    Although posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is regarded as an effective treatment for spondylolisthesis, few studies have reported comprehensive, long-term outcome data, and none has investigated the incidence of deterioration of outcomes. To determine and compare the success rates and long-term stability of outcomes of open PLIF and minimal-access PLIF in the treatment of radicular pain and back pain in patients with spondylolisthesis. Forty-three patients were followed for a minimum of 3 years. They completed a Short-Form Health Survey and visual analog scores for back pain and leg pain and underwent lumbar spine radiography. Outcomes were compared with baseline data and 12-month data. Surgery succeeded in reducing listhesis and increasing disc height, but had little effect on lumbar lordosis or the angulation of the segment treated. At 12 months after surgery, listhesis was reduced, disc height was increased, leg pain was reduced or eliminated, and physical functioning restored. Back pain was less often relieved. These outcomes were largely maintained over the ensuing 2 years. Only 5% to 10% of patients reported deterioration in their relief of pain. Depending on the definition adopted for success, the long-term success rate of PLIF may be as high as 70%. For the relief of leg pain, the success rates of open PLIF (70%) and minimal-access PLIF (67%) for spondylolisthesis are high and durable in the long-term. PLIF is less often successful in relieving back pain, but the outcomes are maintained. The outcomes of open PLIF and minimal-access PLIF were statistically indistinguishable. MCIC, minimally clinically important changeMPLIF, minimal-access posterior lumbar interbody fusionOPLIF, open-access posterior lumbar interbody fusionPLIF, posterior lumbar interbody fusionSF-36, Short-Form Health Survey.

  19. A cost-utility analysis of Dynesys dynamic stabilization versus instrumented fusion for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spine diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Sun, Wei; Lu, Qiang; Chen, Jiying; Tang, Jiaguang

    2017-08-11

    Symptomatic chronic low back and leg pain resulting from lumbar spine degenerative disorders is highly prevalent in China, and for some patients, surgery is the final option for improvement. Several techniques for spinal non-fusion have been introduced to reduce the side-effects of fusion methods and hasten postoperative recovery. In this study, the authors have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Dynesys posterior dynamic stabilization system (DY) compared with lumbar fusion techniques in the treatment of single-level degenerative lumbar spinal conditions. A total of 221 patients undergoing single-level elective primary surgery for degenerative lumbar pathology were included. 2-Year postoperative health outcomes of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires were recorded. 2-Year back-related medical resource use, missed work, and health-state values (Quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]) were assessed. Cost-effectiveness was determined by the incremental cost per QALY gained. At each follow-up point, both cohorts were associated with significant improvements in VAS scores, ODI, SF-36 scores and EQ-5D QALY scores, which persisted at the 2-year evaluation. The 2-year total mean cost per patient were significantly lower for Dynesys system ($20,150) compared to fusion techniques ($25,581, $27,862 and $27,314, respectively) (P < 0.001). Using EQ-5D, the mean cumulative 2-year QALYs gained were statistically equivalent between the four groups (0.28, 0.27, 0.30 and 0.30 units, respectively) (P = 0.74). Results indicate that patients implanted with the DY system derive lower total costs and more utility, on average, than those treated with fusion. The Dynesys dynamic stabilization system is cost effective compared to instrumented lumbar fusion for treatment of single-level degenerative lumbar disorders. It is not possible to state whether DY

  20. Effect of Head Position on Intraocular Pressure During Lumbar Spine Fusion: A Randomized, Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Emery, Sanford E; Daffner, Scott D; France, John C; Ellison, Matthew; Grose, Brian W; Hobbs, Gerald R; Clovis, Nina B

    2015-11-18

    Ischemic optic neuropathy resulting in visual loss is a rare but devastating complication of spine surgery. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) results in decreased perfusion and possibly ischemic optic neuropathy. We performed a randomized, prospective trial to evaluate the effect of head positioning on IOP during lumbar spine fusion. The study included fifty-two patients treated at one institution. Inclusion criteria were a lumbar spine fusion and an age of eighteen to eighty years. Exclusion criteria were a diagnosis of tumor, infection, or traumatic injury or a history of eye disease, ocular surgery, cervical spine surgery, chronic neck pain, or cervical stenosis. The control group underwent the surgery with the head in neutral and the face parallel to the level operating room table whereas, in the experimental group, the neck was extended so that the face had a 10° angle of inclination in relation to the table. IOP measurements were recorded along with the corresponding blood pressure and PCO2 values at the same time points. The primary outcome measure was the change in intraocular pressure (ΔIOP, defined as the maximum IOP minus the initial IOP). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for categorical risk factors, and regression analysis was used for continuous risk factors. The mean ΔIOP, corrected for duration of surgery, was significantly (p = 0.0074) lower in the group treated with the head elevated than it was in the group treated with the head in neutral (difference between the two groups, 4.53 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 7.79 mm Hg]). No patient sustained visual loss or any cervical-spine-related complications. Head elevation for adult lumbar spine fusion performed with the patient prone resulted in significantly lower IOP measurements than those seen when the operation was done with the patient's head in neutral. As lower IOP correlates with increased optic nerve perfusion, this intervention could mitigate the risk of perioperative

  1. Preliminary Results of Bioactive Amniotic Suspension with Allograft for Achieving One and Two-Level Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Eubulus J.; Utter, Philip A.; Cavanaugh, David A.; Frank, Kelly A.; Moody, Devan; McManus, Brian; Stone, Marcus B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone graft material for lumbar fusion was historically autologous bone graft (ABG). In recent years alternatives such as allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), ceramics, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have gained favor, although the complications of these are not fully understood. Bioactive amniotic suspension (BAS) with allograft is a new class of material derived from human amniotic tissue. Methods Eligible patients receiving a one or two level lumbar interbody fusion with Nucel, a BAS with allograft, were contacted and scheduled for a mininmim 12 month follow-up visit. Patients were evaluated for fusion using CT's and plain radiographs. Clincal outcomes, including ODI, VAS back and leg were collected, as well as comorbidities including BMI, smoking status, diabetes and previous lumbar surgery. Results One-level patients (N=38) were 71.1% female with mean age of 58.4 ± 12.7 and mean BMI of 30.6 ± 6.08. Two-level patients (N=34) were 58.8% female with mean age of 49.3 ±10.9 and mean BMI of 30.1 ± 5.82. Kinematic fusion was achieved in 97.4% of one-level patients and 100% of two-level patients. Baseline comorbidities were present in 89.5% of one-level patients and 88.2% of two-level patients. No adverse events related to BAS were reported in this study. Conclusion Fusion status is evaluated with many different biologics and varying methods in the literature. BAS with allograft in this study demonstrated high fusion rates with no complications within a largely comorbid population. Although a small population, BAS with allograft results were encouraging for one and two-level lumbar interbody fusion in this study. Further prospective studies should be conducted to investigate safety and efficacy in a larger population. PMID:27162714

  2. A Multi-center Clinical Study of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with the Expandable Stand-alone Cage (Tyche® Cage) for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Oh, Seong Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo; Rim, Dae Cheol; Kim, Tae Sung

    2007-01-01

    Objective This multi-center clinical study was designed to determine the long-term results of patients who received a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion with expandable cage (Tyche® cage) for degenerative spinal diseases during the same period in each hospital. Methods Fifty-seven patients with low back pain who had a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion using a newly designed expandable cage were enrolled in this study at five centers from June 2003 to December 2004 and followed up for 24 months. Pain improvement was checked with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and their disability was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographs were obtained before and after surgery. At the final follow-up, dynamic stability, quality of bone fusion, interveretebral disc height, and lumbar lordosis were assessed. In some cases, a lumbar computed tomography scan was also obtained. Results The mean VAS score of back pain was improved from 6.44 points preoperatively to 0.44 at the final visit and the score of sciatica was reduced from 4.84 to 0.26. Also, the Oswestry Disability Index was improved from 32.62 points preoperatively to 18.25 at the final visit. The fusion rate was 92.5%. Intervertebral disc height, recorded as 9.94±2.69 mm before surgery was increased to 12.23±3.31 mm at postoperative 1 month and was stabilized at 11.43±2.23 mm on final visit. The segmental angle of lordosis was changed significantly from 3.54±3.70° before surgery to 6.37±3.97° by 24 months postoperative, and total lumbar lordosis was 20.37±11.30° preoperatively and 24.71±11.70° at 24 months postoperative. Conclusion There have been no special complications regarding the expandable cage during the follow-up period and the results of this study demonstrates a high fusion rate and clinical success. PMID:19096552

  3. Characteristics and Efficacy of a New 3-Dimensional Printed Mesh Structure Titanium Alloy Spacer for Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung-Soo; Lee, Kyung-Joon; Kwon, Yoo-Beom; Kang, Kyung-Chung

    2017-08-17

    This study evaluated the characteristics of a newly developed 3-dimensional printed mesh structure titanium spacer and its efficacy for posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with this spacer was performed at 53 segments (40 patients; mean age, 64 years; range, 51-73 years). Data were collected prospectively. Radiographic characteristics were analyzed with changes in interbody height, instability of the segments, formation of bone bridges around the implants, and pseudarthrosis, as determined by dynamic radiographs and postoperative computed tomography scans. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the visual analog scale for the low back and extremities, the Oswestry Disability Index, and the 36-Item Short Form Survey. Radiographically, preoperative anterior and posterior interbody height was significantly increased immediately postoperatively (P<.05), and this increase was maintained until the last follow-up. No segmental motion of 3° or greater was noted at the last follow-up. Sagittal computed tomography images showed complete anterior bone bridges for 94.3% of cases and complete posterior bone bridges for 86.7% of cases. Coronal computed tomography images showed bilateral complete bone bridges for 94.3% of cases and unilateral bone bridges for 5.7% of cases without incomplete bilateral bone bridges. No pseudarthrosis or revision, particularly including posterior lumbar interbody fusion at L5-S1, was noted. Compared with preoperative values, the visual analog scale score for the low back and extremities, the Oswestry Disability Index, and the 36-Item Short Form Survey score showed significant improvement at the last follow-up (P<.05). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with a newly developed 3-dimensional printed mesh structure titanium spacer showed satisfactory radiographic and clinical results, with no cases of pseudarthrosis or revision, including posterior lumbar interbody fusion at L5-S1. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx

  4. Scoliosis secondary to lumbar osteoid osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiping; Niu, Xingbang; Wang, Biao; He, Simin; Hao, Dingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lumbar osteoid osteoma has a low incidence, which could easily lead to scoliosis. Patient concerns: Scoliosis secondary to lumbar osteoid osteoma could be easily misdiagnosed when patients do not complain of obvious symptoms. Diagnoses: We reported a case of a 9-year-old boy with back deformity that was firstly diagnosed with scoliosis at the local hospital. After prescribed with orthosis, the patient experienced aggravating pain that could not be relieved with painkillers. After he admitted to our hospital for further medical advice, he was prescribed to complete radiological examinations. Considering his radiological examination results and his medical history, correct diagnosis of lumbar osteoid osteoma was made. Interventions: Surgical intervention of posterior lesion resection was conducted after diagnosis. Intra-operative frozen pathology indicated features of osteoid osteoma. As the lesion involved inferior articular process of L5, which could cause lumbar instability after lesion resection, internal fixation was conducted at L4-S1 segment, and posterolateral bone fusion was also conducted at L5-S1 segment. Outcomes: Three months after operation, the patient showed marked improvement of scoliosis deformity and great relief of lumbar pain. Lessons subsections: Although spine osteoid osteoma is clinically rare, it shall not be overlooked when young patients present with scoliosis first. Radiological results including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging shall be taken carefully as reference when making diagnosis. Surgical intervention of lesion resection could well improve scoliosis and relieve lumbar pain. PMID:27893671

  5. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis: clinical outcomes and predictive radiological factors for extension of fusion distal to caudal end vertebra.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Tsirikos, A I; Subramanian, A S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical, radiological, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire data were reviewed pre-operatively and two years post-operatively for patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral convex segmental pedicle screw technique. A total of 72 patients were included (67 female, 5 male; mean age at surgery 16.7 years (13 to 23)) and divided into groups: group 1 included 53 patients who underwent fusion between the vertebrae at the limit of the curve (proximal and distal end vertebrae); group 2 included 19 patients who underwent extension of the fusion distally beyond the caudal end vertebra. A mean scoliosis correction of 80% (45% to 100%) was achieved. The mean post-operative lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation and trunk shift were less than in previous studies. A total of five pre-operative radiological parameters differed significantly between the groups and correlated with the extension of the fusion distally: the size of the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve, the lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation, the Cobb angle on lumbar convex bending and the size of the compensatory thoracic curve. Regression analysis allowed an equation incorporating these parameters to be developed which had a positive predictive value of 81% in determining whether the lowest instrumented vertebra should be at the caudal end vertebra or one or two levels more distal. There were no differences in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 outcome scores between the two groups (p = 0.17). In conclusion, thoracolumbar/lumbar curves in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be effectively treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral segmental pedicle screw technique. Five radiological parameters correlate with the need for distal extension of the fusion, and an equation incorporating these parameters reliably informs selection of the lowest instrumented

  6. The Correlation Between Cage Subsidence, Bone Mineral Density, and Clinical Results in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyu Won; Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Ji-Ho; Lee, Do-Yoon; Shim, Hee Jong

    2017-07-01

    A retrospective review of prospectively collected radiographic and clinical data. This study aims to investigate the relationship between cage subsidence and bone mineral density (BMD), and to reveal the clinical implications of cage subsidence. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has become one of the standard treatment modality for lumbar degenerative disease. However, cage subsidence might result in recurrent foraminal stenosis and deteriorate the clinical results. Furthermore, numbers of osteoporosis patients who underwent PLIF are increasing. Therefore, the information on the correlations between cage subsidence, BMD, and clinical results will be of great significance. A total 139 segments was included in this retrospective study. We examined functional rating index (Visual Analogue Scale for pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-36 score) preoperatively, and investigated their changes after postoperative 1 year. Correlation between cage subsidence and clinical scores was investigated. Plain anteroposterior and lateral radiograph were taken preoperatively and postoperatively and during follow-up. Preoperative BMD and subsidence measured by postoperative 1 year 3-dimensional computed tomography were achieved and their correlation was assessed. All postoperative clinical scores improved significantly compared with preoperative ones (pain Visual Analogue Scale: 7.34-2.89, Oswestry Disability Index: 25.34-15.86, Short Form-36: 26.45-16.46, all P<0.001). BMD showed significant weak correlation with subsidence (r=-0.285, P<0.001). Severe osteoporotic segments (T score <-3.0) had more risk to develop severe subsidence (>3 mm) compared with the segments in which T score were higher than -3.0 (P=0.012), and its odds ratio was 8.44. Subsidence had no significant correlation with all clinical scores. This study revealed that cage subsidence is relevant to BMD. However, it was demonstrated that subsidence is not related to the clinical deterioration. Therefore

  7. Early clinical results with cortically based pedicle screw trajectory for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Glennie, R Andrew; Dea, Nicolas; Kwon, Brian K; Street, John T

    2015-06-01

    This study reviews the outcomes and revision rates of degenerative lumbar fusion surgery using cortical trajectory pedicle screws in lieu of traditional pedicle screw instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation can be a challenge in patients with low bone mineral density. Wide posterior approaches to the lumbar spine exposing lateral to the facet joints and onto transverse processes causes an additional degree of muscular damage and blood loss not present with a simple laminectomy. A cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw has been proposed as an alternative to prevent screw pullout and decrease the morbidity associated with the wide posterior approach to the spine. We present a series of eight consecutive patients using a cortical bone trajectory instead of traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. A retrospective review of our institutional registry data identified eight patients who had cortical screws placed with the assistance of O-arm Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) from 2010-2013. We analyzed the need for revision, the maintenance of reduction and the incidence of screw pullout or breakage. Our review demonstrated that two of eight patients were revised at an average of 12months. The reasons for these revisions were pseudarthrosis and caudal adjacent segment failure. All patients who were revised had frank screw loosening. We present early clinical results of a new technique that has been shown to have a better fixation profile in laboratory testing. Our less than favorable early clinical results should be interpreted with caution and highlight important technical issues which should be considered.

  8. Postoperative continuous paravertebral anesthetic infusion for pain control in lumbar spinal fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Elder, James B; Hoh, Daniel J; Wang, Michael Y

    2008-01-15

    A retrospective, case-control study was conducted to analyze postoperative outcomes in patients who received local anesthetic infusion pumps after lumbar spinal fusion procedures. Data were collected prospectively via nursing protocol and third party assessment, and analyzed retrospectively. To review the safety and efficacy of continuous infusion of local anesthetic into the subfascial aspects of the wound after lumbar fusion surgery for treatment of postoperative pain, and to determine whether other outcome measures such as postoperative nausea and vomiting, ambulation and length of hospitalization were affected by the presence of the device. Patients who undergo lumbar spine fusion procedures frequently experience significant, debilitating pain related to their surgery. This pain may delay postoperative mobilization, increase length of hospitalization, and require prolonged use of high doses of narcotics. Use of a local anesthetic continuous-infusion pump after surgery may lead to improvements in these outcome variables. After posterior lumbar spine fusion procedures, 26 consecutive patients received the ON-Q PainBuster, which infused 0.5% marcaine via an elastomeric pump into the subfascial aspects of the wound. Retrospective analysis compared each of these patients with a case-matched control patient. Data included pain scores and opiate use during the first 5 postoperative days (PODs), length of hospital stay, and complications. Variables such as age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, and surgical procedure were similar between matched cases. One patient was excluded because of active heroine abuse. Patients with the ON-Q PainBuster used 41.2% less narcotics on POD 1, 50.1% less on day 2, and 47.1% less on day 3 compared with the control patients. Differences in opiate usage were not statistically significant on POD 4 (45.5% less) and 5 (50.3% less). A lower average pain score was observed among patients with the ON-Q PainBuster on

  9. Non-fusion technology in degenerative lumbar spinal disorders: facts, questions, challenges.

    PubMed

    Mayer, H Michael; Korge, Andreas

    2002-10-01

    Although surgical fusion of the painful degenerating functional spinal unit (FSU) of the lumbar spine has always been a matter of debate, it has become a gold-standard procedure for all cases that lack an alternative treatment. However, a detailed and honest review of the clinical data reveals a considerable number of undesired side effects, complications and poor outcomes. The continuous search for alternative surgical treatment modalities has led to the development of numerous ideas for surgical reconstruction of the anterior and/or posterior column. The term "spine arthroplasty" summarises all procedures that have the goal of restoring function. This article describes the principles of the most current surgical techniques and implants, it points out potential challenges and poses a number of questions that need evidence-based answers before the incorporation of these innovations into surgical routine can be justified.

  10. Risk of sympathectomy after anterior and lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedures.

    PubMed

    Hrabalek, Lumir; Sternbersky, Jan; Adamus, Milan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify retrospectively, lumbar sympathectomy (SE) using thermography (TG) and to evaluate clinically, the severity of post-sympathectomy (post-SE) dysfunction after anterior and lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedures (ALIF, XLIF). Twenty eight patients with suspected SE were referred for TG to both legs. They completed our questionnaire on severity of difficulties after SE. We evaluated the ability of physical examinations to reveal the SE in contrast to TG and compared the symptoms (warmer leg and inhibited leg sweating) of SE with questionnaire responses as subjective measure and TG as objective measure. SE was diagnosed in 0.5% after ALIF at L5/S1, in 15% after ALIF at Th12-L5 and in 4% after XLIF at T12-L5. SE severely reduced the quality of life in two cases. The ability to distinguish differences in leg temperature by palpation after SE was found in 32%. All physical examinations together were insufficient for reliably disclosing SE. Subjective symptoms of SE were often false positive and proven SE by TG was often a clinically false negative. This is the first study to examine post-SE dysfunction objectivelya using TG after ALIF and XLIF, and the first to evaluate clinically, the severity of the post-SE syndrome. Before surgery we cannot foresee potentially poor SE results. For this reason, injury to the sympathetic chain during surgery must be avoided. The advantage of TG for identifying SE is its non-invasiveness and reliability.

  11. Is the use of minimally invasive fusion technologies associated with improved outcomes after elective interbody lumbar fusion? Analysis of a nationwide prospective patient-reported outcomes registry.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Parker, Scott L; Mummaneni, Praveen; Knightly, John; Pfortmiller, Deborah; Foley, Kevin; Asher, Anthony L

    2017-07-01

    Over the last decade, clinical investigators and biomedical industry groups have used significant resources to develop advanced technologies that enable less invasive spine fusions. These minimally invasive surgery (MIS) technologies often require increased expenditures by hospitals and payers. Although several small single center studies have suggested MIS technologies decrease surgical morbidity and reduce hospital stay, evidence documenting benefit from a patient perspective remains limited. Furthermore, MIS outcomes have yet to be evaluated from the perspective of multiple practice types representing the broad spectrum of US spine surgery. This study aimed to examine a population of patients who underwent one- or two-level interbody lumbar fusion diagnosed with lumbar stenosis or Grade 1 spondylolisthesis in an observational, prospective national registry for the purposes of determining how MIS and traditional open technologies affect postsurgical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This study used observational analysis of prospectively collected data. The sample consisted of cases from the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD). Numeric rating scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, EuroQol-5D, return to work, and perioperative morbidity were the outcome measures. The N(2)QOD is a prospective PROs registry enrolling patients undergoing elective spine surgery from 60 hospitals in 27 US states via representative sampling. We analyzed the N(2)QOD aggregate dataset (2010-2014) to identify one- and two-level lumbar interbody fusion procedures performed for lumbar stenosis or Grade 1 spondylolisthesis with 12 months' follow-up where surgical instrumentation and implant types were clearly identified. Perioperative and 1-year outcomes were compared between cases performed with MIS enabling technologies versus traditional open technologies before and after propensity matching. There were 467 (24%) patients who underwent

  12. Retrospective lumbar fusion outcomes measured by ODI sub-functions of 100 consecutive procedures.

    PubMed

    Luckenbill, Daniel; Goswami, Rinki; Grannis, Kimberly A; O'Neill, James; Goswami, Tarun

    2015-04-01

    Low back pain has been quite prevalent in the general population. Chronic low back pain can be defined as back pain lasting for more than 12 weeks. For chronic symptoms, fusion surgeries are the most common surgeries to alleviate the pain. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is a measurement for subjective characteristics or attitudes that can be difficult to be directly measured. Respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement by indicating a position along a continuous line between two end points. The purpose of this study is to investigate patient-reported pain using our own modified ODI with sub-functions. This allowed the study to show how patient outcomes differ with and without co-morbidity as well as functional outcomes after spinal fusion for degenerative disk disease (DDD) with the consistency of using one device and all procedures performed by the same surgeon. One hundred patients with DDD were treated with spinal fusion using one device. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon over a 3-year period. Patients were evaluated with discography and MRI preoperatively. Diagnosis of DDD was made when imaging showed bony segment erosion with decreased disc space >50%. Fifty-six patients participated in the initial questionnaire and their data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Twenty male patients aged 49-85 (median: 67, mean: 66), and thirty-six female patients aged 30-84 (median: 67, mean 64) responded to the questionnaire. There were no differences in pain total by gender, fusion level, single/multiple fusions, degenerative versus deformity condition, type of graft, and lumber area (all p values ≥ 0.15). Five-year pain measurements used by the VAS questionnaire as well as pain and functional outcomes measured by the ODI after lumbar fusion were superior to the results at 2 years (p = 0.025). Improvement was seen in all of the ODI sub-scores after 5 years, however, only physical function and social function reached statistical

  13. [Risk factors affecting fusion in the treatment of lumbar spine instability].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Avila, J M; García-Valencia, J; Bitar-Alatorre, W E

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors are the endogenous or exogenous factors that may be controlled and they are responsible for disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the risk factors affecting vertebral fusion in patients with lumbar spine instability seen at our hospital and to see how they relate to nutritional factors. Patients undergoing vertebral fusion due to several diagnoses were analyzed. Different parameters were captured to determine the interaction among them and assess the factors affecting vertebral fusion healing. They were compared with patients with pseudoarthrosis to determine its risk factors. Patients were divided into two groups: the control group, who underwent fusion, and the cases, who had pseudoarthrosis. A total of 59 patients were examined; 15 (25.4%) were cases (pseudoarthrosis) and 44 (74.6%) were controls (fusion). The demographic distribution was 27 (45.8%) females and 32 (54.2%) males; mean age was 51 +/- 12 years, with a minimum age of 20 and a maximum of 85. The diagnostic-based distribution was as follows: 29 (49.1%) spondylolistheses, 21 (35.6%) fractures, 5 (8.5%) herniated discs, 3 (5.1%) infections, and one (1.7%) tumor. Mean body weight was 75.9 kg, height was 160 cm, BMI 24.5, Hb 15.2, Hct 35.9, and Alb 3.5. Various risk factors were analyzed including the following: age over 60 years, which showed a 49% higher chance of pseudoarthrosis compared with the control group, with a 95% CI, 0.12-2.27; body weight over 90 kg, which showed an 82% higher chance of pseudoarthrosis compared with the fusion group, with a 95% CI, 0.03-0.43; BMI, which showed a 25% higher chance of pseudoarthrosis, with a 95% CI, 0.18-3.18; hypoalbuminemia < 3.4 mg/100 ml, which showed a 78% higher chance of pseudoarthrosis, with a 95% CI, 0.06-0.75. This study found that pseudoarthrosis is caused by risk factors linked to the nutritional profile, i.e., obesity, and hypoalbuminemia; its chance of occurring is 1.5 greater than in individuals with normal values. For

  14. The Impact of Kidney Disease on Acute Tubular Necrosis and Surgical Site Infection After Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Nakhla, Jonathan; de la Garza Ramos, Rafael; Bhashyam, Niketh; Kobets, Andrew; Nasser, Rani; Echt, Murray; Lang, Gernot; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Jada, Ajit; Kinon, Merritt; Yassari, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Kidney disease in spine surgery can be associated with serious complications. To investigate the rate of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and surgical site infection (SSI) after lumbar fusion in patients with kidney disease. A review of the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2011 was performed to identify patients who underwent lumbar fusion for degenerative spine disease or disk herniation. Four groups were established: no kidney disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and posttransplant. A multivariate analysis was performed to control for age, sex, and comorbidities. A total of 268,158 patients met the criteria; 263,757 with no kidney disease (98.4%), 3576 with CKD (1.3%), 586 with ESRD (0.2%), and 239 posttransplant (0.1%). Rates of ATN were 0.1%, 2.9%, 3.6%, and 0.0% for the 4 groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Rates of SSI were 0.3%, 0.4%, 1.0%, and 0.0%, respectively (P = 0.002). After controlling for patient age, sex, and medical comorbidities, patients with CKD (odds ratio [OR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.14-7.09; P < 0.001) and ESRD (OR, 6.32; 95% CI, 3.89-10.33; P < 0.001) were significantly more likely to develop ATN compared with patients without kidney disease. However, CKD (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.20-3.12; P = 0.754) or ESRD (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 0.38-10.00; P = 0.415) did not increase the risk for SSI on multivariate analysis. The rate of ATN significantly increases based on severity of kidney disease. However, patients with transplants have ATN and SSI rates comparable with patients without kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mid-range outcomes in 64 consecutive cases of multilevel fusion for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Röllinghoff, Marc; Schlüter-Brust, Klaus; Groos, Daniel; Sobottke, Rolf; Michael, Joern William-Patrick; Eysel, Peer; Delank, Karl Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of multilevel degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine, spondylodesis plays a controversial role. Most patients can be treated conservatively with success. Multilevel lumbar fusion with instrumentation is associated with severe complications like failed back surgery syndrome, implant failure, and adjacent segment disease (ASD). This retrospective study examines the records of 70 elderly patients with degenerative changes or instability of the lumbar spine treated between 2002 and 2007 with spondylodesis of more than two segments. Sixty-four patients were included; 5 patients had died and one patient was lost to follow-up. We evaluated complications, clinical/radiological outcomes, and success of fusion. Flexion-extension and standing X-rays in two planes, MRI, and/or CT scans were obtained pre-operatively. Patients were assessed clinically using the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Surgery performed was dorsolateral fusion (46.9%) or dorsal fusion with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF; 53.1%). Additional decompression was carried out in 37.5% of patients. Mean follow-up was 29.4±5.4 months. Average patient age was 64.7±4.3 years. Clinical outcomes were not satisfactory for all patients. VAS scores improved from 8.6±1.3 to 5.6±3.0 pre- to post-operatively, without statistical significance. ODI was also not significantly improved (56.1±22.3 pre- and 45.1±26.4 post-operatively). Successful fusion, defined as adequate bone mass with trabeculation at the facets and transverse processes or in the intervertebral segments, did not correlate with good clinical outcomes. Thirty-five of 64 patients (54%) showed signs of pedicle screw loosening, especially of the screws at S1. However, only 7 of these 35 (20%) complained of corresponding back pain. Revision surgery was required in 24 of 64 patients (38%). Of these, indications were adjacent segment disease (16 cases), pedicle screw loosening (7 cases), and

  16. Hospital charges associated with "never events": comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and lumbar laminectomy to total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Contag, Alec G; Rastegar, Farbod; Waagmeester, Garrett; Anderson, Paul A; Arthur, Melanie; Hart, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Beginning in 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) determined that certain hospital-acquired adverse events such as surgical site infection (SSI) following spine surgery should never occur. The following year, they expanded the ruling to include deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following total joint arthroplasty. Due to their ruling that "never events" are not the payers' responsibility, CMS insists that the costs of managing these complications be borne by hospitals and health care providers, rather than billings to health care payers for additional care required in their management. Data comparing the expected costs of such adverse events in patients undergoing spine and orthopedic surgery have not previously been reported. METHODS The California State Inpatient Database (CA-SID) from 2008 to 2009 was used for the analysis. All patients with primary procedure codes indicating anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), lumbar laminectomy (LL), total knee replacement (TKR), and total hip replacement (THR) were analyzed. Patients with diagnostic and/or treatment codes for DVT, PE, and SSI were separated from patients without these complication codes. Patients with more than 1 primary procedure code or more than 1 complication code were excluded. Median charges for treatment from primary surgery through 3 months postoperatively were calculated. RESULTS The incidence of the examined adverse events was lowest for ACDF (0.6% DVT, 0.1% PE, and 0.03% SSI) and highest for TKA (1.3% DVT, 0.3% PE, 0.6% SSI). Median inpatient charges for uncomplicated LL was $51,817, compared with $73,432 for ACDF, $143,601 for PLIF, $74,459 for THR, and $70,116 for TKR. Charges for patients with DVT ranged from $108,387 for TKR (1.5 times greater than index) to $313,536 for ACDF (4.3 times greater than index). Charges for patients with PE ranged from $127,958 for TKR (1.8 times greater than

  17. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral pedicle screw fixation: comparison between primary and revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Moo Sung; Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is an important minimally invasive fusion technique for the lumbar spine. Lumbar spine reoperation is challenging and is thought to have greater complication risks. The purpose of this study was to compare MIS TLIF with unilateral screw fixation perioperative results between primary and revision surgeries. This was a prospective study that included 46 patients who underwent MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw. The patients were divided into two groups, primary and revision MIS TLIF, to compare perioperative results and complications. The two groups were similar in age, sex, and level of operation, and were not significantly different in the length of follow-up or clinical results. Although dural tears were more common with the revision group (primary 1; revision 4), operation time, blood loss, total perioperative complication, and fusion rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Both groups showed substantial improvements in VAS and ODI scores one year after surgical treatment. Revision MIS TLIF performed by an experienced surgeon does not necessarily increase the risk of perioperative complication compared with primary surgery. MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation is a valuable option for revision lumbar surgery.

  18. How does back muscle strength change after posterior lumbar interbody fusion?

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Chung, Sung-Soo; Park, Won-Hah; Shin, Won-Ju; Seo, Yong-Gon

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE There is a lack of evidence of how back muscle strength changes after lumbar fusion surgery and how exercise influences these changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in back muscle strength after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to measure the effects of a postoperative exercise program on muscle strength and physical and mental health outcomes. METHODS This prospective study enrolled 59 women (mean age 58 years) who underwent PLIF at 1 or 2 spinal levels. To assess the effects of a supervised lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE), the authors allocated the patients to an LSE (n = 26) or a control (n = 33) group. The patients in the LSE group performed the LSEs between 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Back extensor strength, visual analog scale (VAS) scores in back pain, and physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores on the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were determined for the both groups. RESULTS Mean strength of the back muscles tended to slightly decrease by 7.5% from preoperatively to 3 months after PLIF (p = 0.145), but it significantly increased thereafter and was sustained until the last follow-up (38.1%, p < 0.001). The mean back muscle strength was similar in the LSE and control groups preoperatively, but it increased significantly more in the LSE group (64.2%) than in the control group (21.7%) at the last follow-up 12 months after PLIF (p = 0.012). At the last follow-up, decreases in back pain VAS scores were more significant among LSE group patients, who had a pain reduction on average of 58.2%, than among control group patients (reduction of 26.1%) (p = 0.013). The patients in the LSE group also had greater improvement in both PCS (39.9% improvement) and MCS (20.7% improvement) scores than the patients in the control group (improvement of 18.0% and 1.1%, p = 0.042 and p = 0.035, respectively). CONCLUSIONS After PLIF, strength in back muscles decreased until 3 months postoperatively but

  19. Five-year outcome of surgical decompression of the lumbar spine without fusion.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Anne F; Denzler, R; Dvorak, J; Grob, D

    2010-11-01

    As the average life expectancy of the population increases, surgical decompression of the lumbar spine is being performed with increasing frequency. It now constitutes the most common type of lumbar spinal surgery in older patients. The present prospective study examined the 5-year outcome of lumbar decompression surgery without fusion. The group comprised 159 patients undergoing decompression for degenerative spinal disorders who had been participants in a randomised controlled trial of post-operative rehabilitation that had shown no between-group differences at 2 years. Leg pain and back pain intensity (0-10 graphic rating scale), self-rated disability (Roland Morris), global outcome of surgery (5-point Likert scale) and re-operation rates were assessed 5 years post-operatively. Ten patients had died before the 5-year follow-up. Of the remaining 149 patients, 143 returned a 5-year follow-up (FU) questionnaire (effective return rate excluding deaths, 96%). Their mean age was 64 (SD 11) years and 92/143 (64%) were men. In the 5-year follow-up period, 34/143 patients (24%) underwent re-operation (17 further decompressions, 17 fusions and 1 intradural drainage/debridement). In patients who were not re-operated, leg pain decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from before surgery to 2 months FU, after which there was no significant change up to 5 years. Low back pain also decreased significantly by 2 months FU, but then showed a slight, but significant (p < 0.05), gradual increase of <1 point by 5-year FU. Disability decreased significantly from pre-operative to 2 months FU and showed a further significant decrease at 5 months FU. Thereafter, it remained stable up to the 5-year FU. Pain and disability scores recorded after 5 years showed a significant correlation with those at earlier follow-ups (r = 0.53-0.82; p < 0.05). Patients who were re-operated at some stage over the 5-year period showed significantly worse final outcomes for leg pain and disability (p < 0.05). In

  20. Interbody Spacer Material Properties and Design Conformity for Reducing Subsidence During Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chatham, Lillian S; Patel, Vikas V; Yakacki, Christopher M; Dana Carpenter, R

    2017-05-01

    There is a need to better understand the effects of intervertebral spacer material and design on the stress distribution in vertebral bodies and endplates to help reduce complications such as subsidence and improve outcomes following lumbar interbody fusion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of spacer material on the stress and strain in the lumbar spine after interbody fusion with posterior instrumentation. A standard spacer was also compared with a custom-fit spacer, which conformed to the vertebral endplates, to determine if a custom fit would reduce stress on the endplates. A finite element (FE) model of the L4-L5 motion segment was developed from computed tomography (CT) images of a cadaveric lumbar spine. An interbody spacer, pedicle screws, and posterior rods were incorporated into the image-based model. The model was loaded in axial compression, and strain and stress were determined in the vertebra, spacer, and rods. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), titanium, poly(para-phenylene) (PPP), and porous PPP (70% by volume) were used as the spacer material to quantify the effects on stress and strain in the system. Experimental testing of a cadaveric specimen was used to validate the model's results. There were no large differences in stress levels (<3%) at the bone-spacer interfaces and the rods when PEEK was used instead of titanium. Use of the porous PPP spacer produced an 8-15% decrease of stress at the bone-spacer interfaces and posterior rods. The custom-shaped spacer significantly decreased (>37%) the stress at the bone-spacer interfaces for all materials tested. A 28% decrease in stress was found in the posterior rods with the custom spacer. Of all the spacer materials tested with the custom spacer design, 70% porous PPP resulted in the lowest stress at the bone-spacer interfaces. The results show the potential for more compliant materials to reduce stress on the vertebral endplates postsurgery. The custom spacer provided a

  1. A Comparative Radiographic Analysis of Fusion Rate between L4-5 and L5-S1 in a Single Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Hyun; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Ki-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate radiographic fusion rates at L4-5 and L5-S1 after single level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and evaluate the relationship between fusion rates and preoperative disc slope angle (DSA), lumbar lordosis (LL), segmental angle (SA), and pelvic parameters. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent single level PLIF at L4-5 or L5-S1 during May 2003-December 2012 at our institution. 73 patients were finally enrolled. Fusion was assessed by use of the Brantigan-Steffee classification, less than 2mm translation and less than 5° motion on the flexion-extension lateral radiographs. We analyzed the radiographic fusion rates, risk factors, and relationship of fusion rates with DSA, LL, SA, and pelvic parameters. There were 59 patients (80.8%) in the L4-5 group and 14 (19.2%) in L5-S1 (average follow-up, 34 months). The radiographic fusion rates were 89.8% in the L4-5 group (53/59) and 42.9% in L5-S1 (6/14) (p<0.001).The preoperative DSA was significantly lesser in the L4-5 group than in the L5-S1 group (13.1±8.1° vs. 27.2±6.7°, p<0.001). The LL, SA, and pelvic parameters were not related with radiographic fusion rates in both groups. Risk factors for non-union were not identified between the two groups except for the surgery level (p<0.001). The radiographic fusion rate at L5-S1 was less than half that at L4-5 after single level PLIF. This may be due to the anatomical and biomechanical differences between the two levels. More vigorous effort to achieve successful fusion at L5-S1 should be considered.

  2. The Effect of the Retroperitoneal Transpsoas Minimally Invasive Lateral Interbody Fusion on Segmental and Regional Lumbar Lordosis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tien V.; Vivas, Andrew C.; Dakwar, Elias; Baaj, Ali A.; Uribe, Juan S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion (MIS LIF) in the lumbar spine can correct coronal Cobb angles, but the effect on sagittal plane correction is unclear. Methods. A retrospective review of thirty-five patients with lumbar degenerative disease who underwent MIS LIF without supplemental posterior instrumentation was undertaken to study the radiographic effect on the restoration of segmental and regional lumbar lordosis using the Cobb angles on pre- and postoperative radiographs. Mean disc height changes were also measured. Results. The mean follow-up period was 13.3 months. Fifty total levels were fused with a mean of 1.42 levels fused per patient. Mean segmental Cobb angle increased from 11.10° to 13.61° (P < 0.001) or 22.6%. L2-3 had the greatest proportional increase in segmental lordosis. Mean regional Cobb angle increased from 52.47° to 53.45° (P = 0.392). Mean disc height increased from 6.50 mm to 10.04 mm (P < 0.001) or 54.5%. Conclusions. The MIS LIF improves segmental lordosis and disc height in the lumbar spine but not regional lumbar lordosis. Anterior longitudinal ligament sectioning and/or the addition of a more lordotic implant may be necessary in cases where significant increases in regional lumbar lordosis are desired. PMID:22919332

  3. The effect of the retroperitoneal transpsoas minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion on segmental and regional lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Le, Tien V; Vivas, Andrew C; Dakwar, Elias; Baaj, Ali A; Uribe, Juan S

    2012-01-01

    The minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion (MIS LIF) in the lumbar spine can correct coronal Cobb angles, but the effect on sagittal plane correction is unclear. A retrospective review of thirty-five patients with lumbar degenerative disease who underwent MIS LIF without supplemental posterior instrumentation was undertaken to study the radiographic effect on the restoration of segmental and regional lumbar lordosis using the Cobb angles on pre- and postoperative radiographs. Mean disc height changes were also measured. The mean follow-up period was 13.3 months. Fifty total levels were fused with a mean of 1.42 levels fused per patient. Mean segmental Cobb angle increased from 11.10° to 13.61° (P < 0.001) or 22.6%. L2-3 had the greatest proportional increase in segmental lordosis. Mean regional Cobb angle increased from 52.47° to 53.45° (P = 0.392). Mean disc height increased from 6.50 mm to 10.04 mm (P < 0.001) or 54.5%. The MIS LIF improves segmental lordosis and disc height in the lumbar spine but not regional lumbar lordosis. Anterior longitudinal ligament sectioning and/or the addition of a more lordotic implant may be necessary in cases where significant increases in regional lumbar lordosis are desired.

  4. [The posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages (PLIF) and transpedicular stabilization].

    PubMed

    Diedrich, O; Kraft, C N; Perlick, L; Schmitt, O

    2001-01-01

    The development of intervertebral cages has significantly innovated the original technique of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). In this study we present the results of patients treated for degenerative or postoperative segmental spinal instabilities by PLIF with cages and pedicular stabilisation (360 degrees-instrumentation). Between 1992 and 1999 we implanted either CFRP-, PEEK- or Titanium-cages in 86 patients. 78 patients were adequately followed up over a period of at least 12 months (average 2,6 years). 5 patients were stabilised over 2 segments, so that ultimately 83 fused segments were evaluated.15% of all patients had an excellent, 51% a good, 28% a moderate and 5% an insufficient clinical result. Degenerative instabilities had a better outcome with 73% good or excellent clinical results, compared to postoperative instabilities (56%). Based on stringent radiographic fusion criteria we found true bony fusion in 52% of all segments after 12 months, 63% after 24 months, 72% after 36 months, and 78% after 48 months. In 21 segments cage packing was performed with autologous spongiosa, while in 62 segments a combination of cortical bone and spongiosa obtained from osseous structures at the operation-site were used as packing material. At the 24 month radiographic control we found a slightly higher fusion rate for those segments treated with autologous spongiosa obtained from the iliac crest. Neither for cages nor for pedicular screws was implant failure or material fatigue found. Serious entero-, pulmo-, cardio- or urological complications were not observed. Nonetheless the necessity for operative revision was 9%. A postoperative semiquantitative evaluation of segments neighbouring the fused vertebra revealed in 28% an increase in degenerative changes. Particularly after 360 degrees-instrumentation, interpretation of the fusion-status should be based on structural and not on functional criteria. The modification of PLIF with cages compared to the use of

  5. Applying the Mini-Open Anterolateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Self-Anchored Stand-Alone Polyetheretherketone Cage in Lumbar Revision Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Lei; Chen, Yuqiao; Li, Lei; Lü, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    The author retrospectively studied twenty-two patients who underwent revision lumbar surgeries using ALLIF with a self-anchored stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage. The operation time, blood loss, and perioperative complications were evaluated. Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores and visual analog scale (VAS) scores of leg and back pain were analyzed preoperatively and at each time point of postoperative follow-up. Radiological evaluation including fusion, disc height, foraminal height, and subsidence was assessed. The results showed that the ALLIF with a self-anchored stand-alone PEEK cage is safe and effective in revision lumbar surgery with minor surgical trauma, low access-related complication rates, and satisfactory clinical and radiological results. PMID:27885355

  6. Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (OLLIF): Technical Notes and Early Results of a Single Surgeon Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background context: Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent and expensive health conditions in the Western world. The standard treatment, interbody fusion, is an invasive procedure that requires the stripping of muscles and soft tissue, leading to surgical morbidity. Current minimally invasive (MI) spinal fusions are technically demanding and suffer from technical limitations. Purpose: Oblique lumbar lateral interbody fusion (OLLIF) is a new technique for fusion of the lumbar spine that overcomes these complications. Outcome measures include patient demographics, reported outcomes, and surgical outcomes. Study design/Setting: Kambin's Triangle can easily be located as a silent window with an electrophysiological probe. Discectomy is performed through a single access portal with a 10 mm diameter. After a discectomy, the disc space is packed with beta-tricalcium phosphate soaked in autologous bone marrow, aspirated, and the cage is inserted. Finally, a minimally invasive posterior fixation is performed. Methods: OLLIF’s major innovation is to approach the disc through Kambin’s Triangle, aided by bilateral fluoroscopy. Results: We present data from 69 consecutive OLLIF surgeries on 128 levels with a control group of 55 consecutive open transformational lumbar interbody fusions (TLIFs) on 125 levels. For a single level OLLIF, the mean surgery time is 69 minutes (min) and blood loss is 29 ml. Surgery time was approximately twice as fast as open TLIF (mean: 135 min) and blood loss is reduced by over 80% compared to TLIF (mean: 355 ml). Conclusions: OLLIF is a minimally invasive fusion that significantly reduces surgery times compared to open surgery. OLLIF overcomes the difficulties of traditional open fusions, making it a safe and technically less demanding surgery than open or minimally invasive TLIF.  PMID:26623206

  7. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  8. Endoscopic Foraminal Decompression Preceding Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion To Decrease The Incidence Of Post Operative Dysaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Katzell, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background Lumbar interbody fusion has become a well established method to diminish axial back pain as well as radiculopathy in patients with degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and instability. The concept of indirect decompression of the neural foramen and spinal canal while performing fusion became popular in the mid 1990’s with description of ALIF techniques. Morphometric analysis confirmed the extent of decompression of posterior elements with interbody height restoration. In an attempt to diminish potential complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches to the spine for interbody fusion, and with the hope of accomplishing fusion in a less invasive manner, lateral lumbar interbody fusion has become quite popular. This transpsoas approach to the disc space has been associated with a high incidence of neurologic complications. Even though this is the first technique to routinely recommend EMG monitoring to increase safety in the approach, neurologic injuries still occur. A newer oblique lateral lumbar interbody (OLLIF) approach has recently been described to lessen the incidence of neurologic injury. This technique also advocates use of EMG testing to lessen neurologic trauma. In spite of this precaution, neurologic insult has not been eliminated. In fact, even in patients whose electrical stimulation thresholds suggested a safe entry space into the disc, transient dysaesthesia continues to occur in 20-25 percent of cases. Purpose This pilot study reflects data and observations of a subset of patients treated with endoscopic foraminotomy preceding oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (OLLIF) to assess specifically potential improvements in dysaesthesia rates. Methods A select subset of patients undergoing OLLIF failed to meet electrodiagnostic criteria for safe disc access through Kambin’s triangle. These patients underwent an endoscopic foraminotomy and exiting nerve decompression prior to discectomy, endplate preparation and cage

  9. The 'Lumbar Fusion Outcome Score' (LUFOS): a new practical and surgically oriented grading system for preoperative prediction of surgical outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion in patients with degenerative disc disease and refractory chronic axial low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rehman, Azeem A; Teles, Alisson R; Aldag, Jean C; Dinh, Dzung H; McCall, Todd D

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive effect of non-invasive preoperative imaging methods on surgical outcomes of lumbar fusion for patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and refractory chronic axial low back pain (LBP), the authors conducted a retrospective review of 45 patients with DDD and refractory LBP submitted to anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) at a single center from 2007 to 2010. Surgical outcomes - as measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS/back pain) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) - were evaluated pre-operatively and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year post-operatively. Linear mixed-effects models were generated in order to identify possible preoperative imaging characteristics (including bone scan/99mTc scintigraphy increased endplate uptake, Modic endplate changes, and disc degeneration graded according to Pfirrmann classification) which may be predictive of long-term surgical outcomes . After controlling for confounders, a combined score, the Lumbar Fusion Outcome Score (LUFOS), was developed. The LUFOS grading system was able to stratify patients in two general groups (Non-surgical: LUFOS 0 and 1; Surgical: LUFOS 2 and 3) that presented significantly different surgical outcomes in terms of estimated marginal means of VAS/back pain (p = 0.001) and ODI (p = 0.006) beginning at 3 months and continuing up to 1 year of follow-up. In conclusion,  LUFOS has been devised as a new practical and surgically oriented grading system based on simple key parameters from non-invasive preoperative imaging exams (magnetic resonance imaging/MRI and bone scan/99mTc scintigraphy) which has been shown to be highly predictive of surgical outcomes of patients undergoing lumbar fusion for treatment for refractory chronic axial LBP.

  10. Extent of preoperative depression is associated with return to work after lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Zuckerman, Scott L; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    The ability to understand factors associated with an increased duration of missed work postoperatively could be used to more effectively select patients with the greatest opportunity for a successful outcome. We set out to determine the effect of preoperative depression on postoperative return to work in patients undergoing transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Fifty-eight patients undergoing TLIF for symptomatic grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis were included in this analysis. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, indications for surgery, radiologic studies, and operative variables were assessed for each case. Patient-assessed outcome measures were obtained prospectively at baseline and 2 years postoperatively. To understand the factors associated with prolonged return to work, univariate linear regression analysis and stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used. All patient-reported outcomes assessed were significantly improved 2 years after TLIF (P < 0.001). Of the 32 patients working preoperatively, 26 (81%) returned to work postoperatively. Median time to return to work was 56 days (range, 10-150 days). Independent of patient age; preoperative pain, disability, and quality of life; and extent of postoperative improvement, increased preoperative Zung depression score remained associated with prolonged return to work (P = 0.02). Independent of postoperative improvement in pain, disability, and quality of life, the extent of preoperative depression was an independent predictor of time to return to work in patients undergoing TLIF for spondylolisthesis, suggesting that regardless of how successful TLIF surgery may be at improving a patient's pain, disability, or quality of life, greater depression will delay or prohibit their ability to return to work postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Revisions for screw malposition and clinical outcomes after robot-guided lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Marc L; Staartjes, Victor E

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The accuracy of robot-guided pedicle screw placement has been proven to be high, but little is known about the impact of such guidance on clinical outcomes such as the rate of revision surgeries for screw malposition. In addition, there are very few data about the impact of robot-guided fusion on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Thus, the clinical benefit for the patient is unclear. In this study, the authors analyzed revision rates for screw malposition and changes in PROs following minimally invasive robot-guided pedicle screw fixation. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion (MI-PLIF) or minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion was performed. Patients were followed up clinically at 6 weeks, 12 months, and 24 months after treatment and by mailed questionnaire in March 2016 as a final follow-up. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), screw revisions, and socio-demographic factors were analyzed. A literature review was performed, comparing the incidence of intraoperative screw revisions and revision surgery for screw malposition in robot-guided, navigated, and freehand fusion procedures. RESULTS Seventy-two patients fit the study inclusion criteria and had a mean follow up of 32 ± 17 months. No screws had to be revised intraoperatively, and no revision surgery for screw malposition was needed. In the literature review, the authors found a higher rate of intraoperative screw revisions in the navigated pool than in the robot-guided pool (p < 0.001, OR 9.7). Additionally, a higher incidence of revision surgery for screw malposition was observed for freehand procedures than for the robot-guided procedures (p < 0.001, OR 8.1). The VAS score for back pain improved significantly from 66.9 ± 25.0 preoperatively to 30.1 ± 26.8 at the final follow-up, as did the VAS score for leg pain (from 70.6 ± 22.8 to

  12. Reduction in adjacent-segment degeneration after multilevel posterior lumbar interbody fusion with proximal DIAM implantation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Chen, Tai-Been; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Han-Jung

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Multilevel long-segment lumbar fusion poses a high risk for future development of adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD). Creating a dynamic transition zone with an interspinous process device (IPD) proximal to the fusion has recently been applied as a method to reduce the occurrence of ASD. The authors report their experience with the Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM) implanted proximal to multilevel posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in reducing the development of proximal ASD. METHODS This retrospective study reviewed 91 cases involving patients who underwent 2-level (L4-S1), 3-level (L3-S1), or 4-level (L2-S1) PLIF. In Group A (42 cases), the patients received PLIF only, while in Group B (49 cases), an interspinous process device, a DIAM implant, was put at the adjacent level proximal to the PLIF construct. Bone resection at the uppermost segment of the PLIF was equally limited in the 2 groups, with preservation of the upper portion of the spinous process/lamina and the attached supraspinous ligament. Outcome measures included a visual analog scale (VAS) for low-back pain and leg pain and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for functional impairment. Anteroposterior and lateral flexion/extension radiographs were used to evaluate the fusion status, presence and patterns of ASD, and mobility of the DIAM-implanted segment. RESULTS Solid interbody fusion without implant failure was observed in all cases. Radiographic ASD occurred in 20 (48%) of Group A cases and 3 (6%) of Group B cases (p < 0.001). Among the patients in whom ASD was identified, 9 in Group A and 3 in Group B were symptomatic; of these patients, 3 in Group A and 1 in Group B underwent a second surgery for severe symptomatic ASD. At 24 months after surgery, Group A patients fared worse than Group B, showing higher mean VAS and ODI scores due to symptoms related to ASD. At the final follow-up evaluations, as reoperations had been performed to treat symptomatic ASD in some

  13. The Influences of Different Ratios of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate and Collagen Augmentation on Posterior Lumbar Spinal Fusion in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Yoon; Park, Hyo-Suk; Kim, Keun-Su; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Yong-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the influence of different ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and collagen augmentation for posterior lumbar fusion in a rat model. Materials and Methods We generated a posterior lumbar fusion model in 50 rats and divided it into five groups of equal number as follows; 1) autologous bone graft as group A, 2) 70% HA+30% β-TCP as group B, 3) 70% HA+30% β-TCP+collagen as group C, 4) 30% HA+70% β-TCP as group D, and 5) 30% HA+70% β-TCP+collagen as group E. Rats were euthanized at 12 weeks after surgery and fusion was assessed by manual palpation, quantitative analysis using microCT and histology. Results The score of manual palpation was significantly higher in group C than group E (3.1±1.1 vs. 1.8±0.8, p=0.033). However, in terms of microCT analysis, group D showed significantly higher scores than group B (5.5±0.8 vs. 3.1±1.1, p=0.021). According to quantitative volumetric analysis, 30% HA+70% β-TCP groups (group D and E) showed significantly reduced fusion mass at 12 weeks after surgery (123±14.2, 117±46.3 vs. 151±27.3, p=0.008, 0.003, respectively). Collagen augmentation groups revealed superior results in terms of both microCT score and histologic grade. Conclusion A 7:3 HA/β-TCP ratio with collagen augmentation rather than a 3:7 HA/β-TCP ratio could be a more favorable graft substitute for lumbar spinal fusion. There was positive role of collagen as an adjunct for spinal bone fusion process. PMID:28120573

  14. The Influences of Different Ratios of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate and Collagen Augmentation on Posterior Lumbar Spinal Fusion in Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hyun; Park, Jeong Yoon; Park, Hyo Suk; Kim, Keun Su; Chin, Dong Kyu; Cho, Yong Eun; Kuh, Sung Uk

    2017-03-01

    To determine the influence of different ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and collagen augmentation for posterior lumbar fusion in a rat model. We generated a posterior lumbar fusion model in 50 rats and divided it into five groups of equal number as follows; 1) autologous bone graft as group A, 2) 70% HA+30% β-TCP as group B, 3) 70% HA+30% β-TCP+collagen as group C, 4) 30% HA+70% β-TCP as group D, and 5) 30% HA+70% β-TCP+collagen as group E. Rats were euthanized at 12 weeks after surgery and fusion was assessed by manual palpation, quantitative analysis using microCT and histology. The score of manual palpation was significantly higher in group C than group E (3.1±1.1 vs. 1.8±0.8, p=0.033). However, in terms of microCT analysis, group D showed significantly higher scores than group B (5.5±0.8 vs. 3.1±1.1, p=0.021). According to quantitative volumetric analysis, 30% HA+70% β-TCP groups (group D and E) showed significantly reduced fusion mass at 12 weeks after surgery (123±14.2, 117±46.3 vs. 151±27.3, p=0.008, 0.003, respectively). Collagen augmentation groups revealed superior results in terms of both microCT score and histologic grade. A 7:3 HA/β-TCP ratio with collagen augmentation rather than a 3:7 HA/β-TCP ratio could be a more favorable graft substitute for lumbar spinal fusion. There was positive role of collagen as an adjunct for spinal bone fusion process.

  15. Allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) combined with an osteoconductive scaffold to promote lumbar interbody spine fusion in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Donna L; Fredericks, Douglas C; Dryer, Randall F; Bae, Hyun W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in immunomagnetic cell sorting have enabled isolation and purification of pleuripotent stem cells from marrow aspirates and have expanded stem cell therapies to include allogeneic sources. This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) combined with an osteoconductive scaffold in lumbar interbody spinal fusion using an ovine model. Thirty-two skeletally mature ewes underwent a single-level interbody fusion procedure using a Polyetheretherketone fusion cage supplemented with either iliac crest autograft (AG) or an osteconductive scaffold (Mastergraft Matrix, Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) with 2.5×10(6) MPCs, 6.25×10(6) MPCs, or 12.5×10(6) MPCs. Plain radiographs and computed tomography scans were scored for bridging bone at multiple points during healing and at necropsy. The biomechanical competency of fusion was scored by manual palpation and quantified using functional radiographs at necropsy. Postnecropsy histopathology and histomorphometric analysis assessed the local response to MPC treatment and quantified the volume and connectivity of newly formed bridging bone. Safety was assessed by serum biochemistry, hematology, and organ histopathology. Mesenchymal precursor cell treatment caused no adverse systemic or local tissue responses. All analyses indicated MPCs combined with an osteoconductive scaffold achieved similar or better fusion success as AG treatment after 16 weeks, and increasing the MPC dose did not enhance fusion. Manual palpation of the fusion site indicated more than 75% of MPC-treated and 65% of AG-treated animals achieved rigid fusion, which was corroborated with functional radiography. Computed tomography fusion scores indicated all animals in the MPC- and AG-treatment groups were fused at 16 weeks, yet X-ray scores indicated only 67% of the AG-treated animals were fused. Histomorphometry analyses showed equivalent outcomes for fusion connectivity and bony fusion area for

  16. Quality and Quantity of Published Studies Evaluating Lumbar Fusion during the Past 10 Years: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.; Sethi, Rajiv K.; Norvell, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) Has the proportion and number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as an indicator of quality of evidence regarding lumbar fusion increased over the past 10 years? (2) Is there a difference in the proportion of RCTs among the four primary fusion diagnoses (degenerative disk disease, spondylolisthesis, deformity, and adjacent segment disease) over the past 10 years? (3) Is there a difference in the type and quality of clinical outcomes measures reported among RCTs over time? (4) Is there a difference in the type and quality of adverse events measures reported among RCTs over time? (5) Are there changes in fusion surgical approach and techniques over time by diagnosis over the past 10 years? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, to identify lumbar fusion RCTs. Fusion studies designed specifically to evaluate recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 or other bone substitutes, revision surgery studies, nonrandomized comparison studies, case reports, case series, and cost-effectiveness studies were excluded. Results Forty-two RCTs between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013, met the inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. There were 35 RCTs identified evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative disk disease, 4 RCTs evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis, and 3 RCTs evaluating patients with a combination of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. No RCTs were identified evaluating patients with deformity or adjacent segment disease. Conclusions This structured review demonstrates that there has been an increase in the available clinical database of RCTs using patient-reported outcomes evaluating the benefit of lumbar spinal fusion for the diagnoses of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Gaps remain in the

  17. A randomized double-blind prospective study of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields for interbody lumbar fusions

    SciTech Connect

    Mooney, V. )

    1990-07-01

    A randomized double-blind prospective study of pulsed electromagnetic fields for lumbar interbody fusions was performed on 195 subjects. There were 98 subjects in the active group and 97 subjects in the placebo group. A brace containing equipment to induce an electromagnetic field was applied to patients undergoing interbody fusion in the active group, and a sham brace was used in the control group. In the active group there was a 92% success rate, while the control group had a 65% success rate (P greater than 0.005). The effectiveness of bone graft stimulation with the device is thus established.

  18. Porous biodegradable lumbar interbody fusion cage design and fabrication using integrated global-local topology optimization with laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical large animal study that can withstand physiological loads while possessing sufficient interconnected porosity for bony bridging and fusion, we developed a multiscale topology optimization technique. Topology optimization at the macroscopic scale provides optimal structural layout that ensures mechanical strength, while optimally designed microstructures, which replace the macroscopic material layout, ensure maximum permeability. Optimally designed cages were fabricated using solid, freeform fabrication of poly(ε-caprolactone) mixed with hydroxyapatite. Compression tests revealed that the yield strength of optimized fusion cages was two times that of typical human lumbar spine loads. Computational analysis further confirmed the mechanical integrity within the human lumbar spine, although the pore structure locally underwent higher stress than yield stress. This optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-bearing, stress shielding, and interconnected porosity when using biodegradable materials for fusion cages.

  19. Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

  20. Preservation or Restoration of Segmental and Regional Spinal Lordosis Using Minimally Invasive Interbody Fusion Techniques in Degenerative Lumbar Conditions: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan S; Myhre, Sue Lynn; Youssef, Jim A

    2016-04-01

    A literature review. The purpose of this study was to review lumbar segmental and regional alignment changes following treatment with a variety of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) interbody fusion procedures for short-segment, degenerative conditions. An increasing number of lumbar fusions are being performed with minimally invasive exposures, despite a perception that minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion procedures are unable to affect segmental and regional lordosis. Through a MEDLINE and Google Scholar search, a total of 23 articles were identified that reported alignment following minimally invasive lumbar fusion for degenerative (nondeformity) lumbar spinal conditions to examine aggregate changes in postoperative alignment. Of the 23 studies identified, 28 study cohorts were included in the analysis. Procedural cohorts included MIS ALIF (two), extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) (16), and MIS posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (P/TLIF) (11). Across 19 study cohorts and 720 patients, weighted average of lumbar lordosis preoperatively for all procedures was 43.5° (range 28.4°-52.5°) and increased 3.4° (9%) (range -2° to 7.4°) postoperatively (P < 0.001). Segmental lordosis increased, on average, by 4° from a weighted average of 8.3° preoperatively (range -0.8° to 15.8°) to 11.2° at postoperative time points (range -0.2° to 22.8°) (P < 0.001) in 1182 patient from 24 study cohorts. Simple linear regression revealed a significant relationship between preoperative lumbar lordosis and change in lumbar lordosis (r = 0.413; P = 0.003), wherein lower preoperative lumbar lordosis predicted a greater increase in postoperative lumbar lordosis. Significant gains in both weighted average lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis were seen following MIS interbody fusion. None of the segmental lordosis cohorts and only two of the 19 lumbar lordosis cohorts showed decreases in lordosis postoperatively. These results suggest that

  1. A review of the 2001 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish lumbar spine study group.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian; Katz, Jeffrey N; Kim, David H; Jenis, Louis G

    2006-01-15

    The current debate over the efficacy of lumbar fusion for low back pain has not been settled. Fritzell et al published a landmark paper entitled "Lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish lumbar spine study group." Their goal was to provide objective evidence supporting lumbar fusion. While it was well designed and important to our knowledge base, it has limitations. We set out to review their work in an unbiased yet critical manner. Our goals are to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the paper, place it in the context of current knowledge, and highlight its significance for present-day practice and research. From technical and study design perspectives, Fritzell et al were able to validate the use of lumbar fusion for the treatment of low back pain. However, their use of "usual nonoperative" care and nonspecific definition of low back pain precluded a truly genuine comparison of operative and nonoperative groups. We commend the Swedish lumbar spine study group and their remarkable efforts; they elevated the sophistication of spine research and spawned many more excellent works to help settle the ongoing controversy on the ideal treatment of low back pain.

  2. [A feasibility research of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation for recurrent lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Mao, Ke-ya; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Song-hua; Zhang, Yong-gang; Liu, Bao-wei; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Cui, Geng; Zhang, Xue-song; Li, Peng; Mao, Ke-zheng

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation of pedicle screws and a translaminar facet screw for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. From January 2010 to December 2011, 16 recurrent lumbar disc herniation patients, 10 male and 6 female patients with an average age of 45 years (35-68 years) were treated with unilateral incision MIS-TLIF through working channel. After decompression, interbody fusion and fixation using unilateral pedicle screws, a translaminar facet screw was inserted from the same incision through spinous process and laminar to the other side facet joint. The results of perioperative parameters, radiographic images and clinical outcomes were assessed. The repeated measure analysis of variance was applied in the scores of visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disablity index (ODI). All patients MIS-TLIF were accomplished under working channel including decompression, interbody fusion and hybrid fixation without any neural complication. The average operative time was (148 ± 75) minutes, the average operative blood loss was (186 ± 226) ml, the average postoperative ambulation time was (32 ± 15) hours, and the average hospitalization time was (6 ± 4) days. The average length of incision was (29 ± 4) mm, and the average length of translaminar facets screw was (52 ± 6) mm. The mean follow-up was 16.5 months with a range of 12-24 months. The postoperative X-ray and CT images showed good position of the hybrid internal fixation, and all facets screws penetrate through facets joint. The significant improvement could be found in back pain VAS, leg pain VAS and ODI scores between preoperative 1 day and postoperative follow-up at all time-points (back pain VAS:F = 52.845, P = 0.000;leg pain VAS:F = 113.480, P = 0.000;ODI:F = 36.665, P = 0.000). Recurrent lumbar disc herniation could be treated with MIS-TLIF using hybrid fixation through unilateral incision, and the

  3. Interspinous dynamic stabilization adjacent to fusion versus double-segment fusion for treatment of lumbar degenerative disease with a minimum follow-up of three years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Long; Guan, Li; Liu, Yu-Zeng; Yang, Jin-Cai; Wang, Wen-Long; Hai, Yong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disease treated with topping-off technique (Coflex(™) combined with fusion) and compare two-segment fusion at mid-long term follow-up; and find out whether the topping-off technique can reduce the rate of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion. One hundred and fifty-four consecutive patients who received topping-off surgery (76 patients) and two-segment fusion surgery (88 patients) from March 2009 to March 2012 were studied. All patients included in the analysis had a minimum of three years of follow-up. Radiographic and clinical outcomes between the two groups were compared. A logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors for developing radiographic ASD. Significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed between these two groups at three post-operative years (all, p < 0.05). Compared with the fusion group, the topping-off group showed preserved mobility at the Coflex(™) level (p = 0.000), which is associated with less blood loss (p = 0.000), shorter duration of surgery (p = 0.000) and lower incidence of ASD (Chi-square test, rate topping-off vs fusion = 13.2 vs 26.1 %, p = 0.039). There were no differences in complications between the two groups. Mid-long term follow-up efficacy and safety between topping-off and fusion were similar, while topping-off reduced the rate of ASD. Under strict indications, topping-off surgery is an acceptable alternative to fusion surgery for the treatment of two-segment lumbar disease.

  4. Analysis of Risk Factors for Major Complications Following Elective Posterior Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Di Capua, John; Somani, Sulaiman; Kim, Jun S; Phan, Kevin; Lee, Nathan J; Kothari, Parth; Cho, Samuel K

    2017-09-01

    Retrospective study of prospectively collected data. To identify risk factors for the development of any major complication after elective posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). PLF is one of the most performed fusion techniques with utilization rates increasing by 356% between 1993 and 2001. Surgical and anesthetic advances have made the option of surgery more accessible for elderly patients with a larger comorbidity burden. Identifying risk factors for the development of major complications after elective PLF is important for patient risk stratification and patient safety efforts. The 2011 to 2014 American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried using Current Procedural Terminology codes 22612, 22630, and 22633. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on the development of any major complication. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify predictors for the development of ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 major complications. A total of 7761 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study of which, 2055 (26.5%) patients developed one major complication, 249 (3.2%) patients developed two major complications, and 151 (1.9%) patients developed three major complications. The most common complication was intra/postoperative red blood cell transfusion (23.2%). Three multivariate logistic regression models were employed to identify factors associated with ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 major complications. Patient variables present across all three models were osteotomy, pelvic fixation, operation time ≥4 hours, bleeding disorder, and American Society of Anesthesiology Class ≥ 3. Several risk factors were identified for the development of major complications after elective PLF. Identification of these factors can improve the selection of appropriate surgical candidates, patient risk stratification, and patient postoperative safety. 3.

  5. Learning curve of a complex surgical technique: minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kong Hwee; Yeo, William; Soeharno, Henry; Yue, Wai Mun

    2014-10-01

    Prospective cohort study. This study aimed to evaluate the learning curve of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Very few studies have evaluated the learning curve of this technically demanding surgery. We intend to evaluate the learning curve of MIS TLIF with a larger sample size and assess surgical competence based not only on operative time but with perioperative variables, clinical and radiologic outcomes, incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction. From 2005 to 2009, the first 90 single-level MIS TLIF, which utilized a consistent technique and spinal instrumentation, performed by a single surgeon at our tertiary institution were studied. Variables studied included operative time, perioperative variables, clinical (Visual Analogue Scores for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, North American Spine Society Scores for neurogenic symptoms) and radiologic outcomes, incidence of complications and patient rating of expectation met, and the overall result of surgery. The asymptote of the surgeon's learning curve for MIS TLIF was achieved at the 44th case. Comparing the early group of 44 patients to the latter 46, the demographics were similar. For operative parameters, only 3 variables showed differences between the 2 groups: mean operative duration, fluoroscopy duration, and usage of patient-controlled analgesia. At the final follow-up, for clinical outcome parameters, the 2 groups were different in 3 parameters: VAS scores for back, leg pain, and neurogenic symptom scores. For radiologic outcome, both groups showed similar good fusion rates. For complications, none of the MIS TLIF cases were converted to open TLIF intraoperatively. In the early group, there were 3 complications: 1 incidental durotomy and 2 asymptomatic cage migrations; and in the latter group, there was 1 asymptomatic cage migration. In our study, technical proficiency in MIS TLIF was achieved after 44 surgeries, and the latter patients benefited

  6. Minimally Invasive Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Revision Surgery: A Technique through Kambin's Triangle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Gue; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF) for revision surgery. Methods From January 2011 to December 2012, 12 patients who underwent minimally invasive ELIF through the Kambin's triangle for revision surgery were included in this study. All patients underwent the surgical procedure in the following sequence: (1) epidural anesthesia, (2) exposing the Kambin's triangle toward the lateral part of the dura (partial resection of the superior articular process), (3) bilateral cage insertion for reinforcement of stabilization and fusion, and (4) percutaneous transpedicular screwing. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS), and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Imaging and clinical findings including surgical techniques, clinical outcomes, and related complications were depicted and analyzed. Results The mean age of the patients (5 men, 7 women) was 60.7±13.4 years, and the mean follow-up period was 27.1±4.9 months. The mean VAS (back and leg) score improved significantly at final follow-up. The mean ODI score decreased as follows: preoperative, 76.78±6.08; 3 months after the surgery, 37.74±6.67; and at final follow-up, 29.91±2.98. Two patients presented with transient nerve root irritation, but there were no cases of incidental dural tear or serious infection. No significant neurological deterioration or major complication was noted in any of the patients. Conclusion Minimally invasive ELIF for revision surgery is an effective surgical option with a low complication rate. PMID:26834815

  7. Open and Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Comparison of Intermediate Results and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Hwan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes of open vs. minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). Overview of Literature MI-TLIF promises smaller incisions and less soft tissue dissection resulting in lower morbidity and faster recovery; however, it is technically challenging. Methods Twenty-five patients with MI-TLIF were compared with 25 matched open TLIF controls. A minimum 2 year follow-up and a statistical analysis of perioperative and long-term outcomes were performed. Potential complications were recorded. Results The mean ages for the open and MI-TLIF cases were 44.4 years (range, 19-69 years) and 43.6 years (range, 20-69 years), respectively. The male:female ratio was 13:12 for both groups. Average follow-up was 26.9 months for the MI-TLIF group and 29.3 months for the open group. Operative duration was significantly longer in the MI-TLIF group than that in the open group (p<0.05). No differences in estimated blood loss, duration to ambulation, or length of stay were found. Significant improvements in the Oswestry disability index and EQ-5D functional scores were observed at 6-, 12-, and 24-months in both groups, but no significant difference was detected between the groups. Fusion rates were comparable. Cage sizes were significantly smaller in the MI-TLIF group at the L5/S1 level (p<0.05). One patient had residual spinal stenosis at the MI-TLIF level, and one patient who underwent two-level MI-TLIF developed a deep vein thrombosis resulting in a pulmonary embolism. Conclusions MI-TLIF and open TLIF had comparable long-term benefits. Due to technical constraints, patients should be advised on the longer operative time and potential undersizing of cages at the L5S1 level. PMID:25901228

  8. The Lumbar I/F Cage for posterior lumbar interbody fusion with the variable screw placement system: 10-year results of a Food and Drug Administration clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Brantigan, John W; Neidre, Arvo; Toohey, John S

    2004-01-01

    The Lumbar I/F Cage is a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) device designed to separate the mechanical and device functions of interbody fusion. A Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) clinical study of the CFRP cage was conducted during an enrollment period from 1991 to 1993. Based on the 2-year results of this study, the cage was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 1999. Since then, the Lumbar I/F Cage device has become widely used in the United States. This study was designed to determine the long-term results of patients who received this device during the 1991-1993 enrollments. Investigators from the original study were asked to evaluate their original patients according to FDA-reviewed case report forms. Although many of the centers were unable to provide significant follow-up, two centers that enrolled almost half of the original study group provided reports on a high percentage of their original patients. This paper reviews the results in those patients. Inclusion criteria included patients with degenerative disc disease who had at least one failed lumbar discectomy or decompression procedure at one or more levels. Clinical success was defined by a modified Prolo score evaluating pain, function, medication usage and economic status. Fusion success, determined by evaluation of plain radiographs, was defined by continuous bone bridging the fusion area with no lucencies. Flexion-extension X-rays were done on patients who had previous removal of pedicle screw implants. Any motion on flexion-extension films indicated pseudarthrosis. All patients were contacted at their last known address. Internet search services were used to locate additional patients. Thirty-three of 43 eligible patients (77%) were evaluated, including 31 patients who reported for examination and X-ray and 2 additional patients by telephone survey and written questionnaire. Clinical success was achieved in 32 of 37 patients (86.5%) at 24 months and in 29 of

  9. A meta analysis of lumbar spinal fusion surgery using bone morphogenetic proteins and autologous iliac crest bone graft.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Feng; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Deri; Feng, Xinmin; An, Jiuli; Zhu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) as a substitute for iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) has been increasingly widely used in lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to systematically compare the effectiveness and safety of fusion with BMPs for the treatment of lumbar disease. Cochrane review methods were used to analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to nov 2013. 19 RCTs (1,852 patients) met the inclusion criteria. BMPs group significantly increased fusion rate (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.05-1.23, P = 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in overall success of clinical outcomes (RR: 1.04; 95% CI 0.95-1.13, P = 0.38) and complications (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.85-1.09, p = 0.54). A significant reduction of the reoperation rate was found in BMPs group (RR: 0.57; 95% CI 0.42-0.77, p = 0.0002). Significant difference was found in the operating time (MD-0.32; 95% CI-0.55, -0.08; P = 0.009), but no significant difference was found in the blood loss, the hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and work status. Compared with ICBG, BMPs in lumbar fusion can increase the fusion rate, while reduce the reoperation rate and operating time. However, it doesn't increase the complication rate, the amount of blood loss and hospital stay. No significant difference was found in the overall success of clinical outcome of the two groups.

  10. A Meta Analysis of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Autologous Iliac Crest Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Feng; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Deri; Feng, Xinmin; An, Jiuli; Zhu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) as a substitute for iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) has been increasingly widely used in lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to systematically compare the effectiveness and safety of fusion with BMPs for the treatment of lumbar disease. Methods Cochrane review methods were used to analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to nov 2013. Results 19 RCTs (1,852 patients) met the inclusion criteria. BMPs group significantly increased fusion rate (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.05–1.23, P = 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in overall success of clinical outcomes (RR: 1.04; 95% CI 0.95–1.13, P = 0.38) and complications (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.85–1.09, p = 0.54). A significant reduction of the reoperation rate was found in BMPs group (RR: 0.57; 95% CI 0.42–0.77, p = 0.0002). Significant difference was found in the operating time (MD−0.32; 95% CI−0.55, −0.08; P = 0.009), but no significant difference was found in the blood loss, the hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and work status. Conclusion Compared with ICBG, BMPs in lumbar fusion can increase the fusion rate, while reduce the reoperation rate and operating time. However, it doesn’t increase the complication rate, the amount of blood loss and hospital stay. No significant difference was found in the overall success of clinical outcome of the two groups. PMID:24886911

  11. Standardized evaluation of long-term results after anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, M; Griss, P; Haake, M; Kienapfel, H; Billion, M

    1996-01-01

    A total of 113 patients, excluding those with tumor, spondylitis, and idiopathic scoliosis, underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with autologous iliac crest graft between 1984 and 1991 at our department. The proportion of these who were failed back patients was higher than that reported in the literature. Evaluation of functional outcome was feasible in 80 patients, utilizing Oswestry and Marburg scores, which were closely intercorrelated. The overall results yielded an improvement in the Oswestry score of 35.7 percentage points. A subset of 52 patients who were evaluated twice, showed the same results at an average of 6.6 years as they did at 2.3 years following surgery. Functional results showed a weak correlation with postoperative height loss of the intervertebral space. Influencing factors for the functional result were: postoperative compensation claim, age, and obesity. Of the professional people involved, 19.4% did not return to any occupation. Patients satisfied with the result had significantly greater functional improvement. Younger patients with additional dorsal distraction prior to ALIF for reduction of severe spondylolisthesis fared better than patients with ALIF alone. The rate of complications was low and did not contribute to the postoperative functional result. On the basis of these results further prospective studies have been designed and are currently underway.

  12. Does prone repositioning before posterior fixation produce greater lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF)?

    PubMed

    Yson, Sharon C; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Santos, Edward R G; Luna, Jeffrey T P; Polly, David W

    2014-10-01

    Retrospective comparative radiographic review. To determine if lateral to prone repositioning before posterior fixation confers additional operative level lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedures. In a review of 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF, there was no statistically significant change in segmental lordosis from lateral to prone once a cage is in place. The greatest lordosis increase was observed after cage insertion. We reviewed 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF in the lateral position followed by posterior fixation in the prone position. Eighty-eight levels were fused. Disk space angle was measured on intraoperative C-arm images, and change in operative level segmental lordosis brought about by each of the following was determined: (1) cage insertion, (2) prone repositioning, and (3) posterior instrumentation. Paired t test was used to determine significance (α=0.05). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by cage insertion was 2.6 degrees (P=0.00005). There was a 0.1 degree mean lordosis change brought about by lateral to prone positioning (P=0.47). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by posterior fixation, including rod compression, was 1.0 degree (P=0.03). In LLIF procedures, the largest increase in operative level segmental lordosis is brought about by cage insertion. Further lordosis may be gained by placing posterior fixation, including compressive maneuvers. Prone repositioning after cage placement does not produce any incremental lordosis change. Therefore, posterior fixation may be performed in the lateral position without compromising operative level sagittal alignment.

  13. Neurogenic Shock Immediately following Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tomiya; Okuda, Shinya; Haku, Takamitsu; Maeda, Kazuya; Maeno, Takafumi; Yamashita, Tomoya; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Kuratsu, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To present two cases of neurogenic shock that occurred immediately following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and that appeared to have been caused by the vasovagal reflex after dural injury and incarceration of the cauda equina. Case Report We present two cases of neurogenic shock that occurred immediately following PLIF. One patient had bradycardia, and the other developed cardiac arrest just after closing the surgical incision and opening the drainage tube. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed immediately, and the patients recovered successfully, but they showed severe motor loss after awakening. The results of laboratory data, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, computed tomography, and echocardiography ruled out pulmonary embolism, hemorrhagic shock, and cardiogenic shock. Although the reasons for the postoperative shock were obscure, reoperation was performed to explore the cause of paralysis. At reoperation, a cerebrospinal fluid collection and the incarceration of multiple cauda equina rootlets through a small dural tear were observed. The incarcerated cauda equina rootlets were reduced, and the dural defect was closed. In both cases, the reoperation was uneventful. From the intraoperative findings at reoperation, it was thought that the pathology was neurogenic shock via the vasovagal reflex. Conclusion Incarceration of multiple cauda equina rootlets following the accidental dural tear by suction drainage caused a sudden decrease of cerebrospinal fluid pressure and traction of the cauda equina, which may have led to the vasovagal reflex. PMID:26225287

  14. Neurogenic Shock Immediately following Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomiya; Okuda, Shinya; Haku, Takamitsu; Maeda, Kazuya; Maeno, Takafumi; Yamashita, Tomoya; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Kuratsu, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2015-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To present two cases of neurogenic shock that occurred immediately following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and that appeared to have been caused by the vasovagal reflex after dural injury and incarceration of the cauda equina. Case Report We present two cases of neurogenic shock that occurred immediately following PLIF. One patient had bradycardia, and the other developed cardiac arrest just after closing the surgical incision and opening the drainage tube. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed immediately, and the patients recovered successfully, but they showed severe motor loss after awakening. The results of laboratory data, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, computed tomography, and echocardiography ruled out pulmonary embolism, hemorrhagic shock, and cardiogenic shock. Although the reasons for the postoperative shock were obscure, reoperation was performed to explore the cause of paralysis. At reoperation, a cerebrospinal fluid collection and the incarceration of multiple cauda equina rootlets through a small dural tear were observed. The incarcerated cauda equina rootlets were reduced, and the dural defect was closed. In both cases, the reoperation was uneventful. From the intraoperative findings at reoperation, it was thought that the pathology was neurogenic shock via the vasovagal reflex. Conclusion Incarceration of multiple cauda equina rootlets following the accidental dural tear by suction drainage caused a sudden decrease of cerebrospinal fluid pressure and traction of the cauda equina, which may have led to the vasovagal reflex.

  15. Total 3D Airo® Navigation for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central