Sample records for lumbar synovial cyst

  1. Outcome of Percutaneous Lumbar Synovial Cyst Rupture in Patients with Lumbar Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Yashar; Desai, Vimal; Cajigal Cajigal, Calvin; Tabbaa, Kutaiba

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar synovial cysts can result from spondylosis of facet joints. These cysts can encroach on adjacent nerve roots, causing symptoms of radiculopathy. Currently the only definitive treatment for these symptoms is surgery, which may involve laminectomy or laminotomy, with or without spinal fusion. Surgery has been reported to successfully relieve radicular pain in 83.5% of patients by Zhenbo et al. Little information is available concerning the efficacy and outcome of percutaneous fluoroscopic synovial cyst rupture for treatment of facet joint synovial cysts. The goal of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of fluoroscopically guided lumbar synovial cyst rupture, in particular for its relief of radicular symptoms and its potential to reduce the need for surgical intervention. Retrospective evaluation of a case series. University hospital and urban public health care system. With approval from the Institutional Review Board of Case Western Reserve University/ MetroHealth Medical Center, we reviewed the medical charts of patients with lumbar radiculopathy who underwent percutaneous lumbar synovial cyst rupture. The 30 patients in the cohort were treated by one pain specialist between 2006 and 2013. These patients were diagnosed with moderate to severe lower back pain, radiculopathy, and ranged in age from 42 to 80 years. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months and up to 24 months. Pre- and post-procedure pain assessments were reviewed by clinical chart review. In addition post-procedure pain assessments and duration of pain relief were obtained with telephone interviews. Pain had been reported by the patients using a numeric rating scale of 0 - 10 (0 = no pain; 10 = worst possible pain). Charts were reviewed to determine if surgery was eventually performed to correct radicular symptoms. More than 6 months of pain relief was achieved in 14/30 patients (46%) and between one and 6 months of pain relief was achieved in 7/30 patients (23.3%). Nine

  2. Minimally Invasive Tubular Resection of Lumbar Synovial Cysts: Report of 40 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Birch, Barry D; Aoun, Rami James N; Elbert, Gregg A; Patel, Naresh P; Krishna, Chandan; Lyons, Mark K

    2016-10-01

    Lumbar synovial cysts are a relatively common clinical finding. Surgical treatment of symptomatic synovial cysts includes computed tomography-guided aspiration, open resection and minimally invasive tubular resection. We report our series of 40 consecutive minimally invasive microscopic tubular lumbar synovial cyst resections. Following Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective analysis of 40 cases of minimally invasive microscopic tubular retractor synovial cyst resections at a single institution by a single surgeon (B.D.B.) was conducted. Gross total resection was performed in all cases. Patient characteristics, surgical operating time, complications, and outcomes were analyzed. Lumbar radiculopathy was the presenting symptoms in all but 1 patient, who presented with neurogenic claudication. The mean duration of symptoms was 6.5 months (range, 1-25 months), mean operating time was 58 minutes (range, 25-110 minutes), and mean blood loss was 20 mL (range, 5-50 mL). Seven patients required overnight observation. The median length of stay in the remaining 33 patients was 4 hours. There were 2 cerebrospinal fluid leaks repaired directly without sequelae. The mean follow-up duration was 80.7 months. Outcomes were good or excellent in 37 of the 40 patients, fair in 1 patient, and poor in 2 patients. Minimally invasive microscopic tubular retractor resection of lumbar synovial cysts can be done safely and with comparable outcomes and complication rates as open procedures with potentially reduced operative time, length of stay, and healthcare costs. Patient selection for microscopic tubular synovial cyst resection is based in part on the anatomy of the spine and synovial cyst and is critical when recommending minimally invasive vs. open resection to patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can lumbar hemorrhagic synovial cyst cause acute radicular compression? Case report

    PubMed Central

    Timbó, Luciana Sátiro; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Brandt, Reynaldo André; Peres, Ricardo Botticini; Nakamura, Olavo Kyosen; Guimarães, Juliana Frota

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar synovial cysts are an uncommon cause of back pain and radiculopathy, usually manifesting with gradual onset of symptoms, secondary to involvement of the spinal canal. Rarely, intracyst hemorrhage occurs, and may acutely present as radicular - or even spinal cord - compression syndrome. Synovial cysts are generally associated with degenerative facets, although the pathogenesis has not been entirely established. We report a case of bleeding complication in a synovial cyst at L2-L3, adjacent to the right interfacet joint, causing acute pain and radiculopathy in a patient on anticoagulation therapy who required surgical resection. PMID:25628207

  4. Bilateral symptomatic synovial cysts of the lumbar spine caused by calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Anirudh A; Eisenstein, Stephan M; Darby, Alan; Cassar Pullicino, Victor

    2002-10-01

    A case of bilateral symptomatic facet joint synovial cysts arising in association with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease is reported. To present a previously unreported cause for symptomatic synovial cysts of the lumbar spine. Synovial cysts of the facet joints occur most commonly in association with degenerative disease of the spine in older individuals. The association of these cysts with trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, spondylolysis, and kissing spinous processes also has been reported. These cysts can cause symptoms and signs from direct compression of the dura. Chondrocalcinosis has not been previously reported to cause symptomatic synovial cysts. A 67-year-old woman presented with right lower limb sciatica caused by a right L4-L5 facet joint cyst, which resolved after surgical decompression. A year later, she presented with left lower limb sciatica caused by development of a new L4-L5 facet joint cyst, which also resolved after surgical decompression. Histopathologic examination of each cyst showed a cyst wall of fibrous tissue with synovial lining, inflammation, and granulation tissue. Examination of the tissue under polarized light showed positively birefringent, short blunt crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate. In patients with a history of gout or pseudogout, a rare possibility of a synovial cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis during investigation for the cause of neural compression resulting in sciatic syndrome.

  5. Minimally invasive resection of lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts via a contralateral approach: review of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, Hamdi G; Hitchon, Patrick W; Awe, Olatilewa; Noeller, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to determine patient-related outcomes after minimally invasive surgical (MIS) lumbar intraspinal synovial cyst excision via a tubular working channel and a contralateral facet-sparing approach. All the patients with a symptomatic lumbar intraspinal synovial cyst who underwent surgery at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with an MIS excision via a contralateral approach were treated between July 2010 and August 2014. There was a total of 13 cases. Each patient was evaluated with preoperative neurological examinations, lumbar spine radiography, MRI, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. The patients were evaluated postoperatively with neurological examinations and VAS and Macnab scores. The primary outcomes were improvement in VAS and Macnab scores. Secondary outcomes were average blood loss, hospital stay duration, and operative times. There were 5 males and 8 females. The mean age was 66 years, and the mean body mass index was 28.5 kg/m(2). Sixty-nine percent (9 of 13) of the cysts were at L4-5. Most patients had low-back pain and radicular pain, and one-third of them had Grade 1 spondylolisthesis. The mean (± SD) follow-up duration was 20.8 ± 16.9 months. The mean Macnab score was 3.4 ± 1.0, and the VAS score decreased from 7.8 preoperatively to 2.9 postoperatively. The mean operative time was 123 ± 30 minutes, with a mean estimated blood loss of 44 ± 29 ml. Hospital stay averaged 1.5 ± 0.7 days. There were no complications noted in this series. The MIS excision of lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts via a contralateral approach offers excellent exposure to the cyst and spares the facet joint at the involved level, thus minimizing risk of instability, blood loss, operative time, and hospital stay. Prospective randomized trials with longer follow-up times and larger cohorts are needed to conclusively determine the superiority of the contralateral MIS approach over others, including open or ipsilateral minimally invasive surgery.

  6. Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spine pain due to synovial cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cox, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to report the findings resulting from chiropractic care using flexion distraction spinal manipulation for a patient with low back and radicular pain due to spinal stenosis caused by a synovial cyst. Case Report A 75-year-old man presented with low back pain radiating to the right anterior thigh and down the left posterior leg of 3 years' duration. Physical and imaging examinations showed a synovial cyst–induced spinal stenosis at the right L3-L4 level and bilateral L4-L5 spinal stenosis. Intervention and Outcomes Flexion distraction spinal manipulation and physiological therapeutics were applied at the levels of stenosis. After 4 visits, the patient noted total absence of the right and left lower extremity pain and no adverse reaction to treatment. After 3 months of treatment and 16 visits, his low back and buttock pain were minimal; and he had no leg pain. Conclusion Lumbar synovial cyst and stenosis–generated low back and radicular pain was 80% relieved in a 75-year-old man following Cox flexion distraction spinal manipulation. PMID:22942836

  7. Retrospective review of percutaneous synovial cyst ruptures: increased thickness of the T2 hypointense rim on post-rupture MRI may be associated with need for subsequent surgery.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Benjamin Y M; Salehi, Fateme; Jia, Sang; McGregor, Stuart; Duggal, Neil; Pelz, David; Sharma, Manas

    2017-08-01

    To analyze MRI characteristics of lumbar facet synovial cysts and distinguish those requiring subsequent surgical management for recurrence, after percutaneous synovial cyst rupture. Retrospective chart review conducted in patients undergoing percutaneous synovial cyst rupture between February 2012 and April 2015. Pre- and post-percutaneous rupture procedure MRI spine studies were serially reviewed. Synovial cyst sizes, T1 and T2 signal characteristics and changes therein, T2 hypointense (or 'dark rim') thickness and change, and changes in the complexity of cyst signals were compared. Operative notes for patients who underwent subsequent surgical removal of recurrent synovial cysts were reviewed. 24 patients received 41 percutaneous synovial cyst rupture procedures, with a technical success rate of 82.9%. There was a significant difference in the mean increased thickness of the T2 hypointense rim on the first post-rupture MRI scan (p=0.0411) between patients requiring subsequent surgery and those who did not. There was a significant difference in the average sizes of synovial cysts before the procedure (p=0.0483) in those requiring subsequent surgery and those who did not. Five complications were noted (12.2%), mostly involving leg pain or weakness. Of the nine patients who underwent subsequent surgery post-synovial cyst rupture, six of the surgeries had recorded difficulty pertaining to scarring and/or adherence of the cyst to dura. A larger increase in thickness of the T2 hypointense rim on the first post-rupture MRI scan and a larger synovial cyst size were associated with the need for subsequent surgical resection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Cervical myelopathy associated with extradural synovial cysts in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Levitski, R E; Chauvet, A E; Lipsitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Three Mastiffs and 1 Great Dane were presented to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for cervical myelopathy based on history and neurologic examination. All dogs were males and had progressive ataxia and tetraparesis. Degenerative arthritis of the articular facet joints was noted on survey spinal radiographs. Myelography disclosed lateral axial compression of the cervical spinal cord medial to the articular facets. Extradural compressive cystic structures adjacent to articular facets were identified on magnetic resonance imaging (1 dog). High protein concentration was the most important finding on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Dorsal laminectomies were performed in all dogs for spinal cord decompression and cyst removal. Findings on cytologic examination of the cystic fluid were consistent with synovial fluid, and histopathologic results supported the diagnosis of synovial cysts. All dogs are ambulatory and 3 are asymptomatic after surgery with a follow-up time ranging from 1 to 8 months. This is the 1st report of extradural synovial cysts in dogs, and synovial cysts should be a differential diagnosis for young giant breed dogs with cervical myelopathy.

  9. Spinal case of the month with short perspective: How would you treat this L3-L4 synovial cyst?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2018-01-01

    In this new section, Case of the Month with Short Perspective from Surgical Neurology International, we want to see how various spine surgeons would approach different spinal pathologies. In this first case, an elderly male presented with 3 years of lower back pain and progressive neurogenic claudication with bilateral radiculopathy that had exacerbated over the prior 6 months. An outside physician performed a magnetic resonance (MR) study of the lumbar spine that showed a massive synovial cyst filling the spinal canal (e.g., large bilateral cysts) at the L3-L4 level with grade I spondylolisthesis. The MR and CT studies also both demonstrated moderate L2-L3, and severe L3-L4 stenosis. Despite the massive synovial cyst filling the spinal canal at the L3-L4 level, pain management (anesthesia training) spent 3 months performing three successive epidural steroid injections accompanied by attempts at percutaneous synovial cyst aspiration/rupture. By the time the patient presented to neurosurgery, he had developed severe neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, myelopathy, and a cauda equina syndrome. Dynamic X-rays revealed a mild grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L3-L4 level without active motion, while both computed tomography (CT) and MR studies confirmed moderate stenosis stenosis/ossification of the yellow ligament at the L2-L3 level, severe stenosis at L3-L4 level with spondylolisthesis, and massive bilateral synovial cysts at the L3-L4 level filling the spinal canal. Following an L2-L4 decompressive laminectomy without fusion (note the absence of motion intraoperatively at the L3-L4 level), the patient's symptoms resolved, and he regained normal function. How would you have managed this patient?

  10. A novel approach to symptomatic lumbar facet joint synovial cyst injection and rupture using iGuide navigational software: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Wang, David J; Lownie, Stephen P; Pelz, David; Pandey, Sachin

    2016-10-01

    Spinal synovial cysts are benign protrusions of facet joint capsules caused by degenerative spondylosis, most frequently involving the L4-5 level, and commonly lead to symptoms of back pain, radiculopathy and neurogenic claudication. Although percutaneous treatment via facet joint steroid injection with cyst rupture can provide significant symptom relief, cyst rupture is not always achievable via an indirect trans-facet approach due to limited access from severe degenerative changes. In this case, we describe a successful approach to direct cyst access using a laser-guided navigational software in a patient with severe facet joint osteophytosis. We provide a brief review of literature. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Lalam, Radhesh K; Tins, Bernhard J; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; McCall, Iain W

    2006-04-01

    The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints.

  12. Dual lumbar bronchogenic and arachnoid cyst presenting with sciatica and left foot drop.

    PubMed

    Candy, Nicholas; Young, Adam; Devadass, Abel; Dean, Andrew; McMillen, Jason; Trivedi, Rikin

    2017-10-01

    Spinal bronchogenic cysts are rare findings, with only four cases of lumbar bronchogenic cysts reported in the literature. All of these bronchogenic cysts involved the conus medullaris. We present the first case of a lumbar bronchogenic cyst and arachnoid cyst arising from the cauda equina in a 68-year-old male. Uniquely, this bronchogenic cyst also contained components of an arachnoid cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a compressive cystic lesion at the level of the L3 vertebra splaying the cauda equina. An L3/L4 laminectomy was performed with marsupialisation of the cyst. Histological examination revealed pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium confirming the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst, as well as a pleated fibrovascular tissue lined by sparsely spaced small monomorphic arachnoidal cells, indicating an arachnoid cyst. We demonstrate that bronchogenic cysts can be successfully treated with marsupialisation.

  13. Ten-Step Minimally Invasive Spine Lumbar Decompression and Dural Repair Through Tubular Retractors.

    PubMed

    Boukebir, Mohamed Abdelatif; Berlin, Connor David; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Heiland, Tim; Schöller, Karsten; Rawanduzy, Cameron; Kirnaz, Sertaç; Jada, Ajit; Härtl, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery utilizing tubular retractors has become an increasingly popular approach for decompression in the lumbar spine. However, a better understanding of appropriate indications, efficacious surgical techniques, limitations, and complication management is required to effectively teach the procedure and to facilitate the learning curve. To describe our experience and recommendations regarding tubular surgery for lumbar disc herniations, foraminal compression with unilateral radiculopathy, lumbar spinal stenosis, synovial cysts, and dural repair. We reviewed our experience between 2008 and 2014 to develop a step-by-step description of the surgical techniques and complication management, including dural repair through tubes, for the 4 lumbar pathologies of highest frequency. We provide additional supplementary videos for dural tear repair, laminotomy for bilateral decompression, and synovial cyst resection. Our overview and complementary materials document the key technical details to maximize the success of the 4 MIS surgical techniques. The review of our experience in 331 patients reveals technical feasibility as well as satisfying clinical results, with no postoperative complications associated with cerebrospinal fluid leaks, 1 infection, and 17 instances (5.1%) of delayed fusion. MIS surgery through tubular retractors is a safe and effective alternative to traditional open or microsurgical techniques for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Adherence to strict microsurgical techniques will allow the surgeon to effectively address bilateral pathology while preserving stability and minimizing complications. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  14. Symptomatic lumbar facet joint cysts treated by CT-guided intracystic and intra-articular steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Foti, Pauline; Boileau, Pascal; Amoretti, Marie-Eve; Pellegrin, Amelie; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Hauger, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided intracystic and intra-articular steroid injections for the treatment of lumbar facet joint cyst causing radicular pain. A single-centre prospective study involving 120 consecutive patients with symptomatic lumbar facet joint cyst-induced radicular pain was done (72 women, 48 men). The average age was 68.2 years (52-84). Patients were treated by percutaneous CT-guided intracystic and intra-articular steroid injections. The clinical course of nerve root pain was evaluated after 1 day, and 1, 3 and 6 months, with long-term follow-up after 12 months. Patient follow-ups in our series show supportive results: within 120 patients, 54% of patients were satisfied with a long-lasting result from the first intra-cystic and intra-articular steroid injections (n = 65), while 20.8% were satisfied with a long-lasting result from a second intervention. Combining these two results shows that 75% of patients were satisfied with a long-lasting result. Our results showed that percutaneous treatment of vertebral lumbar facet joint cysts by double injections is an effective and economic therapeutic technical management among 75% of our patients. Thus we recommend that it should be considered as a first choice of treatment. Lumbar facet joint cysts are a common feature of back and radicular pain. They may be treated effectively by interventional radiologists using CT guidance. Percutaneous treatment using double injections can save surgery in 75% of patients.

  15. Baker cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... Baker cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid ...

  16. Hemorrhagic lumbar facet cysts accompanying a spinal subdural hematoma at the same level

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Osamu; Minami, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Masashi; Koda, Masao; Morinaga, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Context We present a rare and interesting case of hemorrhagic lumbar facet cysts accompanying a spinal subdural hematoma at the same level suggesting a possible mechanism by which spinal subdural hematomas can arise. Findings A 71-year-old man presented with persistent sciatic pain and intermittent claudication. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a multilocular mass lesion that showed high signal intensity in both T1- and T2-weighted images, and was located both inside and outside of the spinal canal. Computed tomographic myelography showed a cap-shaped block of the dural tube at L5 and computed tomography with L5–S facet arthrography demonstrated cystic masses. The patient was diagnosed with lumbar radiculopathy caused by hemorrhagic facet cysts, and then progressed to surgical treatment. Surgery revealed that the cysts contained blood clots, and intraoperative findings that the inside of the dural tube appeared blackish and that the dural tube was tensely ballooned after removal of the cysts led us to explorative durotomy. The durotomy demonstrated concentrated old blood pooling both in the dorsal and ventral subdural space, and these spaces were subsequently drained. After surgery, his sciatic pain and intermittent claudication resolved. There was no evidence of cyst mass recurrence at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion We propose a newly described mechanism for the formation of spinal subdural hematomas. We recommend surgeons be alert to epidural lesions causing repeated acute compression of the dural tube, which can cause spinal subdural hematoma, and consider the possible coexistence of these lesions in diagnosis and strategic surgical decisions. PMID:24976137

  17. Hemorrhagic lumbar facet cysts accompanying a spinal subdural hematoma at the same level.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Osamu; Minami, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Masashi; Koda, Masao; Morinaga, Tatsuo

    2015-03-01

    We present a rare and interesting case of hemorrhagic lumbar facet cysts accompanying a spinal subdural hematoma at the same level suggesting a possible mechanism by which spinal subdural hematomas can arise. A 71-year-old man presented with persistent sciatic pain and intermittent claudication. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a multilocular mass lesion that showed high signal intensity in both T1- and T2-weighted images, and was located both inside and outside of the spinal canal. Computed tomographic myelography showed a cap-shaped block of the dural tube at L5 and computed tomography with L5-S facet arthrography demonstrated cystic masses. The patient was diagnosed with lumbar radiculopathy caused by hemorrhagic facet cysts, and then progressed to surgical treatment. Surgery revealed that the cysts contained blood clots, and intraoperative findings that the inside of the dural tube appeared blackish and that the dural tube was tensely ballooned after removal of the cysts led us to explorative durotomy. The durotomy demonstrated concentrated old blood pooling both in the dorsal and ventral subdural space, and these spaces were subsequently drained. After surgery, his sciatic pain and intermittent claudication resolved. There was no evidence of cyst mass recurrence at 2 years of follow-up. We propose a newly described mechanism for the formation of spinal subdural hematomas. We recommend surgeons be alert to epidural lesions causing repeated acute compression of the dural tube, which can cause spinal subdural hematoma, and consider the possible coexistence of these lesions in diagnosis and strategic surgical decisions.

  18. Percutaneous Facet Screw Fixation in the Treatment of Symptomatic Recurrent Lumbar Facet Joint Cyst: A New Technique

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr; Gallo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.gallo83@gmail.com; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: asbertrand3@hotmail.com

    We present a case of percutaneous treatment of symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst resistant to all medical treatments including facet joint steroid injection. Percutaneous transfacet fixation was then performed at L4–L5 level with a cannulated screw using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. The procedure time was 30 min. Using the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9.5, preoperatively, to 0 after the procedure. At 6-month follow-up, an asymptomatic cystic recurrence was observed, which further reduced at the 1-year follow-up. Pain remained stable (VAS at 0) during all follow-ups. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous cyst rupture associated with facet screw fixation couldmore » be an alternative to surgery in patients suffering from a symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst.« less

  19. Spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with a facet synovial cyst in an adult female – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Trung; Decina, Philip; Hsu, William

    2013-01-01

    Background: Facet cysts are implicated in neural compression in the lumbar spine. Surgery is the definitive treatment for symptomatic facet cysts since the failure rate for conservative treatment is quite high; however, the role of physical/manual medicine practitioners in the management of symptomatic facet cysts has not been well explored. This case report will add to the body of evidence of spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with facet cysts in the chiropractic literature. Case: A 58 year old female presented with acute low back and right leg pain which she attributed to a series of exercise classes that involved frequent foot stomping. Physical examination did not elicit any objective evidence of radiculopathy but MRI and CT scans revealed a facet cyst impinging on the right L5 nerve root. Injections and surgery were recommended; however, the patient’s radicular symptoms completely resolved after three months without surgical intervention. Summary: There is currently a paucity of data in the literature regarding the chiropractor’s role in the management of symptomatic facet cysts. The case presented here has added to this literature and possible areas for future research have been explored. PMID:23483069

  20. Cauda equina syndrome associated with multiple lumbar arachnoid cysts in ankylosing spondylitis: improvement following surgical therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, P J; Allcutt, D A; Bates, D; Crawford, P J

    1990-01-01

    A case of cauda equina syndrome with multiple lumbar arachnoid cysts complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is described. The value of computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive means of establishing the diagnosis is emphasised. In contrast to previously reported cases the patient showed neurological improvement following surgical therapy. Surgery may be indicated in some patients, particularly when there is nerve root compression by the arachnoid cysts and when the patient is seen early before irreversible damage to the cauda equina has occurred. Images PMID:2292702

  1. Baker's Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rarely, a Baker's cyst bursts and synovial fluid leaks into the calf region, causing: Sharp pain in your knee Swelling in the calf Sometimes, redness of your calf or a feeling of water running down your calf These signs and symptoms ...

  2. Extraforaminal Discal Cyst as Cause of Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Bertrand; Bienvenot, Peggy; Leclercq, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    We report the first extraforaminal location of a lumbar discal cyst. The patient was treated by hemilaminectomy, arthrectomy, cyst resection, and unilateral arthrodesis, achieving complete release of the nerve root. Extraforaminal lumbar discal cyst may represent an unexpected cause of sciatic pain with favorable outcome after surgical resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple myxoid cysts secondary to occupation.

    PubMed

    Connolly, M; de Berker, D A R

    2006-05-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with eight digital myxoid cysts (DMCs) involving the fingers of both hands. They developed within 12 months of the patient starting a job that involved pushing a garment into an embroidery mould, thus exerting a downward force on the fingertips. The pressure exerted from this force could have potentially damaged the joint synovial capsule, leading to rupture and loss of synovial gel, thus inducing myxoid cysts. This case suggests that DMCs may be related to occupation, and to our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of occupationally induced DMCs.

  4. Posterior Epidural Migration of an Extruded Lumbar Disc Mimicking a Facet Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Sun; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Dong Min

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal extradural migration of extruded disc material is clinically uncommon. We report a rare case of posterior epidural migration of an extruded lumbar disc mimicking a facet cyst. A 32-year-old man was admitted to our institute with a 2-week history of severe low back pain and radiating pain in the left leg. The magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed a dorsally located, left-sided extradural cystic mass at the L2-3 level. The initial diagnosis was an epidural facet cyst because of the high signal intensity on MR images and its location adjacent to the facet joint. Intraoperatively, an encapsulated mass of soft tissue adherent to the dural sac was observed and excised. The pathological diagnosis was degenerated disc material. After surgery, the patient experienced complete relief from leg pain. PMID:25883662

  5. Synovial sarcoma in cerebellum: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guan-ying; Pan, Bin-cai; Tian, Xiao-ying; Li, Yang; Li, Bin; Li, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a tumor of unknown origin and is extremely rare in the central nervous system. We present a case involving an unusual cerebellar synovial sarcoma in a male infant. Neuroimaging revealed a large, solid, gadolinium-enhancing mass located in the parenchyma of the right cerebellar hemisphere and associated with multiple cyst formation. Histologically, the tumor was composed of uniform spindle cells with indistinct borders and numerous mitotic figures. The tumor cells were observed to form dense cellular sheets, but in some areas the tumor showed a hemangiopericytomatous vascular pattern consisting of tumor cells arranged around dilated, thin-walled blood vessels. Immunohistochemistry showed that vimentin, CD99 and Bcl-2 were diffusely positive in most cells, and focal reactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and S-100 protein was also observed. The tumor cells were, however, negative for CK19, EMA, CD34, synaptophysin, GFAP, desmin, myogenin, and smooth muscle actin. Cytogenetic analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the translocation t(X;18)(p11;q11). A diagnosis of primary cerebellar monophasic synovial sarcoma was made. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a synovial sarcoma in brain parenchyma. The present case indicates that it is essential to select the appropriate immunohistochemical panel and-especially-perform molecular analysis to accurately diagnose intracranial spindle cell tumors.

  6. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach. PMID:22669964

  7. Lumbar interspinous bursitis in active polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Salvarani, Carlo; Barozzi, Libero; Boiardi, Luigi; Pipitone, Nicolò; Bajocchi, Gian Luigi; Macchioni, Pier Luigi; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Pazzola, Giulia; Valentino, Massimo; De Luca, Carlo; Hunder, Gene G

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the inflammatory involvement of lumbar interspinous bursae in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten consecutive, untreated new patients with PMR and pain in the shoulder and pelvic girdles were investigated. Seven patients with spondyloarthritis (4 with psoriatic spondyloarthrits, one with entheropatic spondyloarthritis, and 2 with ankylosing spondylitis) as well as 2 patients with spinal osteoarthritis and 2 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with lumbar pain served as controls. MRI of lumbar spine was performed in all PMR patients and controls. Nine patients (5 PMR patients and 4 controls) also had MRI of the thoracic spine. MRI evidence of interspinous lumbar bursitis was found in 9/10 patients with PMR and in 5/11 controls. A moderate to marked (grade ≥2 on a semiquantitative 0-3 scale) lumbar bursitis occurred significantly more frequently in patients with PMR than in control patients (60% vs. 9%, p=0.020). In most of the patients and controls lumbar bursitis was found at the L3-L5 interspaces. Only 2 patients had bursitis at a different level (one patient had widespread lumbar bursitis, and one control at L2-L4). No interspinous bursitis was demonstrated by MRI of the thoracic spine in patients and controls. Inflammation of lumbar bursae may be responsible for the low back pain reported by patients with PMR. The prominent inflammatory involvement of bursae including those of the lumbar spine supports the hypothesis that PMR may be a disorder affecting predominantly extra-articular synovial structures.

  8. Nursing review of diagnosis and treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the lumbar spine, degenerative spondylolisthesis or degenerative (not traumatic) slippage of one vertebral body over another is divided into 4 grades – grade I (25%), grade II (50%), grade III (75%), and grade IV (100%). Dynamic X-rays, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomography (CT) scans document the slip secondary to arthritic changes of the facet joint plus stenosis, ossification of the yellow ligament, disc herniations, and synovial cysts. MR best demonstrates soft tissue pathology whereas CT better delineates ossific/calcified disease. Methods: Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, typically found at the L4–L5 level followed by L3–L4 and L5S1, is more common in females (ratio 2:1) over the age of 65. Symptoms include radiculopathy (root pain) and neurogenic claudication (e.g., pain with ambulation, requiring the patient to stop, rest, sit down). Symptoms/signs may include unilateral/bilateral radiculopathy and uni/multifocal motor, reflex, and sensory deficits in. Some may also present with a cauda equina syndrome (e.g., paraparesis/sphincter dysfunction). Results: Surgery for grade I-II spondylolisthesis may include laminectomy alone, laminectomy/noninstrumented fusion or with an instrumented fusion. Older patients with osteoporosis are more likely to have no fusion or a noninstrumented fusion. All fusions utilize autograft harvested from the laminectomy that may or may not be combined with a bone graft expander (to increase the fusion mass) combined with autogenous bone marrow aspirate. The fusion mass is placed over the transverse processes following decortication. Conclusions: Patients with multilevel spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis may require decompressive lumbar laminectomies alone or in combination with noninstrumented or instrumented fusions. PMID:29119044

  9. Imaging Determinants of Clinical Effectiveness of Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections.

    PubMed

    Maus, Timothy P; El-Yahchouchi, Christine A; Geske, Jennifer R; Carter, Rickey E; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Wald, John T; Diehn, Felix E

    2016-12-01

    To examine associations between imaging characteristics of compressive lesions and patient outcomes after lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) stratified by steroid formulation (solution versus suspension). Retrospective observational study, academic radiology practice. A 516-patient sample was selected from 2,634 consecutive patients receiving lumbar TFESI for radicular pain. The advanced imaging study(s) preceding sampled TFESI were reviewed. Compressive lesions were described by a) nature of the lesion [disc herniation, fixed stenosis, synovial cyst, epidural fibrosis, no lesion] b) degree of neural compression [4 part scale], and c) presence of a tandem lesion. Associations between 2-month categorical outcomes (responder rates for pain, functional recovery) and imaging characteristics, stratified by steroid formulation, were examined with chi-squared tests of categorical outcomes and multivariable logistic regression models. Disc herniation patients had more responders for functional recovery than patients with fixed lesions (54% versus 38%, P = 0.01). Patients with fixed lesions receiving steroid solution (dexamethasone) had more responders for pain relief, with a similar trend for functional recovery, than patients receiving suspensions (59% versus 40%, P = 0.01). Outcomes for patients with fixed lesions treated with dexamethasone were not statistically different from those for disc herniation patients. Patients with single compressive lesions had more responders than those with tandem lesions (55% versus 41%, P = 0.03). In the entire sample, outcomes for disc herniations were more favorable than for fixed lesions. However, fixed lesions treated with dexamethasone had outcomes indistinguishable from disc herniations. Single lesions had better outcomes than tandem lesions. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Demonstration of a geode by magnetic resonance imaging: a new light on the cause of juxta-articular bone cysts in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Moore, E A; Jacoby, R K; Ellis, R E; Fry, M E; Pittard, S; Vennart, W

    1990-10-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a rheumatoid arthritic geode are presented. Development of such a cyst from before x ray diagnosis to its coalescence with the wrist joint is described. The evidence suggests that these juxta-articular cysts are not merely an intrusion of the synovial cavity into the bone marrow but start as isolated structures beneath the subchondral bone.

  11. Demonstration of a geode by magnetic resonance imaging: a new light on the cause of juxta-articular bone cysts in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, E A; Jacoby, R K; Ellis, R E; Fry, M E; Pittard, S; Vennart, W

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a rheumatoid arthritic geode are presented. Development of such a cyst from before x ray diagnosis to its coalescence with the wrist joint is described. The evidence suggests that these juxta-articular cysts are not merely an intrusion of the synovial cavity into the bone marrow but start as isolated structures beneath the subchondral bone. Images PMID:2241269

  12. True intraspinal neurenteric cyst in the lumbosacral region--case report.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Masatoshi; Hirashita, Koji; Gohda, Yuji; Yoshino, Kimihiro; Fujimoto, Shunichiro; Mizobuchi, Koichi

    2007-05-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with a very rare true neurenteric cyst in the conus medullaris without evidence of vertebral or visceral anomaly manifesting as a 6-month history of mild low back and bilateral inguinal pain. No motor weakness was found in the bilateral lower extremities. He had also suffered dysesthesia in the bilateral feet for several weeks before admission. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a cystic intradural extramedullary mass at the L1-2 levels without enhancement after gadolinium injection. MR imaging, computed tomography, and radiography detected no vertebral anomaly. Lumbar laminectomy at the L1-2 levels was performed and the lesion was incompletely removed. Histological examination showed the cystic wall lined with ciliated columnar epithelium. Neurenteric cyst should be considered in the diagnosis of isolated cystic mass lesion at the lumbosacral region even in the absence of vertebral or visceral abnormality.

  13. Relationship between areas of popliteal cysts and radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis and in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, P; Salaffi, F; Nervetti, A; Chierici, P; Ferraccioli, G F; Ambanelli, U

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-five patients, (30 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and 25 Osteoarthritis (OA], with knee synovial effusion and popliteal cysts, visualized through arthrograms, were studied. A relationship was sought between radiological findings and area of the cysts, measured through a millimeter grid. Ten radiological parameters were graded and summed up to obtain a "total knee score". A "total geode score" was also obtained by scoring, separately, the geodes. In addition two specific indexes were used--for comparison--the erosive index, modified after Berens and Lin, in RA and the Kelligren's index in OA. In RA a statistically significant, inverse correlation was found between the x-ray scores and the area of the cysts, while such a relationship was not observed in OA. However, only a third of the cysts accounted for the inverse relationship in RA. Furthermore, two control groups of RA and OA patients revealed a striking association between degree of radiological damage and frequency of popliteal cysts. Therefore, the hypothesis that popliteal cysts might have a protective effect against the articular-bone damage in RA, can be held only in few cases.

  14. Arthroscopic treatment of femoral nerve paresthesia caused by an acetabular paralabral cyst.

    PubMed

    Kanauchi, Taira; Suganuma, Jun; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Uchikawa, Shinichi

    2014-05-01

    This report describes a rare case of femoral nerve paresthesia caused by an acetabular paralabral cyst of the hip joint. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of right hip pain and paresthesia along the anterior thigh and radiating down to the anterior aspect of the knee. Radiography showed osteoarthritis with a narrowed joint space in the right hip joint. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cyst with low T1- and high T2-weighted signal intensity arising from a labral tear at the anterior aspect of the acetabulum. The cyst was connected to the joint space and displaced the femoral nerve to the anteromedial side. The lesion was diagnosed as an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral neuropathy. Because the main symptom was femoral nerve paresthesia and the patient desired a less invasive procedure, arthroscopic labral repair was performed to stop synovial fluid flow to the paralabral cyst that was causing the femoral nerve paresthesia. After surgery, the cyst and femoral nerve paresthesia disappeared. At the 18-month follow-up, the patient had no recurrence. There have been several reports of neurovascular compression caused by the cyst around the hip joint. To the authors' knowledge, only 3 cases of acetabular paralabral cysts causing sciatica have been reported. The current patient appears to represent a rare case of an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral nerve paresthesia. The authors suggest that arthroscopic labral repair for an acetabular paralabral cyst causing neuropathy can be an option for patients who desire a less invasive procedure. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Transcriptional Profiling of Synovial Macrophages Using Minimally Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Synovial Biopsies in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mandelin, Arthur M; Homan, Philip J; Shaffer, Alexander M; Cuda, Carla M; Dominguez, Salina T; Bacalao, Emily; Carns, Mary; Hinchcliff, Monique; Lee, Jungwha; Aren, Kathleen; Thakrar, Anjali; Montgomery, Anna B; Bridges, S Louis; Bathon, Joan M; Atkinson, John P; Fox, David A; Matteson, Eric L; Buckley, Christopher D; Pitzalis, Costantino; Parks, Deborah; Hughes, Laura B; Geraldino-Pardilla, Laura; Ike, Robert; Phillips, Kristine; Wright, Kerry; Filer, Andrew; Kelly, Stephen; Ruderman, Eric M; Morgan, Vince; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Misharin, Alexander V; Budinger, G Scott; Bartom, Elizabeth T; Pope, Richard M; Perlman, Harris; Winter, Deborah R

    2018-06-01

    Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers for predicting therapeutic response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The synovium may unlock critical information for determining efficacy, since a reduction in the numbers of sublining synovial macrophages remains the most reproducible biomarker. Thus, a clinically actionable method for the collection of synovial tissue, which can be analyzed using high-throughput strategies, must become a reality. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of utilizing synovial biopsies as a precision medicine-based approach for patients with RA. Rheumatologists at 6 US academic sites were trained in minimally invasive ultrasound-guided synovial tissue biopsy. Biopsy specimens obtained from patients with RA and synovial tissue from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were subjected to histologic analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). An optimized protocol for digesting synovial tissue was developed to generate high-quality RNA-seq libraries from isolated macrophage populations. Associations were determined between macrophage transcriptional profiles and clinical parameters in RA patients. Patients with RA reported minimal adverse effects in response to synovial biopsy. Comparable RNA quality was observed from synovial tissue and isolated macrophages between patients with RA and patients with OA. Whole tissue samples from patients with RA demonstrated a high degree of transcriptional heterogeneity. In contrast, the transcriptional profile of isolated RA synovial macrophages highlighted different subpopulations of patients and identified 6 novel transcriptional modules that were associated with disease activity and therapy. Performance of synovial tissue biopsies by rheumatologists in the US is feasible and generates high-quality samples for research. Through the use of cutting-edge technologies to analyze synovial biopsy specimens in conjunction with corresponding clinical

  16. Postural headache in marfan syndrome associated with spinal cysts and liquor hypotension.

    PubMed

    Voermans, N C; Dijk, K G J van; Bos, M M; Geus-Oei, L-F de; Verrips, A; Lindert, E J van

    2009-08-01

    We here report a 13-year-old Marfan patient who suffered from severe, medication-resistant, intermittent headache, which was provoked when getting into an upright position and immediately relieved by lying down or after intravenous rehydration. The postural benefit and the sudden relief after intravenous hydration suggested (intermittent) intracranial hypotension, although a normal opening pressure on lumbar punction was observed and no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage was identified. Imaging studies revealed severe dural ectasia at lumbosacral level, and two intradural cysts and two extradural presacral cysts were detected. Most likely, altered hydrodynamics in intra- and extracranial spinal meningeal cysts caused intermittent CSF hypotension above these cysts, resulting in intermittent intracranial hypotension. Surgical marsupialisation of the intradural cysts proved to be effective. This resulted in a significant reduction of the headache during the clinical follow-up of eight years. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  17. Collagenases in human synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Edward D.; DiBona, Donald R.; Krane, Stephen M.

    1969-01-01

    An enzyme which degrades native collagen at neutral pH has been isolated from cultures of rheumatoid synovium in vitro, but little or no collagenolytic activity has been found in homogenates of fresh rheumatoid synovium. Similar to most other mammalian collagenases this synovial enzyme is readily inhibited by serum proteins. Proteins of synovial fluid are derived largely from serum and synovial fluid from noninflamed joints was found to inhibit synovial collagenase; the inhibitor was destroyed by trypsin, but not by hyaluronidase. Inhibitory activity was reduced in approximately one-half of the fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a total of nine synovial fluids, collagenolytic activity was detectable. This activity was not present in constant amounts in synovial fluids aspirated at different times from the same patient and tended to vary inversely with the titer of inhibitory proteins. The collagenolytic activity in the synovial fluids from different patients was variably inhibited by serum proteins. Two distinct collagenases were detected in some rheumatoid synovial fluids and separated by gel filtration. One, labeled “B” enzyme, with an estimated molecular weight 20,000-25,000 resembled the collagenase obtained from synovial cultures. The other, labeled “A” enzyme degraded collagen fibrils as well as collagen in solution. Disc electrophoresis on acrylamide gels and electron microscopy of segment long spacing (SLS) aggregates of reaction products of the enzymes at 27°C demonstrated that both “A” and “B” enzymes cleaved collagen molecules at a point three-quarters from the amino terminal end of the molecule. Thus collagen degradation in rheumatoid arthritis could result from the operation of these two collagenases. Images PMID:4309955

  18. Cytolytic activity in T cell clones derived from human synovial rheumatoid membrane: inhibition by synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenburg, A M; Van Laar, J M; De Kuiper, P; Daha, M R; Breedveld, F C

    1990-01-01

    A panel of T cell clones was derived from the synovial membrane of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether T cell clones with cytolytic properties were present and whether T cell cytotoxicity was influenced by the presence of synovial fluid. These issues were studied using anti-CD3 and lectin-induced cytotoxicity assays. The majority of the T cell clones derived from the synovial membrane showed cytotoxic properties although non-cytotoxic clones were also found. Three clones (N11, N6 and N15) showed strong cytotoxicity (more than 40% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1) whereas three clones (N16, N4 and N14) were non-cytotoxic (less than 20% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1). The induction of cytotoxicity in the anti-CD3-driven system was shown to be dependent on the dose of anti-CD3 present. When synovial fluid was added to these assays a strong inhibition of cytotoxicity was found. This inhibition of cytotoxicity was found with synovial fluid samples of RA patients, as well as with non-RA synovial fluids. Both anti-CD3 and lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays were strongly inhibited. In conclusion, T cell clones with cytotoxic activity can be isolated from rheumatoid synovial membrane. In the presence of synovial fluid these cytotoxic cells are inhibited to exert their cytotoxic function. PMID:2148285

  19. Giant, Completely Calcified Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst: Report of an Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kevin T.; Owens, Timothy R.; Wang, Teresa S.; Moreno, Jessica R.; Bagley, Jacob H.; Bagley, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To report the case of one patient who developed a giant, completely calcified, juxtafacet cyst. Methods A 57-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressively worsening lower back pain, left leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Imaging showed a giant, completely calcified mass arising from the left L5–S1 facet joint, with coexisting grade I L5 on S1 anterolisthesis. The patient was treated with laminectomy, excision of the mass, and L5–S1 fixation and fusion. Results The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and had complete resolution of her symptoms as of 1-year follow-up. Conclusions When presented with a solid-appearing, calcified mass arising from the facet joint, a completely calcified juxtafacet cyst should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25083359

  20. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bone cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, F M; Algra, P R; Maas, M; Dijkstra, P F; Falke, T H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the contents of intraosseous cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the signal intensity characteristics on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS--The hand or foot joints of nine patients with the cystic form of RA (where the initial radiological abnormality consisted of intraosseous cysts without erosions) were imaged before and after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. A 0.6 unit, T1 weighted spin echo and T2* weighted gradient echo were used to obtain images in at least two perpendicular planes. RESULTS--Most cysts showed a low signal intensity on the non-enhanced T1 weighted (spin echo) images and a high signal intensity on the T2* weighted (gradient echo) images, consistent with a fluid content. No cyst showed an enhancement of signal intensity on the T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA, whereas synovium hyperplasia at the site of bony erosions did show an increased signal intensity after Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance imaging detected more cysts (as small as 2 mm) than plain films, and the cysts were located truly intraosseously. In six patients no other joint abnormalities were identified by magnetic resonance imaging; the three other patients also showed, after Gd-DTPA administration, an enhanced synovium at the site of bony erosions. CONCLUSIONS--It is suggested that intraosseous bone cysts in patients with RA do not contain hyperaemic synovial proliferation. The bone cysts in patients with the cystic form of RA may be the only joint abnormality. Images PMID:8257207

  1. The unique case of foot drop secondary to a large ovarian cyst.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maleeha; Kumar, Aditaya; Thomson, Simon

    2014-08-01

    We describe the unique case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with right leg radiculopathy caused by an ovarian cyst mimicking lumbar pathology. A review of the literature shows that this is a rare case where a histologically confirmed benign ovarian cystadenoma (of indeterminate type) is shown to cause foot drop and radiculopathy.

  2. Melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Samet, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon, sporadic, sclerosing bone lesion that may affect the adjacent soft tissues. It has been associated with many entities such as osteopoikilosis, soft tissue vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue tumors, nephrotic syndrome, segmental limb contractures, osteosarcoma, desmoid tumor, and mesenteric fibromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign neoplasia of the hyaline cartilage presenting as nodules in the subsynovial tissue of a joint or tendon sheath. The intra-articular extension of melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis has not been reported before. In this article, the authors describe an unusual case mimicking synovial chondromatosis arising as a result of melorheostosis and their characteristic imaging findings.

  3. Synovial volume vs synovial measurements from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI as measures of response in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gait, A D; Hodgson, R; Parkes, M J; Hutchinson, C E; O'Neill, T W; Maricar, N; Marjanovic, E J; Cootes, T F; Felson, D T

    2016-08-01

    Synovium is increasingly a target of osteoarthritis (OA) treatment, yet its optimal measurement is unclear. Using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI in knee OA patients before and after intraarticular steroid injection, we compared the responsiveness of static synovial volume measures to measures of dynamic changes in synovial enhancement, changes that are strongly related to synovial vascularity. Ninety three patients underwent DCE-MRI before and 1-2 weeks after intra-articular injection of 80 mg methylprednisolone. Synovium was segmented and volume, relative enhancement rate (RER), maximum relative enhancement (REmax), late relative enhancement (RElate) and pharmacokinetic parameters (K(trans), ve) were calculated. KOOS (​knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score) pain score was recorded before and after injection. Standardized change scores were calculated for each parameter. Linear regression and Pearson's correlations were used to investigate the relationship between change in MRI parameters and change in pain. The change in standardized score for the measures of synovial enhancement, RElate and REmax were -0.58 (95% CI -0.79 to -0.37) and -0.62 (95% CI -0.83 to -0.41) respectively, whereas the score for synovial volume was -0.30 (-0.52 to -0.09). Further, change in knee pain correlated more strongly with changes in enhancement (for both REmax and RElate, r = -0.27 (95% CI -0.45 to -0.07)) than with changes in synovial volume -0.15 (-0.35 to 0.05). This study suggests DCE-MRI derived measures of synovial enhancement may be more sensitive to the response to treatment and more strongly associated with changes in pain than synovial volume and may be better outcomes for assessment of structural effects of treatment in OA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone cysts after osteochondral allograft repair of cartilage defects in goats suggest abnormal interaction between subchondral bone and overlying synovial joint tissues.

    PubMed

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  5. Bone Cysts After Osteochondral Allograft Repair of Cartilage Defects in Goats Suggest Abnormal Interaction Between Subchondral Bone and Overlying Synovial Joint Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCA) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12 months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCA and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral (ScB) and trabecular (TB) bone structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCA was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCA was lower than Non-Op and other OCA. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCA did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCA contained “basal” cysts, localized to deeper regions, some “subchondral” cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  6. A New Classification for Pathologies of Spinal Meninges-Part 2: Primary and Secondary Intradural Arachnoid Cysts.

    PubMed

    Klekamp, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are rare causes of radiculopathy or myelopathy. Treatment options include resection, fenestration, or cyst drainage. To classify intradural spinal arachnoid cysts and present results of their treatment. Among 1519 patients with spinal space occupying lesions, 130 patients demonstrated intradural arachnoid cysts. Neuroradiological and surgical features were reviewed and clinical data analyzed. Twenty-one patients presented arachnoid cysts as a result of an inflammatory leptomeningeal reaction related to meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intrathecal injections, intradural surgery, or trauma, ie, secondary cysts. For the remaining 109 patients, no such history could be elucidated, ie, primary cysts. Forty-six percent of primary and 86% of secondary cysts were associated with syringomyelia. Patients presented after an average history of 53 ± 88 months. There were 122 thoracic and 7 lumbar cysts plus 1 cervical cyst. Fifty-nine patients with primary and 15 patients with secondary cysts underwent laminotomies with complete or partial cyst resection and duraplasty. Mean follow-up was 57 ± 52 months. In the first postoperative year, profound improvements for primary cysts were noted, in contrast to marginal changes for secondary cysts. Progression-free survival for 10 years following surgery was determined as 83% for primary compared to 15% for secondary cysts. Despite differences in clinical presentation, progression-free survival was almost identical for patients with or without syringomyelia. Complete or partial resection leads to favorable short- and long-term results for primary arachnoid cysts. For secondary cysts, surgery can only provide clinical stabilization for a limited time due to the often extensive arachnoiditis. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  7. Analysis of lactate concentrations in canine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Proot, J L J; de Vicente, F; Sheahan, D E

    2015-01-01

    To report synovial fluid lactate concentrations in normal and pathological canine joints. Controlled, prospective study. Lactate was measured in synovial fluid using a hand-held meter and the rest of the fluid was sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis. Samples were divided into four groups; group 1: control, group 2: osteoarthritis, group 3: immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis, and group 4: septic arthritis. Statistical analysis was performed to compare lactate concentrations between the four groups and to examine the predictive value of lactate in the diagnosis of septic arthritis. A correlation was sought between synovial fluid lactate and synovial fluid total nucleated cell count and total protein. Seventy-four samples were investigated from 55 dogs. Statistical analysis found that lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the septic arthritis group than in each of the other three groups. No significant correlation could be found between synovial fluid lactate concentrations and synovial fluid total nucleated cell count or synovial fluid total protein. Lactate concentration was found to be a useful predictor of septic arthritis, with a low concentration pointing towards exclusion rather than a high concentration to the diagnosis of septic arthritis. Synovial fluid lactate concentration is not a good marker for osteoarthritis or immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis, but it is significantly increased in septic arthritis and could help the clinician in ruling out this condition in a quick and cost-effective way.

  8. A rare case of osteoblastoma associated to aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Marco; Melloni, Ilaria; Fiaschi, Pietro; Consales, Alessandro; Piatelli, Gianluca; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Gandolfo, Carlo; Cama, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a rare bone tumour. It is occasionally associated with an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Several treatment strategies can be adopted. We report a challenging case of an osteoblastoma associated with ABC of the lumbar spine in a 2-year-old boy. The pathogenesis and the critical management of the disease are discussed.

  9. Metastatic synovial sarcoma of the scalp: Case report.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Dylan C; Britt, Christopher J; Pflum, Zachary E; Rush, Patrick S; Hartig, Gregory K

    2016-02-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a malignant tumor of soft tissue that is rarely found in the head and neck. Even less common are metastasis within the head and neck. We describe a case of a delayed metastatic synovial sarcoma to the scalp. A man who had been diagnosed and treated 16 years previously for monophasic synovial sarcoma of the groin, presented with a new scalp lesion confirmed to be metastatic monophasic synovial sarcoma. Wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) were performed and adjuvant radiation therapy was deferred. A positron emission tomography (PET)/CT was obtained 3 months after surgery and showed no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease. This case report describes a rare case of synovial sarcoma metastasizing to the scalp. The genetic, histopathologic, and clinical features of synovial sarcoma are reviewed with a focus on their manifestation and management within the head and neck. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Synovial osteochondromatosis involvement in post-traumatic ankle injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel K; Louk, Louis; Bell, Bryan L

    2008-01-01

    Ankle involvement by synovial chondromatosis is unusual. It is unknown whether a post-traumatic event to the ankle induces the formation and development of these lesions. Synovial osteochondromatosis associated with post-traumatic ankle events are rare but suggest trauma to the synovial tissues as being causative, although this has never been statistically confirmed owing to the lack of reports and frequency. We report a case of primary synovial osteochondromatosis involving the tibiotalar joint with painful symptoms after a history of ankle injury, including magnetic resonance imaging findings of this unusual condition.

  11. Intraarticular glucocorticoid treatment reduces inflammation in synovial cell infiltrations more efficiently than in synovial blood vessels.

    PubMed

    af Klint, Erik; Grundtman, Cecilia; Engström, Marianne; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Makrygiannakis, Dimitrios; Klareskog, Lars; Andersson, Ulf; Ulfgren, Ann-Kristin

    2005-12-01

    To investigate whether intraarticular (IA) glucocorticoid (GC) therapy diminishes synovial cell infiltration, vascularity, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecule levels in patients with chronic arthritides. Thirty-one patients with chronic arthritides received a single IA injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide to treat active large-joint inflammation. Synovial biopsy specimens were obtained with arthroscopic guidance before and 9-15 days after injection. The presence of T lymphocytes, macrophages, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the pan-endothelial marker CD31, and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) was studied by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. IA GC treatment resulted in good clinical response in 29 of 31 joints. After therapeutic intervention, the number of synovial T lymphocytes declined, whereas the number of macrophages remained unchanged. Overall synovial protein expression of TNF, IL-1beta, extranuclear HMGB-1, VEGF, and ICAM-1 was reduced at followup tissue sampling, while no significant effects were observed regarding vascularity. In contrast, expression of IL-1alpha, VEGF, and cytoplasmic HMGB-1 protein in vascular endothelial cells was not affected. GC therapy down-regulated levels of messenger RNA encoding IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, but not TNF or HMGB-1. Synovial cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression were affected in a multifaceted manner by IA GC treatment. Marked reduction of synovial T lymphocytes, TNF, IL-1beta, extranuclear HMGB-1, ICAM-1, and VEGF occurred in association with beneficial clinical effects. Unexpectedly, macrophage infiltration and proinflammatory endothelial cytokine expression remained unchanged. These findings may reflect mechanisms controlling the transiency

  12. Synovial sarcoma of nerve.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Bernd W; Amrami, Kimberly K; Folpe, Andrew L; Silva, Ana I; Edgar, Mark A; Woodruff, James M; Levi, Allan D; Spinner, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    Tumors of peripheral nerve are largely neuroectodermal in nature and derived from 2 elements of nerve, Schwann or perineurial cells. In contrast, mesenchymal tumors affecting peripheral nerve are rare and are derived mainly from epineurial connective tissue. The spectrum of the latter is broad and includes lipoma, vascular neoplasms, hematopoietic tumors, and even meningioma. Of malignant peripheral nerve neoplasms, the vast majority are primary peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Malignancies of mesenchymal type are much less common. To date, only 12 cases of synovial sarcoma of nerve have been described. Whereas in the past, parallels were drawn between synovial sarcoma and malignant glandular schwannoma, an uncommon form of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, molecular genetics have since clarified the distinction. Herein, we report 10 additional examples of molecularly confirmed synovial sarcoma, all arising within minor or major nerves. Affecting 7 female and 3 male patients, 4 tumors occurred in pediatric patients. Clinically and radiologically, most lesions were initially thought to be benign nerve sheath tumors. On reinterpretation of imaging, they were considered indeterminate in nature with some features suspicious for malignancy. Synovial sarcoma of nerve, albeit rare, seems to behave in a manner similar to its more common, soft tissue counterpart. Those affecting nerve have a variable prognosis. Definitive recommendations regarding surgery and adjuvant therapies await additional reports and long-term follow-up. The literature is reviewed and a meta-analysis is performed with respect to clinicopathologic features versus outcome. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Basic radiological assessment of synovial diseases: a pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Aynur; Çeltikçi, Pınar; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif

    2017-01-01

    The synovium is a specialized tissue lining the synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths of the body. It is affected by various localized or systemic disorders. Synovial diseases can be classified as inflammatory, infectious, degenerative, traumatic, hemorrhagic, and neoplastic. Damage in other intraarticular structures, particularly cartilages, generally occurs as a part of pathologic processes involving the synovium, leading to irreversible joint destruction. Imaging has an essential role in the early detection of synovial diseases prior to irreversible joint damage. Obtaining and understanding characteristic imaging findings of synovial diseases enables a proper diagnosis for early treatment. This article focuses on the recent literature that is related with the role of imaging in synovial disease. PMID:28638696

  14. Osteoarthritis screening using Raman spectroscopy of dried human synovial fluid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.

  15. Synovial osteochondromatosis in hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy (Wagner-Stickler syndrome).

    PubMed

    Tins, Bernhard; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor

    2003-05-01

    A case of bilateral synovial osteochondromatosis in a patient with hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy is presented. The osteochondral lesions were largely calcified in one joint and largely chondromatous in the other. Typical features of hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy are reviewed and it is hypothesised that the abnormal collagen in this syndrome is responsible for the development of synovial osteochondromatosis. Synovial manifestations of skeletal dysplasias have to our knowledge not been described previously but we suggest that synovial osteochondromatosis can be the manifestation of an underlying skeletal dysplasia.

  16. The Rheological Properties of the Biopolymers in Synovial Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Wetsch, Julie; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2005-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid and the synovial fluid model indicate that the fluids are highly viscoeleastic and rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  17. Acquired Chiari I Malformation with Syringomyelia Secondary to Colloid Cyst with Hydrocephalus-Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Marabathina, Nageswara R

    2017-12-01

    Acquired Chiari malformation and associated syringomyelia have been previously described following lumbar puncture/drainage, lumboperitoneal shunts, and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage. In addition to these etiologies, space-occupying lesions such as meningiomas, epidermoid cysts, medulloblastomas, and arachnoid cysts are rare causes of acquired Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. We report a rare case of colloid cyst with hydrocephalus causing secondary Chiari malformation with syringomyelia. A 58-year-old lady presented with neck pain and difficulty in walking and numbness of all 4 limbs of 1-year duration. Diagnostics with magnetic resonance imaging of the head and the cervical spine were done in the referring hospital. The patients was then referred with the diagnosis of colloid cyst with hydrocephalus and Chiari malformation 1 with cervicodorsal syringomyelia. She underwent colloid cyst excision through the transcallosal approach. Postoperatively the patient showed improvement in her symptomatology. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine at 6 months' follow-up showed resolved Chiari malformation and resolving syrinx. Colloid cyst with hydrocephalus is a rare cause of secondary Chiari malformation with syringomyelia. Surgical management of the underlying lesion improves acquired Chiari malformation and associated syringomyelia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic particle translation as a surrogate measure for synovial fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Yash Y; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Patel, Neal S; Biedrzycki, Adam H; Yarmola, Elena G; Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos; Allen, Kyle D

    2017-07-26

    The mechanics of synovial fluid vary with disease progression, but are difficult to quantify quickly in a clinical setting due to small sample volumes. In this study, a novel technique to measure synovial fluid mechanics using magnetic nanoparticles is introduced. Briefly, microspheres embedded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed magnetic particles, are distributed through a 100μL synovial fluid sample. Then, a permanent magnet inside a protective sheath is inserted into the synovial fluid sample. Magnetic particles translate toward the permanent magnet and the percentage of magnetic particles collected by the magnet in a given time can be related to synovial fluid viscosity. To validate this relationship, magnetic particle translation was demonstrated in three phases. First, magnetic particle translation was assessed in glycerol solutions with known viscosities, demonstrating that as fluid viscosity increased, magnetic particle translation decreased. Next, the relationship between magnetic particle translation and synovial fluid viscosity was assessed using bovine synovial fluid that was progressively degenerated via ultrasonication. Here, particle collection in a given amount of time increased as fluid degenerated, demonstrating that the relationship between particle collection and fluid mechanics holds in non-Newtonian synovial fluid. Finally, magnetic particle translation was used to assess differences between healthy and OA affected joints in equine synovial fluid. Here, particle collection in a given time was higher in OA joints relative to healthy horses (p<0.001). Combined, these data demonstrate potential viability of magnetic particle translation in a clinical setting to evaluate synovial fluid mechanics in limited volumes of synovial fluid sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound-guided synovial Tru-cut biopsy: indications, technique, and outcome in 111 cases.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Griffith, James F; Lai, Fernand M; Hui, Mamie; Chiu, K H; Lee, Ryan K L; Ng, Alex W H; Leung, Jason

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. Clinical notes, pathology and microbiology reports, ultrasound and other imaging studies of 100 patients who underwent 111 ultrasound-guided synovial biopsies were reviewed. Biopsies were compared with the final clinical diagnosis established after synovectomy (n = 43) or clinical/imaging follow-up (n = 57) (mean 30 months). Other than a single vasovagal episode, no complication of synovial biopsy was encountered. One hundred and seven (96 %) of the 111 biopsies yielded synovium histologically. Pathology ± microbiology findings for these 107 conclusive biopsies comprised synovial tumour (n = 30, 28 %), synovial infection (n = 18, 17 %), synovial inflammation (n = 45, 42 %), including gouty arthritis (n = 3), and no abnormality (n = 14, 13 %). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of synovial biopsy was 99 %, 97 %, and 100 % for synovial tumour; 100 %, 100 %, and 100 % for native joint infection; and 78 %, 45 %, and 100 % for prosthetic joint infection. False-negative synovial biopsy did not seem to be related to antibiotic therapy. Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and reliable technique with a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing synovial tumour and also, most likely, for joint infection. Regarding joint infection, synovial biopsy of native joints seems to have a higher diagnostic yield than that for infected prosthetic joints. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy has high accuracy (99 %) for diagnosing synovial tumour. • It has good accuracy, sensitivity, and high specificity for diagnosis of joint infection. • Synovial biopsy of native joints works better than biopsy of prosthetic joints. • A negative synovial biopsy culture from a native joint largely excludes septic arthritis. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure.

  20. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  1. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-10-07

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth.

  2. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

    2012-05-29

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  3. Pseudogout of the cervical and thoracic spine mimicking infection after lumbar fusion: case report.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Kelly J; Bullis, Carli L; Wanchu, Ajay; Than, Khoi D

    2017-08-01

    Pseudogout is a form of acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease that typically afflicts the elderly. CPPD commonly involves larger joints, such as the knees, wrists, shoulders, and hips, and has been known to involve the spine. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a recent history of lumbar laminectomy and fusion who presented 5 weeks postprocedure with a clinical and radiographic picture consistent with multilevel skip lesions involving the cervical and thoracic spine, thoracic discitis, and epidural abscess. Serial blood cultures and repeat biopsy samples were sterile. Subsequent wrist and ankle erythema, pain, and swelling led to synovial fluid analysis, and pseudogout was diagnosed. She was treated with an interleukin-1 inhibitor with immediate symptom relief. To the authors' knowledge, this is only the second report of spinal pseudogout presenting with a clinical and radiographic picture consistent with discitis and epidural abscess. This report is the first to report skip lesions of pseudogout occurring throughout the spine that are uniquely remote from a recent lumbar surgery.

  4. Sciatica and claudication caused by ganglion cyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wen, Xiaoyu; Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen

    2013-12-15

    Case report. We report a rare case that a ganglion cyst compressed the sciatic nerve and caused sciatica and claudication in a 51-year-old male. Sciatica and claudication commonly occurs in spinal stenosis. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported on sciatica resulting from posterior ganglion cyst of hip. A 51-year-old male had a 2-month history of radiating pain on his right leg. He could only walk 20 to 30 m before stopping and standing to rest for 1 to 3 minutes. Interestingly, he was able to walk longer distances (about 200 m) when walking slowly in small steps, without any rest. He had been treated as a case of lumbar disc herniation, but conservative treatment was ineffective. On buttock examination, a round, hard, and fixative mass was palpated at the exit of the sciatic nerve. MR imaging of hip revealed a multilocular cystic mass located on the posterior aspect of the superior gemellus and obturator internus, compressing the sciatic nerve. On operation, we found that the cyst extended to the superior gemellus and the obturator internus, positioned right at the outlet of the sciatic nerve. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient continued to be symptom free. He returned to comprehensive physical activity with no limitations. For an extraspinal source, a direct compression on the sciatic nerve also resulted in sciatica and claudication. A meticulous physical examination is very important for the differential diagnosis of extraspinal sciatica from spinal sciatica.

  5. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    HS, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A.; Astekar, Madhusudan S.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458

  6. Differences in synovial fluid cytokine levels but not in synovial tissue cell infiltrate between anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibody-positive and –negative rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Comparative data on synovial cell infiltrate and cytokine levels in anti citrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are scarce. Our aim was to analyze synovial cell infiltrate and synovial fluid (SF) levels of cytokines in patients with RA according to the presence or absence of ACPA in serum. Methods A cross-sectional study in a single center including consecutive RA patients was performed. Patients were defined as 'ACPA negative' if serum was negative to two different ACPAs [second generation commercial anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (CCP2) and chimeric fibrin/filaggrin citrullinated antibodies]. Parallel synovial tissue (ST) biopsies and SF were obtained by knee arthroscopy. Synovial cell infiltrate and endothelial cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and SF levels of Th1, Th2, Th17 and pro-inflammatory cytokines by Quantibody(R) Human Array. Results A total of 83 patients underwent arthroscopy, with a mean age of 55.9 ± 12 years, and mean disease duration of 45 months (interquartile range, IQR 10.8 to 122). 62% were female and 77% were ACPA positive. No significant differences were found in clinical variables, acute phase reactants, synovial cell infiltrate or lymphoid neogenesis (LN) between ACPA positive and negative patients. However ACPA positive patients had significantly higher levels of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17 F and CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL-20) than ACPA negative patients. Conclusions In our cohort of patients with RA no significant differences were found in synovial cell infiltrate or synovial LN according to ACPA status. However, ACPA positive patients had higher levels of T-cell derived and pro-inflammatory cytokines than ACPA negative patients. As systemic and local inflammation was similar in the two groups, these findings support a distinct synovial physiopathology. PMID:24485167

  7. Prevalence, location and concurrent diseases of ultrasonographic cyst-like lesions of abdominal lymph nodes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liotta, A; Billen, F; Heimann, M; Hamaide, A; Rizza, M; Etienne, A L; Bolen, G

    2017-04-01

    Lymph nodal cyst-like lesions are occasionally identified during abdominal ultrasound in dogs. However, a study evaluating their prevalence and clinical significance is lacking. The aim of this observational cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence, most common location and concurrent diseases of cyst-like lymph nodes detected during abdominal ultrasound. Affected lymph nodes, patient signalment and concurrent diseases of dogs with cyst-like lymph nodal lesions having undergone abdominal ultrasound over a one-year period were recorded. Twenty-three affected lymph nodes were observed in 17/553 dogs (prevalence=3 per cent). The most commonly affected was the lumbar lymphocenter (7/23), followed by the coeliac (6/23), the cranial mesenteric (5/23) and the iliosacral (5/23). Twenty-three concurrent diseases were diagnosed in 17 dogs, among which 16/23 were non-neoplastic (70 per cent). The most common concurrent disease was renal insufficiency (8/23), followed by neoplasia (7/23), gastroenteropathy (3/23), benign prostatic disease (2/23), pancreatitis (1/23), peritonitis (1/23) and neurological disease (1/23). No statistical correlation existed between cyst-like lymph nodal lesion and a specific neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease. In conclusion, in the present study, cyst-like lymph nodal lesions have a low prevalence, involve different lymphocenters and were found in dogs affected by different diseases, including both non-neoplastic and neoplastic aetiologies. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Synovial sarcoma: a rare presentation of parapharyngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Shaariyah, Mohd Mokhtar; Mazita, Ami; Masaany, Mansor; Razif, Mohd Yunus; Isa, Mohamed Rose; Asma, Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of the head and neck region involving the parapharyngeal space. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma can be very challenging to the pathologists. We present a rare case of parapharyngeal synovial sarcoma in a young female patient who had a two-month history of left cervical intumescent mass at level II. The fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass was proved inconclusive. Transcervical excision of the mass was performed and the first case of parapharyngeal sarcoma was identified in our center by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Repeat imaging revealed residual tumor. The patient successfully underwent a second excision of the residual tumor and received adjuvant radiotherapy.

  9. Modulation of synovial cell function by somatostatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Takeba, Y; Suzuki, N; Takeno, M; Asai, T; Tsuboi, S; Hoshino, T; Sakane, T

    1997-12-01

    To elucidate the role of neurologic, endocrine, and immune system interactions in the development of pathologic responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we studied somatostatin (SOM) production and somatostatin receptor (SOMR) expression in RA synovium and its function in patients with RA. The effects of SOM on proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-8) and collagenase production by RA synovial cells were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their messenger RNA expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using limiting dilutions of the complementary DNA. The expression of SOMR by RA synovial cells was also studied by RT-PCR. Local production of SOM was estimated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Physiologic concentrations (approximately 10(-10)M) of SOM inhibited proliferation of RA synovial cells. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases by RA synovial cells was also modulated by SOM. SOMR subtypes 1 and 2 were expressed on fibroblast-like synovial cells, and the expression of SOMR-2 was up-regulated by proinflammatory cytokine treatment of the synovial cells from patients with RA. RA fibroblast-like cells synthesized SOM by themselves, suggesting that SOM acts as an autocrine regulator of synovial cell function in patients with RA. SOM inhibited aberrant synovial cell function in patients with RA, suggesting possible clinical applications of this neuropeptide.

  10. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  11. Analysis of synovial fluid of the Capybara's stifle joints.

    PubMed

    Brombini, Giovanna C; Rahal, Sheila C; Bergamini, Bruno C S; Lopes, Raimundo S; Santos, Ivan F C; Schimming, Bruno C

    2017-03-01

    Although normal synovial fluid has been well characterized in domestic animals such as dogs, cats, horses, and cows, the available information on larger rodents is scarce. The purpose of the study was to analyze the physical, chemical, and cytologic characteristics of the synovial fluid in stifle joints of Capybaras. Five free-ranging adult female Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), weighing from 37 to 56 kg were used. Synovial fluid was obtained by aspiration of 10 stifle joints. Samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, and cytologic properties. Spontaneous clotting was negative in 9 samples. Most synovial fluids had pH 8, and protein concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 3.6 g/dL. The mucin clot test was good in all 6 samples that were tested. Nucleated cell counts ranged from 140 to 508 cells/μL. Relative differential leukocyte counts demonstrated a predominance of mononuclear cells (97.6%), including 76.2% undifferentiated mononuclear cells, 18.1% macrophages, and 3.66% lymphocytes. Polymorphonuclear cells included 1.83% neutrophils and 0.2% eosinophils. The synovial stifle joint fluid of healthy free-ranging adult Capybaras is clear, colorless, viscous, and with chemical features and cytologic findings similar to those seen in domestic animals. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Lumbar Corsets Can Decrease Lumbar Motion in Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key points Rotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back pain Wearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity. Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  13. Lumbar corsets can decrease lumbar motion in golf swing.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key pointsRotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back painWearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity.Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine.

  14. An investigation of the optical properties of cholesterol crystals in human synovial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, M. M.; Nasonova, V. A.; Konstantinova, A. F.; Chudakov, V. S.; Gaĭnutdinov, R. V.

    2009-05-01

    The synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid diseases has been investigated. The presence of cholesterol crystals in the synovial fluid is revealed by polarization microscopy. A comparative analysis of the composition and properties of synovial fluid and the optical properties of cholesterol crystals is performed. It is established that the size, number, and growth of cholesterol crystals are interrelated to the synovial fluid composition. It is shown that rheumatoid diseases can be accompanied by the formation of cholesterol crystals in the synovial fluid from different joints and in rheumatic nodules. It is shown that all investigated crystals have a significant birefringence.

  15. Mimicry of lyme arthritis by synovial hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Hospach, Toni; Langendörfer, M; Kalle, T V; Tewald, F; Wirth, T; Dannecker, G E

    2011-12-01

    To report on the differential diagnosis of lyme arthritis and synovial hemangioma due to similar clinical and radiological signs and symptoms. A 15-year-old boy presented at the age of 9 with recurrent rather painless swelling of the right knee. Altogether four episodes lasting for 1-2 weeks each occurred over a period of 18 months before medical advice was sought. Physical examination revealed only a slightly limited range of motion. Living in an endemic area of borreliosis, he reported a tick bite 6 months prior to onset of his symptoms with erythema migrans and was treated for 10 days with amoxicillin. Serology revealed two positive unspecific bands in IgG immunoblot (p41 and 66) with slight positivity for ELISA. Ultrasound revealed synovial thickening and increased fluid. Despite the weak positive serology a diagnosis of lyme arthritis could not be excluded and intravenous antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone was started. After two further relapses antiinflammatory therapy including intraarticular steroids were introduced with no long lasting effect. A chronical disease developed with alternate periods of swelling and almost complete remission. Ultrasound as well as MRI demonstrated ongoing signs of synovitis, therefore after further progression, a diagnostic arthroscopy was performed showing an inconspicuous knee joint. A second MRI showed focal suprapatellar enhancement and was followed by open arthrotomy revealing a histopathological proven synovial cavernous juxtaarticular hemangioma. To our knowledge, the differential diagnosis of lyme arthritis and synovial hemangioma has not yet been reported despite obvious clinical similarities. In conclusion, in children and adolescents synovial hemangioma has to be considered in differential diagnosis of recurrent knee swelling. Early diagnosis is important to prevent prolonged suffering from chronic joint swelling with probable joint damages, unnecessary treatment procedures and as well school and sports

  16. Characterisation of lubricin in synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Svala, E; Jin, C; Rüetschi, U; Ekman, S; Lindahl, A; Karlsson, N G; Skiöldebrand, E

    2017-01-01

    The glycoprotein lubricin contributes to the boundary lubrication of the articular cartilage surface. The early events of osteoarthritis involve the superficial layer where lubricin is synthesised. To characterise the glycosylation profile of lubricin in synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis and study secretion and degradation of lubricin in an in vitro inflammation cartilage model. In vitro study. Synovial fluid samples collected from horses with joints with normal articular cartilage and structural osteoarthritic lesions; with and without osteochondral fragments, were analysed for the lubricin glycosylation profiles. Articular cartilage explants were stimulated with or without interleukin-1β for 25 days. Media samples collected at 3-day intervals were analysed by quantitative proteomics, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. O-glycosylation profiles in synovial fluid revealed both Core 1 and 2 O-glycans, with Core 1 O-glycans predominating. Synovial fluid from normal joints (49.5 ± 1.9%) contained significantly lower amounts of monosialylated Core 1 O-glycans compared with joints with osteoarthritis (53.8 ± 7.8%, P = 0.03) or joints with osteochondral fragments (57.3 ± 8.8%, P = 0.001). Additionally, synovial fluid from normal joints (26.7 ± 6.7%) showed higher amounts of disialylated Core 1 O-glycan than from joints with osteochondral fragments (21.2 ± 4.9%, P = 0.03). A C-terminal proteolytic cleavage site in lubricin was found in synovial fluid from normal and osteochondral fragment joints and in media from interleukin-1β stimulated and unstimulated articular cartilage explants. This is the first demonstration of a change in the glycosylation profile of lubricin in synovial fluid from diseased equine joints compared with that from normal joints. We demonstrate an identical proteolytic cleavage site of lubricin both in vitro and in vivo. The reduced sialation of lubricin in synovial fluid from diseased joints may affect the

  17. Ultrastructure of the synovial membrane in seronegative inflammatory arthropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C J; Farr, M; Hollywell, C A; Hawkins, C F; Scott, D L; Walton, K W

    1983-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the synovial membrane has been studied in 6 patients with seronegative inflammatory arthropathies: Reiter's (2), Crohn's (2), Whipple's (1) and Behçet's disease (1). The most striking changes were found in the synovial B cells, many containing abnormally large mitochondria with altered cristae surrounded by fibrillar material. Similar material was present in dilated endoplasmic reticulum which was the probable source of groups of extracellular fibrillar spheroidal bodies. The B cells also contained electron dense granular lysosomes of very variable size which, in common with the abnormal mitochondria, were often associated with bundles of orientated microfilaments and large golgi complexes. Light microscopy of the synovial membrane was consistent with an inflammatory arthritis, as were the high white cell counts in the synovial fluid. Systemic activity in the patients was indicated by raised ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP). Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:6186810

  18. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. Many women have ovarian ... cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ...

  19. Ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Wong, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of synovium is an increasingly performed procedure with a high diagnostic yield. In this review, we discuss the normal synovium, as well as the indications, technique, tissue handling and clinical applications of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. PMID:26581578

  20. [Primary breast synovial sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Cervelló, Clara; Burgués, Octavio

    Primary synovial sarcoma of the breast is very rare. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman, who had previously undergone a radical mastectomy, having been diagnosed with fusocellular breast carcinoma. Histopathology revealed a hypercellular lesion formed by spindle cells with storiform and herringbone patterns. Immunohistochemistry showed strong expression of vimentin and CD99, and focal bcl2, EMA, CK AE1-AE3, actin and desmin, with negativity for S100, CD34, CK7, CK14, CK19, hormone receptors, caldesmon and myosin. Molecular biology revealed the expression of the fusion product of the SS18 and SSX genes, indicative of the translocation t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), which confirmed the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Cho, Eun Yoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Seo, Sung Wook

    2009-11-01

    Many studies have described the diversity of synovial sarcoma in terms of its biological characteristics and clinical features. Moreover, much effort has been expended on the identification of prognostic factors because of unpredictable behaviors of synovial sarcomas. However, with the exception of tumor size, published results have been inconsistent. We attempted to identify independent risk factors using survival analysis. Forty-one consecutive patients with synovial sarcoma were prospectively followed from January 1997 to March 2008. Overall and progression-free survival for age, sex, tumor size, tumor location, metastasis at presentation, histologic subtype, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and resection margin were analyzed, and standard multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate potential prognostic factors. Tumor size (>5 cm), nonlimb-based tumors, metastasis at presentation, and a monophasic subtype were associated with poorer overall survival. Multivariate analysis showed metastasis at presentation and monophasic tumor subtype affected overall survival. For the progression-free survival, monophasic subtype was found to be only 1 prognostic factor. The study confirmed that histologic subtype is the single most important independent prognostic factors of synovial sarcoma regardless of tumor stage.

  2. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of External Auditory Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Krishnannair l L

    2017-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin. Primary synovial sarcoma of the ear is extremely rare and to date only two cases have been published in English medical literature. Though the tumor is reported to have an aggressive nature, early diagnosis and treatment may improve the outcome. Here, we report a rare case of synovial sarcoma of the external auditory canal in an 18-year-old male who was managed by chemotherapy and referred for palliation due to tumor progression. PMID:28948118

  3. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of External Auditory Canal: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Devi, Aarani; Jayakumar, Krishnannair L L

    2017-07-20

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin. Primary synovial sarcoma of the ear is extremely rare and to date only two cases have been published in English medical literature. Though the tumor is reported to have an aggressive nature, early diagnosis and treatment may improve the outcome. Here, we report a rare case of synovial sarcoma of the external auditory canal in an 18-year-old male who was managed by chemotherapy and referred for palliation due to tumor progression.

  4. Beware! A simple renal cyst could be a hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case.

  5. The influence of the acetabular labrum seal, intact articular superficial zone and synovial fluid thixotropy on squeeze-film lubrication of a spherical synovial joint.

    PubMed

    Hlavácek, M

    2002-10-01

    A model of synovial fluid (SF) filtration by articular cartilage (AC) in a step-loaded spherical synovial joint at rest is presented. The effects of joint pathology (such as a depleted acetabular labrum, a depleted cartilage superficial zone consistent with early osteoarthritis and an inflammatory SF) on the squeezed synovial film are also investigated. Biphasic mixture models for AC (ideal fluid and elastic porous transversely isotropic two-layer matrix) and for SF (ideal and thixotropic fluids) are applied and the following results are obtained. If the acetabular labrum is able to seal the pressurised SF between the articular surfaces (as in the normal hip joint), the fluid in the synovial film and in the cartilage within the labral ring is homogeneously pressurised. The articular surfaces remain separated by a fluid film for minutes. If the labrum is destroyed or absent and the SF can escape across the contact edge, the fluid pressure is non-homogeneous and with a small jump at the articular surface at the very moment of load application. The ensuing synovial film filtration by porous cartilage is lower for the normal cartilage (with the intact superficial zone) than if this zone is already depleted or rubbed off as in the early stage of primary osteoarthritis. Compared with the inflammatory (Newtonian) SF, the normal (thixotropic) fluid applies favourably in the squeezed film near the contact centre only, yielding a thicker SF film there, but not affecting the minimum thickness in the fluid film profile at a fixed time. For all that, in the unsealed case for both the normal and pathological joint, the macromolecular concentration of the hyaluronic acid-protein complex in the synovial film quickly increases due to the filtration in the greater part of the contact. A stable synovial gel film, thick on the order of 10(-7)m, protecting the articular surfaces from the intimate contact, is formed within a couple of seconds. Boundary lubrication by the synovial gel is

  6. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2 × 1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner's syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.

  7. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation. PMID:24294394

  8. Synovial tumefactive extramedullary hematopoiesis associated to polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Argüelles Cabrera, Hugo; Carrasco Juan, José Luis; García Castro, María Candelaria; González Gaitano, Manuel; Bonilla Arjona, Alfonso; Díaz-Flores, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 66-year-old male patient with a chronic myeloproliferative type polycythemia vera disorder, who after 2 years of evolution is developing a tumefactive extramedullary hematopoiesis (TEH) located in the synovial of the articulation in the right knee, is described. The tumor histologically consists of a relatively lax and edematous synovial structure diffusely infiltrated by mature and semimature hematopoietic cellular population. The simultaneous study of the bone marrow reveals medullar spaces full of hematopoietic cellularity, with a predominance of megakaryocytic and red series, and with the addition of severe reticulin fibrosis, facts that suggest a progression toward myelofibrosis. The TEH developed in tissues without a reticulum endothelial system is very uncommon. We provide data about the first case located in the synovial membrane and we review the literature regarding this pathologic entity.

  9. Imatinib mesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated proliferation of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sandler, Charlotta; Joutsiniemi, Saima; Lindstedt, Ken A.

    Synovial fibroblast is the key cell type in the growth of the pathological synovial tissue in arthritis. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen for synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of PDGF-receptor signalling by imatinib mesylate (1 {mu}M) completely abrogated the PDGF-stimulated proliferation and inhibited approximately 70% of serum-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Similar extent of inhibition was observed when PDGF was neutralized with anti-PDGF antibodies, suggesting that imatinib mesylate does not inhibit pathways other than those mediated by PDGF-receptors. No signs of apoptosis were detected in synovial fibroblasts cultured inmore » the presence of imatinib. These results suggest that imatinib mesylate specifically inhibits PDGF-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, and that inhibition of PDGF-receptors could represent a feasible target for novel antirheumatic therapies.« less

  10. Application of global metabolomic profiling of synovial fluid for osteoarthritis biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Alyssa K; Rawle, Rachel A; Adams, Erik; Greenwood, Mark C; Bothner, Brian; June, Ronald K

    2018-05-05

    Osteoarthritis affects over 250 million individuals worldwide. Currently, there are no options for early diagnosis of osteoarthritis, demonstrating the need for biomarker discovery. To find biomarkers of osteoarthritis in human synovial fluid, we used high performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry for global metabolomic profiling. Metabolites were extracted from human osteoarthritic (n = 5), rheumatoid arthritic (n = 3), and healthy (n = 5) synovial fluid, and a total of 1233 metabolites were detected. Principal components analysis clearly distinguished the metabolomic profiles of diseased from healthy synovial fluid. Synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients contained expected metabolites consistent with the inflammatory nature of the disease. Similarly, unsupervised clustering analysis found that each disease state was associated with distinct metabolomic profiles and clusters of co-regulated metabolites. For osteoarthritis, co-regulated metabolites that were upregulated compared to healthy synovial fluid mapped to known disease processes including chondroitin sulfate degradation, arginine and proline metabolism, and nitric oxide metabolism. We utilized receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the diagnostic value of each metabolite and identified 35 metabolites as potential biomarkers of osteoarthritis, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >0.9. These metabolites included phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, ceramides, myristate derivatives, and carnitine derivatives. This pilot study provides strong justification for a larger cohort-based study of human osteoarthritic synovial fluid using global metabolomics. The significance of these data is the demonstration that metabolomic profiling of synovial fluid can identify relevant biomarkers of joint disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metastatic carcinoma presenting as hind-limb lameness: diagnosis by synovial fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Meinkoth, J H; Rochat, M C; Cowell, R L

    1997-01-01

    A dog presented for evaluation of left hind-limb lameness and pain associated with manipulation of the tail. Synovial metastasis of a carcinoma was diagnosed by joint fluid examination. A primary bronchiolar-alveolar carcinoma with widespread (including synovial and skeletal) metastases was diagnosed on postmortem examination. Metastasis to synovial surfaces is uncommon, but when it occurs, the metastasis-induced arthritis may be the initial presenting complaint for which medical attention is sought. Although rarely reported, cytological examination of synovial fluid may be diagnostic. This paper presents an interesting clinical case and reviews the literature concerning metastatic disease of the synovium.

  12. A Systems Biology Approach to Synovial Joint Lubrication in Health, Injury, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Alexander Y.; McCarty, William J.; Masuda, Koichi; Firestein, Gary S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The synovial joint contains synovial fluid (SF) within a cavity bounded by articular cartilage and synovium. SF is a viscous fluid that has lubrication, metabolic, and regulatory functions within synovial joints. SF contains lubricant molecules, including proteoglycan-4 and hyaluronan. SF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with secreted contributions from cell populations lining and within the synovial joint space, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Maintenance of normal SF lubricant composition and function are important for joint homeostasis. In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint injury, changes in lubricant composition and function accompany alterations in the cytokine and growth factor environment and increased fluid and molecular transport through joint tissues. Thus, understanding the synovial joint lubrication system requires a multi-faceted study of the various parts of the synovial joint and their interactions. Systems biology approaches at multiple scales are being used to describe the molecular, cellular, and tissue components and their interactions that comprise the functioning synovial joint. Analyses of the transcriptome and proteome of SF, cartilage, and synovium suggest that particular molecules and pathways play important roles in joint homeostasis and disease. Such information may be integrated with physicochemical tissue descriptions to construct integrative models of the synovial joint that ultimately may explain maintenance of health, recovery from injury, or development and progression of arthritis. PMID:21826801

  13. Biphasic synovial sarcoma in the cervical spine: Case report.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Stephen M; Stahl, Michael J

    2011-05-23

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of soft tissue that typically arising near large joints of the upper and lower extremities in young adult males. Only 3% of these neoplasms have been found to arise in the head and neck region. To our knowledge, there are limited reports in the literature of this neoplasm in the cervical spine.A case of biphasic synovial sarcoma of the cervical spine is reviewed. A 29 year-old male presented with pain on the left side of the cervical spine. Physical examination revealed a global loss of cervical motion and large, palpable mass in the left paravertebral area. The long-delayed Magnetic Resonance (MR) scan revealed a soft tissue mass measuring 8.3 centimeters (cm) × 5.7 cm that was surgically removed. A malignant biphasic synovial sarcoma was diagnosed on pathologic examination.The clinical and imaging findings of an atypically located synovial sarcoma are reviewed. This case report emphasizes the consequences of a limited differential diagnosis, prolonged treatment and the failure to perform timely diagnostic imaging in the presence of a paraspinal mass.

  14. Synovial chondromatosis in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Howard, M O; Nieves, M A; Miles, K G

    1996-04-01

    A case of synovial chondromatosis in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was found in June 1993. In radiographs of bilateral swelling of the scapulohumeral joint we observed numerous mineralized foci in the soft tissue. The foci were identified by light microscopy as cartilaginous metaplasia. This is the first report of synovial chondromatosis in an owl.

  15. Monophasic Synovial Sarcoma Presenting as Mitral Valve Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chokesuwattanaskul, Warangkana; Terrell, Jason; Jenkins, Leigh Ann

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old man who experienced progressive left-sided chest pain and 2 episodes of near-syncope. Studies revealed a 15-cm mass in the upper left lung, a 10-cm mass in the medial base of the left lung, and a 5-cm left atrial mass that involved the left lung, infiltrated the left pulmonary vein, and prolapsed into the mitral valve, causing intermittent obstruction. The patient underwent surgical excision of the left atrial tumor. Pathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma. To our knowledge, this is only the 3rd report of left atrial invasion and resultant mitral valve obstruction from a synovial sarcoma that infiltrated the pulmonary vein. We believe that this is the 1st documented case of a metastatic left atrial synovial sarcoma in monophasic form. PMID:20844626

  16. Expression of Connexin 43 in Synovial Tissue of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    MATSUKI, Tomohiro; TSUCHIDA, Shinji; TERAUCHI, Ryu; ODA, Ryo; FUJIWARA, Hiroyoshi; MAZDA, Osam; KUBO, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to identify the distribution and expression level of connexin 43 (Cx43) in synovial tissue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients and methods The expression of Cx43 in synovial tissue from eight patients with RA (2 males, 6 females; mean age 59.5±2.7 years; range 52 to 71 years), five patients with osteoarthritis (2 males, 3 females; mean age 68.4±2.7 years; range 61 to 81 years), and one normal female subject (mean age 61 year) was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry of tissue sections. Induction of Cx43 following stimulation of human RA synovial fibroblasts with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) cultures was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The effect of small interfering ribonucleic acid targeting Cx43 (siCx43) on the expression of TNF-a and interleukin-6 was examined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Connexin 43 was highly expressed in RA synovial tissue, which also expressed TNF-a, but was expressed lower in osteoarthritis and normal synovial tissue. Expression of Cx43 was markedly up-regulated in RA synovial fibroblasts after stimulation with TNF-a. The over-expression of pro- inflammatory cytokines was suppressed by transfection of siCx43. Conclusion This study shows that Cx43 is expressed in RA synovial tissue and that its expression is induced by stimulation with TNF-a. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited by transfection of siCx43. Cx43 may be a novel marker of inflammation in RA synovial tissue. PMID:29900991

  17. Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. PMID:25674524

  18. [Lumbar spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Seichi, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar spondylosis is a chronic, noninflammatory disease caused by degeneration of lumbar disc and/or facet joints. The etiology of lumbar spondylosis is multifactorial. Patients with lumbar spondylosis complain of a broad variety of symptoms including discomfort in the low back lesion, whereas some of them have radiating leg pain or neurologenic intermittent claudication (lumbar spinal stenosis). The majority of patients with spondylosis and stenosis of the lumbosacral spine can be treated nonsurgically. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and COX-2 inhibitors are helpful in controlling symptoms. Prostaglandin, epidural injection, and transforaminal injection are also helpful for leg pain and intermittent claudication. Operative therapy for spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis is reserved for patients who are totally incapacitated by their condition.

  19. Assessment of Lumbar Lordosis and Lumbar Core Strength in Information Technology Professionals.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Roma Satish; Nagrale, Sanket; Dabadghav, Rachana; Rairikar, Savita; Shayam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-06-01

    Observational study. To correlate lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in information technology (IT) professionals. IT professionals have to work for long hours in a sitting position, which can affect lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength. Flexicurve was used to assess the lumbar lordosis, and pressure biofeedback was used to assess the lumbar core strength in the IT professionals. All subjects, both male and female, with and without complaint of low back pain and working for two or more years were included, and subjects with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity were excluded from the study. Analysis was done using Pearson's correlation. For the IT workers, no correlation was seen between lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength (r=-0.04); however, a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain (r=-0.12), while there was no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core in IT people who had no complains of pain (r=0.007). The study shows that there is no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in IT professionals, but a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain.

  20. Utility of percutaneous joint aspiration and synovial biopsy in identifying culture-positive infected hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cross, M Connor; Kransdorf, Mark J; Chivers, F Spencer; Lorans, Roxanne; Roberts, Catherine C; Schwartz, Adam J; Beauchamp, Christopher P

    2014-02-01

    Percutaneous synovial biopsy has recently been reported to have a high diagnostic value in the preoperative identification of periprosthetic infection of the hip. We report our experience with this technique in the evaluation of patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty, comparing results of preoperative synovial biopsy with joint aspiration in identifying an infected hip arthroplasty by bacteriological analysis. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the 110 most recent revision hip arthroplasties in which preoperative synovial biopsy and joint aspiration were both performed. Revision surgery for these patients occurred during the period from September 2005 to March 2012. Using this study group, results from preoperative cultures were compared with preoperative laboratory studies and the results of intraoperative cultures. Synovial aspiration was done using an 18- or 20-gauge spinal needle. Synovial biopsy was done coaxially following aspiration using a 22-gauge Chiba needle or 21-gauge Sure-Cut needle. Standard microbiological analysis was performed on preoperative synovial fluid aspirate and synovial biopsy. Intraoperative tissue biopsy bacteriological analysis results at surgical revision were accepted as the "gold standard" for the presence or absence of infection. Seventeen of 110 (15 %) of patients had intraoperative culture-positive periprosthetic infection. Of these 17 cases, there were ten cases where either the synovial fluid aspiration and/or the synovial biopsy were true positive (sensitivity of 59 %, specificity of 100 %, positive predictive value of 100 % and accuracy of 94 %). There were seven cases where aspiration and biopsy results were both falsely negative, but no false-positive results. Similar results were found for synovial fluid aspiration alone. The results of synovial biopsy alone resulted in the identification of seven infected joints with no false-positive result (sensitivity of 41 %, specificity of 100 %, positive

  1. Hip Synovial Fluid Cell Counts in Children From a Lyme Disease Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Dart, Arianna H; Michelson, Kenneth A; Aronson, Paul L; Garro, Aris C; Lee, Thomas J; Glerum, Kimberly M; Nigrovic, Peter A; Kocher, Mininder S; Bachur, Richard G; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2018-05-01

    Patients with septic hip arthritis require surgical drainage, but they can be difficult to distinguish from patients with Lyme arthritis. The ability of synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) counts to help discriminate between septic and Lyme arthritis of the hip has not been investigated. We assembled a retrospective cohort of patients ≤21 years of age with hip monoarticular arthritis and a synovial fluid culture obtained who presented to 1 of 3 emergency departments located in Lyme disease endemic areas. Septic arthritis was defined as a positive synovial fluid culture result or synovial fluid pleocytosis (WBC count ≥50 000 cells per µL) with a positive blood culture result. Lyme arthritis was defined as positive 2-tiered Lyme disease serology results and negative synovial fluid bacterial culture results. All other patients were classified as having other arthritis. We compared median synovial fluid WBC counts by arthritis type. Of the 238 eligible patients, 26 (11%) had septic arthritis, 32 (13%) had Lyme arthritis, and 180 (76%) had other arthritis. Patients with septic arthritis had a higher median synovial fluid WBC count (126 130 cells per µL; interquartile range 83 303-209 332 cells per µL) than patients with Lyme arthritis (53 955 cells per µL; interquartile range 33 789-73 375 cells per µL). Eighteen patients (56%) with Lyme arthritis had synovial fluid WBC counts ≥50 000 cells per µL. Of the 94 patients who underwent surgical drainage, 13 were later diagnosed with Lyme arthritis. In Lyme disease endemic areas, synovial fluid WBC counts cannot always help differentiate septic from Lyme arthritis. Rapid Lyme diagnostics could help avoid unnecessary operative procedures in patients with Lyme arthritis. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Odontogenic Cysts and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth Ann; Collins, Bobby M

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rathke's cleft cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Steven P.; Bailey, Orville T.

    1972-01-01

    A 29 year old female with a chiasmal syndrome secondary to a Rathke's cleft cyst is described. The histology and pathogenesis of these rare cysts are discussed, contrasting them with other hypophysial cysts. Images PMID:4538890

  5. Bacteria associated with cysts of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    PubMed

    Nour, Sarah M; Lawrence, John R; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D W; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(5) bacteria (mean +/- standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and STREPTOMYCES: A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents.

  6. Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 ± 0.5) × 105 bacteria (mean ± standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and Streptomyces. A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:12514048

  7. [Passage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents across the synovial membrane].

    PubMed

    Netter, P; Bannwarth, B; Monot, C; Royer, R J; Gaucher, A

    1983-09-24

    The therapeutic effectiveness of non-steroid anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs is partly determined by their passage across the synovial membrane. The synovium can be compared to a double barrier the permeability of which to NSAI drugs depends on the degree of inflammation of the joint and on the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs (lipophilia, pka, protein-binding). A few hours after one single systemic dose, concentrations in the synovial fluid are higher than in serum. During chronic administration, concentrations of NSAI drugs with a short half-life vary less in synovial fluid than in serum. During steady state, free fractions of NSAI drugs with prolonged half-life may be similar in both compartments.

  8. Expression of Ki-67 in odontogenic cysts: A comparative study between odontogenic keratocysts, radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior.

  9. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  10. Raman spectroscopy of synovial fluid as a tool for diagnosing osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Raaii, Farhang; Jacobson, Jon A.; Miller, Bruce S.; Urquhart, Andrew G.; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-05-01

    For many years, viscosity has been the primary method used by researchers in rheumatology to assess the physiochemical properties of synovial fluid in both normal and osteoarthritic patients. However, progress has been limited by the lack of methods that provide multiple layers of information, use small sample volumes, and are rapid. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the biochemical composition of synovial fluid collected from 40 patients with clinical evidence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) at the time of elective surgical treatment. Severity of knee osteoarthritis was assessed by a radiologist using Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scores from knee joint x rays, while light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to examine synovial fluid (SF) aspirates (2 to 10 μL), deposited on fused silica slides. We show that Raman bands used to describe protein secondary structure and content can be used to detect changes in synovial fluid from osteoarthritic patients. Several Raman band intensity ratios increased significantly in spectra collected from synovial fluid in patients with radiological evidence of moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis damage. These ratios can be used to provide a ``yes/no'' damage assessment. These studies provide evidence that Raman spectroscopy would be a suitable candidate in the evaluation of joint damage in knee osteoarthritis patients.

  11. Synovial sarcoma of the temporomandibular joint and infratemporal fossa.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Fuminori; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    Synovial sarcoma in the head and neck region is rare, and is difficult to resect with adequate safety margins because of its anatomical complexity. We herein report our experiences with synovial sarcoma in this region, and review the literature regarding the management of such cases. We retrospectively examined four cases of synovial sarcoma arising from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area and infratemporal fossa. Only one patient remains alive without disease, while the other three patients have died. The local control of these tumors has improved because of the progress in the surgical operation methods, while it is expected that there is still a high rate of deaths due to distant metastasis increase. The development of strong chemotherapy is needed for the use after the initial treatment and surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.

  13. Ceramic debris in hip prosthesis: correlation between synovial fluid and joint capsule.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Dalila; Stea, Susanna; Beraudi, Alina; Montesi, Monica; Squarzoni, Stefano; Toni, Aldo

    2013-05-01

    Detection of ceramic particles in synovial fluids allows early diagnosis of ceramic damage, but there is no evidence of a relationship between ceramic debris in the articular space and in the joint capsule. The aim of the present study is to verify if the particles isolated in the synovial fluid are comparable with those stored in the capsular tissue. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Both synovial fluid and capsular samples were collected during revision surgery and ceramic particles were isolated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. It resulted a significant correlation between the samples couples (18 out of 21). This study confirms that the synovial fluid analysis can give a clear definition of the presence of particles in the joint capsule. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Giant Solitary Synovial Osteochondroma of the Subtalar Joint.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly progressing calcified mass was found in the left sinus tarsi in a 12-year-old female after a trivial ankle sprain. The lesion mimicked an aggressive lesion clinically and radiographically. Ultrasound-guided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a synovial chondroma. Excision of the tumor and partial synovectomy were performed. The histologic diagnosis was a solitary synovial osteochondroma. The condition had not recurred after a follow-up period of 12 months. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Articular cartilage regenerative therapy with synovial mesenchymal stem cells in a pig model].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomomasa; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    Current therapies for cartilage injury remain some issues such as the quality of regenerated cartilage and its invasiveness. We have been trying to develop a low invasive treatment for cartilage regeneration with synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) . Here we introduce our preclinical study with miniature pigs whose knee joints are similar to those of humans in terms of size and cartilage metabolism. Cartilage defect was created at the weight bearing area of both porcine knee joints. Synovial MSCs were transplanted by delivering a synovial MSC suspension onto the cartilage defect of the one side and the knee was kept immobilized for 10 minutes. Sequential arthroscopic and histological observations showed the contribution of synovial MSCs after transplantation, and a better hyaline cartilaginous-tissue regeneration in the MSC-treated knees than in the non-treated control knees at 12 weeks. Based on this and other preclinical studies, we have started a clinical study for cartilage regeneration with autologous synovial MSCs.

  16. Expression of Ki-67 in odontogenic cysts: A comparative study between odontogenic keratocysts, radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Materials and Method: In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Observations and Results: Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. Conclusion: The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. PMID:29731577

  17. Adrenomedullin Regulates IL-1β Gene Expression in F4/80+ Macrophages during Synovial Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shotaro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Inoue, Gen; Aikawa, Jun; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Takaso, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes; however, the role and expression of AM in synovial inflammation have not been determined. To investigate the expression and role of AM in inflamed synovial tissue (ST), the gene expression profiles of AM in the ST, including synovial macrophages and fibroblasts, of a murine patellar surgical dislocation model were characterized. In addition, the effects of interleukin- (IL-) 1β and AM in cultured synovial cells were also examined. CD11c+ macrophages were found to be elevated in ST of the surgically dislocated patella. Higher gene expression of CD11c, IL-1β, AM, receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 (RAMP2), and 3 (RAMP3) was also observed in ST obtained from the dislocated side. AM expression was also significantly increased in synovial fibroblasts and macrophages in response to IL-1β treatment. Synovial macrophages also highly expressed RAMP3 compared to fibroblasts and this expression was further stimulated by exogenously added IL-1β. Further, the treatment of the F4/80-positive cell fraction obtained from ST with AM inhibited IL-1β expression. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that AM was produced by synovial fibroblasts and macrophages in inflamed ST and that increased levels of AM may exert anti-inflammatory effects on synovial macrophages. PMID:28299347

  18. [Generalised Form of Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee Joint].

    PubMed

    Vališ, P; Vyskočil, R

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm in a 53-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with a synovial chondromatosis of the knee joint extending to the popliteal fossa and soft tissues around the knee. Because of the presence of massive nodules, the patient was indicated for total synovectomy, with removal of pathologically changed cartilaginous tissue, performed by combined anterior and posterior approaches to the knee joint. Despite complete removal of the synovium and loose cartilage bodies and the patient's pain relief in the post-operative time, three years after the operation new problems appeared. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed a relapse of synovial chondromatosis and the patient was indicated for revision surgery of the knee joint. The results of physical examination and MRI scans, and intra-operative findings in the patient are reported. synovial chondromatosis, total synovectomy, direct anterior and posterior approaches to the knee joint.

  19. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  20. Ganglion Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ganglion Cysts Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Ganglion Cysts Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - Ganglion ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  1. Synovial inflammation in patients with different stages of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ene, Răzvan; Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana; Ene, Patricia; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela; Cîrstoiu, Florin Cătălin

    2015-01-01

    The synovium is an intra-articular mesenchymal tissue and essential for the normal joint function. It is involved in many pathological characteristic processes and sometimes specific for this distinctive tissue. In this study, we refer to synovial proliferative disorders according to the stage of osteoarthritis (OA) disease. Forty-three patients with knee OA were treated in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest, Romania, in the last two years. In all cases, we used at least five criteria for the knee OA: knee pain, knee joint tenderness, no palpable warmth over the knee, stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. In all the cases the synovial tissue was selected by the orthopedic surgeon. X-ray examination was taken in every case of the affected joint. Patients who were considered to have early OA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsy of the symptomatic joint. Synovial tissue samples from patients with late OA were obtained at the time of knee joint arthroplasty. Microscopic examination in early osteoarthritis revealed for more than half of patients with synovial biopsy through arthroscopic technique having synovitis lesions with mononuclear infiltrates, diffuse fibrosis, thickening of the lining layer, macrophages appearance and neoformation vessels also. The synovitis seen in advanced OA knees tends to be diffuse and is not mandatory localized to areas of chondral defects, although an association has been reported between chondral defects and associated synovitis in the knee medial tibio-femoral compartment. The overexpression of mediators of inflammation and the increased mononuclear cell infiltration were seen in early OA, compared with late OA.

  2. Odontogenic cysts in three dogs: one odontogenic keratocyst and two dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Taketo; Takagi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kenji; Kimura, Takashi; Okumura, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Toru

    2004-09-01

    Odontogenic cysts, which showed cystic radiolucency in the jaw bone by radiographic examination and computed tomography, were enucleated by operation in 3 dogs. One dog had a odontogenic keratocyst in the incisive bone of the right maxilla and another 2 cases revealed dentigerous cysts in the mandible. These cyst walls were enucleated or transpired by semiconductor laser. Afterwards, osteogenesis was confirmed at the defective part of jaw bone by extirpation of the cyst in all cases, and no recurrence has been noted in any cases. Odontogenic cyst is a disease which should be treated by surgical extirpation or transpiration.

  3. Demonstration of antibodies to collagen and of collagen-anticollagen immune complexes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluids

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, J.; Steffen, C.; Kolarz, G.; Eberl, R.; Frank, O.; Thumb, N.

    1976-01-01

    Menzel, J., Steffen, C., Kolarz, G., Eberl, R., Frank, O., and Thumb, N. (1976).Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 35, 446-450. Demonstration of antibodies to collagen and of collagen-anticollagen immune complexes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluids. Twenty-nine synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 10 synovial fluids from patients with other joint diseases were investigated with regard to the presence of antibodies to denatured human collagen and of collagen-anticollagen immune complexes. 12 of the 29 RA synovial fluids showed anticollagen titres from 1: 16 to 1: 512 in passive haemagglutination. Only one patient in the group with no arthritis had a significant anticollagen titre of 1: 32. Digestion of the synovial fluids with bacterial collagenase resulted in an anticollagen titre increase from two to four dilution steps in 9 of the RA fluids, while 6 previously negative RA synovial fluids showed anticollagen titres from 1: 32 to 1: 128 after digestion with collagenase. These results indicate the existence of collagen-anticollagen immune complexes in 15 of the 29 RA synovial fluids investigated. PMID:185972

  4. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  5. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hsin Chuan; Lee, Soonchul; Ting, Kang; Shen, Jia; Wang, Chenchao; Nguyen, Alan; Berthiaume, Emily A; Zara, Janette N; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Kwak, Jin Hee; Zhang, Xinli; Soo, Chia

    2017-07-01

    Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the core implant area's bone volume fraction and bone mineral density increased proportionately with rhBMP-2 dose. Multiple cyst-like bone voids were observed in peri-implant areas when using rhBMP-2 applications, and these sites showed significant bone mineral density decreases in relation to the unaffected regions. Biomechanically, these areas decreased in strength by 32% in comparison with noncystic areas. Histologically, rhBMP-2-affected void sites had an increased amount of fatty marrow, thinner trabecular bones, and significantly more adiponectin- and cathepsin K-positive cells. Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thoracic arachnoid cyst resection.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-09-01

    Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible. Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized. The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/pgUrl9xvsD0.

  7. Use of vitamin B12 in joint lavage for determination of dilution factors of canine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Tanya; de Rooster, Hilde; van Bree, Henri; Cox, Eric

    2005-11-01

    To test a modified saline (0.9% NaCl) solution joint washing (lavage) technique that includes the use of vitamin B12 as an internal marker for the evaluation of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples from canine joints. 9 plasma samples obtained from blood samples of 9 healthy dogs and 9 synovial fluid samples aspirated from stifle joints of 9 cadaveric dogs. Photometric absorbances of 25% vitamin B12 solution, canine synovial fluid, and canine plasma were measured in a spectrophotometer to establish an optimal wavelength for analysis. Canine synovial fluid and plasma samples were mixed with the 25% vitamin B12 solution to obtain 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% solutions of synovial fluid or plasma. Diluted synovial fluid and plasma samples were used to simulate joint lavage samples and to examine the possible interference of these substances (synovial fluid or plasma) with the absorbance of the 25% vitamin B12 solution in photometric analysis. The optimal wavelength was found to be at 550 nm. Canine synovial fluid and plasma samples did not interfere with the absorbance measurements of the 25% vitamin B12 solution up to a 50% dilution of plasma or synovial fluid. The modified saline solution joint lavage method with the use of a 25% vitamin B12 solution as an internal standard provides an accurate and reliable technique for the evaluation of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples from canine joints.

  8. Keratinizing dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Vaishnavi; Ranganathan, Kannan; Praveen, B

    2014-01-01

    Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up. PMID:24808713

  9. Proteomic Study of Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites, Cysts, and Cyst-Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Nácar, Milka; Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Carrero, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    The cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica is a promising therapeutic target against human amoebiasis. Our research team previously reported the production in vitro of Cyst-Like Structures (CLS) sharing structural features with cysts, including rounded shape, size reduction, multinucleation, and the formation of a chitin wall coupled to the overexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the chitin synthesis pathway. A proteomic study of E. histolytica trophozoites, cysts, and in vitro-produced CLS is reported herein to determine the nature of CLS, widen our knowledge on the cyst stage, and identify possible proteins and pathways involved in the encystment process. Total protein extracts were obtained from E. histolytica trophozoites, CLS, and partially purified cysts recovered from the feces of amoebic human patients; extracts were trypsin-digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, 1029 proteins were identified in trophozoites, 550 in CLS, and 411 in cysts, with 539, 299, and 84 proteins unique to each sample, respectively, and only 74 proteins shared by all three stages. About 70% of CLS proteins were shared with trophozoites, even though differences were observed in the relative protein abundance. While trophozoites showed a greater abundance of proteins associated to a metabolically active cell, CLS showed higher expression of proteins related to proteolysis, redox homeostasis, and stress response. In addition, the expression of genes encoding for the cyst wall proteins Jessie and Jacob was detected by RT-PCR and the Jacob protein identified by Western blotting and immunofluorescence in CLS. However, the proteomic profile of cysts as determined by LC-MS/MS was very dissimilar to that of trophozoites and CLS, with almost 40% of hypothetical proteins. Our global results suggest that CLS are more alike to trophozoites than to cysts, and they could be generated as a rapid survival response of trophozoites to a stressful condition

  10. Overexpression of decoy receptor 3 in synovial tissues of inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Han; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Liao, Hsien-Tzung; Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2012-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DCR3) was a newly identified soluble receptor which was reported to modulate the function of T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate DCR3 expression on the synovial tissue in different types of arthritis. We obtained synovial tissues from 17 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 17 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 17 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Synovial specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The amount of lymphocytes and mononuclear cells infiltration and vascularity during light microscopic examination was scored from 0-4. The expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68 and DCR3 in lining layer (LL) and sublining layer (SL) cells was stained using the immunohistochemical method and analysed by microscopic examination (score from 0-4, 0=absent, 1=slight, 2=moderate, 3=large, 4=extreme). OA patients were older than the RA and AS patients (65.9±10.3 years for OA, 58.4±17.7 for RA, and 43.2±16.4 for AS). Synovial tissues in RA patients had significantly increased mononuclear cells infiltration when compared to AS and OA patients (2.3±0.6, 1.9±0.5, 1.6±0.5, respectively, p<0.05). There was no striking difference in DCR3 expression in the synovial LL between RA, AS, and OA patients. CD4+ T cells and CD68+ monocytes/macrophages in the SL were more prominent in RA and AS than in OA (p<0.05). Similarly, DCR3 in the SL was more overexpressed in RA and AS than in OA (1.83±0.21, 1.71±0.36, 1.39±0.31, respectively, p<0.01). The increased synovial inflammatory cells infiltration in RA and AS was associated with the elevated DCR3 expression.

  11. Synovial calprotectin: a potential biomarker to exclude a prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M; Ploegmakers, J J W; Kampinga, G A; Wagenmakers-Huizenga, L; Jutte, P C; Muller Kobold, A C

    2017-05-01

    Recently, several synovial biomarkers have been introduced into the algorithm for the diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Alpha defensin is a promising biomarker, with a high sensitivity and specificity, but it is expensive. Calprotectin is a protein that is present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, is released upon neutrophil activation and exhibits anti-microbial activity. Our aim, in this study, was to determine the diagnostic potential of synovial calprotectin in the diagnosis of a PJI. In this pilot study, we prospectively collected synovial fluid from the hip, knee, shoulder and elbow of 19 patients with a proven PJI and from a control group of 42 patients who underwent revision surgery without a PJI. PJI was diagnosed according to the current diagnostic criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Synovial fluid was centrifuged and the supernatant was used to measure the level of calprotectin after applying a lateral flow immunoassay. The median synovial calprotectin level was 991 mg/L (interquartile range (IQR) 154 to 1787) in those with a PJI and 11 mg/L (IQR 3 to 29) in the control group (p < 0.0001). Using a cut-off value of 50 mg/L, this level showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy, with an area under the curve of 0.94. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 89%, 90%, 81% and 95% respectively. The NPV was 97% in the nine patients with a chronic PJI. Synovial calprotectin may be a valuable biomarker in the diagnosis of a PJI, especially in the exclusion of an infection. With a lateral flow immunoassay, a relatively rapid quantitative diagnosis can be made. The measurement is cheap and is easy to use. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:660-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. Simulation Of The Synovial Fluid In A Deformable Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Gutierrez, Nancy; Ibarra-Bracamontes, Laura A.

    2016-11-01

    The main components of a synovial joint are a cartilage and a biofluid known as the synovial fluid. The results were obtained using the FLUENT software to simulate the behavior of the synovial fluid within a deformable cavity with a simple geometry. The cartilage is represented as a porous region. By reducing the available region for the fluid, a fluid displacement into the cartilage is induced. The total pressure reached in the interface of the deformable cavity and the porous region is presented. The geometry and properties of the system are scaled to values found in a knee joint. The effect of deformation rate, fluid viscosity and properties of the porous medium on the total pressure reached are analyzed. The higher pressures are reached either for high deformation rate or when the fluid viscosity increases. This study was supported by the Mexican Council of Science and Technology (CONACyT) and by the Scientific Research Coordination of the University of Michoacan in Mexico.

  13. Submental epidermoid cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Rafal; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  14. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the renal cysts. Your doctor may use ultrasound imaging to monitor renal cysts for any changes over ... Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body Ultrasound - Pelvis Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...

  15. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. A mass or bulge of the vaginal wall may be ... to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is ...

  16. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided. PMID:28352681

  17. Bipolar Radiofrequency Facet Ablation of the Lumbar Facet Capsule: An Adjunct to Conventional Radiofrequency Ablation for Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert E; Palea, Ovidiu; Granville, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency facet ablation (RFA) has been performed using the same technique for over 50 years. Except for variations in electrode size, tip shape, and change in radiofrequency (RF) stimulation parameters, using standard, pulsed, and cooled RF wavelengths, the target points have remained absolutely unchanged from the original work describing RFA for lumbar pain control. Degenerative changes in the facet joint and capsule are the primary location for the majority of lumbar segmental pathology and pain. Multiple studies show that the degenerated facet joint is richly innervated as a result of the inflammatory overgrowth of the synovium. The primary provocative clinical test to justify an RFA is to perform an injection with local anesthetic into the facet joint and the posterior capsule and confirm pain relief. However, after a positive response, the radiofrequency lesion is made not to the facet joint but to the more proximal fine nerve branches that innervate the joint. The accepted target points for the recurrent sensory branch ignore the characteristic rich innervation of the pathologic lumbar facet capsule and assume that lesioning of these recurrent branches is sufficient to denervate the painful pathologic facet joint. This report describes the additional targets and technical steps for further coagulation points along the posterior capsule of the lumbar facet joint and the physiologic studies of the advantage of the bipolar radiofrequency current in this location. Bipolar RF to the facet capsule is a simple, extra step that easily creates a large thermo-coagulated lesion in this capsule region of the pathologic facet joint. Early studies demonstrate bipolar RF to the facet capsule can provide long-term pain relief when used alone for specific localized facet joint pain, to coagulate lumbar facet cysts to prevent recurrence, and to get more extensive pain control by combining it with traditional lumbar RFA, especially when RFA is repeated.

  18. Surgery for pilonidal cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Pilonidal abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... An infected pilonidal cyst or abscess requires surgical drainage. It will not heal with antibiotic medicines. If you continue to have infections, the pilonidal cyst can be ...

  19. The JAK inhibitor tofacitinib suppresses synovial JAK1-STAT signalling in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, D L; Soma, K; Hodge, J; Kavanaugh, A; Mandel, D; Mease, P; Shurmur, R; Singhal, A K; Wei, N; Rosengren, S; Kaplan, I; Krishnaswami, S; Luo, Z; Bradley, J; Firestein, G S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The pathways affected by tofacitinib and the effects on gene expression in situ are unknown. Therefore, tofacitinib effects on synovial pathobiology were investigated. Methods A randomised, double-blind, phase II serial synovial biopsy study (A3921073; NCT00976599) in patients with RA with an inadequate methotrexate response. Patients on background methotrexate received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily or placebo for 28 days. Synovial biopsies were performed on Days -7 and 28 and analysed by immunoassay or quantitative PCR. Clinical response was determined by disease activity score and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response on Day 28 in A3921073, and at Month 3 in a long-term extension study (A3921024; NCT00413699). Results Tofacitinib exposure led to EULAR moderate to good responses (11/14 patients), while placebo was ineffective (1/14 patients) on Day 28. Tofacitinib treatment significantly reduced synovial mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 (p<0.05) and chemokines CCL2, CXCL10 and CXCL13 (p<0.05). No overall changes were observed in synovial inflammation score or the presence of T cells, B cells or macrophages. Changes in synovial phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3 strongly correlated with 4-month clinical responses (p<0.002). Tofacitinib significantly decreased plasma CXCL10 (p<0.005) at Day 28 compared with placebo. Conclusions Tofacitinib reduces metalloproteinase and interferon-regulated gene expression in rheumatoid synovium, and clinical improvement correlates with reductions in STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation. JAK1-mediated interferon and interleukin-6 signalling likely play a key role in the synovial response. Trial registration number NCT00976599. PMID:25398374

  20. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging allows accurate assessment of the synovial inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis knee joints: a comparison with synovial histology.

    PubMed

    Axelsen, M B; Stoltenberg, M; Poggenborg, R P; Kubassova, O; Boesen, M; Bliddal, H; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Hanson, L G; Østergaard, M

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) evaluated using semi-automatic image processing software can accurately assess synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) knee joints. In 17 RA patients undergoing knee surgery, the average grade of histological synovial inflammation was determined from four biopsies obtained during surgery. A preoperative series of T(1)-weighted dynamic fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR images was obtained. Parameters characterizing contrast uptake dynamics, including the initial rate of enhancement (IRE), were generated by the software in three different areas: (I) the entire slice (Whole slice); (II) a manually outlined region of interest (ROI) drawn quickly around the joint, omitting large artefacts such as blood vessels (Quick ROI); and (III) a manually outlined ROI following the synovial capsule of the knee joint (Precise ROI). Intra- and inter-reader agreement was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The IRE from the Quick ROI and the Precise ROI revealed high correlations to the grade of histological inflammation (Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho) = 0.70, p = 0.001 and rho = 0.74, p = 0.001, respectively). Intra- and inter-reader ICCs were very high (0.93-1.00). No Whole slice parameters were correlated to histology. DCE-MRI provides fast and accurate assessment of synovial inflammation in RA patients. Manual outlining of the joint to omit large artefacts is necessary.

  1. Editorial Commentary: Role of Synovial Biomarkers in Patient Outcomes After Knee Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-03-01

    Humans are notably poor at predicting event outcomes. In "Correlation of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers With Cartilage Pathology and Associated Outcomes in Knee Arthroscopy," Cuellar, Cuellar, Kirsch, and Strauss show that some synovial fluid biomarkers (20 were sampled for the investigation) may predict operative findings at the time of arthroscopy and patient-reported outcome measures at follow-up. Further research will clarify the role of synovial biomarkers in knee pathology and, hopefully, narrow the choices to one or two pertinent markers that can be used to improve our ability to predict outcomes from arthroscopic knee surgery. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurenteric Cyst or Neuroendodermal Cyst? Immunohistochemical Study and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ting; Lai, Hung-Yi; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Neurenteric cysts are rare central nervous system lesions derived from an endodermal origin. There is no consensus concerning pathogenesis because of the paucity of occurrences. We report an immunohistochemical study of 10 cases with neurenteric cysts and postulate its pathogenesis. Ten patients underwent surgical treatment for neurenteric cysts from 1995 to 2015. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiologic, operative, and pathologic findings for these patients. Immunohistochemical stains were completed in all cases to distinguish cell type and origin. Three cell types were identified: pseudostratified-ciliated, goblet-columnar, and simple cuboidal cells. All cases were positive for cytokeratin 7, and negative for cytokeratin 20, caudal-type homeobox 2, mucin 2, thyroid transcription factor 1, human chorionic gonadotropin, placental alkaline phosphatase, and cluster of differentiation 31. Four of them had positive staining for mucin 5AC, with expression only in goblet-columnar cells. According to the immunohistochemical results, the cells resembled the respiratory tract (pseudostratified-ciliated), stomach (goblet-columnar), and respiratory bronchioles (simple cuboidal). Seventy-five percent of cases with recurrence had a goblet-columnar component, emphasizing the importance of total resection of the cyst and complete pathologic examination. We postulate that the cystic tumor was derived from multipotent endodermal cells that migrated and traveled along the neuroectoderm, with incomplete differentiation into various cell types as a result of an unsuitable microenvironment. Because the neurenteric canal was only the channel of migration rather than a component of the cysts, the term neuroendodermal cysts is more precise in presenting the embryopathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Surgical treatment of perinatal ovarian cysts].

    PubMed

    Armas Alvarez, A L; Taboada Santomil, P; Pradillos Serna, J M; Rivera Chavez, L L; Méndez Gallart, R; Estévez Martínez, E; Rodríguez Barca, P; Bautista Casasnovas, A; Varela Cives, R

    2010-10-01

    Actually, the perinatal ovarian cysts are increasingly being diagnosed by prenatal and neonatal ultrasound. We reported our experience in the surgical management of perinatal ovarian cysts. Patients and methods. We have reviewed the clinical charts of 10 female newborns diagnosed of ovarian cysts who underwent surgical management in our hospital from 1989 to 2009. The ovarian cysts were diagnosed antenatally in 8 cases and period neonatal in 2 cases. The clinical presentation was asymptomatic abdominal mass in 7 cases. Ultrasound confirmed the ovarian mass in 8 patients. CT scan and MRI were necessary for confirm suspected diagnosis in two patients. Ultrasonography showed 7 complex cysts and 3 simple cysts. Surgery of the complicated cysts revealed ovarian torsion in 5 cases and 1 hemorragic cyst. At surgery, 5 patients underwent salpingooophorectomy, 2 patients needed oophorectomy and in 3 cases only cystectomy were necessary. The ovarian torsion is the most common complication and the cause of loss of the ovary. The neonatal ovarian cysts greater than 5 centimetres, symptomatic cysts, complex cysts and cysts persisting for more than 6 months need surgical intervention.

  4. Influence of Lumbar Lordosis on the Outcome of Decompression Surgery for Lumbar Canal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Han Soo

    2018-01-01

    Although sagittal spinal balance plays an important role in spinal deformity surgery, its role in decompression surgery for lumbar canal stenosis is not well understood. To investigate the hypothesis that sagittal spinal balance also plays a role in decompression surgery for lumbar canal stenosis, a prospective cohort study analyzing the correlation between preoperative lumbar lordosis and outcome was performed. A cohort of 85 consecutive patients who underwent decompression for lumbar canal stenosis during the period 2007-2011 was analyzed. Standing lumbar x-rays and 36-item short form health survey questionnaires were obtained before and up to 2 years after surgery. Correlations between lumbar lordosis and 2 parameters of the 36-item short form health survey (average physical score and bodily pain score) were statistically analyzed using linear mixed effects models. There was a significant correlation between preoperative lumbar lordosis and the 2 outcome parameters at postoperative, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year time points. A 10° increase of lumbar lordosis was associated with a 5-point improvement in average physical scores. This correlation was not present in preoperative scores. This study showed that preoperative lumbar lordosis significantly influences the outcome of decompression surgery on lumbar canal stenosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Anti-inflammatory Drugs on the Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid and Its Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Liang, Jing; Colby, Ralph H.

    2006-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid, the synovial fluid model, and plasma protein solutions indicate that the fluids are rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. While HCQ has no effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions, it inhibits/suppresses the observed rheopexy of the synovial fluid model and plasma protein solutions. In contrast, D-penicillamine has a complex, time dependent effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions,---reducing the zero shear rate viscosity of a 3 mg/mL NaHA (in phosphate buffered saline) by ca. 40% after 44 days. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  6. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng; Chang, Shan; Zhang, Yuan-zhi; Ding, Zi-hai; Xu, Xin Ming; Xu, Yong-qing

    2011-04-14

    Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH) data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D) computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP). All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical operations by its relative position to the lumbar plexus. 3D

  7. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. Methods To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH) data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D) computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. Results The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP). All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. Conclusion The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical operations by its relative

  8. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... CT scans rapidly makes detailed pictures of the lower back. The test may be used to look for: ...

  9. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Reyes Macías, Juan Francisco; Sánchez Prieto, Martín

    2007-01-01

    Synovial Chondromatosis (SC) is a disease whose etiology is unknown, can be defined as a benign synovial process characterized by the formation of metaplastic cartilaginous nodes inside connective tissue of articular surfaces, is considered an active metaplastic phenomenon better than a neoplastic process; it presents a greater preference to affect women who constitute almost 70% of reported cases, the age range is wide and oscillates between 18-75 years (average 44.6 years). Between the main clinical findings are: pain, crackle, volume augmentation and a limited buccal opening. SC is an unusual state and the reports in the English literature are no more than 75 cases, only 66 of those where histologically verified, most of those were affecting great joints like hip, knee and shoulder, but if SC is not frequent in this sites, is even more infrequent on temporomandibular joint. The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case and at the same time to realize a brief review of the literature.

  10. Histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous cysts in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: clues for differentiation of nonsyndromic cysts.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Mariantonieta; Ständer, Sonja; Metze, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome presents with multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and cutaneous cysts, among other manifestations. The cutaneous cysts have been described as both epidermoid cysts and keratocysts but were not further characterized. Light microscopic examinations were made on 23 cutaneous cysts in 4 patients associated with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome located on extremities, face, trunk, palms, and soles and compared with nonsyndromic vellus hair cysts, steatocystomas, and hybrid cysts. Twenty-one of the syndromic cysts revealed alternating infundibular-like and steatocystoma-like squamous epitheliums in varying proportions. The cysts were lined by both smooth and corrugated squamous epithelium. The horny layer was composed by alternating areas of thin, lamellate, and compact eosinophilic keratin. Only 2 cases showed an exclusive steatocystoma-like type of epithelium very similar to odontogenic keratocysts. Sebaceous glands and follicular structures were absent. There were no differences between palmar and plantar cysts and other anatomic locations. The ultrastructural findings in syndromatic cysts confirmed variable expression of keratohyalin granules. Only 3 of 6 cases of nonsyndromic hybrid cysts showed overlapping features with syndromic cysts. Immunohistochemical profiling of keratin, involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, and BCL-2 expression in syndromatic cysts showed exclusive positivity of K19 and continuous staining for BCL-2. In summary, 2 types of cutaneous cysts are characteristic of Goltz-Gorlin, irrelevant of their anatomic location, namely steatocystoma-like and more frequently hybrid-like. The diagnosis of syndromic hybrid-like cysts should be considered whenever infundibular and steatocystoma differentiation alternate and overlap. Altogether, these findings in epithelial cysts may raise the suspicion of Goltz-Gorlin as an underlying cause.

  11. Unicameral and aneurysmal bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Campanacci, M; Capanna, R; Picci, P

    1986-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight cases of unicameral bone cysts (UBC) treated with curettage and bone grafting were compared to 141 cases treated with cortisone injections. The end results were comparable in the two groups. Local recurrence risk factors in the surgical group were active cyst and previous operations. In the other group they were multilocation of the cyst, active cyst, and size of cyst. A new radiographic classification of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is proposed in a report of 198 cases of ABC. The treatment of choice in ABC is surgical and the type (curettage, curettage plus phenole or cryosurgery, resection or hemiresection) is selected on the basis of the radiographic aspect and the rate of growth of the cyst. Radiotherapy is only indicated in inoperable ABC cases.

  12. Feasibility of a tetracycline-binding method for detecting synovial fluid basic calcium phosphate crystals.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Fahey, Mark; Gohr, Claudia; Burner, Todd; Konon, Irina; Daft, Laureen; Mattson, Eric; Hirschmugl, Carol; Ryan, Lawrence M; Simkin, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are common components of osteoarthritis (OA) synovial fluid. Progress in understanding the role of these bioactive particles in clinical OA has been hampered by difficulties in their identification. Tetracyclines stain calcium phosphate mineral in bone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tetracycline staining might be an additional or alternative method for identifying BCP crystals in synovial fluid. A drop of oxytetracycline was mixed with a drop of fluid containing synthetic or native BCP, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), or monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and placed on a microscope slide. Stained and unstained crystals were examined by light microscopy, with and without a portable broad-spectrum ultraviolet (UV) pen light. A small set of characterized synovial fluid samples were compared by staining with alizarin red S and oxytetracycline. Synthetic BCP crystals in synovial fluid were quantified fluorimetrically using oxytetracycline. After oxytetracycline staining, synthetic and native BCP crystals appeared as fluorescent amorphous aggregates under UV light. Oxytetracycline did not stain CPPD or MSU crystals or other particulates. Oxytetracycline staining had fewer false-positive test results than did alizarin red S staining and could provide estimates of the quantities of synthetic BCP crystals in synovial fluid. With further validation, oxytetracycline staining may prove to be a useful adjunct or alternative to currently available methods for identifying BCP crystals in synovial fluid.

  13. Mycotic cysts: report of 21 cases including eight pheomycotic cysts from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Salwa S; Amr, Samir S

    2007-04-01

    Mycotic cysts are subcutaneous cystic granulomas caused by either dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi (pheomycotic cysts) or eumycotic (nonpigmented fungi) present in soil, wood, and decaying plant material. These fungi gain access to the tissues via a wooden splinter or thorn. No deep tissue involvement or extension to bone is known to occur. We reviewed our surgical pathology files for the last 32 years. All cases with the diagnosis of cysts with fungi, thorns, or splinters and associated granulomatous and acute inflammation were reviewed. Gomori's silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains were performed in all cases. Twenty-one cases of mycotic cyst were found, including eight pheomycotic cysts (one with a recurrent lesion seen 11 months after the initial excision of the cyst). Thirteen cysts had nonpigmented fungal hyphae. There were 14 males and seven females, with an age range of 5-76 years. The dorsum of the foot was the most frequently affected site (12 cases). Four cases involved the fingers, two involved the knee area, two involved the big toe, and one each involved the leg, ankle, and forearm. The cysts measured 0.6-4.5 cm in diameter. Histologically, there was granulomatous inflammation with a variable degree of neutrophilic infiltrate giving central abscess formation. Twelve cases showed a wooden splinter. All cases were positive for fungal organisms, mostly septate hyphae and spores that were highlighted by special stains. Fungal pigment, ranging from yellow-brown to light brown to black, was observed in eight cases. No extension to deep tissues was noted. The clinical impression varied widely including ganglion, sebaceous cyst, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, and lipoma. One patient was immunosuppressed following renal transplantation. All patients were treated by simple excision. No antifungal chemotherapy was needed or administered in any of the patients. One patient had a recurrence of his lesion within 1 year as a result of inadequate initial

  14. Local fibroblast proliferation but not influx is responsible for synovial hyperplasia in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Matsuo, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Fumitaka; Saito, Tetsuya

    Synovial fibroblasts play crucial roles in inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). How they accumulate in the RA joints remains unclear. This study was conducted to discern whether cellular influx from the outside of the joints and local proliferation are responsible for synovial fibroblast accumulation in an animal model of RA. We found that synovial fibroblasts were identified as GFP+ cells using collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2)-GFP transgenic reporter mice. Then, bone marrow transplantation and parabiosis techniques were utilized to study the cellular influx. Irradiated wild-type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from Col1a2-GFP mice. Col1a2-GFP andmore » wild-type mice were conjoined for parabiosis. The transplanted mice and the parabionts were subjected to collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). We found no GFP+ cells in the hyperplastic synovial tissues from the transplanted mice with CAIA and from the wild-type parabionts with CAIA. Furthermore, normal and CAIA synovial tissues from Col1a2-GFP mice and from fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) transgenic mice, in which cells in S/G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle express Azami-Green, were studied for Ki67, a cellular proliferation marker, and vimentin, a fibroblast marker, expression. The percentages of Ki67+/GFP+ and Azami-Green+/vimentin+ cells in the CAIA synovial tissues were higher than those in the untreated synovial tissues (34% vs. 0.40% and 19% vs. 0.26%, respectively). These findings indicate that local fibroblast proliferation but not cellular influx is responsible for the synovial hyperplasia in CAIA. Suppression of proliferation of the local synovial fibroblasts should be a promising treatment for RA. - Highlights: • We studied how synovial fibroblasts accumulate in joints in a murine model of RA. • Bone marrow-derived cells did not accumulate in arthritic joints. • Synovial fibroblasts did not accumulate in arthritic joints

  15. Nerve growth factor concentrations in the synovial fluid from healthy dogs and dogs with secondary osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Isola, M; Ferrari, V; Miolo, A; Stabile, F; Bernardini, D; Carnier, P; Busetto, R

    2011-01-01

    To measure the concentrations of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the synovial fluid from normal dogs and dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to common joint disorders. Nerve growth factor synovial concentrations were measured by ELISA assay in 50 dogs divided into three groups: 12 healthy, 16 affected by acute lameness within seven days before enrolment, and 22 with chronic lameness persisting by more than one month before enrolment and accompanied by radiological signs of OA. Both acute and chronic lameness were secondary to orthopaedic diseases involving the shoulder, elbow and stifle joints. Nerve growth factor synovial concentrations were compared between means for healthy and acute groups and between the three groups using an F-test. Significance level was set at p <0.05. Nerve growth factor was detected in all canine synovial fluid samples. However, the mean synovial NGF concentration of healthy dogs (3.65 ± 2.18 pg/ml) was not significantly different from the mean value in dogs with acute lameness (6.45 ± 2.45 pg/ml) (p = 0.79). Conversely, the mean synovial NGF concentration in dogs with chronic lameness (20.19 ± 17.51 pg/ml) was found to be significantly higher than that found in healthy dogs (p <0.01). This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of NGF in canine synovial fluid and its increased concentrations in dogs with chronic lameness compared to healthy dogs and dogs with acute lameness. The association between chronic lameness and raised synovial concentrations may suggest an involvement of NGF in OA inflammation and chronic pain.

  16. Dentigerous cyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lobprise, H B; Wiggs, R B

    1992-03-01

    An infrequently occurring tumor-like lesion arising from the cellular components of the developing dental follicle is the dentigerous cyst. These odontogenic cysts have classic clinical and radiographic findings. The cysts are locally invasive and aggressive and require prompt surgical management. This case describes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a dentigerous cyst in the mandible of a dog.

  17. Synovial fluid response to extensional flow: effects of dilution and intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Haward, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a microfluidic cross-slot device is used to examine the extensional flow response of diluted porcine synovial fluid (PSF) samples using flow-induced birefringence (FIB) measurements. The PSF sample is diluted to 10× 20× and 30× its original mass in a phosphate-buffered saline and its FIB response measured as a function of the strain rate at the stagnation point of the cross-slots. Equivalent experiments are also carried out using trypsin-treated PSF (t-PSF) in which the protein content is digested away using an enzyme. The results show that, at the synovial fluid concentrations tested, the protein content plays a negligible role in either the fluid's bulk shear or extensional flow behaviour. This helps support the validity of the analysis of synovial fluid HA content, either by microfluidic or by other techniques where the synovial fluid is first diluted, and suggests that the HA and protein content in synovial fluid must be higher than a certain minimum threshold concentration before HA-protein or protein-protein interactions become significant. However a systematic shift in the FIB response as the PSF and t-PSF samples are progressively diluted indicates that HA-HA interactions remain significant at the concentrations tested. These interactions influence FIB-derived macromolecular parameters such as the relaxation time and the molecular weight distribution and therefore must be minimized for the best validity of this method as an analytical technique, in which non-interaction between molecules is assumed.

  18. [LE cells in synovial fluid: prevalence and diagnostic usefulness in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Białkowska-Puszczewicz, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of LE cells in synovial fluid and their importance for the diagnosis of rheumatic disease. Synovial fluid was obtained from 631 patients: 31 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 337 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with Still's disease, 9 with systemic scleroderma (SS), 27 with the overlap syndrome (RA/SLE), 132 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 57 with Reiter's syndrome, and 34 with psoriatic arthritis (PA). The fluid was centrifuged, precipitate smears were done and were May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained for cytologic assessment. The supernatant was collected for antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Physicochemical and serologic properties of the synovial fluid were routinely determined. All synovial fluids demonstrated signs of inflammation. The presence of LE cells was ascertained in five patients with SLE and nine patients with the overlap syndrome. In these cases, LE cells were accompanied by ANA. In addition, hematoxylin bodies were revealed in SLE patients. LE cells were observed in 2.6% of patients with RA but were not accompanied by ANA. Patients with SS, Still's disease, AS, Reiter's syndrome, and PA tested negative for LE cells. It appears from these results that LE cells are rarely present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatic diseases. In contrast, they occur in more than 40% of patients with the overlap syndrome and may thus be regarded as important for the diagnosis of this condition.

  19. Activation pathways of synovial T lymphocytes. Expression and function of the UM4D4/CDw60 antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, D A; Millard, J A; Kan, L; Zeldes, W S; Davis, W; Higgs, J; Emmrich, F; Kinne, R W

    1990-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates a central role for synovial T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, but the activation pathways that drive proliferation and effector function of these cells are not known. We have recently generated a novel monoclonal antibody against a rheumatoid synovial T cell line that recognizes an antigen termed UM4D4 (CDw60). This antigen is expressed on a minority of peripheral blood T cells, and represents the surface component of a distinct pathway of human T cell activation. The current studies were performed to examine the expression and function of UM4D4 on T cells obtained from synovial fluid and synovial membranes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disease. The UM4D4 antigen is expressed at high surface density on about three-fourths of synovial fluid T cells and on a small subset of synovial fluid natural killer cells; in synovial tissue it is present on more than 90% of T cells in lymphoid aggregates, and on approximately 50% of T cells in stromal infiltrates In addition, UM4D4 is expressed in synovial tissue on a previously undescribed population of HLA-DR/DP-negative non-T cells with a dendritic morphology. Anti-UM4D4 was co-mitogenic for both RA and non-RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells, and induced IL-2 receptor expression. The UM4D4/CDw60 antigen may represent a functional activation pathway for synovial compartment T cells, which could play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. Images PMID:2212003

  20. Plasma pharmacokinetics and synovial concentrations of S-flurbiprofen plaster in humans.

    PubMed

    Yataba, Ikuko; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsushita, Isao; Kamezawa, Miho; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sasaki, Sigeru; Uebaba, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics and deep tissue penetration capability of the newly developed S-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP) in humans. Study 1: SFPP tape-type patch (2-60 mg) was applied to the lower back for 24 h in healthy adult volunteers. S-flurbiprofen (SFP) plasma concentration was measured over time to examine SFP pharmacokinetics. Study 2: SFPP (20 mg) was applied for 12 h to the affected knee of osteoarthritis (OA) patients who were scheduled for total knee arthroplasty. Deep tissues (synovial tissue and synovial fluid) were collected during surgery to compare SFP concentrations after application of SFPP or a commercially available flurbiprofen (FP) gel-type patch. Study 1: The plasma concentration of SFP was sustained during 24-h topical application of the SFPP, showing a high percutaneous absorption ratio of 51.4-72.2 %. Cmax and AUC0-∞ were dose-proportional. Study 2: After application of the SFPP for 12 h, SFP concentrations in the synovial tissue and synovial fluid were 14.8-fold (p = 0.002) and 32.7-fold (p < 0.001) higher, respectively, than those achieved by the FP patch. Sustained plasma concentration of SFP and high percutaneous absorption ratio was observed after 24-h topical application of the SFPP. Compared to the FP patch, the SFPP showed superior percutaneous absorption and greater tissue penetration of SFP into the synovial tissue. Greater tissue penetration of the SFPP seemed to be primarily due to its formulation. Thus, SFPP is expected to show higher efficacy for the treatment of knee OA.

  1. Arthroscopic resection of humeroradial synovial plica for persistent lateral elbow pain.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Aysha; Pooley, Joesph

    2015-04-01

    To review the outcome of 121 patients who underwent arthroscopic resection of a humeroradial synovial plica for persistent lateral elbow pain. 92 men and 29 women aged 24 to 56 (mean, 38) years with chronic lateral elbow pain underwent arthroscopic resection of a humeroradial synovial plica using a motorised soft tissue shaver, followed by intensive physiotherapy. The modified elbow score and range of motion were assessed, as were wound healing, infection, soft tissue swelling or effusion, tenderness, ligamentous instability, and motor strength. No patient had any ligamentous instability. 80 patients were pain-free at 3 months; only 3 patients were taking pain medication at 6 months. All patients had full pronation and supination; the mean range of motion was 3º to 135º of flexion. The mean modified elbow score at 12 months was 93.2 (range, 72-100). The percentages of patients with excellent, good, fair, and poor score were 70%, 17%, 8%, and 5% at 3 months, 74%, 20%, 3%, and 3% at 6 months, and 76%, 18%, 3%, and 3% at 12 months, respectively. A humeroradial synovial plica is one of the causes of chronic lateral elbow pain. Arthroscopic resection of the synovial plica followed by intensive physiotherapy achieved good outcome.

  2. Synovial fibroblasts self-direct multicellular lining architecture and synthetic function in three-dimensional organ culture.

    PubMed

    Kiener, Hans P; Watts, Gerald F M; Cui, Yajun; Wright, John; Thornhill, Thomas S; Sköld, Markus; Behar, Samuel M; Niederreiter, Birgit; Lu, Jun; Cernadas, Manuela; Coyle, Anthony J; Sims, Gary P; Smolen, Josef; Warman, Matthew L; Brenner, Michael B; Lee, David M

    2010-03-01

    To define the intrinsic capacity of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) to establish a 3-dimensional (3-D) complex synovial lining architecture characterized by the multicellular organization of the compacted synovial lining and the elaboration of synovial fluid constituents. FLS were cultured in spherical extracellular matrix (ECM) micromasses for 3 weeks. The FLS micromass architecture was assessed histologically and compared with that of dermal fibroblast controls. Lubricin synthesis was measured via immunodetection. Basement membrane matrix and reticular fiber stains were performed to examine ECM organization. Primary human and mouse monocytes were prepared and cocultured with FLS in micromass to investigate cocompaction in the lining architecture. Cytokine stimuli were applied to determine the capacity for inflammatory architecture rearrangement. FLS, but not dermal fibroblasts, spontaneously formed a compacted lining architecture over 3 weeks in the 3-D ECM micromass organ cultures. These lining cells produced lubricin. FLS rearranged their surrounding ECM into a complex architecture resembling the synovial lining and supported the survival and cocompaction of monocyte/macrophages in the neo-lining structure. Furthermore, when stimulated by cytokines, FLS lining structures displayed features of the hyperplastic rheumatoid arthritis synovial lining. This 3-D micromass organ culture method demonstrates that many of the phenotypic characteristics of the normal and the hyperplastic synovial lining in vivo are intrinsic functions of FLS. Moreover, FLS promote survival and cocompaction of primary monocytes in a manner remarkably similar to that of synovial lining macrophages. These findings provide new insight into inherent functions of the FLS lineage and establish a powerful in vitro method for further investigation of this lineage.

  3. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  4. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene utilization by B cell hybridomas derived from rheumatoid synovial tissue.

    PubMed

    Brown, C M; Longhurst, C; Haynes, G; Plater-Zyberk, C; Malcolm, A; Maini, R N

    1992-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects synovial joints. Activated B lymphocytes and plasma cells are present in the synovial tissue and are thought to contribute to the immunopathology of the rheumatoid joint. To investigate rheumatoid synovial B lymphocytes, we have generated B cell hybridomas from synovial tissue of an RA patient. Here we describe the immunoglobulin VH gene repertoire of eight IgM- and 10 IgG-secreting synovial-derived hybridomas. The VH4 gene family is highly represented (38.5%) in this panel of hybridomas compared with the frequency of VH4 gene expression in circulating B lymphocytes reported previously (19-22%) and with the VH4 gene frequency we observed in a panel of hybridomas derived in the same manner from the spleen and tonsil of normal individuals (19%). The increased frequency of VH4 gene expression was not due to the expansion of a single B cell clone in vivo as none of these hybridomas was clonally related. Two synovial-derived hybridomas secreted autoantibodies; one (VH3+) secreted an IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and the other (VH4+) secreted IgM with polyreactive binding to cytoskeletal proteins and cardiolipin. The antibodies secreted by the remaining synovial-derived hybridomas were not reactive with the autoantigens tested. The VH gene usage in a proportion (5/17) of synovial-derived hybridomas that expressed CD5 antigen provided preliminary evidence that CD5+ B cells in RA synovium have a similar increase of VH4 gene expression reported for CD5+ B cells from normal individuals and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

  5. Globulomaxillary cysts--do they really exist?

    PubMed

    Dammer, U; Driemel, O; Mohren, W; Giedl, C; Reichert, T E

    2014-01-01

    The so-called "globulomaxillary cyst", described as a fissural cyst, caused by entrapped epithelium between the nasal and maxillary process, is no longer considered for its own entity. Nevertheless, cystic lesions, which correspond to the previous image of globulomaxillary cysts, do still occur in daily practice. This raises the question to which entities pathological processes in this particular region actually belong to. In a retrospective study, 17 cases (12 men and 5 women, 12-59 years old) of primarily diagnosed globulomaxillary cysts are analysed according to clinical, radiological and histological aspects, catamnestic processed and assigned to a new entity. The results are compared with the international literature and draws conclusions on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Seven lateral periodontal cysts, four radicular cysts, two keratocystic odontogenic tumours, one adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, one periapical granuloma, one residual cyst and one undefined jaw cyst were determined. According to the results of our study and the data from the international literature, the entity globulomaxillary cyst is no longer justified.

  6. Expression of proteins in serum, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament disease and dogs without stifle joint arthritis.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bridget C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2013-03-01

    To identify proteins with differential expression between healthy dogs and dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. Serum and synovial fluid samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis before (n = 10) and after (8) surgery and control dogs without osteoarthritis (9) and archived synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis (5) and dogs without arthritis (5). Serum and synovial fluid samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; results were compared against a nonredundant protein database. Expression of complement component 3 in archived tissue samples was determined via immunohistochemical methods. No proteins had significantly different expression between serum samples of control dogs versus those of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis. Eleven proteins (complement component 3 precursor, complement factor I precursor, apolipoprotein B-100 precursor, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein precursor, serum amyloid A, transthyretin precursor, retinol-binding protein 4 precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, angiotensinogen precursor, and fibronectin 1 isoform 1 preproprotein) had significantly different expression (> 2.0-fold) between synovial fluid samples obtained before surgery from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis versus those obtained from control dogs. Complement component 3 was strongly expressed in all (5/5) synovial membrane samples of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis and weakly expressed in 3 of 5 synovial membrane samples of dogs without stifle joint arthritis. Findings suggested that the complement system and proteins involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism may have a role in stifle joint osteoarthritis, CCL disease, or both.

  7. Non-infected and Infected Bronchogenic Cyst: The Correlation of Image Findings with Cyst Content

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Gil; Park, Ju Hwan; Park, Hye Min; Kwon, Woon Jung; Cha, Hee Jeong; Lee, Young Jik; Park, Chang Ryul; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong-Joon

    2014-01-01

    We hereby report a case on bronchogenic cyst which is initially non-infected, then becomes infected after bronchoscopic ultrasound (US)-guided transesophageal fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The non-infected bronchogenic cyst appears to be filled with relatively echogenic materials on US, and the aspirate is a whitish jelly-like fluid. Upon contrast-enhanced MRI of the infected bronchogenic cyst, a T1-weighted image shows low signal intensity and a T2-weighted image shows high signal intensity, with no enhancements of the cyst contents, but enhancements of the thickened cystic wall. The patient then undergo video-assisted thoracic surgery 14 days after the FNA. The cystic mass is known to be completely removed, and the aspirate is yellowish and purulent. To understand the image findings that pertain to the gross appearance of the cyst contents will help to diagnose bronchogenic cysts in the future. PMID:24624219

  8. Synovial deposition of wild-type transthyretin-derived amyloid in knee joint osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masayuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamazaki, Hideshi; Nawata, Masashi; Katagiri, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    To investigate histological features of deposited amyloid in the synovial tissue and its clinical significance in knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We prospectively enrolled 232 consecutive patients who underwent arthroplasty or total replacement of the knee joint for treatment of OA. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry were performed in the synovial tissue obtained at surgery. When transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid was positive, we analyzed all 4 exons of the TTR gene using the direct DNA sequencing method in order to detect mutations. We analyzed 322 specimens in this study. Twenty-six specimens (8.1%) obtained from 21 patients (5 men and 16 women; mean, 79.0 ± 4.6 years) showed deposition of amyloid, which was positively stained with the anti-TTR antibody. Eighteen patients showed inhomogeneous accumulations of amyloid in the loose connective tissue under the synovial epithelia sometimes with nodule formation, while in the remaining three, small vessels in the adipose tissue were involved. Medical records of these patients revealed nothing remarkable in the clinical course, laboratory data or macroscopic intraarticular findings at surgery. No mutations were detectable in the TTR gene analysis. Wild-type TTR-derived amyloid may affect the synovial tissue as a result of long-term mechanical stress or as a part of senile systemic amyloidosis in approximately 8% of knee joint OA patients. No obvious clinical significance was found in synovial deposition of amyloid.

  9. Direct Detection and Identification of Prosthetic Joint Infection Pathogens in Synovial Fluid by Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Morgan I; Thoendel, Matthew J; Jeraldo, Patricio R; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Hanssen, Arlen D; Abdel, Matthew P; Chia, Nicholas; Yao, Janet Z; Tande, Aaron J; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2018-05-30

    Background: Metagenomic shotgun sequencing has the potential to transform how serious infections are diagnosed by offering universal, culture-free pathogen detection. This may be especially advantageous for microbial diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) by synovial fluid analysis, since synovial fluid cultures are not universally positive, and synovial fluid is easily obtained pre-operatively. We applied a metagenomics-based approach to synovial fluid in an attempt to detect microorganisms in 168 failed total knee arthroplasties. Results: Genus- and species-level analysis of metagenomic sequencing yielded the known pathogen in 74 (90%) and 68 (83%) of the 82 culture-positive PJIs analyzed, respectively, with testing of two (2%) and three (4%) samples, respectively, yielding additional pathogens not detected by culture. For the 25 culture-negative PJIs tested, genus- and species-level analysis yielded 19 (76%) and 21 (84%) samples with insignificant findings, respectively, and 6 (24%) and 4 (16%) with potential pathogens detected, respectively. Genus- and species-level analysis of the 60 culture-negative aseptic failure cases yielded 53 (88.3%) and 56 (93.3%) cases with insignificant findings, and 7 (11.7%) and 4 (6.7%) with potential clinically-significant organisms detected, respectively. There was one case of aseptic failure with synovial fluid culture growth; metagenomic analysis showed insignificant findings, suggesting possible synovial fluid culture contamination. Conclusion: Metagenomic shotgun sequencing can detect pathogens involved in PJI when applied to synovial fluid and may be particularly useful for culture-negative cases. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. PMID:27904209

  11. Branchial Cleft Cyst.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  12. Comparison of synovial fluid culture and 16S rRNA PCR in dogs with suspected septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Scharf, V F; Lewis, D D; Wellehan, J F; Wamsley, H L; Richardson, R

    2015-06-01

    To prospectively compare the sensitivity and specificity of 16S rRNA PCR with culture for identifying the causative organism in synovial fluid obtained from dogs with suspected septic arthritis. Synovial fluid cytology, PCR analysis and aerobic, anaerobic and Mycoplasma culture of samples from the affected joints of 18 dogs presenting with suspected septic arthritis were performed. Synovial fluid samples from the corresponding contralateral joints of 7 dogs were also analysed as negative controls. There was no significant difference between the sensitivity of bacterial detection via culture (63.2%) versus PCR (73.7%) of synovial fluid (P=0.728) or between culture and combined PCR and culture (89.5%) of synovial fluid (P=0.124). The specificity of PCR (42.9%) was significantly lower than culture specificity (100%) (P=0.07). Although 16S PCR may hold potential as an ancillary diagnostic test for identifying the causative organism in dogs with septic arthritis, our study failed to demonstrate improved accuracy compared with traditional synovial fluid culture. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Synovial Fluid Response to Extensional Flow: Effects of Dilution and Intermolecular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Haward, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a microfluidic cross-slot device is used to examine the extensional flow response of diluted porcine synovial fluid (PSF) samples using flow-induced birefringence (FIB) measurements. The PSF sample is diluted to 10× 20× and 30× its original mass in a phosphate-buffered saline and its FIB response measured as a function of the strain rate at the stagnation point of the cross-slots. Equivalent experiments are also carried out using trypsin-treated PSF (t-PSF) in which the protein content is digested away using an enzyme. The results show that, at the synovial fluid concentrations tested, the protein content plays a negligible role in either the fluid's bulk shear or extensional flow behaviour. This helps support the validity of the analysis of synovial fluid HA content, either by microfluidic or by other techniques where the synovial fluid is first diluted, and suggests that the HA and protein content in synovial fluid must be higher than a certain minimum threshold concentration before HA-protein or protein-protein interactions become significant. However a systematic shift in the FIB response as the PSF and t-PSF samples are progressively diluted indicates that HA-HA interactions remain significant at the concentrations tested. These interactions influence FIB-derived macromolecular parameters such as the relaxation time and the molecular weight distribution and therefore must be minimized for the best validity of this method as an analytical technique, in which non-interaction between molecules is assumed. PMID:24651529

  14. The dual regulation of substance P-mediated inflammation via human synovial mast cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yuki; Mishima, Shintaro; Kashiwakura, Jun-Ichi; Sasaki-Sakamoto, Tomomi; Toyoshima, Shota; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Saito, Shu; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Okayama, Yoshimichi

    2017-09-01

    Neural pathways are thought to be directly involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although synovial mast cells (MCs) are activated by substance P (SP), the role of MCs in neural pathways in RA remains unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate 1) whether tachykinins are produced by synovial MCs and whether production differs in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and 2) what is the responsible receptor for SP in synovial MCs. Synovial tissues were obtained from patients with RA or OA undergoing joint replacement surgery. Cultured synovium-derived MCs were generated by culturing dispersed synovial cells with stem cell factor. SP expression was investigated using immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassays. Mas-related gene X2 (MrgX2) expression was reduced in human MCs using a lentiviral shRNA silencing technique. SP expression was localized around the cell membrane in 41% (median) of the MCs in synovium from RA but in only 7% of that from OA, suggesting the activation of MCs. Synovial MCs expressed tachykinin (TAC) 1 mRNA, the expression of which was upregulated by the aggregation of FcɛRI or the addition of aggregated IgG. However, the released SP appeared to be rapidly degraded by MC chymase. Synovial MCs were activated with SP through MrgX2 to release histamine without producing proinflammatory cytokines. Activated synovial MCs may rapidly degrade SP, which may downregulate the SP-mediated activation of synoviocytes in RA. On the other hand, SP activates MCs to induce inflammatory mediators, suggesting the dual regulation of SP-mediated inflammation by MCs in RA. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentration polarization of hyaluronan on the surface of the synovial lining of infused joints

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Levick, JR; Wang, W

    2004-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in joints conserves the lubricating synovial fluid by making trans-synovial fluid escape almost insensitive to pressure elevation (e.g. effusions, joint flexion). This phenomenon, ‘outflow buffering’, was discovered during HA infusion into the rabbit knee joint cavity. It was also found that HA is partially reflected by the joint lining (molecular sieving), and that the reflected fraction R decreases as trans-synovial filtration rate Q is increased. It was postulated therefore that outflow buffering is mediated by HA reflection. Reflection creates a HA concentration polarization layer, the osmotic pressure of which opposes fluid loss. A steady-state, cross-flow ultrafiltration model was previously used to explain the outflow buffering and negative R-vs.-Q relation. However, the steady-state, cross-perfusion assumptions restricted the model's applicability for an infused, dead-end cavity or a non-infused joint during cyclical motion. We therefore developed a new, non-steady-state model which describes the time course of dead-end, partial HA ultrafiltration. The model describes the progressive build-up of a HA concentration polarization layer at the synovial surface over time. Using experimental parameter values, the model successfully accounts for the observed negative R-vs.-Q relation and shows that the HA reflected fraction (R) also depends on HA diffusivity, membrane area expansion and the synovial HA reflection coefficient. The non-steady-state model thus explains existing experimental work, and it is a key stage in understanding synovial fluid turnover in intact, moving, human joints or osteoarthritic joints treated by HA injections. PMID:15579541

  16. [Finite element analysis of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur model with simulate lumbar rotatory manipulation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hua; Xiong, Chang-Yuan; Han, Guo-Wu

    2012-07-01

    To study the changes of displacement and stress in the model of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur during lumbar rotatory manipulation. The date of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur CT scan by Mimics 10.01 software was established a lumbar pelvic and proximal femur geometric model, then the model was modified with Geomagic 9, at last the modified model was imported into hypermesh 10 and meshed with tetrahedron, at the same time,add disc and ligaments. According to the principle of lumbar rotatory manipulation,the lumbar rotatory manipulation were decomposed. The mechanical parameters assigned into the three-dimensional finite element model. The changes of displacement and stress in the model of lunbar pelvic and proximal femur under the four conditions were calculated with Abaqus model of Hypermesh 10. 1) Under the same condition,the displacement order of lumbar was L1>L2>L3>L5 L5, anterior column > middle column > posterior column. 2) Under the different conditions, the displacement order of lumbar,case 3>case 1>case 4>case 2. 3) Under the same conditions, the displacement order of lumbar inter-vertebral disc from L1,2 to L5S1 was L1,2>L2,3>L3,4>L4,5>L5S1, as for the same inter-vertebral disc, the order was: second quadrant>third quadrant>first quadrant>fourth quadrant. 4) Under the different conditions,the displacement order of the inter-vertebral disc was L1,2>L2,3>L3,4>L4,5>L5S1, but to same inter-vertebral disc: case 3>case 4>case 1 >case 2. 5) There were apparent displacement and stress concentration in pelvis and hip during the manipulation. 1) The principles of lumbar rotation manipulation closely related to the relative displacement caused by rotation of various parts of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur model; 2) During the process of lumbar rotatory manipulation, the angle of lateral bending and flexion can not be randomly increased; 3) During the process of lumbar rotatory manipulation, all the conditions of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur must be

  17. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    PubMed

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Etiology of lumbar lordosis and its pathophysiology: a review of the evolution of lumbar lordosis, and the mechanics and biology of lumbar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Bailey, Jeannie F; Safaee, Michael; Clark, Aaron J; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of postural degeneration, particularly the loss of lumbar lordosis commonly observed in the elderly in the context of evolution, mechanical, and biological studies of the human spine and to synthesize recent research findings to clinical management of postural malalignment. Lumbar lordosis is unique to the human spine and is necessary to facilitate our upright posture. However, decreased lumbar lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis are hallmarks of an aging human spinal column. The unique upright posture and lordotic lumbar curvature of the human spine suggest that an understanding of the evolution of the human spinal column, and the unique anatomical features that support lumbar lordosis may provide insight into spine health and degeneration. Considering evolution of the skeleton in isolation from other scientific studies provides a limited picture for clinicians. The evolution and development of human lumbar lordosis highlight the interdependence of pelvic structure and lumbar lordosis. Studies of fossils of human lineage demonstrate a convergence on the degree of lumbar lordosis and the number of lumbar vertebrae in modern Homo sapiens. Evolution and spine mechanics research show that lumbar lordosis is dictated by pelvic incidence, spinal musculature, vertebral wedging, and disc health. The evolution, mechanics, and biology research all point to the importance of spinal posture and flexibility in supporting optimal health. However, surgical management of postural deformity has focused on restoring posture at the expense of flexibility. It is possible that the need for complex and costly spinal fixation can be eliminated by developing tools for early identification of patients at risk for postural deformities through patient history (genetics, mechanics, and environmental exposure) and tracking postural changes over time.

  19. Branchial cleft cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop normally. The birth defect may appear as open spaces called cleft sinuses, which may develop on one or both sides of the neck. A branchial cleft cyst may form from fluid drained from a sinus. The cyst or sinus can become infected.

  20. A systematic literature review of synovial chondromatosis and pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Startzman, Ashley; Collins, Devin; Carreira, Dominic

    2016-11-01

    Benign synovial diseases of the hip including Synovial Chondromatosis (SC) and Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS) are devastating diseases. Initially, patients present with hip pain unrelieved by conservative measures. The diagnosis of PVNS and SC are often delayed, leading to progression of joint damage. The purpose of this review is to present the latest on the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of SC and PVNS of the hip. An extensive systematic search of MEDLINE and PUBMED Databases was performed. Data parameters were set from 2005 to present day with set inclusion criteria. Systematic reviews were excluded. 427 abstracts were identified, with 12 articles meeting all inclusion criteria. Eight studies focused on SC, and 5 on PVNS. 233 patients with SC of the hip and 98 patients with PVNS of the hip were identified, a total of 331 patients. Benign Synovial disorders of the hip are rare. In patients with chronic hip pain secondary to benign synovial disorders, early diagnosis and surgical intervention demonstrate good outcomes, and patients may benefit due to prevention of morbidity from further joint destruction. There is no clear consensus between higher successes through open versus arthroscopic surgical debridement. In the final phase of benign synovial disorders of the hip, THA of different types based on the patient's age should be considered.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Articular Cartilage, Synovial Membrane and Synovial Fluid for Cartilage Regeneration: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Xie, Hui-Qi; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Huang, Yong-Can

    2017-10-01

    Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial. The tissue origin of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells notably influences the biological properties and therapeutic potential. It is well known that mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability compared with those derived from non-joint tissues; thus, these cell populations are considered ideal sources for cartilage regeneration. In addition to the progress in research and promising preclinical results, many important research questions must be answered before widespread success in cartilage regeneration is achieved. This review outlines the biology of stem/progenitor cells derived from the articular cartilage, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid, including their tissue distribution, function and biological characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical trials focusing on their applications for cartilage regeneration are summarized, and future research perspectives are discussed.

  2. Bipolar Radiofrequency Facet Ablation of the Lumbar Facet Capsule: An Adjunct to Conventional Radiofrequency Ablation for Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Palea, Ovidiu; Granville, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency facet ablation (RFA) has been performed using the same technique for over 50 years. Except for variations in electrode size, tip shape, and change in radiofrequency (RF) stimulation parameters, using standard, pulsed, and cooled RF wavelengths, the target points have remained absolutely unchanged from the original work describing RFA for lumbar pain control. Degenerative changes in the facet joint and capsule are the primary location for the majority of lumbar segmental pathology and pain. Multiple studies show that the degenerated facet joint is richly innervated as a result of the inflammatory overgrowth of the synovium. The primary provocative clinical test to justify an RFA is to perform an injection with local anesthetic into the facet joint and the posterior capsule and confirm pain relief. However, after a positive response, the radiofrequency lesion is made not to the facet joint but to the more proximal fine nerve branches that innervate the joint. The accepted target points for the recurrent sensory branch ignore the characteristic rich innervation of the pathologic lumbar facet capsule and assume that lesioning of these recurrent branches is sufficient to denervate the painful pathologic facet joint. This report describes the additional targets and technical steps for further coagulation points along the posterior capsule of the lumbar facet joint and the physiologic studies of the advantage of the bipolar radiofrequency current in this location. Bipolar RF to the facet capsule is a simple, extra step that easily creates a large thermo-coagulated lesion in this capsule region of the pathologic facet joint. Early studies demonstrate bipolar RF to the facet capsule can provide long-term pain relief when used alone for specific localized facet joint pain, to coagulate lumbar facet cysts to prevent recurrence, and to get more extensive pain control by combining it with traditional lumbar RFA, especially when RFA is repeated. PMID

  3. Synovial sarcoma of the neck associated with previous head and neck radiation therapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mischler, N.E.; Chuprevich, T.; Tormey, D.C.

    1978-08-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare neoplasm that uncommonly arises in the neck. Fourteen years after facial and neck radiation therapy for acne, synovial sarcoma of the neck developed in a young man. Possible radiation-induced benign and malignant neoplasms that arise in the head and neck region, either of thyroid or extrathyroid origin, remain a continuing medical problem.

  4. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays.

  5. Intramedullary cyst formation after removal of multiple intradural spinal arachnoid cysts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zekaj, Edvin; Saleh, Christian; Servello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Background: A rare cause of spinal cord compression is spinal arachnoid cysts. Symptoms are caused by spinal cord compression, however, asymptomatic patients have been also reported. Treatment options depend upon symptom severity and clinical course. Case Description: We report the case of a 47-year-old patient who developed an intramedullary arachnoid cyst after removal of an intradural extramedullary cyst. Conclusion: Surgery should be considered early in a symptomatic disease course. Longstanding medullary compression may reduce the possibility of neurological recovery as well as secondary complications such as intramedullary cyst formation. PMID:27512608

  6. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  7. Update on pancreatic cyst fluid analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rockacy, Matthew; Khalid, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) may be incidentally detected in up to 13.5% of patients. These represent a wide variety of lesions including mucinous cysts [intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN)] that have malignant potential. The difficulty in identifying the various PCL and their unpredictable potential for malignant degeneration makes their management cumbersome. The current diagnostic evaluation of PCL often includes EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for cyst fluid analysis. Cyst fluid can be analyzed for tumor markers, cytology, mucins, DNA analysis and amylase. Pancreatic cyst CEA level is considered the most accurate tumor marker for diagnosing mucinous cysts. Approximately 0.2 to 1.0 mL of cyst fluid is required to run the test and a cut-off of 192 ng/ mL can be expected to capture ~75% of mucinous cysts. The presence of a KRAS mutation is very specific for a mucinous cyst but lacks sensitivity. Cytology is especially helpful in diagnosing malignancy typically in the presence of a solid component in the cyst. Newer markers to improve diagnostic accuracy are on the horizon, but clinical studies are awaited. PMID:24714589

  8. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p < 0.001). Assessment of staining intensity and staining pattern showed more strong intensity and focally pattern in odontogenic keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Findings showed higher expression of cyclin D1 in parabasal layer of odontogenic keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  9. Retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of isolating bacteria from synovial fluid in dogs with suspected septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Scharf, V F; Lewis, S T; Wellehan, J F; Wamsley, H L; Richardson, R; Sundstrom, D A; Lewis, D D

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of synovial fluid culture in obtaining the causative organism from dogs with suspected septic arthritis. In this retrospective evaluation, synovial fluid cytology and microbiology submissions from dogs with suspected septic arthritis from March 2007 to August 2011 were reviewed. Synovial fluid cytology consistent with joint sepsis was identified. Cultures of synovial fluid from dogs with clinical histories and abnormalities consistent with septic arthritis were used to evaluate the efficacy of bacterial isolation. In total, 36 dogs met the inclusion criteria. Initial aerobic cultures of joint fluid yielded bacterial growth in 44% of these dogs. All anaerobic cultures were negative. In 19% of the dogs with positive cultures, antibiotics had been administered prior to arthrocentesis compared with 10% of dogs with negative cultures. There was no association between culture efficacy and the administration of antimicrobial treatment prior to synovial fluid culture or recent surgery involving the affected joint (P=0.637 and P=0.106, respectively). Culture of synovial fluid from dogs with suspected septic arthritis has a low yield, necessitating a more effective means of identifying bacteria from suspected septic joints in dogs. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Spinal arachnoid cysts in the pediatric population: report of 31 cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bond, Aaron E; Zada, Gabriel; Bowen, Ira; McComb, J Gordon; Krieger, Mark D

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to review all cases of pediatric spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) surgically treated at the authors' institution between 1992 and 2008 and to compare these cases to the published literature for the general population. The charts of all pediatric patients with SACs were reviewed for demographics, medical history, presenting symptoms, imaging findings, operative procedure(s), complications, and outcomes. Following a complete literature review, the pediatric data were compared with data from the general population and unique findings associated with pediatric patients were identified. Thirty-one pediatric patients (median age 6.9 years) underwent operative intervention for SACs between 1992 and 2008 (median duration of follow-up 4.2 years). There were 17 female patients (55%) and 14 male patients (45%). Twenty-one patients (68%) presented with symptoms of radiculopathy or myelopathy. The most common presenting symptoms were pain (42%), lower-extremity weakness (39%), gait instability (32%), spasticity (19%), sensory loss (10%), and bladder dysfunction (7%). In 3 patients (10%) SACs were incidental findings. Intradural SACs were more common (18 patients, 58%) than extradural SACs (11 patients, 36%). One patient (3%) had extradural and intradural components. One patient (3%) had a purely intramedullary cyst, and 1 patient (3%) had both an intradural and intramedullary component. Of the 18 intradural SACs, 9 (50%) were located ventral to the spinal cord and 9 (50%) were dorsally situated. One dorsal intradural SAC had an intramedullary component. All extradural SACs were located dorsal to the spinal cord. Intradural SACs were primarily concentrated in the cervical and thoracic regions (67%), whereas extradural cysts were more evenly distributed between the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions. Of the 18 patients with intradural SACs, 13 (72%) had significant previous CNS abnormalities, compared with 3 (27%) of 11 patients with extradural SACs

  11. Odonto calcifying cyst.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Nalini; Mastan, Kader; Manikandan, Tirupathi; Samuel, Gigi

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested.

  12. Aneurysmal bone cyst of C2 treated with novel anterior reconstruction and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Aiyer, Siddharth N; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Kanna, Rishi; Maheswaran, Anupama

    2016-03-23

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) form 1 % of primary bone tumors. Reported incidence rates are no more than 1.4 to 1,00,000. ABC of spine frequently involves posterior elements and commonly affects the lumbar spine (45 %). We present a case of C2 ABC for the challenges it poses due to the rarity of the lesion, tedious to access location, dilemmas relating to the suitable approach for tumor resection and technically demanding stabilization and reconstruction strategy post resection. Clinical data analysis was performed to discuss a method of novel anterior column reconstruction following resection of a C2 aneurysmal bone cyst in a 8 year old child with anterior and posterior elements being involved. An 8-year-old girl with an aneurysmal bone cyst of the C2 vertebra underwent staged surgery following pre-operative embolisation. First a posterior approach tumor excision with posterior instrumented fusion was performed. Following which, using a modified anterior retropharyngeal approach anterior tumor excision and fibular graft reconstruction between the C1 lateral mass and C2 body was performed. Complete tumor clearance and stable reconstruction was successfully achieved in our patient. Patient showed excellent clinical outcome with radiological fusion. Preoperative embolisation in the treatment of ABC has supplemental advantage by reducing blood loss. Modified anterior retropharyngeal approach allows satisfactory clearance for C1-2 lesion and fibular strut graft between the C1 lateral mass and C2 body can provide a stable graft placement with good chance of fusion. Instability and spinal deformity, whether preexisting or post-excision, should be corrected with reconstruction and stabilization to offer best chance of cure in such cases.

  13. Tribological and Rheological Properties of a Synovial Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossner, Rebecca; Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and the plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, are the most abundant macromolecules in synovial fluid, the fluid that lubricates freely moving joints. In previous studies, bovine synovial fluid, a synovial fluid model (SFM) and albumin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were observed to be rheopectic---viscosity increases over time under constant shear. Additionally, steady shear experiments have a strong shear history dependence in protein-containing solutions, whereas samples of HA in PBS behaved as a ``typical'' polyelectrolyte. The observed rheopexy and shear history dependence are indicative of structure building in solution, which is most likely caused by protein aggregation. The tribology of the SFM was also investigated using nanoindenter-based scratch tests. The coefficient of frictions (μ) between the diamond nanoindenter tip and a polyethylene surface was measured in the presence of the SFM and solutions with varied protein and HA concentrations. The lowest μ is observed in the SFM, which most closely mimics a healthy joint. Finally, an anti-inflammatory drug, hydroxychloroquine, was shown to inhibit protein interactions in the SFM in rheological studies, and thus the tribological response was examined. We hypothesize that the rheopectic behavior is important in lubrication regimes and therefore, the rheological and tribological properties of these solutions will be correlated.

  14. Analysis of synovial fluid components of hydrarthrosis in long-term hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shiota, E; Maekawa, M; Ohtani, M

    1999-01-01

    The synovial fluid components in long-term hemodialysis patients (HD; 43 knees in 43 patients) were investigated and compared with those in patients with osteoarthritis (OA; 21 knees in 21 patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; 26 knees in 26 patients). The average ages in the three groups were, respectively, 60.7 years (range, 34-79 years), 63.2 years (range, 48-88 years), and 59.7 years (range, 37-76 years). The duration of hemodialysis in the HD group averaged 14.0 years (range, 4-24 years). The concentrations of hyaluronic acid, protein, and isomers of chondroitin sulfate (chondroitin 6-sulfate [C6S] and chondroitin 4-sulfate [C4S]) in the synovial fluid, and its viscosity were measured. Differences in each of the parameters were investigated according to disease clinical stage, roentgenological grade, and periods of dialysis in the HD group. The viscosity of the synovial fluid and the concentration of hyaluronic acid in HD patients were similar to those in OA patients; however, the C6S/C4S ratio in the synovial fluid of HD patients was similar to that in RA patients. The latter finding suggests that synovitis may be present in the hydrarthrosis of HD patients. The cause of this synovitis in HD patients remains to be elucidated.

  15. Effect of repeated arthrocentesis on cytologic analysis of synovial fluid in dogs.

    PubMed

    Berg, R I M; Sykes, J E; Kass, P H; Vernau, W

    2009-01-01

    Serial arthrocentesis and synovial fluid examination can be used to monitor treatment efficacy in immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA), but whether this procedure induces inflammation that interferes with test result interpretation is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of repeated arthrocentesis on synovial fluid cytology in healthy dogs. Nine healthy client-owned dogs. Prospective study. Arthrocentesis was performed under sedation on 4 joints (both carpi, 1 tarsus, 1 stifle) on each dog every 3 weeks, a total of 4 times. Automated cell counts were done on stifle fluid, smears were made, and differential cell counts done on smears from all joints. Slides were evaluated microscopically for erythrocyte numbers, total nucleated cell count, differential cell count, and cell morphology. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. A total of 144 synovial fluid samples were examined. Repeated arthrocentesis was not associated with increases in synovial fluid neutrophil numbers. Mild mononuclear inflammation was detected in 13 samples from 6 dogs. Serial arthrocentesis at 3-week intervals can rarely be associated with mild mononuclear joint inflammation, but does not appear to induce neutrophilic inflammation, at least in healthy dogs, and can be useful to monitor treatment response in canine IMPA.

  16. Joint capsule treatment with enkephalin-encoding HSV-1 recombinant vector reduces inflammatory damage and behavioural sequelae in rat CFA monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; McNearney, Terry A; Wilson, Steven P; Yeomans, David C; Westlund, Karin N

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed enkephalin expression induced by intra-articular application of recombinant, enkephalin-encoding herpes virus (HSV-1) and the impact of expression on nociceptive behaviours and synovial lining inflammation in arthritic rats. Replication-conditional HSV-1 recombinant vectors with cDNA encoding preproenkephalin (HSV-ENK), or control transgene beta-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-beta-gal; control) were injected into knee joints with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Joint temperatures, circumferences and nociceptive behaviours were monitored on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 post CFA and vector treatments. Lumbar (L4-6) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords were immunostained for met-enkephalin (met-ENK), beta-gal, HSV-1 proteins and Fos. Joint tissues were immunostained for met-ENK, HSV-1 proteins, and inflammatory mediators Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) and cyclo-oxygenase-2, or stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Compared to exuberant synovial hypertrophy and inflammatory cell infiltration seen in arthritic rats treated with CFA only or CFA and HSV-beta-gal, the CFA- and HSV-ENK-treated arthritic rats had: (i) striking preservation of synovial membrane cytoarchitecture with minimal inflammatory cell infiltrates; (ii) significantly improved nociceptive behavioural responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli; (iii) normalized Fos staining in lumbar dorsal horn; and (iv) significantly increased met-ENK staining in ipsilateral synovial tissue, lumbar DRG and spinal cord. The HSV-1 and transgene product expression were confined to ipsilateral lumbar DRG (HSV-1, met-ENK, beta-gal). Only transgene product (met-ENK and beta-gal) was seen in lumbar spinal cord sections. Targeted delivery of enkephalin-encoding HSV-1 vector generated safe, sustained opioid-induced analgesia with protective anti-inflammatory blunting in rat inflammatory arthritis.

  17. Connexin43 Mediated Delivery of ADAMTS5 Targeting siRNAs from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Synovial Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Niger, Corinne; Koh, Eugene Y; Stains, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint-destructive disease that has no effective cure. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) could offer therapeutic benefit in the treatment of arthritic diseases by suppressing inflammation and permitting tissue regeneration, but first these cells must overcome the catabolic environment of the diseased joint. Likewise, gene therapy also offers therapeutic promise given its ability to directly modulate key catabolic factors that mediate joint deterioration, although it too has limitations. In the current study, we explore an approach that combines hMSCs and gene therapy. Specifically, we test the use of hMSC as a vehicle to deliver ADAMTS5 (an aggrecanase with a key role in osteoarthritis)-targeting siRNAs to SW982 synovial fibroblast-like cells via connexin43 containing gap junctions. Accordingly, we transduced hMSCs with ADAMTS5-targeting shRNA or non-targeted shRNA, and co-cultured them with synovial fibroblasts to allow delivery of siRNAs from hMSC to synovial fibroblasts. We found that co-culture of hMSCs-shRNA-ADAMTS5 and synovial fibroblasts reduced ADAMTS5 expression relative to co-culture of hMSCs-shRNA-control and synovial fibroblasts. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was specifically reduced in the synovial fibroblasts populations as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, suggesting transfer of the siRNA between cells. To test if Cx43-containing gap junctions are involved in the transfer of siRNA, we co-cultured hMSCs-shRNA-ADAMTS5 cells with synovial fibroblasts in which connexin43 was knocked down. Under these conditions, ADAMTS5 levels were not inhibited by co-culture, indicating that connexin43 mediates the delivery of siRNA from hMSCs to synovial fibroblasts. In total, our findings demonstrate that hMSCs can function as donor cells to host and deliver siRNAs to synovial fibroblasts via connexin43 gap junction in vitro. These data may have implications in the combination of hMSCs and gene therapy to treat diseases like

  18. Expression of cytokeratins in odontogenic jaw cysts: monoclonal antibodies reveal distinct variation between different cyst types.

    PubMed

    Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I

    1987-08-01

    Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.

  19. OSTEOCHONDROMA OF THE PROXIMAL HUMERUS WITH FRICTIONAL BURSITIS AND SECONDARY SYNOVIAL OSTEOCHONDROMATOSIS.

    PubMed

    De Groote, J; Geerts, B; Mermuys, K; Verstraete, K

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of multiple hereditary exostosis in a 33-year old patient with clinical symptoms of pain and impression of a growing mass of the left shoulder alerting potential risk of malignant transformation of an osteochondroma. Imaging studies illustrated perilesional bursitis surrounding an osteochondroma of the proximal humerus. Malignant transformation was excluded with MRI. Fragments of the osteochondroma were dislocated in the inflammatory synovial bursa illustrating a case of secondary synovial osteochondromatosis.

  20. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  1. Does Lordotic Angle of Cage Determine Lumbar Lordosis in Lumbar Interbody Fusion?

    PubMed

    Hong, Taek-Ho; Cho, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Jae-Woo; Seo, Beom-Ho; Kim, Nak-Chul

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective, radiological analysis. To determine that 15° lordotic angle cages create higher lumbar lordosis in open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) than 4° and 8° cages. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important to obtain good outcome after lumbar fusion surgery. Various shapes and angles of cages in interbody fusion have been used; however, it is not proved that lordotic angle of cages determine lumbar lordosis. Sixty-seven patients were evaluated after TLIF using 15° cages and screw instrumentation. For comparison, TLIF using 4° lordotic angle cages in 65 patients and 8° cages in 49 patients were analyzed. Lumbar lordosis angles, segmental lordosis angles, disc height, and bony union rate were measured on the radiographs. The lumbar lordosis was 31.1° preoperatively, improved to 42.9° postoperatively, and decreased to 36.4° at the last follow-up in the 15° group. It was 35.8° before surgery, corrected to 41.5° after surgery, and changed to 33.6° at the last follow-up in the 4° group. In the 8° group, it was 32.7° preoperatively, improved to 39.1° postoperatively, and decreased to 34.5° at the last follow-up. These changes showed statistical significances (P < 0.001). The segmental lordosis at L4-5 was 6.6° before surgery, 13.1° after surgery, and 9.8° at the last follow-up in the 15° group. It was 6.9°, 9.5°, and 6.2° in the 4° group and 6.7°, 9.8°, and 8.1° in the 8° group, respectively (P < 0.001). The disc height restoration was better in the 15° group than in the 4° and 8° groups (P < 0.001). Bony union rate was not significant among the three groups (P = 0.087). The lordotic angle of the cages determined restoration of lumbar lordosis after TLIF. Cages with sufficient lordotic angle showed better restoration of lumbar lordosis and prevention of loss of correction. 4.

  2. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, David P.; Mahood, Albert D.

    1981-01-01

    Many Chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. We have used an ecologic and biogeographic approach to study the distribution of cyst forms in sediments and have established that many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples we have studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Numerous taxonomic problems have yet to be resolved. We believe that chrysophyte cysts have the potential to become a useful tool for both modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits.

  3. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed.

  4. Btk inhibition suppresses agonist-induced human macrophage activation and inflammatory gene expression in RA synovial tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Hartkamp, Linda M; Fine, Jay S; van Es, Inge E; Tang, Man Wai; Smith, Michael; Woods, John; Narula, Satwant; DeMartino, Julie; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2015-08-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is required for B lymphocyte and myeloid cell contributions to pathology in murine models of arthritis. Here, we examined the potential contributions of synovial Btk expression and activation to inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Btk was detected by immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis in synovial tissue from biologically naive RA (n=16) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) (n=12) patients. Cell populations expressing Btk were identified by immunofluorescent double labelling confocal microscopy, quantitative (q-) PCR and immunoblotting. The effects of a Btk-specific inhibitor, RN486, on gene expression in human macrophages and RA synovial tissue explants (n=8) were assessed by qPCR, ELISA and single-plex assays. Btk was expressed at equivalent levels in RA and PsA synovial tissue, restricted to B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells. RN486 significantly inhibited macrophage IL-6 production induced by Fc receptor and CD40 ligation. RN486 also reduced mRNA expression of overlapping gene sets induced by IgG, CD40 ligand (CD40L) and RA synovial fluid, and significantly suppressed macrophage production of CD40L-induced IL-8, TNF, MMP-1 and MMP-10, LPS-induced MMP-1, MMP-7 and MMP-10 production, and spontaneous production of IL-6, PDGF, CXCL-9 and MMP-1 by RA synovial explants. Btk is expressed equivalently in RA and PsA synovial tissue, primarily in macrophages. Btk activity is needed to drive macrophage activation in response to multiple agonists relevant to inflammatory arthritis, and promotes RA synovial tissue cytokine and MMP production. Pharmacological targeting of Btk may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of RA and other inflammatory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Examination of synovial fluid hyaluronan quantity and quality in stifle joints of dogs with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Venable, Rachel O; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, Cristi R; Cockrell, Mary K; Cook, James L

    2008-12-01

    To determine the quantity (concentration) and quality (molecular weight) of synovial fluid hyaluronan with respect to presence and severity of osteoarthritis in stifle joints of dogs. 21 purpose-bred dogs and 6 clinically affected large-breed dogs (cranial cruciate ligament [CrCL] disease with secondary osteoarthritis). Research dogs underwent arthroscopic surgery in 1 stifle joint to induce osteoarthritis via CrCL transection (CrCLt; n=5 stifle joints), femoral condylar articular cartilage groove creation (GR; 6), or meniscal release (MR; 5); 5 had sham surgery (SH) performed. Contralateral stifle joints (n=21) were used as unoperated control joints. Synovial fluid was obtained from research dogs at time 0 and 12 weeks after surgery and from clinically affected dogs prior to surgery. All dogs were assessed for lameness, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, and pathologic findings on arthroscopy as well as for quantity and quality of hyaluronan. Clinically affected dogs had significantly greater degrees of pathologic findings, compared with dogs with surgically induced osteoarthritis (ie, those with CrCLt, GR, and MR stifle joints), and with respect to lameness scores, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, pathologic findings on arthroscopy, and synovial fluid hyaluronan concentration. Synovial fluid from stifle joints of dogs with surgically induced osteoarthritis had hyaluronan bands at 35 kd on western blots that synovial fluid from SH and clinically affected stifle joints did not. Synovial fluid hyaluronan quantity and quality were altered in stifle joints of dogs with osteoarthritis, compared with control stifle joints. A specific hyaluronan protein fragment may be associated with early pathologic changes in affected joints.

  6. [Biomechanics changes of lumbar spine caused by foraminotomy via percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy].

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Yu, S S; Liu, J J; Chen, L; Jing, J H

    2018-04-03

    Objective: To analyze the biomechanics changes of lumbar spine caused by foraminotomy via percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy using the finite element method. Methods: Three healthy adult males (aged 35.6 to 42.3 years) without spinal diseases were enrolled in this study and 3D-CT scans were carried out to obtain the parameters of lumbar spine. Mimics software was applied to build a 3D finite element model of lumbar spine. Graded resections (1/4, 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4) of the left superior articular process of L(5) were done via percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy. Then, the pressure of the L(4/5) right facets, the pressure of the L(4/5) intervertebral disc and the motion of lumbar spine were recorded after simulating the normal flexion and extension, lateral flexion and rotation of the lumbar spine model during different resections. The data were compared among groups with analysis of variance. Results: Comparing with the normal group, after 1/4 resection of the left superior articular process of L(5), the pressure of the L(4/5) right facets showed significant differences during left lateral flexion and rotation of lumbar spine ( q =8.823, 8.248, both P <0.05); and the pressure of L(4/5) intervertebral disc also changed significantly during extension and right rotation of lumbar spine ( q =6.918, 6.438, both P <0.05); the motion of lumbar spine showed obvious differences during right lateral flexion and rotation ( q =6.845, 7.772, 13.58, all P <0.05). Comparing with the normal group, after 2/4 resection of the left superior articular process of L(5), the pressure of the L(4/5) right facets presented significant differences during all conditions ( q =5.670-17.830, all P <0.05); the pressure of L(4/5) intervertebral disc changed significantly during flexion, extension, lateral flexion and right rotation ( q =5.260, 17.150, 5.727, 8.890, 15.660, all P <0.05); the motion of lumbar spine also existed differences during extension

  7. Management strategy for unicameral bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Chuo, Chin-Yi; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chien, Song-Hsiung; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Wang, Gwo-Jaw

    2003-06-01

    The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of treatment is to prevent pathologic fracture, to promote cyst healing, and to avoid cyst recurrence and re-fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 cases of unicameral bone cysts (12 in the humerus, 3 in the femur, 2 in the fibula) managed by conservative observation, curettage and bone grafting with open reduction and internal fixation, or continuous decompression and drainage with a cannulated screw. We suggest percutaneous cannulated screw insertion to promote cyst healing and prevent pathologic fracture. We devised a protocol for the management of unicameral bone cysts.

  8. Transforaminal endoscopic treatment of lumbar radiculopathy after instrumented lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Telfeian, Albert E; Jasper, Gabriele P; Francisco, Gina M

    2015-01-01

    Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy is a well-described minimally invasive technique for surgically treating lumbar radiculopathy caused by a herniated disc and foraminal narrowing. To describe the technique and feasibility of transforaminal foraminoplasty for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in patients who have already undergone instrumented spinal fusion. Retrospective study. Hospital and ambulatory surgery center After Institutional Review Board approval, charts from 18 consecutive patients with lumbar radiculopathy and instrumented spinal fusions who underwent endoscopic procedures between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The average pain relief one year postoperatively was reported to be 67.0%, good results as defined by MacNab. The average preoperative VAS score was 9.14, indicated in our questionnaire as severe and constant pain. The average one year postoperative VAS score was 3.00, indicated in our questionnaire as mild and intermittent pain. This is a retrospective study and only offers one year follow-up data for patients with instrumented fusions who have undergone endoscopic spine surgery. Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy could be used as a safe, yet, minimally invasive and innovative technique for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of previous instrumented lumbar fusion. IRB approval: Meridian Health: IRB Study # 201206071J

  9. MT1-MMP is a crucial promotor of synovial invasion in human rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mary-Clare; Manning, Hugh B.; Jain, Abhilash; Troeberg, Linda; Dudhia, Jayesh; Essex, David; Sandison, Ann; Seiki, Motoharu; Nanchahal, Jagdeep; Nagase, Hideaki; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Objective A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is invasion of the synovial pannus into cartilage and this step requires degradation of the collagen matrix. The aim of this study was to explore the role of one of the collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), in synovial pannus invasiveness. Methods Expression and localization of MT1-MMP in human RA pannus were investigated by Western blot analysis of primary synovial cells and immunohistochemistry of RA joints specimens. The functional role of MT1-MMP was analyzed by 3D collagen invasion assays and a cartilage invasion assay in the presence or absence of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-2, or GM6001. The effect of adenoviral expression of a dominant negative MT1-MMP construct lacking a catalytic domain was also examined. Results MT1-MMP was highly expressed at the pannus-cartilage junction of RA joints. Freshly isolated rheumatoid synovial tissues and isolated RA synovial fibroblasts invaded into a 3D collagen matrix in an MT1-MMP-dependent manner. Invasion was blocked by TIMP-2 and GM6001, but not by TIMP-1. It was also inhibited by the over-expression of a dominant negative MT1-MMP which inhibits collagenolytic activity and proMMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP on the cell surface. Synovial fibroblasts also invaded into cartilage in an MT1-MMP-dependent manner. This process was further enhanced by removing aggrecan from the cartilage matrix. Conclusion MT1-MMP is an essential collagen-degrading proteinase during pannus invasion in human RA. Specific inhibition of MT1-MMP-dependent invasion may form a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. PMID:19248098

  10. Infected orbital cyst following exenteration.

    PubMed

    Barak, A; Hirsh, A; Rosner, M; Rosen, N

    1996-09-01

    An orbital cyst is a rare complication of orbital trauma and exenteration. Infections of such cysts have not been described, and are potentially dangerous unless treated immediately. The authors describe a case of delayed treatment of such an infected cyst, which resolved following surgical drainage. The potentially hazardous outcome makes knowledge of such cases important.

  11. Size selectivity of hyaluronan molecular sieving by extracellular matrix in rabbit synovial joints

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, S; Arunan, V; Coleman, PJ; Mason, RM; Levick, JR

    2005-01-01

    In joint fluid the polymer hyaluronan (HA) confers viscous lubrication and greatly attenuates trans-synovial fluid loss (outflow buffering). Outflow buffering arises from the molecular sieving (reflection) and concentration polarization of HA at the synovial membrane surface. Outflow buffering declines if HA chain length is reduced, as in arthritis, and this has been attributed to reduced HA reflection. This was tested directly in the present study. Infused solutions of HA of ∼2200 kDa (HA2000, 0.2 mg ml−1) or ∼500 kDa (HA500, 0.2 mg ml−1) or ∼140 kDa (HA140, 0.2–4.0 mg ml−1) were filtered across the synovial lining of the knee joint cavity of anaesthetized rabbits at a constant rate, along with a freely permeating reference solute, 20 kDa fluorescein–dextran (FD20). After a priming period the femoral lymph was sampled over 3 h. Mixed intra-articular (i.a.) fluid and subsynovial fluid were sampled at the end. Fluids were analysed by gel exclusion chromatography. The trans-synovial concentration profile was found to depend on polymer size. The i.a. concentration of HA2000 increased substantially relative to infusate and the subsynovial and lymph concentrations fell substantially. For HA500 and HA140 the trans-synovial concentration gradients were less pronounced, and absent for FD. The reflected fractions for HA2000, HA500 and HA140 across the cavity-to-lymph barrier were 0.65 ± 0.05 (n = 10), 0.43 ± 0.09 (n = 3) and 0.19 ± 0.05 (n = 7), respectively, at matched filtration rates (P < 0.0001, analysis of variance). Reflected fractions calculated from HA i.a. accumulation or subsynovial dilution showed the same trend. The results demonstrate size-selective molecular sieving by the synovial extracellular matrix, equivalent to steric exclusion from cylindrical pores of radius 33–59 nm. The findings underpin the concentration polarization-outflow buffering theory and indicate that reduced HA chain length in arthritis exacerbates lubricant loss from a

  12. Epidermoid cyst of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225

  13. A guided tour of current research in synovial joints with reference to wavelet methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ruchi; Salimath, C. S.; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-10-01

    Main aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of biomechanical aspects of synovial joints of human body. This can be considered as a part of continued research work carried out by various authors over a period of time. Almost every person once in life time has suffered from joint disease; this has triggered intensive investigation into various biomechanical aspects of synovial joints. This has also resulted into an increase of arthroplasty with introduction to various clinical trials. From last few decades new improvements and ideas for new technologies have been introduced to decrease the incidence of joint problem. In this paper a literature survey of recent advances, developments and recognition of wear and tear of human joint is presented. Wavelet method in Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is relatively a new research field. This review aims to provide a glimpse of wavelet methodology in CFD. Wavelets methodology has played a vital role in the solution of governing equation of synovial fluid flow in the synovial joints represented by Reynolds equation and its modified version.

  14. Influence of lumbar lordosis restoration on thoracic curve and sagittal position in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jee-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ho; Min, Jun-Hong; Maeng, Dae Hyeon

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective study. To determine postsurgical correlations between thoracic and lumbar sagittal curves in lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) and to determine predictability of spontaneous correction of thoracic curve and sacral angle after surgical restoration of lumbar lordosis and fusion. To our knowledge, there are only a limited number of articles about the relationship between thoracic and lumbar curve in sagittal thoracic compensated LDK. Retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients treated with combined anterior and posterior spinal arthrodesis. We included patients with sagittal thoracic compensated LDK caused by sagittal imbalance in this study. Total lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, sacral slope, and C7 plumb line were measured on the pre- and postoperative whole spine lateral views. Postoperative changes in thoracic kyphosis, sacral slope, and C7 plumb line according to the surgical lumbar lordosis restoration were measured and evaluated. The mean preoperative sagittal imbalance by plumb line was 78.3 mm (+/-76.5); this improved to 13.6 mm (+/-25) after surgery (P < 0.0001). Mean lumbar lordosis was 9.4 degrees (+/-19.2) before surgery and increased to 38.4 degrees (+/-13.1) at follow-up (P < 0.0001). Mean thoracic kyphosis was 1.1 degrees (+/-12.7) before surgery and increased to 17.6 degrees (+/-12.2) at follow-up (P < 0.0001). Significant preoperative correlations existed between kyphosis and lordosis (r = 0.772, P < 0.0001) and between lordosis and sacral slope (r = 0.785, P < 0.0001). Postoperative lumbar lordosis is correlated to thoracic kyphosis increase (r = 0.620, P < 0.0001). Postoperative lumbar lordosis is correlated to sacral slope increase (r = 0.722, P < 0.0001). Reciprocal relationship exists between lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in sagittal thoracic compensated LDK. Surgical restoration of lumbar lordosis for LDK brings about high level of statistical correlation to thoracic kyphosis improvement. At the same time, the

  15. Impact of synovial fluid flow on temperature regulation in knee cartilage.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mohamadreza Nassajian; Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Camine, Valérie Malfroy; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2015-01-21

    Several studies have reported an increase of temperature in cartilage submitted to cyclic sinusoidal loading. The temperature increase is in part due to the viscous behavior of this tissue, which partially dissipates the input mechanical energy into heat. While the synovial fluid flow within the intra-articular gap and inside the porous cartilage is supposed to play an important role in the regulation of the cartilage temperature, no specific study has evaluated this aspect. In the present numerical study, a poroelastic model of the knee cartilage is developed to evaluate first the temperature increase in the cartilage due to dissipation and second the impact of the synovial fluid flow in the cartilage heat transfer phenomenon. Our results showed that, the local temperature is effectively increased in knee cartilage due to its viscous behavior. The synovial fluid flow cannot significantly preventing this phenomenon. We explain this result by the low permeability of cartilage and the moderate fluid exchange at the surface of cartilage under deformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall protein CST1 is critical for cyst wall integrity and promotes bradyzoite persistence

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen

    2013-12-26

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world’s population. A key to the success of T.gondii is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in a fragile brain cyst phenotype revealed bymore » a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that reinforces the cyst wall structure and confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst.« less

  17. [Study of 103 cases of odontogenic cysts].

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Bravo, Gustavo Sergio; Magallanes-González, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    To describe characteristics of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican population. A retrospective study of 103 odontogenic cysts in 86 patients was done. The data were obtained from files of the Pathology Department of a General Hospital. We observed a frequency of the 8.13 % of odontogenic cysts (103) in 1266 pathological studies. The dentigerous cyst 56 % and odontogenic keratocyst 33 % were the most common odontogenic cysts. Sixty one percent of the cysts appeared in the second and third decades of life. In 71 cysts, 42 % appeared in the posterior region jaw, 29 % in the anterior region of the maxilla and 21 % in the posterior region of the maxilla. A 6.7 % developed a recurrence after treatment and a case of keratocyst of posterior region of the maxilla was associated with epidermoid carcinoma. The study included three women with the syndrome of carcinoma of the basal cell nevus, who presented multiple keratocysts. The dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts were the most frequent odontogenic cysts. They appeared mainly in the second and third decades of life.

  18. [Analysis of factors related to the number of mesenchymal stem cells derived from synovial fluid of the temporomandibular joint].

    PubMed

    Sun, Y P; Zheng, Y H; Zhang, Z G

    2017-06-09

    Objective: To analyze related factors on the number of mesenchymal stem cells in the synovial fluid of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and provide an research basis for understanding of the source and biological role of mesenchymal stem cells derived from synovial fluid in TMJ. Methods: One hundred and twenty-two synovial fluid samples from 91 temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients who visited in Department of TMJ Center, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University from March 2013 to December 2013 were collected in this study, and 6 TMJ synovial fluid samples from 6 normal volunteers who were studying in the North Campus of Sun Yat-sen University were also collected, so did their clinical information. Then the relation between the number of mesenchymal stem cells derived from synovial fluid and the health status of the joints, age of donor, disc perforation, condylar bony destruction, blood containing and visual analogue scale score of pain were investigated using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The number of mesenchymal stem cells derived from synovial fluid had no significant relation with visual analogue scale score of pain ( r= 0.041, P= 0.672), blood containing ( P= 0.063), condylar bony destruction ( P= 0.371). Linear correlation between the number of mesenchymal stem cells derived from synovial fluid and age of donor was very week ( r= 0.186, P= 0.043). The number of mesenchymal stem cells up-regulated when the joint was in a disease state ( P= 0.001). The disc perforation group had more mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid than without disc perforation group ( P= 0.042). Conclusions: The number of mesenchymal stem cells derived from synovial fluid in TMJ has no correlation with peripheral blood circulation and condylar bony destruction, while has close relation with soft tissue structure damage of the joint.

  19. Establishment and characterization of the NCC-SS1-C1 synovial sarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Kito, Fusako; Oyama, Rieko; Takai, Yoko; Sakumoto, Marimu; Shiozawa, Kumiko; Qiao, Zhiwei; Uehara, Takenori; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2018-04-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal malignancy characterized by unique gene fusions. Tissue culture cells are essential tools for further understanding tumorigenesis and anti-cancer drug development; however, only a limited number of well-characterized synovial sarcoma cell lines exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish a patient-derived synovial sarcoma cell line. We established a synovial sarcoma cell line from tumor tissue isolated from a 72-year-old female patient. Prepared cells were analyzed for the presence of gene fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and karyotyping. In addition, the resulting cell line was characterized by viability, short tandem repeat, colony and spheroid formation, and invasion analyses. Differences in gene enrichment between the primary tumor and cell line were examined by mass spectrometric protein expression profiling and KEGG pathway analysis. Our analyses revealed that the primary tumor and NCC-SS1-C1 cell line harbored the SS18-SSX1 fusion gene typical of synovial sarcoma and similar proteomics profiles. In vitro analyses also confirmed that the established cell line harbored invasive, colony-forming, and spheroid-forming potentials. Moreover, drug screening with chemotherapeutic agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors revealed that doxorubicin, a subset of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and several molecular targeting drugs markedly decreased NCC-SS1-C1 cell viability. Results from the present study support that the NCC-SS1-C1 cell line will be an effective tool for sarcoma research.

  20. Managing Incidental Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jennifer; Raman Muthusamy, V

    2018-06-09

    The goal of this review is to critically analyze the current literature regarding the management of incidental pancreatic cysts. Given their increased rates of detection due to the frequent use of cross-sectional imaging, correctly identifying the subset of high risk lesions that are appropriate for surgical resection is critical. However, the existing consensus and societal guidelines discussed in this review lack high quality data to create evidence-based recommendations, making achieving this important aim challenging. Several recent studies have focused on the natural history of pancreatic cysts and defining the role of endoscopic ultrasound, which remains unclear. EUS-guided diagnostic tools include molecular analysis of obtained fluid; EUS-guided FNA, FNB, and intracystic forceps biopsy of the cyst wall; and confocal endomicroscopy. While their precise role in diagnosing pancreatic cystic neoplasms remains to be defined, they represent promising innovations that may play a future role in cyst assessment and management. Large, long-term, prospective studies of incidentally identified pancreatic cysts are essential to fully understand their natural history and potential for neoplastic progression. Given the absence of such data at present, an individualized patient approach is recommended.

  1. P53 Protein Expression in Dental Follicle, Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Inflammatory Subtypes of Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). Results The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. Conclusions The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression. PMID:28584604

  2. P53 Protein Expression in Dental Follicle, Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Inflammatory Subtypes of Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi

    2017-05-01

    An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant ( p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression.

  3. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience.

    PubMed

    Román-González, Alejandro; Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME ( Biblioteca Regional de Medicina ) LILACS ( Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud ), Google Scholar and Scielo ( Scientific Electronic Library on Line ) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid.

  4. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Methods Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina) LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), Google Scholar and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library on Line) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Results Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Conclusions Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid. PMID:28149800

  5. Identification of the advanced glycation end products N -carboxymethyllysine in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Drinda, S; Franke, S; Canet, C; Petrow, P; Brauer, R; Huttich, C; Stein, G; Hein, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: Generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an inevitable process in vivo and can be accelerated under pathological conditions such as oxidative stress. In serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) raised AGE levels have been found. Objective: To determine the presence of N -carboxymethyllysine (CML; marker of oxidative stress) in RA synovial tissue by immunohistology. Methods: Frozen synovial tissue samples from 10 patients with RA and eight controls (four patients without joint disease and four patients with osteoarthritis (OA)) were treated with rabbit-anti-CML-IgG and goat-antirabbit-IgG. Immunostaining was visualised by streptavidine-alkaline phosphatase (chromogen fuchsin). Cell differentiation was performed with antibodies against CD68, CD45RO, and CD20. Results: CML was detected in the synovial lining, sublining, and endothelium in 10/10 RA and 4/4 OA synovial specimens. In RA some macrophages (CD68+) and T cells (CD45RO+) showed positive immunostaining for CML, whereas B cells were negative. Staining in OA synovial sublining was weak compared with RA. Conclusions: CML was detected for the first time in RA and OA synovial tissue. Different patterns of immunostaining in RA and OA and the presence of CML on macrophages and T cells, suggest a role for CML in the pathogenesis of RA. This might be due to presentation of new epitopes which can maintain or even trigger an autoimmune response. PMID:12006318

  6. Synovial fluid multiplex PCR is superior to culture for detection of low-virulent pathogens causing periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Christian; Cabric, Sabrina; Perka, Carsten; Trampuz, Andrej; Renz, Nora

    2018-02-01

    Analysis of joint aspirate is the standard preoperative investigation for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We compared the diagnostic performance of culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of synovial fluid for diagnosis of PJI. Patients in whom aspiration of the prosthetic hip or knee joint was performed before revision arthroplasty were prospectively included. The performance of synovial fluid culture and multiplex PCR was compared by McNemar's chi-squared test. A total of 142 patients were included, 82 with knee and 60 with hip prosthesis. PJI was diagnosed in 77 patients (54%) and aseptic failure in 65 patients (46%). The sensitivity of synovial fluid culture and PCR was 52% and 60%, respectively, showing concordant results in 116 patients (82%). In patients with PJI, PCR missed 6 high-virulent pathogens (S. aureus, streptococci, E. faecalis, E. coli) which grew in synovial fluid culture, whereas synovial fluid culture missed 12 pathogens detected by multiplex PCR, predominantly low-virulent pathogens (Cutibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci). In patients with aseptic failure, PCR detected 6 low-virulent organisms (predominantly C. acnes). While the overall performance of synovial fluid PCR was comparable to culture, PCR was superior for detection of low-virulent bacteria such as Cutibacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In addition, synovial fluid culture required several days for growth, whereas multiplex PCR provided results within 5hours in an automated manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Keratinous inclusion cyst of oesophagus: unusual finding

    PubMed Central

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mutum, Samarendra Singh; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of the oesophagus are unusual findings and they are classified according to the embryological site of origin. It may represent inclusion cysts, retention cysts and developmental cysts. We present a case of keratinous inclusion cyst of the lower oesophagus in a 71-year-old Malay woman who presented with dyspepsia and severe epigastric pain. An oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated a sliding hiatus hernia with whitish ulcer-like lesion at the lower oesophagus. Biopsy from the lesion revealed a keratinous inclusion cyst. The patient was given pantoprazole and put on regular follow-up for monitoring any other development. PMID:23878290

  8. Lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis is a key postural component that has interested both clinicians and researchers for many years. Despite its wide use in assessing postural abnormalities, there remain many unanswered questions regarding lumbar lordosis measurements. Therefore, in this article we reviewed different factors associated with the lordosis angle based on existing literature and determined normal values of lordosis. We reviewed more than 120 articles that measure and describe the different factors associated with the lumbar lordosis angle. Because of a variety of factors influencing the evaluation of lumbar lordosis such as how to position the patient and the number of vertebrae included in the calculation, we recommend establishing a uniform method of evaluating the lordosis angle. Based on our review, it seems that the optimal position for radiologic measurement of lordosis is standing with arms supported while shoulders are flexed at a 30° angle. There is evidence that many factors, such as age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and sport, may affect the lordosis angle, making it difficult to determine uniform normal values. Normal lordosis should be determined based on the specific characteristics of each individual; we therefore presented normal lordosis values for different groups/populations. There is also evidence that the lumbar lordosis angle is positively and significantly associated with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. However, no association has been found with other spinal degenerative features. Inconclusive evidence exists for association between lordosis and low back pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The optimal lordotic range remains unknown and may be related to a variety of individual factors such as weight, activity, muscular strength, and flexibility of the spine and lower extremities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2014-01-01

    Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

  10. [CT diagnosis of hemorrhagic renal cysts].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Z; Li, D T; Luo, J G

    2001-06-28

    CT signs of nineteen cases of hemorrhagic renal cysts that surgically and pathologically proved were analyzed. 8 of the 19 cases revealed as high density hemorrhagic lesion. CT signs in those 8 patients include low density rim sign, cyst immerging sign, and perirenal fascia thickening. The other 11 of 19 cases revealed as low density lesion. CT signs include thickened cyst wall and inhomogeneous density of the cystic content. The hounsfield unit of the lesion is correlated with the duration of disease. It is suggested that CT is valuable in diagnosis of high density hemorrhagic renal cysts, and it gives a clue to the diagnosis of low density hemorrhagic renal cysts.

  11. Synovial chemokine expression and relationship with knee symptoms in patients with meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anjali; Gan, Justin; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Verma, Nikhil; Tetreault, Matthew W.; Saha, Kanta; Margulis, Arkady; Fogg, Louis; Scanzello, Carla R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with knee OA, synovitis is associated with knee pain and symptoms. We previously identified synovial mRNA expression of a set of chemokines (CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL-1, CCR7) associated with synovitis in patients with meniscal tears but without radiographic OA. CCL19 and CCR7 were also associated with knee symptoms. This study sought to validate expression of these chemokines and association with knee symptoms in more typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, many who have pre-existing OA. Design Synovial biopsies and fluid (SF) were collected from patients undergoing meniscal arthroscopy. Synovial mRNA expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was administered preoperatively. Regression analyses determined if associations between chemokine mRNA levels and KOOS scores were independent of other factors including radiographic OA. CCL19 in SF was measured by ELISA, and compared to patients with advanced knee OA and asymptomatic organ donors. Results 90% of patients had intra-operative evidence of early cartilage degeneration. CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL1, CCR7 transcripts were detected in all patients. Synovial CCL19 mRNA levels independently correlated with KOOS Activities of Daily Living scores (95% CI [-8.071, -0.331], p= 0.036), indicating higher expression was associated with more knee-related dysfunction. SF CCL19 was detected in 7 of 10 patients, compared to 4 of 10 asymptomatic donors. Conclusion In typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, synovial CCL19 mRNA expression was associated with knee-related difficulty with activities of daily living, independent of other factors including presence of radiographic knee OA. PMID:25724256

  12. Molecular aspects of cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2005-11-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.

  13. Monophasic Synovial Sarcoma of Prostatic Fascia: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Lucio; Benecchi, Luigi; Corti, Serena; Del Boca, Carlo; Ferrari, Matteo; Sergio, Pietro; Bercich, Luisa; Tanzi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) primarily occurs in the para-articular soft tissue of the lower extremities in young adults and it is extremely rare in the prostatic region. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented with urinary retention. Pelvic ultrasound (US) examination, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an 8.5 cm mass that appeared to originate in the prostatic fascia of the right lobe. Preoperative prostatic ultrasound transrectal needle biopsy revealed mesenchymal neoplastic tissue. Patient underwent surgery. The final pathologic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma.

  14. Disappearance of Renal Cysts Included in Ice Ball During Cryoablation of Renal-Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Therapy for Symptomatic Renal Cysts?

    PubMed

    Yodoya, Mitsuko; Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Matsui, Yusuke; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Sakurai, Jun; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Gobara, Hideo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the effect of cryoablation of renal-cell carcinoma on nearby renal cysts with the goal to investigate the potential for an alternative therapy to treat symptomatic renal cysts. The study population comprised 46 cysts (mean size, 12 mm; range, 5-43 mm) that were within or near the ice ball during cryoablation in 22 patients. Size change of each cyst was evaluated via enhanced CT or MR imaging before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after cryoablation. Forty-one cysts were also followed after 12 months. Variables including positional relationship between the cyst and the ice ball were evaluated via linear regression analysis using generalized estimating equation models to determine which factors affected cyst shrinkage rate at 12 months. Fifteen, 12, and 19 cysts were completely included in, partially included in, or excluded from the ice ball, respectively. The overall shrinkage rate was 62%, and 57% of cysts (26 of 46) had disappeared at 12 months. Only the relationship between the cyst and the ice ball was significantly (P < .001) associated with cyst shrinkage rate. Cyst disappearance rates at 12 months were 100% (15 of 15), 67% (8 of 12), and 16% (3 of 19) for cysts completely included, partially included, and excluded from the ice ball, respectively. Among the 22 cysts that disappeared at 12 months and continued to be followed, none recurred after 12 months. All renal cysts that were completely included in the ice ball disappeared after cryoablation, demonstrating the potential utility of cryoablation as an alternative therapy for symptomatic renal cysts. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mammary and femoral hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease most commonly affects liver and lungs, but it can affect all viscera and soft tissues of the body. Simultaneous mammary and femoral hydatid cysts, without any other visceral involvement, are extremely rare. This is a case report of 25-years-old female, presenting with lump in left breast mimicking fibroadenoma and lump in right thigh mimicking fibroma. Both turned out to be hydatid cysts.

  16. Complete human serum maintains viability and chondrogenic potential of human synovial stem cells: suitable conditions for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Otabe, Koji; Komori, Keiichiro; Kohno, Yuji; Fujii, Shizuka; Ozeki, Nobutake; Horie, Masafumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-06-13

    In our clinical practice, we perform transplantations of autologous synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage and meniscus regenerative medicine. One of the most important issues to ensuring clinical efficacy involves the transport of synovial MSCs from the processing facility to the clinic. Complete human serum (100% human serum) is an attractive candidate material in which to suspend synovial MSCs for their preservation during transport. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether complete human serum maintained MSC viability and chondrogenic potential and to examine the optimal temperature conditions for the preservation of human synovial MSCs. Human synovium was harvested from the knees of 14 donors with osteoarthritis during total knee arthroplasty. Passage 2 synovial MSCs were suspended at 2 million cells/100 μL in Ringer's solution or complete human serum at 4, 13, and 37 °C for 48 h. These cells were analyzed for live cell rates, cell surface marker expression, metabolic activity, proliferation, and adipogenic, calcification, and chondrogenic differentiation potentials before and after preservation. After preservation, synovial MSCs maintained higher live cell rates in human serum than in Ringer's solution at 4 and 13 °C. Synovial MSCs preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C also maintained high ratios of propidium iodide - and annexin V - cells. MSC surface marker expression was not altered in cells preserved at 4 and 13 °C. The metabolic activities of cells preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C was maintained, while significantly reduced in other conditions. Replated MSCs retained their proliferation ability when preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C. Adipogenesis and calcification potential could be observed in cells preserved in each condition, whereas chondrogenic potential was retained only in cells preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C. The viability and chondrogenic potential of synovial MSCs were

  17. Response to pazopanib in two pediatric patients with pretreated relapsing synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Michela; Basso, Eleonora; Magni, Chiara; Bergamaschi, Luca; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Carta, Roberto; Tirtei, Elisa; Massimino, Maura; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Andrea

    2017-01-21

    Pazopanib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has proved effective in adults treated for relapsing soft tissue sarcoma and synovial sarcoma in particular. Two cases are reported here of pediatric patients with pretreated relapsing synovial sarcoma whose tumors showed a prolonged response to pazopanib given on compassionate grounds. These results suggest that new agents found effective in adult patients might achieve similar results in adolescents with the same disease. Facilitating the availability of new drugs for children and adolescents is a major challenge for pediatric oncologists.

  18. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts.

    PubMed

    Forte, Vito; Fuoco, Gabriel; James, Adrian

    2004-06-01

    A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts based on the extent of the cyst and on the embryologic tissue of origin is proposed. Retrospective chart review. The charts of 20 patients with either congenital or acquired laryngeal cysts that were treated surgically between 1987 and 2002 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentation, radiologic findings, surgical management, histopathology, and outcome were recorded. A new classification system is proposed to better appreciate the origin of these cysts and to guide in their successful surgical management. Fourteen of the supraglottic and subglottic simple mucous retention cysts posed no diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and were treated successfully by a single endoscopic excision or marsupialization. The remaining six patients with congenital cysts in the study were deemed more complex, and all required open surgical procedures for cure. On the basis of the analysis of the data of these patients, a new classification of congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed. Type I cysts are confined to the larynx, the cyst wall composed of endodermal elements only, and can be managed endoscopically. Type II cysts extend beyond the confines of the larynx and require an external approach. The Type II cysts are further subclassified histologically on the basis of the embryologic tissue of origin: IIa, composed of endoderm only and IIb, containing endodermal and mesodermal elements (epithelium and cartilage) in the wall of the cyst. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic tissue of origin. This classification can help guide the surgeon with initial management and help us better understand the origin of these cysts.

  19. Malignant inguinal monophasic synovial sarcoma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Wang, Jia; Cui, Long; Wu, Xiangru

    2010-11-21

    A synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft tissue tumor that classically occurs in the extremities near, but rarely within large joints, in young adults. Variable symptoms and clinical manifestations may be encountered and a definite diagnosis should depend on pathological results. This poses certain difficulties in arriving at a prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman patient who presented an inguinal mass with swelling and pain in the right lower limb. She underwent surgery, and later received systematic intravenous chemotherapy. The pathological studies, especially the specific chromosomal translocation of a t(X;18) (p11.2;q11.2), confirmed the diagnosis as a synovial sarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a monophasic synovial sarcoma in the inguinal region. Besides making the readership aware of the rarity of location and age of this present case, this report distinctly highlights the great value of a molecular analysis of an SYT associated genetic alteration in the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma occurring at rare sites especially when immunochemical results are equivocal.

  20. Multiple Colloid Cysts: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Ahmed R; Bettag, Martin

    2018-06-14

     Colloid cysts usually occur in the anterior third ventricle at the level of the foramina of Monro. Colloid cysts may extend from the third toward the lateral ventricle. We present a rare case of multiple intraventricular colloid cysts, two of which were in the third ventricle and one in the lateral ventricle.  A 40-year-old female patient presented with three intraventricular cystic lesions: one cyst in the typical localization in the anterior rostral third ventricle, another cyst behind it in the same (third) ventricle, and a larger bulging cyst in the right lateral ventricle. A bilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been inserted 26 years before to treat hydrocephalus. All three cysts had different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics. We removed the cysts through an endoscopically assisted right transcortical transventricular microsurgical approach, using the right ventricular catheter as a guide to the lateral ventricle. After removal of the lateral ventricular cyst, we observed that the foramen of Monro was greatly enlarged (most likely as a result of the large cyst), which allowed us to remove the cysts in the third ventricle. During surgery, the cysts were found to have different consistencies. MRI 2 years following surgery showed complete removal and no hydrocephalus. The patient had no symptoms, and the clinical examinations were normal.  Colloid cysts may become large and extend to the lateral ventricle, especially in patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Studying the relevant pathoanatomy of these cysts is very important for preoperative planning including the choice of surgical approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  2. What drives osteoarthritis?-synovial versus subchondral bone pathology.

    PubMed

    Hügle, Thomas; Geurts, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    Subchondral bone and the synovium play an important role in the initiation and progression of OA. MRI often permits an early detection of synovial hypertrophy and bone marrow lesions, both of which can precede cartilage damage. Newer imaging modalities including CT osteoabsorptiometry and hybrid SPECT-CT have underlined the importance of bone in OA pathogenesis. The subchondral bone in OA undergoes an uncoupled remodelling process, which is notably characterized by macrophage infiltration and osteoclast formation. Concomitant increased osteoblast activity leads to spatial remineralization and osteosclerosis in end-stage disease. A plethora of metabolic and mechanical factors can lead to synovitis in OA. Synovial tissue is highly vascularized and thus exposed to systemic influences such as hypercholesterolaemia or low grade inflammation. This review aims to describe the current understanding of synovitis and subchondral bone pathology and their connection in OA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Surgical management of calcaneal unicameral bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Glaser, D L; Dormans, J P; Stanton, R P; Davidson, R S

    1999-03-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are not seen commonly in the calcaneus. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. Calcaneal cysts often are symptomatic, although some of these lesions are detected as incidental findings. Treatment has been advocated based on the fear of pathologic fracture and collapse. Several published series have been divided in their favor for either open treatment or injection management. These series are small, and the optimal treatment is still in question. The current study compared the efficacy of methylprednisolone acetate injection treatment with curettage and bone grafting in the treatment of unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus. All patients treated for unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus during the past 7 years at two institutions were reviewed. Eleven patients met inclusion criteria. All diagnoses were confirmed radiographically or histologically. Demographic information, presenting complaints, diagnostic imaging, treatment modalities, and outcome were analyzed. Long term radiographic and subjective followup was obtained. Eighteen surgical procedures were performed on 11 patients with 12 cysts. Nine injections performed on six patients failed to show healing of the cyst. Nine cysts treated with curettage and bone grafting showed cyst healing. At mean followup of 28 months (range, 12-77 months), all 11 patients had no symptoms; there were no recurrences of the cyst in the nine patients who underwent bone grafting and persistence of the cyst in the two patients who underwent injection therapy. This review reports one of the largest series of cysts in this location. The results indicate that steroid injection treatment, although useful in other locations, may not be the best option for the management of unicameral bone cysts in the calcaneus. Curettage and bone grafting yielded uniformly good results.

  4. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hamoud, K.; May, H.; Hay, O.; Medlej, B.; Masharawi, Y.; Peled, N.; Hershkovitz, I.

    2010-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) becomes a common health problem among the elderly. DLSS is usually caused by degenerative changes in bony and/or soft tissue elements. The poor correlation between radiological manifestations and the clinical picture emphasizes the fact that more studies are required to determine the natural course of this syndrome. Our aim was to reveal the association between lower lumbar spine configuration and DLSS. Two groups were studied: the first included 67 individuals with DLSS (mean age 66 ± 10) and the second 100 individuals (mean age 63.4 ± 13) without DLSS-related symptoms. Both groups underwent CT images (Philips Brilliance 64) and the following measurements were performed: a cross-section area of the dural sac, vertebral body dimensions (height, length and width), AP diameter of the bony spinal canal, lumbar lordosis and sacral slope angles. All measurements were taken at L3 to S1. Vertebral body lengths were significantly greater in the DLSS group at all levels compared to the control, whereas anterior vertebral body heights (L3, L4, L5) and middle vertebral heights (L3, L5) were significantly smaller in the LSS group. Lumbar lordosis, sacral slope and bony spinal canal were significantly smaller in the DLSS compared to the control. We conclude that the size and shape of vertebral bodies and canals significantly differed between the study groups. A tentative model is suggested to explain the association between these characteristics and the development of degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:20652366

  5. Subconjunctival epidermoid cysts in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Craene, S; Batteauw, A; Van Lint, M; Claerhout, I; Decock, C

    2014-08-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  6. Evaluation of mast cells in periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    de Noronha Santos Netto, Juliana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; de Queiroz Chaves Lourenço, Simone

    2012-09-01

    Several cell types are associated with the development of cystic and tumoral odontogenic lesions. Among inflammatory cells, mast cells can be associated with their pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze mast cells in periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Tissue sections were submitted to toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemistry with antibody anti-tryptase (clone G3). Mast cells were quantitated using Image-Pro Plus software to obtain the mean number of mast cells in three regions: epithelial, superficial portion of the fibrous wall and deep portion of the fibrous wall from 20 periapical cysts, 20 dentigerous cysts (six non-inflamed and 14 inflamed) and 20 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (four non-inflamed and 16 inflamed). The mean number of mast cells detected per lesion by immunohistochemistry (4.1) was higher than by histochemistry (1.5) (P<0.0001). Inflamed dentigerous cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors showed a higher mean number of mast cells than non-inflamed lesions in all regions. The deep region from all cysts showed the highest mean number of degranulated mast cells, except for non-inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumors analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining detected higher number of mast cells than histochemistry. The higher number of mast cells observed in inflamed lesions could indicate the participation of these cells in the inflammatory response in odontogenic lesions. The prevalence of degranulated mast cells in the deep region suggests intense activity of these cells, possibly related to growth of cystic lesions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Disappearance kinetics of solutes from synovial fluid after intra-articular injection.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, S G; Francis, H W; Roberts, M S

    1994-01-01

    1. Five rheumatoid patients with a knee joint effusion participated in the study. An aqueous solution (0.1 to 0.2 ml) containing paracetamol, salicylate, diclofenac and [125I]-albumin was injected into a given joint to yield target concentrations of approximately 20 micrograms ml-1 for diclofenac, salicylate and paracetamol and 10(8) counts ml-1 for [125I]-albumin. 2. Paracetamol, salicylate and diclofenac were analysed in synovial fluid by h.p.l.c. [125I]-albumin was analysed using gamma counting. 3. The clearances (+/- s.d.) obtained for the solutes were [125I]-albumin (0.0053 +/- 0.0019 l h-1), diclofenac (0.0096 +/- 0.0061 l h-1), salicylate (0.024 +/- 0.022 l h-1) and paracetamol (0.055 +/- 0.041 l h-1). The corresponding fractions unbound of these solutes in synovial fluid were 0.0, < or = 0.01, 0.34 +/- 0.09 and 0.85 +/- 0.10, respectively. 4. Diffusion of unbound solute through the synovium is estimated to account for (+/- s.d.) 0.52 +/- 0.08, 0.87 +/- 0.06 and 0.99 +/- 0.01 of the total clearance of diclofenac, salicylate and paracetamol from the joint space, respectively. The remaining proportion of clearance is accounted for by efflux of solute bound to albumin. 5. An expression for the ratio of synovial fluid to total plasma concentrations after systemic administration was developed to include both diffusion of unbound solute and albumin flux. Most solutes appear to satisfy the conditions in which this expression reduces to the limiting case where the unbound concentration of the solute is identical in the synovial fluid and plasma under steady state conditions. PMID:7833225

  8. Identification of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers for Knee Osteoarthritis and Correlation with Radiographic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Monibi, Farrah; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron; Garner, Bridget; Bal, Sonny; Cook, James L

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a costly and debilitating condition that is typically not diagnosed early enough to prevent progression of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synovial fluid from knees with and without OA for potential markers of joint inflammation and degradation and to correlate these findings with radiographic severity of disease. With Institutional Review Board approval, synovial fluid samples were collected before the patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Control knees (n = 3) were patients younger than 30 years of age with no history of anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, or meniscal injury, and no surgical history for either knee. Weight-bearing, anterior-posterior radiographic views were used to determine radiographic OA severity using the modified Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Synovial fluid samples from 18 patients (21 knees) were analyzed using a multiplex assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.013), IL-8 (p < 0.024), and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) (p < 0.006) were significantly higher in the synovial fluid of OA patients compared with normal patients. The radiographic score was significantly higher in patients with OA compared with normal knees (p < 0.002). MMP-1 had a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL5. IL-6 had a strong positive correlation with IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 had a moderate positive correlation with IL-6 and a strong positive correlation with IL-8. Radiographic scores had a strong positive correlation with IL-6 and IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MCP-1. These data provide novel and clinically relevant information for the investigation of synovial fluid biomarkers for knee OA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-06-01

    An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region-left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions.

  10. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757

  11. Laparoscopic Excision of a Ciliated Hepatic Foregut Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Grace Z.; Reynolds, Jordan P.; Tevar, Amit D.; Pritts, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are uncommon solitary cysts of the liver that originate from the embryologic foregut. Clinically and radiographically, these lesions can be difficult to distinguish from neoplasms. Recent reports have demonstrated that ciliated hepatic foregut cysts may undergo dysplastic progression, supporting the argument to excise these cysts when discovered. Fewer than 100 cases have been described in the literature since the first description of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in 1857. We present a patient who recently underwent laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst, review the literature, and propose the rationale for attempting removal of these cysts via a laparoscopic approach. PMID:19366552

  12. The use of native fluorescence analysis of synovial fluid in the diagnosis of medial compartment disease in medium- and large-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Bilská, Kamila; Šteffeková, Zuzana; Birková, Anna; Mareková, Mária; Ledecký, Valent; Hluchý, Marián; Kisková, Terézia

    2016-05-01

    We assumed that proteins are most likely responsible for synovial fluid fluorescence and that changes detected in fluorescence intensity are most likely the result of changes in the concentration of fluorescent proteins. Synchronous fluorescent matrices from synovial fluid samples were measured in the excitation wavelength range of 200-350 nm using a luminescence spectrophotometer. The synchronous matrix of synovial fluid consists of 2 dominant fluorescent centers (F1 and F2) in the ultraviolet region. The fluorescence intensities of both centers were significantly higher in pathological samples, with p = 0.001 (a 59% increase of the median value) for the F1 center and p = 0.002 (a 52% increase of the median value) for the F2 center. Receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed that synovial fluid autofluorescence is a significant predictor of medial compartment disease in dogs, with the area under the curve at 0.776 (F1) and 0.778 (F2). We did not detect any differences in the autofluorescence of synovial fluid between male and female, or any breed-based changes. No position changes of fluorescent centers were recorded in the synovial fluid in diseased dogs compared with healthy dogs. The synovial fluid metabolic fingerprint of canine patients with medial compartment disease differed from that of healthy dogs. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of synovial fluid fingerprinting to identify disease-specific profiles of synovial fluid metabolites. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Serum and synovial fluid concentrations of keratan sulfate and hyaluronan in dogs with induced stifle joint osteoarthritis following cranial cruciate ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Budsberg, Steven C; Lenz, Mary Ellen; Thonar, Eugene J-M A

    2006-03-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in serum and synovial fluid concentrations of keratan sulfate (KS) and hyaluronan (HA) after cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) transection in dogs. 12 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs. Following CCL transection in the right stifle joint, KS and HA concentrations were determined in serum and neat (undiluted) synovial fluid prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 12 months after surgery. Postsurgical dilution of synovial fluid was corrected by use of urea as a passive marker. Synovial fluid KS and HA concentrations decreased at 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery in operated stifle joints, compared with baseline values. Synovial fluid KS concentration decreased in unoperated stifle joints at 1 month. A decrease in synovial fluid KS concentration was found in operated stifle joints, compared with unoperated stifle joints, at 2 and 3 months, and a decrease in synovial fluid HA concentrations was also found in operated stifle joints, compared with unoperated stifle joints, at 1, 2, and 3 months. Serum KS concentrations increased from baseline values at 3 months after surgery. Hyaluronan concentrations in operated stifle joints were lower than baseline values at 1, 2, and 3 months. Urea-adjusted synovial fluid concentrations revealed that dilution did not account for the decline in biomarker concentrations. The initial decrease and subsequent increase in synovial fluid concentrations of HA and KS may be caused by an acute inflammatory response to surgical intervention that negatively affects cartilage metabolism or an increase in production of immature proteoglycans.

  14. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents with emphasis on dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (keratocystic odontogenic tumor).

    PubMed

    Li, Nannan; Gao, Xing; Xu, Ziyuan; Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Laikuan; Wang, Jinrui; Liu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the incidence and prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents and compare the features of the two most common types, dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). A retrospective review in a series of 369 patients with all histological diagnoses of developmental odontogenic cysts in children (≤12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) was conducted. Among these, 361 (97.8%) patients were diagnosed as dentigerous cyst (n = 281) and KCOT (n = 80), with the male-to-female ratios of dentigerous cyst and KCOT both being 2:1. The average age of the patients with KCOT was older than that of those with dentigerous cyst (14.7 years vs 11.8 years, p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (59.1%) was more common in children, but KCOT (78.8%) was more common in adolescents (p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (57.6%) predominantly located on the maxilla, but KCOT (60.3%) predominantly located on the mandible (p = 0.010). Adolescent patients with lesions located on the mandible would favor KCOT over dentigerous cyst. This study aids in better knowledge of the prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in a large pediatric population, and shows that a well-supported early diagnosis is indispensable for a more adequate treatment.

  16. Is posterior synovial plica excision necessary for refractory lateral epicondylitis of the elbow?

    PubMed

    Rhyou, In Hyeok; Kim, Kang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatments for lateral epicondylitis including débridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin (Baker technique) or resection of the radiocapitellar synovial plica reportedly improve symptoms. However the etiology of the disease and the role of the plica remain unclear. We asked if posterior radiocapitellar synovial plica excision made any additional improvement in pain or function after arthroscopic ECRB release. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who had arthroscopic treatment for refractory lateral epicondylitis between November 2003 and October 2009. Twenty patients (Group A) underwent the Baker technique and 18 patients (Group B) underwent a combination of the Baker technique and posterior synovial plica excision. The minimum followup was 36 months (mean, 46 months; range, 36-72 months) for Group A and 25 months (mean, 30 months; range, 25-36 months) for Group B. Postoperatively we obtained VAS pain and DASH scores for each group. Two years postoperatively, we found no differences in the VAS pain score or DASH: the mean VAS pain scores were 0.3 points in Group A and 0.4 points in Group B, and the DASH scores were 5.1 points and 6.1 points respectively. The addition of débridement of the posterior synovial fold did not appear to enhance either pain relief or function compared with the classic Baker technique without decortication.

  17. Quantitative assessment of the rheumatoid synovial microvascular bed by gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, K.; Cookson, J.; Blades, S.; Coumbe, A.; Blake, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between rate of synovial membrane enhancement, intra-articular pressure (IAP), and histologically determined synovial vascularity in rheumatoid arthritis, using gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
METHODS—Dynamic gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI was performed in 31 patients with knee synovitis (10 patients IAP study, 21 patients vascular morphometry study). Rate of synovial membrane enhancement was quantified by line profile analysis using the image processing package ANALYZE. IAP was measured using an intra-compartmental pressure monitor system. Multiple synovial biopsy specimens were obtained by a blind biopsy technique. Blood vessels were identified immunohistochemically using the endothelial cell marker QBend30 and quantified (blood vessel numerical density and fractional area).
RESULTS—Median blood vessel numerical density and fractional area were 77.5/mm2 (IQR; 69.3-110.7) and 5.6% (IQR; 3.4-8.5) respectively. The rate of synovial membrane enhancement (median 2.74 signal intensity units/s, IQR 2.0-3.8) correlated with both blood vessel numerical density (r = 0.46, p < 0.05) and blood vessel fractional area (r = 0.55, p < 0.02). IAP did not influence the rate of enhancement.
CONCLUSIONS—Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI may prove to be a valuable technique for evaluating drugs that influence angiogenesis.

 Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; rheumatoid arthritis; synovitis; vascularity PMID:9640130

  18. Effect of Lumbar Progressive Resistance Exercise on Lumbar Muscular Strength and Core Muscular Endurance in Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John M; Childs, John D; Neilson, Brett D; Chen, Henian; Koppenhaver, Shane L; Quillen, William S

    2016-11-01

    Low back pain is common, costly, and disabling for active duty military personnel and veterans. The evidence is unclear on which management approaches are most effective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar extensor high-intensity progressive resistance exercise (HIPRE) training versus control on improving lumbar extension muscular strength and core muscular endurance in soldiers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with active duty U.S. Army Soldiers (n = 582) in combat medic training at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Soldiers were randomized by platoon to receive the experimental intervention (lumbar extensor HIPRE training, n = 298) or control intervention (core stabilization exercise training, n = 284) at one set, one time per week, for 11 weeks. Lumbar extension muscular strength and core muscular endurance were assessed before and after the intervention period. At 11-week follow-up, lumbar extension muscular strength was 9.7% greater (p = 0.001) for HIPRE compared with control. No improvements in core muscular endurance were observed for HIPRE or control. Lumbar extensor HIPRE training is effective to improve isometric lumbar extension muscular strength in U.S. Army Soldiers. Research is needed to explore the clinical relevance of these gains. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a salivary duct cyst of the parotid gland. Contribution to the development of tumours in salivary gland cysts.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1996-12-01

    Concerning the hypothesis that distinct types of salivary gland cysts may be the starting point of a salivary gland tumour, a histological examination of 1,661 salivary gland cysts was performed in order to analyse the cell types and their proliferative activity. Epithelial alterations were found especially in salivary duct cysts of parotid gland and in mucous retention cysts of minor salivary glands. Characteristic cellular changes were epithelial metaplasias (goblet cells, clear cells, squamous cells) and focal epithelial proliferations with plump or papillary plaques projecting into the cyst lumen. Only in one case had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma developed in the wall of a parotid duct cyst. The epithelial metaplasia and focal proliferative activity in salivary duct cysts is comparable to similar alterations in odontogenic cysts as possible early manifestation of a tumour, especially of an ameloblastoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of salivary duct cysts must take primarily cystadenomas and cystic mucoepidermoid carcinomas of well-differentiated type into account.

  20. [Modified Cheng's Juanbi Decoction downregulates expression of prostaglandin E receptor 4 in synovial tissue in rats with adjuvant arthritis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Cheng, Hui; Cao, Jian; DU, Huan; Meng, Qingwei; Guo, Mengyuan

    2017-06-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of modified Cheng's Juanbi Decoction on the expression of prostaglandin E receptor 4 (PTGER4), the T cell receptor in the synovial tissues, in rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA). Methods A rat model of AA was established by subcutaneous injection of Freund's complete adjuvant at the vola pedis combined with ice-water bath and blowing. The degree of joint swelling and arthritis index were determined in each group. The quantitative real-time PCR was performed to assess the effect of modified Cheng's Juanbi Decoction on the mRNA expression of PTGER4in the synovial tissue. Results Cheng's Juanbi Decoction significantly alleviated the damage in the joints and synovial tissues in the AA rats. High-dose (the content of crude drug: 4 g/mL) Cheng's Juanbi Decoction significantly reduced the mRNA expression of PTGER4 in the synovial tissues. Conclusion Cheng's Juanbi Decoction can reduce the level of PTGER4 mRNA in the synovial tissue in AA rats.

  1. Elevated synovial fluid concentration of adenosine triphosphate in dogs with osteoarthritis or sodium urate-induced synovitis of the stifle.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bryan T; Jimenez, David A; Budsberg, Steven C

    2016-07-19

    Adenosine triphosphate has been shown to stimulate nociceptive nerve terminals in joints. Elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations as well as a correlation between synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations and osteoarthritic knee pain has been demonstrated in humans, but not yet in dogs. This study documented elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations in the stifles of dogs with secondary osteoarthritis and urate-induced synovitis, as compared to normal stifles.

  2. Lumbar lordosis in female collegiate dancers and gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Amanda M; Kenworthy, Kristen L; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Shane V

    2014-12-01

    Postural deviations can predispose an individual to increased injury risk. Specifically, lumbar deviations are related to increased low back pain and injury. Dancers and gymnasts are anecdotally suggested to have exaggerated lumbar lordosis and subsequently may be at increased risk of lumbar pathologies. Our objective was to examine lumbar lordosis levels in dancers and gymnasts. We examined lumbar lordosis in 47 healthy collegiate females (17 dancers, 29 gymnasts; mean age 20.2 ± 1.6 yrs) using 2-dimensional sagittal plane photographs and the Watson MacDonncha Posture Analysis instrument. Participants' lordosis levels were cross-tabulated and a Mann-Whitney U-test compared lumbar lordosis between groups (p<0.05). Most participants (89.4%, n=42) exhibited either marked (dancers 50%, n=9; gymnasts 62.1%, n=18; combined 57.4%, n=27) or moderate (dancers 27.8%, n=5; gymnasts 34.5%, n=10; combined 31.9%, n=15) lumbar lordosis deviations. The distribution of lordosis was similar across groups (p=0.22). Most dancers and gymnasts had moderate or marked lumbar lordosis. The extreme ranges of motion required during dancing and gymnastics may contribute to the participants' high lumbar lordosis. Instructors should be aware that there may be links between repetitive hyperextension activities and lumbar lordosis levels in dancers and gymnasts. Thus, they should proactively examine lumbar lordosis in their dancers and gymnasts. How much age of training onset, regimens, survivor bias, or other factors influence lumbar lordosis requires study. Longitudinal studies are also needed to determine if lumbar lordosis levels influence lumbar injury incidence in dancers and gymnasts.

  3. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of mediastinal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progress in the development of surgical techniques has led to the growing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques in mediastinal cyst treatment. Aim To present our experience of treating mediastinal cysts with the minimally invasive technique. Material and methods Fifty patients with mediastinal cysts were treated from 2001 to 2011. There were 32 women and 18 men. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 72, the mean age being 42 years. All patients underwent basic preoperative diagnostic tests of the chest: X-ray, computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and spirometry; 4 patients underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and 3 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the described lesions. Results The VATS was performed in each case. Conversion was carried out due to superior mediastinal location in 10 cases and pleural adhesions in 3 cases. The partial resection of a cyst was performed in 3 patients. One patient was treated conservatively due to heart failure. In that patient the transthoracic needle aspiration of a cyst under ultrasound guidance using alcoholisation with 76% ethanol with a good effect was performed twice. Cyst recurrence was observed in 1 case. Conclusions The surgical access depends on the location of a cyst. The VATS resection of a superior mediastinal cyst is not always feasible. Surgery of mediastinal cysts is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:25337163

  4. [Traumatic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Martino, A; Rampone, B; Schiavone, B; Viviano, C; Cuomo, O; Iovine, L; Sacco, M; Maharajan, G; Confuorto, G

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease is endemic in some areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. The cysts rupture is possible after a trauma, or spontaneously by the increase of intracystic pressure. Rupture of the hydatid cyst requires urgent surgical intervention. We report our experience in treatment of traumatic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst.

  5. Simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning of lumbar corrective surgery: radiological analysis in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong Suh; Chung, Sung Soo; Park, Se Jun; Kim, Dong Min; Shin, Seong Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at deriving a lordosis predictive equation using the pelvic incidence and to establish a simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning lumbar corrective surgery in Asians. Eighty-six asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled in the study. The maximal lumbar lordosis (MLL), lower lumbar lordosis (LLL), pelvic incidence (PI), and sacral slope (SS) were measured. The correlations between the parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Predictive equations of lumbar lordosis through simple regression analysis of the parameters and simple predictive values of lumbar lordosis using PI were derived. The PI strongly correlated with the SS (r = 0.78), and a strong correlation was found between the SS and LLL (r = 0.89), and between the SS and MLL (r = 0.83). Based on these correlations, the predictive equations of lumbar lordosis were found (SS = 0.80 + 0.74 PI (r = 0.78, R (2) = 0.61), LLL = 5.20 + 0.87 SS (r = 0.89, R (2) = 0.80), MLL = 17.41 + 0.96 SS (r = 0.83, R (2) = 0.68). When PI was between 30° to 35°, 40° to 50° and 55° to 60°, the equations predicted that MLL would be PI + 10°, PI + 5° and PI, and LLL would be PI - 5°, PI - 10° and PI - 15°, respectively. This simple calculation method can provide a more appropriate and simpler prediction of lumbar lordosis for Asian populations. The prediction of lumbar lordosis should be used as a reference for surgeons planning to restore the lumbar lordosis in lumbar corrective surgery.

  6. Sclerotherapy for hydrocoele and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Nash, J R

    1979-04-01

    A prospective study was carried out on the efficacy of sclerotherapy for the treatment of hydrocoeles and epididymal cysts. Thirty-six hydrocoeles and 13 epididymal cysts were treated and followed up for between 1 and 2 years. Thirty-four hydrocoeles were cured, 1 failed to respond to treatment and 1 recurred after treatment. All 13 epididymal cysts were cured.

  7. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised.

  8. Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... and location. Sometimes, a cyst looks like a skin cancer and may need to be removed to be ... and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016: ...

  9. An unusual encounter of an epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Kaji; Ghani, Yaser; Thompson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are extremely common and can occur in any hair-containing area. We present the case of a 20-year-old man with an epidermoid cyst in the perianal region. Epidermal cysts have been described in this area previously after haemorrhoidectomy, but cysts of the size seen in this case are rare in the absence of previous anal trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. PMID:24825558

  10. The treatment of large supratentorial arachnoid cysts in infants with cyst-peritoneal shunting and Hakim programmable valve.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Antonino; Caruso, Gerardo; Caffo, Mariella; Baldari, Sergio; Calisto, Amedeo; Meli, Francesco; Tomasello, Francesco

    2003-03-01

    This retrospective case series examines 7 infants with large supratentorial arachnoid cysts who underwent cyst-peritoneal shunting and insertion of a Hakim programmable valve. Comparing pre- and postoperative clinical data, neuroradiological and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings we evaluated the efficacy of the surgical procedure. Infants, ranging in age from 1 to 55 days (mean age 29.5 days), were assessed pre- and postoperatively by neurological examination, developmental profile and neuroimaging. Post procedure, all patients showed a significant reduction in the cyst/brain ratio on neuroimaging (p<0.001), 6 had a normal developmental profile (p<0.001) and 5 cases showed a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and neurological signs. Two patients underwent preoperative SPECT scans, which showed hypoperfusion in the area surrounding the cyst; this decreased rCBF also improved post shunting. Large supratentorial arachnoid cysts in infants can be successfully treated with cyst-peritoneal shunting and insertion of a Hakim programmable valve. This is the first study specifically aimed at evaluating the long-term results of these conditions.

  11. Minimally invasive management of hepatic cysts: indications and complications.

    PubMed

    Vardakostas, D; Damaskos, C; Garmpis, N; Antoniou, E A; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G; Dimitroulis, D

    2018-03-01

    Liver cysts are divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital cystic lesions include polycystic liver disease, simple cysts, duct related and ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. Acquired cystic lesions are divided into infectious and non-infectious. The infectious cysts are the hydatid cyst, the amoebic abscess, and the pyogenic abscess, whereas the non-infectious cysts are neoplastic cysts and false cysts. While modern medicine provides a lot of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities, there has emerged a pressing need for understanding the various types of liver cysts, the possible minimal therapeutic options along with their indications and complications. We aim is to clarify the role of minimally invasive techniques in the management of hepatic cysts. A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE database. The search terms were: liver cyst, minimally invasive, laparoscopic, percutaneous, drainage and fenestration. We reviewed 82 English language publications articles, published until October 2017. Minimally invasive management of liver LC is an emerging field including many therapeutic modalities ranging from the percutaneous aspiration of pyogenic abscesses to laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatic cystadenomas. The most used techniques are percutaneous drainage, laparoscopic fenestration, and laparoscopic hepatectomy. The application of the various minimally invasive approaches, as well as their indication and complications, depend on the type of the cystic lesion, its size and its position in the liver. Percutaneous drainage is mostly used in simple cysts, hydatid cysts, pyogenic abscesses and bilomas. Laparoscopic fenestration is mostly used in simple cysts and polycystic liver disease. Finally, laparoscopic hepatectomy is mostly used in polycystic liver disease, hydatid cysts, and cystadenomas.

  12. Hazard and outcome of retreated choledochal cyst patients.

    PubMed

    Chijiiwa, K

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients initially treated for choledochal cyst (25: cyst-enterostomy for 15 type I and 10 type IV A, 13: cyst excision for 8 type I and 5 type IV A, 1: sphincterotomy for type III) have been completely followed up for a mean period of 17 years to examine the effect of surgical management on their lives. Eighteen of 25 cases with cyst-enterostomy (72%) needed retreatment due to the complications but one could not be retreated because of the presence of advanced bile duct carcinoma. Fourteen of 17 cases were retreated with cyst excision, of whom 12 showed an excellent outcome but other two were suffering from cholangitis and hepatolithiasis. The remaining 3 patients retreated with PTCS or cyst-enterostomy showed a poor outcome. Of 13 patients who had undergone cyst excision with hepatico-jejunostomy as the first choice, 12 showed a good outcome but one needed retreatment due to the anastomotic stenosis and hepatolithiasis. Thus, excision of cyst should be the surgical management for choledochal cyst. However, it should be noted that three of 27 patients treated initially or secondarily with cyst excision showed unsatisfactory results mainly due to the anastomotic stenosis. The results demonstrate that hepaticojejunostomy with a wide opening stoma is necessary to prevent postoperative morbidity.

  13. Retrospective clinicopathological study of 418 odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Urrutia, Sergio; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2010-09-01

    To determine the relative incidence of odontogenic cysts and to identify the main clinicopathological features among patients treated in the Oral Surgery Department of the Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A retrospective observational study was made of 418 odontogenic cysts diagnosed in 380 patients included in the database of 1235 histopathological diagnoses. The subjects were treated in the Master degree program of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona in the period 1997-2006. The following variables were recorded: gender, age, clinical characteristics of the lesions (size and location), radiological features, duration, treatment, complications and relapses. A descriptive analysis was made of the study variables, using the SPSS version 15.0. The incidence of odontogenic cysts was 33.8%. The mean patient age at appearance of the lesion was 42 years (range 7-83). The cysts were slightly more prevalent in males (58.4%). The lesion size ranged from 2-60 mm, with a mean size of 18.4 mm. The most frequent diagnosis was radicular cyst (50.2%). The most common location of the odontogenic cysts was in the mandible (61.5%), particularly the lower third molar region (36.8%). The most frequently diagnosed lesion was the radicular cyst. Odontogenic cysts were seen to be slightly more prevalent in males, and showed a high mandibular incidence. Knowledge of the biological and histological behavior of odontogenic cysts and their frequency are key aspects for ensuring early detection and adequate treatment.

  14. Pirfenidone induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) down-regulation on cultured human synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, M; Inoue, H; Nakazawa, R; Azuma, N; Suzuki, M; Yamauchi, S; Margolin, S B; Tsubota, K; Saito, I

    1998-01-01

    Pirfenidone has been shown to modify some cytokine regulatory actions and inhibit fibroblast biochemical reactions resulting in inhibition of proliferation and collagen matrix synthesis by fibroblast. We have investigated the effect of pirfenidone on the expression of cell adhesion molecules. The synovial fibroblasts were treated with IL-1α in the presence or absence of pirfenidone (range 0–1000 μm), and assayed for the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) by cell ELISA. Pirfenidone significantly down-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 on cultured synovial fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, expression of E-selectin was not affected. Furthermore, we examined whether pirfenidone affects the cellular binding between cultured lymphocytes and IL-1α-stimulated synovial fibroblasts by in vitro binding assay and found their mutual binding was significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by pirfenidone. It is speculated that down-regulation of ICAM-1 might be one of the novel mechanisms of action of pirfenidone. These data indicate a novel mechanism of action for pirfenidone to reduce the activation of synovial fibroblasts. PMID:9697986

  15. Towards an Ecological Understanding of Dinoflagellate Cyst Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Isabel; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell wall) and functional (long- or short-term endurance) differences. These characteristics were initially thought to clearly distinguish pellicle (thin-walled) cysts from resting (double-walled) dinoflagellate cysts. The former were considered short-term (temporal) and the latter long-term (resting) cysts. However, during the last two decades further knowledge has highlighted the great intricacy of dinoflagellate life histories, the ecological significance of cyst stages, and the need to clarify the functional and morphological complexities of the different cyst types. Here we review and, when necessary, redefine the concepts of resting and pellicle cysts, examining both their structural and their functional characteristics in the context of the life cycle strategies of several dinoflagellate species. PMID:27694774

  16. Odontogenic cysts: analysis of 680 cases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prockt, Anderson P; Schebela, Clarissa R; Maito, Fábio D M; Sant'Ana-Filho, Manoel; Rados, Pantelis V

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of 680 odontogenic cysts diagnosed in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and to compare results with findings in the literature. Data of odontogenic cysts diagnosed from 1985 to 2005 were collected from the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory of Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and entered in a standardized form for later comparisons. The most prevalent odontogenic cysts were radicular (72.50%), dentigerous (22.20%) and residual (4.26%) cysts. The mandible of white patients was the anatomic site and ethnic group most frequently affected by this disease. Four of the six types of cysts were more frequent in the second and fourth decades of life, and no significant differences were found between sexes in the diagnosis of odontogenic cysts. In conclusion, the prevalence of odontogenic cysts was similar to that reported in the literature, which shows that inflammatory cysts are the most frequent.

  17. Branchial cleft cyst encircling the hypoglossal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kristin L.; Spears, Carol; Kenady, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are a common cause of lateral neck masses and may present with infection, cyst enlargement or fistulas. They may affect any of the nearby neck structures, causing compressive symptoms or vessel thrombosis. We present a case of a branchial cleft cyst in a 10-year-old boy who had been present for 1year. At the time of operation, the cyst was found to completely envelop the hypoglossal nerve. While reports of hypoglossal nerve palsies due to external compression from cysts are known, we believe this to be the first report of direct nerve involvement by a branchial cleft cyst. PMID:24963902

  18. Arthroscopic Transplantation of Synovial Stem Cells Improves Clinical Outcomes in Knees With Cartilage Defects.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Horie, Masafumi; Koga, Hideyuki

    2015-07-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is one possible strategy to achieve articular cartilage repair. We previously reported that synovial MSCs were highly proliferative and able to undergo chondrogenesis. We also found that placing a suspension of synovial MSCs on a cartilage defect for 10 minutes promoted cartilage repair in rabbit and pig models. However, the in vivo efficacy of this approach has not been tested clinically. We asked whether transplantation of synovial MSCs improves (1) MRI features, (2) histologic features, and (3) clinical evaluation scores in patients with cartilage defects in the knee? Patients with a symptomatic single cartilage lesion of the femoral condyle were indicated for inclusion in our study, and between April 2008 and April 2011, 10 patients were enrolled in this study. All patients completed followups of 3 years or more. The average followup period was 52 months (range, 37-80 months). Synovial MSCs were expanded with 10% autologous human serum for 14 days after digestion. For transplantation, the patient was positioned so that the cartilage defect was facing upward, and synovial MSC suspension was placed on the cartilage defect with a syringe under arthroscopic control. The defect with the applied suspension then was held in the upward position for 10 minutes. Five patients underwent concomitant ACL reconstructions, among whom two had meniscus suturing performed simultaneously. For MRI quantification, the cartilage defect was scored from 0 to 5. Second-look arthroscopy was performed for four patients and biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Lysholm score and Tegner Activity Level Scale at final followup. Comparisons of MRI and Lysholm scores before and after treatment for each patient were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. MRI score (median ± 95% CI) was 1.0 ± 0.3 before and 5.0 ± 0.7 after, and increased after treatment in each patient (p = 0.005). Second

  19. Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Meniscus Regeneration Augmented by an Autologous Achilles Tendon Graft in a Rat Partial Meniscus Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Matsuta, Seiya; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Mabuchi, Yo; Akazawa, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Although meniscus defects and degeneration are strongly correlated with the later development of osteoarthritis, the promise of regenerative medicine strategies is to prevent and/or delay the disease's progression. Meniscal reconstruction has been shown in animal models with tendon grafting and transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); however, these procedures have not shown the same efficacy in clinical studies. Here, our aim was to investigate the ability of tendon grafts pretreated with exogenous synovial-derived MSCs to prevent cartilage degeneration in a rat partial meniscus defect model. We removed the anterior half of the medial meniscus and grafted autologous Achilles tendons with or without a 10-minute pretreatment of the tendon with synovial MSCs. The meniscus and surrounding cartilage were evaluated at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (n = 5). Tendon grafts increased meniscus size irrespective of synovial MSCs. Histological scores for regenerated menisci were better in the tendon + MSC group than in the other two groups at 4 and 8 weeks. Both macroscopic and histological scores for articular cartilage were significantly better in the tendon + MSC group at 8 weeks. Implanted synovial MSCs survived around the grafted tendon and native meniscus integration site by cell tracking assays with luciferase+, LacZ+, DiI+, and/or GFP+ synovial MSCs and/or GFP+ tendons. Flow cytometric analysis showed that transplanted synovial MSCs retained their MSC properties at 7 days and host synovial tissue also contained cells with MSC characteristics. Synovial MSCs promoted meniscus regeneration augmented by autologous Achilles tendon grafts and prevented cartilage degeneration in rats. Stem Cells 2015;33:1927–1938 PMID:25993981

  20. Naegleria fowleri: enolase is expressed during cyst differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Segovia-Gamboa, Norma; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of Naegleria fowleri present an external single-layered cyst wall. To date, little information exists on the biochemical components of this cyst wall. Knowledge of the cyst wall composition is important to understand its resistance capacity under adverse environmental conditions. We have used of a monoclonal antibody (B4F2 mAb) that specifically recognizes enolase in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens. By Western blot assays this antibody recognized in soluble extracts of N. fowleri cysts a 48-kDa protein with similar molecular weight to the enolase reported in E. invadens cysts. Immunofluorescence with the B4F2 mAb revealed positive cytoplasmic vesicles in encysting amebas, as well as a positive reaction at the cell wall of mature cysts. Immunoelectron microscopy using the same monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of enolase in the cell wall of N. fowleri cysts and in cytoplasmic vesicular structures. In addition, the B4F2 mAb had a clear inhibitory effect on encystation of N. fowleri. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  1. Cervical bronchogenic cysts in head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Ustundag, Emre; Iseri, Mete; Keskin, Gurkan; Yayla, Berna; Muezzinoglu, Bahar

    2005-06-01

    Congenital cysts of the neck are not uncommon. Most of these are thyroglossal, branchial cleft and thymic cysts. Bronchogenic cysts are uncommon developmental anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree and rarely occur in the neck. More than 70 cases of bronchogenic cysts in the head and neck region have been reported in the literature. We report three cases presenting with neck swelling in the hyoid region that were diagnosed as bronchogenic cysts based on clinical and histopathological findings.

  2. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Mast Cells and Small Blood Vessels in Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Periapical Cyst.

    PubMed

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Jamali, Golshan; Farnia, Samira

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the density of mast cells (MCs) and microvessels in odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, the correlation between MCs and microvessels was evaluated to assess the contribution of MCs to angiogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. This approach may be a basis for the development of future pharmaceuticals addressed to MCs performance to manage odontogenic cysts. To our knowledge, no study investigating the correlation between MCs and microvessels has been performed to date. 60 cases of odontogenic cysts consisting of 20 radicular cysts (RCs), 20 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and 20 dentigerous cysts (DCs) were included in this study. Five high power fields in superficial connective tissue and five high power fields in deep connective tissue were counted for each sample. Moreover, a total mean of ten fields was calculated. RC showed the highest mean numbers of MCs and microvessels (p<0.05). The subepithelial zones of all cysts contained more MCs and microvessels compared to the deeper zones. A statistically significant correlation between the numbers of MCs and microvessels was not observed (r=0.00, p=0.49). Although the number of MCs was not significantly associated with microvessels, these cells may be related to the growth of odontogenic lesions, particularly RCs. Further studies on the in vivo functions of MCs will make the concept more clear.

  3. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Mast Cells and Small Blood Vessels in Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Periapical Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Jamali, Golshan; Farnia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify the density of mast cells (MCs) and microvessels in odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, the correlation between MCs and microvessels was evaluated to assess the contribution of MCs to angiogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. This approach may be a basis for the development of future pharmaceuticals addressed to MCs performance to manage odontogenic cysts. To our knowledge, no study investigating the correlation between MCs and microvessels has been performed to date. Methods: 60 cases of odontogenic cysts consisting of 20 radicular cysts (RCs), 20 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and 20 dentigerous cysts (DCs) were included in this study. Five high power fields in superficial connective tissue and five high power fields in deep connective tissue were counted for each sample. Moreover, a total mean of ten fields was calculated. Results: RC showed the highest mean numbers of MCs and microvessels (p<0.05). The subepithelial zones of all cysts contained more MCs and microvessels compared to the deeper zones. A statistically significant correlation between the numbers of MCs and microvessels was not observed (r=0.00, p=0.49). Conclusion: Although the number of MCs was not significantly associated with microvessels, these cells may be related to the growth of odontogenic lesions, particularly RCs. Further studies on the in vivo functions of MCs will make the concept more clear. PMID:26793609

  4. Oral foregut cyst in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Hiramatsu, Daniel Martins; de Moraes, Fábio Roberto Ruiz; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Soares, Andresa Borges

    2013-11-01

    Oral foregut cysts are congenital choristomas that arise in the oral cavity during embryonic development from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium. This is an unusual report of a neonate with a large congenital sublingual cystic lesion, extending superficially from the left ventral tongue to the anterior floor of the mouth, impeding breast-feeding. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, mucous retention cyst, and oral lymphangioma. The treatment of choice was enucleation under general anesthesia. Histology showed a cystic lesion with a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 and negative for cytokeratin 20, resulting in a final diagnosis of an oral foregut cyst. Three weeks after surgery, the tongue had healed with good mobility, and breast-feeding could be established. No recurrence was present at 6 months of follow-up.

  5. CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions.

  6. [Surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar scoliosis with multi-segment lumbar spinal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiaping; Tang, Xun; Xu, Yongqing; Zhou, Tianhua; Shi, Jian; Cui, Yi; Xiang, Qili; Cai, Zhijun; Zhao, Qingkai; Yang, Xiaoyong; Zhao, Caihua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the surgical indications, decompression and fusion method, and fusion level selection of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and multi-segment lumbar spinal stenosis. Between April 2000 and November 2011, 46 cases of DLS and multi-segment lumbar spinal stenosis were treated with multi-level decompression by fenestration and crept enlargement plus internal fixation by interbody and posterior-lateral bone graft fusion (5 segments or above). Of 46 cases, 25 were male and 21 were female, with a mean age of 70.2 years (range, 65-81 years) and with a mean disease duration of 6.4 years (range, 4 years and 6 months to 13 years). X-ray films showed that the lumbar Cobb angle was (26.7 ± 10.0) degrees, and the lumbar lordotic angle was (20.3 ± 8.8)degrees. The lumbar CT and MRI images showed three-segment stenosis in 24 cases, four-segment stenosis in 17 cases, and five-segment stenosis in 5 cases. A total of 165 stenosed segments included 12 L1,2, 34 L2,3, 43 L3,4, 45 L4,5, and 31 L5 and S1. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI), and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score (29 points) were employed to evaluate effectiveness. Thirteen patients had leakage of cerebrospinal fluid during operation, and no infection was found after corresponding treatment; pulmonary infection and urinary system infection occurred in 4 and 2 patients respectively, who relieved after received antibiotic therapy; 8 patients with poor wound healing received dressing change, adequate drainage, debridement and suture. No death, paralysis, central nervous system infection, or other complication was observed in these patients. Forty-six cases were followed up 12-72 months (mean, 36.2 months). Lumbago and backache and intermittent claudication of lower extremity were obviously improved. During follow-up, no screw incising, loosening and broken screws, or pseudarthrosis was noted under X-ray film and CT scanning. At last follow-up, the lumbar Cobb angle was

  7. Down-Regulation of Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 by Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Sensitizes Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts to Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Silverman, Matthew D.; Marotte, Hubert; Kwan, Kevin; Matuszczak, Natalie; Koch, Alisa E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts is a major cause of their resistance to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)–induced apoptosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in down-regulating Mcl-1 expression and its mechanism of RA synovial fibroblast sensitization to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Methods EGCG effects on cultured RA synovial fibroblast cell morphology, proliferation, and viability over 72 hours were determined by microscopy and a fluorescent cell enumeration assay. Caspase 3 activity was determined by a colorimetric assay. Western blotting was used to evaluate the apoptosis mediators poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Akt, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Results In RA synovial fibroblasts, EGCG (5–50 μM) inhibited constitutive and TNFα-induced Mcl-1 protein expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Importantly, EGCG specifically abrogated Mcl-1 expression in RA synovial fibroblasts and affected Mcl-1 expression to a lesser extent in osteoarthritis and normal synovial fibroblasts or endothelial cells. Inhibition of Mcl-1 by EGCG triggered caspase 3 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts, which was mediated via down-regulation of the TNFα-induced Akt and NF-κB pathways. Caspase 3 activation by EGCG also suppressed RA synovial fibroblast growth, and this effect was mimicked by Akt and NF-κB inhibitors. Interestingly, Mcl-1 degradation by EGCG sensitized RA synovial fibroblasts to TNFα-induced PARP cleavage and apoptotic cell death. Conclusion Our findings indicate that EGCG itself induces apoptosis and further sensitizes RA synovial fibroblasts to TNFα-induced apoptosis by specifically blocking Mcl-1 expression and, hence, may be of promising adjunct therapeutic value in regulating the invasive growth of synovial fibroblasts in RA. PMID:19404960

  8. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Abdulhadi Abbas

    2008-08-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is known to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The expression of EMMPRIN in odontogenic cysts has not been previously studied. This study was done to determine the presence and the variability of EMMPRIN expression in various types of odontogenic cysts. An immunohistochemical study using a polyclonal anti-EMMPRIN antibody was done using 48 odontogenic cyst cases: 13 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), 18 dentigerous cysts (DCs), and 17 periapical cysts (PAs). Twelve cases of normal dental follicles (DFs) were also included in this study for comparison. EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was detected in all of the cysts and DFs studied. In odontogenic cysts, EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was generally higher in basal cells than in suprabasal cells. The overall EMMPRIN expression in the epithelial lining of the 3 different types of odontogenic cyst was significantly higher than in the DFs. Overall EMMPRIN expression was also found to be significantly higher in the epithelial lining of OKCs than in the other types of cysts. This study confirmed that EMMPRIN is present in odontogenic cysts and DFs. The higher EMMPRIN expression in OKCs suggests that it may be involved in the aggressive behavior of this type of cyst.

  9. Neonatal ovarian cysts: ultrasound assessment and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Llorens Salvador, R; Sangüesa Nebot, C; Pacheco Usmayo, A; Picó Aliaga, S; Garcés Iñigo, E

    Ovarian cysts are the most common abdominal cysts in female fetuses and newborn girls. Ultrasonography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing ovarian cysts because it makes it possible to differentiate them from other cystic lesions. Although most neonatal ovarian cysts regress in the first few months after birth, complications can occur during gestation or after birth. The manifestations of ovarian cysts on ultrasonography will depend on the complications. The management is controversial, although the current trend favors watchful waiting. We describe the different presentations of neonatal ovarian cysts with their complications and their patterns of findings on ultrasonography. We also discuss the differential diagnosis with other cystic abdominal lesions, and finally we discuss the therapeutic management of neonatal ovarian cysts. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Arthroscopic Decompression for a Giant Meniscal Cyst.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a giant medial meniscal cyst in an osteoarthritic knee of an 82-year-old woman that was successfully treated with only arthroscopic cyst decompression. The patient noticed a painful mass on the medial side of the right knee that had been gradually growing for 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated large medial cystic mass measuring 80×65×40 mm that was adjacent to the medial meniscus. An accompanying horizontal tear was also detected in the middle and posterior segments of the meniscus. The medial meniscus was resected up to the capsular attachment to create bidirectional flow between the joint and the cyst with arthroscopic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 14 months postoperatively showed that the cyst had completely disappeared, and no recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. An excellent result could be obtained by performing limited meniscectomy to create a channel leading to the meniscal cyst, even though the cyst was large. Among previously reported cases of meniscal cysts, this case is the largest to be treated arthroscopically without open excision. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch predisposes to adjacent segment disease after lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Mueller, Daniel A; Rothenfluh, Esin; Min, Kan

    2015-06-01

    Several risk factors and causes of adjacent segment disease have been debated; however, no quantitative relationship to spino-pelvic parameters has been established so far. A retrospective case-control study was carried out to investigate spino-pelvic alignment in patients with adjacent segment disease compared to a control group. 45 patients (ASDis) were identified that underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease after on average 49 months (7-125), 39 patients were selected as control group (CTRL) similar in the distribution of the matching variables, such as age, gender, preoperative degenerative changes, and numbers of segments fused with a mean follow-up of 84 months (61-142) (total n = 84). Several radiographic parameters were measured on pre- and postoperative radiographs, including lumbar lordosis measured (LL), sacral slope, pelvic incidence (PI), and tilt. Significant differences between ASDis and CTRL groups on preoperative radiographs were seen for PI (60.9 ± 10.0° vs. 51.7 ± 10.4°, p = 0.001) and LL (48.1 ± 12.5° vs. 53.8 ± 10.8°, p = 0.012). Pelvic incidence was put into relation to lumbar lordosis by calculating the difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (∆PILL = PI-LL, ASDis 12.5 ± 16.7° vs. CTRL 3.4 ± 12.1°, p = 0.001). A cutoff value of 9.8° was determined by logistic regression and ROC analysis and patients classified into a type A (∆PILL <10°) and a type B (∆PILL ≥10°) alignment according to pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch. In type A spino-pelvic alignment, 25.5 % of patients underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease, whereas 78.3 % of patients classified as type B alignment had revision surgery. Classification of patients into type A and B alignments yields a sensitivity for predicting adjacent segment disease of 71 %, a specificity of 81 % and an odds ratio of 10.6. In degenerative disease of the lumbar spine a high pelvic incidence with diminished lumbar lordosis seems

  12. Synovial Calprotectin: An Inexpensive Biomarker to Exclude a Chronic Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Ottink, Karsten; Kampinga, Greetje A; Wagenmakers-Huizenga, Lucie; Jutte, Paul C; Kobold, Anneke C M

    2018-04-01

    To diagnose or exclude a chronic prosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be a clinical challenge. Therefore, sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed in the diagnostic work-up. Calprotectin is a protein with antimicrobial properties and is released by activated neutrophils, making it a specific marker for infection. Because of its low costs and ability to obtain a quantitative value as a point of care test, it is an attractive marker to use in clinical practice. In addition, the test is already used in routine care in most hospitals for other indications and therefore easy to implement. Between June 2015 and June 2017 we collected synovial fluid of all consecutive patients who underwent revision surgery of a prosthetic joint because of chronic pain with or without prosthetic loosening. Synovial calprotectin was measured using a lateral flow immunoassay. A PJI was defined by the diagnostic criteria described by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Fifty-two patients with chronic pain were included. A PJI was diagnosed in 15 of 52 (29%) patients. The median calprotectin in the PJI group was 859 mg/L (interquartile range 86-1707) vs 7 mg/L (interquartile range 3-25) in the control group (P < .001). With a cut-off value of 50 mg/L, synovial calprotectin showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 86.7%, 91.7%, 81.3%, and 94.4%, respectively. Synovial calprotectin is a useful and cheap biomarker to use in the diagnostic work-up of patients with chronic pain, especially to exclude a PJI prior to revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of murine collagen-induced arthritis by targeted apoptosis of synovial neovasculature

    PubMed Central

    Gerlag, Danielle M; Borges, Eric; Tak, Paul P; Ellerby, H Michael; Bredesen, Dale E; Pasqualini, Renata; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Firestein, Gary S

    2001-01-01

    Because angiogenesis plays a major role in the perpetuation of inflammatory arthritis, we explored a method for selectively targeting and destroying new synovial blood vessels. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis were injected intravenously with phage expressing an RGD motif. In addition, the RGD peptide (RGD-4C) was covalently linked to a proapoptotic heptapeptide dimer, D(KLAKLAK)2, and was systemically administered to mice with collagen-induced arthritis. A phage displaying an RGD-containing cyclic peptide (RGD-4C) that binds selectively to the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins accumulated in inflamed synovium but not in normal synovium. Homing of RGD-4C phage to inflamed synovium was inhibited by co-administration of soluble RGD-4C. Intravenous injections of the RGD-4C–D(KLAKLAK)2 chimeric peptide significantly decreased clinical arthritis and increased apoptosis of synovial blood vessels, whereas treatment with vehicle or uncoupled mixture of the RGD-4C and the untargeted proapoptotic peptide had no effect. Targeted apoptosis of synovial neovasculature can induce apoptosis and suppress clinical arthritis. This form of therapy has potential utility in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:11714389

  14. Canine adipose-derived stromal cell viability following exposure to synovial fluid from osteoarthritic joints.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Kristina M; O'Brien, Timothy D; Pluhar, Elizabeth G; Conzemius, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy used in clinical application of osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine typically involves intra-articular injection of the cells, however the effect of an osteoarthritic environment on the fate of the cells has not been investigated. Assess the viability of adipose derived stromal cells following exposure to osteoarthritic joint fluid. Adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) were derived from falciform adipose tissue of five adult dogs, and osteoarthritic synovial fluid (SF) was obtained from ten patients undergoing surgical intervention on orthopedic diseases with secondary osteoarthritis. Normal synovial fluid was obtained from seven adult dogs from an unrelated study. ASCs were exposed to the following treatment conditions: culture medium, normal SF, osteoarthritic SF, or serial dilutions of 1:1 to 1:10 of osteoarthritic SF with media. Cells were then harvested and assessed for viability using trypan blue dye exclusion. There was no significant difference in the viability of cells in culture medium or normal SF. Significant differences were found between cells exposed to any concentration of osteoarthritic SF and normal SF and between cells exposed to undiluted osteoarthritic SF and all serial dilutions. Subsequent dilutions reduced cytotoxicity. Osteoarthritic synovial fluid in this ex vivo experiment is cytotoxic to ASCs, when compared with normal synovial fluid. Current practice of direct injection of ASCs into osteoarthritic joints should be re-evaluated to determine if alternative means of administration may be more effective.

  15. Clinical approach to incidental pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Austin L; Lee, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    The approach to incidentally noted pancreatic cysts is constantly evolving. While surgical resection is indicated for malignant or higher risk cysts, correctly identifying these highest risk pancreatic cystic lesions remains difficult. Using parameters including cyst size, presence of solid components, and pancreatic duct involvement, the 2012 International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) and the 2015 American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) guidelines have sought to identify the higher risk patients who would benefit from further evaluation using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Not only can EUS help further assess the presence of solid component and nodules, but also fine needle aspiration of cyst fluid aids in diagnosis by obtaining cellular, molecular, and genetic data. The impact of new endoscopic innovations with novel methods of direct visualization including confocal endomicroscopy require further validation. This review also highlights the differences between the 2012 IAP and 2015 AGA guidelines, which include the thresholds for sending patients for EUS and surgery and methods, interval, and duration of surveillance for unresected cysts. PMID:26811661

  16. Primary hydatid cyst of the neck.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Syeddah Shafaq; Faridi, Naveen; Haroon, Saroona

    2013-11-01

    Hydatid cysts in the neck are relatively exceptional, even in areas where Echinococcus granulosis is endemic, such as Asia. Although liver and lung are frequent sites of involvement, it can involve all tissues, with neck remaining one of the most rare sites. It should come in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesion of neck, as the treatment options differ widely from common neck cysts. The role of radiological investigation is important and, in these cases, the involvement of other organs should be investigated. Serological tests may be helpful. The major treatment modality is surgical and the cyst should be excised as a whole, without being ruptured, to prevent any treatment complications, as the cyst fluid can initiate an anaphylactic reaction. Postoperative albendazole therapy is recommended particularly when there is intra-operative spillover. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst localized in the anterior triangle of the neck without any pulmonary or hepatic involvement.

  17. Bilateral nasolabial cysts associated with recurrent dacryocystitis.

    PubMed

    Kyrmizakis, Dionysios E; Lachanas, Vassilios A; Benakis, Antonios A; Velegrakis, George A; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2005-05-01

    Nasolabial cysts are rare, nonodontogenic, soft-tissue, developmental cysts occurring inferior to the nasal alar region. They are thought to arise from remnants of the nasolacrimal ducts and they are frequently asymptomatic. We report a rare case of bilateral nasolabial cysts accompanied by bilateral chronic dacryocystitis. A 48-year-old woman suffering from bilateral chronic dacryocystitis was referred to our department for endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. She had undergone external dacryocystorhinostomy on the left side a few years earlier. Physical examination and computed tomography scan revealed nasolabial cysts bilaterally inferior to the nasal alar region. The cysts were removed via a sublabial approach and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was performed on the right side. Ten months after surgery, the patient was asymptomatic. There may be a correlation, due to embryological reasons, between the presence of nasolabial cysts and the presence of chronic dacryocystitis. Both can be corrected surgically, under the same anaesthesia, without visible scar formation.

  18. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhang, Wei; Qie, Suhui; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The study was to comprehensively compare the postoperative outcome and imaging parameter characters in a short/middle period between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and the internal fixation of bone graft fusion (the most common form is posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) for the treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis after a previous lumbar internal fixation surgery.In this retrospective case-control study, we collected the medical records from 11 patients who received PELD operation (defined as PELD group) for and from 13 patients who received the internal fixation of bone graft fusion of lumbar posterior vertebral lamina decompression (defined as control group) for the treatment of the lumbar disc prolapse combined with stable retrolisthesis at Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shijiazhuang, China) from May 2010 to December 2015. The operation time, the bleeding volume of perioperation, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were compared between 2 groups. Before and after surgery at different time points, ODI, VAS index, and imaging parameters (including Taillard index, inter-vertebral height, sagittal dislocation, and forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae) were compared.The average operation time, the blooding volume, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were significantly less in PELD than in control group. The ODI and VAS index in PELD group showed a significantly immediate improving on the same day after the surgery. However, Taillard index, intervertebral height, sagittal dislocation in control group showed an immediate improving after surgery, but no changes in PELD group till 12-month after surgery. The forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae was significantly increased and decreased in PELD and in control group, respectively.PELD operation was superior in terms of operation time, bleeding volume, recovery period, and financial

  19. Diagnosing aneurysmal and unicameral bone cysts with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R J; Meyer, J S; Dormans, J P; Davidson, R S

    1999-09-01

    The differential between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts usually is clear clinically and radiographically. Occasionally there are cases in which the diagnosis is not clear. Because natural history and treatment are different, the ability to distinguish between these two entities before surgery is important. The authors reviewed, in a blinded fashion, the preoperative magnetic resonance images to investigate criteria that could be used to differentiate between the two lesions. All patients had operative or pathologic confirmation of an aneurysmal bone cyst or unicameral bone cyst. The authors analyzed the preoperative magnetic resonance images of 14 patients with diagnostically difficult bone cysts (eight children with unicameral bone cysts and six children with aneurysmal bone cysts) and correlated these findings with diagnosis after biopsy or cyst aspiration and contrast injection. The presence of a double density fluid level within the lesion strongly indicated that the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. Other criteria that suggested the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst were the presence of septations within the lesion and signal characteristics of low intensity on T1 images and high intensity on T2 images. The authors identified a way of helping to differentiate between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts on magnetic resonance images. Double density fluid level, septation, and low signal on T1 images and high signal on T2 images strongly suggest the bone cyst in question is an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. This may be helpful before surgery for the child who has a cystic lesion for which radiographic features do not allow a clear differentiation of unicameral bone cyst from aneurysmal bone cyst.

  20. Arachnoid cyst with rupture into the subdural space.

    PubMed Central

    Cullis, P A; Gilroy, J

    1983-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts which develop in relation to the cerebral hemispheres are usually found in the middle cranial fossa. These cysts are usually asymptomatic but can produce symptoms if there is haemorrhage into the cyst or the development of an associated subdural hematoma. Recent publications have emphasised the association of arachnoid cysts of the middle fossa with subdural haematomas. This report describes a case of an asymptomatic arachnoid cyst which ruptured into the subdural space. This event was followed by the development of symptoms despite the lack of haemorrhage. Images PMID:6101185

  1. A giant ovarian cyst in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Soccorso, Giampiero; Walker, Jenny

    2009-06-01

    Antenatally diagnosed abdominal cysts are common, and frequently are ovarian in origin, which usually regress spontaneously. Surgery is indicated in the infantile period in case of very large, persisting or symptomatic cysts. Many surgeons feel that watchful waiting can be justified in newborns with simple and complex cysts. We present a neonate with an ovarian cyst diagnosed antenatally by ultrasound (US) and showing persistent enlargement within 3 months after birth when reached a diameter of 13 cm. Assessment and treatment is described. The extremely large, non-resolving ovarian cysts in neonates present a major challenge for clinicians and should be treated by surgery to avoid complications. We advocate laparotomy and cystectomy when possible to avoid unnecessary loss of functional ovarian tissue.

  2. Follow-up of pineal cysts in children: is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Jussila, Miro-Pekka; Olsén, Päivi; Salokorpi, Niina; Suo-Palosaari, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Pineal cysts are common incidental findings in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Several studies have suggested MRI follow-up if the cyst is larger than 10 mm. However, cysts do not usually change during follow-up. Prevalence, growth, and structure of the pineal cysts were analyzed to decide if follow-up MRI is necessary. A retrospective review between 2010 and 2015 was performed using 3851 MRI examinations of children aged 0-16 years to detect pineal cysts having a maximum diameter ≥ 10 mm. Eighty-one children with pineal cysts were identified and 79 of them had been controlled by MRI. Cysts were analyzed for the size, growth, and structure. A total of 1.8% of the children had a pineal cyst with a diameter ≥ 10 mm. Cysts were present in 48 girls (59.3%) and 33 boys (40.7%). Most pineal cysts (70/79) did not significantly grow during the follow-up (median 10 months, range 3-145 months). A total of 11.4% (9/79) of the cysts grew with the biggest change measured from the outer cyst wall sagittal anteroposterior dimension (mean 3.4 mm ± 1.7 mm). Only one cyst grew more than 5 mm. We found no factors correlating with the cyst growth among 9 cysts that grew > 2 mm. A majority of pineal cysts remained unchanged during the MRI follow-up. Results of this study suggest that routine MRI follow-up of pineal cysts is not necessary in the absence of unusual radiological characteristics or related clinical symptoms.

  3. Vertebral Compression Fractures after Lumbar Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Granville, Michelle; Berti, Aldo; Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-09-29

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is primarily found in an older population. This is a similar demographic group that develops both osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures (VCF). This report reviewed a series of patients treated for VCF that had previous lumbar surgery for symptomatic spinal stenosis. Patients that only underwent laminectomy or fusion without instrumentation had a similar distribution of VCF as the non-surgical population in the mid-thoracic, or lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine. However, in the patients that had previous short-segment spinal instrumentation, fractures were found to be located more commonly in the mid-lumbar spine or sacrum adjacent to or within one or two spinal segments of the spinal instrumentation. Adjacent-level fractures that occur due to vertebral osteoporosis after long spinal segment instrumentation has been discussed in the literature. The purpose of this report is to highlight the previously unreported finding of frequent lumbar and sacral osteoporotic fractures in post-lumbar instrumentation surgery patients. Important additional factors found were lack of preventative medical treatment for osteoporosis, and secondary effects related to inactivity, especially during the first year after surgery.

  4. Differentiation of Pancreatic Cyst Types by Analysis of Rheological Behavior of Pancreatic Cyst Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Khamaysi, Iyad; Abu Ammar, Aiman; Vasilyev, Gleb; Arinstein, Arkadii; Chowers, Yehuda; Zussman, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between mucinous and non-mucinous pancreatic cysts is exceedingly important and challenging, particularly as the former bears malignant transformation potential. Pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF)-based diagnostics, including analyses of biochemical markers, as well as cytology, has shown inadequate accuracy. Herein, a preliminary single-center study of 22 PCF samples, collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), assessed the rheological behavior of PCF and its correlation with lesion type. The dependence of PCF shear viscosity on shear rate was found to follow a power law and could be fitted using Ostwald–de Waele model. Three types of flow curves were identified, where two types correlated with non-mucinous cysts, differing by their power law exponent, and the third type corresponding to mucinous cysts. Viscosity measured at a high shear rate was shown to serve as an accurate and independent marker distinguishing between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts, with an optimal cutoff value of ηc = 1.3 cP The accuracy of this novel technique proved superior to string-sign, cytology, carcinoembryonic antigen, and amylase assessments. Moreover, the combined predictive value of ηc and patient age provided for sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 95.5%, respectively. This simple and rapid diagnostic tool can be immediately implemented after EUS-FNA sampling. PMID:28358122

  5. Caveolin-1 expression in odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Pardis, Soheil; Asadzadeh, Maryam; Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the caveolin-1 expression in a group of odontogenic cysts and tumors. In this cross-sectional study, the expression of caveolin-1 was evaluated immunohistochemically in 75 samples including 18 cases of dentigerous cyst, 18 odontogenic keratocysts, 3 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, 2 calcifying odontogenic cysts and 34 ameloblastomas (solid and unicystic). Positive immunohistochemical reaction was found in 100% of odontogenic cysts and this was significantly more than both unicystic (65%) and solid (55%) ameloblastomas. The present study showed the expression of caveolin-1 in all odontogenic cysts and more than ameloblastomas. The results suggested that absence of caveolin-1 might enhance aggressiveness of odontogenic lesions and could be a useful marker for distinguishing ameloblastomas from other odontogenic lesions.

  6. Raman spectroscopy of dried synovial fluid droplets as a rapid diagnostic for knee joint damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2008-02-01

    Human synovial fluid droplets were investigated using drop deposition in combination with Raman spectroscopy. Following informed consent, synovial fluid was obtained from forty human patients with various severities of knee pain and/or osteoarthritis at the time of knee arthroscopy or total joint replacement. Synovial fluid was aspirated from the knee joint of each patient and stored at -80°C until examination by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Synovial fluid aspirates from the knee joint of each patient were deposited onto a clean fused silica microscope slide and the droplet dried under ambient laboratory conditions. Each droplet was illuminated by a line-focused or a ring-focused 785 nm laser. As the droplet dries, biofluid components segregated based on solubility differences and a deposit that is spatially heterogeneous was made. Spectra taken from the droplet edges and center were dominated by protein bands and showed the presence of at least two protein moieties in the droplet. Band area and band height ratios (1410 cm -1/1450 cm -1) showed the greatest change between specimens from patients with mild/early osteoarthritis compared to those with severe/late stage osteoarthritis. The greatest differences were found in the center of the droplet, which contains more soluble protein components than the edges.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in serum and synovial fluid of osteoarthritic dogs.

    PubMed

    Salinardi, B J; Roush, J K; Schermerhorn, T; Mitchell, K E

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the pathological processes of osteoarthritis (OA) and to potentially identify a profile of changes that could be predictive of early OA, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in the synovial fluid and serum of normal and osteoarthritic dogs were examined. The concentration of MMP-1 in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritic dogs (0.62 +/- 0.16), as measured by densitometry, was significantly higher than that found in control dogs (0.42 +/- 0.19) (P = 0.03). The concentration of MMP-1 in the serum of osteoarthritic dogs (0.74 +/- 0.16) was significantly less than that found in control dogs (0.87 +/- 0.08) (P = 0.05). The concentration of TIMP-2 in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritic dogs (46.2 +/- 21.9 ng/ml) was significantly less than that of control dogs (122.0 +/- 66.5 ng/ml) (P = 0.009). The concentration of TIMP-2 in the serum of osteoarthritic dogs (116.2 +/- 43.1 ng/ml) was not significantly different than that of control dogs (95.1 +/- 94.4 ng/ml) (P = 0.554). In addition, a phospho-tyrosine immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to isolate and identify interferon-alpha in canine synovial fluid.

  8. Ablation of synovial pannus using microbubble-mediated ultrasonic cavitation in antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Lingyan; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yan

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the ablative effectiveness of microbubble-mediated ultrasonic cavitation for treating synovial pannus and to determine a potential mechanism using the antigen-induced arthritis model (AIA). Ultrasonic ablation was performed on the knee joints of AIA rabbits using optimal ultrasonic ablative parameters. Rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1) the ultrasound (US) + microbubble group; (2) the US only group; (3) the microbubble only group, and (4) the control group. At 1 h and 14 days after the first ablation, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) monitoring and pathology synovitis score were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects. Synovial necrosis and microvascular changes were also measured. After the ablation treatment, the thickness of synovium and parameters of time intensity curve including derived peak intensity and area under curve were measured using CEUS, and the pathology synovitis score in the ultrasound + microbubble group was significantly lower than that found in the remaining groups. No damage was observed in the surrounding normal tissues. The mechanism underlying the ultrasonic ablation was related to microthrombosis and microvascular rupture that resulted in synovial necrosis. The results suggest that microbubble-mediated ultrasonic cavitation should be applied as a non-invasive strategy for the treatment of synovial pannus in arthritis under optimal conditions.

  9. Biomarkers reflect differences in osteoarthritis phenotypes of the lumbar spine: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.

    PubMed

    Goode, A P; Nelson, A E; Kraus, V B; Renner, J B; Jordan, J M

    2017-10-01

    To determine differences in biomarker levels between radiographic phenotypes of facet joint osteoarthritis (FOA) only, spine OA only ((disc space narrowing (DSN) and vertebral osteophytes (OST)) or the combination of FOA and spine OA. A cross-sectional analysis of data from 555 participants in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project was performed. Lumbar spine levels were graded by severity (OST and DSN) and presence (FOA) of degeneration. Biomarkers included hyaluronan (HA) and type II collagen (CTX-II). Adjusted risk ratios (aRRR) were estimated using multinomial regression, with adjustment for age, race, sex, body mass index (BMI), and radiographic OA (knee, hip, hand). Interactions were tested between sex, race and low back symptoms. FOA only was present in 22.4%, 14.5% had spine OA only, and 34.6% had the combination of FOA and spine OA. Compared to the reference group of neither FOA or spine OA, a one unit higher ln HA level was associated with 31% higher relative risk ratio (RRR = 1.31 (95% 1.03, 1.67)) of having FOA only, while, a one unit higher lnuCTX-II level was associated with 84% higher relative risk ratio (RRR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.19, 2.84)) of having spine OA only. No significant interactions were identified. Interestingly, OA affecting the synovial facet joint was associated with a marker of inflammation (HA). Spine OA, affecting intervertebral discs that contain collagen type II, was associated with a marker reflecting collagen type II degradation (CTX-II). These findings suggest that biomarkers may reflect the different pathophysiologic processes of lumbar spine OA phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydatid cyst of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Başgül, A; Kavak, Z N; Gökaslan, H; Küllü, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a common zoonosis that affects a large number of humans and animals, especially in poorly developed countries. The infesting parasite has four forms named Echinococcus granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus (very rare in humans). The most frequently involved organs are liver followed by the lung. The involvement of the genital tract is rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the uterus. CASE: A 70-year-old female with a history of hydatid cysts of the liver, was admitted to hospital after complaining of low abdominal pains. On physical and gynecological examinations, no pathological finding was detected. However, the uterus was significantly large for a postmenopausal patient. Transvaginal sonography (TS) revealed a cystic mass in the uterus with a size of 7 x 6 cm. After further examinations a subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed scolices of Echinococcus granulosis. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts in the genital tract are rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. Differentiation between hydatid cyst and malignant disease of the related organ is difficult. To avoid misdiagnosis, a careful examination of pelvic masses should be carried out in endemic areas for detection of hydatid cysts. PMID:12530482

  11. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: case study.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Dragan; Krasić, Dragan; Stefanović, Ivan; Veselinović, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Kostić, Aleksandar; Cvetanović, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Nis, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  12. On the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: implications for Metal-on-Metal hip tribology.

    PubMed

    Myant, Connor; Cann, Philippa

    2014-06-01

    Artificial articular joints present an interesting, and difficult, tribological problem. These bearing contacts undergo complex transient loading and multi axes kinematic cycles, over extremely long periods of time (>10 years). Despite extensive research, wear of the bearing surfaces, particularly metal-metal hips, remains a major problem. Comparatively little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanism in artificial joints which is a serious gap in our knowledge as this determines film formation and hence wear. In this paper we review the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and present a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. This model, recently proposed by the authors, suggests that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins. The implications of this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designs and the effect of patient synovial fluid properties are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cysts of the oro-facial region: A Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, AO; Adisa, AO; Sigbeku, OF

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Though many studies have examined cysts of the jaws, most of them focused on a group of cysts and only few have examined cysts based on a particular classification. The aim of this study is to review cysts of the oro-facial region seen at a tertiary health centre in Ibadan and to categorize these cases based on Lucas, Killey and Kay and WHO classifications. Materials and Methods: All histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts were retrieved from the oral pathology archives. Information concerning cyst type, topography, age at time of diagnosis and gender of patients was gathered. Data obtained was analyzed with the SPSS 18.0.1 version software. Results: A total of 92 histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts comprising 60 (65.2%) males and 32 (34.8%) females were seen. The age range was 4 to 73 years with a mean age of 27.99 ± 15.26 years. The peak incidence was in the third decade. The mandible/ maxilla ratio was 1.5:1. Apical periodontal was the most common type of cyst accounting for 50% (n = 46) of total cysts observed. Using the WHO classification, cysts of the soft tissues of head, face and neck were overwhelmingly more common in males than females with a ratio of 14:3, while non-epithelial cysts occurred at a 3:1 male/female ratio. Conclusion: This study showed similar findings in regard to type, site and age incidence of oro-facial cysts compared to previous studies and also showed that the WHO classification protocol was the most comprehensive classification method for oro-facial cysts. PMID:22923885

  14. Water relations during desiccation of cysts of the potato-cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Wharton, D A; Worland, M R

    2001-03-01

    The loss during desiccation of osmotically active water (OAW), which freezes during cooling to -45 degrees C, and osmotically inactive water (OIW), which remains unfrozen, from the cysts of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Exotherms and endotherms associated with non-egg compartments were not detected after 5 min desiccation at 50% relative humidity and 20 degrees C. The pattern of water loss from the cysts indicates that water is lost from compartments outside the eggs first, that nearly all the non-egg water is OAW and that the OIW content of the cyst is contained within the eggs. Water is lost from the eggs only after the OAW content outside the eggs falls below that within the eggs. Both OAW and OIW are lost from the eggs during desiccation but the eggs retain a small amount of OIW. Other animals which survive some desiccation but which are not anhydrobiotic will tolerate the loss of OAW but not the loss of their OIW. Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both their OAW and a substantial proportion of their OIW.

  15. Relationship of the lumbar plexus branches to the lumbar spine: anatomical study with application to lateral approaches.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Richard Isaiah; Gabel, Brandon; Jeyamohan, Shiveindra; Moisi, Marc; Chapman, Jens R; Hanscom, R David; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, Richard Shane

    2017-07-01

    Injuries to the lumbar plexus during lateral approaches to the spine are not uncommon and may result in permanent deficits. However, the literature contains few studies that provide landmarks for avoiding the branches of the lumbar plexus. The present anatomical study was performed to elucidate the course of these nerves in relation to lateral approaches to the lumbar spine. This is a quantitative anatomical cadaveric study. The lumbar plexus and its branches were dissected on 12 cadaveric sides. Metal wires were laid on the nerves along their paths on the posterior abdominal wall. Fluoroscopy was performed in the anteroposterior and lateral positions. The relationships between regional bony landmarks and the branches of the lumbar plexus were observed. When viewed laterally, the greatest concentration of nerves occurred from the posteroinferior aspect of L4, inferior along the posterior one-third of the body of L5, then at the level of the sacral promontory. On the basis of our study, approaches to the anterior two-thirds of the L4 vertebra and anterior third of L5 will result in the lowest chance of lumbar plexus nerve injury. In addition, lateral muscle dissection through the psoas major should be in a superior to inferior direction in order to minimize nerve injury. Laterally, the widest corridor between branches in the abdominal wall was between the subcostal and iliohypogastric nerves. The findings of our cadaveric study provide surgeons who approach the lateral lumbar spine with data that could decrease injuries to the branches of the lumbar plexus, thus lessening patient morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  17. Lumbar disc herniation in young children.

    PubMed

    Haidar, R; Ghanem, I; Saad, S; Uthman, I

    2010-01-01

    This article explores lumbar disc herniation in young children through focusing on matters relevant to patient presentation, physical examination, differential diagnosis, imaging and treatment. Major databases were searched for studies that addressed lumbar disc herniation in young children. Diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation in young children is usually delayed because of the rarity and lack of experience with this entity and the difficulty in extracting a reliable medical history. Nevertheless, lumbar disc herniation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any young child presenting with a chief complaint of back pain and/or radiculopathy, especially in the setting of recent trauma. This should be coupled with a directed physical examination to elicit signs and narrow the differential diagnosis. Imaging studies, mainly magnetic resonance imaging, will help establish a diagnosis; yet radiographs are still required to exclude other spinal lesions. The initial management of lumbar disc herniation in children is the same as that in adults and consists of conservative treatment unless lumbar disc herniation affects the patient's motor and neurological functions in which case, early surgical treatment must be undertaken. Although the latter remains more difficult, current experience suggests a favourable outcome. Awareness of lumbar disc herniation will help the paediatrician extract a relevant medical history, perform a directed physical examination, and order appropriate imaging studies. This will aid in initiating early intervention, be it conservative or operative, and achieving a favourable outcome.

  18. A citrus flavonoid, nobiletin, suppresses production and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9/gelatinase B in rabbit synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ishiwa, J; Sato, T; Mimaki, Y; Sashida, Y; Yano, M; Ito, A

    2000-01-01

    Flavonoids including nobiletin are known to exert many biological actions in vitro. We investigated the chondroprotective effect of citrus flavonoids, especially nobiletin, using cultured rabbit synovial fibroblasts and articular chondrocytes. We examined the effects of citrus flavonoids on the production and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)production in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Six flavonoids isolated from Citrus depressa Rutaceae including tangeretin, 6-demethoxytangeretin, nobiletin, 5-demethylnobiletin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and sinensetin suppressed the interleukin 1 (IL-1) induced production of proMMP-9/progelatinase B in rabbit synovial cells in a dose dependent manner (<64 microM); nobiletin most effectively suppressed proMMP-9 production along with the decrease in its mRNA. Nobiletin also reduced IL-1 induced production of PGE2 in the synovial cells, but did not modify the synthesis of total protein. These suppressive effects of nobiletin were also observed in rabbit articular chondrocytes. Nobiletin inhibited proliferation of rabbit synovial fibroblasts in the growth phase. These results suggest nobiletin is a novel antiinflammatory candidate that has the potential to inhibit PGE2 production, matrix degradation of the articular cartilage, and pannus formation in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. The Neandertal vertebral column 2: The lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Arlegi, Mikel; Barash, Alon; Stock, Jay T; Been, Ella

    2017-05-01

    Here we provide the most extensive metric and morphological analysis performed to date on the Neandertal lumbar spine. Neandertal lumbar vertebrae show differences from modern humans in both the vertebral body and in the neural arch, although not all Neandertal lumbar vertebrae differ from modern humans in the same way. Differences in the vertebral foramen are restricted to the lowermost lumbar vertebrae (L4 and L5), differences in the orientation of the upper articular facets appear in the uppermost lumbar vertebrae (probably in L1 and L2-L3), and differences in the horizontal angle of the transverse process appear in L2-L4. Neandertals, when compared to modern humans, show a smaller degree of lumbar lordosis. Based on a still limited fossil sample, early hominins (australopiths and Homo erectus) had a lumbar lordosis that was similar to but below the mean of modern humans. Here, we hypothesize that from this ancestral degree of lumbar lordosis, the Neandertal lineage decreased their lumbar lordosis and Homo sapiens slightly increased theirs. From a postural point of view, the lower degree of lordosis is related to a more vertical position of the sacrum, which is also positioned more ventrally with respect to the dorsal end of the pelvis. This results in a spino-pelvic alignment that, though different from modern humans, maintained an economic postural equilibrium. Some features, such as a lower degree of lumbar lordosis, were already present in the middle Pleistocene populations ancestral to Neandertals. However, these middle Pleistocene populations do not show the full suite of Neandertal lumbar morphologies, which probably means that the characteristic features of the Neandertal lumbar spine did not arise all at once. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated classification of four types of developmental odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Frydenlund, A; Eramian, M; Daley, T

    2014-04-01

    Odontogenic cysts originate from remnants of the tooth forming epithelium in the jaws and gingiva. There are various kinds of such cysts with different biological behaviours that carry different patient risks and require different treatment plans. Types of odontogenic cysts can be distinguished by the properties of their epithelial layers in H&E stained samples. Herein we detail a set of image features for automatically distinguishing between four types of odontogenic cyst in digital micrographs and evaluate their effectiveness using two statistical classifiers - a support vector machine (SVM) and bagging with logistic regression as the base learner (BLR). Cyst type was correctly predicted from among four classes of odontogenic cysts between 83.8% and 92.3% of the time with an SVM and between 90 ± 0.92% and 95.4 ± 1.94% with a BLR. One particular cyst type was associated with the majority of misclassifications. Omission of this cyst type from the data set improved the classification rate for the remaining three cyst types to 96.2% for both SVM and BLR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidermoid cyst of the breast: Mammography, ultrasound, MRI.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Elisabeth; Louie, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are common cysts located cutaneously or subcutaneously in the head, neck, and trunk. However, deep epidermal cysts of the breast are very rare, and are frequently associated with traumatic implantation. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The patient was evaluated using mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, which uniquely characterized the mass and revealed a second mass. Histological analysis revealed fragments of an epidermoid cyst. The origin of the cysts and location deep within the breast tissue likely were due to a previous bilateral-reduction mammoplasty.

  2. Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Cisternostomy for Nonneoplastic Sellar Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yukai; Ishii, Yudo; Lin, Chien-Min; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Importance. Sellar arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts are benign lesions that produce similar symptoms, including optochiasmatic compression, pituitary dysfunction, and headache. Studies have reported the use of various surgical treatment methods for treating these symptoms, preventing recurrence, and minimizing operative complications. However, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and recurrence rate remain significant. Clinical Presentation. In this paper, we present 8 consecutive cases involving arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts, which were managed by using drainage and cisternostomy, the intentional fenestration of the cyst into the subarachnoid space, and then meticulously closing sellar floor using dural sutures. The postoperative images, CSF fistula rate, and the recurrence rate were favorable. Conclusion. We report this technique and discuss the benefit of this minimally invasive approach. PMID:25685785

  3. Lumbar kinematic variability during gait in chronic low back pain and associations with pain, disability and isolated lumbar extension strength.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave; Jessop, David; Osborne, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Chronic low back pain is a multifactorial condition with many dysfunctions including gait variability. The lumbar spine and its musculature are involved during gait and in chronic low back pain the lumbar extensors are often deconditioned. It was therefore of interest to examine relationships between lumbar kinematic variability during gait, with pain, disability and isolated lumbar extension strength in participants with chronic low back pain. Twenty four participants with chronic low back pain were assessed for lumbar kinematics during gait, isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Angular displacement and kinematic waveform pattern and offset variability were examined. Angular displacement and kinematic waveform pattern and offset variability differed across movement planes; displacement was highest and similar in frontal and transverse planes, and pattern variability and offset variability higher in the sagittal plane compared to frontal and transverse planes which were similar. Spearman's correlations showed significant correlations between transverse plane pattern variability and isolated lumbar extension strength (r=-.411) and disability (r=.401). However, pain was not correlated with pattern variability in any plane. The r(2) values suggested 80.5% to 86.3% of variance was accounted for by other variables. Considering the lumbar extensors role in gait, the relationship between both isolated lumbar extension strength and disability with transverse plane pattern variability suggests that gait variability may result in consequence of lumbar extensor deconditioning or disability accompanying chronic low back pain. However, further study should examine the temporality of these relationships and other variables might account for the unexplained variance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Complement activating properties of complexes containing rheumatoid factor in synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Elson, C J; Carter, S D; Cottrell, B J; Scott, D G; Bacon, P A; Wallington, T B

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between complexes containing rheumatoid factor and complexes activating complement was examined in synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In each case this was performed by quantifying the amount of rheumatoid factor bound by solid phase Fab'2 anti-C3 and/or solid phase conglutinin. Both anti-C3 coated and conglutinin coated microtitre plates bound high levels of complexes containing rheumatoid factor from sera of RA patients with vasculitis. Unexpectedly, these complexes were detected in synovial fluids from only a minority of RA patients with synovitis. However, RA synovial fluids did contain other complexes as shown by the presence of complement consuming activity, C1q binding material and immunoglobulin attaching to conglutinin. It is considered that in RA synovial fluids the complexes containing RF and those activating complement are not necessarily the same whilst in vasculitic sera the complexes containing rheumatoid factor also activate complement. PMID:3978872

  6. [Epidermal cyst and osteolysis of the cranial vault].

    PubMed

    Guillaud, V; Rémond, J; Balme, B; Moulin, G

    1992-01-01

    In a 40-year old man undergoing, under local anaesthesia, excision of an epidermal cyst located in the frontal region, at the border of the scalp, the operator had difficulties in removing the deep part of the cyst and perceived an underlying bone depression. The depression was caused by a 2 x 1.3 cm wide lacuna in the calvarium, which was subsequently treated by neurosurgeons. Histology showed only fragments of a simple epidermal cyst wall and no evidence of dermoid cyst. The causes of osteolysis associated with congenital or acquired skin lesions are reviewed. In this case, the old age and volume of the cyst may explain the osteolysis by mechanical compression. This case is exceptional since we were unable to find other examples in the literature, apart from dermoid and trichilemmal cysts.

  7. Establishment and proteomic characterization of a novel synovial sarcoma cell line, NCC-SS2-C1.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Rieko; Kito, Fusako; Sakumoto, Marimu; Shiozawa, Kumiko; Toki, Shunichi; Endo, Makoto; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2018-05-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor, characterized by the presence of unique transfusion gene, SS18-SSX. Cell lines enable researchers to investigate the molecular backgrounds of disease and the significance of SS18-SSX in relevant cellular contexts. We report the establishment and proteomic characterization of a novel synovial sarcoma cell line. Primary tissue culture was performed using tumor tissue of synovial sarcoma. The established cell line was authenticated by assessing its DNA microsatellite short tandem repeat analysis and characterized by in vitro assay. Proteomic study was achieved by mass spectrometry, and the results were analyzed by treemap. The cell line NCC-SS2-C1 was established from a primary tumor tissue of a synovial sarcoma patient. The cell line has grown well for 11 mo and has been subcultured more than 15 times. The established cells were authenticated by assessing their short tandem repeat pattern comparing with that of original tumor tissue. The cells showed polygonal in shape and formed spheroid when seeded on the low-attachment dish. Proteomic analysis revealed the molecular pathways which are unique to the original tumor tissue or the established cell line. In conclusion, a novel synovial sarcoma cell line NCC-SS2-C1 was successfully established from the primary tumor tissue. The cell line has characteristic transfusion SS18-SSX and poses aggressive in vitro growth and capability of spheroid formation. Thus, NCC-SS2-C1 cell line will be a useful tool for investigation of the mechanisms of disease and the biological role of fusion gene.

  8. Surgical management of anterior chamber epithelial cysts.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D

    2003-03-01

    To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implantation of Allogenic Synovial Stem Cells Promotes Meniscal Regeneration in a Rabbit Meniscal Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masafumi; Driscoll, Matthew D.; Sampson, H. Wayne; Sekiya, Ichiro; Caroom, Cyrus T.; Prockop, Darwin J.; Thomas, Darryl B.

    2012-01-01

    Update This article was updated on May 16, 2012, because of a previous error. The legend for Figures 7-A and 7-B that had previously read “Representative macroscopic appearance (Fig. 7-A) and histological sections (Fig. 7-B) of the meniscal defect one day to twelve weeks after the implantation of GFP-positive green fluorescent protein under fluorescence” now reads “Representative macroscopic appearance (Fig. 7-A) and histological sections (Fig. 7-B) of the meniscal defect one day to twelve weeks after the implantation of GFP-positive synovial mesenchymal stem cells under fluorescence.” Background: Indications for surgical meniscal repair are limited, and failure rates remain high. Thus, new ways to augment repair and stimulate meniscal regeneration are needed. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells present in mature individuals and accessible from peripheral connective tissue sites, including synovium. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of implantation of synovial tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on meniscal regeneration in a rabbit model of partial meniscectomy. Methods: Synovial mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the knee of one New Zealand White rabbit, expanded in culture, and labeled with a fluorescent marker. A reproducible 1.5-mm cylindrical defect was created in the avascular portion of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus bilaterally in fifteen additional rabbits. Allogenic synovial mesenchymal stem cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solution were implanted into the right knees, and phosphate-buffered saline solution alone was placed in the left knees. Meniscal regeneration was evaluated histologically at four, twelve, and twenty-four weeks for (1) quantity and (2) quality (with use of an established three-component scoring system). A similar procedure was performed in four additional rabbits with use of green fluorescent protein-positive synovial mesenchymal stem cells for the

  11. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  12. PPAR-δ Agonist With Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Type II Collagen-Producing Chondrocytes in Human Arthritic Synovial Fluid.

    PubMed

    Heck, Bruce E; Park, Joshua J; Makani, Vishruti; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory joint disease characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage within synovial joints. An estimated 27 million Americans suffer from OA, and the population is expected to reach 67 million in the United States by 2030. Thus, it is urgent to find an effective treatment for OA. Traditional OA treatments have no disease-modifying effect, while regenerative OA therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation show some promise. Nonetheless, current regenerative therapies do not overcome synovial inflammation that suppresses the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to chondrocytes and the expression of type II collagen, the major constituent of functional cartilage. We discovered a synergistic combination that overcame synovial inflammation to form type II collagen-producing chondrocytes. The combination consists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ agonist, human bone marrow (hBM)-derived MSCs, and hyaluronic acid (HA) gel. Interestingly, those individual components showed their own strong enhancing effects on chondrogenesis. GW0742, a PPAR-δ agonist, greatly enhanced MSC chondrogenesis and the expression of type II collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in hBM-MSC-derived chondrocytes. GW0742 also increased the expression of transforming growth factor β that enhances chondrogenesis and suppresses cartilage fibrillation, ossification, and inflammation. HA gel also increased MSC chondrogenesis and GAG production. However, neither GW0742 nor HA gel could enhance the formation of type II collagen-producing chondrocytes from hBM-MSCs within human OA synovial fluid. Our data demonstrated that the combination of hBM-MSCs, PPAR-δ agonist, and HA gel significantly enhanced the formation of type II collagen-producing chondrocytes within OA synovial fluid from 3 different donors. In other words, the novel combination of PPAR-δ agonist, hBM-MSCs, and HA gel can overcome synovial inflammation to form

  13. Species of Heterodera cysts in cereal fields in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Zeliha Colak; Deeren, Anne-Marie; De Sutter, Nancy; Viaene, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Heterodera is a genus of cyst-forming nematodes, including the cereal cysts which can provoke yield reductions in grain crops. As little is known about the occurrence of these cysts in Belgian grain fields, a survey was organized, starting in Flanders. Soil samples were taken from 50 fields where cereals are grown in rotation with mainly beet, potato and vegetables. Cysts were extracted from the 112 samples and 10 individuals per sample were identified up to species level by morphometrical and morphological observations. The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was found in 34 fields (56%) at infestation levels varying from 0.6 to 1322 cysts/kg soil. Other Heterodera species (e.g. H. trifolii, H. mani) were found in low numbers and sometimes in mixtures with H. schachtii, but no cereal cysts were detected. This survey confirms that beet cyst nematodes are a problem in Flanders. The few cereal cysts that might be present were perhaps not detected due to the few individuals that were identified. For this reason, molecular identification tools which allow fast and accurate identification of Heterodera species would be very useful. It could be interesting to find out why cereal cysts are suppressed in our regions and to expand the survey to the Walloon region where more cereals are grown.

  14. Surgical treatment for hypopharyngeal cysts with a side-opened direct laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, M; Fukuda, H; Shiotani, A; Kohno, N

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of hypopharyngeal cyst are reported. Both cysts occurred in the piriform sinus of the hypopharynx. Histopathological examination indicated that both were retention cysts. These cysts were removed by laryngomicrosurgical technique using a side-opened direct laryngoscope. In the cyst with a distinct base, a laryngomicrosurgical snare was used for removal. In the wide-based cyst, the mucous membrane around the cyst was incised with an electrosurgical instrument and then detached to facilitate removal. In this paper, we describe our surgical procedure for removing hypopharyngeal cysts and discuss the causes of such cysts.

  15. Effects of Lumbar Fusion Surgery with ISOBAR Devices Versus Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery on Pain and Disability in Patients with Lumbar Degenerative Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Fen; Wu, Meng-Shan; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Liao, Ying-Chin

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: Lumbar degenerative diseases (LDDs) cause pain and disability and are treated with lumbar fusion surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery for alleviating LDD-associated pain and disability. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis conducted in accordance with Cochrane methodology. The analysis included Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation assessments, Jadad Quality Score evaluations, and Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions assessments. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, ProQuest, the Airiti Library, and the China Academic Journals Full-text Database for relevant randomized controlled trials and cohort studies published in English or Chinese between 1997 and 2017. Outcome measures of interest included general pain, lower back pain, and disability. Of the 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 16 examined general pain (802 patients), 5 examined lower back pain (274 patients), and 15 examined disability (734 patients). General pain, lower back pain, and disability scores were significantly lower after lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices compared to presurgery. Moreover, lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices was more effective than PLIF for decreasing postoperative disability, although it did not provide any benefit in terms of general pain or lower back pain. Lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices alleviates general pain, lower back pain, and disability in LDD patients and is superior to PLIF for reducing postoperative disability. Given possible publication bias, we recommend further large-scale studies.

  16. Ganglion Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aspiration and injection therapy, there are nevertheless cases in which the ganglion cyst returns. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find an ACFAS Physician: Search by Mail Address ...

  17. Intraoperative Visualization of a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst Using Pyoktanin Blue.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Soichiro; Seki, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Sasamori, Toru; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2018-01-01

    Spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, and they include the arachnoid membrane, making it difficult to distinguish the walls of the cyst from the arachnoid membrane and excise the cyst as a lump. Here we report a technique for the intraoperative visualization of SACs, involving the use of pyoktanin blue. Four patients with spinal intradural arachnoid cysts underwent total excision of the cysts between October 2016 and April 2017. In 1 case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the cyst clearly, but in the other cases, the cysts were unclear. All cysts were injected with 1% pyoktanin blue (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) diluted 500 times with physiological saline before excision. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid membrane, 1% pyoktanin blue diluted 1000 times with physiological saline was injected into both the cyst and the subarachnoid space, and the spread of the stain was observed. The cysts were better visualized after pyoktanin blue injection than before injection. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid space, pyoktanin blue injection was useful for judging the cyst space. There were no perioperative complications, and the patients' symptoms improved partially or completely after treatment. Our technique of pyoktanin blue injection into SACs could make their excision easy and safe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasound biomicroscopic analysis of iris cysts.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Aguilar, L; Fuentes-Cataño, C; Pedroza-Seres, M

    2016-02-01

    To describe the ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) features and complications associated with iris cysts. A retrospective case series. Thirteen patients with iris cysts were identified in a 10 year period study at a ophthalmologic reference Center in Mexico City. The variables included demographic data, ocular and medical history, clinical course, and complications. All patients were examined by UBM, and type, number, location, and acoustic characteristics of cysts were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed. Thirteen patients were included (8 men and 5 women). The mean age was 44.5 ± 15.5 years (range 6-70 years). The origin most prevalent was neuroepithelial (92.3%), and 7.7% had stromal cysts. Regarding to location 76.9% were found in the periphery, and 69.2% between meridians II and VI. All cysts showed a moderate to high reflectivity in the wall. Complications were present in 38.5% of cases (15.4% partial angle closure, 15.4% secondary angle closure glaucoma and 7.7% dyscoria). Most cysts are derived from iris pigmented epithelium, with a benign course and a minor rate of complications. The UBM is an indispensable tool that allows us to plan more specific and conservative treatments, with less damage to ocular structures and, therefore, better visual prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Supratentorial endodermal cysts: review of literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Riccardo; Artico, Marco; Colonnese, Claudio; Marrocco, Luigi; Wierzbicki, Venceslao

    2013-11-01

    Supratentorial endodermal cysts are very rare pathological entities. Their pathoembryology is largely unknown and they can represent a diagnostic challenge. A research performed on the PubMed database in December 2010, to screen for supratentorial endodermal cyst studies, demonstrated that since 1960 only 31 supratentorial endodermal cysts have been described in the literature, including our case: a 42-year-old woman with a parasellar endodermal cyst. These lesions are usually benign. As with other types of brain cysts, the signs and symptoms caused by supratentorial endodermal cysts are mainly linked to the compression or irritation of surrounding neural structures. Upon neuroimaging examination, they typically appear as a round or lobulated mass. The signal intensity may vary depending on the protein content of the cyst. The majority of reported supratentorial endodermal cysts were completely excised with good or excellent results. Incomplete excision can result in an increased risk of recurrence, infection, and dissemination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. [Giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case.

  1. MMP-2 as an early synovial biomarker for cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Boland, L; Danger, R; Cabon, Q; Rabillard, M; Brouard, S; Bouvy, B; Gauthier, O

    2014-01-01

    To measure the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 in synovial fluid from the stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and to compare that to values from contralateral stifle joints and dogs with clinically normal stifle joints. Additionally, the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also measured. Fourteen large breed dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture and 11 large breed normal dogs were included in this prospective clinical study. Synovial fluid was collected from CrCL-ruptured stifle joints, contralateral clinically normal stifle joints of the same dogs, and stifle joints of normal dogs. Serum was also collected. Synovial fluid activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and serum CRP level were measured. The MMP-2 activity in synovial fluid was significantly higher in CrCL-ruptured joints compared to contralateral joints and to stifles from normal dogs. There was no significant difference in activity of MMP-2 in contralateral joints of CrCL-ruptured dogs compared to normal dogs. Both serum CRP level and MMP-9 activity did not differ significantly between the studied conditions. It was confirmed that MMP-2 activity is significantly related to CrCL rupture, but there was a failure to demonstrate any significant increase in the contralateral joints compared to the stifle joints of normal dogs. The MMP-2 involvement in progressing CrCL disease still has to be defined.

  2. Percutaneous drainage without sclerotherapy for benign ovarian cysts.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Enver; Imamović, Goran; Omerović, Safet

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate percutaneous short-term catheter drainage in the management of benign ovarian cysts in patients at increased surgical risk. Thirty-eight patients with simple ovarian cysts were treated with drainage of fluid content by catheters until output stopped. All patients were poor candidates for surgery. All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic (US) control and local anesthesia. Cytologic examination was performed in all cases. The patients were followed up monthly with color Doppler US for 12 months. Outcome measure was the recurrence of a cyst. During the 12-month follow-up period, 10 of 38 cysts recurred. Seven of the 10 cysts required further intervention, and three were followed up without intervention. Four of the seven patients who required further intervention underwent repeat transabdominal aspiration and three declined repeat aspiration and subsequently underwent surgery. After repeated aspirations, two of four cysts disappeared, one necessitated follow-up only, and one necessitated surgical intervention. Cyst volume (P = .009) and diameter (P = .001) were significantly larger in the cysts that recurred. No evidence of malignancy was reported in the cytologic examination in any patient. No patients developed malignancy during follow-up. No major complications were observed. The hospital stay was 1 day for all patients. The median duration of drainage in the groups with resolved and recurrent cysts was 1 day (interquartile range, 1-1) and 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3), respectively (P = .04). In patients considered poor candidates for open surgery or laparoscopy, percutaneous treatment of ovarian cysts with short-term catheter drainage without sclerotherapy appears to be a safe and effective alternative, with low recurrence rates.

  3. Laryngeal Cysts in Adults: Simplifying Classification and Management.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Richard; Lott, David G

    2017-12-01

    Objective Laryngeal cysts may occur at any mucosa-lined location within the larynx and account for 5% to 10% of nonmalignant laryngeal lesions. A number of proposed classifications for laryngeal cysts exist; however, no previously published classification aims to guide management. This review analyzes contemporary laryngeal cyst management and proposes a framework for the terminology and management of cystic lesions in the larynx. Data Sources PubMed/Medline. Review Methods A primary literature search of the entire Medline database was performed for all titles of publications pertaining to laryngeal cysts and reviewed for relevance. Full manuscripts were reviewed per the relevance of their titles and abstracts, and selection into this review was according to their clinical and scientific relevance. Conclusion Laryngeal cysts have been associated with rapid-onset epiglottitis, dyspnea, stridor, and death; therefore, they should not be considered of little significance. Symptoms are varied and nonspecific. Laryngoscopy is the primary initial diagnostic tool. Cross-sectional imaging may be required, and future use of endolaryngeal ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may revolutionize practice. Where possible, cysts should be completely excised, and there is growing evidence that a transoral approach is superior to transcervical excision for nearly all cysts. Histology provides definitive diagnosis, and oncocytic cysts require close follow-up. Implications for Practice A new classification system is proposed that increases clarity in terminology, with the aim of better preparing surgeons and authors for future advances in the understanding and management of laryngeal cysts.

  4. Management of non-neoplastic ovarian cysts with sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kafali, H; Yurtseven, S; Atmaca, F; Ozardali, I

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin in the management of simple ovarian cysts. Twenty-four simple ovarian cysts were subjected to sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia and in an outpatient setting. Cytological examination was carried out in all cases and two patients were excluded from the study because of suspicious cytological results. The patients were followed up monthly with color Doppler sonography for more than 12 months. Cyst fluid was serous in 17 cases and dark-chocolate colored in seven cases. The volume of aspirated fluid ranged from 100 to 220 ml. The size of ovarian masses and cyst-wall thickness ranged from 5.5 to 8.5 cm and 1.5 to 5 mm, respectively. Cytological analysis of 15 cysts revealed acellular sediment, seven cysts were compatible with endometrioma, and two were reported as suspicious. During the 12-month follow-up, seven cyst recurrences were detected. Aspiration and sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin are followed by a relatively high recurrence rate when the aspirate is bloody. However, patients with a simple cyst that is painful or liable to torsion could benefit from sclerotherapy. Such patients, who are at low risk for malignancy, are relieved with sclerotherapy while avoiding surgery.

  5. Incidental synovial myxoma with extensive intermuscular infiltration in a dog.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Aoki, Mika; Ohashi, Fumihito; Yamate, Jyoji; Kuwamura, Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    A 16-year-old male mixed-breed dog was euthanized due to progression of renal failure caused by renal adenocarcinoma in the left kidney. Apart from main symptomatic lesion, accumulation of transparent jelly-like fluid was observed between the right femoral muscles. Gross examination of the right hindlimb revealed multiple nodules in the articular surface and capsule of the stifle joints, which extended into the crural muscles. Histopathologically, the joint and intermuscular masses were characterized by variously-sized hypocellular nodules consisting of spindle to stellate cells suspended in an abundant myxoid matrix. There were cystic structures within the intermuscular masses, lined by synoviocyte-like cells. Based on the gross and histopathologic findings, the case was diagnosed as synovial myxoma with extensive intermuscular infiltration. Synovial myxoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with myxomatous tumor between skeletal muscles, even in absence of joint or muscle symptoms.

  6. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Bermingham, Niamh; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst. PMID:22949002

  7. Combined measurement of synovial fluid α-Defensin and C-reactive protein levels: highly accurate for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Deirmengian, Carl; Kardos, Keith; Kilmartin, Patrick; Cameron, Alexander; Schiller, Kevin; Parvizi, Javad

    2014-09-03

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined measurement of the levels of two synovial fluid biomarkers, α-defensin and C-reactive protein (CRP), for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. One hundred and forty-nine synovial fluid aspirates, including 112 from patients with an aseptic diagnosis and thirty-seven from patients with periprosthetic joint infection, met the inclusion criteria for this prospective study. Synovial fluid aspirates were tested for α-defensin and CRP levels with use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) definition of periprosthetic joint infection was utilized for the classification of cases as aseptic or infected. Comorbidities, such as inflammatory conditions, that could confound a test for periprosthetic joint infection were documented, but the patients with such comorbidities were included in the study. The combination of synovial fluid α-defensin and CRP tests demonstrated a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. Synovial fluid α-defensin tests alone demonstrated a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 96% for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. Synovial fluid CRP tests, with a low threshold of 3 mg/L, reversed all-false positive α-defensin results without affecting the sensitivity of the test. The diagnostic characteristics of these assays were achieved in a population of patients demonstrating a 23% rate of systemic inflammatory diseases (in the series as a whole) and a 27% rate of concurrent antibiotic treatment (in the infection group). The synovial fluid levels of α-defensin in the setting of periprosthetic joint infection were unchanged during concurrent antibiotic treatment. The combined measurement of synovial fluid α-defensin and CRP levels correctly diagnosed 99% of the cases in this study as aseptic or

  8. Primary iris stromal cyst with rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Niu, Gai-Ling; Gao, Min

    2009-11-01

    To describe the clinical features and the surgical management of primary iris stromal cyst with rapid growth. A 14-year-old Chinese-Mongolian girl was referred to us with a 1-month history of obstructed vision and photophobia. On an examination, a semitransparent cyst with a densely pigmented posterior wall was revealed in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The information regarding the location and extent of the cyst was further analyzed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. It arose within the iris stroma, measuring 7.52 x 3.60 mm. Blood vessels on the surface of the lesion were revealed by iris angiography. There was no history of amniocentesis, birth trauma, antecedent ocular injury, or maternal illness during gestation. The diagnosis of primary iris stromal cyst was made. A combination of needle aspiration, piecemeal resection of cyst wall, cryotherapy, and argon laser photocoagulation with overlapped spots was used. Histopathology of the cyst wall revealed nonkeratinized, multilayered, stratified squamous epithelium with clusters of goblet cells. Complete resolution of the cyst was successfully achieved. The visual acuity improved to 20/25 from counting fingers. At 6 months of follow-up, there was no recurrence. Complete eradication and devitalization of any remaining epithelial cells are the key factors for preventing recurrence and diffuse epithelialization of the anterior chamber.

  9. A retrospective study of oral cysts in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Salako, N O; Taiwo, E O

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of oral cysts that were seen over an 11-year period in children at a dental institution in Nigeria was carried out. In general, oral cysts accounted for only 2.6% of the total biopsied lesions during the period under review. The most common oral cysts were the mucous retention cysts, the gingival cysts of infants and the dentigerous cyst. The commonest sites were the maxilla, the mandible and the floor of the mouth respectively and there was no significant difference in sex preference. Most of the cases were seen in the age group 11-16 years while the least was in the group aged 6-10 years.

  10. Biomechanical effect of altered lumbar lordosis on intervertebral lumbar joints during the golf swing: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Tae Soo; Cho, Woong; Kim, Kwon Hee; Chae, Soo Won

    2014-11-01

    Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5-S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical-morphological characteristics.

  11. Synovial sarcoma of the jaw in a dog.

    PubMed

    Griffith, J W; Frey, R A; Sharkey, F E

    1987-05-01

    A case of synovial sarcoma of the jaw with pulmonary metastasis is described in a dog. It appears to be a rare or underdiagnosed neoplasm in animals and not previously reported in the jaw. Its diagnostic microscopic features are the biphasic cellular pattern and cleft formations. It may otherwise resemble haemangiopericytoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, or giant-cell tumour of soft tissue.

  12. Sclerotherapy for 'scrotal cysts' using tetracycline instillation.

    PubMed

    Courtney, S P; Wightman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Aspiration and tetracycline (Achromycin) instillation has been used to sclerose 'scrotal cysts'. Thirteen hydroceles and epididymal cysts were treated. Of the cysts treated, four failed to sclerose, and moderate to severe pain occurred in eight patients. In three patients the pain was severe, necessitating admission to the hospital. We would not recommend this treatment either in terms of efficacy or for patient comfort.

  13. A reappraisal of the anatomy of the human lumbar erector spinae.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N

    1980-01-01

    In the lumbar region the longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum are separated by the erector spinae aponeurosis and its ventral reflection--the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis. Lumbar fibres of the longissimus arise from the ilium and the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis and insert into the accessory processes and proximal ends of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar fibres of iliocostalis insert into the costal elements of the first four lumbar vertebrae. The lumbar insertions of these muscles are homologous to their thoracic insertions. The lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis is homologous to the lumbar intermuscular septum in the dog, cat and monkey. The details of attachment of the lumbar fibres of the erector spinae and of the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis should be taken into account in biomechanical analyses of the lumbar vertebral column. Images Fig. 1(cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7216917

  14. Suspended Alexandrium spp. hypnozygote cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Sarah L.; Townsend, David W.; Pettigrew, Neal R.

    2005-09-01

    The life cycle of dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium includes sexual reproduction followed by the formation of a dormant hypnozygote cyst, which serves as a resting stage. Negatively buoyant cysts purportedly fall to the benthos where they undergo a mandatory period of quiescence. Previous reports of cysts in the surficial sediments of the Gulf of Maine, where Alexandrium blooms are well documented, show a broad distribution of cysts, with highest concentrations generally in sediments below 100 m depth. We report here an exploration of cysts suspended in the water column, where they would be better positioned to inoculate springtime Alexandrium populations. During cruises in February, April, and June of 2000, water samples were collected at depths just off the bottom (within 5 m), at the top of the bottom nepheloid layer, and near the surface (1 m) and examined for cyst concentrations. Suspended cysts were found throughout the Gulf of Maine and westernmost Bay of Fundy. Planktonic cyst densities were generally greater in near-bottom and top of the bottom nepheloid layer samples than in near-surface water samples; densities were of the order of 10 2 cysts m -3 in surface waters, and 10 2-10 3 cysts m -3 at near-bottom depths. Temporally, they were most abundant in February and least abundant in April. Reports by earlier workers of cysts in the underlying sediments were on the order of 10 3 cysts cm -3. We present calculations that demonstrate the likelihood of cyst resuspension from bottom sediments forced by swell and tidal currents, and propose that such resuspended cysts are important in inoculating the seasonal bloom. We estimate that suspended cysts may contribute significantly to the annual vegetative cell population in the Gulf of Maine.

  15. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing. Alternative Names Physiologic ovarian ...

  16. Correlation between lumbar dysfunction and fat infiltration in lumbar multifidus muscles in patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Markus; Fankhauser, Gabriela; Meichtry, André; Luomajoki, Hannu

    2017-01-10

    Lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) are important for spinal motion and stability. Low back pain (LBP) is often associated with fat infiltration in LMM. An increasing fat infiltration of LMM may lead to lumbar dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between the severity of lumbar dysfunction and the severity of fat infiltration of LMM. In a cross-sectional study, 42 patients with acute or chronic LBP were recruited. Their MRI findings were visually rated and graded using three criteria for fat accumulation in LMM: Grade 0 (0-10%), Grade 1 (10-50%) and Grade 2 (>50%). Lumbar sagittal range of motion, dynamic upright and seated posture control, sagittal movement control, body awareness and self-assessed functional disability were measured to determine the patients' low back dysfunction. The main result of this study was that increased severity of fat infiltration in the lumbar multifidus muscles correlated significantly with decreased range of motion of lumbar flexion (p = 0.032). No significant correlation was found between the severity of fat infiltration in LMM and impaired movement control, posture control, body awareness or self-assessed functional disability. This is the first study investigating the relationship between the severity of fat infiltration in LMM and the severity of lumbar dysfunction. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms leading to fat infiltration of LMM and its relation to spinal function. Further studies should investigate whether specific treatment strategies are effective in reducing or preventing fat infiltration of LMM.

  17. Developmental odontogenic cysts of jaws: a clinical study of 245 cases.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Javad; Kahnamouii, Shiva Solahaye

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of developmental odontogenic cysts in an Iranian population. In this study 245 cysts from both jaws, treated in the Faculty of Dentistry at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences during a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008, were analyzed in order to evaluate the incidence of such cysts. We had permission from all the patients. Case histories of 65% of male and 35% of female patients were analyzed. The age of the patients varied from 14 to 64 years, with an average of 33.21 ± 10.89. In this 10-year study of odontogenic cysts, 97 cases were developmental odontogenic cysts with the following inci-dence: dentigerous cyst, 44%; odontogenic keratocyst, 36%; primordial cyst, 9%; Gorlin cyst, 2%; lateral periodontal cyst, 3%; eruption cyst, 3%; and gingival cyst, 3% (adults 2%, infants 1%). A total of 60% of the cysts were found in the mandible and 40% in the maxilla. Regarding the mandible, the molar region was involved in 47% of the cases, premolar region in 33% and anterior region in 20% (total = 100%). Regarding the maxilla, the canine-to-canine region was involved in 52% of the cases, premolar region in 20% and molar region in 28% (total = 100%). An important finding in this study was the fact that 39% of the jaw cysts were developmental odontogenic cysts and the most common developmental odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cyst and OKC (odontogenic keratocyst).

  18. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy.

    PubMed

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future.

  19. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Learning points Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future. PMID:24683475

  20. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Oh, Christopher C; Choudhri, Asim F

    2013-12-01

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size.

  1. [MR cholangiopancreatography in choledochal cysts].

    PubMed

    Frampas, E; Moussaly, F; Léauté, F; Heloury, Y; Le Neel, J C; Dupas, B

    1999-12-01

    To assess the value of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of choledochal cysts. Five patients (aged between 6 days and 28 years) were investigated by MRCP, referred for ultrasonographic detection of a bile duct dilatation or a cystic structure, of antenatal diagnosis (1 case), for jaundice or abdominal pain (3 cases) or in late follow-up of a choledochal cyst surgery. Two endoscopic-ultrasonographic studies were performed. The five patients underwent surgery without preoperative biliary cholangiography. MRCP was performed using a HASTE sequence in frontal, oblique, axial planes (1,5 Tesla MR unit). MRCP allowed to confirm choledochal cyst, helps to specify the anatomical type (2 type I, 3 type II), detects choledocholithiasis (3 cases). Anatomic correlation was perfect. MRCP allowed to exclude gastrointestinal duplication. Anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct was found in one case. MRCP diagnoses choledochal cysts, specifies type, helps surgery and can avoid endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or endoscopic sonographic examinations especially for children. It may find an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct.

  2. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy for odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.

  3. Magnetic Capture of a Molecular Biomarker from Synovial Fluid in a Rat Model of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yarmola, Elena G.; Shah, Yash; Arnold, David P.; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Kyle D.

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker development for osteoarthritis (OA) often begins in rodent models, but can be limited by an inability to aspirate synovial fluid from a rodent stifle (similar to the human knee). To address this limitation, we have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based technology to collect biomarkers from a rodent stifle, termed magnetic capture. Using a common OA biomarker - the c-terminus telopeptide of type II collagen (CTXII) - magnetic capture was optimized in vitro using bovine synovial fluid and then tested in a rat model of knee OA. Anti-CTXII antibodies were conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing polymeric particles. Using these anti-CTXII particles, magnetic capture was able to estimate the level of CTXII in 25 µL aliquots of bovine synovial fluid; and under controlled conditions, this estimate was unaffected by synovial fluid viscosity. Following in vitro testing, anti-CTXII particles were tested in a rat monoiodoacetate model of knee OA. CTXII could be magnetically captured from a rodent stifle without the need to aspirate fluid and showed 10 fold changes in CTXII levels from OA-affected joints relative to contralateral control joints. Combined, these data demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of magnetic capture for post-mortem analysis of OA biomarkers in the rat. PMID:26136062

  4. Magnetic Capture of a Molecular Biomarker from Synovial Fluid in a Rat Model of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yarmola, Elena G; Shah, Yash; Arnold, David P; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Kyle D

    2016-04-01

    Biomarker development for osteoarthritis (OA) often begins in rodent models, but can be limited by an inability to aspirate synovial fluid from a rodent stifle (similar to the human knee). To address this limitation, we have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based technology to collect biomarkers from a rodent stifle, termed magnetic capture. Using a common OA biomarker--the c-terminus telopeptide of type II collagen (CTXII)--magnetic capture was optimized in vitro using bovine synovial fluid and then tested in a rat model of knee OA. Anti-CTXII antibodies were conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing polymeric particles. Using these anti-CTXII particles, magnetic capture was able to estimate the level of CTXII in 25 μL aliquots of bovine synovial fluid; and under controlled conditions, this estimate was unaffected by synovial fluid viscosity. Following in vitro testing, anti-CTXII particles were tested in a rat monoiodoacetate model of knee OA. CTXII could be magnetically captured from a rodent stifle without the need to aspirate fluid and showed tenfold changes in CTXII levels from OA-affected joints relative to contralateral control joints. Combined, these data demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of magnetic capture for post-mortem analysis of OA biomarkers in the rat.

  5. [POSTERIOR LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION FOR DOUBLE-SEGMENTAL BILATERAL ISTHMIC LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS].

    PubMed

    Xing, Wenhua; Huo Hongjun; Yang, Xuejun; Xiao, Yulong; Zhao, Yan; Fu, Yu; Zhu, Yong; Li, Feng; Xin, Daqi

    2015-12-01

    To explore the effectiveness of posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of double-segmental bilateral isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Between February 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients with double-segmental bilateral isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis were treated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion. There were 12 males and 5 females, with an age ranged 48-69 years (mean, 55.4 years). The disease duration ranged from 11 months to 17 years (median, 22 months). According to the Meyerding classification, 30 vertebrea were rated as degree I, 3 as degree II, and 1 as degree III. L₄,₅ was involved in 14 cases and L₃,₄ in 3 cases. The preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 8.6 ± 3.2. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 2 cases because of intraoperative dural tear; primary healing of incision was obtained, with no operation related complication in the other patients. The patients were followed up 1-6 years (mean, 3.4 years). At last follow-up, VAS score was decreased significantly to 1.1 ± 0.4, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=7.652, P=0.008). X-ray films showed that slippage vertebral body obtained different degree of reduction, with a complete reduction rate of 85% (29/34) at 1 week after operation. All patients achieved bony union at 6-12 months (mean, 7.4 months). According to the Lenke classification, 13 cases were rated as grade A and 4 cases as grade B. No internal fixation loosening and fracture were observed during the follow-up. Intervertebral disc height was maintained, no loss of spondylolisthesis reduction was found. It can obtain satisfactory clinical result to use spinal canal decompression by posterior approach, and screw fixation for posterior fusion in treatment of double-segmental bilateral isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. The key points to successful operation include accurate insertion of screw, effective decompression, distraction before reduction, rational use of

  6. The effect of a lumbar support pillow on lumbar posture and comfort during a prolonged seated task

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several risk factors exist for the development of low back pain, including prolonged sitting and flexed spinal curvature. Several investigators have studied lumbar support devices and spinal curvatures in sitting, however few have investigated a pain population and reported a quantitative measure of comfort. The purpose of the current project was to determine whether a lumbar support pillow, outfitted with a cut-out to accommodate the bulk of posterior pelvic soft tissue volume, is more effective than a standard chair in promoting a neutral spinal posture and improving subjective and objective measures of comfort in healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. Methods Twenty eight male participants with and without a history of low back pain sat in a standard office chair and in a chair with the lumbar support pillow for 30 minutes. Lumbar and thoracolumbar postures were measured through electromagnetic markers. Comfort was determined based on the least squares radius of centre of pressure shifting, measured at the buttock-chair interface as well as reported discomfort through visual analog scales. Chair support effects were assessed through ANOVA methods. The study was approved by the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College research ethics board. Results There was a main effect of condition on lumbar posture (p = 0.006) and thoracolumbar posture (p = 0.014). In the lumbar region, the support and standard chair differed by 2.88° (95% CI; 1.01-4.75), with the lumbar support being closer to neutral than the standard chair. In the thoracolumbar region, the support and standard chair differed by -2.42° (95% CI; -4.22 to -0.62), with the standard chair being closer to neutral than the support device. The centre of pressure measure was significantly improved with the pillow (p = 0.017), however there were no subjective changes in comfort. Conclusions A lumbar support pillow with a cut-out for the posterior pelvic tissues improved an

  7. Relationship between synovial inflammatory cytokines and progression of osteoarthritis after hip arthroscopy: Experimental assessment.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kensuke; Inoue, Gen; Uchida, Kentaro; Fujimaki, Hisako; Miyagi, Masayuki; Nagura, Naoshige; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Synovial membrane inflammation is the most commonly presenting finding during hip arthroscopy and may have a role in the pathomechanism of hip osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between synovial cytokine levels and progression of OA after hip arthroscopy. We prospectively examined 20 patients (20 hips) who underwent arthroscopic hip surgery. For all patients, radiographs and severity of pain were evaluated preoperatively. During arthroscopy, we harvested a sample of the synovial membrane and determined the levels of six typical inflammatory cytokines with real-time polymerase chain reaction. We compared the levels of these cytokines in patients who showed OA progression and non-progression after hip arthroscopy. Although the average age of patients who showed OA progression postoperatively tended to be higher, there were no significant differences in characteristics involving clinical assessment between patients who showed OA progression and those who showed non-progression. Intraoperative tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) expression was significantly higher in patients who showed OA progression postoperatively ( p = 0.042). Elevation of TNFα level might be a predictor of OA progression after hip arthroscopy.

  8. Rare, simultaneous, multiple, and recurrent mandibular bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Milles, Maano; Singer, Steven R; Rinaggio, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Simple bone cysts, also referred to as traumatic bone cysts, are benign connective tissue-lined cavities occurring most commonly in young people. Most of the time, they occur as solitary radiolucencies. In the jaws, they also have been reported to occur concurrently with benign fibro-osseous lesions. The radiographic appearance of simple bone cysts could be confused with other jaw cysts and benign tumors. This case report presents a patient who had 3 separate lesions simultaneously within the mandible. The right mandibular lesion presented as a multilocular radiolucency. The 2 left mandibular lesions were periapical, with mixed radiodensities and radiographically mimicked lesions of focal or periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia. More aggressive benign lesions of the jaw were initially included in the differential diagnosis, as well. A biopsy revealed the diagnosis of simple bone cysts in all 3 locations. Minimal surgical management resulted in complete recovery of these osseous defects only to recur in 2 years on the mandibular left premolar-molar region. A new biopsy confirmed that the lesion was a recurrent simple bone cyst. Simultaneous presence of benign cemento-osseous dysplasia was also considered, as it is known to coexist with the simple bone cysts.

  9. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  10. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented.

  11. Developmental Odontogenic Cysts of Jaws: A Clinical Study of 245 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Javad; Kahnamouii, Shiva Solahaye

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of developmental odontogenic cysts in an Iranian population. Materials and methods In this study 245 cysts from both jaws, treated in the Faculty of Dentistry at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences during a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008, were analyzed in order to evaluate the incidence of such cysts. We had permission from all the patients. Case histories of 65% of male and 35% of female patients were analyzed. The age of the patients varied from 14 to 64 years, with an average of 33.21 ± 10.89. Results In this 10-year study of odontogenic cysts, 97 cases were developmental odontogenic cysts with the following inci-dence: dentigerous cyst, 44%; odontogenic keratocyst, 36%; primordial cyst, 9%; Gorlin cyst, 2%; lateral periodontal cyst, 3%; eruption cyst, 3%; and gingival cyst, 3% (adults 2%, infants 1%). A total of 60% of the cysts were found in the mandible and 40% in the maxilla. Regarding the mandible, the molar region was involved in 47% of the cases, premolar region in 33% and anterior region in 20% (total = 100%). Regarding the maxilla, the canine-to-canine region was involved in 52% of the cases, premolar region in 20% and molar region in 28% (total = 100%). Conclusion An important finding in this study was the fact that 39% of the jaw cysts were developmental odontogenic cysts and the most common developmental odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cyst and OKC (odontogenic keratocyst). PMID:23230485

  12. Two Cases of Giant Epidermal Cyst Occurring in the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Gue; Kim, Chul-Han; Cho, Hong-Ki; Park, Mi-Youn; Lee, Yoon-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are the most common cysts of the skin. Aconventional epidermal cyst rarely reaches a size of more than 5 cm in diameter. We report on two cases of giant epidermal cyst occurring in the neck. One patient had a cyst measuring 12×9×9 cm and the other patient had a non-pulsatile, dome-shaped lesion in the neck, which measured 6×5×3 cm. The lesions were totally excised. Histopathologically, both were confirmed as giant epidermal cysts. PMID:22028561

  13. Vascular perfusion kinetics by contrast-enhanced ultrasound are related to synovial microvascularity in the joints of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, Ugo; Stramare, Roberto; Coran, Alessandro; Grisan, Enrico; Scagliori, Elena; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Lunardi, Francesca; Oliviero, Francesca; Bianchi, Fulvia Chieco; Scanu, Anna; Martini, Veronica; Boso, Daniele; Beltrame, Valeria; Vezzù, Maristella; Cozzi, Luisella; Scarpa, Raffaele; Sacerdoti, David; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea; Calabrese, Fiorella; Rubaltelli, Leopoldo

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship of the continuous mode contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound (CEUS) imaging with the histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) quantitative estimation of microvascular proliferation on synovial samples of patients affected by sustained psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A dedicated linear transducer was used in conjunction with a specific continuous mode contrast enhanced harmonic imaging technology with a second-generation sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles C-agent. The examination was carried out within 1 week before arthroscopic biopsies in 32 active joints. Perfusional parameters were analyzed including regional blood flow (RBF); peak (PEAK) of the C-signal intensity, proportional to the regional blood volume (RBV); beta (β) perfusion frequency; slope (S), representing the inclination of the tangent in the origin; and the refilling time (RT), the reverse of beta. Arthroscopic synovial biopsies were targeted in the hypervascularity areas, as in the same knee recesses assessed by CEUS; the synovial cell infiltrate and vascularity (vessel density) was evaluated by IHC staining of CD45 (mononuclear cell) and CD31, CD105 (endothelial cell) markers, measured by computer-assisted morphometric analysis. In the CEUS area examined, the corresponding time-intensity curves demonstrated a slow rise time. Synovial histology showed slight increased layer lining thickness, perivascular lymphomonocyte cell infiltration, and microvascular remodeling, with marked vessel wall thickening with reduction of the vascular lumen. A significant correlation was found between RT and CD31+ as PEAK and CD105+ vessel density; RT was inversely correlated to RBF, PEAK, S, and β. The study demonstrated the association of the CEUS perfusion kinetics with the histopathological quantitative and morphologic estimation of synovial microvascular proliferation, suggesting that a CEUS imaging represents a reliable tool for the estimate of the

  14. Bilateral Radicular Cyst in Mandible: An Unusual Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area. PMID:25859111

  15. Bilateral radicular cyst in mandible: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area.

  16. Acute pancreatitis complicating choledochal cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Muthucumaru, Mathievathaniy; Ljuhar, Damir; Panabokke, Gayathri; Paul, Eldho; Nataraja, Ramesh; Ferguson, Peter; Dagia, Charuta; Clarnette, Tom; King, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the characteristics of patients with choledochal cysts presenting with acute pancreatitis. Multicenter retrospective review of all paediatric patients (<18 years) with choledochal cysts managed over a 14-year period (2001-2014) at two tertiary paediatric surgical centres. Patient data were analysed for demographics, presentation, radiological classification of cyst type (Todani), operative interventions, complications and long-term follow-up. A total of 49 patients with choledochal cysts were identified with 15 (31%) being Type I fusiform, 18 (37%) Type I cystic and 16 (32%) Type IV-A. Seventeen (35%) patients presented with acute pancreatitis, one having had an ante-natally diagnosed choledochal cyst. Patients presenting with pancreatitis were older when compared to the non-pancreatitis group (5.1 vs. 1.2 years, P = 0.005). Nine out of 16 (53%) patients with Type IV-A cysts presented with pancreatitis compared to five (33%) of Type I fusiform and three (17%) of Type I cystic. There was however no statistically significant association between Todani types and the development of pancreatitis (Type I fusiform, P = 1.0; Type I cystic, P = 0.063; Type IV-A, P = 0.053). The rate of complications was similar in both groups. Pancreatitis was a common presentation in children with a choledochal cyst, however, there was no clear statistically significant association with Todani types and pancreatitis. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cyst purification using Percoll gradients

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Elizabeth A.; Dhara, Animesh; Sinai, Anthony P.

    2017-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting all warm blooded animals and humans. Infectious, transmissible forms of the parasite include oocysts produced by the sexual cycle within the definitive feline host and tissue cysts that form Toxoplasma in the CNS and muscle during the asexual cycle within all chronically infected warm-blooded hosts. These tissue cysts are populated with slow growing bradyzoites which have been until recently thought to be dormant entities in the context of immune sufficiency. Reactivation to active growth during immune suppression is of critical clinical importance. Yet we know little about tissue cysts or the bradyzoites they house as the diversity of tissue cysts cannot be replicated in cell culture systems. Our optimization of tissue cyst purification from the brains of infected mice using Percoll gradients provides an efficient means to recover in vivo derived tissue cysts that can be applied to imaging, cell-biologic, biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. PMID:28510363

  18. Lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, N

    1980-11-15

    Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulating structures which are innervated by the lumbar dorsal rami. Conversely, they can be relieved in certain patients by selective interruption of conduction along dorsal rami. These facts permit the definition of a lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, which can be distinguished from the intervertebral disc syndrome and other forms of low back pain. The distinguishing feature is that, in lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, all the clinical features are exclusively mediated by dorsal rami and do not arise from nerve-root compression. The pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment of this syndrome are described. Recognition of this syndrome, and its treatment with relatively minor procedures, can obviate the need for major surgery which might otherwise be undertaken.

  19. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for the identification of the potato cyst and tobacco cyst nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TaqMan primer-probe sets were developed for the detection and identification of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis using two-tube, multiplex real-time PCR. One tube contained a primer-probe set specific for G. pallida (pale cyst nematode) multiplexed with another prim...

  20. Prevalence and relevance of antibodies to type-I and -II collagen in synovial fluid of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament damage.

    PubMed

    de Rooster, H; Cox, E; van Bree, H

    2000-11-01

    To measure and compare synovial fluid antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen in stifle joints with instability caused by complete or partial cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and joints with osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes in dogs. 82 dogs with diseased stifle joints. Synovial fluid samples were collected from 7 dogs with clinically normal stifles (control group) and 82 dogs with diseased joints (50 stifle joints with complete rupture of the CCL, 20 with partial damage of the CCL, and 12 joints with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis secondary to other arthropathies). Synovial fluid samples were tested for autoantibodies to type-I and -II collagen by an ELISA. In dogs with complete and partial CCL rupture, synovial fluid antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen were significantly increased, compared with control dogs. Forty-eight percent (24/50) of samples from dogs with complete CCL rupture and 35% (7/20) of samples from dogs with partial CCL rupture had antibody titers to type-I collagen that were greater than the mean plus 2 standard deviations of the control group titers. Synovial fluid antibody titers to type-II collagen were high in 40% of the dogs with partial or (8/20) complete (20/50) CCL rupture. Dogs with osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes had significantly increased synovial fluid antibodies to type-I and -II collagen, compared with control dogs. Increases in autoantibodies to collagen in synovial fluid are not specific for the type of joint disorder. It is unlikely that the anticollagen antibodies play an active role in the initiation of weakening of the CCL.

  1. Mycobiome of Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode Under Long Term Crop Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiming; Strom, Noah; Haarith, Deepak; Chen, Senyu; Bushley, Kathryn E.

    2018-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (Phylum Nematoda), is a major pathogen of soybean. It causes substantial yield losses worldwide and is difficult to control because the cyst protects the eggs which can remain viable for nearly a decade. Crop rotation with non-host crops and use of biocontrol organisms such as fungi and bacteria offer promising approaches, but remain hampered by lack of knowledge of the biology of nematode parasitic organisms. We used a high-throughput metabarcoding approach to characterize fungal communities associated with the SCN cyst, a microenvironment in soil that may harbor both nematode parasites and plant pathogens. SCN cysts were collected from a long-term crop rotation experiment in Southeastern Minnesota at three time points over two growing seasons to characterize diversity of fungi inhabiting cysts and to examine how crop rotation and seasonal variation affects fungal communities. A majority of fungi in cysts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but the presence of several early diverging fungal subphyla thought to be primarily plant and litter associated, including Mortierellomycotina and Glomeromycotina (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), suggests a possible role as nematode egg parasites. Species richness varied by both crop rotation and season and was higher in early years of crop rotation and in fall at the end of the growing season. Crop rotation and season also impacted fungal community composition and identified several classes of fungi, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Orbiliomycetes (e.g., nematode trapping fungi), with higher relative abundance in early soybean rotations. The relative abundance of several genera was correlated with increasing years of soybean. Fungal communities also varied by season and were most divergent at midseason. The percentage of OTUs assigned to Mortierellomycotina_cls_Incertae_sedis and Sordariomycetes increased at midseason, while Orbiliomycetes

  2. Mycobiome of Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode Under Long Term Crop Rotation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Strom, Noah; Haarith, Deepak; Chen, Senyu; Bushley, Kathryn E

    2018-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (Phylum Nematoda), is a major pathogen of soybean. It causes substantial yield losses worldwide and is difficult to control because the cyst protects the eggs which can remain viable for nearly a decade. Crop rotation with non-host crops and use of biocontrol organisms such as fungi and bacteria offer promising approaches, but remain hampered by lack of knowledge of the biology of nematode parasitic organisms. We used a high-throughput metabarcoding approach to characterize fungal communities associated with the SCN cyst, a microenvironment in soil that may harbor both nematode parasites and plant pathogens. SCN cysts were collected from a long-term crop rotation experiment in Southeastern Minnesota at three time points over two growing seasons to characterize diversity of fungi inhabiting cysts and to examine how crop rotation and seasonal variation affects fungal communities. A majority of fungi in cysts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but the presence of several early diverging fungal subphyla thought to be primarily plant and litter associated, including Mortierellomycotina and Glomeromycotina (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), suggests a possible role as nematode egg parasites. Species richness varied by both crop rotation and season and was higher in early years of crop rotation and in fall at the end of the growing season. Crop rotation and season also impacted fungal community composition and identified several classes of fungi, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Orbiliomycetes (e.g., nematode trapping fungi), with higher relative abundance in early soybean rotations. The relative abundance of several genera was correlated with increasing years of soybean. Fungal communities also varied by season and were most divergent at midseason. The percentage of OTUs assigned to Mortierellomycotina_cls_Incertae_sedis and Sordariomycetes increased at midseason, while Orbiliomycetes

  3. Epithelial Cyst in the Posterior Triangle of the Neck: Atypical Branchial Cyst or Cystic Lymph Node Metastasis?

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Domenic; Huber, Gerhard F.; Pézier, Thomas F.; Rössle, Matthias; Probst, Rudolf; Widmer, Gian-Marco

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old man with a cervical neck mass located behind the left sternocleidomastoid muscle. To exclude malignancy, a full workup, including clinical, radiological, and cytological examination, was performed but failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. Histological analysis following excisional biopsy revealed a benign epithelial cyst, consistent with an atypically located branchial cyst. We describe an approach to the management of these neck masses and discuss several theories of the etiology of branchial cysts and how they may come to be abnormally located. PMID:24523976

  4. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    There is continuing controversy regarding the potential for inflammatory apical cysts to heal after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Molecular cell biology may provide answers to a series of related questions. How are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez stimulated to proliferate? How are the apical cysts formed? How does the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after endodontic therapy? Epithelial cell rests are induced to divide and proliferate by inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors released from host cells during periradicular inflammation. Quiescent epithelial cell rests can behave like restricted-potential stem cells if stimulated to proliferate. Formation of apical cysts is most likely caused by the merging of proliferating epithelial strands from all directions to form a three-dimensional ball mass. After endodontic therapy, epithelial cells in epithelial strands of periapical granulomas and the lining epithelium of apical cysts may stop proliferating because of a reduction in inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing.

  5. Frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nigel R; Gannon, Orla M; Savage, Neil W; Batstone, Martin D

    2014-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature from 1993 to 2011 was undertaken examining frequency data of the most common odontogenic cysts and tumors. Seven inclusion criteria were met for the paper to be incorporated. In the preliminary search 5231 papers were identified, of these 26 papers met the inclusion criteria. There were 18 297 odontogenic cysts reported. Of these there were 9982 (54.6%) radicular cysts, 3772 (20.6%) dentigerous cysts and 2145 (11.7%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors. With the reclassification of keratocystic odontogenic tumor in 2005 as an odontogenic tumor, there were 8129 odontogenic tumors reported with 3001 (36.9%) ameloblastomas, 1163 (14.3%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors, 533 (6.5%) odontogenic myxomas, 337 (4.1%) adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and 127 (1.6%) ameloblastic fibromas. This systematic review found that odontogenic cysts are 2.25 times more frequent than odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cyst and tumor were the radicular cyst and ameloblastoma respectively. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Pericardial Cyst: Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death?

    PubMed

    Ley, Marie Brix; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2018-05-21

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of sudden death in the world. The etiology of sudden cardiac death involves a wide range of diseases, but seldom pericardial cysts. A pericardial cyst is an uncommon cyst usually located in the middle mediastinum and rarely in the posterior part. They are usually harmless and asymptomatic. Here, we present a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness, but died suddenly after a CT scan was attempted. The detailed forensic pathologic and histologic examination revealed a pericardial cyst located in the posterior mediastinum. Toxicology and biochemistry tests, including tryptase, found no competing cause of death. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Sclerotherapy of cervical cysts with Picibanil (OK-432).

    PubMed

    Knipping, Stephan; Goetze, Gerrit; Neumann, Kerstin; Bloching, Marc

    2007-04-01

    The effectiveness of intralesional sclerotherapy of lymphangiomas and ranulas with OK-432 (Picibanil) has been proved in several clinical studies. The aim of our study was to review the effectiveness of sclerotherapy of benign cervical cysts with Picibanil as an alternative method to surgical excision. Between March 2002 and March 2006, a prospective observational study was carried out to assess the effects of Picibanil on cervical cysts. Between 2002 and 2006 we treated 14 patients having cervical cysts through intralesional application of Picibanil with a dose of 0.01 mg/ml. So far we used Picibanil with 13 patients achieving a high success rate. In eight cases we observed, both clinically and ultrasonographically, a nearly complete regression, and a complete regression of the cysts in three cases. In two cases the cysts atrophied. In these cases only residual findings could be observed. In one case we extirpated the remaining cyst. If there is no clear reaction of the cyst to the treatment, an excision is indicated 6 weeks after the injections to gain meaningful histological examination. No significant complication after sclerotherapy with Picibanil was observed. According to our results the application of OK-432 (Picibanil) is a safe and effective primary method for sclerotherapy of benign cervical cysts which can replace surgical extirpation in special cases. However, the risk of malign diseases has to be excluded before the commencement of the Picibanil treatment.

  8. Asymptomatic vallecular cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Yucel; Uzun, Sennur; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented himself for an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme excision. After being routinely monitored, he was preoxygenated. We induced anesthesia and paralysis with 200 mg propofol, 50 μg fentanyl and 9 mg vecuronium. Direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh 3 blade revealed a 2x2 cm cyst, pedunculated, arising from the right side of the vallecula preventing the endotracheal intubation. While the patient remained anesthetized, we urgently consulted an otolaryngologist and aspirated the cyst with a 22-gauge needle and syringe under direct laryngoscopy. We aspirated 10 cc of liquid content. This was followed by an uneventful tracheal intubation with a 9.0 enforced spiral cuffed tube. An alternative to fiberoptic intubation may be careful cyst aspiration to facilitate the intubation.

  9. Characterization of the effect of high molecular weight hyaluronan on trans-synovial flow in rabbit knees.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P J; Scott, D; Mason, R M; Levick, J R

    1999-01-01

    1. The effect of a rooster comb hyaluronan (3.6-4.0 g l-1) of similar chain length to rabbit synovial fluid hyaluronan, on the trans-synovial escape of fluid from the joint cavity in the steady state ( 8d s) was studied in 29 rabbit knees at controlled intra-articular pressures (Pj). 2. Rooster hyaluronan caused the pressure-flow relation to flatten out as pressure was raised. At 10-20 cmH2O the slope of the quasi-plateau, 0.05 +/- 0.01 microliter min-1 cmH2O-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.), was 1/39th that for Ringer solution (1.94 +/- 0.01 microliter 2O-1 ). 3. Bovine synovial fluid had a similar effect to hyaluronan in Ringer solution. 4. The quasi-plateau was caused by increasing opposition to outflow; the pressure required to drive unit outflow increased 4.4-fold between 5 and 20 cmH2O. The increased opposition to outflow at 20 cmH2O was equivalent to an effective osmotic pressure of 13-17 cmH2O at the interface. Since the infusate's osmotic pressure was only 0.9 cmH2O, this implied concentration polarization to 15-18 g l-1 hyaluronan at the interface. 5. Mechanical perforation of the lining, or enzymatic degradation of the interstitial matrix by chymopapain, abolished the quasi-plateau. Hydrational expansion of the matrix by approximately 2-fold did not. The increased opposition to outflow was reversible by washing out the hyaluronan, or by reducing Pj. It was unaffected by interruption of tissue blood flow or synoviocyte oxidative metabolism. These properties are compatible with a concentration polarization mechanism, i.e. flow-induced concentration of hyaluronan at the synovial interface due to molecular reflection. 6. A concentration polarization theory was developed for a partially reflected solute. Numerical solutions supported the feasibility of this osmotic explanation of the quasi-plateau. Additional mechanisms may also be involved. 7. It is concluded that native-size hyaluronan helps to retain synovial fluid in the joint cavity when pressure is raised and acts

  10. Characterization of the effect of high molecular weight hyaluronan on trans-synovial flow in rabbit knees

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, P J; Scott, D; Mason, R M; Levick, J R

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a rooster comb hyaluronan (3.6–4.0 g l−1) of similar chain length to rabbit synovial fluid hyaluronan, on the trans-synovial escape of fluid from the joint cavity in the steady state (Q̇s) was studied in 29 rabbit knees at controlled intra-articular pressures (Pj).Rooster hyaluronan caused the pressure-flow relation to flatten out as pressure was raised. At 10–20 cmH2O the slope of the quasi-plateau, 0.05 ± 0.01 μl min−1 cmH2O−1 (mean ±s.e.m.), was 1/39th that for Ringer solution (1.94 ± 0.01 μl min−1 cmH2O−1).Bovine synovial fluid had a similar effect to hyaluronan in Ringer solution.The quasi-plateau was caused by increasing opposition to outflow; the pressure required to drive unit outflow increased 4.4-fold between 5 and 20 cmH2O. The increased opposition to outflow at 20 cmH2O was equivalent to an effective osmotic pressure of 13–17 cmH2O at the interface. Since the infusate's osmotic pressure was only 0.9 cmH2O, this implied concentration polarization to 15–18 g l−1 hyaluronan at the interface.Mechanical perforation of the lining, or enzymatic degradation of the interstitial matrix by chymopapain, abolished the quasi-plateau. Hydrational expansion of the matrix by /2-fold did not. The increased opposition to outflow was reversible by washing out the hyaluronan, or by reducing Pj. It was unaffected by interruption of tissue blood flow or synoviocyte oxidative metabolism. These properties are compatible with a concentration polarization mechanism, i.e. flow-induced concentration of hyaluronan at the synovial interface due to molecular reflection.A concentration polarization theory was developed for a partially reflected solute. Numerical solutions supported the feasibility of this osmotic explanation of the quasi-plateau. Additional mechanisms may also be involved.It is concluded that native-size hyaluronan helps to retain synovial fluid in the joint cavity when pressure is raised and acts, at least in part, by exerting

  11. Endosonography in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Vivek; Lee, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in radiologic technology and increased cross-sectional imaging have led to a sharp rise in incidental discoveries of pancreatic cystic lesions. These cystic lesions include non-neoplastic cysts with no risk of malignancy, neoplastic non-mucinous serous cystadenomas with little or no risk of malignancy, as well as neoplastic mucinous cysts and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms both with varying risk of malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as management is guided by symptoms and risk of malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows high resolution evaluation of cyst morphology and precise guidance for fine needle aspiration (FNA) of cyst fluid for cytological, chemical and molecular analysis. Initially, clinical evaluation and radiologic imaging, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, are performed. In asymptomatic patients where diagnosis is unclear and malignant risk is indeterminate, EUS-FNA should be used to confirm the presence or absence of high-risk features, differentiate mucinous from non-mucinous lesions, and diagnose malignancy. After analyzing the cyst fluid for viscosity, cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen, amylase, and cyst wall cytology should be obtained. DNA analysis may add useful information in diagnosing mucinous cysts when the previous studies are indeterminate. New molecular biomarkers are being investigated to improve diagnostic capabilities and management decisions in these challenging cystic lesions. Current guidelines recommend surgical pancreatic resection as the standard of care for symptomatic cysts and those with high-risk features associated with malignancy. EUS-guided cyst ablation is a promising minimally invasive, relatively low-risk alternative to both surgery and surveillance. PMID:25789091

  12. Surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Bari, Shams UL; Amin, Ruquia; Jan, Masooda

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To review the clinical presentation and surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver and to assess whether conservative surgery is adequate in the management of complicated hydatid cysts of liver. METHODS: The study was carried out at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Science, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Sixty nine patients with hydatid disease of the liver were surgically managed from April 2004 to October 2005 with a follow up period of three years. It included 27 men and 42 women with a median age of 35 years. An abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and serology established diagnosis. Patients with jaundice and high suspicion of intrabiliary rupture were subjected to preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cysts with infection, rupture into the biliary tract and peritoneal cavity were categorized as complicated cysts. Eighteen patients (26%) had complicated cysts and formed the basis for this study. RESULTS: Common complications were infection (14%), intrabiliary rupture (9%) and intraperitoneal rupture (3%). All the patients with infected cysts presented with pain and fever. All the patients with intrabiliary rupture had jaundice, while only four with intrabiliary rupture had pain and only two had fever. Surgical procedures performed in complicated cysts were: infection-omentoplasty in three and external drainage in seven; intrabiliary rupture-omentoplasty in two and internal drainage in four patients. Two patients with intraperitoneal rupture underwent external drainage. There was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity was 50% in complicated cysts and 16% in uncomplicated cysts. CONCLUSION: Complicated hydatid cyst of the liver can be successfully managed surgically with good long term results. PMID:21160854

  13. Synovial perlecan is required for osteophyte formation in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Haruka; Ishijima, Muneaki; Futami, Ippei; Tomikawa-Ichikawa, Naoki; Kosaki, Keisuke; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Kaneko, Kazuo; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri

    2013-01-01

    The osteophyte associated with osteoarthritis (OA) is a bony outgrowth formed at the margins of the affected joint through endochondral ossification-like processes. However, the mechanism of osteophyte formation and its pathogenesis are unclear. Perlecan (Hspg2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is expressed in many extracellular tissues and plays critical roles in skeletal development and diseases. The aim of the present study is to identify the role of synovial perlecan in osteophyte formation using perinatal lethality rescued perlecan-knockout mice (Hspg2−/−-Tg) wherein perlecan expression is lacking in the synovial and other tissues, except for cartilage. We analyzed the development of osteophytes in joints of Hspg2−/−-Tg mice in two different animal models: the surgical OA model, in which the medial collateral ligament was transected and the medial meniscus was resected, and the TGF-β-induced osteophyte formation model. In the surgical OA model, the osteophyte size and maturation were significantly reduced in the OA joints of Hspg2−/−-Tg mice compared with control mice, while OA developed on the medial side of the knee joints with no differences in the cartilage degradation score or synovitis score between control and Hspg2−/−-Tgmice. The reduced osteophyte formation in Hspg2−/−-Tg mice was associated with reduced cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. In the TGF-β model, the osteophyte size and maturation were also significantly reduced in Hspg2−/−-Tg mice compared with control mice. Our findings suggest that synovial perlecan plays an important role in osteophyte development in OA, and they provide insights that may facilitate the development of OA therapy. PMID:23339896

  14. A case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masahiro; Isaka, Takahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki; Wada, Keita; Takagi, Kenji; Kato, Kenichiro

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken. Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided. PMID:16874882

  15. Effect of a single intra-articular injection of bupivacaine on synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations in normal canine stifles.

    PubMed

    Giangarra, Jenna E; Barry, Sabrina L; Dahlgren, Linda A; Lanz, Otto I; Benitez, Marian E; Werre, Stephen R

    2018-04-25

    To identify if synovial fluid prostaglandin E 2 increases in response to a single intra-articular dose of bupivacaine in the normal canine stifle. There were no significant differences in synovial fluid prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) concentrations between treatment groups or over time within bupivacaine or saline groups. Samples requiring ≥ 3 arthrocentesis attempts had significantly higher PGE 2 concentrations compared to samples requiring 1 or 2 attempts. Following correction for number of arthrocentesis attempts, PGE 2 concentrations were significantly higher than baseline at 24 and 48 h in the bupivacaine group; however there were no significant differences between the bupivacaine and saline groups. In normal dogs, a single bupivacaine injection did not cause significant synovial inflammation, as measured by PGE 2 concentrations, compared to saline controls. Future research should minimize aspiration attempts and include evaluation of the synovial response to bupivacaine in clinical cases with joint disease.

  16. Multiple mucous retention cysts of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tal, H; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    1984-12-01

    While mucoceles of the oral mucosa are relatively common, multiple mucous retention cysts have not previously been reported. In this article two such cases, in which numerous minor salivary gland ducts had dilated to the point of cyst formation, are described. The number of individual cysts exceeded 100 in each case. Since it is clear that these cysts formed as a result of dilatation of salivary ducts, it would seem that either the ducts were blocked by altered secretion or there was an acquired or congenital weakness in their structure.

  17. Application of three-dimensional rendering in joint-related ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Edwards, Phillip K; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2006-05-01

    The origin of para-articular cysts is poorly understood and controversial. The relatively common, simple (extraneural) cysts are presumed to be derived from joints, although joint connections are not always established. Rarer complex cysts are thought by many to form de novo within nerves (intraneural ganglion cysts) or within vessels (adventitial cysts) (degenerative theory). We believe that these simple and complex ganglion cysts are joint-related (articular theory). Joint connections are often not readily appreciated with routine imaging or at surgery. Not identifying and/or treating joint connections frequently leads to cyst recurrence. More sophisticated imaging may enhance visualization of these joint connections. We created a 3D rendering technique to assess potential joint connections of simple and complex cysts localized to the knee and superior tibiofibular joints in patients with fibular (peroneal) neuropathy. Two- and three-dimensional data sets from MRI examinations were segmented semiautomatically by signal intensity with further refinement based on interaction with the user to identify specific anatomic structures, such as small nerves and vessels on serial images. The bone, cysts, nerves, and vessels were each assigned different color representations, and 3D renderings were created in ANALYZE using the data sets closest to isotropic (voxel with equal length in all dimensions) resolution as the primary background rendering. We selected four cases to illustrate the spectrum of pathology. In all of these cases, we demonstrated joint connections and correlated imaging and operative findings. Surgery addressing the cyst and the joint connection resulted in excellent outcomes; postoperative MRIs done more than 6 months later confirmed that there was no recurrence. In addition to highlighting the important relationship of these cysts to neighboring anatomic structures, this 3D technique allows visualization of "occult" connections not readily appreciated

  18. Diagnostic problems with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Altiok, Merih; Battal, Muharrem; Bender, Omer; Ozcan, Deniz; Karahan, Servet

    2009-05-29

    The splenic cysts constitute a very rare clinical entity. They may occur secondary to trauma or even being more seldom due to parasitic infestations, mainly caused by ecchinocccus granulosus. Literature lacks a defined concencus including the treatment plans and follow up strategies, nor long term results of the patients. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses. Twenty-four patients with splenic cysts have undergone surgery in our department over the last 9 years. Data from eighteen of the twenty-four patients were collected prospectively, while data from six were retrospectively collected. All patients were assessed in terms of age, gender, hospital stay, preoperative diagnosis, additional disease, serology, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), cyst recurrences and treatment. In this study, the majority of patients presented with abdominal discomfort and palpable swelling in the left hypochondrium. All patients were operated on electively. The patients included 14 female and 10 male patients, with a mean age of 44.77 years (range 20-62). Splenic hydatid cysts were present in 16 patients, one of whom also had liver hydatid cysts (6.25%). Four other patients were operated on for a simple cyst (16%) two patients for an epithelial cyst, and the last two for splenic lymphangioma. Of the 16 patients diagnosed as having splenic hydatit cysts, 11 (68.7%) were correctly diagnosed. Only two of these patients were administered benzimidazole therapy pre-operatively because of the risk of multicystic disease The mean follow-up period was 64 months (6-108). There were no recurrences of splenic cysts. Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of a parasitic cyst when no definitive alternative diagnosis can be made. In the treatment of splenic hydatidosis, benzimidazole therapy is not necessary, although it is crucial to perform

  19. Program Evaluation of Outcomes Based Orthotic and Prosthetic Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis; synovial joints ; tendon sheaths. b. Osteoarthritis; weight bearing joints ; loading areas. c. Osteoporosis; cancellous bone...flexion. 32. The desirable length of a thumb post is: a. to the thumb IP joint . b. proximal to the IP joint . c. to the nail bed. d. just...assist hyperextension of the thoracic spine. b. eliminate motion. c. prevent lumbar flexion. d. reduce axial load on lumbar vertebrae. 44

  20. Odontogenic cysts: a clinicopathological study of 507 cases.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Rafael L; Antunes, Antonio A; Carvalho, Ricardo W F; Bezerra, Paulo G C F; Oliveira Neto, Patrício J; Andrade, Emanuel S S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts at the Pernambuco School of Dentistry - Universidade de Pernambuco (Brazil) and compare this prevalence with other international studies. Data for the study were obtained from reports of patients diagnosed with odontogenic cysts between 1992 and 2007. Case records of patients who fit the Histological Classification of the World Health Organization (2005) were included. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age group, anatomical location, histological type and ethnic background. Odontogenic cysts accounted for 9.94% of all lesions biopsied throughout the study period. Mean patient age was 28.9 years and 57.6% of the patients were males (P > 0.05). Radicular cyst was the most prevalent histological type (52.2%), followed by dentigerous cyst (30.7%). Regarding ethnic background, 41.8 % of the patients were of African descent, followed by Caucasians and other ethnic groups (P > 0.05). The mandible was the most prevalent site of the lesions (56%). Odontogenic cysts appear to have a distinct predilection for the male gender, the second and third decades of life (P < 0.05) and are more frequent in the mandible. The removal of odontogenic keratocysts from the new WHO classification has not altered the order of the most prevalent cysts in the maxillofacial complex.

  1. Molecular pathways involved in synovial cell inflammation and tumoral proliferation in diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, U; Sfriso, P; Lunardi, F; Pagnin, E; Oliviero, F; Scagliori, E; Cozzi, L; Vezzù, M; Molena, B; Scanu, A; Panziera, C; Nardacchione, R; Rubaltelli, L; Dayer, J M; Calabrese, F; Punzi, L

    2010-09-01

    Diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumors, also known as pigmented villonodular synovitis, are unique mesenchymal lesions that arise from the synovial tissue of the joints. They are predominantly intraarticular, aggressive, infiltrative processes, characterized by both inflammatory or neoplastic properties and local destructive progression. The pattern of synovial gene and protein expressions in pigmented villonodular synovitis, similar to those in activated macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis, and the phenotype of multinucleated giant cells, characteristic of osteoclasts, suggest that there is a common autocrine mechanism in osteoclast differentiation in both diseases and indicate the potential utility of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha blockade. High synovial colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) messenger RNA (m RNA) expression in pigmented villonodular synovitis, unrelated to a chromosomal translocation involving CSF1 locus, may indicate that there is a synergic paracrine loop mediated by TNF-alpha and CSF1, as shown in both inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. The effects of a new therapeutic approach consisting in intraarticular TNF-alpha blockade were studied in four pigmented villonodular synovitis knees. Knee injections produced a rapid reduction in clinical and sonographic indexes and immunohistological alterations, confirmed by arthroscopic synovectomy. A delayed relapse in one of the four knees and unaltered synovial CSF1 expression were other important findings. In the light of these observations, CSF1/CSF1R interaction probably represents a more sensible therapeutic target than TNF-alpha blockade in the diffuse form of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Parathyroid Cysts: Description with Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Koray; Şahin, Furkan; İncekara, Funda; Fındık, Göktürk; Kaya, Sadi; Ağaçkıran, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    Parathyroid cysts are unilocular, thin-walled cysts, and they are seen very rarely. Their formation mechanisms are not clear. They are usually localized in the cervical region, and mediastinal settlements are rare. They are usually asymptomatic, but cysts that have settled in the neck may be symptomatic, such as tracheal pressure symptoms. There are two types-namely, functional cysts and non-functional cysts-depending on their hormonal characteristics. There are still difficulties in the diagnosis, and they can be mistaken by thyroid pathology. Treatment is surgery. We discussed two cases of parathyroid cysts that we surgically excised.

  3. Transplantation of autologous synovial mesenchymal stem cells promotes meniscus regeneration in aged primates.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shimpei; Muneta, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Koga, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sotome, Shinichi; Okawa, Atsushi; Kiuchi, Shinji; Ono, Hideo; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Transplantation of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhanced meniscus regeneration in rats. Anatomy and biological properties of the meniscus depend on animal species. To apply this technique clinically, it is valuable to investigate the use of animals genetically close to humans. We investigated whether transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscal regeneration in aged primates. Chynomolgus primates between 12 and 13 years old were used. After the anterior halves of the medial menisci in both knees were removed, an average of 14 aggregates consisting of 250,000 synovial MSCs were transplanted onto the meniscus defect. No aggregates were transplanted to the opposite knee for the control. Meniscus and articular cartilage were analyzed macroscopically, histologically, and by MRI T1rho mapping at 8 (n = 3) and 16 weeks (n = 4). The medial meniscus was larger and the modified Pauli's histological score for the regenerated meniscus was better in the MSC group than in the control group in each primate at 8 and 16 weeks. Mankin's score for the medial femoral condyle cartilage was better in the MSC group than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. T1rho value for both the regenerated meniscus and adjacent articular cartilage in the MSC group was closer to the normal meniscus than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. Transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscus regeneration and delayed progression of degeneration of articular cartilage in aged primates. This is the first report dealing with meniscus regeneration in primates. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1274-1282, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The influence of skeletal maturity on allogenic synovial mesenchymal stem cell-based repair of cartilage in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kazunori; Ando, Wataru; Tateishi, Kosuke; Nansai, Ryosuke; Fujie, Hiromichi; Hart, David A; Kohda, Hideyuki; Kita, Keisuke; Kanamoto, Takashi; Mae, Tatsuo; Nakata, Ken; Shino, Konsei; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2010-11-01

    One of the potential factors that may affect the results of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is the age of donors and recipients. However, there have been no controlled studies to investigate the influence of skeletal maturity on the MSC-based repair of cartilage. The purpose of this study was to compare the repair quality of damaged articular cartilage treated by a scaffold-free three-dimensional tissue-engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial MSCs between immature and mature pigs. Synovial MSCs were isolated from immature and mature pigs and the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation capacities were compared. The TEC derived from the synovial MSCs were then implanted into equivalent chondral defects in the medial femoral condyle of both immature and mature pigs, respectively. The implanted defects were morphologically and biomechanically evaluated at 6 months postoperatively. There was no skeletal maturity-dependent difference in proliferation or chondrogenic differentiation capacity of the porcine synovial MSCs. The TEC derived from synovial MSCs promoted the repair of chondral lesion in both immature and mature pigs without the evidence of immune reaction. The repaired tissue by the TEC also exhibited similar viscoelastic properties to normal cartilage regardless of the skeletal maturity. The results of the present study not only suggest the feasibility of allogenic MSC-based cartilage repair over generations but also may validate the use of immature porcine model as clinically relevant to test the feasibility of synovial MSC-based therapies in chondral lesions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  6. Pediatric Odontogenic Cysts of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Arce, Kevin; Streff, Christopher S; Ettinger, Kyle S

    2016-02-01

    Odontogenic cysts represent a common form of pathology of the jaws, and the natural history, clinicopathologic findings, and appropriate management strategies are important to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Odontogenic cysts in the pediatric populations are important pathologic entities given their potential impact on the growth and development of the maxillofacial complex. Inappropriate management strategies can severely affect the form and function of the growing child. Categorizing pediatric odontogenic cysts into inflammatory or developmental causes provides a convenient way of conceptualizing these various entities and helps facilitate the appropriate diagnosis and the subsequent management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented. PMID:28740968

  8. Alexandrium minutum resting cyst distribution dynamics in a confined site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglès, Sílvia; Jordi, Antoni; Garcés, Esther; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Palanques, Albert

    2010-02-01

    The life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum consists of an asexual stage, characterized by motile vegetative cells, and a sexual stage, a resting cyst that once formed remains dormant in the sediment. Insight into the factors that determine the distribution and abundance of resting cysts is essential to understanding the dynamics of the vegetative phase. In investigations carried out between January 2005 and January 2008 in Arenys de Mar harbor (northwestern Mediterranean Sea), the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. minutum resting cysts and of the sediments were studied during different bloom stages of the vegetative population. Maximum cyst abundance was recorded mainly in the innermost part of the harbor while the lowest abundance always occurred near the harbor entrance, consistent with the distribution of silt-clay sediment fractions. The tendency of cysts in sediments to increase after bloom periods was clearly associated with new cyst formation, while cyst abundance decreased during non-bloom periods. Exceptions to this trend were observed in stations dominated by the deposition of coarse sediments. High correlation between the presence of cysts and clays during non-bloom periods indicates that cysts behave as passive sediment particles and are influenced by the same hydrodynamic processes as clays. In Arenys de Mar, the main physical forcing affecting sediment resuspension is the seiche, which was studied using in situ measurements and numerical models to interpret the observed distribution patterns. During non-bloom periods, cyst losses were smaller when the seiche was more active and at the station where the seiche-induced current was larger. Thus, seiche-forced resuspension appears to reduce cyst losses by reallocating cysts back to the sediment surface such that their burial in the sediment is avoided. The observed vertical profiles of the cysts were consistent with this process.

  9. Descriptions of therapeutic arthrocenthesis and of synovial fluid in a Nahuatl text from prehispanic Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon-Segovia, D

    1980-01-01

    Paracelsus is considered to have been the first to record the viscid quality of the synovial fluid. However, his contemporary Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar who came to Mexico shortly after the Spanish conquest, obtained from elderly Aztec Indians who spoke only Nahuatl the descriptions of therapeutic arthrocentesis and of the viscid nature of the synovial fluid. They compared the fluid from the knee joint to the viscid fluid from the leaves of the nopal cactus (Opuntia sp.). We here record their description and confirm the accuracy of their comparison. Images PMID:7416821

  10. Descriptions of therapeutic arthrocenthesis and of synovial fluid in a Nahuatl text from prehispanic Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Segovia, D

    1980-06-01

    Paracelsus is considered to have been the first to record the viscid quality of the synovial fluid. However, his contemporary Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar who came to Mexico shortly after the Spanish conquest, obtained from elderly Aztec Indians who spoke only Nahuatl the descriptions of therapeutic arthrocentesis and of the viscid nature of the synovial fluid. They compared the fluid from the knee joint to the viscid fluid from the leaves of the nopal cactus (Opuntia sp.). We here record their description and confirm the accuracy of their comparison.

  11. Edema is a precursor to central nervous system peritumoral cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Lonser, Russell R; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Butman, John A; Glasker, Sven; Finn, Michael A; Ammerman, Joshua M; Merrill, Marsha J; Edwards, Nancy A; Zhuang, Zhengping; Oldfield, Edward H

    2005-09-01

    Despite the common occurrence and frequent clinical effects of peritumoral cysts in the central nervous system (CNS), the mechanism underlying their development and evolution is not understood. Because they commonly produce peritumoral cysts and because serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is obtained in von Hippel-Lindau disease patients, hemangioblastomas provide an opportunity to examine the pathophysiology of CNS peritumoral cyst formation. Serial MRI was correlated with the clinical findings in 16 von Hippel-Lindau disease patients with 22 CNS hemangioblastomas (11 spinal cord; 11 cerebellar) that were associated with the appearance and evolution of peritumoral cysts. Hemangioblastoma-associated cyst wall histomorphological analysis was performed on postmortem tissues from three von Hippel-Lindau disease patients (not in the clinical series). Comparative proteomic profiling was performed on peritumoral cyst fluid and serum. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were determined in peritumoral cysts. MRI clearly showed peritumoral edema that developed and slowly and progressively evolved into enlarging hemangioblastoma-associated cysts in all tumors (mean follow-up, 130 +/- 38 months; mean +/- standard deviation). Postcontrast MRI demonstrated convective leakage of gadolinium into cysts. Mean time required for edema to evolve into a cyst was 36 +/- 23 months (range, 8-72 months). Thirteen (59%) hemangioblastoma-cysts became symptomatic (mean time to symptom formation after cyst development, 35 +/- 32 months; range, 3-102 months) and required resection. Protein profiles of cyst fluid and serum were similar. Mean cyst fluid vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was 1.5 ng/ml (range, 0-5.4 ng/ml). Histology of the cyst walls was consistent with reactive gliosis. CNS peritumoral cyst formation is initiated by increased tumor vascular permeability, increased interstitial pressure in the tumor, and plasma extravasation with convective distribution

  12. [Endoscopic surgery in the treatment of patients with extensive odontogenic cysts].

    PubMed

    Sysolyatin, P G; Sysolyatin, S P; Baydik, O D

    The aim of the study was the assessment of effectiveness of endoscopic techniques in the treatment of extensive odontogenic cysts. Endosurgery for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes was used in 67 patients with odontogenic cysts of the jaws: 23 follicular cysts, 19 radicular cysts, 6 residual cysts, and 19 keratokists. The results prove that the developed methods of endovideosurgery of odontogenic cysts have low invasiveness, provide an optimal healing of bone tissue and reduce postoperative complications.

  13. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-03-18

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures.

  14. Branchial cleft or cervical lymphoepithelial cysts: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Glosser, Jeffrey W; Pires, Carlos Alberto S; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2003-01-01

    The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst is a developmental cyst that has a disputed pathogenesis. The objective of this article is to provide a brief review of the literature and to define diagnostic terms related to this anomaly, as well as to describe its etiology, clinical presentation and treatment. The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst usually presents as a unilateral, soft-tissue fluctuant swelling that typically appears in the lateral aspect of the neck, anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and becomes clinically evident late in childhood or in early adulthood. Clinicians can diagnose the cyst with appropriate imaging to assess the extent of the lesion before definitive surgical treatment. The authors describe a patient who underwent excision of a well-encapsulated cystic structure that was diagnosed as a branchial cleft cyst. The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst can be easily misdiagnosed as a parotid swelling or odontogenic infection. It is imperative that clinicians make an accurate diagnosis so that appropriate treatment (that is, surgical excision) can be performed. If the cysts are treated properly, recurrences are rare.

  15. Comparison of Mast Cells Count in Odontogenic Cysts Using Histochemical Staining.

    PubMed

    Rajabi-Moghaddam, Mahdieh; Abbaszadeh-Bidokhty, Hamid; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are among the most frequent destructive lesions of jaws which their pathogenesis and growth mechanism are not cleared. With respect to different roles of mast cells, they may play a role in the pathogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. The aim of present study was to evaluate mast cells in the most common odontogenic cyst. Thirty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks including 10 radicular cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts and 10 odontogenic keratocysts were used and 5 micron sections stained with toluidine blue and observed by light microscope under ×400 magnification to evaluate mast cells within these cysts. For each case, 5 high-power field areas, selected from hot-spot areas, were considered and each area divided into 3 zones: intra-epithelial zone, sub-epithelial zone and deep zone. Most of the studied cyst showed presence of mast cells. There was not any significant difference in mast cell count between studied cysts ( P -values > 0.05).With respect to intra-epithelial, sub-epithelial and deep zones, there was not any significant difference between three studied cysts. There was not any significant difference between sub-epithelial zone and deep zone within each of these cysts. There was only significant difference between intra-epithelial zone and sub-epithelial zone within dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts ( P -value < 0.05). Prevalence of mast cells in fibrous wall of odontogenic cysts suggests their activity in these cysts. Mast cells may not be directly involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocysts.

  16. Ovarian dermoid cyst leakage--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A G; Lawrence, A; Tsaltas, J

    1998-08-01

    This case illustrates that when a dermoid cyst is punctured, an immediate operative laparoscopy or laparotomy should be performed, along with lavage, to avoid the problems associated with dermoid cyst contents spillage.

  17. [Retention cysts of the vocal cords (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, E W

    1979-05-01

    Present day knowledge in laryngology maintains that the free edge of the true cord mucosa is devoid of glands so that retention cysts should not occur in this tissue. When such cysts do occur, it is difficult to define their pathogenesis. Reference is made to the author's earlier study which found a regular occurrence of mucous glands in the squamous epithelial region of the vocal cords. A retention cyst in the true cord is described histologically in the present report. The glands responsible for these cysts are believed to function by moistening the mucous membrane of the vocal cords.

  18. Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits prostaglandin E(2) production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Moon, Dong-Oh; Choi, Il-Whan; Choi, Byung Tae; Nam, Taek-Jeong; Rhu, Chung-Ho; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Lee, Won Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2007-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by hyperplasia of the synovial fibroblasts, which is partly the result of decreased apoptosis. This study investigated the mechanisms through which curcumin, a polyphenolic compound from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, exerts its anti-proliferative action in the synovial fibroblasts obtained from patients with RA. Exposure of the synovial fibroblasts to curcumin resulted in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis, as measured by MTT assay, fluorescent microscopy and Annexin-V-based assay. RT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that treating the cells with curcumin resulted in the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and the X-linked inhibitor of the apoptosis protein as well as the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Curcumin-induced apoptosis was also associated with the proteolytic activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the concomitant degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. Furthermore, curcumin decreased the expression levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein without causing significant changes in the COX-1 levels, which was correlated with the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) synthesis. These results show that curcumin might help identify a new therapeutic pathway against hyperplasia of the synovial fibroblasts in RA.

  19. Predictive value of synovial fluid analysis in estimating the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Luukkainen, R; Hakala, M; Sajanti, E; Huhtala, H; Yli-Kerttula, U; Hämeenkorpi, R

    1992-01-01

    The predictive relevance of synovial fluid analysis and some other variables for the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and hydropsy in a knee joint was evaluated in a prospective study. At the onset of the study, the knee joints were aspirated and 30 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide injected intra-articularly. The circumferences and the tenderness scores of the knee joints were measured at onset, after two months, and at the end of the six months' follow up. Of the variables studied, synovial fluid C4, percentage of synovial fluid polymorphonuclear leucocytes, blood haemoglobin, and serum C3 correlated significantly with the decrease in knee joint circumference after two months, whereas only the percentage of synovial fluid polymorphonuclear leucocytes correlated significantly after six months. Between the patients with and without improvement in the tenderness scores of the knee joints, only serum IgM differed at the examination after two months; this was higher in patients whose scores showed no improvement. PMID:1632661

  20. Epidermoid Cyst of the Sole - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Santosh Singh; Gopinathan, Nayar Sajeeth

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign subcutaneous lesion also termed as epidermal cysts. Epidermoid cyst are commonly seen in hairy regions of body like scalp, face and scrotum, can be single or multiple, but rarely can occur in glabrous skin of palm and sole. They are known to result from progressive cystic ectasia of the infundibular portion of hair follicle but the pathogenesis in palmo-plantar epidermoid cyst differs that is traumatic sequestration of epidermal elements into dermis. Here, we report a case of 30-year-old female presented with complaints of swelling in her left sole. On examination a palpable firm swelling was noted just below the 2nd web space left foot plantar region, on X-ray foot no osseous lesion or foreign body was detected. Swelling was excised and sent for histopathological examination which confirmed it as epidermoid cyst. PMID:28050432

  1. Kinematic Evaluation of Association between Disc Bulge Migration, Lumbar Segmental Mobility, and Disc Degeneration in the Lumbar Spine Using Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jonathan K.; Morishita, Yuichiro; Montgomery, Scott R.; Hymanson, Henry; Taghavi, Cyrus E.; Do, Duc; Wang, Jeff C.

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease and disc bulge in the lumbar spine are common sources of lower back pain. Little is known regarding disc bulge migration and lumbar segmental mobility as the lumbar spine moves from flexion to extension. In this study, 329 symptomatic (low back pain with or without neurological symptoms) patients with an average age of 43.5 years with varying degrees of disc degeneration were examined to characterize the kinematics of the lumbar intervertebral discs through flexion, neutral, and extension weight-bearing positions. In this population, disc bulge migration associated with dynamic motion of the lumbar spine significantly increased with increased grade of disk degeneration. Although no obvious trends relating the migration of disc bulge and angular segmental mobility were seen, translational segmental mobility tended to increase with disc bulge migration in all of the degenerative disc states. It appears that many factors, both static (intervertebral disc degeneration or disc height) and dynamic (lumbar segmental mobility), affect the mechanisms of lumbar disc bulge migration. PMID:24353937

  2. Proinflammatory cytokine activities, matrix metalloproteinase-3 activity, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content in synovial fluid of dogs with naturally acquired cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukihiro; Hara, Yasushi; Nezu, Yoshinori; Schulz, Kurt S; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2006-06-01

    To measure and compare activities of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3); as well as sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) content in synovial fluid from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) and dogs with clinically normal stifles. To determine whether correlations exist between demographic and disease-related variables and these synovial markers. Prospective clinical study. Dogs with CCLR (n=23) and Beagles with normal stifle joints (n=21). Synovial fluid activities of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) were determined by bioassay. MMP-3 activity was measured using fluorogenic substrate. S-GAG contents were determined by dimethylmethylene blue dye-binding assay. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare results from CCLR joints with normal controls. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to evaluate associations between demographic and disease-related markers and synovial markers. Mean values for synovial markers were significantly higher in CCLR joints compared with controls. IL-1beta and MMP-3 were positively correlated with lameness duration. Activities of proinflammatory cytokines, MMP-3 activity and S-GAG contents were significantly elevated in synovial fluid from canine stifle joints with naturally acquired CCLR. These results indicate that there is joint inflammation and increased release of GAGs into synovial fluid, suggesting that these inflammatory changes are associated with depletion of proteoglycan from articular cartilage. Medical and surgical treatments designed to decrease joint inflammation and breakdown of proteoglycans may be of value in the management of CCLR in the dog.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Synovial Fluid Obtained From a Dog Diagnosed With Idiopathic Immune-Mediated Polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Miao; Lau, Seng Fong; Ajat, Mokrish; Mansor, Rozaihan; Abd Rani, Puteri Azaziah Megat; Rahmad, Norasfaliza Binti

    2017-03-01

    This case study is to report the proteins detected by proteomic analysis of synovial fluid from a dog diagnosed with idiopathic immune-mediated polyarthritis, and to compare it with healthy dogs. Synovial fluid was collected via arthrocentesis from a dog diagnosed with immune-mediated polyarthritis. Protein precipitation was performed on the synovial fluid, followed by isoelectric focusing and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The spots on the 2-dimensional gels were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/MS. The results were then analyzed against the MASCOT database. The results from the proteomic analysis revealed an abundance of several types of immunoglobulins together with the presence of complement C4b-binding protein alpha chain. Actin and keratin were also among the proteins detected. Proteomic studies, facilitate a better understanding of the different levels of proteins expressed during disease activity. Potential disease biomarkers can aid in the diagnosis of disease, as well as help in monitoring treatment efficacy and providing prognosis for the patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic cyst penetration of cefazolin in patients receiving aspiration sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lantinga, M A; Wijnands, T F M; Te Morsche, R H M; de Sévaux, R G L; Kuipers, S; Allegaert, K; Burger, D; Drenth, J P H

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic cyst infection is a potentially severe complication in cystic disease. Treatment demands effective antibiotic concentrations within the infected cyst. The aim of this study was to use elective hepatic cyst drainage as a unique pharmacokinetic model to investigate whether cefazolin, a first-generation cephalosporin, is able to penetrate hepatic cysts. Patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous aspiration sclerotherapy of a symptomatic non-infected, non-neoplastic hepatic cyst were eligible for this study. All participants received a single perioperative prophylactic dose of cefazolin (1000 mg, intravenously). We collected blood and cyst fluid samples to determine total and unbound cefazolin concentrations using HPLC. The primary outcome was hepatic cyst penetration, expressed as the ratio (%) of unbound concentration of cefazolin in cyst fluid to plasma (both in mg/L). We included eight patients [male = 25%, median age = 60 years (IQR 54-75), median estimated glomerular filtration rate = 97 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (IQR 67-102) and median serum albumin = 40 g/L (IQR 37-40)]. We detected low concentrations of unbound cefazolin in cyst fluid (≤1.0 mg/L). The median plasma unbound cefazolin peak level (immediately after cefazolin administration) was 36.6 mg/L (IQR 23.7-54.1) and the level at the time of cyst fluid aspiration was 16.1 mg/L (IQR 13.0-20.1). In total, the hepatic cyst penetration of free cefazolin was only 2.2% (IQR 0.7-5.2). We developed a study model to investigate the penetration of antibiotics into hepatic cysts. Cefazolin did not reach adequate intracystic concentrations. Future studies should explore alternatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Bosniak Classification for Complex Renal Cysts Reevaluated: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schoots, Ivo G; Zaccai, Keren; Hunink, Myriam G; Verhagen, Paul C M S

    2017-07-01

    We systematically evaluated the Bosniak classification system with malignancy rates of each Bosniak category, and assessed the effectiveness related to surgical treatment and oncologic outcome based on recurrence and/or metastasis. In a systematic review according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and the QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria, we selected 39 publications for inclusion in this analysis and categorized them into 1) surgical cohorts-all cysts treated surgically and 2) radiological cohorts-cysts with surgical treatment or radiological followup. A total of 3,036 complex renal cysts were categorized into Bosniak II, IIF, III and IV. In surgical and radiological cohorts pooled estimates showed a malignancy prevalence of 0.51 (0.44, 0.58) in Bosniak III and 0.89 (0.83, 0.92) in Bosniak IV cysts, respectively. Stable Bosniak IIF cysts showed a malignancy rate of less than 1% during radiological followup (surveillance). Bosniak IIF cysts, which showed reclassification to the Bosniak III/IV category during radiological followup (12%), showed malignancy in 85%, comparable to Bosniak IV cysts. The estimated surgical number needed to treat to avoid metastatic disease of Bosniak III and IV cysts was 140 and 40, respectively. The effectiveness of the Bosniak classification system for complex renal cysts was high in categories II, IIF and IV, but low in category III, and 49% of Bosniak III cysts was overtreated because of a benign outcome. This surgical overtreatment combined with the excellent outcome for Bosniak III cysts may suggest that surveillance is a rational alternative to surgery. This will require further study to assess whether surveillance of Bosniak III cysts will prove safe. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recurrent neck abscess due to a bronchogenic cyst in an adult.

    PubMed

    Hazenberg, A J C; Pullmann, L M; Henke, R-P; Hoppe, F

    2010-12-01

    Neck abscesses can originate from congenital cervical cysts. Cervical cysts of bronchogenic origin are rare and often asymptomatic. Common symptoms of bronchogenic cysts are stridor, dyspnoea and dysphagia. The reported patient represents the second published case of a bronchogenic cyst causing a neck abscess in an adult. We report a case of a cervical bronchogenic cyst presenting as a recurrent supraclavicular abscess in a middle-aged woman. During extirpation, a fistula was demonstrated to the right upper lobe of the lung, suspected because the cyst inflated synchronously with respiration. The symptoms of bronchogenic cysts are due to the effects of compression or fistulas. In the majority of these cysts, a thorough investigation involving history, examination and radiological imaging does not clearly demonstrate a fistula. Therefore, extirpation is both diagnostic and therapeutic. A bronchogenic cyst is a very rare cause of a recurrent deep neck abscess. Total extirpation is the treatment of choice.

  7. Cerebriform connective tissue nevus of lumbar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Liuqing; Duan, Yiqun; Li, Dongsheng; Dong, Bilin

    2015-02-01

    Connective tissue nevi represents a kind of hamartoma, and coalescence of the lesions in a cerebriform mode in the lumbar region without Proteus syndrome is rarely seen. Here, we report a 26-year-old woman presenting with nodules and plaques in her left lumbar region of 26 years in duration. Histopathological examination and Masson-trichrome stain showed increased dermal collagen bundles in a haphazard array. The diagnosis of connective tissue nevi was made. This is the first case report on cerebriform connective tissue nevi without Proteus syndrome in the lumbar region. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Clinico-radiographic study of odontogenic cysts at a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kamran; Munir, Faisal; Rehman, Abdur; Abbas, Iram; Ahmad, Nofil; Akhtar, Muhammad Usman

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of the jaws constitute an important pathology in the oral and maxillofacial region and are broadly classified as odontogenic and non-odontogenic. Objective of this study was to document the clinical and radiographic presentation of odontogenic cysts at a tertiary care centre. In this descriptive case-series, patients presenting with features of suspected cystic lesions of the jaws were investigated using radiographs and incisional biopsy. Subjects showing clinico- radiographic features of odontogenic cyst(s) with subsequent confirmation on histopathological examination were included. A total of 112 subjects were investigated for suspected jaw cysts and cystic diagnosis of odontogenic cysts was confirmed in 100 patients with 53 males (53%) and 47 females (47%). The age range of patients was from 12-55 years. Radicular cyst was the most commonly diagnosed odontogenic cyst (63%) followed by dentigerous cyst (22%) and odontogenickeratocyst (14%). Anterior maxilla was the most affected site (44%) followed by posterior mandible (30%). Odontogenic cysts constitute an established pathology affecting the jaws with varying frequency. This study augments the data cited from Western countries and re-emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and prompt management. It also highlights the differences in the presentation of odontogenic cysts as observed in the current series.

  9. Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Uzun-Bulut, Emel; Özden, Bora; Gündüz, Kaan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative frequency and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a large Turkish population. Study Design A retrospective survey of jaw cysts was undertaken at the Oral Diagnosis and Radiology and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Ondokuz Mayıs University Dental School, Samsun, Turkey. Data were retrieved from clinical files, imaging, and histopathology reports from 2000 to 2008; a total of 12,350 patients were included. In each case, we analyzed age, gender, type and number of cysts, and cyst location. Imaging patterns and pathologies associated with cystic lesions were also determined. Results: The prevalence of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts was 3.51%; males were affected more frequently than females. There were 452 odontogenic cysts (98.5%) and seven nonodontogenic cysts (1.5%). The most frequent odontogenic cyst was radicular (54.7%), followed by dentigerous (26.6%), residual (13.7%), odontogenic keratocyst (3.3%), and lateral periodontal cyst (0.2%). Nasopalatine duct cyst (1.5%) was the only nonodontogenic cyst. By age, cysts peaked in the third decade (24.2%). Concerning location, no statistically significant difference was found between the maxilla and mandible (p>0.05). The most frequent radiological feature of these lesions was unilocular cyst (93.7%). Pathologies associated with cystic lesions occurred in 14.7%. Conclusion: The prevalence of both odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts were lower than that reported in many other studies. In our study population, cysts were mainly inflammatory in origin. Key words: Prevalence, odontogenic, nonodontogenic, cysts. PMID:21743428

  10. Risk factors for pediatric arachnoid cyst rupture/hemorrhage: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cress, Marshall; Kestle, John R W; Holubkov, Richard; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2013-05-01

    As the availability of imaging modalities has increased, the finding of arachnoid cysts has become common. Accurate patient counseling regarding physical activity or risk factors for cyst rupture or hemorrhage has been hampered by the lack of definitive association studies. This case-control study evaluated factors that are associated with arachnoid cyst rupture (intracystic hemorrhage, adjacent subdural hematoma, or adjacent subdural hygroma) in pediatric patients with previously asymptomatic arachnoid cysts. Patients with arachnoid cysts and intracystic hemorrhage, adjacent subdural hygroma, or adjacent subdural hematoma treated at a single institution from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively identified. Two unruptured/nonhemorrhagic controls were matched to each case based on patient age, sex, anatomical cyst location, and side. Risk factors evaluated included arachnoid cyst size, recent history of head trauma, and altitude at residence. The proportion of imaged arachnoid cysts that presented either originally or subsequently with a rupture or hemorrhage was 6.0%. Larger cyst size, as defined by maximal cyst diameter, was significantly associated with cyst rupture/hemorrhage (P < .001). When dichotomized with a 5-cm cutoff, 9/13 larger cysts ruptured and/or hemorrhaged, whereas only 5/29 smaller cysts ruptured/hemorrhaged (odds ratio = 16.5 (confidence interval [2.5, ∞]). A recent history of head trauma was also significantly associated with the outcome (P < .001; odds ratio = 25.1 (confidence interval [4.0, ∞]). Altitude was not associated with arachnoid cyst rupture or hemorrhage. This case-control study suggests that larger arachnoid cyst size and recent head trauma are risk factors for symptomatic arachnoid cyst rupture/hemorrhage.

  11. Treatment of a large radicular cyst-enucleation or decompression?

    PubMed

    Matijević, Stevo; Jovivić, Bojan; Bubalo, Marija; Dukić, Smiljka; Cutović, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    Radicular cysts treatment involves surgical approach, more or less aggressive. However, treatment of large cystic lesions, including radicular cysts, causes some of dilemmas concerning the choice of the surgical method, especially the degree of radicalism. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with large radicular cyst in the mandible. A large elliptical multilocular radiolucency, located in the left side of the mandible, being in close vicinity to the mandibular canal, was registered at the orthopantomographic radiography. There was a risk of pathological fracture of the mandible. However, the cyst was completely removed by enucleation without intraoperative and postoperative complications. The presented case support the opinion that careful enucleation of large mandibular cysts may be done without complications, such as damages of surrounding anatomical structures or mandibular fracture. The authors indicate reasons for strong support of the undertaken surgical approach of treating large radicular cysts in the mandible.

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells do not enhance intra-synovial tendon healing despite engraftment and homing to niches within the synovium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad R; Dudhia, Jayesh; David, Frederic H; De Godoy, Roberta; Mehra, Vedika; Hughes, Gillian; Dakin, Stephanie G; Carr, Andrew J; Goodship, Allen E; Smith, Roger K W

    2018-06-19

    Intra-synovial tendon injuries display poor healing, which often results in reduced functionality and pain. A lack of effective therapeutic options has led to experimental approaches to augment natural tendon repair with autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) although the effects of the intra-synovial environment on the distribution, engraftment and functionality of implanted MSCs is not known. This study utilised a novel sheep model which, although in an anatomically different location, more accurately mimics the mechanical and synovial environment of the human rotator cuff, to determine the effects of intra-synovial implantation of MSCs. A lesion was made in the lateral border of the lateral branch of the ovine deep digital flexor tendon within the digital sheath and 2 weeks later 5 million autologous bone marrow MSCs were injected under ultrasound guidance into the digital sheath. Tendons were recovered post mortem at 1 day, and 1-2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after MSC injection. For the 1-day and 1-2-week groups, MSCs labelled with fluorescent-conjugated magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) were tracked with MRI, histology and flow cytometry. The 4, 12 and 24-week groups were implanted with non-labelled cells and compared with saline-injected controls for healing. The MSCs displayed no reduced viability in vitro to an uptake of 20.0 ± 4.6 pg MIONs per cell, which was detectable by MRI at minimal density of ~ 3 × 10 4 cells. Treated limbs indicated cellular distribution throughout the tendon synovial sheath but restricted to the synovial tissues, with no MSCs detected in the tendon or surgical lesion. The lesion was associated with negligible morbidity with minimal inflammation post surgery. Evaluation of both treated and control lesions showed no evidence of healing of the lesion at 4, 12 and 24 weeks on gross and histological examination. Unlike other laboratory animal models of tendon injury, this novel model mimics the failed tendon healing

  13. Comparison of Mast Cells Count in Odontogenic Cysts Using Histochemical Staining

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi-Moghaddam, Mahdieh; Abbaszadeh-Bidokhty, Hamid; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Odontogenic cysts are among the most frequent destructive lesions of jaws which their pathogenesis and growth mechanism are not cleared. With respect to different roles of mast cells, they may play a role in the pathogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. The aim of present study was to evaluate mast cells in the most common odontogenic cyst. Methods: Thirty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks including 10 radicular cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts and 10 odontogenic keratocysts were used and 5 micron sections stained with toluidine blue and observed by light microscope under ×400 magnification to evaluate mast cells within these cysts. For each case, 5 high-power field areas, selected from hot-spot areas, were considered and each area divided into 3 zones: intra-epithelial zone, sub-epithelial zone and deep zone. Results: Most of the studied cyst showed presence of mast cells. There was not any significant difference in mast cell count between studied cysts ( P -values > 0.05).With respect to intra-epithelial, sub-epithelial and deep zones, there was not any significant difference between three studied cysts. There was not any significant difference between sub-epithelial zone and deep zone within each of these cysts. There was only significant difference between intra-epithelial zone and sub-epithelial zone within dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts ( P -value < 0.05). Conclusions: Prevalence of mast cells in fibrous wall of odontogenic cysts suggests their activity in these cysts. Mast cells may not be directly involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocysts. PMID:26351470

  14. Airway management in an infant with a giant vallecular cyst.

    PubMed

    Reiersen, David A; Gungor, Anil A

    2014-01-01

    Review vallecular cysts and report the surgical management of a vallecular cyst of unusual size with near-complete obliteration of the airway. This case report describes an unusually large mucus retention cyst in an 8-week-old infant that was diagnosed during induction of general anesthesia and prevented visualization of airway. Intubation was performed after rapid aspiration of the cyst contents. Vallecular cysts can present as a life-threatening obstruction in infants and complicate the establishment of an airway after induction of anesthesia. In our case, rapid thinking and aspiration of the cyst contents helped establish the airway for definitive CO2 laser excision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of Lumbar Conditions in the Elite Athlete.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wellington K; Jenkins, Tyler James

    2017-07-01

    Lumbar disk herniation, degenerative disk disease, and spondylolysis are the most prevalent lumbar conditions that result in missed playing time. Lumbar disk herniation has a good prognosis. After recovery from injury, professional athletes return to play 82% of the time. Surgical management of lumbar disk herniation has been shown to be a viable option in athletes in whom nonsurgical measures have failed. Degenerative disk disease is predominately genetic but may be accelerated in athletes secondary to increased physiologic loading. Nonsurgical management is the standard of care for lumbar degenerative disk disease in the elite athlete. Spondylolysis is more common in adolescent athletes with back pain than in adult athletes. Nonsurgical management of spondylolysis is typically successful. However, if surgery is required, fusion or direct pars repair can allow the patient to return to sports.

  16. Mucous retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, A; Batniji, S; el-Neweihi, E

    1986-12-01

    The mucous retention cyst is not a rare phenomenon. The incidence of dental patients was determined. Of 1685 patient radiographs reviewed, 44 (2.6%) had one or more mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinuses.

  17. Ultrasound diagnostic of mesonephric paraovarian cyst - case report

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Cîrstoiu, MM; Turcan, N; Ionescu, CA

    2016-01-01

    Paraovarian cysts are a rare pathology, constituting 10-20% of the adnexal masses. The origin can be represented by paramesonephric ducts (Hydatid cysts of Morgagni), vestiges of mesonephric ducts also represented by mesothelium, or neoplastic (cystadenomas or cystadenofibromas) that are mostly benign. Borderline or malignant paraovarian tumors are encountered less often. This article presents a case of paraovarian cyst in a 37-year-old patient, with a history of 2 pregnancies, completed by cesarean. The patient sought medical attention for an asymptomatic voluminous ovarian cyst, detected in a routine ultrasound scan. Laboratory tests and tumor markers were within normal limits. Transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler revealed a cystic adnexal mass with 10 cm transonic, smooth, homogeneous content, avascular walls with no internal papillary projections, with a “hyperechoic line” sign of delimitation from the ovarian capsule, mostly visible when the adnexa was mobilized. The diagnostic and curative laparoscopic surgery was successful, followed by a quick recovery. The histopathological exam confirmed the benignity and the origin of the paraovarian cyst. The case was discussed in the context of the literature review concerning this pathology, drawing attention to the real possibility of differentiating ovarian from paraovarian cysts by ultrasound. PMID:27974934

  18. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Erbil; Çim, Numan; Akdemir, Zülküf; Elçi, Erkan; Akdeniz, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind. PMID:25949839

  19. Management of lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon; Tomkins-Lane, Christy

    2016-01-04

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200,000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2015.

  20. The limitations of Gram-stain microscopy of synovial fluid in concomitant septic and crystal arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Paul; Tahir, Mohammed; Atkinson, Henry Dushan

    2017-03-29

    Rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis from Gram-stain microscopy is limited by an inherent false-negative rate of 25-78%. The presence of concomitant crystal arthritis in 5% of cases represents a particular diagnostic challenge. This study aims to investigate the effects that a concomitant crystal arthropathy have on the ability of Gram-stain microscopy of synovial fluid to diagnose a septic arthritis. This is a 12-year retrospective cohort study. Inclusion criteria were a positive synovial fluid culture result with a positive clinical diagnosis of septic arthritis. Results were correlated with presence or absence of urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals, and Gram-stain result. During this time our collection and analysis methods remained unchanged. All samples were collected in Lithium Heparin containers. Chi-squared test with a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. 602 synovial fluid samples were included. 162 cases of concomitant crystal arthritis were identified (27%). Of these, 16 (10%) had an initial negative Gram-stain. Of the 440 samples with no crystals detected, 18 (4%) had an initial negative Gram-stain microscopy result (p < 0.05). The incidence of concurrent septic and crystal arthritis may be higher than previously thought. Synovial fluid samples in concomitant septic and crystal arthritis are significantly less likely to have a positive Gram-stain at microscopy than in cases of an isolated septic arthritis. We would advise the clinician to maintain a high index of suspicion for septic arthritis in these patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Importance of synovial fluid aspiration when injecting intra-articular corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Weitoft, T.; Uddenfeldt, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The aim of this prospective study was to find if a complete synovial fluid aspiration before injecting intra-articular corticosteroids influences the treatment result.
METHODS—The study was performed in 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred and ninety one knees with synovitis were randomised to arthrocentesis (n=95) or no arthrocentesis (n=96) before 20 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide was injected. The duration of effect was followed up for a period of six months. All patients were instructed to contact the rheumatology department if signs and symptoms from the treated knee recurred. If arthritis could be confirmed by a clinical examination a relapse was noted.
RESULTS—There was a significant reduction of relapse in the arthrocentesis group (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION—The study shows that aspiration of synovial fluid can reduce the risk for arthritis relapse when treating RA patients with intra-articular corticosteroids. It is concluded that arthrocentesis shall be included in the intra-articular corticosteroid injection procedure.

 PMID:10700435

  2. Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cyst on upper endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Belén; Martínez, Juan F.; Aparicio, José R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasound without a known pancreatic abnormality. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in two hospitals in Spain and enrolled consecutive patients referred for upper endoscopic ultrasound for a condition unrelated to the pancreas. Patients with a previous pancreatic anomaly, history of acute or chronic pancreatitis, evidence of acute pancreatitis, previous upper gastrointestinal surgery, or chronic abdominal pain suggestive of pancreatic origin were excluded. Univariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate individual covariates and the incidental pancreatic cyst risk. Results: A total of 298 patients were included, of whom 64 had pancreatic cysts (21.5%; 16.9-26.6%). The mean size of the cysts was 6.3±3.7 (range 3-25) mm. Six cysts (2%) were >10 mm and 16 (5.4%) were compatible with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The pancreatic cyst prevalence was similar in the two hospitals and increased significantly with age. Conclusion: The prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts during endoscopic ultrasound was very high in our study population. PMID:29333072

  3. Pyogenic lumbar spondylodiscitis treated with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: safety and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Aiyer, Siddharth N; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Maheswaran, Anupama; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to study the safety and outcomes of posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for treating pyogenic lumbar spondylodiscitis. Retrospective analysis was performed on prospectively collected data of 27 consecutive cases of lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated with posterior instrumentation and TLIF between January 2009 and December 2012. Cases were analysed for safety, radiological and clinical outcomes of transforaminal interbody fusion using bone graft ± titanium cages. Interbody metallic cages with bone graft were used in 17 cases and ten cases used only bone graft. Indications for surgical treatment were failed conservative management in 17, neurodeficit in six and significant bony destruction in four. There were no cases reporting cage migration, loosening, pseudoarthrosis or recurrence of infection at a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Kirkaldy-Willis criteria, which showed 14 excellent, nine good, three fair and one poor result. Mean focal deformity improved with the use of bone graft ± interbody cages, and the deformity correction was maintained at final follow-up. Mean pre-operative focal lordosis for the graft group was 8.5° (2-16.5°), which improved to 10.9 °(3.3-16°); mean pre-operative focal lordosis in the group treated with cages was 6.7 °(0-15°), which improved to 7°(0-15°) . TLIFs with cages in patients with pyogenic lumbar spondylodiscitis allows for acceptable clearance of infection, satisfactory deformity correction with low incidence of cage migration, loosening and infection recurrence.

  4. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that the...

  5. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that the...

  6. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that the...

  7. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that the...

  8. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that the...

  9. Correlation of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers With Cartilage Pathology and Associated Outcomes in Knee Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Vanessa G; Cuéllar, Jason M; Kirsch, Thorsten; Strauss, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    To correlate the intraoperative concentrations of 20 synovial fluid biomarkers with preoperative symptoms, intraoperative findings, and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, with comparisons made to samples obtained from asymptomatic knees. Synovial fluid samples were obtained from 81 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy meeting the inclusion criteria, which included 70 samples from operative knees and 32 samples from contralateral knees. Preoperatively, baseline data obtained from clinical questionnaires including a visual analog scale (VAS) score, the Lysholm score, and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short Form were recorded. Synovial fluid was collected from both the operative knee and asymptomatic contralateral knee. Synovial fluid was stored with a protease inhibitor at -80°C until analysis. Intraoperative findings, procedures performed, and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) cartilage status scores in all operative knees were documented. The concentrations of the following 20 biomarkers were measured using a multiplex magnetic bead immunoassay: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3; MMP-13; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1; TIMP-2; TIMP-3; TIMP-4; fibroblast growth factor 2; eotaxin; interferon γ; interleukin (IL) 10; platelet-derived growth factor BB; IL-1 receptor antagonist; IL-1β; IL-6; monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1); macrophage inflammatory protein 1α; macrophage inflammatory protein 1β; RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted); tumor necrosis factor α; and vascular endothelial growth factor. Clinical outcome scores were obtained in 83% of patients at a mean of 17 months' follow-up postoperatively. Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation analysis were performed to determine statistical significance between preoperative data, intraoperative findings, postoperative outcomes, and synovial fluid biomarker concentrations

  10. The robotic lumbar spine: dynamics and feedback linearization control.

    PubMed

    Karadogan, Ernur; Williams, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    The robotic lumbar spine (RLS) is a 15 degree-of-freedom, fully cable-actuated robotic lumbar spine which can mimic in vivo human lumbar spine movements to provide better hands-on training for medical students. The design incorporates five active lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum, with dimensions of an average adult human spine. It is actuated by 20 cables connected to electric motors. Every vertebra is connected to the neighboring vertebrae by spherical joints. Medical schools can benefit from a tool, system, or method that will help instructors train students and assess their tactile proficiency throughout their education. The robotic lumbar spine has the potential to satisfy these needs in palpatory diagnosis. Medical students will be given the opportunity to examine their own patient that can be programmed with many dysfunctions related to the lumbar spine before they start their professional lives as doctors. The robotic lumbar spine can be used to teach and test medical students in their capacity to be able to recognize normal and abnormal movement patterns of the human lumbar spine under flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial torsion. This paper presents the dynamics and nonlinear control of the RLS. A new approach to solve for positive and nonzero cable tensions that are also continuous in time is introduced.

  11. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine.

  12. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine. PMID:26981162

  13. Post-surgical functional recovery, lumbar lordosis, and range of motion associated with MR-detectable redundant nerve roots in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinshui; Wang, Juying; Wang, Benhai; Xu, Hao; Lin, Songqing; Zhang, Huihao

    2016-01-01

    T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) can reveal lumbar redundant nerve roots (RNRs), a result of chronic compression and nerve elongation associated with pathogenesis of cauda equina claudication (CEC) in degenerative lumbar canal stenosis (DLCS). The study investigated effects of lumbar lordosis angle and range of motion on functional recovery in lumbar stenosis patents with and without RNRs. A retrospective study was conducted of 93 lumbar spinal stenosis patients who underwent decompressive surgery. Eligible records were assessed by 3 independent blinded radiologists for presence or absence of RNRs on sagittal T2-weighted MR (RNR and non-RNR groups), pre- and post-operative JOA score, lumbar lordosis angle, and range of motion. Of 93 total patients, the RNR group (n=37, 21/37 female) and non-RNR group (n=56; 31/56 female) had similar preoperative conditions (JOA score) and were not significantly different in age (mean 64.19 ± 8.25 vs. 62.8 ± 9.41 years), symptom duration (30.92 ± 22.43 vs. 28.64 ± 17.40 months), or follow-up periods (17.35 ± 4.02 vs. 17.75 ± 4.29 mo) (all p>0.4). The non-RNR group exhibited significantly better final JOA score (p=0.015) and recovery rate (p=0.002). RNR group patients exhibited larger lumbar lordosis angles in the neutral position (p=0.009) and extension (p=0.021) and larger range of motion (p=0.008). Poorer surgical outcomes in patients with RNRs indicated that elevated lumbar lordosis angle and range of motion increased risks of RNR formation, which in turn may cause poorer post-surgical recovery, this information is possibly useful in prognostic assessment of lumbar stenosis complicated by RNRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [The so-called "chocolate cyst"--frequently misinterpreted as ovarian endometriosis?].

    PubMed

    Christensen, B; Schindler, A E

    1996-09-01

    Limitation of morphological diagnostic and possible misinterpretations are shown in a patient with anamnestic ovarian endometriosis. In cases of "chocolate cysts" it is necessary to differentiate between ovarian endometriosis and functional cysts. Hints for the existence of a functional cyst are an atypical past history or perioperative findings. Biochemical analysis of the cyst fluid may lead to a correct diagnosis.

  15. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and platelet-activating factor in neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lupia, E; Montrucchio, G; Battaglia, E; Modena, V; Camussi, G

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo in a mouse model the stimulation of neoangiogenesis by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the formation of new vessels. Angiogenesis was studied in a mouse model in which Matrigel, injected subcutaneously, was used as a vehicle for the delivery of potential angiogenic stimuli. Synovial fluids of patients with RA but not with osteoarthritis (OA) were shown to induce neoangiogenesis. Since synovial fluid of patients with RA contained significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha-like bioactivity and of PAF than that of patients with OA, the role of these mediators was evaluated by using an anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170. When added to Matrigel, anti-TNF-alpha mAb and particularly WEB 2170 significantly reduced neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of RA patients. Moreover, PAF extracted and purified from synovial fluid induced angiogenesis. These results suggest that the neoangiogenesis observed in rheumatoid synovitis may be due, at least in part, to the angiogenic effect of locally produced TNF-alpha and PAF.

  16. Anterior lumbar instrumentation improves correction of severe lumbar Lenke C curves in double major idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Howard B.; Weinberg, Jacob; Arlet, Vincent; Ouelett, Jean A.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen skeletally immature patients with double major adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with large lumbar curves and notable L4 and L5 coronal plane obliquity were retrospectively studied. Seven patients who underwent anterior release and fusion of the lumbar curve with segmental anterior instrumentation and subsequent posterior instrumentation ending at L3 were compared with eight patients treated with anterior release and fusion without anterior instrumentation followed by posterior instrumentation to L3 or L4. At 4.5 years follow-up (range 2.5–7 years), curve correction, coronal balance and fusion rate were not statistically different between the two groups; however, the group with anterior instrumentation had improved coronal plane, near normalangulation in the distal unfused segment compared with the group without anterior instrumentation. In cases involving severe lumbar curvatures in the context of double major scoliosis, when as a first stage anterior release is chosen, the addition of instrumentation appears to restore normal coronal alignment of the distal unfused lumbar segment, and may in certain cases save a level compared with traditional fusions to L4. PMID:17464517

  17. Unicameral bone cyst of the calcaneum.

    PubMed

    Hazmy, C H Wan

    2004-12-01

    The calcaneus is not a common site for a unicameral solitary bone cyst. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. The author reports an adult man with a solitary bone cyst of the os calcis which was confirmed radiologically and histologically and successfully treated with curretage and bone grafting.

  18. Knee Locking in Osteoarthritis due to Synovial Lipoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    S. Amarjit, Kataria; Budhiraja, Shivali; Chandramouleeswari, K.; Anita, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intra–articular synovial lipomas are very rare and only few cases have been reported till now. We are reporting a rare case of a unilateral intra–articular lipoma of osteoarthritic knee joint in a 62 years old male. Patient had two episodes of sudden locking of knee joint, which resolved spontaneously. A plain X-ray showed changes which were suggestive of osteoarthritis. Clinically, patient was diagnosed as a case of loose bodies in left knee joint. An arthrotomy was performed. After a Histopathological Examination (HPE) of loose bodies, a diagnosis of an intra–articular synovial lipoma was made. Due to wide differentials and varied clinical behaviour of loose bodies, lipoma should be included in differential diagnosis of osteroarthritic patients who complain of episodic locking of knees. Intraarticular lipomas, on arthroscopic guided excision, get cured permanently, with no recurrence. The differentiation of an intra-articular lipoma from a relatively more common entity, Lipoma arborescens, has also been discussed. PMID:24086885

  19. Activated fibrinolytic enzymes in the synovial fluid during acute arthritis induced by urate crystal injection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, N; Sumi, H; Tsushima, H; Etou, Y; Yoshida, E; Mihara, H

    1991-10-01

    To identify the relationship of the severity of inflammation and fibrinolytic activity in arthritis, the fibrinolytic activity of synovial fluid was studied in acute experimental arthritis induced by injecting monosodium urate crystals into dogs' knee joints. The maximum activity in the synovial fluid was observed 6 h after crystal injection. It was inferred that the fibrinolytic activity was mainly due to plasminogen activator based on fibrin plate assays, substrate specificity, inhibitor effects and zymography. On the other hand, the activity of lysosomal enzymes (beta-glucuronidase and cathepsin G) reached a peak in the synovia after 12 h. Histological examination of the synovial membrane after 12 h also showed greater inflammation than at 6 h. The peak in fibrinolytic activity preceded the peak of lysosomal enzymes and histological changes. These results suggest that an increase in fibrinolytic activity by plasminogen activator may contribute to the development of an acute inflammatory response.

  20. Unicameral Bone Cysts of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Sommer; Weber, Kristy; McCarthy, Edward F

    2005-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis are extremely rare. This study summarizes the clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 16 cases. Patients ranged in age from nine to 69. Most lesions were in the anterior portion of the iliac wing; many appeared to be related to an open iliac crest apophysis. This suggests that the pathogenesis of unicameral bone cysts in this portion of the ilium is similar to that seen in the proximal humerus and the proximal femur. The correct diagnosis was made preoperatively in only five cases. This indicates that, although they are well documented, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis remain a diagnostic problem. Patients received a spectrum of treatments from curettage to observation. There appeared to be no difference in the outcome after any form of treatment. Therefore, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis can be managed conservatively. The choice to manage patients conservatively depends on making the correct diagnosis based on clinical history and imaging. The most effective imaging is a combination of plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:16089077

  1. High expression of SDF-1 and VEGF is associated with poor prognosis in patients with synovial sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qi; Guo, Peng; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hui-Chai; Feng, Jian-Gang

    2018-03-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) predicts poor clinical outcomes of certain types of cancer. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of SDF-1 and VEGF in patients with synovial sarcoma and to determine their expression is correlated with unfavorable outcomes. Levels of SDF-1 and VEGF proteins were evaluated in 54 patients with synovial sarcoma using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining. Potential associations between the expression of SDF-1 and VEGF and various clinical parameters were analyzed using Pearson's χ 2 test and the Spearman-rho test. Additionally, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify potential prognostic factors, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the overall survival rates of patients. Low SDF-1 and VEGF expression was detected in 20.4% (11/54) and 22.2% (12/54) of patients with synovial sarcoma; moderate expression was detected in 35.2% (19/54) and 37.0% (20/54) of patients and high expression was detected in 44.4% (24 of 54) and 40.7% (22 of 54) of patients, respectively. Levels of SDF-1 and VEGF proteins were significantly associated with histological grade (P<0.05), metastasis (P<0.05) and American Joint Committee on Cancer staging (P<0.05). In addition, levels of SDF-1 and VEGF expression were positively correlated with each other (P<0.001). Univariate analysis also indicated that VEGF expression was associated with shorter overall survival rates in (P<0.05), whereas multivariate analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression was associated with shorter patient survival rates (P<0.05). Finally, both SDF-1 and VEGF expression were associated with various characteristics of synovial sarcoma. Therefore, SDF-1 expression may be a potential independent prognostic indicator in patients with synovial sarcomas.

  2. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  3. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  4. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  5. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  6. Aneurysmal bone cyst: a hereditary disease?

    PubMed

    Leithner, Andreas; Machacek, Felix; Haas, Oskar A; Lang, Susanna; Ritschl, Peter; Radl, Roman; Windhager, Reinhard

    2004-05-01

    Recent genetic and immunohistochemical studies propose that the primary aneurysmal bone cyst is a tumour and not a reactive tumour-simulating lesion. Based on a familial case of aneurysmal bone cyst the authors contacted 135 patients with this disease. Sixty-eight females and 67 males (median age 14 years; range 2-73 years) were asked if other family members had bone lesions. One hundred and seven patients (79%) denied having other family members with lesions, 23 patients (17%) did not answer, and five patients (4%) gave evidence of other bone lesions in the family. These data indicate that a predisposing genetic defect could be part of a multifactorial pathogenesis in the development of some aneurysmal bone cysts.

  7. Liesegang rings in renal cyst fluid.

    PubMed

    Katz, L B; Ehya, H

    1990-01-01

    Peculiar ring-like structures identified as Liesegang rings (LRs) were found in renal cyst fluid from three patients with benign renal cysts. They ranged in size from 5 to 820 mu. Most had a double-layer outer wall with equally spaced radial cross-striations and an amorphous central nidus. Special stains were performed in one case, and the results are discussed. Reports of LRs in cystic or inflamed tissues have recently appeared in the literature. Some LRs have been mistaken for eggs or mature components of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. We propose that cytologic assessment of renal cyst fluid in conjunction with histologic examination decreases the likelihood of misdiagnosis of LRs.

  8. Maxillary bone epithelial cyst in an adult miniature schnauzer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Tien; Tasi, Wen-Chih; Hu, Chun-Kun; Lin, Nien-Ting; Huang, Pei-Yun; Yeh, Lih-Seng

    2008-09-01

    Maxillary bone epithelial cyst is rare in dogs. A 5-year-old, spayed female miniature schnauzer developed a swelling below the nasal canthus of left eye. Plain radiograph demonstrated a 1.5 cm diameter of radiolucent lesion on the maxillary bone anteroventral to the eye, and contrast dacryocystorhinography confirmed an obstructed nasolarcrimal duct. The swelling showed poor response to antibiotic treatment but responded well to oral prednisolone. Exploratory surgery revealed a cyst-like structure filled with brown serous fluid. Histopathological examination of the removed cyst revealed a double cuboidal epithelial cyst. The dog recovered rapidly after surgery, and the swelling had not recurred for a 36-month follow-up. It is the first case of periorbital bone epithelial cyst reported in an adult miniature schnauzer.

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Gaballah, Essam Taher M.A.; Tawfik, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor gene, the mutations of which are closely related to the decreased differentiation of cells. Findings of studies on immunohistochemical P53 expression in odontogenic cysts are controversial. The present study was carried-out to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts. Thirty paraffin blocks of diagnosed odontogenic cysts were processed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein. Nine of the 11 odontogenic keratocysts (81.8%) expressed P53, one of three dentigerous cyst cases expressed P53, while none of the 16 radicular cysts expressed P53 protein. The findings of the present work supported the reclassification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:23960493

  10. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from an unrecognized puncture of the lumbar right segmental artery during lumbar chemical sympathectomy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ho-Jin; Choi, Yun-Mi; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sun-Jae; Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Lumbar chemical sympathectomy has been performed using fluoroscopic guidance for needle positioning. An 84 year old woman with atherosclerosis obliterans was referred to the pain clinic for intractable cold allodynia of her right foot. A thermogram showed decreased temperature of both feet compared with temperatures above both ankles. The patient agreed to undergo lumbar chemical sympathectomy using fluoroscopy after being informed of the associated risks of nerve injury, hemorrhage, infection, transient back pain, and transient hypotension. During the procedure and three hours afterward, no abnormal signs or symptoms were found except an increase in right leg temperature. The patient was ambulatory after the procedure. However, one day after undergoing lumbar chemical sympathectomy, she visited our emergency department for abdominal discomfort and postural dizziness. Her blood pressure was 80/50 mmHg, and flank tenderness was noted. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from the second right lumbar segmental artery was shown on computed tomography and angiography. Vital signs were stabilized immediately after embolization into the right lumbar segmental artery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphometric evaluation of AgNORs in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Sreeshyla, Huchanahalli S; Shashidara, Raju; Sudheendra, Udyavara Sridhara

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the morphometry of AgNORs in odontogenic cysts and to compare their biologic behavior to determine whether AgNOR morphometry is helpful in predicting the behavior. Ten cases each of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC) and radicular cyst (RC) were stained with silver nitrate. Morphometric analysis of 100 selected epithelial and connective tissue cells was done to record their nuclear volume, nuclear perimeter, contour index of the nucleus, AgNOR count, AgNOR proportion and single AgNOR volume. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. AgNOR count, nuclear volume and nuclear perimeter were greatest in the OKC followed by DC and RC, suggesting that these parameters differentiate between the aggressive and less aggressive odontogenic cysts. Single AgNOR volume and AgNOR proportion were greatest in the RC followed by OKC and DC, respectively. Results of our study taken in isolation point to AgNOR count as the most reliable factor in differentiating between aggressive and nonaggressive odontogenic cysts.

  12. Aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-01-01

    An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3% (20/39) and 23.1% (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100% (9/9), Kemensah 77.8% (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3% (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3% (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6%; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15 ± 6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66 ± 1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66 ± 0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97 ± 7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83 ± 0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20 ± 0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10 ± 0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31 ± 0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03 ± 0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify

  13. First record of cysts in the tidal tardigrade Echiniscoides sigismundi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Lykke K. B.; Andersen, Kasper N.; Hygum, Thomas L.; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2014-12-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans that withstand environmental extremes by entering dormant states, such as cryptobiosis (latent life). In addition, they may also form cysts. Here, we present the first report of cyst formation in a marine heterotardigrade, i.e., Echiniscoides sigismundi, which constitutes a cryptic species complex present worldwide in tidal zones. The cysts were initially discovered during experimental series constructed to investigate osmotic stress tolerance. The animals, which eventually formed cysts, showed signs of an imminent molt at the beginning of experimentation. We use the term "cyst" for stages, where a total of three or more cuticles have been synthesized. Our observations show that encystment in E. sigismundi involves synthesizing of at least two new cuticle layers. Legs with discharged claws are present in connection with the first outer cuticle, as well as the second cuticular layer. In the most developed cyst, a third cuticle lacking claws seems to surround the animal, which is delineated by a fourth cuticle. Many features are shared with the well-studied cysts of eutardigrades. The cysts of E. sigismundi, however, lack pigmentation and have an extra set of claws, and the animal inside retains buccopharyngeal sclerified parts, until discharging the third cuticle. The finding of cysts in a marine heterotardigrade is novel and confirms that encystment also occurs within this major evolutionary lineage.

  14. Arthroscopic, histological and MRI analyses of cartilage repair after a minimally invasive method of transplantation of allogeneic synovial mesenchymal stromal cells into cartilage defects in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomomasa; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Hatsushika, Daisuke; Horie, Masafumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Atsuya; Hishikawa, Shuji; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Background aims Transplantation of synovial mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may induce repair of cartilage defects. We transplanted synovial MSCs into cartilage defects using a simple method and investigated its usefulness and repair process in a pig model. Methods The chondrogenic potential of the porcine MSCs was compared in vitro. Cartilage defects were created in both knees of seven pigs, and divided into MSCs treated and non-treated control knees. Synovial MSCs were injected into the defect, and the knee was kept immobilized for 10 min before wound closure. To visualize the actual delivery and adhesion of the cells, fluorescence-labeled synovial MSCs from transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) pig were injected into the defect in a subgroup of two pigs. In these two animals, the wounds were closed before MSCs were injected and observed for 10 min under arthroscopic control. The defects were analyzed sequentially arthroscopically, histologically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 3 months. Results Synovial MSCs had a higher chondrogenic potential in vitro than the other MSCs examined. Arthroscopic observations showed adhesion of synovial MSCs and membrane formation on the cartilage defects before cartilage repair. Quantification analyses for arthroscopy, histology and MRI revealed a better outcome in the MSC-treated knees than in the non-treated control knees. Conclusions Leaving a synovial MSC suspension in cartilage defects for 10 min made it possible for cells to adhere in the defect in a porcine cartilage defect model. The cartilage defect was first covered with membrane, then the cartilage matrix emerged after transplantation of synovial MSCs. PMID:22309371

  15. Arthroscopic, histological and MRI analyses of cartilage repair after a minimally invasive method of transplantation of allogeneic synovial mesenchymal stromal cells into cartilage defects in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomomasa; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Hatsushika, Daisuke; Horie, Masafumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Atsuya; Hishikawa, Shuji; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    Transplantation of synovial mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may induce repair of cartilage defects. We transplanted synovial MSCs into cartilage defects using a simple method and investigated its usefulness and repair process in a pig model. The chondrogenic potential of the porcine MSCs was compared in vitro. Cartilage defects were created in both knees of seven pigs, and divided into MSCs treated and non-treated control knees. Synovial MSCs were injected into the defect, and the knee was kept immobilized for 10 min before wound closure. To visualize the actual delivery and adhesion of the cells, fluorescence-labeled synovial MSCs from transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) pig were injected into the defect in a subgroup of two pigs. In these two animals, the wounds were closed before MSCs were injected and observed for 10 min under arthroscopic control. The defects were analyzed sequentially arthroscopically, histologically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 3 months. Synovial MSCs had a higher chondrogenic potential in vitro than the other MSCs examined. Arthroscopic observations showed adhesion of synovial MSCs and membrane formation on the cartilage defects before cartilage repair. Quantification analyses for arthroscopy, histology and MRI revealed a better outcome in the MSC-treated knees than in the non-treated control knees. Leaving a synovial MSC suspension in cartilage defects for 10 min made it possible for cells to adhere in the defect in a porcine cartilage defect model. The cartilage defect was first covered with membrane, then the cartilage matrix emerged after transplantation of synovial MSCs.

  16. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:21915386

  17. An Approach towards Ultrasound Kidney Cysts Detection using Vector Graphic Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan; Supriyanto, Eko

    2017-08-01

    This study develops new approach towards detection of kidney ultrasound image for both with single cyst as well as multiple cysts. 50 single cyst images and 25 multiple cysts images were used to test the developed algorithm. Steps involved in developing this algorithm were vector graphic image formation and analysis, thresholding, binarization, filtering as well as roundness test. Performance evaluation to 50 single cyst images gave accuracy of 92%, while for multiple