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Sample records for lumbosacral radiculopathy preganglionic

  1. Electrodiagnostic examination of lumbosacral radiculopathies.

    PubMed

    Weber, F; Albert, U

    2000-06-01

    To determine the diagnostic efficacy of late responses and of magnetic stimulation in the electrodiagnostic evaluation of lumbosacral radiculopathies, 42 patients with acute monoradiculopathies of L5 or S1 were examined. We performed conventional nerve conduction studies, F-wave studies, needle electrode examination (NEE) and magnetic stimulation. The results were compared with a control group of 36 persons. In the patients with weakness, we found a diagnostic sensitivity for NEE of 90% in L5 and of 80% in S1. F-waves had the same sensitivity as NEE in the patients with weakness and were more sensitive in the group of patients without weakness (L5 80%, S1 67%). Magnetic stimulation had a sensitivity of 40% in all groups. There were also abnormalities of NEE and of F-wave studies in the patients with abnormal magnetic stimulation. It is concluded that NEE is the single most effective method in acute LSR and that F-wave studies are able to provide complementary information. Magnetically evoked motor nerve root stimulation was not found of clinically relevant diagnostic value.

  2. [Comorbid state in coal miners suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Yakovleva, N V; Gorbljansky, Yu Yu; Pictushanskaya, T E

    2016-01-01

    The authors considered topics of occupational and general comorbidity of occupational lumbosacral radiculopathy in coal miners (2791 examinees) observed over 1976-2014 in occupational center. In patients having lumbosacral radiculopathy without occupational mixed diseases, the occupational disease was diagnosed at the age 3-5 years younger, and 2-4 years earlier from primary visit. Analysis of occurrence of general comorbid conditions with lumbosacral radiculopathy revealed some regularities: patients manifested with symptoms due to vibration have more frequent arterial hypertension than in those with lumbalgia, whereas in risk group of hearing affected by noise IHD was more possible.

  3. Neuromyelitis Optica Masquerading as Lumbosacral Radiculopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is a demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system. This case report describes a 31-year-old woman whose electromyography revealed radiculopathy in the left L5-S1 spinal segment without anatomical abnormalities on lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She was diagnosed with NMOSD based on gadolinium contrast whole spine and brain MRI and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody findings. Her peripheral nervous system might have been damaged during the early course of NMOSD. Therefore, it is necessary to consider NMOSD for patients who have radiculopathy in electromyography if lumbosacral MRI shows no abnormalities. PMID:27847726

  4. Postradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy with spinal root cavernomas mimicking carcinomatous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Ducray, François; Guillevin, Rémy; Psimaras, Dimitri; Sanson, Marc; Mokhtari, Karima; Delanian, Sylvie; Navarro, Soledad; Maisonobe, Thierry; Cornu, Philippe; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Pradat, Pierre-François

    2008-01-01

    Lumbosacral radiculopathy is a rare complication of radiotherapy and may be challenging to differentiate from diagnosis of a tumor recurrence. We reviewed the records of three patients with a past history of cancer and radiotherapy who were referred for suspicion of carcinomatous meningitis on lumbar MRI, but whose final diagnosis was radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculopathy. The three patients developed a progressive lumbosacral radiculopathy at 20, 13, and 47 years after lumbar radiotherapy delivered for renal cancer, Hodgkin’s disease, and a seminoma, respectively. MRI showed a diffuse, nodular enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots on T1 sequences, suggestive of leptomeningeal metastasis. A slowly progressive clinical course over several years and negative cerebrospinal fluid cytologic analysis ruled out the diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis. Because of the radiologic findings, a biopsy was performed in two patients. In the first, a biopsy limited to the arachnoid excluded a malignant infiltration. In the second, a biopsy of the enhancing lesions demonstrated spinal root cavernomas. These observations, together with three recent case reports in the literature, delineate a syndrome of “radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculopathy with multiple spinal root cavernomas” that mimics carcinomatous meningitis on MRI. Its diagnosis is important in order to avoid inappropriate treatment and useless or dangerous spinal root biopsies. PMID:18755918

  5. Skin Temperature Changes in Patients With Unilateral Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ra, Jong Yun; An, Sun; Lee, Geun-Ho; Kim, Tae Uk; Lee, Seong Jae

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify the relationship of skin temperature changes to clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiological findings in unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy and to delineate the possible temperature-change mechanisms involved. Methods One hundred and one patients who had clinical symptoms and for whom there were physical findings suggestive or indicative of unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy, along with 27 normal controls, were selected for the study, and the thermal-pattern results of digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI) performed on the back and lower extremities were analyzed. Local temperatures were assessed by comparing the mean temperature differences (ΔT) in 30 regions of interest (ROIs), and abnormal thermal patterns were divided into seven regions. To aid the diagnosis of radiculopathy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiological tests were also carried out. Results The incidence of disc herniation on MRI was 86%; 43% of patients showed electrophysiological abnormalities. On DITI, 97% of the patients showed abnormal ΔT in at least one of the 30 ROIs, and 79% showed hypothermia on the involved side. Seventy-eight percent of the patients also showed abnormal thermal patterns in at least one of the seven regions. Patients who had motor weakness or lateral-type disc herniation showed some correlations with abnormal DITI findings. However, neither pain severity nor other physical or electrophysiological findings were related to the DITI findings. Conclusion Skin temperature change following lumbosacral radiculopathy was related to some clinical and MRI findings, suggesting muscle atrophy. DITI, despite its limitations, might be useful as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy. PMID:23869333

  6. Magnetic stimulation in the diagnosis of lumbosacral radiculopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chokroverty, S; Sachdeo, R; Dilullo, J; Duvoisin, R C

    1989-01-01

    Five patients presenting with sensory-motor disturbances consistent with a clinical diagnosis of L5 or S1 radiculopathy were studied. All had conventional nerve conduction tests and electromyography. The lumbosacral roots were stimulated in the lumbosacral region by using the Cadwell MES-10 Magneto-electric stimulator. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded bilaterally by surface electrodes applied to the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The latencies to the affected muscles were significantly prolonged. The appropriate root dysfunction was confirmed at operation or by the imaging techniques. It was concluded that surface stimulation of the lumbosacral roots by a magnetic coil is a potentially useful technique for the non-invasive evaluation of the function of the lumbosacral roots. Images PMID:2746269

  7. Persistent L5 lumbosacral radiculopathy caused by lumbosacral trunk schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Guive; Jahanbakhshi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Schwannomais, usually, benign tumor of nerve sheath that occurs evenly along the spinal cord. Intra-pelvic schwannoma is very rare entity that may arise from lumbosacral nerve roots or from sciatic nerve. Radicular pain of the lower limb as a presenting symptom of pelvic schwannoma is extremely rare. In the current report, the patient is presented with a right sided L5 radicular pain typical of lumbar discopathy. Interestingly, a herniated lumbar disc was noted on lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In pre-operative studies a large pelvic mass was detected in the right pre-sacral area with solid and cystic components consistent with schwannoma. The patient underwent a low midline laparotomy to evacuate the retroperitoneal mass. Uniquely, we found the tumor to be arisen from lumbosacral trunk not from a root or peripheral nerve. Most cases with intra-pelvic schwannoma present so late with vague abdominal and pelvic discomfort or pain, low back pain, urinary and bowel symptoms because of compressive effect of the tumor, or incidentally following gynecologic work-ups; So, these patients are mostly referred to gynecologists and urologists. A neurosurgeon should have a high degree of suspicion to diagnose such an entity among his or her patients presented with pains typical for discopathy. PMID:28413533

  8. Effect of trigger point injection on lumbosacral radiculopathy source.

    PubMed

    Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Rasras, Saleh; Zeinali, Masud

    2014-10-01

    Active muscular trigger points (aMTPs) presenting with radiating pain can interfere in diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy. We aimed to diagnose and evaluate the trigger point therapy on the outcome of pain in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy. A total of 98 patients were enrolled suffered with chronic pain andlumbosacral radiculopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1 who were candidates of non-surgical management. All patients received conservative modalities, including bed rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID), and physiotherapy. These treatments continued for a week. Patients were examined for the presence of trigger points in their lower extremities. Those who had trigger points were divided into 2 groups (TP and N). Patients in TP group underwent trigger point injection therapy. No further therapy was done for the N group. Pain scores and straight leg raise (SLR) test in both groups were collected and analyzed on the seventh and 10th days of the therapy. Results were analyzed by paired t test and chi-square test. Out of 98 patients, 64 had trigger points. Thirty-two patients were assigned to each group. Pain scores (Mean ± SD) in TP group was 7.12 ± 1.13 and in N group was 6.7 ± 1.16, P = 0.196. Following the treatment, pain scores were 2.4 ± 1.5 in TP group and 4.06 ± 1.76 in N group P = 0.008. SLR test became negative in all patients in TP group but only in 6 (19%) patients in N group, P = 0.001. Results show that trigger point injection therapy in patients suffering from chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy with trigger points can significantly improve their recovery, and conservative therapy may not be adequate.

  9. Lumbosacral plexus compression by fetus: an unusual cause of radiculopathy during teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Turgut, F; Turgut, M; Menteş, E

    1997-06-01

    A case is reported of a lumbosacral plexus compression by the fetus in a young 34-weeks pregnant woman, who had low-back pain and progressive muscular weakness of the leg. Neurological examination showed a grade IV motor weakness of the iliopsoas, quadriceps femoris and biceps femoris muscles. Mechanical stretch manoeuvers were negative. Electromyography revealed denervation activity in L4 and L5 muscles. Lumbosacral plexus radiculopathy was diagnosed. Although fetal compression appears to be an uncommon cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy during teenage pregnancy, both neurosurgeons and obstetricians should be aware of the possibility.

  10. Postirradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy following seminoma treatment presenting as flaccid neuropathic bladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Postirradiation lumbosacral syndrome is a radiculopathy induced by radiation injury to the spinal cord. Its usual presentation is motor deficit and or sensory loss involving the lower limbs. Visceral involvement has not been reported previously. Case presentation We describe a case of severe hypotonic bladder caused by radiation-induced spinal cord injury following treatment of stage Ι testicular seminoma in a 38-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone radical orchidectomy and prophylactic paraaortic lymph node irradiation for stage Ι seminoma. Three years later he had clinical and urodynamic findings of hypotonic bladder. The magnetic resonance imaging results suggested a radiation-induced injury. Conclusion Such an unusual presentation of the syndrome of postirradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy can impose a clinical challenge to practicing clinicians. Future studies are required to further delineate the mechanism of injury and further management plans. PMID:21492468

  11. Lumbosacral radiculopathy secondary to abdominal aortic aneurysms. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Wilberger, J E

    1983-06-01

    Focal neurological deficits as the initial manifestation of expanding or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are uncommon. When such a situation does occur, the femoral nerve is most often involved due to retroperitoneal or iliopsoas hematoma. Three cases of typical lumbosacral radiculopathy caused by an abdominal aortic aneurysm are reported to emphasize the importance of considering this diagnosis in the older patient with leg pain and radiculopathic findings.

  12. Neuropathic scrotal pruritus: anogenital pruritus is a symptom of lumbosacral radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Arnon D; Vander, Tatiana; Medvendovsky, Evgeny; Biton, Amnon; Naimer, Sody; Shalev, Raquel; Vardy, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    Anogenital pruritus is defined as an itch localized to the anus, perianal, and genital skin. Anogenital pruritus is usually a symptom of an underlying disorder of the skin or mucosa or a consequence of anorectal pathology. When no demonstrable cause is found, anogenital pruritus is often described as "idiopathic". To investigate the role of lumbosacral radiculopathy in the pathogenesis of anogenital pruritus. Included in the study were consecutive patients with anogenital pruritus. Radiographs and nerved conduction studies were performed in all patients. Needle electromyography studies and computerized tomography were performed when necessary. Nerve conduction studies included measurement of distal sensory and motor latency, conduction velocity, and F-responses of the peroneal and tibial nerves. Patients with confirmed radiculopathy were treated with paravertebral injection of a mixture of triamcinolne acetonide and lidocaine. Response to the injections was assessed using visual analogue scales by the patients. Mean scores before and after treatment were compared using paired t tests. Included in the study were 20 patients with anogenital pruritus. There were 18 men (90%) and 2 (10%) women. The mean age was 52.7 years (standard deviation [SD] 11.7 years). In 16 patients (80%), radiographs demonstrated degenerative changes of the lower spine. In 16 patients (80%) the presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies. Fifteen patients (75%) were treated with paravertebral injections, with significant decrease in mean pruritus score as assessed by the patients (6.3 [+/-2.8]; 4.5 [+/-2.7], before and after treatment, respectively, P = .033). "Idiopathic" anogenital pruritus may be attributable to lumbosacral radiculopathy. Paravertebral blockade may be used for alleviation of symptoms in patients with anogenital pruritus.

  13. Is There an Association Between Lumbosacral Radiculopathy and Painful Gluteal Trigger Points?: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Adelmanesh, Farhad; Jalali, Ali; Jazayeri Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Ketabchi, Seyed Mehdi; Shir, Yoram

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of gluteal trigger point in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy with that in healthy volunteers. In a cross-sectional, multistage sampling method, patients with clinical, electromyographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with lumbosacral radiculopathy were examined for the presence of gluteal trigger point. Age- and sex-matched clusters of healthy volunteers were selected as the control group. The primary outcome of the study was the presence or absence of gluteal trigger point in the gluteal region of the patients and the control group. Of 441 screened patients, 271 met all the inclusion criteria for lumbosacral radiculopathy and were included in the study. Gluteal trigger point was identified in 207 (76.4%) of the 271 patients with radiculopathy, compared with 3 (1.9%) of 152 healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). The location of gluteal trigger point matched the side of painful radiculopathy in 74.6% of patients with a unilateral radicular pain. There was a significant correlation between the side of the gluteal trigger point and the side of patients' radicular pain (P < 0.001). Although rare in the healthy volunteers, most of the patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy had gluteal trigger point, located at the painful side. Further studies are required to test the hypothesis that specific gluteal trigger point therapy could be beneficial in these patients.

  14. Lumbo-sacral radiculopathy referral decision-making and primary care management. A case report.

    PubMed

    Haswell, Kate; Gilmour, John Martin; Moore, Barbara Joyce

    2015-04-01

    Low back pain guideline recommendations can inform a decision in primary care to refer for surgical assessment. The purpose of this report is to present a patient with clinical signs and symptoms of lumbo-sacral radiculopathy who experienced pain of high intensity, severe paresis and depression. The guideline informed decision-making process resulted in a decision not to refer. This case report aims to increase awareness of referral guidelines and to demonstrate radicular pain and weakness, disability and depression outcomes subsequent to primary care management.

  15. Intrasubstance Schwannoma of Posterior Tibial Nerve Presenting as Lumbo-Sacral Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Banshelkikar, Santosh; Nistane, Pruthviraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Peripheral nerve tumours are rarely acknowledged as a cause of radiating pain in lower limbs and suspicion is almost always pointed towards lumbo-sacral causes. Schwannomas are tumours of peripheral nerve sheaths occurring anywhere along the peripheral nervous system. Often it can produce symptoms, which can be misleading in cases where obvious swelling is not present. The diagnosis may therefore be delayed by several years of emergence of symptoms. Very few such cases have been reported previously and none of them had an intrasubstance location of the tumour as in our case. Case Report: We present a case of a middle aged female patient presenting with radiating pain in left lower limb, which was diagnosed and treated as lumbo-sacral radiculopathy for five years before an obvious swelling appeared, which on further investigations led to diagnosis of schwannoma of tibial nerve. Intraoperatively, the schwannoma was found to be intrasubstance in location which has never been reported in the past literatures making its excision, without damaging the conducting elements, a challenge. Conclusion: The possibility of peripheral nerve tumour should always be kept in mind while dealing with long standing cases diagnosed as radiculopathy and which do not get better with treatment on similar lines. A thorough clinical examination of the entire limb including Tinel’s sign can clinch the diagnosis earlier in cases where obvious swelling is not present. Even unusual presentations, as in our case, can be dealt surgically with good results. PMID:27299039

  16. The prevalence of tarsal tunnel syndrome in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaojun; Zhu, Yu; Jiang, Jianyuan; Ma, Xiaosheng; Lu, Feizhou; Jin, Xiang; Weber, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is a painful foot condition. Lumbosacral radiculopathy (LR) may also present with symptoms occurring in TTS. However, no studies have been reported to determine the possible coexistence of these two conditions. The aim of our study was to identify the prevalence of TTS in patients with confirmed LR and to analyze the clinical and electrodiagnostic features of patients with both TTS and LR. Medial and lateral plantar nerve mixed studies, peroneal motor studies and deep peroneal sensory studies were performed in 81 normal subjects and 561 patients with LR. The Tinel's test and other provocative tests were performed in the LR patient group, and the clinical symptoms of TTS were also analyzed. The frequency of TTS was investigated in all radiculopathy group patients with different nerve root lesions. Concomitant TTS was found in 27 (4.8%) patients with LR. Abnormal results of sensory/mixed conduction tests were observed in 25/27 (92.6%) patients, and 11/27 (40.7%) patients had abnormal results of motor conduction tests. Positivity for the Tinel's test and special provocative tests was found in 15/27 (55.6%) and 17/27 (63.0%) patients, respectively. Overall, 9/27 (33.3%) patients had typical symptoms, and suspicious clinical symptoms were found in the other 14/27 (51.9%) patients. The frequency of coexisting TTS was not statistically different among the single-level L4, L5 or S1 radiculopathy, or between the single-level and multi-level radiculopathies (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that the prevalence of TTS is significant in patients with LR. Thus, more caution should be paid when diagnosing and managing patients with LR due to the possible existence of TTS, as their management strategies are quite different.

  17. A Comparison of Interside Asymmetries of Lower Extremity Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Anesthetized Patients with Unilateral Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Tyson; Knecht, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose This study was to investigate interside asymmetries of three lower extremity somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in anesthetized patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy. Overview of Literature Although interside asymmetry is an established criterion of abnormal SSEP, little is known which of the lower SSEPs is more sensitive in detecting interside asymmetry in anesthetized patients. Methods Superficial peroneal nerve SSEP (SPN-SSEP), posterior tibial nerve SSEP (PTN-SSEP), and sural nerve SSEP were obtained in 31 lumbosacral surgery patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy, and compared with a group of 22 control subjects. Results The lumbosacral group showed significant larger interside asymmetry ratios of P37 latencies in SPN-SSEP and PTN-SSEP, and significant larger interside asymmetry ratio of P37-N45 amplitude in SPN-SSEP, when comparing with the control group. Within the lumbosacral group but not the control group, SPN-SSEP displayed significant larger interside asymmetry ratio in P37 latency. When referencing to the control group, more patients in the lumbosacral group displayed abnormal interside SPN-SSEP latency asymmetries which corroborated the symptom laterality. Conclusions The data suggested that SPN-SSEP was more sensitive in detecting interside latency asymmetry in anesthetized patients. PMID:28243377

  18. The efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Freynhagen, Rainer; Tölle, Thomas R; Cloutier, Christian; Leon, Teresa; Murphy, T Kevin; Phillips, Kem

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of pregabalin in patients with chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy. This randomized, controlled, withdrawal trial included five phases: screening (4-18 days); run-in (4-10 days) to screen out placebo responders; single-blind (28 days) to identify pregabalin responders; double-blind to randomize responders to pregabalin or placebo (35 days); and final study medication taper (7 days). The primary endpoint was time to loss of response (LOR) during the double-blind phase (1-point increase in pain, discontinuation, or rescue-medication use). In the single-blind phase, 58% of patients had 30% pain reduction. In the double-blind phase, pregabalin (n=110) and placebo (n=107) groups did not differ significantly in time to LOR. Adverse events caused the discontinuation of 9.9% and 5.6% of pregabalin-treated and placebo-treated patients, respectively. Most patients with chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy responded to pregabalin therapy; however, time to LOR did not significantly differ between pregabalin and placebo. Considering the results of all phases of the study, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from it, suggesting a need for further work to understand the clinical potential of pregabalin treatment for lumbosacral radiculopathy.

  19. The logical choice of muscles for the needle-EMG evaluation of lumbosacral radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Yaar, Israel

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find the theoretically smallest subsets of muscles for needle-EMG (nEMG) screening of lumbosacral radiculopathies that ascertain that each root and its adjacent roots are represented by at least two muscles each, innervated by those roots via different peripheral nerves. A 23 and a 30 muscles muscle-sets and their myotomal innervation where derived from the literature, and rearranged into 15 and 19 unique muscle-groups by root and peripheral nerve innervation. All 2(15) and 2(19) subset combinations thereof were respectively identified. The criteria above were computed for each subset and the smallest subsets that qualified were retained. The number of muscles sampled per damaged root and the number of muscles sampled per adjacent roots in compliance with the objective above were computed. The smallest subsets satisfying the objective above were of 6, 7 and 9 muscles each, and are enumerated in . From these tables, each electromyographer may choose a set that best suits him, confident of its diagnostic parameters, while inflicting the least pain onto his patients, utilizing the shortest possible procedure, concluding a screen of all the roots at once, a screen that best differentiate between normal and damaged roots, and in most cases adequate for reaching the final diagnosis. Moreover, when needed, each set may be the basis for a more extensive workup.

  20. The effect of adding forward head posture corrective exercises in the management of lumbosacral radiculopathy: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long-term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of forward head posture correction, in patients with chronic discogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy. This randomized clinical study included 154 adult patients (54 females) who experienced chronic discogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy and had forward head posture. One group received a functional restoration program, and the experimental group received forward head posture corrective exercises. Primary outcomes were the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcomes included the anterior head translation, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, trunk inclination, lateral deviation, trunk imbalance, surface rotation, pelvic inclination, leg and back pain scores, and H-reflex latency and amplitude. Patients were assessed at 3 intervals (pretreatment, 10-week posttreatment, and 2-year follow-up). A general linear model with repeated measures indicated a significant group × time effect in favor of the experimental group on the measures of ODI (F = 89.7; P < .0005), anterior head translation (F = 23.6; P < .0005), H-reflex amplitude (F = 151.4; P < .0005), H-reflex latency (F = 99.2; P < .0005), back pain (F = 140.8; P < .0005), and leg pain (F = 72; P < .0005). After 10 weeks, the results revealed an insignificant difference between the groups for ODI (P = .08), back pain (P = .29), leg pain (P = .019), H-reflex amplitude (P = .09), and H-reflex latency (P = .098). At the 2-year follow-up, there were significant differences between the groups for all variables adopted for this study (P < .05). The addition of forward head posture correction to a functional restoration program seemed to positively affect disability, 3-dimensional spinal posture parameters, back and leg pain, and S1 nerve root function of patients with chronic discogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Clinical findings and electrodiagnostic testing in 108 consecutive cases of lumbosacral radiculopathy due to herniated disc.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, M; Aretini, A; Arrigucci, U; Ginanneschi, F; Greco, G; Sicurelli, F

    2013-10-01

    This prospective study aim to examine whether clinical findings and electrodiagnostic testing (EDX) in patients with lumbosacral monoradiculopathy due to herniated disc (HD) differ as a function of root involvement level (L5 vs. S1) and HD zone (paramedian vs. intraforaminal). All patients with L4, L5 or S1 monoradiculopathy were prospectively enrolled at four electromyography (EMG) labs over a 2-year period. The diagnosis was based on a congruence between patient history and MRI evidence of HD. We compared the sensitivities of clinical findings and EDX with respect to both root involvement level and HD zone. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in order to verify the association between abnormal EMG, clinical, and neuroradiological findings. One hundred and eight patients (mean age 47.7 years, 55% men) were consecutively enrolled. Sensory loss in the painful dermatome was the most frequent finding at physical examination (56% of cases). EMG was abnormal in at least one muscle supplied by femoral and sciatic nerves in 45 cases (42%). Inclusion of paraspinal muscles increased sensitivity to only 49% and that of proximal muscles was useless. Motor and sensory neurography was seldom abnormal. The most frequent motor neurographic abnormalities were a delay of F-wave minimum latency and decrease in the compound muscle action potential amplitude from extensor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis in L5 and S1 radiculopathies, respectively. Sensory neurography was usually normal, the amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was seldom reduced when HD injured dorsal root ganglion or postganglionic root fibres. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that EMG abnormalities could be predicted by myotomal muscular weakness, abnormal deep reflexes, and paraesthesiae. The only clinical and electrophysiological differences with respect to root involvement level concerned deep reflexes and motor neurography of deep peroneal and tibial nerves. Only some EDX

  2. Pelvic radiculopathies, lumbosacral plexopathies, and neuropathies in oncologic disease: a multidisciplinary approach to a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jonathan; Nisbet, Angus; Bloomfield, David; Burkill, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the anatomy of the major pelvic nerves and the clinical features of associated lumbosacral plexopathies. To demonstrate this we illustrate several cases of malignant lumbosacral plexopathy on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A new lumbosacral plexopathy in a patient with a prior history of abdominal or pelvic malignancy is usually of malignant etiology. Biopsies may be required to definitively differentiate tumour from posttreatment fibrosis, and in cases of inconclusive sampling or where biopsies are not possible, follow-up imaging may be necessary. In view of the complexity of clinical findings often confounded by a history of prior surgery and/or radiotherapy, a multidisciplinary approach between oncologists, neurologists, and radiologists is often required for what can be a diagnostic challenge. PMID:24433993

  3. Position of dorsal root ganglia in the lumbosacral region in patients with radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyun Seog; Kim, Yeon Dong; Song, Bang Hoon; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho

    2010-01-01

    Background When applying pulsed radiofrequency on dorsal root ganglia for treating chronic lower back pain, maximum efficiency can be expected when a needle is placed 1-2 cm peripheral to the dorsal root ganglion. The object of this study is to analyze images taken after adding contrast to transforaminal epidural injection, categorize root ganglia according to anatomical position, and provide a reference for efficient needle positioning in applying pulsed radiofrequency on dorsal root ganglia. Methods From January 2008 to January 2009, 457 patients who visited our hospital for root pain or radiculopathy were treated with transforaminal epidural injection on the nerve roots based on the dermatome of the painful area. Anteroposterior views were taken after injection of contrast. A virtual line was made by connecting the internal and external parts of the spinal pedicle from the contrast images. Then the dorsal root ganglia were categorized as intraspinal (IS), intraforaminal (IF), or extraforaminal (EF). Results In the fourth lumbar spine, dorsal root ganglia positions were 48% IF, 41% IS, and 6% EF. In the fifth lumbar spine, dorsal root ganglia positions were 75% IF, 10% IS, and 6% EF. In the first sacral spine, dorsal root ganglia locations were 8% IF and 83% IS. Conclusions Positional categorization of dorsal root ganglia according to contrast images was proven to be good anatomical references for effective radiofrequency or blocking of dorsal root ganglia. PMID:21253377

  4. Assessment of nerve conduction study to establish most common electrophysiological predictor of lumbosacral radiculopathy among radiologically diagnosed L5S1 neural foramina compression cases.

    PubMed

    Ghugare, Balaji W; Singh, Ramji K; Patond, Kisan R; Joshi, Manjiri U

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electromyography (EMG) are complimentary investigations in diagnosis of lumbosacral radiculopathy (LSR). With changing pattern of S1 electrodiagnosis by H-reflex study measures, electrophysiological studies were conducted to establish most common electrophysiological predictors of LSR in MRI diagnosed L5S1 neural foramina compression subjects. Fifty subjects, with definite L5S1 neural foramina compression underwent electrophysiological evaluation and the data was analyzed using established electrodiagnostic criteria. Reduced H/M ratio in combination with absent H response was evident in 74 nerves. H-reflex study was abnormal in 88% subjects. Study concluded that, H/M ratio if used with other H-reflex study variables may be most common predictor of LSR.

  5. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the analgesic efficacy and safety of the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, losmapimod, in patients with neuropathic pain from lumbosacral radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Ostenfeld, Thor; Krishen, Alok; Lai, Robert Y; Bullman, Jonathan; Green, Joanne; Anand, Praveen; Scholz, Joachim; Kelly, Madeline

    2015-04-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in the development of persistent pain after peripheral nerve injury. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of losmapimod (GW856553), a novel p38α/β inhibitor, in patients with chronic neuropathic pain due to lumbosacral radiculopathy. A total of 144 patients with at least moderate baseline pain intensity (average daily score of ≥4 on an 11-point pain intensity numeric rating scale) were randomized to receive losmapimod, 7.5 mg bid orally or placebo. All patients underwent a blinded placebo run-in period for 7 days before receiving losmapimod/placebo for 28 days. Efficacy and safety evaluations were undertaken weekly. The adjusted mean treatment difference for the change from baseline to week 4 in numeric rating scale was -0.36 U (95% confidence interval, -0.84, 0.13; P=0.149) in favor of losmapimod over placebo; this was not considered clinically meaningful. Statistically significant differences in favor of losmapimod were observed, however, for several secondary endpoints of emotional, physical, and social functioning: Oswestry Disability Index; Profile of Mood States total score; Short-Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, role emotional, social functioning, and vitality domains; and Short-Form 36 physical, and mental components. There were no unexpected findings related to safety or tolerability following treatment with losmapimod. Losmapimod could not be differentiated from placebo in terms of analgesia. The lack of response could reflect insufficient losmapimod levels in the spinal cord or differences between lumbosacral radiculopathy and animal models of neuropathic pain.

  6. Post-irradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy associated with multiple cavernous malformations of the cauda equina: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Drazin, Doniel; Kappel, Ari; Withrow, Stefan; Perry, Tiffany; Chu, Ray; Phuphanich, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina are extremely rare. A review of the literature suggested that the post-irradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy in our patient was most likely associated with a diagnosis of multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina. Case Description: A 76-year-old man with a remote history of abdominal radiation therapy presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening right foot drop and balance impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple enhancing areas of the cauda equina concerning for carcinomatous meningitis, however, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was unrevealing. Intraoperative findings were consistent with multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina. Conclusions: Multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina may mimic carcinomatous or infectious meningitis. Clinicians should be suspicious of this diagnosis when CSF and MRI findings are inconsistent with metastatic disease or infectious meningitis in patients who present with radiculopathy and a history of radiation therapy. PMID:28303206

  7. Incremental value of magnetic resonance neurography of Lumbosacral plexus over non-contributory lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in radiculopathy: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Farahani, Sahar J; Thawait, Gaurav K; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Belzberg, Allan J; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To test the incremental value of 3T magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in a series of unilateral radiculopathy patients with non-contributory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ten subjects (3 men, 7 women; mean age 54 year and range 22-74 year) with unilateral lumbar radiculopathy and with previous non-contributory lumbar spine MRI underwent lumbosacral (LS) plexus MRN over a period of one year. Lumbar spine MRI performed as part of the MRN LS protocol as well as bilateral L4-S1 nerves, sciatic, femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves were evaluated in each subject for neuropathy findings on both anatomic (nerve signal, course and caliber alterations) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tensor maps (nerve signal and caliber alterations). Minimum fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean apparent diffusion coeffcient (ADC) of L4-S2 nerve roots, sciatic and femoral nerves were recorded. RESULTS: All anatomic studies and 80% of DTI imaging received a good-excellent imaging quality grading. In a blinded evaluation, all 10 examinations demonstrated neural and/or neuromuscular abnormality corresponding to the site of radiculopathy. A number of contributory neuropathy findings including double crush syndrome were observed. On DTI tensor maps, nerve signal and caliber alterations were more conspicuous. Although individual differences were observed among neuropathic appearing nerve (lower FA and increased ADC) as compared to its contralateral counterpart, there were no significant mean differences on statistical comparison of LS plexus nerves, femoral and sciatic nerves (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: MRN of LS plexus is useful modality for the evaluation of patients with non-contributory MRI of lumbar spine as it can incrementally delineate the etiology and provide direct objective and non-invasive evidence of neuromuscular pathology. PMID:26834949

  8. Misdiagnosis of lumbar-sacral radiculopathy: usefulness of combination of EMG and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Padua, L; Commodari, I; Zappia, M; Pazzaglia, C; Tonali, P A

    2007-06-01

    In the presence of sensitive symptoms along the lumbar-sacral dermatomeric region, it is easy to suspect a lumbar-sacral radiculopathy, it being a very common disease. Clinical evaluation, neurophysiology and magnetic resonance imaging are common tools in diagnosing lumbosacral radiculopathy. Nevertheless, sometimes tumour may mimic radiculopathy. With the improvement of ultrasound, most peripheral nerves may be virtually identified. We describe two patients where tumour of sural nerve and tibial nerve mimicked S1 radiculopathy. We diagnosed the tumours only through a comprehensive nerve assessment combining clinical evaluation, US and neurophysiology. The association of neurophysiological and imaging US assessments, possibly in the same session, may avoid misdiagnosis.

  9. Taking it to the next level: lumbar radiculopathy from thoracic nerve schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Ukaigwe, Anene; Olugbodi, Akintomi; Alweis, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve and its branches, the common fibular and tibial nerves, causes sciatica which is a common syndrome characterized most often by radiating pain from the lower back down the legs and also manifesting as sensory and motor deficits. Sciatica is a common presentation of lumbosacral disc prolapse and degenerative disease of the lumbar spine in ambulatory settings. Schwannomas rarely cause sciatica; hence, it is seldom considered in evaluation of a patient with radiculopathy. Our patient presented with lumbar radiculopathy, mild degenerative changes on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and failed conservative treatment. Myelopathy was confirmed with electromyogram (EMG). Thoracolumbar spine MRI revealed the schwannoma in the thoracic region. He recovered neurologic function after tumor excision. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge that may arise in evaluating a patient with lumbar radiculopathy, negative lumbosacral spine imaging, and failure of conservative therapy.

  10. Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

    MedlinePlus

    ... soft, jelly-like center of the disk. Cause Cervical radiculopathy most often arises from degenerative changes that occur in the spine as we age or from an injury that causes a herniated, or bulging, intervertebral disk. ...

  11. Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurones: An update.

    PubMed

    Gourine, Alexander V; Machhada, Asif; Trapp, Stefan; Spyer, K Michael

    2016-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls the heart by dynamic recruitment and withdrawal of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activities. These activities are generated by groups of sympathoexcitatory and vagal preganglionic neurones residing in a close proximity to each other within well-defined structures of the brainstem. This short essay provides a general overview and an update on the latest developments in our understanding of the central nervous origins and functional significance of cardiac vagal tone. Significant experimental evidence suggests that distinct groups of cardiac vagal preganglionic neurones with different patterns of activity control nodal tissue (controlling the heart rate and atrioventricular conductance) and the ventricular myocardium (modulating its contractility and excitability). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical examination in radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    De Luigi, Arthur J; Fitzpatrick, Kevin F

    2011-02-01

    History and physical examination is the cornerstone in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of any patient. A comprehensive physical examination is necessary to aid in determining distributions of symptoms and to lead one to the site of pathology. The aim of this article is to aid the clinician in distinguishing radiculopathy from other causes of neck and low back pain. Physical examination of the patient with suspected radiculopathy needs to be thorough and complete to make the most accurate diagnosis. Thorough knowledge of the evidence-based literature is beneficial in maximizing patient care, particularly in the light of health care reform. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Functional properties of lumbar preganglionic neurones.

    PubMed

    Jänig, W; Szulczyk, P

    1980-03-17

    Lumbar preganglionic neurones projecting through WRL2 and L3 to lumbar ganglia caudal to L4 were investigated for those functional properties which are typical for postganglionic vasoconstrictor neurones supplying muscle and skin and for post ganglionic sudomotor neurones. The properties tested were the cardiac rhythmicity of the activity and the reactions to systemic hypoxia, to noxious stimulation of skin and (in part of the experiments) to vibrational stimuli. Furthermore, resting activity and conduction velocities of the asons were measured. 426 neurones were investigated. 311 (73%) of them were silent and could -- as far as tested -- not be excited by the afferent stimuli used. The conduction velocities of the axons of these neurones ranged from 0.5 to about 16 m/sec. 115 neurones had resting activity of 0.1--4.6 impulses/sec. The conduction velocities of their axons ranged from 0.5 to about 12 m/sec. 80 preganglionic neurones with resting activity were classified on the basis of the reflexes in these neurones to afferent stimuli. Preganglionic neurones reacting like postganglionic vasoconstrictor neurones to muscle (excited by systemic hypoxia and/or by noxious stimulation of skin; with cardic rhythmicity) were classified as type 1 neurones (26 from 80 neurones tested). The resting activity of these neurones was 1.8 +/- 1.3 impulses/sec (mean +/- 1 S.D.). Their axons conducted with 3.9 +/- m/sec. Preganglionic neurones reacting like the majority of the postganglionic vasoconstrictor neurones to hairy and hairless skin (inhibited by systemic hypoxia and/or noxious cutaneous stimuli) were classified as type 2 neurones (48 from 80 neurones investigated). In 40% of these neurones the activity had cardiac rhythmicity. The resting activity was 0.9 +/- 0.6 impulses/sec. The distribution of the conduction velocities of the axons of these neurones was bimodal. They conducted on the average with 1.3 +/- 0.6 m/sec and 6.6 +/- 1.1 m/sec respectively. A few neurones were

  14. Microendoscopic partial resection of the sacral ala to relieve extraforaminal entrapment of the L-5 spinal nerve at the lumbosacral tunnel. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Ken; Watanabe, Kota; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    The authors report the cases of three patients with L-5 radiculopathy caused by extraforaminal entrapment of the L-5 spinal nerve at the lumbosacral tunnel; this structure comprises the lumbosacral ligament, the sacral ala, and the L-5 and S-1 vertebral bodies. All three patients suffered severe leg pain and neurological deficits compatible with L-5 radiculopathy. Decompressive surgery involved the microendoscopic partial resection of the sacral ala along the L-5 spinal nerve. All patients experienced immediate pain relief postoperatively. Microendoscopic partial resection of the sacral ala is an effective and minimally invasive surgical option for patients with extraforaminal entrapment of the L-5 spinal nerve.

  15. Chemical Coding for Cardiovascular Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalvez, DG; Kerman, IA; McAllen, RM; Anderson, CR

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is present in a subset of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the rat. We examined the distribution of CART-immunoreactive terminals in rat stellate and superior cervical ganglia and adrenal gland and found that they surround neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive postganglionic neurons and noradrenergic chromaffin cells. The targets of CART-immunoreactive preganglionic neurons in the stellate and superior cervical ganglia were shown to be vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle and skin and cardiac-projecting postganglionic neurons: they did not target non-vasoconstrictor neurons innervating salivary glands, piloerector muscle, brown fat or adrenergic chromaffin cells. Transneuronal tracing using pseudorabies virus demonstrated that many, but not all, preganglionic neurons in the vasoconstrictor pathway to forelimb skeletal muscle were CART-immunoreactive. Similarly, analysis with the confocal microscope confirmed that 70% of boutons in contact with vasoconstrictor ganglion cells contained CART, while 30% did not. Finally, we show that CART-immunoreactive cells represented 69% of the preganglionic neuron population expressing c-fos after systemic hypoxia. We conclude that CART is present in most, although not all, cardiovascular preganglionic neurons, but not thoracic preganglionic neurons with non-cardiovascular targets. We suggest that CART-immunoreactivity may identify the postulated “accessory” preganglionic neurons, whose actions may amplify vasomotor ganglionic transmission. PMID:20810898

  16. Distinguishing Radiculopathies from Mononeuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Robblee, Jennifer; Katzberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Identifying “where is the lesion” is particularly important in the approach to the patient with focal dysfunction where a peripheral localization is suspected. This article outlines a methodical approach to the neuromuscular patient in distinguishing focal neuropathies versus radiculopathies, both of which are common presentations to the neurology clinic. This approach begins with evaluation of the sensory examination to determine whether there are irritative or negative sensory signs in a peripheral nerve or dermatomal distribution. This is followed by evaluation of deep tendon reflexes to evaluate if differential hyporeflexia can assist in the two localizations. Finally, identification of weak muscle groups unique to a nerve or myotomal pattern in the proximal and distal extremities can most reliably assist in a precise localization. The article concludes with an application of the described method to the common scenario of distinguishing radial neuropathy versus C7 radiculopathy in the setting of a wrist drop and provides additional examples for self-evaluation and reference. PMID:27468275

  17. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Hybki, Gabrielle C; Murphy, Lisa A; Marchi, Joseph P; Patlogar, Jeffrey E; Brisson, Jennifer O; Nakamura, Reid K

    2016-01-01

    Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis. PMID:28491410

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of lumbosacral radiculopathic pain.

    PubMed

    Koefman, Alex J; Licari, Melissa; Bynevelt, Michael; Lind, Christopher R P

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE An objective biomarker for pain is yet to be established. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a promising neuroimaging technique that may reveal an objective radiological biomarker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fMRI technology in the setting of lumbosacral radiculopathy and discuss its application in revealing a biomarker for pain in the future. METHODS A prospective, within-participant control study was conducted. Twenty participants with painful lumbosacral radiculopathy from intervertebral disc pathology were recruited. Functional imaging of the brain was performed during a randomly generated series of nonprovocative and provocative straight leg raise maneuvers. RESULTS With a statistical threshold set at p < 0.000001, 3 areas showed significant blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change: right superior frontal gyrus (x = 2, y = 13, z = 48, k = 29, Brodmann area 6 [BA6]), left supramarginal cortex (x = -37, y = -44, z = 33, k = 1084, BA40), and left parietal cortex (x = -19, y = -41, z = 63, k = 354, BA5). With a statistical threshold set at p < 0.0002, 2 structures showed significant BOLD signal change: right putamen (x = 29, y = -11, z = 6, k = 72) and bilateral thalami (right: x = 23, y = -11, z = 21, k = 29; x = 8, y = -11, z = 9, k = 274; and left: x = -28, y = -32, z = 6, k = 21). CONCLUSIONS The results in this study compare with those in previous studies and suggest that fMRI technology can provide an objective assessment of the pain experience.

  19. [Lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease].

    PubMed

    Shi, J G; Xu, X M; Sun, J C; Wang, Y; Guo, Y F; Yang, H S; Kong, Q J; Yang, Y; Shi, G D; Yuan, W; Jia, L S

    2017-03-21

    Objective: To define a novel disease-lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease, and propose the diagnostic criteria, while capsule surgery was performed and evaluated in the preliminary study. Methods: From June 2016 to December 2016, a total of 30 patients (22 male and 8 female; mean age of 55.1±9.7 years) with lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease were included in Department of Spine Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, the Second Military Medical University.Lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease was defined as axial hypertension of nerve root and spinal cord caused by congenital anomalies, which could be accompanied by other lesions as lumbar disc herniation, spinal cord stenosis or spondylolisthesis, or aggravated by iatrogenic lesions, resulting in neurological symptoms.This phenomenon is similar to a stretched string, the higher tension on each end the louder sound.Meanwhile, the shape of lumbosacral spine looks like a bow, thus, the disease is nominated as lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease.All the patients underwent capsule surgery and filled out Owestry disability index (ODI) and Tempa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) before and after surgery. Results: The mean surgery time was (155±36) min, (4.3±0.4) segments were performed surgery.The pre-operative VAS, TSK and ODI scores were (7.6±0.8), (52.0±10.3) and (68.4±12.7), respectively.The post-operative VAS, TSK and ODI scores were (3.3±0.4), ( 24.6±5.2) and (32.1±7.4)(P<0.05, respectively), respectively. Conclusion: The definition and diagnostic criteria of lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease was proposed.Capsule surgery was an effective strategy with most patients acquired excellent outcomes as symptoms relieved and quality of life improved.

  20. Comparison between bipolar pulsed radiofrequency and monopolar pulsed radiofrequency in chronic lumbosacral radicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Min Cheol; Cho, Yun Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic lumbosacral radicular pain is a challenging medical problem with respect to therapeutic management. Many patients with lumbosacral radicular pain complain of persistent leg pain after transforaminal epidural steroid injection. Nowadays, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is widely used for controlling lumbosacral radicular pain. Methods: We evaluated the effect of bipolar PRF on the DRG for the management of lumbosacral radicular pain. In addition, we compared the effect of bipolar PRF to monopolar PRF. Fifty patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain were included in the study and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, the bipolar or monopolar PRF group (n = 25 per group). Pain intensity was evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS) at pretreatment, and 1, 2, and 3 months after treatment. Results: When compared to the pretreatment NRS scores, patients in both groups showed a significant decrease in NRS scores at 1, 2, and 3 months after treatment. Reductions in the NRS scores over time were significantly larger in the bipolar PRF group. Three months after treatment, 19 patients (76.0%) in the bipolar PRF group and 12 patients (48.0%) in the monopolar PRF group reported successful pain relief (pain relief of ≥50%). Conclusion: The use of bipolar PRF on the DRG can be an effective and safe interventional technique for chronic refractory lumbosacral radiculopathy, particularly in patients whose pain are refractory to epidural steroid injection or monopolar PRF stimulation. PMID:28248888

  1. The identification and characteristics of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurones.

    PubMed

    De Groat, W C; Ryall, R W

    1968-06-01

    1. Sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurones were identified by intracellular and extracellular micro-electrode recording of antidromic potentials in response to stimulation of the pelvic nerve or the second or third sacral ventral roots.2. The segmental distribution of autonomic neurones varied in different cats. In some cats they were mainly in S2 segment, in others in S3 and in the remainder, in both S2 and S3.3. The antidromic potentials showed initial segment-somadendritic (IS-SD) inflexions and delayed depolarizations and were slightly less prolonged than those of sympathetic neurones but more prolonged than those of spinal motoneurones. After-hyperpolarization was observed after the antidromic spike potential.4. The conduction velocities for sacral parasympathetic preganglionic fibres were less than 12.5 m/sec and thus were similar to those of sympathetic preganglionic fibres.5. Parasympathetic neurones were not excited by micro-electro-phoretically applied 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline or acetylcholine.

  2. Tarlov cyst as a rare cause of S1 radiculopathy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nadler, S F; Bartoli, L M; Stitik, T P; Chen, B

    2001-05-01

    A 37-year-old female physician presented with a chief complaint of left posterior thigh pain, which began insidiously approximately 4 months before her initial examination. Initially, she had been evaluated by her physician, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was ordered. The MRI scan was reported to be within normal limits, with the exception of minimal disc bulging at L4-5. She had received physical therapy with little benefit and was referred for physiatric assessment. Review of the patient's original MRI scan showed the presence of perineurial (Tarlov) cysts within the sacral canal at the level of S2, with compression of the adjacent nerve root. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing showed axonal degeneration consistent with an S1 radiculopathy. Tarlov cysts can be a rare cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radicular leg pain.

  3. Brainstem origin of preganglionic cardiac motoneurons in the muskrat.

    PubMed

    Panneton, W M; McCulloch, P F; Tan, Y; Tan, Y; Yavari, P

    1996-11-04

    The muskrat, and aquatic rodent with a brisk and reliable diving response, shows a remarkable bradycardia after nasal stimulation. However, the medullary origin of cardiac preganglionic motoneurons is unknown in this species. We injected fat pads near the base of the heart of muskrats with a WGA-HRP solution to label retrogradely preganglionic parasympathetic neurons that project to the cardiac plexi. Results showed that the preponderance of labeled neurons was in ventrolateral parts of the medulla from 1.5 mm caudal to the obex to 2.0 mm rostral. Eighty-nine percent of the labeled neurons were located bilaterally in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus, 5.6% were in the lateral extreme of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and 5.3% were found in the intermediate area in between these two nuclei. Although controversy still exists concerning the medullary origin of preganglionic cardiac motoneurons, our results from muskrats agree with those from most other species where preganglionic cardiac motoneurons were located just ventral to the nucleus ambiguus.

  4. Melorheostosis causing lumbar radiculopathy: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankur; Neelakantan, Asha; Jampana, Ravi; Sangra, Meharpal

    2013-08-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare sclerosing bone disorder with a predilection for the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the spine is infrequent and largely asymptomatic. Surgical treatment for spinal involvement is therefore uncommon with only one reported case of lumbar fusion for painful lumbosacral melorheostosis. We report a case of lumbar melorheostosis causing disabling radiculopathy treated with nerve root decompression. Melorheostosis of the lumbar spine causing radicular symptoms has not been reported before. Our message from the management of this particular patient is to consider surgical option in symptomatic individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anterior lumbosacral polyradiculopathy after intrathecal administration of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Ana M; Coret, Francisco; Casanova, Bonaventura; Láinez, Miguel J A

    2008-04-15

    Transient paraparesis has been reported with intrathecal chemotherapy agents and the most common cause is an incomplete inflammatory myelopathy. We report a case of a 30-year-old man diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed subacute anterior lumbosacral polyradiculopathy following intrathecal methotrexate, an unusual complication of intrathecal chemotherapy in adults. Spinal magnetic resonance discarded myelopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid exam showed elevation of protein, mononuclear pleocytosis and immunoglobulin synthesis. Electrodiagnostic study showed alterations of sensory and motor conductions only in lower limbs, consistent with multilevel radiculopathy. Differential diagnosis included toxic and neoplastic polyradiculopathy, and axonal variant of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. The authors review possible pathogenic mechanisms and propose several therapeutic and preventive options.

  6. Does Electrodiagnostic Confirmation of Radiculopathy Predict Pain Reduction after Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection? A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Zachary; Cushman, Daniel; Caldwell, Mary; Marshall, Benjamin; Ghannad, Leda; Eng, Christine; Patel, Jaymin; Makovitch, Steven; Chu, Samuel K; Babu, Ashwin N.; Walega, David R.; Marciniak, Christina; Press, Joel; Kennedy, David J.; Plastaras, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective Minimal definitive literature identifies patients with radicular pain who would benefit most from epidural steroid injection (ESI). This study investigated if electromyographic (EMG) confirmation of radiculopathy with active or chronic denervation predicts a positive treatment outcome following ESI. Design Longitudinal cohort study of adults who underwent EMG and subsequent transforaminal ESI within 6 months. The proportion of individuals who experienced >50% pain relief and mean change in daily morphine equivalents (DME) were calculated. Results 170 individuals with respective mean (Standard Deviation) age and duration of symptoms of 55 (15) years and 36 (56) months were included. Mean time to <30 day and >30 day follow-up post-injection were 18 (6) and 99 (130) days, respectively. At >30 day follow-up, a larger proportion of EMG-confirmed individuals (37.7%) reported >50% pain reduction compared to EMG-negative individuals (17.8%) (p=0.03). This was significant for lumbosacral (40% vs. 15%, p=0.01) but not cervical symptoms (p>0.05). Mean decrease in DME at long-term follow-up in EMG-confirmed compared to EMG-negative individuals trended toward significance (-4 vs. -1, p=0.11). There was no significant relationship between myotomal spontaneous activity and pain or opioid use. Conclusions Needle EMG predicts long-term pain reduction from transforaminal ESI in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy, regardless of the presence of active denervation. PMID:26251843

  7. Patient-reported-outcomes in subjects with painful lumbar or cervical radiculopathy treated with pregabalin: evidence from medical practice in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, María Teresa; Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregabalin in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy treated in Primary Care settings under routine clinical practice. An observational, prospective 12-week secondary analysis was carried-out. Male and female above 18 years, naïve to PGB, with refractory chronic pain secondary to cervical/lumbosacral radiculopathy were enrolled. SF-MPQ, Sheehan Disability Inventory, MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the EQ-5D were administered. A total of 490 (34%) patients were prescribed PGB-monotherapy, 702 (48%) received PGB add-on, and 159 (11%) were administered non-PGB drugs. After 12 weeks, significant improvements in pain, associated symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances, general health; and level of disability were observed in the three groups, being significantly greater in PGB groups. In routine medical practice, monotherapy or add-on pregabalin is associated with substantial pain alleviation and associated symptoms improvements in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy.

  8. Patient-reported-outcomes in subjects with painful lumbar or cervical radiculopathy treated with pregabalin: evidence from medical practice in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregabalin in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy treated in Primary Care settings under routine clinical practice. An observational, prospective 12-week secondary analysis was carried-out. Male and female above 18 years, naïve to PGB, with refractory chronic pain secondary to cervical/lumbosacral radiculopathy were enrolled. SF-MPQ, Sheehan Disability Inventory, MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the EQ-5D were administered. A total of 490 (34%) patients were prescribed PGB-monotherapy, 702 (48%) received PGB add-on, and 159 (11%) were administered non-PGB drugs. After 12 weeks, significant improvements in pain, associated symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances, general health; and level of disability were observed in the three groups, being significantly greater in PGB groups. In routine medical practice, monotherapy or add-on pregabalin is associated with substantial pain alleviation and associated symptoms improvements in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy. PMID:19798503

  9. Lumbosacral nerve root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Chin, C H; Chew, K C

    1997-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root avulsion is a rare clinical entity. Since the first description in 1955, only 35 cases have been reported. It is often associated with pelvic fractures and may be missed in the initial clinical examination as these patients usually present with multiple injuries. We present three such cases with clinical and radiological findings. These patients were involved in road traffic accidents. Two had fractures of the sacroiliac joint with diastasis of the symphysis pubis (Tile type C 1.2) and one had fractures of the public rami (Tile type B 2.1). All three had various degrees of sensory and motor deficit of the lower limbs. Lumbar myelogram shows characteristic pseudomeningoceles in the affected lumboscral region. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides an additional non-invasive modality to diagnose this condition.

  10. A comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with electrodiagnostic findings in the evaluation of clinical radiculopathy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Reza Soltani, Zahra; Sajadi, Simin; Tavana, Behrooz

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic studies by comparing their findings in patients with clinically suspected radiculopathy. The agreements between these two procedures and clinical findings were also examined. In a 2-year cross-sectional study, a total of 114 patients with clinically suspected cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy were included. The total agreements between clinical with MRI and EDX findings were 72 and 52%, respectively while their agreements were similar in group definite (89 vs. 82%). The agreement between EDX and MRI was 59.6 in total and 49% with respect to clinical findings. This study further supports that these two methods are complementary in general. It is reasonable to add EDX when there is discrepancy between MRI and clinical findings or when MRI neurologic findings are not visible.

  11. Extraforaminal entrapment of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve by osteophytes of the lumbosacral spine: anatomic study and a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Nojiri, Kenya; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nishikawa, Yuji

    2002-03-15

    An anatomic study of the associations between the fifth lumbar spinal nerve (L5 spinal nerve) and a lumbosacral tunnel, consisting of the fifth lumbar vertebral body (L5 vertebral body), the lumbosacral ligament, and sacral ala, and clinical case reports of four patients with lumbar radiculopathy secondary to entrapment of the L5 spinal nerve in the lumbosacral tunnel. To delineate the anatomic, clinical, and radiologic features and surgical outcome of patients with entrapment of the L5 spinal nerve in the lumbosacral tunnel. Although several cadaveric studies on a lumbosacral tunnel as a possible cause of L5 radiculopathy have been reported, few studies had focused on osteophytes of the L5-S1 vertebral bodies as the major component of this compressive lesion, and clinical reports on patients with this disease have been rare. Lumbosacral spines from 29 geriatric cadavers were examined with special attention to the associations between osteophytes of the L5-S1 vertebral bodies and the L5 spinal nerve. Four patients with a diagnosis of the entrapment of the L5 spinal nerve by osteophytes at the lumbosacral tunnel were treated surgically, and their clinical manifestations and surgical results were reviewed retrospectively. The anatomic study demonstrated osteophytes of the L5-S1 vertebral bodies in seven of the 29 cadavers. Entrapment of the L5 spinal nerve in the lumbosacral tunnel was observed in six of the seven cadavers with L5-S1 osteophytes but in only one of the 22 cadavers without such osteophytes (P < 0.05, chi2 test). All four patients had neurologic deficits in the L5 nerve root distribution. MRI and myelography showed no abnormal findings in the spinal canal, but CAT scans demonstrated prominent osteophytes on the lateral margins of L5-S1 vertebral bodies in all four. Selective L5 nerve block completely relieved all patients of pain but only temporarily. Three patients were treated via a posterior approach by resecting the sacral ala along the L5 spinal

  12. Pseudo-radiculopathy in subacute trochanteric bursitis of the subgluteus maximus bursa.

    PubMed

    Swezey, R L

    1976-08-01

    Seventy patients, averaging 82 years of age, were referred for low back pain and/or a suspected herniated disk. Objective neurological deficits consistent with L5 or S1 root involvement were identified in 5 of the 70 patients. Trochanteric bursitis (TB), often mimicking radiculitis, was diagnosed in 31 patients. Trochanteric bursitis was associated with lumbosacral strain and lumbar osteoarthrosis in 21 of 31 patients and with an S1 disk in 1 of those 31 patients. Degenerative joint disease of the ipsilateral hip was present in 4 of 20 of these patients with TB. Six patients with low back pain had both hip and knee arthritis (including two patients with rheumatoid arthritis). Three patients had degenerative hip disease without low back complaints. The remaining patient had TB associated with left hemiparesis. All patients had limitation of lumbosacral motion. Patients with arthritic hips had apparent shortening of the affected leg of one-half inch or greater. Trochanteric bursitis is a common complication of lumbosacral strain, frequently mimicking radiculopathy. Gait alteration associated with back pain or static traction on gluteal musculature during rest therapy may be predisposing factors. The association of TB with hip disease and/or leg length discrepancies was again confirmed.

  13. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery.

  14. Thoracic Radiculopathy due to Rare Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic radiculopathy represents an uncommon spinal disorder that is frequently overlooked in the evaluation of thoracic, or abdominal pain syndrome. The clinical representation of this uncommon disorder is often atypical. With many differential diagnoses to consider, it is not surprising that the cause of thoracic radiculopathy is often not discovered for months, or years, after the symptoms arise. We report two rare cases of thoracic radiculopathy; one case was caused by extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) along the thoracic paraspinal area, and the other by foraminal stenosis, due to a bony spur of the thoracic vertebra. As such, thoracic radiculopathy should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with thoracic and abdominal pain, especially if initial diagnostic studies are inconclusive. PMID:27446792

  15. Anhidrosis in multiple system atrophy: a preganglionic sudomotor dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Donadio, Vincenzo; Nolano, Maria; Elam, Mikael; Montagna, Pasquale; Provitera, Vincenzo; Bugiardini, Enrico; Baruzzi, Agostino; Santoro, Lucio; Liguori, Rocco

    2008-04-30

    Anhidrosis occurs in the majority of multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients but the underlying site of lesion is not well established. We describe three patients with long-standing MSA and anhidrosis diagnosed on the basis of a thermoregulatory sweating test. In biopsies of anhidrotic skin, immunofluorescence analysis disclosed a well preserved postganglionic sudomotor innervation in all three patients supporting the hypothesis of a preganglionic nerve fiber lesion underlying their anhidrosis. Postganglionic sudomotor fiber integrity was also confirmed by normal electrodermal responses in one patient, whereas such responses and microneurographically detectable skin sympathetic nerve activity were absent in the other two MSA patients, suggesting a functional inactivity of structurally intact postganglionic sympathetic skin fibers.

  16. Selective plasticity of primary afferent innervation to the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei following lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in long term studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lisa; Wu, Jun; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies involving injuries to the nerves of the cauda equina and the conus medullaris have shown that lumbosacral ventral root avulsion in rat models results in denervation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, retrograde and progressive cell death of the axotomized motor and parasympathetic neurons, as well as the emergence of neuropathic pain. Root reimplantation has also been shown to ameliorate several of these responses, but experiments thus far have been limited to studying the effects of lesion and reimplantation local to the lumbosacral region. Here, we have expanded the region of investigation after lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation to include the thoracolumbar sympathetic region of the spinal cord. Using a retrograde tracer injected into the major pelvic ganglion, we were able to define the levels of the spinal cord that contain sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the lower urinary tract. We have conducted studies on the effects of the lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation models on the afferent innervation of the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei at both thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels through immunohistochemistry for the markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1). Surprisingly, our experiments reveal a selective and significant decrease of CGRP-positive innervation in the dorsal horn at thoracolumbar levels that is partially restored with root reimplantation. However, no similar changes were detected at the lumbosacral levels despite the injury and repair targeting efferent neurons, and being performed at the lumbosacral levels. Despite the changes evident in the thoracolumbar dorsal horn, we find no changes in afferent innervation of the autonomic nuclei at either sympathetic or parasympathetic segmental levels by CGRP or VGLUT1. We conclude that even remote, efferent root injuries and repair procedures can have an effect on remote and non

  17. Pain relief from preganglionic injury to the brachial plexus by late intercostal nerve transfer.

    PubMed

    Berman, J; Anand, P; Chen, L; Taggart, M; Birch, R

    1996-09-01

    We performed intercostal nerve transfer in 19 patients to relieve pain from preganglionic injury to the brachial plexus. The procedure was successful in 16 patients at a mean of 28.6 months (12 to 68) after the injury.

  18. Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn-Smith, I.J.; Marina, N.; Manton, R.N.; Reimann, F.; Gribble, F.M.; Trapp, S.

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affects central autonomic neurons, including those controlling the cardiovascular system, thermogenesis, and energy balance. Preproglucagon (PPG) neurons, located mainly in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and medullary reticular formation, produce GLP-1. In transgenic mice expressing glucagon promoter-driven yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), these brainstem PPG neurons project to many central autonomic regions where GLP-1 receptors are expressed. The spinal cord also contains GLP-1 receptor mRNA but the distribution of spinal PPG axons is unknown. Here, we used two-color immunoperoxidase labeling to examine PPG innervation of spinal segments T1–S4 in YFP-PPG mice. Immunoreactivity for YFP identified spinal PPG axons and perikarya. We classified spinal neurons receiving PPG input by immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or Fluorogold (FG) retrogradely transported from the peritoneal cavity. FG microinjected at T9 defined cell bodies that supplied spinal PPG innervation. The deep dorsal horn of lower lumbar cord contained YFP-immunoreactive neurons. Non-varicose, YFP-immunoreactive axons were prominent in the lateral funiculus, ventral white commissure and around the ventral median fissure. In T1–L2, varicose, YFP-containing axons closely apposed many ChAT-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) and dorsal lamina X. In the sacral parasympathetic nucleus, about 10% of ChAT-immunoreactive preganglionic neurons received YFP appositions, as did occasional ChAT-positive motor neurons throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the ventral horn. YFP appositions also occurred on NOS-immunoreactive spinal interneurons and on spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons. Injecting FG at T9 retrogradely labeled many YFP-PPG cell bodies in the medulla but none of the spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons. These results show that brainstem PPG neurons

  19. Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Smith, I J; Marina, N; Manton, R N; Reimann, F; Gribble, F M; Trapp, S

    2015-01-22

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affects central autonomic neurons, including those controlling the cardiovascular system, thermogenesis, and energy balance. Preproglucagon (PPG) neurons, located mainly in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and medullary reticular formation, produce GLP-1. In transgenic mice expressing glucagon promoter-driven yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), these brainstem PPG neurons project to many central autonomic regions where GLP-1 receptors are expressed. The spinal cord also contains GLP-1 receptor mRNA but the distribution of spinal PPG axons is unknown. Here, we used two-color immunoperoxidase labeling to examine PPG innervation of spinal segments T1-S4 in YFP-PPG mice. Immunoreactivity for YFP identified spinal PPG axons and perikarya. We classified spinal neurons receiving PPG input by immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or Fluorogold (FG) retrogradely transported from the peritoneal cavity. FG microinjected at T9 defined cell bodies that supplied spinal PPG innervation. The deep dorsal horn of lower lumbar cord contained YFP-immunoreactive neurons. Non-varicose, YFP-immunoreactive axons were prominent in the lateral funiculus, ventral white commissure and around the ventral median fissure. In T1-L2, varicose, YFP-containing axons closely apposed many ChAT-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) and dorsal lamina X. In the sacral parasympathetic nucleus, about 10% of ChAT-immunoreactive preganglionic neurons received YFP appositions, as did occasional ChAT-positive motor neurons throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the ventral horn. YFP appositions also occurred on NOS-immunoreactive spinal interneurons and on spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons. Injecting FG at T9 retrogradely labeled many YFP-PPG cell bodies in the medulla but none of the spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons. These results show that brainstem PPG neurons

  20. [Prognostic value of preoperative electromyography for outcome of lumbosacral radiculopathy of discal origin].

    PubMed

    Rodet, D; Berthelot, J M; Maugars, Y; Prost, A

    1999-11-27

    To assess the prognostic value of preoperative electromyography (EMG) for long-term outcome in patients who undergo surgery for discal radiculalgia at the lumbar level. Thirty-seven patients who underwent surgery less than 6 weeks after the EMG were selected among a pool of 384 patients suffering from discal radiculalgia at the lumbar level who had had an EMG at our hospital since 1980. Among these 37 patients, 30 were contacted by telephone for an interview on outcome after a mean 42.1 +/- 22 month follow-up. Five out of 30 patients reported limitation for walking, 8/30 motor weakness, 14/30 had sensorial deficits, 12/30 had frequent or incapacitating radiculalgia, and 16/30 reported paresthesia. Patients were more satisfied with pain outcome (good or very good results in 22/30 patients (73%)) than with functional outcome (good or very good results in 20/30 patients (66%)). Preoperative EMG abnormalities (observed in 22/30 cases) were not correlated with patient age or duration of sciatica. The patients whose preoperative EMG was abnormal did not later report more paresthesia (11/20 versus 5/10) or severe radiculalgia (7/20 versus 5/10) than the others. Conversely, they complained more frequently of motor weakness (7/20 versus 1/10), but their global opinion about long-term outcome of surgery was not worse good or very good results for 15/20 patients with abnormal EMG (75%) versus 7/10 (70%) of those whose preoperative EMG was normal. This study shows that a normal EMG does not preclude surgical cure of discal sciatica. The results of preoperative EMG do not predict the long-term outcome after surgery: indeed they are only correlated with motor weakness (7/20 versus 1/10), but not with residual pain and functional outcome.

  1. [Follow-up in coal miners suffering from lumbo-sacral radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Yakovleva, N M; Gorblyansky, Yu Yu; Pictushanskaya, T E

    2015-01-01

    The results of a retrospective dynamic monitoring in 1976-2014 of the workers of coal mines of main (n = 1732) and auxiliary (n = 1059) occupations, with diagnosed occupational sciatica (OS) in the center of occupational medicineare viewed. It was found that the workers of the main occupationson average of 3 years earlier than initially treated at the center of occupational medicine, and occupational disease OS sets for them 1.5-2 years earlier. The analysis of the formation of risk groups depending on the diagnosis and treatment of the primary analysis of the incidence of OS.

  2. Diagnostic advantage of S1 foramen-evoked H-reflex for S1 radiculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaojun; Zhu, Yu; Lu, Feizhou; Xia, Xinlei; Jin, Xiang; Weber, Robert; Jiang, Jianyuan

    2013-11-01

    Hoffmann reflex to tibial nerve stimulation at the popliteal fossa (tibial H-reflex) is routinely used to evaluate S1 radiculopathy. However, it lacks sensitivity because other lesions along this reflex circuit affect the H-reflex bilaterally. This study was undertaken to determine whether the H-reflex evoked by stimulating proximally at the S1 foramen (S1 foramen H-reflex) could improve S1 root lesion evaluation sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus. A randomized paired study was designed to evaluate tibial and S1 foramen H-reflexes; bilateral H-M interval (HMI) and H-reflex latency were compared in 22 diabetic patients with unilateral S1 radiculopathy. Other electrophysiological evaluations included standard tibial conduction studies, sural conduction studies and needle electromyography (EMG). The S1 foramen H-reflex had a significantly higher sensitivity (91.0%, 20 of 22) in evaluating S1 radiculopathy than the conventional tibial H-reflex (63.6%, 14 of 22, p < 0.05). Bilateral tibial compound muscle action potential amplitudes were reduced in 3 patients, and sural sensory nerve action potential amplitudes decreased in 7 patients. Needle EMG revealed denervation restricted to the paraspinal muscle and myotomes supplied by the S1 nerve root on the ipsilateral side in 18 patients, and multiple lumbosacral nerve roots were involved bilaterally in the other 4 patients. Our results demonstrate that the S1 foramen H-reflex is a more sensitive assessment of S1 compressive radiculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Introduction to Lumbosacral and Sacropelvic Fixation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Patrick C; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    We are pleased to present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation strategies. Despite advancement in surgical techniques and technologies in spine, achieving consistent solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction remains a major challenge. The anatomy of the lumbosacral junction allows for a higher range of motion compared to other areas of the thoracolumbar spine. The L5-S1 interspace is exposed to significant shear forces. As a result, complications such as pseudoarthrosis, screw pull-out, implant fracture, or sacral fractures can occur. Complications are particularly seen in long fusion constructs ending across the lumbosacral junction. To reduce these complications, various lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation techniques have been developed and utilized. The current supplement is intended to provide instructional videos that illustrate several current techniques for lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation. The collection includes techniques for anterior L5-S1 interbody fusion, minimally invasive L5-S1 interbody fusions, lumbosacral pedicle screw placement, sacroiliac fusion, and sacro-alar-iliac screw placement. The authors of the videos in the supplement have provided detailed narration and video illustration to describe the nuances of the various open and minimally invasive techniques for lumbosacral and sacral-pelvic fixation. We are pleased to have such a collection of quality video illustration from experts in the field. It's been our privilege to serve as guest editors for this supplement and we believe that you will enjoy the contents of this supplement.

  4. Painful lumbosacral melorheostosis treated by fusion.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Peter A; Don, Angus S; Miller, Mary V

    2003-06-15

    A case report of low back pain associated with a diagnosis of melorheostosis of the lumbosacral spine. To describe a rare presentation of melorheostosis and subsequent successful surgical treatment. Melorheostosis is a rare condition and spinal pain has not been described in association with the condition. A patient with disabling low back pain and suspected melorheostosis of the lumbosacral spine responded favorably to diagnostic facet joint blocks. Treatment was lumbosacral fusion and biopsy of the abnormal bone. The densely sclerotic bone presented technical difficulties requiring modification of surgical technique. Dramatic pain and disability reduction occurred following lumbosacral fusion. Histologic examination was consistent with melorheostosis. Melorheostosis rarely causes severe low back pain that can respond favorably to fusion surgery.

  5. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  6. Epiduroscopy for patients with lumbosacral radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Kallewaard, Jan Willem; Vanelderen, Pascal; Richardson, Jonathan; Van Zundert, Jan; Heavner, James; Groen, Gerbrand Jan

    2014-04-01

    Lumbosacral radicular pain is a pain in the distribution area of one of the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus, with or without sensory and/or motor impairment. A major source of lumbosacral radicular pain is failed back surgery, which is defined as persistent or recurrent pain, mainly in the region of the lower back and legs even after technically, anatomically successful spine surgeries. If lumbosacral radicular neuropathic pain fails to respond to conservative or interventional treatments, epiduroscopy can be performed as part of a multidisciplinary approach. Epiduroscopy aids in identifying painful structures in the epidural space, establishing a diagnosis and administering therapy. The novelty consists in the use of an epiduroscope to deliver therapies such as adhesiolysis and targeted administration of epidural medications. Clinical trials report favorable treatment outcomes in 30% to 50% of patients. Complications are rare and related to the rate or volume of epidural fluid infusion or inadvertent dural puncture. In patients with lumbosacral radicular pain, especially after back surgery, epiduroscopy with adhesiolysis may be considered (evidence rating 2 B+). © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  7. The role of Gd-enhanced three-dimensional MRI fast low-angle shot (FLASH) in the evaluation of symptomatic lumbosacral nerve roots.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, I; Sugimoto, H; Saita, K; Ookami, H; Nakama, S; Hoshino, Y

    2001-01-01

    In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had radiculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further.

  8. Surgical techniques for lumbo-sacral fusion.

    PubMed

    Tropiano, P; Giorgi, H; Faure, A; Blondel, B

    2017-02-01

    Lumbo-sacral (L5-S1) fusion is a widely performed procedure that has become the reference standard treatment for refractory low back pain. L5-S1 is a complex transition zone between the mobile lordotic distal lumbar spine and the fixed sacral region. The goal is to immobilise the lumbo-sacral junction in order to relieve pain originating from this site. Apart from achieving inter-vertebral fusion, the main challenge lies in the preoperative determination of the fixed L5-S1 position that will be optimal for the patient. Many lumbo-sacral fusion techniques are available. Stabilisation can be achieved using various methods. An anterior, posterior, or combined approach may be used. Recently developed minimally invasive techniques are gaining in popularity based on their good clinical outcomes and high fusion rates. The objective of this conference is to resolve the main issues faced by spinal surgeons in their everyday practice.

  9. Cerebral infarction due to carotid occlusion and carbon monoxide exposure. II. Influence of preganglionic cervical sympathectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Igloffstein, J; Laas, R

    1983-01-01

    Unilateral cerebral infarcts were produced in the rat by ligation of one common carotid artery and subsequent exposure to carbon monoxide. The incidence and extension of brain infarcts was increased in animals with additional ipsilateral cervical preganglionic sympathectomy. Sympathectomy did not affect markedly the respiration and systemic circulation. The effect of sympathectomy was attributed to a cutaneous vasodilation, leading to an extracranial steal phenomenon. Images PMID:6886721

  10. Costs and cost-effectiveness of epidural steroids for acute lumbosacral radicular syndrome in general practice: an economic evaluation alongside a pragmatic randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Spijker-Huiges, Antje; Vermeulen, Karin; Winters, Jan C; van Wijhe, Marten; van der Meer, Klaas

    2014-11-15

    A pragmatic, randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial in Dutch general practice. Assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of adding segmental epidural steroid injections to care as usual in radiculopathy in general practice. Lumbosacral radicular syndrome (radiculopathy) is a benign, generally self-limiting but painful condition caused by a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc, which results in an inflammatory process around the nerve root. Segmental epidural steroid injections could lessen pain. Low back pain and sciatica form a large financial burden on national health care systems. Improving pain treatment could lower costs to society by diminishing loss of productivity. Patients with acute radiculopathy were included by general practitioners. All patients received usual care. Patients in the intervention group received one segmental epidural steroid injection containing 80 mg of triamcinolone as well. Follow-up was performed using postal questionnaires at 2, 4, 6, 13, 26, and 52 weeks. Main outcomes were pain, disability and costs. Economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 1 year. Sixty-three patients were included in the analysis. Mean total costs were €4414 or $5985 in the intervention group and €5121 or $6943 in the control group. This difference was mostly due to loss of productivity. The point estimate for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -€730 or -$990 (1-point diminishment on the numerical rating scale back pain score in 1 patient in the course of 1 yr would save €730 or $990). Bootstrapping showed a 95% confidence interval of -€4476 to €951 or -$6068 to $1289. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed that without additional investment the probability that epidural steroids are cost-effective is more than 80%. The effect on pain and disability of epidural steroids in lumbosacral radicular syndrome is small but significant, and at lower costs with no reported complications

  11. [Spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula manifestating as radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Osamu; Nishimura, Ataru; Ishido, Katsuya; Hitotsumatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-08-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with a rare case of spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula manifesting as radiculopathy of the left arm. MRI demonstrated an abnormal dilated vascular space on the left ventral aspect of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space. MRA disclosed a single high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula. Angiography showed a direct high-flow fistula at the C2-3 level between the left vertebral artery and the spinal extradural veinous plexus, and an abnormal dilated left vertebral artery with "string of beads"-like feature. The fistula was successfully obliterated by coil embolization with preservation of patency of the left vertebral artery, resulting in improvement of the signs and symptoms. Retrospectively this spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula was considered in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.

  12. Exercise training preserves vagal preganglionic neurones and restores parasympathetic tonus in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ichige, Marcelo H A; Santos, Carla R; Jordão, Camila P; Ceroni, Alexandre; Negrão, Carlos E; Michelini, Lisete C

    2016-11-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is accompanied by reduced ventricular function, activation of compensatory neurohormonal mechanisms and marked autonomic dysfunction characterized by exaggerated sympathoexcitation and reduced parasympathetic activity. With 6 weeks of exercise training, HF-related loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive vagal preganglionic neurones is avoided, restoring the parasympathetic tonus to the heart, and the immunoreactivity of dopamine β-hydroxylase-positive premotor neurones that drive sympathetic outflow to the heart is reduced. Training-induced correction of autonomic dysfunction occurs even with the persistence of abnormal ventricular function. Strong positive correlation between improved parasympathetic tonus to the heart and increased ChAT immunoreactivity in vagal preganglionic neurones after training indicates this is a crucial mechanism to restore autonomic function in heart failure. Exercise training is an efficient tool to attenuate sympathoexcitation, a hallmark of heart failure (HF). Although sympathetic modulation in HF is widely studied, information regarding parasympathetic control is lacking. We examined the combined effects of sympathetic and vagal tonus to the heart in sedentary (Sed) and exercise trained (ET) HF rats and the contribution of respective premotor and preganglionic neurones. Wistar rats submitted to coronary artery ligation or sham surgery were assigned to training or sedentary protocols for 6 weeks. After haemodynamic, autonomic tonus (atropine and atenolol i.v.) and ventricular function determinations, brains were collected for immunoreactivity assays (choline acetyltransferase, ChATir; dopamine β-hydroxylase, DBHir) and neuronal counting in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV), nucleus ambiguus (NA) and rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). HF-Sed vs. SHAM-Sed exhibited decreased exercise capacity, reduced ejection fraction, increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure, smaller positive and negative

  13. Reflex patterns in preganglionic sympathetic neurons projecting to the superior cervical ganglion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, T; Jänig, W; Häbler, H J

    2000-09-01

    Reflex patterns in preganglionic neurons projecting in the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) were analyzed in response to stimulation of various afferent systems. We focused on the question whether these preganglionic neurons can be classified into functionally distinct subpopulations. Reflex responses were elicited by stimulation of trigeminal and spinal nociceptive, thermoreceptive as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor afferents. Multi- and single fiber preparations were studied in baroreceptor intact and sino-aortically denervated animals. Spontaneous activity of 36 preganglionic single neurons ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 imp/s (median= 1.11 imp/s). The degree of cardiac rhythmicity (CR) in the activity of sympathetic neurons was 69.5+/-13% (mean+/-S.D.; N=52; range=39-95%). Noxious stimulation of acral skin activated the majority (67%) of sympathetic preparations by 37+/-25% (N=35) above pre-stimulus activity; 15% were inhibited. In these neurons the response to noxious stimulation of acral skin was significantly correlated with the degree of CR (P<0.001, N=52) in that neurons showing the strongest excitation to noxious stimulation displayed the strongest CR. Noxious mechanical stimulation of body trunk skin (N=60) inhibited the majority (80%) of fiber preparations tested (by 34+/-18% of pre-stimulus activity, N=48); an activation was not observed. Cold stimulation of acral (N=9) and body trunk skin (N=42) activated most fiber preparations. Trigeminal stimulation evoked a uniform reflex activation of preganglionic neurons (+79+/-73% of pre-stimulus activity, N=32). Chemoreceptor stimulation by systemic hypercapnia elicited inhibitory (-31+/-19%, N=8) as well as excitatory (+59+/-5%, N=4) responses. These results show that preganglionic sympathetic neurons projecting to target organs in the head exhibit distinct reflex patterns to stimulation of various afferent systems; however, a clear classification into different functional subgroups did not emerge

  14. Stimulation of dopamine D2-like receptors in the lumbosacral defaecation centre causes propulsive colorectal contractions in rats.

    PubMed

    Naitou, Kiyotada; Nakamori, Hiroyuki; Shiina, Takahiko; Ikeda, Azusa; Nozue, Yuuta; Sano, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Takuya; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Yamada, Akihiro; Akimoto, Nozomi; Furue, Hidemasa; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2016-08-01

    The pathophysiological roles of the CNS in bowel dysfunction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and Parkinson's disease remain obscure. In the present study, we demonstrate that dopamine in the lumbosacral defaecation centre causes strong propulsive motility of the colorectum. The effect of dopamine is a result of activation of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons via D2-like dopamine receptors. Considering that dopamine is a neurotransmitter of descending pain inhibitory pathways, our results highlight the novel concept that descending pain inhibitory pathways control not only pain, but also the defaecation reflex. In addition, severe constipation in patients with Parkinson's disease can be explained by reduced parasympathetic outflow as a result of a loss of the effect of dopaminergic neurons. We have recently demonstrated that intrathecally injected noradrenaline caused propulsive contractions of the colorectum. We hypothesized that descending pain inhibitory pathways control not only pain, but also the defaecation reflex. Because dopamine is one of the major neurotransmitters of descending pain inhibitory pathways in the spinal cord, we examined the effects of the intrathecal application of dopamine to the spinal defaecation centre on colorectal motility. Colorectal intraluminal pressure and expelled volume were recorded in vivo in anaesthetized rats. Slice patch clamp and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the existence of dopamine-sensitive neurons in the sacral parasympathetic nuclei. Intrathecal application of dopamine into the L6-S1 spinal cord, where the lumbosacral defaecation centre is located, caused propulsive contractions of the colorectum. Inactivation of spinal neurons using TTX blocked the effect of dopamine. Although thoracic spinal transection had no effect on the enhancement of colorectal motility by intrathecal dopamine, the severing of the pelvic nerves abolished the enhanced motility. Pharmacological experiments

  15. Lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease in six cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennipher E; Dhupa, Sarit

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of six cats diagnosed with lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease were reviewed. Clinical signs included reluctance to jump, low tail carriage, elimination outside the litter box, reluctance to ambulate, pelvic-limb paresis, urinary incontinence, and constipation. All cats had lumbosacral hyperpathia on palpation. Computed tomography in four cats revealed evidence of extradural spinal cord compression at the seventh lumbar (L(7)) to first sacral (S(1)) vertebral interspace. Compression was confirmed via myelography in three of these four cats, with confirmation in the fourth cat at the time of decompressive laminectomy. Each of the six cats underwent dorsal decompressive laminectomy at the L(7) to S(1) interspace. Postoperative clinical follow-up lasted 3 to 35 months, with most cats having excellent outcomes.

  16. Microvasculitis in Diabetic Lumbosacral Radiculoplexus Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Jennifer A.; Engelstad, JaNean K.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a 60-year-old man with mild type 2 diabetes mellitus and step-wise progression of bilateral lower limb weakness, numbness and pain over a one year period. At the time of evaluation, he used a walker. He had elevated CSF protein, abnormal cooling and heat-pain thresholds on quantitative sensory testing, and NCS/EMG consistent with bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathies. Because it was not clear if the disease was still active, a right superficial peroneal nerve biopsy was performed and showed evidence of active axonal degeneration, ischemic injury, and microvasculitis. Based on these results, the patient was diagnosed with diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN) and was treated with weekly intravenous methylprednisolone with marked improvement of neurological symptoms and signs. This case illustrates the typical clinical, electrophysiologic and pathological features of DLRPN and the utility of nerve biopsy to judge ongoing disease activity. PMID:19730021

  17. Ballroom dancing and cervical radiculopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsung, P A; Mulford, G J

    1998-10-01

    Dance injuries associated with cervical radiculopathy have not been described in the literature. This report describes the case of an international-style ballroom dancer who developed a cervical radiculopathy as a result of frequent lateral rotation and hyperextension of the cervical spine during dancing. The patient's symptoms and signs suggestive of a left C7 radiculopathy were confirmed and documented by both magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic testing. The patient was treated conservatively with activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and alternative medicine approaches, including herbs and acupuncture. Her neck pain and cervical radicular symptoms declined in severity, but continued even 4 1/2 months after the onset of her symptoms. She did not wish to try steroids either through an oral or epidural route and refused surgical intervention. This case report illustrates an unconventional manner in which a left cervical radiculopathy was clinically produced. The neck motions and positions of frequent hyperextension and lateral rotation demonstrated by this ballroom dancer simulated a pattern and sequence of movements that promoted the development of signs and symptoms of a left cervical radiculopathy.

  18. A symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cyst -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Hee; Kim, Jin Mo

    2012-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts are formed by the arachnoid membrane of the nerve root at the lumbosacral level. Most of these cysts are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for other causes of chronic lower back pain. This type of cyst requires a differential diagnosis to distinguish it from other causes of radiating pain and neurological symptoms. In the present case, a symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cyst was found, and pain relief was achieved by non-surgical treatment. A lumbosacral perineural cyst was identified from a differential diagnosis of a lumbar disc disorder that presented as radiating pain and neurological symptoms. PMID:22679550

  19. [Antalgic radiotherapy in lumbosacral carcinomatous neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Russi, E G; Gaeta, M; Pergolizzi, S; Settineri, N; Frosina, P; De Renzis, C

    1994-06-01

    Lumbosacral carcinomatous neuropathy (LCN) may be caused by infiltration or compression of the lumbosacral plexi and nerves from intrapelvic or paraaortic neoplasms. The authors submitted 23 patients complaining of LCN with CT documented intrapelvic or paraaortic tumors to palliative radiotherapy. Megavoltage external beam irradiation was administered using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Treatment field sizes ranged from 56 cm2 to 235 cm2 (mean: 150.54 cm2) and encompassed only the site where the disease involved the lumbosacral plexus or its branches. > or = 3 Gy/day fractions were used. Twenty-one of 22 assessable patients (95.4%) obtained LCN pain relief; 19 (86.3%) obtained complete LCN pain relief. The median time to pain progression (TPP) was 150 days (range: 39-510 days). The median survival was 165 days. Seven patients were LCN pain-free at death. Two patients are alive and LCN pain-free. The remaining 12 patients had recurrent LCN pain: four of them were reirradiated at the site of previous neuropathy and only two had partial relief again. The authors conclude that it is advisable to submit to palliative radiotherapy the inoperable disseminated and/or recurrent cancer patients complaining of LCN, to use large fractions not to occupy the extant time of their already short life-expectancy, and to design small fields to avoid acute side-effects.

  20. Lumbosacral plexus in Brazilian Common Opossum.

    PubMed

    Senos, R; Ribeiro, M S; Benedicto, H G; Kfoury Júnior, J R

    2016-01-01

    The opossum has been suggested as an animal model for biomedical studies due to its adaptability to captivity and number of births per year. Despite many studies on morphology and experimental neurology using this opossum model, the literature does not offer details of the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus in this species. Ten lumbosacral plexus were dissected to describe the peripheral innervations of the Brazilian Common Opossum (Didelphis aurita) and compare the results with Eutheria clade species. The tensor fasciae latae muscle was absent and there was only one sartorius muscle for each limb. The distribution of the nerves were similar to other mammals, except for the caudal gluteal nerve, sartorius muscle innervations and the position of the pudendal nerve which arose from the major ischiatic foramen together with the ischiatic nerve, the cranial gluteal nerve and the caudal gluteal nerve. No anatomical variation was found. The special position of the pudendal nerve suggested that the Brazilian Common Opossum is a better model than rats or rabbits in surgical procedures with that specific nerve. In addition, the study revealed that the pelvic limb nerves are not an invariable structure of reference for muscle homology and homonym as reported previously. New investigation using other species of opossums are necessary to best comprehend the lumbosacral plexus distribution in the Methatheria clade and to confirm that other opossum species is eligible as a good model for pudendal nerve studies.

  1. Long thoracic nerve neurotization for restoration of shoulder function in C5-7 brachial plexus preganglionic injuries: case report.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Hoshino, Shushi; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Arakawa, Yuichiro

    2010-09-01

    C5-7 brachial plexus preganglionic injuries are usually associated with complete paralysis of the long thoracic nerve. This makes it difficult to provide satisfactory shoulder function by neurotizing only the suprascapular nerve, compared with C5 and C6 preganglionic injuries, in which the long thoracic nerve is spared. We present a case report of a 21-year-old man who sustained a C5-7 brachial plexus preganglionic injury and obtained excellent shoulder function by intercostal nerve transfer to the long thoracic nerve in addition to neurotization of the suprascapular nerve. Our report emphasizes the importance of restoring the activity of the long thoracic nerve. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Arachnoiditis Following Caudal Epidural Injections for the Lumbo-Sacral Radicular Pain

    PubMed Central

    Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Yallappa, Sachin; Bommireddy, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Caudal epidural steroid injection is a very common intervention in treatment of low back pain and sciatica symptoms. Although extensively used, it is not devoid of complications. A few reports of chemical and infective arachnoiditis exist following lumbar epidural anaesthesia, but none following a caudal epidural steroid injection.We report a case of arachnoiditis following caudal epidural steroid injections for lumbar radiculopathy. The patient presented with contralateral sciatica, worsening low back pain and urinary retention few days following the injection, followed by worsening motor functions in L4/L5/S1 myotomes with resultant dense foot drop. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging suggested infective arachnoiditis with diffuse enhancement and clumping of the nerve roots within the lumbar and sacral thecal sac. As the number of injections in the management of back pain and lumbo-sacral radicular pain is increasing annually, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of this potentially dangerous complication and educate the patients appropriately. PMID:24353855

  3. Development of a novel experimental rat model for neonatal pre-ganglionic upper brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hidenobu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Mishima, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Aoo, Naoya; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Nakano, Shinichi; Wakisaka, Shinichiro

    2002-09-15

    A neonatal upper brachial plexus injury, referred to as Erb's palsy, is a serious obstetric problem. Some surgical methods are used to treat this injury, but they are inadequate. To seek new treatments for Erb's palsy, we used a model for cervical preganglionic root transection in neonate rats and evaluated the behavioral and histological compatibility of this model with Erb's palsy. Two groups were used in this study. In the group, receiving the Erb operation, the left anterior and posterior roots of spinal vertebra C5-C7 were transected at the preganglionic level, and the results were compared with those of a group that received a sham operation. In the group, receiving the Erb operation, walking difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were observed. These observations were noted on the side where the transection took place, and the problems were attributed to proximal muscle weakness in the forelimb. Additionally, the forepaw grip was not impaired. Furthermore, in this group, the number of anterior horn cells in the cervical cord on the transected side was significantly lower than that on the contralateral side (P < 0.001). The results of this study indicate that the model fulfills the criteria for the clinical symptoms of Erb's palsy and that it may also serve as a new method for enabling treatment of the condition.

  4. L1 radiculopathy mimicking meralgia paresthetica: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Nam; Kim, Dong Hwee

    2010-04-01

    L1 radiculopathy is very rare and difficult to diagnose with needle electromyography. A patient presented with pain and hypesthesia on the anterolateral aspect of the left thigh. Nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography were normal, except for the quadratus lumborum and iliopsoas muscles, which showed abnormal spontaneous activity and polyphasic motor unit potentials with reduced recruitment patterns. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed disc extrusion of the L1-2 intervertebral space with upward migration. This case demonstrates the usefulness of examination of the quadratus lumborum in the diagnosis of L1 radiculopathy.

  5. The chiropractic management of two cases of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dufton, John A.; Giantomaso, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is one of the potential sources of radiculopathy, particularly in patients aged 40 to 60 years. The hallmark sign of cervical-brachial pain presents in the majority of the cases, however a definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of reliable and valid diagnostic tests. Two cases of presumed CSR illustrate the usefulness of applying a comprehensive mechanical assessment that guides the patient's rehabilitation regardless of the traditional anatomical diagnosis. A brief overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of CSR is also presented.

  6. Restless Leg Syndrome and Sleep Quality in Lumbar Radiculopathy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Murat; Akpinar, Kursad; Paksoy, Kemal; Cebeci, Ibrahim; Iyigun, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Background. To investigate the frequency of restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep quality impairment, depression, fatigue, and sleep behavior disorder and to determine the effects of surgery on these parameters in radiculopathy patients resistant to conservative treatment. Methods. The present study included 66 lumbar radiculopathy patients, who were resistant to conservative treatment and had indication of surgery. Five different questionnaires were performed to assess depression (the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), sleep quality (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), fatigue (the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), and presence of RLS and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). The same questionnaires were also performed on a control group (n = 61). Results. Of the radiculopathy patients, 68.1% had RLS and 92.4% had fatigue. Of the controls, 16.4% had RLS and 59% had fatigue. RBD was present in 8 (12.1%) patients and 3 (4.9%) controls. The PSQI revealed that sleep quality was impaired in 46 (69.7%) patients and 35 (57.4%) controls (P > 0.05). The number of individuals having substantial depression according to the BDI was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Conclusions. There was a significant increase in the frequency of RLS, which was significantly decreased in the postoperative period in the radiculopathy patients. PMID:25110396

  7. Restless leg syndrome and sleep quality in lumbar radiculopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Kocabicak, Ersoy; Terzi, Murat; Akpinar, Kursad; Paksoy, Kemal; Cebeci, Ibrahim; Iyigun, Omer

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep quality impairment, depression, fatigue, and sleep behavior disorder and to determine the effects of surgery on these parameters in radiculopathy patients resistant to conservative treatment. The present study included 66 lumbar radiculopathy patients, who were resistant to conservative treatment and had indication of surgery. Five different questionnaires were performed to assess depression (the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), sleep quality (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), fatigue (the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), and presence of RLS and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). The same questionnaires were also performed on a control group (n = 61). Of the radiculopathy patients, 68.1% had RLS and 92.4% had fatigue. Of the controls, 16.4% had RLS and 59% had fatigue. RBD was present in 8 (12.1%) patients and 3 (4.9%) controls. The PSQI revealed that sleep quality was impaired in 46 (69.7%) patients and 35 (57.4%) controls (P > 0.05). The number of individuals having substantial depression according to the BDI was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of RLS, which was significantly decreased in the postoperative period in the radiculopathy patients.

  8. Lumbar discal cyst as a cause of radiculopathy: case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Newton; Keith, Julia; Pirouzmand, Fahard

    2016-12-01

    Lumbar discal cysts are rare entities causing radicular pain with unknown etiologies. We report a case of a 42-year-old man who developed radiculopathy secondary to a lumbar discal cyst. Our case sheds some light on anatomy, possible etiological association and clinical course which can help management.

  9. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  10. Distinguishing postganglionic from preganglionic lesions. Studies in rabbits with surgically produced Horner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skarf, B; Czarnecki, J S

    1982-08-01

    It has been suggested that the pupillary response to hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide eyedrops will separate distal from proximal lesions of the sympathetic pathway from the brain to the eye (the pupil fails to dilate in postganglionic lesions). We studied the pupillary response to hydroxyamphetamine in two groups of rabbits with surgically produced Horner's syndrome. Rabbits in one group had postganglionic lesions. In all animals, a miotic pupil developed ipsilateral to the surgical lesion, and oculosympathetic paresis was confirmed in each by testing pupillary response to topically applied cocaine. In rabbits with postganglionic lesions, hydroxyamphetamine failed to dilate the miotic (Horner's) pupils as well as it dilated the normal pupils, while in rabbits with preganglionic lesions both miotic and normal pupils dilated equally. Hydroxyamphetamine appears to be a diagnostically useful drug in Horner's syndrome.

  11. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  12. A novel method of anterior lumbosacral cage reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Kaloostian, Paul Edward; Bydon, Ali; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Witham, Timothy F

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction is a considerable challenge for spinal surgeons due to the unique anatomical constraints of this region as well as the vectors of force that are applied focally in this area. The standard cages, both expandable and nonexpendable, often fail to reconstitute the appropriate anatomical alignment of the lumbosacral junction. This inadequate reconstruction may predispose the patient to continued back pain and neurological symptoms as well as possible pseudarthrosis and instrumentation failure. The authors describe their preoperative planning and the technical characteristics of their novel reconstruction technique at the lumbosacral junction using a cage with adjustable caps. Based precisely on preoperative measurements that maintain the appropriate Cobb angle, they performed reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction in a series of 3 patients. All 3 patients had excellent installation of the cages used for reconstruction. Postoperative CT scans were used to radiographically confirm the appropriate reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction. All patients had a significant reduction in pain, had neurological improvement, and experienced no instrumentation failure at the time of latest follow-up. Taking into account the inherent morphology of the lumbosacral junction and carefully planning the technical characteristics of the cage installation preoperatively and intraoperatively, the authors achieved favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes in all 3 cases. Based on this small case series, this technique for reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction appears to be a safe and appropriate method of reconstruction of the anterior spinal column in this technically challenging region of the spine.

  13. Leptin is essential for microglial activation and neuropathic pain after preganglionic cervical root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Ting; Lin, Yi-Lo; Lin, Chi-Te; Hong, Chen-Jei; Tsai, May-Jywan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lee, Yi-Yen; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Ming-Chao

    2017-10-15

    Preganglionic cervical root avulsion (PCRA) affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems and is often associated with neuropathic pain. Unlike peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), central lesions caused by disruption of cervical roots from the spinal cord following PCRA contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. Leptin is involved in the development of neuropathic pain after PNI by affecting neurons. However, whether leptin is involved in microglial activation leading to neuropathic pain after PCRA is unknown. Preganglionic avulsion of the left 6(th)-8(th) cervical roots was performed in C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice. A leptin antagonist or leptin was administered to C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice after injury, respectively. The expression pattern of spinal and supraspinal microglia was examined by immunofluorescent staining. Von Frey filaments were used to test pain sensitivity. Leptin is essential for the development of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Allodynia was absent in the leptin-deficient mice and the mice administered the leptin antagonist. We also found that leptin deficiency or the administration of its antagonist inhibited the development of microgliosis in the dorsal horn and brainstem. Furthermore, increase in the expression of CD86 and iNOS, and Wallerian degeneration were noted in the spinal cord. The administration of exogenous leptin to leptin-deficient mice reversed these effects. We concluded that leptin is involved in the proliferation and activation of microglia, which in turn enhances the development of neuropathic pain. Blocking the effects of leptin might be a target for the treatment of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effectiveness of Transforaminal Versus Caudal Routes for Epidural Steroid Injections in Managing Lumbosacral Radicular Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhou, Hengxing; Lu, Lu; Li, Xueying; Jia, Jun; Shi, Zhongju; Yao, Xue; Wu, Qiuli; Feng, Shiqing

    2016-05-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is one of the most commonly used treatments for radiculopathy. Previous studies have described the effectiveness of ESI in the management of radiculopathy. However, controversy exists regarding the route that is most beneficial and effective with respect to the administration of epidural steroids, as both transforaminal (TF) and caudal (C) routes are commonly used.This analysis reviewed studies comparing the effectiveness of TF-ESIs with that of C-ESIs in the treatment of radiculopathy as a means of providing pain relief and improving functionality. This meta-analysis was performed to guide clinical decision-making.The study was a systematic review of comparative studies.A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for trials written in English. The randomized trials and observational studies that met our inclusion criteria were subsequently included. Two reviewers, respectively, extracted data and estimated the risk of bias. All statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3.Six prospective and 2 retrospective studies involving 664 patients were included. Statistical analysis was performed utilizing only the 6 prospective studies. Although slight pain and functional improvements were noted in the TF-ESI groups compared with the C-ESI groups, these improvements were neither clinically nor statistically significant.The limitations of this meta-analysis resulted primarily from the weaknesses of the comparative studies and the relative paucity of patients included in each study.Both the TF and C approaches are effective in reducing pain and improving functional scores, and they demonstrated similar efficacies in the management of lumbosacral radicular pain.

  15. [Modified Galveston technology for lumbosacral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jianping; Feng, Daxiong; Ye, Fei; Li, Jun

    2009-12-01

    To study the clinical effects of modified Galveston technology in the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis. From January 2001 to May 2008, 19 patients with lumbosacral tuberculosis were treated, including 13 males and 6 females aged 21-58 years old (average 38 years old). The course of disease was 8-22 months. The tuberculosis was at the L4-S1 level in 3 cases, the L5, S1 level in 10 cases, the L5-S2 level in 5 cases, and the S1, 2 level in 1 case. Seven cases were complicated with neural symptom of the lower limbs, 3 cases of them were grade C and 4 cases were grade D according to the Frankel scale of nerve function. The preoperative JOA score of lower back pain was 5-22 (average 19). Six cases were complicated with iliac abscess, 3 cases with psoas abscess, 3 cases with sacroiliac joint tuberculosis, and 2 cases with pulmonary tuberculosis. For 12 patients, the operation of modified Galveston internal fixation via the posterior approach, focus debridement via vertebral canal, and interbody fusion with autogenous iliac bone fragment grafting was performed; for 7 cases, the operation of modified Galveston internal fixation via the posterior approach, vertebral lamina fusion with autogenous iliac bone fragment grafting, and anterior focus debridement was performed. The incision of 18 cases was healed by first intention, and 1 case had sinus 3 weeks after operation and healed 3 months after operation. Nineteen patients were followed up for 12-82 months (average 21 months). There was no recurrence of the local tuberculosis, and the common toxic symptom of tuberculosis disappeared 6-12 months after operation. All the patients achieved bony fusion 4-6 months postoperatively, and 3 patients with sacroiliac joint tuberculosis achieved sacroiliac joint fusion. For those 7 patients with combinations of the neural symptom of the lower limbs, the symptoms disappeared and their Frankel scales were improved to grade E. The JOA score of low back pain at the final follow-up was

  16. Pelvic anatomy relative to lumbosacral instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Miller, F; Moseley, C; Koreska, J

    1990-06-01

    Anatomical study of 72 pelves revealed that the most substantial area of bone that could best support a rod for surgical fixation is the body of the ilium, with the best part of the bone being the area above the sciatic notch. Placement of the rods into the body of the ilium provides good fixation but requires complex bending of the rods and a good three-dimensional perception of the osseous anatomy of the pelvis. This study was undertaken to define the intraosseous anatomy and the range of anatomical variation of the ilium. The results of this study are useful in developing a prebent spinal fixation rod, providing a better understanding of this anatomical area from a three-dimensional perspective and providing better lumbosacral spinal instrumentation.

  17. A Case of Lumbosacral Arachnoiditis Ossificans

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Yuichi; Sudo, Takao; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Akeda, Koji; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 13-year-old boy who complained of pain in both buttocks. Plain and reconstructive computed tomography (CT) images showed an ossified lesion within the dura mater at the L5–S2 levels, and arachnoiditis ossificans in the lumbosacral area was suspected. In the operative findings obtained after cutting the dura, a bone fragment 4.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm in size was observed in the center of the strongly adhesive nerve bundle of the cauda equina, which was removed en bloc. The postoperative clinical course of the patient was excellent. The case, along with a review of literature is presented. PMID:28663987

  18. Sacroiliac joint pain after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Recently, the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) has gained increased attention as a source of persistent or new pain after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion. The underlying pathophysiology of SIJ pain may be increased mechanical load, iliac crest bone grafting, or a misdiagnosis of SIJ syndrome. Imaging studies show more frequent degeneration of the SIJ in patients with lumbar/lumbosacral fusion than in patients without such fusion. Using injection tests, it has been shown that SIJ pain is the cause of persistent symptoms in a considerable number of patients after fusion surgery. Recent articles reporting on surgical outcomes of SIJ fusion include a high percentage of patients who had lumbar/lumbosacral fusion or surgery before, although well-controlled clinical studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment. Taking these findings into consideration, the possibility that the SIJ is the source of pain should be considered in patients with failed back surgery syndrome after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion.

  19. Peroneal neuropathy misdiagnosed as L5 radiculopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented with a case of peroneal neuropathy that was originally diagnosed and treated as a L5 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 53-year old female registered nurse presented to a private chiropractic practice with complaints of left lateral leg pain. Three months earlier she underwent elective left L5 decompression surgery without relief of symptoms. Intervention and outcome Lumbar spine MRI seven months prior to lumbar decompression surgery revealed left neural foraminal stenosis at L5-S1. The patient symptoms resolved after she stopped crossing her legs. Conclusion This report discusses a case of undiagnosed peroneal neuropathy that underwent lumbar decompression surgery for a L5 radiculopathy. This case study demonstrates the importance of a thorough clinical examination and decision making that ensures proper patient diagnosis and management. PMID:23618508

  20. Spinal manipulation or mobilization for radiculopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Brent; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni; Reiter, Todd

    2011-02-01

    In this systematic review, we present a comprehensive and up-to-date systematic review of the literature as it relates to the efficacy and effectiveness of spinal manipulation or mobilization in the management of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar-related extremity pain. There is moderate quality evidence that spinal manipulation is effective for the treatment of acute lumbar radiculopathy. The quality of evidence for chronic lumbar spine-related extremity symptoms and cervical spine-related extremity symptoms of any duration is low or very low. At present, no evidence exists for the treatment of thoracic radiculopathy. Future high-quality studies should address these conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S. K.; Sundar, I. Vijay; Sharma, Vinod; Goel, Ravishankar S.

    2012-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine that can present with neurological symptoms or be discovered accidentally. Intradural location of such cysts especially in the lumbosacral region is relatively rare. The association of such cysts with other congenital anomalies such as tethered cord lends evidence to the developmental origin of arachnoid cysts. We report a case of lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord in a 6-year-old male child and discuss the etiopathogenesis and management options. PMID:24082689

  2. C7 radiculopathy: importance of scapular winging in clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Makin, G J; Brown, W F; Ebers, G C

    1986-01-01

    Lesions of the seventh cervical (C7) root are common and cause a readily recognised neurological syndrome. Recognition of this pattern is essential in differentiating C7 root lesions from lesions of the brachial plexus or peripheral nerves. Serratus anterior weakness is not generally included in this syndrome. We report six verified cases of C7 radiculopathy in which weakness of the serratus anterior was present in addition to the usual findings. This was manifest as winging of the scapula, when pushing forward against a wall, either with the hands at shoulder level or, in some cases, only when the hands were lowered to waist level. This latter method of testing places the muscle at a mechanical disadvantage and reveals partial paralysis. Analysis of this clinical finding complements anatomical evidence suggesting that the powerful lower digitations of the muscle may be primarily supplied by the C7 root in some cases. Scapular winging, apparent either in the usual position or the modified position described here, should be recognised as consistent with a diagnosis of C7 radiculopathy. When present, this sign serves to differentiate C7 radiculopathy from lesions of the brachial plexus or radial nerve. Images PMID:3734820

  3. [Conservative treatment of cervical radiculopathy with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster].

    PubMed

    Mattozzi, I

    2015-02-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a mixed pain syndrome characterized by neuropathic, skeletal and myofascial pain. This condition is frequently found in developed countries and is a significant source of disability and a reason for frequent medical consultation. In our Pain Therapy Centre, cervical radiculopathy is initially treated with bi-weekly cycles of mesotherapy coupled, at least 15 days later, with physiotherapy to reach the complete mobilization of cervical spine. Cervical radiculopathy is a localized neuro-pathic pain and in agreement with international guidelines, we checked if patients treated topically with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster may benefit in improving pain management and in reducing the time necessary to start physiotherapy. A retrospective study was carried out on 60 patients, of which 30 were treated with mesotherapy and 30 were treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. Data for a total of 30 days observation were collected from the patient medical records. In particular, besides medical history, intensity of pain, intensity of allodynia and pain were considered. For all analyzed parameters, both treatments were effective, but patients treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed faster control of the painful symptoms, an essential condition for an earlier rehabilitative treatment.

  4. C7 radiculopathy: importance of scapular winging in clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Makin, G J; Brown, W F; Ebers, G C

    1986-06-01

    Lesions of the seventh cervical (C7) root are common and cause a readily recognised neurological syndrome. Recognition of this pattern is essential in differentiating C7 root lesions from lesions of the brachial plexus or peripheral nerves. Serratus anterior weakness is not generally included in this syndrome. We report six verified cases of C7 radiculopathy in which weakness of the serratus anterior was present in addition to the usual findings. This was manifest as winging of the scapula, when pushing forward against a wall, either with the hands at shoulder level or, in some cases, only when the hands were lowered to waist level. This latter method of testing places the muscle at a mechanical disadvantage and reveals partial paralysis. Analysis of this clinical finding complements anatomical evidence suggesting that the powerful lower digitations of the muscle may be primarily supplied by the C7 root in some cases. Scapular winging, apparent either in the usual position or the modified position described here, should be recognised as consistent with a diagnosis of C7 radiculopathy. When present, this sign serves to differentiate C7 radiculopathy from lesions of the brachial plexus or radial nerve.

  5. Endoscopic foraminotomy for recurrent lumbar radiculopathy after TLIF: Technical report

    PubMed Central

    Telfeian, Albert E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a well-accepted fusion technique that uses unilateral facet removal as an oblique corridor for inserting an interbody spacer. This manuscript focused on five cases of endoscopic foraminotomy for patients presenting with recurrent radiculopathy after TLIF procedures. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, charts from five patients with lumbar radiculopathy and instrumented TLIF procedures who underwent subsequent endoscopic procedures between 2011 and 2013 were reviewed. Results: The average pain relief 1 year postoperatively was reported to be 63.8%, good results as defined by MacNab. The average preoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score was 9.5, indicated in our questionnaire as severe and constant pain. The average 1 year postoperative VAS score was 3.5, indicated in our questionnaire as mild and intermittent pain. Conclusion: Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy could be used as a safe, yet, minimally invasive and innovative technique for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of previous instrumented lumbar fusion. IRB approval: Lifespan: IRB Study # 600415 PMID:25949850

  6. Differentiation between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Extraforaminal Stenosis in Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebra: Role of Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Lumbosacral Radiculography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woon; Lee, Jae Kyo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of lumbosacral radiculography using 3-dimentional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) rendering for diagnostic information of symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 18 patients with symptomatic (n = 10) and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis (n = 8) in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Each patient underwent 3D coronal fast-field echo sequences with selective water excitation using the principles of the selective excitation technique (Proset imaging). Morphologic changes of the L5 nerve roots at the symptomatic and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis were evaluated on 3D MR rendered images of the lumbosacral spine. Results Ten cases with symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. On 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation of the L5 nerve roots was found in two cases, while swelling of the nerve roots was seen in eight cases at the exiting nerve root. Eight cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. Based on 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve roots was not found in any cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Conclusion Results from 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography Indicate the indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve root in symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Based on these findings, 3D MR radiculography may be helpful in the diagnosis of the symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. PMID:22778561

  7. Differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis in lumbosacral transitional vertebra: role of three-dimensional magnetic resonance lumbosacral radiculography.

    PubMed

    Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Jae Woon; Lee, Jae Kyo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of lumbosacral radiculography using 3-dimentional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) rendering for diagnostic information of symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. The study population consisted of 18 patients with symptomatic (n = 10) and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis (n = 8) in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Each patient underwent 3D coronal fast-field echo sequences with selective water excitation using the principles of the selective excitation technique (Proset imaging). Morphologic changes of the L5 nerve roots at the symptomatic and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis were evaluated on 3D MR rendered images of the lumbosacral spine. Ten cases with symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. On 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation of the L5 nerve roots was found in two cases, while swelling of the nerve roots was seen in eight cases at the exiting nerve root. Eight cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. Based on 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve roots was not found in any cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Results from 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography Indicate the indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve root in symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Based on these findings, 3D MR radiculography may be helpful in the diagnosis of the symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra.

  8. Accuracy of physical examination for chronic lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical examination of patients with chronic lumbar radiculopathy aims to clarify whether there is nerve root impingement. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between findings at clinical examination and nerve root impingement, to evaluate the accuracy of clinical index tests in a specialised care setting, and to see whether imaging clarifies the cause of chronic radicular pain. Methods A total of 116 patients referred with symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy lasting more than 12 weeks and at least one positive index test were included. The tests were the straight leg raising test, and tests for motor muscle strength, dermatome sensory loss, and reflex impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (n = 109) or computer tomography (n = 7) were imaging reference standards. Images were analysed at the level of single nerve root(s), and nerve root impingement was classified as present or absent. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) for detection of nerve root impingement were calculated for each individual index test. An overall clinical evaluation, concluding on the level and side of the radiculopathy, was performed. Results The prevalence of disc herniation was 77.8%. The diagnostic accuracy of individual index tests was low with no tests reaching positive LR >4.0 or negative LR <0.4. The overall clinical evaluation was slightly more accurate, with a positive LR of 6.28 (95% CI 1.06–37.21) for L4, 1.74 (95% CI 1.04–2.93) for L5, and 1.29 (95% CI 0.97–1.72) for S1 nerve root impingement. An overall clinical evaluation, concluding on the level and side of the radiculopathy was also performed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with area under the curve (AUC) calculation for diagnostic accuracy of this evaluation was performed. Conclusions The accuracy of individual clinical index tests used to predict imaging findings of nerve root impingement in patients with chronic lumbar

  9. Lumbosacral lordosis in fetal spine: genetic or mechanic parameter.

    PubMed

    Choufani, Elie; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Pomero, Vincent; Adalian, Pascal; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Many believe that the fetus spine had only one curvature from cranial to caudal which is a global kyphosis and that the lumbosacral lordosis appears with the erect posture. They agree that the sacrum of Homo sapiens is not positioned posteriorly at birth and that it is during the first few years that the sacrum, in humans, moves dorsally in relation with the progressive acquisition of erect posture and the ontogeny of bipedal locomotion. Nevertheless, there is no biometric study assessing these parameters in vivo in utero during the fetal life. Cross-sectional biometric study of the lumbosacral junction of the spine in in utero fetuses was to document the presence of a lumbosacral lordosis in the fetal population in utero long before standing and walking and its change during growth. Forty-five MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) of fetuses aged of 23-40 weeks of gestation were analyzed. The measurements were performed on computerized MRI DICOM images using a professional software to calculate the curvature and radius of the lumbosacral junction. The presence or absence of visual lumbosacral lordosis was noted for each case. Correlation tests were performed in order to disclose a correlation between the gestational age and the curvature calculated. A test was considered significant for P < 0.01. There were 14 males, 17 females and 14 undetermined. All the curves (100%) showed mathematically the presence of a lordosis in the lumbosacral region. The visual lumbosacral lordosis was present in 60% of cases. The measurement of the lumbosacral curvature varies between -0.133 and -0.033 mm(-1) and a mean of -0.054 mm(-1) with a corresponding radius ranging from -7 to -303 mm with a mean of -18.7 mm. The statistical analysis showed no correlation between the gestational age and the lumbosacral curvature (R (2) = 0.11). The hypothesis of increased lumbosacral lordosis with gestational age is rejected. It is difficult to accurately determine the role played separately by

  10. Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment in Association to Intervertebral Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Farid; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Mahdavi, Ali; Saberi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A cross-sectional case-control study was designed to compare the sagittal alignment of lumbosacral regions in two groups of patients suffering from low back pain, one with intervertebral disc pathologies and one without. Purpose To evaluate the correlation between lumbosacral sagittal alignment and disc degeneration. Overview of Literature Changes in lumbar lordosis and pelvic parameters in degenerative disc lesions have been assessed in few studies. Overall, patients with discopathy were shown to have lower lumbar lordosis and more vertical sacral profiles. Methods From patients with intractable low back pain undergoing lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging, 50 subjects with disc degeneration and 50 controls with normal scans were consecutively enrolled. A method was defined with anterior tangent-lines going through anterior bodies of L1 and S1 to measure global lumbosacral angle, incorporating both lumbar lordosis and sacral slope. Global lumbosacral angle using the proposed method and lumbar lordosis using Cobb's method were measured in both groups. Results Lumbar lordosis based on Cobb's method was lower in group with discopathy (20°-67°; mean, 40.48°±9.89°) than control group (30°-62°; mean, 44.96°±7.68°), although it was not statistically significant. The proposed global lumbosacral angle in subject group (53°-103°; mean, 76.5°±11.018°) was less than control group (52°-101°; mean, 80.18°±9.95°), with the difference being statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusions Patients with intervertebral disc lesions seem to have more straightened lumbosacral profiles, but it has not been proven which comes first: disc degeneration or changes in sagittal alignment. Finding an answer to this dilemma demands more comprehensive long-term prospective studies. PMID:25558325

  11. The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N

    1976-01-01

    The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the cat were studied by gross dissection. The L1-6 dorsal rami form three discrete branches - lateral, intermediate and medial. The lateral branches supply the iliocostalis lumborum and become cutaneous over the back. The intermediate branches ramify in the longissimus lumborum, and are separated from the lateral branches by the lumbar intermuscular septum. The medial branches supply the multifidus and have a constant branch - the nerve to intertransversarii mediales. The L7 dorsal ramus forms only medial and intermediate branches. The S1 and S2 dorsal rami form three branches, the middle of which form the ascending sacral trunk and accessory ascending sacral trunk. The ascending sacral trunk is derived from S1 and S2, the accessory ascending sacral trunk from S2. Both nerves are the exclusive nerve supply of lumbococcygeus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1010794

  12. Sectional neuroanatomy of the lumbosacral spine (L1-S5).

    PubMed

    Chiou-Tan, Faye Y; Miller, Jessica S; Zhang, Han; Kass, Joseph S; Taber, Katherine H

    2007-01-01

    This paper will review the lumbosacral spine (L1-S5). Procedures performed in the lumbosacral spine include electromyography, spinal stimulator implants, spinal infusion implants for spasticity or pain medications, sacroiliac spine injections, facet blocks, and steroid injections. Complications from these procedures include iatrogenic paraplegia or paraplegia due to transverse myelitis, intravascular penetration, dural puncture, increased pain at the injection site, increased radicular pain, increased spine pain, lightheadedness, nausea, nonspecific headache, and vomiting. Long-term complications include implant infection, implant or catheter dislodgment/kinking, and device failure. This paper provides anatomically accurate schematics of innervations of the lumbosacral spine (L1-S5) that can be used to interpret magnetic resonance images of the muscles and nerves. Cross-sectional schematics of the lumbosacral spine were drawn as they appear on imaging projections. The relevant nerves were color coded. The muscles and skin surfaces were labeled and assigned the color of the appropriate nerves. An organized comprehensive map of the motor innervation of the lumbosacral spine allows the physician to increase the accuracy and efficacy of interventional procedures. This anatomical map could also assist the electromyographer in correlating the clinical and electrophysiological findings on magnetic resonance images.

  13. Distinct degree of radiculopathy at different levels of peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lumbar radiculopathy is a common clinical problem, characterized by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) injury and neural hyperactivity causing intense pain. However, the mechanisms involved in DRG injury have not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, little is known about the degree of radiculopathy at the various levels of nerve injury. The purpose of this study is to compare the degree of radiculopathy injury at the DRG and radiculopathy injury proximal or distal to the DRG. Results The lumbar radiculopathy rat model was created by ligating the L5 nerve root 2 mm proximal to the DRG or 2 mm distal to the DRG with 6.0 silk. We examined the degree of the radiculopathy using different points of mechanical sensitivity, immunohistochemistry and in vivo patch-clamp recordings, 7 days after surgery. The rats injured distal to the DRG were more sensitive than those rats injured proximal to the DRG in the behavioral study. The number of activated microglia in laminas I–II of the L5 segmental level was significantly increased in rats injured distal to the DRG when compared with rats injured proximal to the DRG. The amplitudes and frequencies of EPSC in the rats injured distal to the DRG were higher than those injured proximal to the DRG. The results indicated that there is a different degree of radiculopathy at the distal level of nerve injury. Conclusions Our study examined the degree of radiculopathy at different levels of nerve injury. Severe radiculopathy occurred in rats injured distal to the DRG when compared with rats injured proximal to the DRG. This finding helps to correctly diagnose a radiculopathy. PMID:22537715

  14. Bias in the physical examination of patients with lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background No prior studies have examined systematic bias in the musculoskeletal physical examination. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bias due to prior knowledge of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI) on perceived diagnostic accuracy of the physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy. Methods This was a cross-sectional comparison of the performance characteristics of the physical examination with blinding to MRI results (the 'independent group') with performance in the situation where the physical examination was not blinded to MRI results (the 'non-independent group'). The reference standard was the final diagnostic impression of nerve root impingement by the examining physician. Subjects were recruited from a hospital-based outpatient specialty spine clinic. All adults age 18 and older presenting with lower extremity radiating pain of duration ≤ 12 weeks were evaluated for participation. 154 consecutively recruited subjects with lumbar disk herniation confirmed by lumbar spine MRI were included in this study. Sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the independent and non-independent groups for the four components of the radiculopathy examination: 1) provocative testing, 2) motor strength testing, 3) pinprick sensory testing, and 4) deep tendon reflex testing. Results The perceived sensitivity of sensory testing was higher with prior knowledge of MRI results (20% vs. 36%; p = 0.05). Sensitivities and specificities for exam components otherwise showed no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions Prior knowledge of lumbar MRI results may introduce bias into the pinprick sensory testing component of the physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy. No statistically significant effect of bias was seen for other components of the physical examination. The effect of bias due to prior knowledge of lumbar MRI results should be considered when an isolated

  15. Current techniques in the management of cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Carter S; O'Toole, John E

    2014-04-01

    Posterior decompressive procedures are a fundamental component of the surgical treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative disease. Posterior approaches have the appeal of avoiding complications associated with anterior approaches such as esophageal injury, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, dysphagia, and adjacent-level disease after fusion. Although open procedures are effective, the extensive subperiosteal stripping of the paraspinal musculature leads to increased blood loss, longer hospital stays, and more postoperative pain, and potentially contributes to instability. Minimally invasive access has been developed to limit approach-related morbidity. This article reviews current techniques in minimally invasive surgical management of cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy.

  16. [Brachioradial pruritus as a symptom of cervical radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Mataix, J; Silvestre, J F; Climent, J M; Pastor, N; Lucas, A

    2008-11-01

    Brachioradial pruritus is characterized by the presence of pruritus on the lateral aspect of the arms. The etiology of this enigmatic entity is the subject of some debate some authors claim that brachioradial pruritus is a photodermatosis whereas others attribute it to the presence of underlying cervical radiculopathy. In these case reports, we present our experience with brachioradial pruritus and discuss the role of underlying neuropathy in its etiology and that of other types of localized pruritus such as notalgia paresthetica, anogenital pruritus, and burning mouth syndrome.

  17. Intraoperative conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots associated with spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Popa, Iulian; Poenaru, Dan V; Oprea, Manuel D; Andrei, Diana

    2013-07-01

    Lumbosacral nerve roots anomalies may produce low back pain. These anomalies are reported to be a cause for failed back surgery. They are usually left undiagnosed, especially in endoscopic discectomy techniques. Any surgery for entrapment disorders, performed on a patient with undiagnosed lumbosacral nerve roots anomaly, may lead to serious neural injuries because of an improper surgical technique or decompression. In this report, we describe our experience with a case of L5-S1 spondylolisthesis and associated congenital lumbosacral nerve root anomalies discovered during the surgical intervention, and the difficulties raised by such a discovery. Careful examination of coronal and axial views obtained through high-quality Magnetic Resonance Imaging may lead to a proper diagnosis of this condition leading to an adequate surgical planning, minimizing the intraoperatory complications.

  18. Reflex secretion of proteins into submandibular saliva in conscious rats, before and after preganglionic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, R; Garrett, J R; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2000-08-15

    1. An indwelling catheter was placed in the left submandibular duct of rats, under pentobarbitone anaesthesia, and connected to an outflow cannula that emerged above the skull. 2. Saliva was collected from the outflow cannula in conscious rats, the same day after recovery from anaesthesia, under four different reflex conditions: grooming, heat exposure, rejection of a bitter tasting substance and feeding on softened chow, repeated in different orders. 3. Saliva flow was greatest for grooming and least for rejection. Protein concentrations were least with heat but much greater and similar for the other stimulations. Acinar peroxidase activity was high for feeding, intermediate for grooming and rejection, and again lowest with heat. Tubular tissue kallikrein activities were moderately low, being greatest with feeding and least with grooming. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) concentration was least with heat and similar for the other stimulations. 4. The next day, under pentobarbitone anaesthesia, the left preganglionic sympathetic trunk was sectioned (sympathetic decentralization) and, after recovery, the preceding stimulations were repeated. Flow of saliva showed little change, but protein and peroxidase concentrations and outputs decreased dramatically with grooming, rejection and feeding to levels similar to those with heat, which showed little change. Tissue kallikrein was lowered less dramatically, but the reductions in output were significant except with heat. Patterns of proteins resolved by electrophoresis changed for grooming, rejection and feeding and became similar to saliva from heat, which showed little change. No significant effects on SIgA concentrations occurred. 5. Gland weights from the sympathetically decentralized side were greater than from the intact side at the end of the experiments and histologically showed retention of acinar mucin. 6. Thus reflex sympathetic drive varied with the different stimulations; it was least during heat, but it had

  19. Brain-to-stomach transfer of α-synuclein via vagal preganglionic projections.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ayse; Phillips, Robert J; Helwig, Michael; Klinkenberg, Michael; Powley, Terry L; Di Monte, Donato A

    2017-03-01

    Detection of α-synuclein lesions in peripheral tissues is a feature of human synucleinopathies of likely pathogenetic relevance and bearing important clinical implications. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the relationship between α-synuclein accumulation in the brain and in peripheral organs, and to identify potential pathways involved in long-distance protein transfer. Results of this in vivo study revealed a route-specific transmission of α-synuclein from the rat brain to the stomach. Following targeted midbrain overexpression of human α-synuclein, the exogenous protein was capable of reaching the gastric wall where it was accumulated into preganglionic vagal terminals. This brain-to-stomach connection likely involved intra- and inter-neuronal transfer of non-fibrillar α-synuclein that first reached the medulla oblongata, then gained access into cholinergic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and finally traveled via efferent fibers of these neurons contained within the vagus nerve. Data also showed a particular propensity of vagal motor neurons and efferents to accrue α-synuclein and deliver it to peripheral tissues; indeed, following its midbrain overexpression, human α-synuclein was detected within gastric nerve endings of visceromotor but not viscerosensory vagal projections. Thus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve represents a key relay center for central-to-peripheral α-synuclein transmission, and efferent vagal fibers may act as unique conduits for protein transfer. The presence of α-synuclein in peripheral tissues could reflect, at least in some synucleinopathy patients, an ongoing pathological process that originates within the brain and, from there, reaches distant organs innervated by motor vagal projections.

  20. Intermittent claudication due to ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemuth, W.; Rottach, K.; Stoehr, M

    1999-01-01

    The distinct clinical syndrome of exercise induced ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus is not a widely known cause for intermittent claudication. Eight patients with the mentioned syndrome were investigated clinically, neurophysiologically, and with imaging techniques. The clinical examination showed a typical exercise induced sequence of symptoms: pain, paraesthesia, and sensory and motor deficits. The underlying vascular conditions were high grade stenoses or occlusions of the arteries supplying the lumbosacral plexus. Spinal stenosis could be excluded in all cases. Five patients received successful interventional radiological therapy. The syndrome can be diagnosed clinically and successful therapy is possible by interventional radiology.

 PMID:10567501

  1. ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN-IMMUNOPOSITIVE MYENTERIC NEURONS AND VAGAL PREGANGLIONIC TERMINALS: AUTONOMIC PATHWAY IMPLICATED IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert J.; Walter, Gary C.; Wilder, Sarah L.; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A.; Powley, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein is implicated in the development of Parkinson’s disease. The molecule forms Lewy body aggregates that are hallmarks of the disease, has been associated with the spread of neuropathology from the peripheral to the central nervous system, and appears to be involved with the autonomic disorders responsible for the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of individuals afflicted with Parkinson’s. To characterize the normative expression of alpha-synuclein in the innervation of the GI tract, we examined both the postganglionic neurons and the preganglionic projections by which the disease is postulated to retrogradely invade the CNS. Specifically, in Fischer 344 and Sprague Dawley rats, immunohistochemistry in conjunction with injections of the tracer Dextran-Texas Red was used to determine, respectively, the expression of alpha-synuclein in the myenteric plexus and in the vagal terminals. Alpha-synuclein is expressed in a subpopulation of myenteric neurons, with the proportion of positive somata increasing from the stomach (~3%) through duodenum (proximal, ~6%; distal, ~13%) to jejunum (~22%). Alpha-synuclein is co-expressed with the nitrergic enzyme NOS or the cholinergic markers calbindin and calretinin in regionally specific patterns: ~90% of forestomach neurons positive for alpha-synuclein express NOS, whereas ~92% of corpus-antrum neurons positive for alpha-synuclein express cholinergic markers. Vagal afferent endings in the myenteric plexus and the GI smooth muscle do not express alpha-synuclein, whereas, virtually all vagal preganglionic projections to the gut express alpha-synuclein, both in axons and in terminal varicosites in apposition with myenteric neurons. Vagotomy eliminates most, but not all, alpha-synuclein-positive neurites in the plexus. Some vagal preganglionic efferents expressing alpha-synuclein form varicose terminal rings around myenteric plexus neurons that are also positive for the protein, thus providing a candidate

  2. [Radiculopathy in patients with Heerfordt's syndrome: two case presentations and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Kousuke; Fukuhara, Aika; Tsugawa, Jun; Oma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio

    2013-08-01

    As a subtype of the clinical presentations associated with sarcoidosis, the combination of uveitis, parotid gland swelling, and facial nerve palsy is known as Heerfordt's syndrome. This syndrome is an extremely rare disorder that has been estimated to affect only 4.1-5.6% of patients with sarcoidosis. We present 2 cases of Heerfordt's syndrome associated with radiculopathy in the trunk. The 2 patients experienced unilateral or bilateral radiculopathy in the trunk and in the trigeminal nerve area associated with Heerfordt's syndrome. Radiculopathy is also a rare manifestation in patients with neurosarcoidosis. A literature review revealed that only 51 cases of radiculopathy associated with sarcoidosis have been documented. A diagnosis of Heerfordt's syndrome was observed in 7 out of these 51 cases. Together with our 2 cases, 9 out of 53 patients with radiculopathy associated with sarcoidosis have been diagnosed as having Heerfordt's syndrome (estimated frequency, 16.9%). In conclusion, radiculopathy is a common neurological manifestation in patients with Heerfordt's syndrome. On the basis of our experience, we suggest that physicians consider the possibility of Heerfordt's syndrome in cases of radiculopathy with unknown cause.

  3. Extensor digitorum brevis reflex in normals and patients with radiculopathies.

    PubMed

    Marin, R; Dillingham, T R; Chang, A; Belandres, P V

    1995-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the extensor digitorum brevis deep tendon reflex (EDBR) in a normal population and in patients with L-5 and S-1 radiculopathies. There were 88 subjects: 53 normals, 17 L-5, and 18 S-1 radiculopathy subjects. The clinical EDBR revealed a 91% specificity, with 18% sensitivity for L-5, and 11% for S-1. The electrodiagnostic EDBR yielded increased sensitivities of 35% for L-5 (P = 0.07) and 39% for S-1 (P = 0.04), with 87% specificity. H-reflexes showed 50% sensitivity for the S-1 group (P = 0.0006) and 91% specificity. EDBR latencies were significantly related to age and leg length (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.0001). Age alone explained 26% (P < 0.0001) of the EDBR variability and leg length 20% (P < 0.0001). EDBR clinical and electrodiagnostic reflexes have low sensitivities, high specificities, and do not discriminate L-5 from S-1 root involvement.

  4. Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma "Chloroma" Presenting as Cervical Radiculopathy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Shahab, Imran; Lieberman, Isador H

    2015-06-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level. The patient underwent posterior cervical open biopsy, laminectomy, and decompression. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Postoperatively, a bone marrow biopsy was done, which showed myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. The patient then received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Results At the 10-month follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of arm pain and neck pain. X-rays showed that the overall cervical alignment was intact and there was no evidence of a recurrent lesion. MRI showed no evidence of compressive or remnant lesion. Conclusions Spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy is rare, and it may be easily misdiagnosed. Knowledge of its clinical presentation, imaging, and histologic characterization can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  5. The effects of propanidid on arterial pressure, pulse rate, preganglionic sympathetic activity and barostatic reflexes in the cat.

    PubMed

    Wisborg, K; Sapthavichaikul, S; Skovsted, P

    1977-07-01

    We have studied the effects of propanidid on preganglionic cervical sympathetic nervous activity, arterial pressure, pulse rate and barostatic reflexes of the cat. Normal, hypertensive, baroreceptor denervated and decerebrate animals with sectioned vagal nerves were studied. On the basis of our findings it is concluded that propanidid exerts its depressant action on the cardiovascular system directly. Central circulatory control mechanisms are essentially unaffected. The depression of arterial pressure caused by propanidid is moderated by two compensatory mechanisms: normal barostatic reflexes causing an increased sympathetic tone in response to hypotension and a vagolytic action of propanidid.

  6. Sacral Stress Fracture Mimicking Lumbar Radiculopathy in a Mounted Police Officer: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bednar, Drew A.; Almansoori, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Objective To present a unique case of L5 radiculopathy caused by a sacral stress fracture without neurologic compression. Methods We present our case and its clinical evolution and review the available literature on similar pathologies. Results Relief of the unusual mechanical loading causing sacral stress fracture led to rapid resolution of radiculopathy. Conclusion L5 radiculopathy can be caused by a sacral stress fracture and can be relieved by simple mechanical treatment of the fracture. PMID:26430605

  7. Office evaluation of spine and limb pain: spondylotic radiculopathy and other nonstructural mimickers.

    PubMed

    Watson, James

    2011-02-01

    Low back and neck pain, with or without radiculopathy, are one of the most common reasons for referral to an outpatient neurology practice. Determining appropriate treatment relies on establishing an accurate diagnosis of the etiology of the spine or limb pain. The author reviews structural radiculopathies as a result of diskogenic and spondylotic etiologies with an emphasis on the clinical approach and evaluation of these patients (including imaging and electrodiagnostics), identifying management altering neurogenic mimickers of structural radiculopathies (such as infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic myeloradiculitis and radiculoplexopathies), and stratifying patients for treatment.

  8. Variations in the lumbosacral ligament and associated changes in the lumbosacral region resulting in compression of the fifth dorsal root ganglion and spinal nerve.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C A; Chandraraj, S

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five lumbosacral regions from adult cadavers were dissected and the position and relations of the lumbosacral ligament noted. The lumbosacral ligament was present in all specimens; in 22 (34%) it extended medially across the ventral ramus of the fifth lumbar nerve, and in six (9%) of these the underlying nerve was compressed and visibly flattened. On two of these specimens the nerve, together with its dorsal root ganglion, was removed, processed, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The compressed nerve showed increased thickness of endoneurial and perineurial connective tissue, and the cells of the dorsal root ganglion were smaller and surrounded by increased connective tissue, particularly at the periphery of the ganglion. Observation of the lumbosacral ligament and surrounding anatomical structures suggests that anatomical variation in this region may be attributed to the health of the lumbosacral articular elements. In those specimens showing compression of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve there was also narrowing of the lumbosacral interspace. In these the disc itself was compressed and showed degenerative changes. The articular processes at the lumbosacral joint were irregular, with thinning and fissuring of the artiuclar cartilage. It is suggested that the processes which lead to the further development of the ligament, by the formation of additional fibrous bands, are mechanical in nature and result from instability at the lumbosacral region itself. Instability subsequently leads to the initiation of a chain of degenerative changes, involving pathology at the lumbosacral disc and zygapophyseal joints.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Classification of preganglionic neurones projecting into the cat cervical sympathetic trunk.

    PubMed Central

    Boczek-Funcke, A; Dembowsky, K; Häbler, H J; Jänig, W; McAllen, R M; Michaelis, M

    1992-01-01

    1. The spontaneous and reflex activity patterns of 167 single preganglionic axons dissected from the cervical sympathetic trunk were examined in chloralose-anaesthetized cats. Each neurone was classified into one of four major groups, on the basis of three principal criteria: the presence or absence of significant cardiac rhythmicity of the activity, the response to noxious stimulation of the skin, and the coupling of its activity to central inspiratory drive (phrenic nerve activity). Most neurones were also subjected to additional tests, which included carotid chemoreceptor stimulation, nasopharyngeal probing, systemic hypercapnia (ventilation with 8% CO2), hyperventilation, adrenaline-induced blood pressure rises and retinal illumination. 2. Group I neurones (n = 69; 41%) showed significant cardiac rhythmicity, indicating strong baroreceptor control. Most (54/69) were excited by noxious stimuli, the rest being unaffected. Their activity showed variable degrees of excitatory coupling to the central inspiratory drive, and was enhanced by hypercapnia (35/39). Their responses to stimulation of arterial chemoreceptors (12/15) and nasopharyngeal receptors (24/35) were excitatory. 3. Group II neurones (n = 39; 23%) were inhibited by noxious stimulation of skin. With nine exceptions, they showed no significant cardiac rhythmicity, although they were weakly inhibited by an adrenaline-induced blood pressure rise. Their coupling to central inspiratory drive was weak or absent, and their responses to hypercapnia and hyperventilation were variable. By contrast to other groups, they were inhibited by both chemoreceptor stimulation (9/10) and nasopharyngeal stimulation (17/18). 4. Group III neurones (n = 33; 20%) showed no significant cardiac rhythmicity, but their activity was closely coupled to central inspiratory drive. They were inhibited by hyperventilation (9/9) and excited by hypercapnia (20/21), but only fired during the central inspiratory phase and sometimes during

  10. Active and passive membrane properties of rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones innervating the adrenal medulla

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jennifer M M; Coderre, Elaine; Renaud, Leo P; Spanswick, David

    2002-01-01

    The intravascular release of adrenal catecholamines is a fundamental homeostatic process mediated via thoracolumbar spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurones (AD-SPN). To understand mechanisms regulating their excitability, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from 54 retrogradely labelled neonatal rat AD-SPN. Passive membrane properties included a mean resting membrane potential, input resistance and time constant of -62 ± 6 mV, 410 ± 241 MΩ and 104 ± 53 ms, respectively. AD-SPN were homogeneous with respect to their active membrane properties. These active conductances included transient outward rectification, observed as a delayed return to rest at the offset of the membrane response to hyperpolarising current pulses, with two components: a fast 4-AP-sensitive component (A-type conductance), contributing to the after-hyperpolarisation (AHP) and spike repolarisation; a slower prolonged Ba2+-sensitive component (D-like conductance). All AD-SPN expressed a Ba2+-sensitive instantaneous inwardly rectifying conductance activated at membrane potentials more negative than around -80 mV. A potassium-mediated, voltage-dependent sustained outward rectification activated at membrane potentials between -35 and -15 mV featured an atypical pharmacology with a component blocked by quinine, reduced by low extracellular pH and arachidonic acid, but lacking sensitivity to Ba2+, TEA and intracellular Cs+. This quinine-sensitive outward rectification contributes to spike repolarisation. Following block of potassium conductances by Cs+ loading, AD-SPN revealed the capability for autorhythmicity and burst firing, mediated by a T-type Ca2+ conductance. These data suggest the output capability is dynamic and diverse, and that the range of intrinsic membrane conductances expressed endow AD-SPN with the ability to generate differential and complex patterns of activity. The diversity of intrinsic membrane properties expressed by AD-SPN may be key determinants of

  11. Feasibility and safety of lumbosacral epiduroscopy in the standing horse.

    PubMed

    Shrauner, B; Blikslager, A; Davis, J; Campbell, N; Law, M; Lustgarten, M; Prange, T

    2017-05-01

    The large size of the adult horse prevents the use of advanced imaging modalities in most areas of the axial skeleton, including the lumbosacral vertebral column. Traditional imaging techniques are frequently unable to pinpoint the underlying pathology in horses with caudal back pain. In man, lumbosacral epiduroscopy is used to diagnose and treat subjects with chronic back and leg pain. This technique may close the diagnostic gap in horses with similar clinical signs. To evaluate the safety and feasibility of lumbosacral epiduroscopy in the standing adult horse. Descriptive, experimental study. Seven adult horses weighing 504-578 kg were sedated and restrained in stocks in preparation for aseptic surgery. Vascular dilators of increasing size were inserted cranial to the first moveable vertebra caudal to the sacrum to facilitate a minimally invasive approach into the epidural space. A flexible video-endoscope was introduced and advanced as far as its 60-cm working length permitted. Pre-, intra- and post-operative plasma cortisol samples were collected, and neurological and lameness examinations were performed prior to and during the 2 weeks following the procedure. Post-mortem examinations were conducted in 5 of the 7 horses. Standing lumbosacral epiduroscopy was well tolerated by all horses. The anatomic structures in the epidural space (dura mater, spinal nerve roots, fat and blood vessels) were followed as far cranial as the thoracolumbar region. No complications related to the procedure were noted in the 2-week monitoring period following epiduroscopy. Small, organised haematomas were identified in the sacral epidural space during necropsy in one horse. No abnormalities were seen in the other 4 animals. Lumbosacral epiduroscopy can be performed safely in sedated standing horses. The procedure may become a valuable diagnostic tool in horses with caudal back or hindlimb pain of unknown origin. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Effect of dorsal laminectomy and dorsal annulectomy with partial lumbosacral discectomy on the volume of the lateral intervertebral neuroforamina in dogs when the lumbosacral junction is extended.

    PubMed

    Worth, Andrew J; Hartman, Angela; Bridges, Janis P; Jones, Boyd R; Mayhew, Joe I G

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of dorsal annulectomy and partial discectomy on the volume of the lumbosacral lateral intervertebral neurovascular foramina (intervertebral foramina) in canine cadavers during extension of the lumbosacral junction. Ex vivo experiment. Lumbosacral specimens from 10 large breed dogs euthanatized for reasons unrelated to lumbosacral disease. The lumbosacral specimens were clamped in a wooden jig and scanned using computed tomography (CT) with the lumbosacral junction in a neutral position and loaded in extension using a tensioning device. The 3-dimensional volumes of the lumbosacral intervertebral neurovascular foramina were measured and the extent of any disc degeneration was determined from the CT data. A limited dorsal laminectomy of S1 and a dorsal LS annulectomy and partial discectomy were then performed. The lumbosacral specimens were remounted into the jig and loaded into extension at the same tension and were re-scanned. Measurements of intervertebral foraminal volume were then repeated. The mean volume of the lumbosacral foramina (n = 20) was 381 mm(3) in neutral (unloaded) positioning and 137 mm(3) when loaded in extension. Following dorsal annulectomy, the mean volume was significantly reduced by a mean of 28% to 98 mm(3) (P < .01). The foraminal volume was reduced in 19/20 lumbosacral foramen, with the post-annulectomy volume ranging from 31% to 97% of the pre-annulectomy volume (3%-69% reduction). This study suggests that a dorsal annulectomy with partial discectomy may induce further dynamic collapse of the lumbosacral articulation in the dog. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Physical examination signs, clinical symptoms, and their relationship to electrodiagnostic findings and the presence of radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Lauder, Tamara D

    2002-08-01

    The validity of the history and physical examination varies with study method and the gold standard used. In general, symptoms are more sensitive than specific, and most patients with radiculopathy do present with some characteristic complaints. With the exception of the ipsilateral SLR, most physical examination findings are more specific than sensitive. In patients with suspected radiculopathy, having at least one abnormal physical examination finding makes the probability of having an abnormal electrodiagnostic study more likely than if the results of the physical examination are normal. Having a normal physical examination, however, does not rule out the possibility of having a radiculopathy that is revealed either electrodiagnostically or surgically. Although the history and physical examination may not be perfect tools for the diagnosis of radiculopathy or predicting electrodiagnostic outcome, they are an essential part of the clinical evaluation to assist in formulating a differential diagnosis and guiding the electrodiagnostic study.

  14. Nanoparticle fullerol alleviates radiculopathy via NLRP3 inflammasome and neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Ding, Mengmeng; Oklopcic, Azra; Aghdasi, Bayan; Xiao, Li; Li, Ziyi; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Li, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic effect of the antioxidant nanoparticle fullerol in a mouse radiculopathy and a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) culture models. Intervertebral disk degeneration causes significant hyperalgesia and nerve inflammation. Pain sensitization and inflammatory reaction were counteracted by fullerol when disk material was bathed in 10 or 100μM of fullerol prior to implantation. Immunohistochemistry showed similar massive IBA1 positive macrophage infiltration surrounding implanted disk material among groups, but IL-1β and IL-6 expression was decreased in the fullerol treated group. In the DRG explant culture, after treatment with TNF-α, the expression of IL-1β, NLRP3, and caspase 1 was significantly increased but this was reversed by the addition of fullerol. In addition, fullerol also decreased the expression of substance P and CGRP in the cultured DRGs. Nanoparticle fullerol effectively counteracts pain sensitization and the inflammatory cascade caused by disk degeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing Utility Scores in Common Spinal Radiculopathies: Results of a Prospective Valuation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nikhil R.; Stephen, James H.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Stein, Sherman C.; Malhotra, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Objective To determine whether preference-based health utility scores for common spinal radiculopathies vary by specific spinal level. Methods We employed a standard gamble study using the general public to calculate individual preference-based quality of life for four common radiculopathies: C6, C7, L5, and S1. We compared utility scores obtained for each level of radiculopathy with analysis of variance and t test. Multivariable regression was used to test the effects of the covariates age, sex, and years of education. We also reviewed the literature for publications reporting EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for patients with radiculopathy. Results Two hundred participants were included in the study. Average utility for the four spinal levels fell within a narrow range (0.748 to 0.796). There were no statistically significant differences between lumbar and cervical radiculopathies, nor were there significant differences among the different spinal levels (F = 0.0850, p = 0.086). Age and sex had no significant effect on utility scores. There was a significant correlation between years of education and utility values for S1 radiculopathy (p = 0.037). On review of the literature, no study separated utility values by specific spinal level. EQ-5D utilities for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy were considerably lower than the results of our study. Conclusions Utility values associated with the most common levels of cervical and lumbar radiculopathy do not significantly differ from each other, validating the current practice of grouping utility by spinal segment rather than by specific root levels. The discrepancy in average utility values between our study and the EQ-5D highlights the need to be mindful of the underlying instruments used when assessing outcomes studies from different sources. PMID:27099818

  16. Epidural steroid injections compared with gabapentin for lumbosacral radicular pain: multicenter randomized double blind comparative efficacy study

    PubMed Central

    Hanling, Steven; Bicket, Mark C; White, Ronald L; Veizi, Elias; Kurihara, Connie; Zhao, Zirong; Hayek, Salim; Guthmiller, Kevin B; Griffith, Scott R; Gordin, Vitaly; White, Mirinda Anderson; Vorobeychik, Yakov; Pasquina, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an epidural steroid injection or gabapentin is a better treatment for lumbosacral radiculopathy. Design A multicenter randomized study conducted between 2011 and 2014. Computer generated randomization was stratified by site. Patients and evaluating physicians were blinded to treatment outcomes. Settings Eight military, Veterans Administration, and civilian hospitals. Participants 145 people with lumbosacral radicular pain secondary to herniated disc or spinal stenosis for less than four years in duration and in whom leg pain is as severe or more severe than back pain. Interventions Participants received either epidural steroid injection plus placebo pills or sham injection plus gabapentin. Main outcome measures Average leg pain one and three months after the injection on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. A positive outcome was defined as a ≥2 point decrease in leg pain coupled with a positive global perceived effect. All patients had one month follow-up visits; patients whose condition improved remained blinded for their three month visit. Results There were no significant differences for the primary outcome measure at one month (mean pain score 3.3 (SD 2.6) and mean change from baseline −2.2 (SD 2.4) in epidural steroid injection group versus 3.7 (SD 2.6) and −1.7 (SD 2.6) in gabapentin group; adjusted difference 0.4, 95% confidence interval −0.3 to 1.2; P=0.25) and three months (mean pain score 3.4 (SD 2.7) and mean change from baseline −2.0 (SD 2.6) versus 3.7 (SD 2.8) and −1.6 (SD 2.7), respectively; adjusted difference 0.3, −0.5 to 1.2; P=0.43). Among secondary outcomes, one month after treatment those who received epidural steroid injection had greater reductions in worst leg pain (−3.0, SD 2.8) than those treated with gabapentin (−2.0, SD 2.9; P=0.04) and were more likely to experience a positive successful outcome (66% v 46%; number needed to treat=5.0, 95% confidence interval 2.8 to 27.0; P=0.02). At three

  17. Stretching of roots contributes to the pathophysiology of radiculopathies.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Darrieutort-Laffite, Christelle; Maugars, Yves

    2017-01-20

    To perform a synthesis of articles addressing the role of stretching on roots in the pathophysiology of radiculopathy. Review of relevant articles on this topic available in the PubMed database. An intraoperative microscopy study of patients with sciatica showed that in all patients the hernia was adherent to the dura mater of nerve roots. During the SLR (Lasègue's) test, the limitation of nerve root movement occurs by periradicular adhesive tissue, and temporary ischemic changes in the nerve root induced by the root stretching cause transient conduction disturbances. Spinal roots are more frail than peripheral nerves, and other mechanical stresses than root compression can also induce radiculopathy, especially if they also impair intraradicular blood flow, or the function of the arachnoid villi intimately related to radicular veins. For instance arachnoiditis, the lack of peridural fat around the thecal sac, and epidural fibrosis following surgery, can all promote sciatica, especially in patients whose sciatic trunks also stick to piriformis or internus obturator muscles. Indeed, stretching of roots is greatly increased by adherence at two levels. As excessive traction of nerve roots is not shown by imaging, many physicians have unlearned to think in terms of microscopic and physiologic changes, although nerve root compression in the lumbar MRI is lacking in more than 10% of patients with sciatica. It should be reminded that, while compression of a spinal nerve root implies stretching of this root, the reverse is not true: stretching of some roots can occur without any visible compression. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zhong-jun; Huang, Yong; Fan, Zi-wen; Li, Xin-chun; Cao, Bing-yi

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L3 to S1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49%) and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%). Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression. PMID:26807125

  19. Transitional lumbosacral segment with unilateral transverse process anomaly (Castellvi type 2A) resulting in extraforaminal impingement of the spinal nerve: a pathoanatomical study of four specimens and report of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jochen; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo

    2010-04-01

    The spinal nerve can be pinched between the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the sacral ala. The patients are divided into two types: elderly persons with degenerative scoliosis and somewhat younger adults with isthmic spondylolisthesis. For the first time, we describe extraforaminal impingement of the spinal nerve in transitional lumbosacral segment with unilateral transverse process anomaly. Selective nerve root blocks were performed in two clinical cases. One patient underwent nerve root decompression via a posterior approach. One year after operation, this patient reported no radicular or lumbar pain. The pathoanatomical study demonstrated pseudoarthrosis between the transverse process and the ala of the sacrum and showed dysplastic facet joints at the level below the transitional vertebra in all specimens. Furthermore, we present the oldest illustration of this pathological condition, published in a book by Carl Wenzel in 1824. Extraforaminal entrapment of the spinal nerve in transitional lumbosacral segment with unilateral transverse process anomaly can cause radiculopathy, and osteophytes are the cause of the entrapment. Dysplastic facet joints on the level below the transitional vertebra could be one reason for "micromotion" resulting in pseudoarthrosis with osteophytes. Sciatica relief was obtained by means of selective nerve root blocks or posterior decompression via a dorsomedial approach.

  20. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots: current aspects of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, J; Petrovitch, A; Sörös, P; Malich, A; Hussein, S; Kaiser, W A

    2004-03-01

    Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots (CLNR) are the most common anomalies involving the lumbar nerve structures which can be one of the origins of failed back syndromes. They can cause sciatica even without the presence of a additional compressive impingement (such as disc herniation, spondylolisthesis or lateral recess stenosis), and often congenital lumbosacral spine anomalies (such as bony defects) are present at the "conjoined sheaths". This congenital anomaly has been reported in 14% of cadaver studies, but myelographic or computed tomographic studies have revealed an incidence of approximately 4% only. Diagnostic methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are helpful for determination of the exact anatomical relations in this context. We present five typical cases of conjoined nerve roots observed during a 1 year period, equivalent to 6% of our out-patients without a history of surgical treatment on the lumbar spine. In all cases with suspicious radiological findings MRI or lumbar myelography combined with CT and multiplanar reconstructions is recommended.

  1. The evolution of image-guided lumbosacral spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Austin C; Faulkner, Austin R; Pasciak, Alexander S; Bradley, Yong C

    2015-04-01

    Techniques and approaches of spinal fusion have considerably evolved since their first description in the early 1900s. The incorporation of pedicle screw constructs into lumbosacral spine surgery is among the most significant advances in the field, offering immediate stability and decreased rates of pseudarthrosis compared to previously described methods. However, early studies describing pedicle screw fixation and numerous studies thereafter have demonstrated clinically significant sequelae of inaccurate surgical fusion hardware placement. A number of image guidance systems have been developed to reduce morbidity from hardware malposition in increasingly complex spine surgeries. Advanced image guidance systems such as intraoperative stereotaxis improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using a variety of surgical approaches, however their clinical indications and clinical impact remain debated. Beginning with intraoperative fluoroscopy, this article describes the evolution of image guided lumbosacral spinal fusion, emphasizing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) navigational methods.

  2. Lumbosacral spondylodiscitis: an unusual complication of abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    PubMed

    Rajamaheswari, N; Agarwal, Sugandha; Seethalakshmi, Krishnan

    2012-03-01

    Lumbosacral spondylodiscitis, an unusual complication of abdominal sacrocolpopexy using synthetic polypropylene mesh is reported. A young sexually active female with stage IV pelvic organ prolapse was managed with abdominal hysterectomy and sacrocolpopexy. Cervical dysplasia demanded hysterectomy and sacrocolpopexy was done to achieve good long-term results. Mesh exposure was noticed in the early post-operative period which initially responded to conservative management. Eight weeks later, the patient reported with severe pain in lower back restricting her physical movements and ambulation. Further evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed lumbosacral spondylodiscitis, due to the infected mesh which warranted a complete removal of mesh by laparotomy. Removal of the mesh completely relieved her symptoms. Repeat MRI revealed resolving spondylodiscitis. The removal of mesh by itself was adequate to relieve her and discectomy was not required. The vault remained well supported despite removal of mesh.

  3. Weight knowledge and weight magnitude: impact on lumbosacral loading.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Ahmed T; Elsayed, Walaa H; El-Sayyad, Mohsen M; Marras, William S

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can impact lumbosacral loads during lifting, including weight knowledge and weight magnitude. However, interaction between them has never been tested. This study investigated the interaction effect of these variables on lumbosacral forces and moments. Participants performed symmetrical lifts using three different weights. Weight knowledge involved known and unknown weight conditions. A biologically assisted dynamic model was used to calculate spinal loading parameters. Weight impacted all variables, while knowledge impacted only compression, by a moderate amount (5%), and spinal moments. Lifting a lightweight resulted in a difference of 16% and 7.2% between knowledge conditions for compression and anterior-posterior shear forces, respectively, compared with a negligible difference of < 1% when lifting a heavy weight. Increased spinal loading with light unknown weight can be attributed to increased muscular co-contraction. Weight knowledge is important to consider at low weight levels as it can increase tissue loading to values equivalent to lifting a heavier weight.

  4. Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae and Its Prevalence in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    French, Heath D.; Somasundaram, Arjuna J.; Schaefer, Nathan R.; Laherty, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a common congenital anomaly, and they can be accurately identified on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. This study attempts to determine the prevalence of this congenital anomaly and to increase awareness among all clinicians to reduce the risk of surgical and procedural errors in patients with LSTV. Methods A retrospective review of 5,941 AP and lateral lumbar radiographs was performed. Transitional vertebrae were identified and categorized under the Castellvi classification. Results The prevalence of LSTV in the study population was 9.9%. Lumbarized S1 and sacralized L5 were seen in 5.8 and 4.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusion LSTV are a common normal variant and can be a factor in spinal surgery at incorrect levels. It is essential that all clinicians are aware of this common congenital anomaly. PMID:25396103

  5. The evolution of image-guided lumbosacral spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Austin R.; Pasciak, Alexander S.; Bradley, Yong C.

    2015-01-01

    Techniques and approaches of spinal fusion have considerably evolved since their first description in the early 1900s. The incorporation of pedicle screw constructs into lumbosacral spine surgery is among the most significant advances in the field, offering immediate stability and decreased rates of pseudarthrosis compared to previously described methods. However, early studies describing pedicle screw fixation and numerous studies thereafter have demonstrated clinically significant sequelae of inaccurate surgical fusion hardware placement. A number of image guidance systems have been developed to reduce morbidity from hardware malposition in increasingly complex spine surgeries. Advanced image guidance systems such as intraoperative stereotaxis improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using a variety of surgical approaches, however their clinical indications and clinical impact remain debated. Beginning with intraoperative fluoroscopy, this article describes the evolution of image guided lumbosacral spinal fusion, emphasizing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) navigational methods. PMID:25992368

  6. MR neurography in diagnosing nondiabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Filosto, Massimiliano; Pari, Elisa; Cotelli, Mariasofia; Todeschini, Alice; Vielmi, Valentina; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Padovani, Alessandro; Gasparotti, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Here we describe the imaging findings in a 73-year-old woman who had pain in the right inguinal region, followed by progressive weakness of muscles innervated by the right femoral and obturator nerves, diagnosed as nondiabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. Magnetic resonance neurography showed thickening and increase in signal intensity of the right femoral and obturator nerves. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. Clinical application of a novel assessment for lumbosacral stability.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kazuo

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the grade of lumbosacral stability, shape analysis was conducted on plain radiographs of the lumbar spine. One hundred twenty-six patients were classified into 2 groups: those with a single-segment disc space narrowing at L5-S1 or at L4-5. Stability was evaluated using the discriminant function (z score) derived from the analysis of radiographic parameters-that is, relative thickness of transverse process of L-5 and the sacral table angle. In patients with a space narrowing at L5-S1, the author observed a significantly slender L-5 transverse process and acute obliquity of the sacral endplate; accordingly, the z score was negative. In patients with a broad transverse process and a positive z score, the segment associated with disc height loss was L4-5. Thus, a close correlation was found between the site of the disc height loss and the bony characteristics of L-5 and S-1. Furthermore, it could be expected with a high degree reliability that when young adult patients had a z score less than -2 or -3, their L-5 vertebra would develop degenerative spondylolisthesis after middle age and the L5-S1 segment could be saved from age-related alterations as long as the z score was greater than 2.5. The constitutional characteristics of the lumbosacral junction may exert a major influence on the site of disc degeneration. Stability at the lumbosacral junction was thought to be quantitatively represented by the z score, with z being designated the lumbosacral stability score.

  8. Hypothalamic neuron projection to autonomic preganglionic levels related with glucose metabolism: a fluorescent labelling study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Portillo, F; Carrasco, M; Vallo, J J

    1996-06-07

    The location of hypothalamic paraventricular neurons projecting to sympathetic preganglionic levels and related to the autonomic regulation of various organs involved in glucose metabolism (OGM) was determined by ipsilateral injections of two fluorescent tracers, Diamidino Yellow into the left dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and Fast Blue into the left intermediolateral cell column of the T8-T9 spinal cord. Hypothalamospinal neurons were mainly located in the dorsal part of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and the hypothalamobulbar neurons were most abundant in the ventral, medial and extreme lateral parts of the PVH. No double-labelled neurons were found in the hypothalamus. These results can help the knowledge of the neural hypothalamic network related with the autonomic hypothalamic control.

  9. Study on lumbosacral nerve root compression using DTI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Yonghao; Wang, Yueyi; Lv, Yang; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can objectively describe the distribution of nerve roots in morphology, and provide a set of objective reference data on the quantitative indicators. The present study aimed to investigate the value of DTI in lumbosacral nerve root compression in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. DTI was performed in 45 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured in compressed and normal nerve roots. Fiber tracking imaging was also applied to observe the lumbosacral nerve roots. ADC value was significantly lower in the compressed group (1.314±0.14 mm2/sec) compared to in the uncompressed group (1.794±0.11 mm2/sec) (P<0.05). The FA value was significantly lower in the compressed group (0.196±0.020) compared to the uncompressed group (0.272±0.016) (P<0.05). DTI can evidently reveal the compressed nerve roots. DTI could be used to evaluate the lumbosacral nerve injury in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration to quantitatively assess nerve roots. PMID:27602215

  10. Evaluation and Management of Lumbosacral Myelomeningoceles in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kural, Cahit; Solmaz, Ilker; Tehli, Ozkan; Temiz, Caglar; Kutlay, Murat; Daneyemez, Mehmet K.; Izci, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Myelomeningoceles are the common form of open neural tube defects that are usually associated with neurological deficits. Many techniques of repair and methods of prevention have been proposed with respect to the size of defect and the neurological condition of patient. The aim of this study was to report our experience on the management of lumbosacral myelomeningoceles in children. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed the data of 36 paediatric cases of surgically lumbosacral myelomeningocele treated in our department between 1998 and 2013. Twenty (56%) patients were female and sixteen were male, with a mean age of 4 months (ranged between 0 and 24 months). All patients had neurological deficits in the preoperative period. Computed tomography was performed in 33 (92%) patients and magnetic resonance imaging in 15 (42%) patients in the preoperative period. Repair of the myelomeningocele and closure of the skin defect were performed in all patients. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. Results: Thirty (83%) patients were operated for hydrocephalus and 10 (28%) patients were re-operated for tethered cord syndrome during the follow-up period. Neurological worsening was not observed in any patient while cerebrospinal fluid fistula was detected in 2 patients. Conclusion: Surgical treatment using appropriate microsurgical techniques is crucial for lumbosacral myelomeningoceles in children. Early surgical intervention with close follow-up will improve the neurological condition of the patients. PMID:26644765

  11. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons project to superior cervical ganglion via C7 spinal nerve in pup but not in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Gang; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Yu, Guang-Rong

    2010-04-19

    We investigated the distribution of sympathetic preganglionic fibers in each spinal nerve of the brachial plexus, and its correlation with presence of Horner's syndrome in the pup and adult rats. According to surgical intervention to the C7-T1 spinal nerves in the right side, rats of 7 days postnatal (P7), P14 and adulthood (24 for each age group) were subdivided into four subgroups of six each, respectively, i.e., C7 or C8 or T1 spared subgroup--where C7 or C8 or T1 alone was kept intact with avulsion of the other two spinal nerves and division of the sympathetic chain caudal to the stellate ganglion; C7-T1 avulsed subgroup--where C7-T1 were all avulsed but the sympathetic chain kept intact. Fluoro-Gold (FG) was injected bilaterally into the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) for labeling of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs). Furthermore, Horner's syndrome was examined after avulsion of different spinal nerves for P14 and adult rats. In C7 spared subgroups, FG-labeled neurons accounted averagely for 16.9% in P7, 13.5 in P14 and 1.0 in adult rats, and difference was statistically significant between P7 and adults (Z=-2.9, P=0.004), P14 and adults (Z=-2.9, P=0.004). When both C7 and C8 were avulsed, Horner's syndrome was more prone to be produced in pups than in adults (chi(2)=4.2, P=0.04). These results indicate that some SPNs project to SCG via C7 in the pup, but this pathway disappears during postnatal development. It suggests that in newborns with brachial plexopathy, presence of Horner's syndrome may be correlated with avulsion of C7. 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Calretinin-immunoreactive nerves in the uterus, pelvic autonomic ganglia, lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Papka, R E; Collins, J; Copelin, T; Wilson, K

    1999-10-01

    Nerves containing the calcium-binding protein calretinin have been reported in several organs but not in female reproductive organs and associated ganglia. This study was undertaken to determine if nerves associated with the uterus contain calretinin and the source(s) of calretinin-synthesizing nerves in the rat (are they sensory, efferent, or both?). Calretinin-immunoreactive nerves were present in the uterine horns and cervix where they were associated with arteries, uterine smooth muscle, glands, and the epithelium. Calretinin-immunoreactive terminals were apposed to neurons in the paracervical ganglia; in addition, some postganglionic neurons in this ganglion were calretinin positive. Calretinin perikarya were present in the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, no-dose ganglia, and lumbosacral spinal cord. Retrograde axonal tracing, utilizing Fluorogold injected into the uterus or paracervical parasympathetic ganglia, revealed calretinin-positive/Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the dorsal root and nodose ganglia. Also, capsaicin treatment substantially reduced the calretinin-positive fibers in the uterus and pelvic ganglia, thus indicating the sensory nature of these fibers. The presence of calretinin immunoreactivity identifies a subset of nerves that are involved in innervation of the pelvic viscera and have origins from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and vagal nodose ganglia. Though the exact function of calretinin in these nerves is not currently known, calretinin is likely to play a role in calcium regulation and their function.

  13. Jingtong Granule: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liguo; Gao, Jinghua; Yu, Jie; Feng, Minshan; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Shangquan; Wei, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically assessed the efficacy and safety of Jingtong granule (JG) for cervical radiculopathy (CR). Methods. Randomized controlled trials comparing JG with no intervention, placebo, or conventional therapies were retrieved. The trials testing JG combined with conventional therapies versus conventional therapies were also enrolled. Study selection, methodological assessment, data extraction, and analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. The strength of evidence was evaluated according to GRADE approach. Results. Three trials with 400 participants were included. Methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. One study found that JG showed significant difference on decreasing pain scores compared with placebo. Meta-analysis indicated that JG plus conventional analgesic exhibited a significant immediate effect on the pain scores (WMD = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.98; P < 0.00001). Additionally, JG combined with analgesic presented beneficial immediate effect on neck disability index. However, the treatment effects of JG demonstrated in the trials were not large, and the safety of JG was unproven. Finally the evidence level was evaluated to be low. Conclusions. Our results indicated that JG showed some potential benefits for CR. Nevertheless, treatment effects are uncertain due to both the methodological concerns and the very modest reported improvements. PMID:26064154

  14. Clinical utility of reflex studies in assessing cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Miller, T A; Pardo, R; Yaworski, R

    1999-08-01

    We prospectively studied the diagnostic utility of upper limb segmental reflexes in patients with suspected cervical radiculopathy (CR). Fifty-three patients (29 men and 24 women), referred for electrodiagnostic testing, were positive for at least one of four clinical criteria for CR: abnormal (1) history, (2) motor (myotomal) examination, (3) sensory (dermatomal) examination, and (4) changes in deep tendon reflexes (DTR). All underwent electrodiagnostic assessment, needle electrode examination (NEE), specialized segmental reflexes (heteronymous and Hoffman's reflexes [H reflexes]), and neuroimaging. The clinical diagnosis was supported in all 32 patients who entered the study with two or more clinical signs for CR. Abnormal NEE was found in 90% of subjects with three clinical signs, 59% with two signs, and only 10% of those with one sign. H reflexes demonstrated a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 85% for detection of CR and were particularly helpful when forming conclusions in the 21 subjects with only one clinical sign for CR. Specialized segmental H-reflex studies of the upper limb were as sensitive and specific as neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging). Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. [Lumbosacral facet syndrome: functional and organic disorders of lumbosacral facet joints].

    PubMed

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2011-01-01

    Disorders of lumbosacral (LS) facet joints are manifested by low back pain with or without referred leg pain and decreased mobility of the LS spine (LS facet syndrome). The most frequent causes of LS facet syndrome are functional disorders (functional blockade or dysfunction of facet joint=reversible restriction of facet joint movements caused by meniscoid entrapment) and degenerative changes of facet joints while the others are less frequent (spondyloarthropathies, infection, tuberculosis, synovial cyst, injury). Although it has been proven that the facet joints are one of the most frequent sources of chronic low back pain (15-45%), the fact is that the facet syndrome has been frequently overlooked in patients with chronic low back pain. Following are the main reasons for explaining why the facet syndrome has been overlooked in patients with chronic low back pain: 1. Facet joints disorders are manifested by non-specific clinical picture, 2.Diagnosis of facet syndrome cannot be established by either the conventional clinical examination or radiological examinations, 3. A very small number of doctors are practicing manual functional examination which can establish the diagnosis of facet joint dysfunction and 4. Diagnostic anesthetic block which can confirm the facet syndrome diagnosis is not a widely accessible method. There is a lack of research in frequency of facet syndrome in patients with acute low back pain. Chronic mechanical low back pain caused by dysfunction of several structurally unchanged facet joints can have the same features as the inflammatory pain which can result in misdiagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. Acute LS facet syndrome caused by dysfunction of facet joints responds very well to manual therapy. The most important therapeutic options in patients with chronic LS facet syndrome caused by degenerative changes and/or dysfunction of facet joints are manual therapy, kinesiotherapy (flexion exercises), therapeutic blocks and radiofrequency

  16. Cervical Radiculopathy: Incidence and Treatment of 1,420 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Vargas, Samuel Romero; Riew, K. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To determine the incidence of cervical radiculopathy requiring operative intervention by level and to report on the methods of treatment. Overview of Literature Cervical radiculopathy is a common cause of pain and can result in progressive neurological deficits. Although the pathology is well understood, the actual incidence of cervical radiculopathy at particular spinal levels ultimately requiring operative intervention is unknown. Methods A large consecutive series of patients operated on by a single surgeon were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of cervical radiculopathy at each level was defined for every patient. Procedures used for operative treatment were noted. Health related quality of life (HRQL) scores were collected both pre-operatively and postoperatively. Results There were 1305 primary and 115 revision operations performed. The most common primary procedures performed were anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF, 50%) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF, 28%). The most commonly affected levels were C6 (66%) and C7 (62%). Reasons for revision were pseudarthrosis (27%), clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP, 63%), persistent radiculopathy (11%), and hardware-related (2.6%). The most common procedures performed in the revision group were posterior cervical decompression and fusion (PCDF, 42%) and ACDF (40%). The most commonly affected levels were C7 (43%) and C5 (30%). Among patients that had their index surgery at our institution, the revision rate was 6.4%. In both primary and revision cases there was a significant improvement in Neck Disability Index and visual analogue scale scores postoperatively. Postoperative HRQL scores in the revision cases were significantly worse than those in the primary cases (p <0.01). Conclusions This study provides the largest description of the incidence of cervical radiculopathy by level and operative outcomes in patients undergoing cervical

  17. Calibration method for lumbosacral dimensions in wearable sensor system of lumbar alignment.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yoshio; Kusaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Takayuki; Matsuo, Yoshikazu; Oda, Makoto; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Anteflexion of the spine is essential for many physical activities in everyday life. However, this motion places the lumbar disks under heavy load due to changes in the shape of the lumbar spine and can lead to low back pain. With the aim of reducing low back pain, here we developed a wearable sensor system that can estimate lumbosacral alignment and lumbar load by measuring the shape of the lumbar skin when the lumbosacral alignment changes. In addition, we used this system to measure the parameters of anteflexion and studied the change in dimensions of the lumbar spine from changes in posture. By determining the dimensions of the lumbosacral spine on an X-ray image, a lumbosacral dimensions calibration method based on body surface area and height was developed. By using this method, lumbosacral alignment and lumbar load could be accurately estimated using the wearable sensor system.

  18. Incidence of intravascular penetration in transforaminal lumbosacral epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Furman, M B; O'Brien, E M; Zgleszewski, T M

    2000-10-15

    A prospective, observational, human, in vivo study. To evaluate the incidence of vascular penetration during fluoroscopically guided, contrast-enhanced, transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections (ESIs) and determine whether a "flash" (blood in the needle hub) or aspiration of blood can be used to predict a vascular injection. Incorrectly placed, intravascular lumbosacral spinal injections result in systemic medication flow that misses the desired target. No previous studies evaluate the incidence of vascular injections in transforaminal ESIs, nor the ability of flash to predict a vascular injection. The incidence of flash or positive blood aspiration and the incidence of fluoroscopically confirmed vascular spread were prospectively observed in 670 patients treated with lumbosacral fluoroscopically guided transforaminal ESIs. Presence of a flash or positive aspiration was documented. Contrast was injected to determine whether the needle tip was intravascular. Seven hundred sixty-one transforaminal ESIs were included. The overall rate of intravascular injections was 11.2%. There was a statistically significant higher rate of intravascular injections (21.3%) noted with transforaminal ESIs performed at S1 (n = 178), compared with those at the lumbar levels (8.1%, n = 583). Using flash or positive blood aspirate to predict intravascular injections was 97.9% specific, but only 44.7% sensitive. There is a high incidence of intravascular injections in transforaminal ESIs that is significantly increased at S1. Using a flash or blood aspiration to predict an intravascular injection is not sensitive, and therefore a negative flash or aspiration is not reliable. Fluoroscopically guided procedures without contrast confirmation are instilling medications intravascularly and therefore not into the desired epidural location. This finding confirms the need for not only fluoroscopic guidance but also contrast injection instillation in lumbosacral transforaminal ESIs.

  19. Osteoid osteoma near the intervertebral foramen may induce radiculopathy through tumorous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zenmyo, Michihisa; Yamamoto, Takuya; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Komiya, Setsuro; Ijiri, Kosei

    2011-01-19

    Osteoid osteoma of the spine is a relatively rare bone-forming tumor. Pain that is worse at night and relieved by aspirin and muscle contracture are the most characteristic symptoms of spinal osteoid osteoma. Although radicular pain occasionally occurs in spinal osteoid osteoma, spinal cord and nerve root compression is absent in most cases. Although radicular pain appears to be associated with tumorous inflammation, there have been no presentations of histological findings of inflammation around the nerve root. We present here two rare cases of spinal osteoid osteoma causing radiculopathy and the first histological evidence of tumorous inflammation as a cause of radiculopathy in osteoid osteoma near the intervertebral foramen.

  20. Satisfactory elbow flexion in complete (preganglionic) brachial plexus injuries: produced by suture of third and fourth intercostal nerves to musculocutaneous nerve.

    PubMed

    Minami, M; Ishii, S

    1987-11-01

    The third and fourth intercostal nerves were sutured to the musculocutaneous nerve to restore flexion of the elbow joint in complete (preganglionic) brachial plexus injuries. Seventeen patients were followed on the average for 5 years and 7 months after surgery. The results were evaluated by means of manual muscle tests and electrical diagnostic tests. Good (grade IV), or better, flexion of the elbow joint occurred in 12 patients over 3 years after the operation.

  1. The lumbosacral segment as a vulnerable region in various postures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosemeyer, B.

    1978-01-01

    The lumbosacral region in man is exposed to special static and dynamic load. In a supine position, the disc size increases because of the absence of axial load. In a standing position, with physiological posture of the spine, strain discomfort occurs which is increased even more in the sitting position due to the curvature of the lumbar region of the spine and the irregular distribution of pressure in the discs as a result of this. This special problem of sitting posture can be confirmed by examinations.

  2. Omega-conotoxin CVID inhibits a pharmacologically distinct voltage-sensitive calcium channel associated with transmitter release from preganglionic nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Adams, David J; Smith, Amanda B; Schroeder, Christina I; Yasuda, Takahiro; Lewis, Richard J

    2003-02-07

    Neurotransmitter release from preganglionic parasympathetic neurons is resistant to inhibition by selective antagonists of L-, N-, P/Q-, R-, and T-type calcium channels. In this study, the effects of different omega-conotoxins from genus Conus were investigated on current flow-through cloned voltage-sensitive calcium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and nerve-evoked transmitter release from the intact preganglionic cholinergic nerves innervating the rat submandibular ganglia. Our results indicate that omega-conotoxin CVID from Conus catus inhibits a pharmacologically distinct voltage-sensitive calcium channel involved in neurotransmitter release, whereas omega-conotoxin MVIIA had no effect. omega-Conotoxin CVID and MVIIA inhibited depolarization-activated Ba(2+) currents recorded from oocytes expressing N-type but not L- or R-type calcium channels. High affinity inhibition of the CVID-sensitive calcium channel was enhanced when position 10 of the omega-conotoxin was occupied by the smaller residue lysine as found in CVID instead of an arginine as found in MVIIA. Given that relatively small differences in the sequence of the N-type calcium channel alpha(1B) subunit can influence omega-conotoxin access (Feng, Z. P., Hamid, J., Doering, C., Bosey, G. M., Snutch, T. P., and Zamponi, G. W. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 15728-15735), it is likely that the calcium channel in preganglionic nerve terminals targeted by CVID is a N-type (Ca(v)2.2) calcium channel variant.

  3. Abnormal flexor carpi radialis H-reflex as a specific indicator of C7 as compared with C6 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaojun; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Feizhou; Ma, Xiaosheng; Xia, Xinlei; Wang, Lixun; Jin, Xiang; Weber, Robert; Jiang, Jianyuan; Anuvat, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    The H-reflex of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR H-reflex) has not been commonly used for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy when compared with the routinely tested soleus H-reflex. Although both S1 and S2 roots innervate the soleus, the H-reflex is selectively related to S1 nerve root function clinically. Flexor carpi radialis is also innervated by two nerve roots which are C6 and C7. Although they are among the most common roots involved in cervical radiculopathy, few studies reported if the attenuation of the FCR H-reflex is caused by lesions affecting C7 or C6 nerve roots, or both. We aimed to identify whether an abnormal FCR H-reflex was attributed to the C7 or C6 nerve root lesion, or both. The sensitivities of needle electromyography, FCR H-reflex, and provocative tests in unilateral C7 or C6 radiculopathy were also compared in this study. A concentric needle electrode recorded bilateral FCR H-reflexes in 41 normal subjects (control group), 51 patients with C7 radiculopathy, and 54 patients with C6 radiculopathy. Clinical, radiological, and surgical approaches identified the precise single cervical nerve root involved in all patient groups. The H-reflex and M-wave latencies were measured and compared bilaterally. Abnormal FCR H-reflex was defined as the absence of the H-reflex or a side-to-side difference over 1.5 milliseconds which was based on the normal side-to-side difference of the H-reflex latency of 16.9 milliseconds (SD = 1.7 milliseconds) from the control group. We also determined standard median and ulnar conduction and needle electromyography. The provocative tests included bilateral determination of the Shoulder Abduction and Spurling's tests in all radiculopathy group patients. Abnormal FCR H-reflexes were recorded in 45 (88.2%) of C7 radiculopathy group patients, and 2 (3.7%) of C6 radiculopathy group patients (P < 0.05). Needle electromyography was abnormal in 41 (80.4%) of C7 radiculopathy patients and 43 (79.6%) of C6 radiculopathy

  4. Lumbosacral pain in ballet school students. Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drężewska, Marlena; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    The unique biomechanical demands placed on ballet students predispose to injury and pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lumbosacral pain in ballet school students and to identify possible risk factors for the pain. The study group comprised 71 ballet school students, including 45 females and 26 males, aged 15-18 years (mean 16.5 years). In order to identify possible risk factors for pain, a survey was conducted, the angle of sacral bone inclination was measured using a mechanical inclinometer and the BMI was calculated. A VAS scale was used for a subjective assessment of pain intensity. Low back pain was reported by 44 patients (62%). A comparison of sacral inclination angles in a position with the feet placed parallel and in the turnout position showed statistically significant changes in the angle among respondents reporting pain (p <0.05). 1. Compensation in the turnout position by increas ed anterior tilt of the pelvis may increase the risk of low back pain. 2. An angle of sacral bone inclination in turnout above or equal to 30° can increase the intensity of low back pain. 3. A BMI below 18.5 in female ballet school stu dents can increase the risk of lumbosacral pain.

  5. Cranial and lumbosacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fei; Zhong, Ding-Rong; Hao, Hong-Lin; Kong, Wei-Ze; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Zhi; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammatory hypertrophy and fibrosis of dura mater. It can be divided into cranial and spinal forms depending on the location of the lesion. HP involving 2 separate sites simultaneously is quite uncommon. Case summary: This study presents a case of a 49-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed cranial and lumbosacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is a rare etiology of HP. She experienced persistent numbness and pain of the left lower limb, followed by headache and seizures. In laboratory tests, levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated, and antinuclear antibodies and anti–double-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) antibodies were detected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dural thickening with homogenous gadolinium enhancement both at lumbosacral level and over cerebral convexities. Histology suggested chronic inflammation in spinal dura mater with extensive fibrosis, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and focal vasculitis. Treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide was started with significant clinical and radiological improvement. Conclusion: HP is etiologically heterogeneous. Despite its rarity, SLE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HP. Early recognition and therapy may provide an optimal outcome. PMID:27684799

  6. Quantitative analysis in outcome assessment of instrumented lumbosacral arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Champain, Sabina; Mazel, Christian; Mitulescu, Anca; Skalli, Wafa

    2007-08-01

    The outcome assessment in instrumented lumbosacral fusion mostly focuses on clinical criteria, complications and scores, with a high variability of imaging means, methods of fusion grading and parameters describing degenerative changes, making comparisons between studies difficult. The aim of this retrospective evaluation was to evaluate the interest of quantified radiographic analysis of lumbar spine in global outcome assessment and to highlight the key biomechanical factors involved. Clinical data and Beaujon-Lassale scores were collected for 49 patients who underwent lumbosacral arthrodesis after prior lumbar discectomy (mean follow-up: 5 years). Sagittal standing and lumbar flexion-extension X-ray films allowed quantifying vertebral, lumbar, pelvic and kinematic parameters of the lumbar spine, which were compared to reference values. Statistics were performed to assess evolution for all variables. At long-term follow-up, 90% of patients presented satisfactory clinical outcomes, associated to normal sagittal alignment; vertebral parameters objectified adjacent level degeneration in four cases (8%). Clinical outcome was correlated (r = 0.8) with fusion that was confirmed in 80% of cases, doubtful in 16% and pseudarthrosis seemed to occur in 4% (2) of cases. In addition to clinical data (outcomes comparable to the literature), quantitative analysis accurately described lumbar spine geometry and kinematics, highlighting parameters related to adjacent level's degeneration and a significant correlation between clinical outcome and fusion. Furthermore, criteria proposed to quantitatively evaluate fusion from lumbar dynamic radiographs seem to be appropriate and in agreement with surgeon's qualitative grading in 87% of cases.

  7. Hyaluronidase shortens levobupivacaine lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, R; de Barros, A L C; Silva-Neto, A B; Pompermeyer, C T; Frazílio, F O

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyaluronidase added to levobupivacaine in lumbosacral epidural blockade in dogs. Six adult mixed breed dogs (two males and four females) weighing 7 to 14 kg (10.5 ±1.5 kg) and aged two to five years were used. Each dog received both treatments in random order: levobupivacaine alone (LBA; n=6) or levobupivacaine plus hyaluronidase (LBH; n=6) administered in the lumbosacral epidural space. Systemic effects, spread and duration of anaesthesia and motor block were determined before treatment and at predetermined intervals. The duration of local anaesthesia was 90 ±10 minutes (P=0.001) for LBH treatment and 150 ±15 minutes for LBA treatment. In the LBH treatment, anaesthesia reached the T12 to T13 dermatome and in the LBA treatment it reached the T11 to T12 dermatome in all animals in 5 and 15 minutes, respectively. Complete motor blockade was 75 ±12 minutes (P=0.01) and 120 ±15 minutes for LBH and LBA treatments, respectively. Hyaluronidase added to levobupivacaine significantly shortens the duration of epidural anaesthesia with the same dermatome spread into the epidural space in dogs. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Specific innervation of guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion cells by preganglionic fibres arising from different levels of the spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Njå, A; Purves, D

    1977-01-01

    1. The synaptic contribution of preganglionic nerve fibres arising from the last cervical (C8) and the first seven thoracic spinal cord segments (T1-T7) to neurones of the guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion has been studied by means of intracellular recording during ventral root stimulation in vitro. 2. The majority of neurones received innervation from the middle segments (T2 and T3) of the length of spinal cord from which preganglionic fibres derive; an intermediate number of ganglion cells were innervated by fibres from the segments adjacent to these (T1, T4, and T5), and relatively few neurones by fibres from the most rostral and caudal segments supplying innervation to the ganglion (C8, T6 and T7). 3. Each neurone received preganglionic terminals from multiple thoracic segments (range 1-7, mean = 4-0). The estimated minimum number of preganglionic fibres contacting each neurone was 10, on average. 4. As a rule, the spinal segments innervating a neurone were contiguous. Thus we rarely encountered neurones innervated by segments located both rostrally and caudally to a segment which failed to provide innervation. 5. Neurones tended to be innervated predominantly by axons arising from a single spinal segment, with adjacent segments contributing a synaptic influence that diminished as a function of their distance from the dominant segment. All segments provided dominant innervation to at least some neurones. 6. Stimulating the ventral roots of C8-T7 in vivo showed that the axons arising from each segment produced a characteristic pattern of peripheral effects. Thus different populations of neurones in the superior cervical ganglion of the guinea-pig are innervated by preganglionic axons from different levels of the spinal cord, as originally suggested by Langley (1892) for the cat, dog, and rabbit. 7. On the basis of our in vitro studies we conclude that underlying the specificity of innervation of neurones of the superior cervical ganglion that can be inferred

  9. Pedicle screw-rod fixation: a feasible treatment for dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tellegen, Anna R; Willems, Nicole; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Meij, Björn P

    2015-12-07

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis is a common problem in large breed dogs. For severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, conservative treatment is often not effective and surgical intervention remains as the last treatment option. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the middle to long term outcome of treatment of severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with pedicle screw-rod fixation with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis. Twelve client-owned dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis underwent pedicle screw-rod fixation of the lumbosacral junction. During long term follow-up, dogs were monitored by clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, force plate analysis, and by using questionnaires to owners. Clinical evaluation, force plate data, and responses to questionnaires completed by the owners showed resolution (n = 8) or improvement (n = 4) of clinical signs after pedicle screw-rod fixation in 12 dogs. There were no implant failures, however, no interbody vertebral bone fusion of the lumbosacral junction was observed in the follow-up period. Four dogs developed mild recurrent low back pain that could easily be controlled by pain medication and an altered exercise regime. Pedicle screw-rod fixation offers a surgical treatment option for large breed dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis in which no other treatment is available. Pedicle screw-rod fixation alone does not result in interbody vertebral bone fusion between L7 and S1.

  10. Dimensions Underlying Measures of Disability, Personal Factors, and Health Status in Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Marie; Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study sought to identify dimensions underlying measures of impairment, disability, personal factors, and health status in patients with cervical radiculopathy. One hundred twenty-four patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified cervical radiculopathy, attending a neurosurgery clinic in Sweden, participated. Data from clinical tests and questionnaires on disability, personal factors, and health status were used in a principal-component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. The PCA supported a 3-component model including 14 variables from clinical tests and questionnaires, accounting for 73% of the cumulative percentage. The first component, pain and disability, explained 56%. The second component, health, fear-avoidance beliefs, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy, explained 9.2%. The third component including anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing explained 7.6%. The strongest-loading variables of each dimension were “present neck pain intensity,” “fear avoidance,” and “anxiety.” The three underlying dimensions identified and labeled Pain and functioning, Health, beliefs, and kinesiophobia, and Mood state and catastrophizing captured aspects of importance for cervical radiculopathy. Since the variables “present neck pain intensity,” “fear avoidance,” and “anxiety” had the strongest loading in each of the three dimensions; it may be important to include them in a reduced multidimensional measurement set in cervical radiculopathy. PMID:26091482

  11. Divergent sensory phenotypes in nonspecific arm pain: comparisons with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Niamh; Hall, Toby; Doody, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether distinct sensory phenotypes were identifiable in individuals with nonspecific arm pain (NSAP) and whether these differed from those in people with cervical radiculopathy. A secondary question considered whether the frequency of features of neuropathic pain, kinesiophobia, high pain ratings, hyperalgesia, and allodynia differed according to subgroups of sensory phenotypes. Cross-sectional study. Higher education institution. Forty office workers with NSAP, 17 people with cervical radiculopathy, and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (N=97). Not applicable. Participants were assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST) comprising thermal and vibration detection thresholds and thermal and pressure pain thresholds; clinical examination; and relevant questionnaires. Sensory phenotypes were identified for each individual in the patient groups using z-score transformation of the QST data. Individuals with NSAP and cervical radiculopathy present with a spectrum of sensory abnormalities; a dominant sensory phenotype was not identifiable in individuals with NSAP. No distinct pattern between clinical features and questionnaire results across sensory phenotypes was identified in either group. When considering sensory phenotypes, neither individuals with NSAP nor individuals with cervical radiculopathy should be considered homogeneous. Therefore, people with either condition may warrant different intervention approaches according to their individual sensory phenotype. Issues relating to the clinical identification of sensory hypersensitivity and the validity of QST are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscle activation timing and balance response in chronic lower back pain patients with associated radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Frost, Lydia R; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain and associated radiculopathy present with neuromuscular symptoms both in their lower back and down their leg; however, investigations of muscle activation have so far been isolated to the lower back. During balance perturbations, it is necessary that lower limb muscles activate with proper timing and sequencing along with the lower back musculature to efficiently regain balance control. Patients with chronic low back pain and radiculopathy and matched controls completed a series of balance perturbations (rapid bilateral arm raise, unanticipated and anticipated sudden loading, and rapid rise to toe). Muscle activation timing and sequencing as well as kinetic response to the perturbations were analyzed. Patients had significantly delayed lower limb muscle activation in rapid arm raise trials as compared to controls. In sudden loading trials, muscle activation timing was not delayed in patients; however, some differences in posterior chain muscle activation sequencing were present. Patients demonstrated less anterior-posterior movement in unanticipated sudden loading trials, and greater medial-lateral movement in rise to toe trials. Patients with low back pain and radiculopathy demonstrated some significant differences from control participants in terms of muscle activation timing, sequencing, and overall balance control. The presence of differences between patients and controls, specifically in the lower limb, indicates that radiculopathy may play a role in altering balance control in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High resolution neurography of the lumbosacral plexus on 3T magneteic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Escobar, I; Serra, M; Barroso, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography is a technique that complements clinical and electrophysiological study of the peripheral nerves and brachial and lumbosacral plexuses. Numerous focal processes (inflammatory, traumatic, primary tumors, secondary tumors) and diffuse processes (diabetic polyneuropathy, chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy due to amyloidosis or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) can involve the lumbosacral plexus. This article reviews the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus, describes the technique for neurography of the plexus at our institution, and shows the diverse diseases that affect it. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement in pain after lumbar surgery in cancer patients with mechanical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Moliterno, Jennifer; Veselis, Clinton A; Hershey, Michael A; Lis, Eric; Laufer, Ilya; Bilsky, Mark H

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar metastases can result in spinal instability and mechanical radiculopathy, characterized by radicular pain produced by axial loading. This pain pattern represents a definitive symptom of neoplastic instability and may serve as a reliable indication for surgical stabilization. We examined the results of surgical decompression and fixation in the treatment of mechanical radiculopathy. A retrospective clinical study. An internally maintained spine neurosurgery database was queried between February 2002 and April 2010. Patients were identified and deemed eligible for inclusion in this study based on the presence of all the following: metastatic tumor, lumbar surgery, and lumbar radiculopathy. Visual analog scale (VAS) of pain and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Department of Neurosurgery operative database was queried over an 8-year period to identify all patients with spinal metastases who underwent lumbar surgery. Only patients whose operative indication included mechanical radiculopathy were included. Pre- and postoperative pain was assessed with the VAS of pain, whereas pre- and postoperative performance status was evaluated using the ECOG. Fifty-five patients were included in the cohort. L2 and L3 were the most common levels involved, and most patients underwent multilevel posterior decompression and instrumented fusion. After surgery, 98% of patients reported pain relief. A significant difference between average pre- and postoperative pain scores was found (p<.01). Overall, 41.5% of patients experienced improvement in their ECOG score postoperatively. Mechanical radiculopathy in patients with spinal metastases represents a highly reliable surgical indication. Spinal decompression and fixation is an effective treatment for pain palliation in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Value of physical tests in diagnosing cervical radiculopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thoomes, Erik J; van Geest, Sarita; van der Windt, Danielle A; Falla, Deborah; Verhagen, Arianne P; Koes, Bart W; Thoomes-de Graaf, Marloes; Kuijper, Barbara; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy Gm; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L

    2017-08-21

    Background context In clinical practice, the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy is based on information from the patient history, physical examination and diagnostic imaging. Various physical tests may be performed, but their diagnostic accuracy is unknown. Purpose To summarize and update the evidence on diagnostic performance of tests carried out during a physical examination for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Study design Review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Study Sample Diagnostic studies comparing results of tests performed during a physical examination in diagnosing cervical radiculopathy with a reference standard of imaging or surgical findings. Outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios are presented, together with pooled results for sensitivity and specificity. Methods A literature search up to March 2016 was performed in CENTRAL, PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2. Results Five diagnostic accuracy studies were identified. Only Spurling's test was evaluated in more than one study, showing high specificity ranging from 0.89-1.00 (95%CI: 0.59-1.00); sensitivity varied from 0.38-0.97 (95%CI: 0.21-0.99). No studies were found that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of widely used neurological tests such as key muscle strength, tendon reflexes and sensory impairments. Conclusions There is limited evidence for accuracy of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. When consistent with the patient history, clinicians may use a combination of Spurling's, axial traction and an Arm Squeeze test to increase the likelihood of a cervical radiculopathy; whereas a negative combined neurodynamic testing and an Arm Squeeze test could be used to rule out the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Association between Urinary Incontinence and Low Back Pain and Radiculopathy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaptan, Hulagu; Kulaksızoğlu, Haluk; Kasımcan, Ömür; Seçkin, Bedreddin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common dysfunction, affecting especially women of all ages. The terminology of low back pain (LBP) and radiculopathy (RP) may be misused interchangeably with each other. There are many reports of the association with LBP and incontinence but those involving compression of nerve root(as RP), has not been distinguished from isolated low back pain. This study was structured to analyse the association of UI, LBP and RP. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients were included in the study. Patients with spinal or urinary infection, tumour (spinal or others), cauda equine, pelvic operation, spinal trauma, spinal surgery, urogenital pathology were not accepted for this study. Age and weight of all patients were determined. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was utilised for assessment of loss of function and SEAPI incontinence index was used for urinary incontinence. All patients were examined for neurological pathology to differentiate between the LBP and RP by department of neurosurgery. Student t-test and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used for statistical significance. RESULTS: There was no statistical significance between low back pain with overall urinary incontinence (p = 0.131), urge (p = 0.103) or stress incontinence (p = 0.68), respectively. However; The statistical aspects were identified relationship between overall (p = 0.026) and urge (p = 0.001) urinary incontinence with radiculopathy. The association of urge incontinence and radiculopathy seems to show a more significant relationship. Yet there was no correlation between radiculopathy and stress incontinence (P = 0.062). CONCLUSION: Low back pain should not be regarded as a predisposing factor for urinary incontinence; however, radiculopathy has a statistically positive correlation between overall incontinence and urge incontinence. PMID:28028410

  17. The Study of Diagnostic Efficacy of Nerve Conduction Study Parameters in Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sachin; Kashikar, Aditi; Shende, Vinod; Waghmare, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical Radiculopathy (CR) is a neurologic condition characterised by dysfunction of a cervical spinal nerve, the roots of the nerve, or both. Diagnostic criteria for CR are not well defined, and no universally accepted criteria for its diagnosis have been established. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and electrophysiologic evaluation are the different modalities to diagnose CR. The incidence of Cervical Spondylosis and related conditions is increasing in the present scenario and the use of radiologic examination is time consuming and uneconomical for the common Indian setup. Thus, there is a definite need to establish a cost effective, reliable, and accurate means for establishing the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Electrodiagnostic tests are the closest to fulfill these criteria. Aim: To evaluate diagnostic utility of various motor and sensory nerve conduction study parameters in cervical radiculopathy. Setting and Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 100 subjects of age > 40 years. Material and Methods: The consecutive patients clinically diagnosed to have cervical radiculopathy, referred from department of Orthopaedics were prospectively recruited for the motor and sensory nerve conduction study using RMS EMG EP Mark-II. Parameters studied were Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP), Distal Motor Latency (DML) and Conduction Velocity (CV) for motor nerves and Sensory Nerve Action Potential (SNAP) and CV for sensory nerves. Statistical Analysis: Study observations and results were analysed to find the Specificity, Sensitivity, Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value using SPSS 16.0. Results: Among various motor nerve conduction parameters CMAP was found to be more sensitive with high positive predicative value. CV was found to have greater specificity and DML had least negative predictive value. Sensory nerve conduction parameters were found to have less sensitivity but higher specificity as compared

  18. Clinical accuracy of computer-assisted two-dimensional fluoroscopy for the percutaneous placement of lumbosacral pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Zahrai, Ali; Rampersaud, Raja

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case series. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of computer-assisted two-dimensional fluoroscopy (2D-CAS) for the percutaneous placement of lumbosacral pedicle screws. Loss of visual anatomic landmarks and reduced tactile feedback increases the risk of pedicle screw misplacement by when using minimally invasive (MIS) percutaneous techniques. However, objective data on screw misplacement in this scenario is lacking. A MIS-2D-CAS technique (FluoroNav) was used for the placement of pedicle screws in 41 consecutive patients undergoing MIS-interbody instrumented fusion. Postoperative computerized tomography (CT) was obtained in all patients at 6 months after surgery and was evaluated by 3 observers. The relative position of the screw to the pedicle was graded regarding pedicle breach (I, no breach; II, <2 mm; III, 2-4 mm; IV, >4 mm), breach direction, vertebral body perforation and screw trajectory. Interobserver reliability of CT grading was assessed with kappa statistics. A total of 161 screws were placed. No neurologic, vascular, or visceral injuries occurred. About 37 (23%) screws breached the pedicle. The majority (83.8%, 31/37) of breaches were graded II. There were 5 Grade III and 1 Grade IV breaches. Medial versus lateral breaches occurred in 30% (11/37) and 60% (22/37), respectively; 10% (4/37) of the breaches were superior. Overall, 8 (5%) vertebral body breaches occurred. Of the pedicle screws, 19 (12%) had trajectories that deviated from acceptable, with the majority being medial (16/19, 84%). Fluoroscopy time for screw placement was typically less than 20 seconds total per case. There was 1 clinically significant breach at L5 (III, medial) which resulted in a L5 radiculopathy. Kappa statistics showed excellent overall agreement between reviewers (k = 0.73-0.92; 90%-96% agreement). The two-dimensional (2D) virtual fluoroscopy is a clinically acceptable option for percutaneous placement of pedicle screws

  19. Lumbosacral Osteomyelitis and Discitis with Phlegmon Following Laparoscopic Sacral Colpopexy

    PubMed Central

    Scranton, Robert; Antosh, Danielle D; Simpson, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    Lumbosacral osteomyelitis and discitis are usually a result of hematogenous spread; rarely it can result from direct inoculation during a surgical procedure. Bacteria may also track along implanted devices to a different location. This is a rare complication seen from pelvic organ prolapse surgery with sacral colpopexy. A 67-year-old female developed increasing lower back pain four months following a laparoscopic sacral colpopexy. Imaging revealed lumbar 5-sacral 1 (L5-S1) osteomyelitis and discitis with associated phlegmon confirmed by percutaneous biopsy and culture. The patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics, but required laparoscopic removal of the pelvic and vaginal mesh followed by twelve weeks of intravenous antibiotics. The patient has experienced clinical improvement of her back pain. This is an uncommon complication of sacral colpopexy, but physicians must be vigilant and manage aggressively to avoid more serious complications and permanent deficit. PMID:27551651

  20. Epidural Gas Accumulation in Connection with Canine Degenerative Lumbosacral Disease.

    PubMed

    Skytte, Ditte; Schmökel, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Three dogs were presented with lumbosacral hyperesthesia. Computerized tomography scans were performed in all the cases, and magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in cases 1 and 3. There was intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion causing nerve root compression and epidural gas accumulation in all the three cases. The gas-filled cystic structures in cases 1 and 3 were within the spinal canal; in case 2, the gas was within the disc protrusion. The IVD vacuum phenomenon is relatively common in dogs, but the formation of an epidural gas accumulation in cases of a lumbar disc protrusion is rare. The clinical significance of these epidural gas accumulations is unknown. Two of the dogs were treated surgically, improved after surgery, and showed no signs of pain in the follow-up examinations.

  1. The effect of calcium ions on the binomial statistic parameters that control acetylcholine release at preganglionic nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, M R; Florin, T; Pettigrew, A G

    1976-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the effects of changing [Ca]O and [Mg]O on the binomial statistic parameters p and n that control the average quantal content (m) of the excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) due to acetylcholine release at preganglionic nerve terminals. 2. When [Ca]O was increased in the range from 0-2 to 0-5 mM, p increased as the first power of [Ca]O whereas n increased as the 0-5 power of [Ca]O; when [Mg]O was increased in the range from 5 to 200 mM, p decreased as the first power of [Mg]O whereas n decreased as the 0-5 power of [Mg]O. 3. The increase in quantal release of a test impulse following a conditioning impulse was primarily due to an increase in n; the increase in quantal content of successive e.p.s.p.s in a short train was due to an increase in n and p, and the increase in n was quantitatively described in terms of the accumulation of a Ca-receptor complex in the nerve terminal. 4. The decrease in quantal content of successive e.p.s.p.s during long trains of impulses over several minutes was primarily due to a decrease in n. These results are discussed in terms of an hypothesis concerning the physical basis of n and p in the release process. PMID:181562

  2. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Briant, Linford J B; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O; Nolan, Matthew F; Champneys, Alan R; Pickering, Anthony E

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15-30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Linford J. B.; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O.; Nolan, Matthew F.; Champneys, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15–30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. PMID:25122704

  4. Double labeling of vagal preganglionic and sympathetic postganglionic fibers in celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric arteries and myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Ting, Shi-Jane; Kao, Chih-Kuan; Wang, Feng-Bin

    2017-02-28

    Sympathetic efferents regulate the “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic and vagal fibers have been suggested to retrogradely and centrally spread pathogens associated with Parkinson’s disease. To examine the arrangement of the vagal and sympathetic motor fibers in the celiac ganglion (CG), gastrointestinal tract, and along the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches, we double-labeled the vagal efferents by injecting Dextran-Texas Red into the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the sympathetic postganglionics with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18). The laser scanning confocal microscope was used for image analysis. Vagal nerve endings were densely distributed around the CG neurons, and the right CG received more. Vagal and sympathetic efferent endings formed various ring or string shapes that tangled closely in the myenteric plexus of the forestomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Vagal and sympathetic efferents coursed within the same nerve bundles before reaching the myenteric plexus, had in-apposition varicosities, and ran parallel with the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches. Although a complete sympathetic tracing and an incomplete tracing and/or damage to the vagal preganglionic neurons may lead to a sampling bias, the sympathetic innervations in the blood vessels and myenteric plexus are stronger than in the vagus. The in-apposition innervation varicosities of the vagal and sympathetic efferents within the same nerve bundles and in the myenteric plexus of the gut with complex innervation patterns may offer a network to automatically control gastrointestinal functions and an infection route of the Parkinson’s disease between the autonomic efferent endings.

  5. Quantitative analysis in outcome assessment of instrumented lumbosacral arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Christian; Mitulescu, Anca

    2007-01-01

    The outcome assessment in instrumented lumbosacral fusion mostly focuses on clinical criteria, complications and scores, with a high variability of imaging means, methods of fusion grading and parameters describing degenerative changes, making comparisons between studies difficult. The aim of this retrospective evaluation was to evaluate the interest of quantified radiographic analysis of lumbar spine in global outcome assessment and to highlight the key biomechanical factors involved. Clinical data and Beaujon–Lassale scores were collected for 49 patients who underwent lumbosacral arthrodesis after prior lumbar discectomy (mean follow-up: 5 years). Sagittal standing and lumbar flexion-extension X-ray films allowed quantifying vertebral, lumbar, pelvic and kinematic parameters of the lumbar spine, which were compared to reference values. Statistics were performed to assess evolution for all variables. At long-term follow-up, 90% of patients presented satisfactory clinical outcomes, associated to normal sagittal alignment; vertebral parameters objectified adjacent level degeneration in four cases (8%). Clinical outcome was correlated (r = 0.8) with fusion that was confirmed in 80% of cases, doubtful in 16% and pseudarthrosis seemed to occur in 4% (2) of cases. In addition to clinical data (outcomes comparable to the literature), quantitative analysis accurately described lumbar spine geometry and kinematics, highlighting parameters related to adjacent level’s degeneration and a significant correlation between clinical outcome and fusion. Furthermore, criteria proposed to quantitatively evaluate fusion from lumbar dynamic radiographs seem to be appropriate and in agreement with surgeon’s qualitative grading in 87% of cases. PMID:17216227

  6. Cytogenetic telomere and telomerase studies in lumbo-sacral chordoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.S.; Dahir, G.A.; Miller, L.K.

    1994-09-01

    Lumbo-sacral chordomas are rare skeletal sarcomas that originate from the remnant notochord. There are approximately 35 lumbo-sacral chordomas reported annually in the U.S.A. The understanding of this rare human cancer is limited to observations of its clinical behavior and embryonic link. We performed chromosome and molecular analyses from five surgically harvested chordomas in an effort to document genetic abnormalities and to further understand its tumor biology. Cytogenetically, four of five patients had entirely normal chromosomes. One patient had several abnormalities seen in one of 100 cells including a translocation with breakpoints at bands 5q13 and 7q22, loss of one X chromosome and an extra chromosome 14. There was no evidence of monosomy X or trisomy 14 seen with interphase in situ hybridization using biotin-labeled alpha satellite chromosome specific probes for chromosome 14/22 and X. Telomere integrity is required to protect termini from illegitimate recombination. Typically telomeric reduction occurs in senescent fibroblasts in vivo aging and several human solid tumors. A telomeric probe (TTAGGG){sub 50} was hybridized to genomic DNA isolated from chordoma cells and digested with Hinf I which allows the telomeric DNA to remain intact. The tumor DNA was paired with leukocyte DNA from age-matched controls and revealed telomere elongation in all four patients studied with molecular genetic techniques. Telomerase activity is required to maintain telomere integrity and is not present in normal somatic cells. It is determined by visualizing the sizes of the electrophoresis gel-separated radioactive telomeric fragments assembled during incubation of cytoplasmic extracts containing telomerase. Telomerase activity was detected when compared with HeLa cells, a positive control. In addition, no telomerase activity was detected from the chordoma patient`s fibroblasts.

  7. A Review of Symptomatic Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: Bertolotti's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jancuska, Jeffrey M.; Spivak, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are increasingly recognized as a common anatomical variant associated with altered patterns of degenerative spine changes. This review will focus on the clinical significance of LSTV, disruptions in normal spine biomechanics, imaging techniques, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods A Pubmed search using the specific key words “LSTV,” “lumbosacral transitional vertebrae,” and “Bertolotti's Syndrome” was performed. The resulting group of manuscripts from our search was evaluated. Results LSTV are associated with alterations in biomechanics and anatomy of spinal and paraspinal structures, which have important implications on surgical approaches and techniques. LSTV are often inaccurately detected and classified on standard AP radiographs and MRI. The use of whole-spine images as well as geometric relationships between the sacrum and lumbar vertebra increase accuracy. Uncertainty regarding the cause, clinical significance, and treatment of LSTV persists. Some authors suggest an association between LSTV types II and IV and low back pain. Pseudoarticulation between the transverse process and the sacrum creates a “false joint” susceptible to arthritic changes and osteophyte formation potentially leading to nerve root entrapment. The diagnosis of symptomatic LSTV is considered with appropriate patient history, imaging studies, and diagnostic injections. A positive radionuclide study along with a positive effect from a local injection helps distinguish the transitional vertebra as a significant pain source. Surgical resection is reserved for a subgroup of LSTV patients who fail conservative treatment and whose pain is definitively attributed to the anomalous pseudoarticulation. Conclusions Due to the common finding of low back pain and the wide prevalence of LSTV in the general population, it is essential to differentiate between symptoms originating from an anomalous psuedoarticulation from other potential

  8. Lumbo-sacro-pelvic Fixation Using Iliac Screws for the Complex Lumbo-sacral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Woo-Tack; You, Seung-Hoon; Jang, Yeon-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Youl

    2007-12-01

    Fractures of lumbo-sacral junction involving bilateral sacral wings are rare. Posterior lumbo-sacral fixation does not always provide with sufficient stability in such cases. Various augmentation techniques including divergent sacral ala screws, S2 pedicle screws and Galveston rods have been reported to improve lumbo-sacral stabilization. Galveston technique using iliac bones would be the best surgical approach especially in patients with bilateral comminuted sacral fractures. However, original Galveston surgery is technically demanding and bending rods into the appropriate alignment is time consuming. We present a patient with unstable lumbo-sacral junction fractures and comminuted U-shaped sacral fractures treated by lumbo-sacro-pelvic fixation using iliac screws and discuss about the advantages of the iliac screws over the rod system of Galveston technique.

  9. Lumbo-sacral spine disease due to bovine tuberculosis in a patient with concurrent pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nawaid; Srinivasan, Koottalai; Panayi, Jeannette; Moudgil, Harmesh

    2011-12-01

    Lumbo-sacral spinal disease due to bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a patient with concurrent pulmonary disease is rare. We report this unpredicted finding in an immunocompetent patient and discuss the natural history in an area of low prevalence.

  10. Asymmetric lumbosacral transitional vertebra and subsequent disc protrusion in a cocker spaniel.

    PubMed

    Archer, Rebecca; Sissener, Thomas; Connery, Neil; Spotswood, Tim

    2010-03-01

    A 10-year-old cocker spaniel bitch presented with severe lumbosacral pain and acute onset left pelvic limb lameness. A diagnosis of asymmetric lumbosacral transitional vertebra with disc protrusion at L6-L7 was made by computed tomography. The cauda equina and left L6 nerve root were surgically decompressed with a dorsal laminectomy and lateral foraminotomy, which led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs.

  11. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance in disc pathology of the lumbosacral region.

    PubMed

    Masciocchi, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Gallucci, M; Fascetti, E; Beomonte Zobel, B; Flamini, S; Recchioni, F; Passariello, R

    1990-01-01

    An MRI tomograph was used to examine 396 patients with suspected disc pathology of the lumbosacral region. Forty two patients in whom disc herniation was diagnosed underwent surgery. MR proved to be a reliable and accurate method for the diagnosis of disc herniation, revealing its site and size as well as compression on the neural structures. The limits of MR are discussed and integrated diagnostic protocol in lumbosacral disc pathology is proposed.

  12. Antinociceptive effects of low dose lumbosacral epidural ropivacaine in healthy ponies.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Menke, Eveline S; Doornenbal, Arie; Back, Willem; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low dose lumbosacral epidural ropivacaine in ponies. Antinociceptive effects of epidural ropivacaine were evaluated by means of mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) at several spinal levels in conscious ponies. The effects of ropivacaine on nociceptive afferent transmission to the spinal cord were also assessed by measuring spinal cord somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in anaesthetised ponies. Ataxia scores were determined in conscious ponies to assess the effects on motor function. A randomised, placebo controlled, double blind cross-over design was used. Low dose lumbosacral epidural ropivacaine led to increases in MNTs at various anatomical locations with a maximum effect at the lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal regions, both with respect to increase in threshold and duration of effect. Analysis of SSEPs showed that epidural ropivacaine influenced both Aβ- and Aδ-mediated afferent transmission to the spinal cord at the level of the lumbosacral junction. Ponies showed mild ataxia after low dose lumbosacral epidural ropivacaine, but all ponies remained standing. Application of low dose lumbosacral epidural ropivacaine provided safe and efficacious antinociceptive effects in conscious and anaesthetised ponies, and could therefore be a valuable addition to multimodal analgesic protocols in Equidae.

  13. Significance of perianular enhancement associated with anular tears on magnetic resonance imagings in diagnosis of radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Byun, Woo Mok; Ahn, Sang Ho; Ahn, Myun-Whan

    2008-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical findings about chemical radiculitis-associated anular tear in patients with radiculopathy. To investigate MRI findings of the chemical radiculitis caused by anular tears and to determine whether chemical radiculitis detected by MRI is the cause of radiculopathy. Many studies document that irritation of adjacent nerve roots by a chemical mediator of inflammation from the nucleus pulposus may result in radiculopathy. Computed tomography (CT) discography may be the best examination for diagnosing discogenic chemical radiculitis but is too invasive. A reliable imaging method for replacing invasive provocative CT discography and diagnosing chemical radiculitis is required. The study population consisted of 12 patients with pain referred to leg(s) with or without low back pain who underwent lumbar spine MRI. All cases of our study demonstrated perianular enhancement caused by chemical radiculitis associated with anular tears. Patterns and locations of perianular enhancement adjacent to anular tears on MRI were assessed. MRI findings were compared with clinical symptoms and/or provocative transforaminal epidural injection (n = 6). For documentation of the relationship between perianular enhancement and radiculopathy, provocative CT discography was performed in 2 cases. Perianular enhancement associated with anular tears revealed thick linear patterns (2.5-7 mm thickness) along margins of anular tears on contrast enhanced axial T1-weighted images with fat suppression. Locations of perianular enhancement adjacent to anular tears were at foraminal (n = 6) and extraforaminal portions (n = 6). CT discography showed a leak of contrast from anular tear to the perianular regions. Pain reproduction at contrast leak level during discography showed concordant pain. There was an apparent correlation between perianular enhancement on MRI and clinical symptoms or provocative epidural nerve root injection in all

  14. [Usefulness of curved coronal MPR imaging for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Inukai, Chikage; Inukai, Takashi; Matsuo, Naoki; Shimizu, Ikuo; Goto, Hisaharu; Takagi, Teruhide; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2010-03-01

    In surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy, localization of the responsible lesions by various imaging modalities is essential. Among them, MRI is non-invasive and plays a primary role in the assessment of spinal radicular symptoms. However, demonstration of nerve root compression is sometimes difficult by the conventional methods of MRI, such as T1 weighted (T1W) and T2 weighted (T2W) sagittal or axial images. We have applied a new technique of curved coronal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) imaging for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Ten patients (4 male, 6 female) with ages between 31 and 79 year-old, who had clinical diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy, were included in this study. Seven patients underwent anterior key-hole foraminotomy to decompress the nerve root with successful results. All the patients had 3D MRI studies, such as true fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP), 3DT2W sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different fillip angle evolution (SPACE), and 3D multi-echo data image combination (MEDIC) imagings in addition to the routine MRI (1.5 T Avanto, Siemens, Germany) with a phased array coil. The curved coronal MPR images were produced from these MRI data using a workstation. The nerve root compression was diagnosed by curved coronal MPR images in all the patients. The compression sites were compatible with those of the operative findings in 7 patients, who underwent surgical treatment. The MEDIC imagings were the most demonstrable to visualize the nerve root, while the 3D-space imagings were the next. The curved coronal MPR imaging is useful for the diagnosis of accurate localization of the compressing lesions in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

  15. Iliacus abscess with radiculopathy mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus: Additional diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Woo, S H; Lee, W J

    2017-03-01

    An iliacus abscess is an extremely rare cause of low back pain. With an iliacus abscess, the classical signs seen with a psoas abscess are frequently absent. Therefore, a timely diagnosis at the initial visit is difficult and inadequate treatment usually results in high mortality. Here, we report the case of 19-year-old man who presented with acute low back pain with radiculopathy and was ultimately diagnosed with an iliacus muscle abscess.

  16. Prospective medium-term results of multimodal pain management in patients with lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Benditz, A.; Madl, M.; Loher, M.; Grifka, J.; Boluki, D.; Linhardt, O.

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is one of the most common diseases of modern civilisation. Multimodal pain management (MPM) represents a central approach to avoiding surgery. Only few medium-term results have been published in the literature so far. This study compared subjective and objective as well as anamnestic and clinical parameters of 60 patients who had undergone inpatient MPM because of lumbar radiculopathy before and 1 year ±2 weeks after treatment. The majority of patients were very satisfied (35%) or satisfied (52%) with the treatment outcome. Merely 8 patients commented neutrally and none negatively. The finger-floor distance had decreased significantly (p < 0.01), and 30 patients (50%) had shown improved mobility of the spine after therapy. The need for painkillers had also been significantly reduced after 1 year. The arithmetical average of pain on a visual analogue scale was 7.21 before treatment, which had significantly decreased to 3.58 at follow-up (p < 0.01). MPM is an effective approach for treating lumbar radiculopathy by mechanical nerve root irritation. Therefore, in the absence of an absolute indication for surgery or an absolute contradiction for MPM, patients should first be treated with this minimally invasive therapy. PMID:27305956

  17. Anatomical study of preganglionic spinal nerve and disc relation at different lumbar levels: Special aspect for microscopic spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Teske, Wolfram; Boudelal, Redouane; Zirke, Sonja; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Wiese, Matthias; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar microdiscectomy is a widespread popular method of treatment. One major challenge is the spine level dependent different anatomy and the limited sight on the nerve root during the surgical procedure. The aim was to analyze the specific anatomic relation of nerve root, intervertebral disc and intervertebral ganglion under determination of the specific nerve distances. Furthermore the relation between the disc and the corresponding nerve root was evaluated. Regular human lumbar spine specimens of body donors were included in the study. Microscopic assisted dissection was performed. The topographical distances between a defined disc measurement point (DP) and the corresponding nerve root shoulder (NS) were measured. The preganglionic distance from the caudal axilla point (AP) of the spinal nerve root and the center point (CG) of the spinal ganglion in the intervertebral foramen were determined. The AP-CG distance increased gradually in the caudal direction from L1 (7.25 ± 2.72 mm right side, 7.30 ± 2.85 mm left side) to a maximum for L5 (16.00 ± 3.39 mm right side, 16.50 ± 3.58 mm left side, p< 0.05). We found a significant reduction for S1 (14.88 ± 3.42 mm right side, 13.83 ± 2.47 mm, p< 0.05). In contrast the DP-AP distances showed a maximum for L1 (12.75 ± 2.78 mm right side, 13.70 ± 3.87 mm left side) with an increasing shortening in the caudal direction and even negative values for S1 (-2.63 ± 3.31 mm right side, -0.83 ± 2.84 mm left side, p< 0.01). The topographical anatomy changes each lumbar segment and demands therefore an exact preoperative planning using this specific knowledge to perform a successful microscopic spine surgery. The results of the study support a better understanding of the relevant anatomy and help to reduce incomplete herniated disc removal and to avoid surgical complications.

  18. Presynaptic 5-HT3 receptors evoke an excitatory response in dorsal vagal preganglionic neurones in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Ramage, Andrew G; Jordan, David

    1998-01-01

    Recordings were made from a total of sixty-four vagal preganglionic neurones in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus (DVMN) of pentobarbitone sodium anaesthetized rats. The effects of ionophoretic administration of Mg2+ and Cd2+, inhibitors of neurotransmitter release, and the selective NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists (±)-2-amino-5-phosphono-pentanoic acid (AP5) and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) on the excitatory actions of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-phenylbiguanide (PBG) were studied. In extracellular recording experiments, PBG (0-40 nA) increased the firing rate of thirty-five of the thirty-nine neurones tested. The PBG-evoked excitation was attenuated by application of Mg2+ (1-10 nA) in sixteen of seventeen neurones or Cd2+ (2-10 nA) in seven of eight neurones tested. At these low ejection currents neither Mg2+ nor Cd2+ altered baseline firing rates and Mg2+ had no effect on the excitations evoked by DL-homocysteic acid (n = 4), NMDA (n = 4) or (AMPA; n = 2). Ionophoresis of AP5 (2-10 nA), at currents which selectively inhibited NMDA-evoked excitations, attenuated PBG-evoked excitations in all eight neurones tested. DNQX (5-20 nA), at currents which selectively inhibited AMPA-evoked excitations, also attenuated PBG-evoked excitations (n = 3). Intracellular activity was recorded in nine DVMN neurones. In six neurones ionophoretic application of PBG (10-200 nA) depolarized the membrane and increased firing rate whilst in the other three neurones, PBG had no effect on membrane potential though it increased synaptic noise (n = 3) and firing rate (n = 2). In all six neurones tested, ionophoresis of Mg2+ (10-120 nA) attenuated the PBG-evoked increases in synaptic noise and firing rate. In conclusion, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that 5-HT3 receptor agonists activate DVMN neurones partly by acting on receptors located at sites presynaptic to the neurones. Activation of these receptors appears to facilitate release of glutamate, which, in

  19. Mini posterior lumbar interbody fusion with presacral screw stabilization in early lumbosacral instability

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Arjun; Kini, Abhishek R; Chacko, A; Sunil, Upadhyaya; Vinod, K; Geover, Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical options for the management of early lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with instability vary from open lumbar interbody fusion with transpedicular fixation to a variety of minimal access fusion and fixation procedures. We have used a combination of micro discectomy and axial lumbosacral interbody fusion with presacral screw fixation to treat symptomatic patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis or lumbosacral degenerative disc disease, which needed surgical stabilization. This study describes the above technique along with analysis of results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with symptomatic lumbosacral (L5-S1) instability and degenerative lumbosacral disc disease were treated by micro discectomy and interbody fusion using presacral screw stabilization. Patients with history of bowel, bladder dysfunction and local anorectal diseases were excluded from this study. Postoperatively all patients were evaluated neurologically and radiologically for screw position, fusion and stability. Oswestry disability index was used to evaluate results. Results: We had nine females and three males with a mean age of 47.33 years (range 26–68 years). Postoperative assessment revealed three patients to have screw placed in anterior 1/4th of the 1st sacral body, in rest nine the screws were placed in the posterior 3/4th of sacral body. At 2 years followup, eight patients (67%) showed evidence of bridging trabeculae at bone graft site and none of the patients showed evidence of instability or implant failure. Conclusion: Presacral screw fixation along with micro discectomy is an effective procedure to manage early symptomatic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with instability. PMID:26015626

  20. Computed tomographic evaluation of dynamic alteration of the canine lumbosacral intervertebral neurovascular foramina.

    PubMed

    Worth, Andrew J; Hartman, Angela; Bridges, Janis P; Jones, Boyd R; Mayhew, Joe I G

    2017-02-01

    To develop a computed tomographic (CT) method to measure the volume of the lumbosacral intervertebral neurovascular foramina (IVF) in dogs, and determine the effect of the range of motion of the lumbosacral (LS) junction on this measurement in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) compared to unaffected controls. In vivo analysis and retrospective case series. Twenty-four working Police GSDs, 12 diagnosed with DLSS and 12 unaffected by DLSS were compared to 10 Greyhounds without DLSS. Three-dimensional renderings of CT data were used to measure the lumbosacral foraminal volume of dogs positioned in dorsal recumbency with the LS junction alternately positioned in extension, neutral position, and flexion. Volumetric analysis of the IVF was found repeatable for the extended and neutral positions (interclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 and 0.8, respectively). The mean lumbosacral IVF volume was decreased by 74% between LS flexion and extension in Greyhounds, compared to 79 and 85% reductions in GSDs unaffected and affected by DLSS, respectively. The lumbosacral IVF volume was decreased by 23% when comparing extended to neutral LS positions in Greyhounds, 29% in unaffected GSDs, and 31% in affected GSDs. IVF volumes were smaller in affected GSDs compared to unaffected GSDs (P < .05) and Greyhounds (P < .01). Positioning the LS junction in full extension decreases the volume of the lumbosacral IVF. This dynamic narrowing was more pronounced in GSDs with signs of DLSS than in GSDs not overtly affected by DLSS. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection for Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy: Comparison of Midline and Paramedian Approaches for Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Young; Yoon, Young Cheol; Lee, Jongseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Results Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis. PMID:25995690

  2. Persons with unilateral transfemoral amputation have altered lumbosacral kinetics during sitting and standing movements.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Brad D; Wolf, Erik J

    2015-07-01

    Increases in spinal loading have been related to altered movements of the lower back during gait among persons with lower limb amputation, movements which are self-perceived by these individuals as contributing factors in the development of low back pain. However, the relationships between altered trunk kinematics and associated changes in lumbosacral kinetics during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements in this population have not yet been assessed. Three-dimensional lumbosacral kinetics (joint moments and powers) were compared between 9 persons with unilateral transfemoral amputation (wearing both a powered and passive knee device), and 9 uninjured controls, performing five consecutive sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements. During sit-to-stand movements, lumbosacral joint moments and powers were significantly larger among persons with transfemoral amputation relative to uninjured controls. During stand-to-sit movements, lumbosacral joint moments and powers were also significantly larger among persons with transfemoral amputation relative to uninjured controls, with the exception of sagittal joint powers. Minimal differences in kinetic measures were noted between the powered and passive knee devices among persons with transfemoral amputation across all conditions. Altered lumbosacral kinetics during sitting and standing movements, important activities of daily living, may play a biomechanical role in the onset and/or recurrence of low back pain or injury among persons with lower-limb amputation.

  3. [Imaging of the lumbosacral plexus : Diagnostics and treatment planning with high-resolution procedures].

    PubMed

    Jengojan, S; Schellen, C; Bodner, G; Kasprian, G

    2017-03-01

    Technical advances in magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound-based neurography nowadays facilitate the radiological assessment of the lumbosacral plexus. Anatomy and imaging of the lumbosacral plexus and diagnostics of the most common pathologies. Description of the clinically feasible combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound diagnostics, case-based illustration of imaging techniques and individual advantages of MRI and ultrasound-based diagnostics for various pathologies of the lumbosacral plexus and its peripheral nerves. High-resolution ultrasound-based neurography (HRUS) is particularly valuable for the assessment of superficial structures of the lumbosacral plexus. Depending on the examiner's experience, anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve (e. g. relevant in piriformis syndrome) as well as more subtle variations, for example as seen in neuritis, can be sonographically depicted and assessed. The use of MRI enables the diagnostic evaluation of more deeply located nerve structures, such as the pudendal and the femoral nerves. Modern MRI techniques, such as peripheral nerve tractography allow three-dimensional depiction of the spatial relationship between nerves and local tumors or traumatic alterations. This can be beneficial for further therapy planning. The anatomy and pathology of the lumbosacral plexus can be reliably imaged by the meaningful combination of MRI and ultrasound-based high resolution neurography.

  4. A rare case of lumbosacral meningioma: nondural attachment and possible enlargement by orally administered sex steroid.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Jun; Fukuoka, Muneyoshi; Tsubouchi, Shunji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tono, Yuji; Shimizu, Shigeki; Matsui, Nobuo

    2002-08-15

    A case report is presented. To present a very rare case of orally ingested sex hormone pills inducing nondurally attached meningioma in the lumbosacral region. Meningiomas are known to enlarge in response to female sex hormones. At this writing, few cases of nondurally based intradural meningioma have been reported. Moreover, meningiomas in the lumbosacral region are very rare. Spinal meningiomas predominantly arise in the fourth to sixth decades of life and are more common in women. The patient was a 20-year-old woman. She had undergone oral sex steroid therapy for long-term oligomenorrhea. The patient complained of intolerable lumbago and numbness in her buttocks. Nonopioid analgesics did not relieve her pain, and she was unable to walk without the aid of a walker. Radiography disclosed a lumbosacral intradural tumor. Complete removal of the tumor was performed. The tumor was not adherent to the dura, and its appearance was that of a typical neurilemmoma. However, the pathologic diagnosis was meningioma. The tumor in the reported case may have enlarged in response to orally ingested sex steroid pills. Nondural attachment intradural meningiomas are quite uncommon. The gross appearance of the tumor during surgery was typical of neurilemmoma. All the cases reported so far, including the current case, have involved tumor located in the lumbosacral region. Care must be taken in the management of lumbosacral intradural tumors because tumors resembling neurilemmoma may in fact represent meningioma, some subtypes of which possess a high rate of recurrence.

  5. Effectiveness of conservative treatments for the lumbosacral radicular syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; van Os, Ton A G; Peul, Wilco C; Koes, Bart W

    2007-07-01

    Patients with a lumbosacral radicular syndrome are mostly treated conservatively first. The effect of the conservative treatments remains controversial. To assess the effectiveness of conservative treatments of the lumbosacral radicular syndrome (sciatica). Relevant electronic databases and the reference lists of articles up to May 2004 were searched. Randomised clinical trials of all types of conservative treatments for patients with the lumbosacral radicular syndrome selected by two reviewers. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality and the clinical relevance. Because the trials were considered heterogeneous we decided not to perform a meta-analysis but to summarise the results using the rating system of levels of evidence. Thirty trials were included that evaluated injections, traction, physical therapy, bed rest, manipulation, medication, and acupuncture as treatment for the lumbosacral radicular syndrome. Because several trials indicated no evidence of an effect it is not recommended to use corticosteroid injections and traction as treatment option. Whether clinicians should prescribe physical therapy, bed rest, manipulation or medication could not be concluded from this review. At present there is no evidence that one type of treatment is clearly superior to others, including no treatment, for patients with a lumbosacral radicular syndrome.

  6. Reoperation Rates After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy and Myelopathy: A National Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Soo; Ju, Young-Su; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Makhni, Melvin C; Riew, K Daniel

    2016-10-15

    National population-based cohort study. To compare the reoperation rates between cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy in a national population of patients. There is an inherently low incidence of reoperation after surgery for cervical degenerative disease. Therefore, it is difficult to sufficiently power studies to detect differences between reoperation rates of different cervical diagnoses. National population-based databases provide large, longitudinally followed cohorts that may help overcome this challenge. We used the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service national database to select our study population. We included patients with the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy or myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion from January 2009 to June 2014. We separated patients into two groups based on diagnosis codes: cervical spondylotic radiculopathy or cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Age, sex, presence of diabetes, osteoporosis, associated comorbidities, number of operated cervical disc levels, and hospital types were considered potential confounding factors. The overall reoperation rate was 2.45%. The reoperation rate was significantly higher in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy than in patients with cervical radiculopathy (myelopathy: P = 0.0293, hazard ratio = 1.433, 95% confidence interval 1.037-1.981). Male sex, presence of diabetes or associated comorbidities, and hospital type were noted to be risk factors for reoperation. The reoperation rate after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was higher for cervical spondylotic myelopathy than for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy in a national population of patients. 3.

  7. Cervical Radiculopathy and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Determination of the Reliability, Diagnostic Accuracy, and Predictive Validity fo Commonly Used Clinical

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Patients with cervical radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome result in significant medical and occupational costs annually. There is a need to...of diagnostic accuracy. and predictive validity of items of the clinical examination used for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

  8. [Clinical and rheovasographic correlations in patients with lumbosacral pain syndrome in the complex treatment using underwater vertical extension].

    PubMed

    Sunychuk, M M

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the findings of using underwater vertical extension in a complex treatment of patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes. The rheovasography method has been applied. Underwater vertical extension method in a complex treatment of patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes was found to be effective according to clinical data and positive dynamics of rheovasography's indices.

  9. [Inverted axis scans in the study of the lumbo-sacral passage with computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, F; Polverosi, R; Sbeghen, R

    1993-10-01

    In the CT study of the lumbosacral spine, the disk spaces must be scanned along a plane which parallels the relative intervertebral disk perfectly. However, the lumbosacral space often happens to be too oblique--i.e., over the possible inclination of the gantry (usually: +/- 25 degrees). Thus, the somatic planes of the spine overlap. Therefore, in a series of 1,800 patients, the lumbosacral space was studied with the gantry inclined in the opposite direction to that in conventional scans, with the maximum angle allowed by our unit (-25 degrees). The incidence of negative findings for disk conditions was 7% (versus 13.5% with conventional CT). In both the negative and the positive cases, inversion CT scans were diagnostic in 594 patients (468 with disk herniation)--i.e., in 33% of cases.

  10. Epiduroscopy of the lumbosacral vertebral canal in the horse: Technique and endoscopic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Prange, T; Shrauner, B D; Blikslager, A T

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a common cause of gait alterations and poor performance in horses, but the available imaging modalities are frequently insufficient to isolate the underlying pathology. In human patients, epidural endoscopy (epiduroscopy) is successfully used to diagnose and treat challenging cases of lower back pain. Endoscopy of the cervical epidural space has previously been reported in anaesthetised horses. To develop a technique for lumbosacral epiduroscopy in standing horses and to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the lumbosacral epidural space. Pilot study to assess the feasibility of lumbosacral epiduroscopy in 5 horse cadavers. The cadavers of 5 horses, weighing 457-694 kg (mean, 570 kg), were suspended in an upright position. Vascular dilators of increasing size were inserted between the first 2 moveable vertebrae caudal to the sacrum to create a minimally invasive approach into the epidural space. A flexible videoendoscope was introduced and advanced as far cranially as the length of the endoscope permitted. The lumbosacral epidural space underwent gross necropsy examination following the procedure. The endoscope was successfully inserted into the epidural space in all horses. Saline injection through the working channel of the endoscope allowed the following anatomical structures to be seen: dura mater, left and right lumbosacral spinal nerves, cauda equina, epidural fat, connective tissue and blood vessels. Using the 60 cm working length of the endoscope, the epidural space could be examined as far cranial as L3-T18, depending on the size of the horse. No gross damage to epidural neurovascular structures was observed on necropsy examination. Lumbosacral epiduroscopy is technically feasible in standing horses and may become a valuable diagnostic tool in horses with caudal back or limb pain of unknown origin. Studies in live horses will be necessary to evaluate the safety of the procedure. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  11. TRANSRECTAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF EQUINE LUMBOSACRAL NERVES: PILOT STUDY IN 28 HEALTHY WARMBLOOD HORSES.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Pablo; Benoit, Philippe; Salazar, Isabel; de la Fuente, Jesús; Heiles, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    A noninvasive method for visualizing lumbosacral nerves would be helpful for horses with suspected lumbosacral plexopathy or injury. The aim of this prospective descriptive pilot study was to characterize the ultrasonographic appearance of the lumbosacral nerves in a sample of healthy horses, and expand on the technique for image acquisition. Horses were recruited for inclusion if they were determined to be healthy and sound based on clinical and lameness evaluation. Transrectal ultrasound images of the lumbosacral nerves (L6, S1, and S2) were obtained for both sides. Landmarks for localization, and techniques for nerve identification and measurement were described. Effects of sex, age, side, and nerve on measured thickness were statistically tested. Twenty-eight warmblood horses were sampled (15 males and 13 females). Ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Ventral nerve roots from L6 to S2 appeared as tubular structures with a characteristic hyperechoic linear echo pattern. There was no significant difference in nerve vertical diameter between left and right sides. A three-way interaction was found among sex, age and lumbosacral nerve. The L6 nerve in males was significantly larger than S1 only in the youngest group. The S2 nerve was significantly smaller than L6 or S1 regardless of age group or sex. In conclusion, transrectal ultrasound was a feasible method for visualizing and measuring equine lumbosacral nerves. Wide ranges of sizes for each nerve were found between horses, however nerves were bilaterally symmetrical within horses. Side comparison is therefore recommended when nerve pathology is suspected. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Application of anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate fixation for lumbosacral tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Chen, Wen-Kang; Yan, Yi-Guo; Yao, Nu-Zhao; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate fixation in patients with lumbosacral junction tuberculosis (TB). A total of 48 patients (30 males and 18 females) diagnosed with lumbosacral junction TB were included in this study. All patients underwent surgery in our institution from January 2008 to July 2014, using anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate. Outcome data were evaluated before and after surgery and included lumbosacral angle, Frankel classification, bone fusion, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. All patients were then followed up for an average of 49.4 months (range, 24–96 months). The mean lumbosacral angle improved from 8.36° ± 5.92° pre-operation to 22.38° ± 4.52° post-operation and 21.13° ± 3.73° during the final follow-up (both P < .05). Solid vertebral fusion was achieved in all patients after 7.6 months on average (range, 6–12 months). No severe complications appeared during operation and post-operation. Neurological performance and VAS scores were significantly improved compared with pre-operation (P < .05). Following standard anti-TB chemotherapy, anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate fixation may be a feasible and effective therapeutical option for lumbosacral junction TB. This procedure can result in satisfactory bone fusion and deformity correction, and effectively restore lumbosacral junction stability. PMID:28658103

  13. Multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) during 409 lumbosacral surgical procedures in 409 patients

    PubMed Central

    Eggspuehler, Andreas; Grob, Dieter; Porchet, Francois; Jeszenszky, Dezsö; Dvorak, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    A prospective study on 409 patients who received multimodel intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) during lumbosacral surgical procedures between March 2000 and December 2005 was carried out. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MIOM techniques used to monitor conus medullaris, cauda equina and nerve root function during lumbosacral decompression surgery. MIOM has increasingly become important to monitor ascending and descending pathways, giving immediate feedback information regarding any neurological deficit during the decompression and stabilisation procedure in the lumbosacral region. Intraoperative spinal- and cortical-evoked potentials, combined with continuous EMG- and motor-evoked potentials of the muscles, were evaluated and compared with postoperative clinical neurological changes. A total of 409 consecutive patients with lumbosacral spinal stenosis with or without instability were monitored by MIOM during the entire surgical procedure. A total of 388 patients presented true-negative findings while two patients presented false negative and 1 patient false-positive findings. Eighteen patients presented true-positive findings where neurological deficit after the operation was intraoperatively predicted. Of the 18 true-positive findings, 12 patients recovered completely; however, 6 patients recovered only partially. The sensitivity of MIOM applied during decompression and fusion surgery of the lumbosacral region was calculated as 90%, and the specificity was calculated as 99.7%. On the basis of the results of this study, MIOM is an effective method of monitoring the conus medullaris, cauda equina and nerve root function during surgery at the lumbosacral junctions and might reduce postoperative surgical-related complications and therefore improve the long-term results. PMID:17912559

  14. The correlation of selected physical examination findings and the efficacy of physiotherapy for chronic lumbosacral pain.

    PubMed

    Dwornik, Michał; Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kiebzak, Wojciech; Lyp, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Lumbosacral pain is a significant social problem. Effective treatment of this ailment should be based on thorough diagnostic work-up. The goal of the present study was to determine which physical examination findings can help predict a positive outcome of physiotherapy, including kinesitherapy and physical therapy, aimed at symptomatic improvement. The study group consisted of 50 patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes presenting as lumbalgia and ischialgia. Statistically significant correlations were ascertained between certain physical examination findings before the therapy and after the therapy. The crossed Lasegue sign was the only component of the physical examination that correlated with the dynamic efficacy of the rehabilitation treatment.

  15. Changes in Midbrain Pain Receptor Expression, Gait and Behavioral Sensitivity in a Rat Model of Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Priscilla Y; Allen, Kyle D; Shamji, Mohammed F; Jing, Liufang; Mata, Brian A; Gabr, Mostafa A; Huebner, Janet L; Kraus, Virginia B; Richardson, William J; Setton, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation may contribute to inflammatory processes that associate with radicular pain and motor deficits. Molecular changes at the affected dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord, and even midbrain, have been documented in rat models of radiculopathy or nerve injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate gait and the expression of key pain receptors in the midbrain in a rodent model of radiculopathy. Radiculopathy was induced by harvesting tail nucleus pulposus (NP) and placing upon the right L5 DRG in rats (NP-treated, n=12). Tail NP was discarded in sham-operated animals (n=12). Mechanical allodynia, weight-bearing, and gait were evaluated in all animals over time. At 1 and 4 weeks after surgery, astrocyte and microglial activation was tested in DRG sections. Midbrain sections were similarly evaluated for immunoreactivity to serotonin (5HT2B), mu-opioid (µ-OR), and metabotropic glutamate (mGluR4 and 5) receptor antibodies. NP-treated animals placed less weight on the affected limb 1 week after surgery and experienced mechanical hypersensitivity over the duration of the study. Astroctye activation was observed at DRGs only at 4 weeks after surgery. Findings for pain receptors in the midbrain of NP-treated rats included an increased expression of 5HT2B at 1, but not 4 weeks; increased expression of µ-OR and mGluR5 at 1 and 4 weeks (periaqueductal gray region only); and no changes in expression of mGluR4 at any point in this study. These observations provide support for the hypothesis that the midbrain responds to DRG injury with a transient change in receptors regulating pain responses. PMID:22962568

  16. Muscle hypertrophy of the lower leg caused by L5 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Kottlors, Michael; Mueller, Klaus; Kirschner, Janbernd; Glocker, Franz Xaver

    2009-10-01

    We report on a case with hypertrophy of the tibial muscles and to a lesser extent of the calf muscles preceded by a lumbar syndrome and sciatica. Lumbar myelography disclosed a discogenic compression of the L5 nerve root. Muscle biopsy of the peroneal muscles showed a marked type I fibre predominance and hypertrophy but no inflammatory infiltration. We consider the possibility that radiculopathy not only of the S1 nerve root but also of the L5 root can trigger hypertrophy of the musculature and must be taken into account of the differential diagnosis of unilateral focal hypertrophy of the lower leg.

  17. Metrizamide CT myelography in cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy: correlation with conventional myelography and surgical findings

    SciTech Connect

    Badami, J.P.; Norman, D.; Barbaro, N.M.; Cann, C.E.; Weinstein, P.R.; Sobel, D.F.

    1985-04-01

    Conventional myelography, metrizamide computed tomographic (CT) myelography, and surgical findings were correlated in 30 patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. In 60% of patients, metrizamide CT myelography provided significant additional information including better characterization of the abnormality, lateralization if the conventional myelogram was indeterminate, more definitive demonstration of cord atrophy, foraminal narrowing not appreciated on myelography, and demonstration of abnormalities distal to a myelographic block. In no case was a myelographic abnormality not detected on metrizamide CT meyelography. In patients with cervical myelopathy, a cross-sectional diameter of the cord equaling less than 50% of the subarachnoid space is predictive of poor patient response to surgical intervention.

  18. Influence of preoperative nucleus pulposus status and radiculopathy on outcomes in mono-segmental lumbar total disc replacement: results from a nationwide registry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently, herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) with radiculopathy and other preconditions are regarded as relative or absolute contraindications for lumbar total disc replacement (TDR). In Switzerland it is left to the surgeon's discretion when to operate. The present study is based on the dataset of SWISSspine, a governmentally mandated health technology assessment registry. We hypothesized that preoperative nucleus pulposus status and presence or absence of radiculopathy has an influence on clinical outcomes in patients treated with mono-segmental lumbar TDR. Methods Between March 2005 and April 2009, 416 patients underwent mono-segmental lumbar TDR, which was documented in a prospective observational multicenter mode. The data collection consisted of perioperative and follow-up data (physician based) and clinical outcomes (NASS, EQ-5D). Patients were divided into four groups according to their preoperative status: 1) group degenerative disc disease ("DDD"): 160 patients without HNP and no radiculopathy, classic precondition for TDR; 2) group "HNP-No radiculopathy": 68 patients with HNP but without radiculopathy; 3) group "Stenosis": 73 patients without HNP but with radiculopathy, and 4) group "HNP-Radiculopathy": 132 patients with HNP and radiculopathy. The groups were compared regarding preoperative patient characteristics and pre- and postoperative VAS and EQ-5D scores using general linear modeling. Results Demographics in all four groups were comparable. Regarding the improvement of quality of life (EQ-5D) there were no differences across the four groups. For the two main groups DDD and HNP-Radiculopathy no differences were found in the adjusted postoperative back- and leg pain alleviation levels, in the stenosis group back- and leg pain relief were lower. Conclusions Despite higher preoperative leg pain levels, outcomes in lumbar TDR patients with HNP and radiculopathy were similar to outcomes in patients with the classic indication; this because

  19. Transmission of Force in the Lumbosacral Spine During Backward Falls

    PubMed Central

    Van Toen, Carolyn; Sran, Meena M.; Robinovitch, Stephen N.; Cripton, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Mathematical model, combined with and verified using human subject data. Objective (1) To develop and verify a lumped-parameter mathematical model for prediction of spine forces during backward falls; (2) to use this model to evaluate the effect of floor stiffness on spine forces during falls; and (3) to compare predicted impact forces with forces previously measured to fracture the spine. Summary of Background Data Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures and commonly result from falls from standing height. Compliant flooring reduces the force at the ground during a backward fall from standing; however, the effect on spine forces is unknown. Methods A 6-df model of the body was developed and verified using data from 10 human subjects falling from standing onto 3 types of compliant floors (soft: 59 kN/m, medium: 67 kN/m, and firm: 95 kN/m). The simulated ground forces were compared with those measured experimentally. The model was also used to assess the effect of floor stiffness on spine forces at various intervertebral levels. Results There was less than 14% difference between model predictions and experimentally measured peak ground reaction forces, when averaged over all floor conditions. When compared with the rigid floor, average peak spine force attenuations of 46%, 43%, and 41% were achieved with the soft, medium, and firm floors, respectively (3.7, 3.9, 4.1 kN vs. 6.9 kN at L4/L5). Spine forces were lower than those at the ground and decreased cranially (4.9, 3.9, 3.7, 3.5 kN at the ground, L5/S1, L4/L5, and L3/L4, respectively, for the soft floor). Conclusion Lowering the floor stiffness (from 400 to 59 kN/m) can attenuate peak lumbosacral spine forces in a backward fall onto the buttocks from standing by 46% (average peak from 6.9 to 3.7 kN at L4/L5) to values closer to the average tolerance of the spine to fracture (3.4 kN). PMID:22076645

  20. Effect of total lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Manish K; Deutsch, Harel

    2012-10-01

    Original article : To study effect of lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis. There has been a growing interest in total disc replacement (TDR) for back pain with the rising concern of adjacent segment degeneration. Lumbar fusion surgery has been shown to lead to decrease in lumbar lordosis, which may account for postfusion pain resulting in less acceptable clinical outcome after successful fusion. TDR has recently emerged as an alternative treatment for back pain. There have been very few studies reporting lumbar sagittal outcome after TDR. Retrospective study of radiographic data of 17 patients who underwent TDR for single level degenerative disc disease at the author's institution was carried out. Study included measurement of preoperative and postoperative segmental and global lumbar lordosis and angle of lordosis. Patients age varied from 19 to 54 (mean, 35) years. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. TDR was performed at L4-5 level in 3 patients and L5-S1 level in 14 patients. The average values for segmental lordosis, global lordosis, and angle of lordosis at the operated level before and after surgery were 17.3, 49.7, and 8.6 degrees and 21.6, 54, and 9.5 degrees, respectively. There was a trend toward significant (P=0.02) and near significant (P=0.057) increase in segmental and global lordosis, respectively after TDR. Although prosthesis increased angle of lordosis at the level implanted in majority of the patients, the difference in preoperative and postoperative angle of lordosis was not significant (P=0.438). In addition, there was no correlation between the angle of implant of chosen and postoperative angle of lordosis at the operated level. The effect of TDR on sagittal balance appears favorable with an increase in global and segmental lumbar lordosis after single level TDR for degenerative disc disease. The degree of postoperative angle of lordosis was not affected by the angle of implant chosen at the operated level and varied

  1. [Placement of short iliac screw using Galveston technique in lumbosacral fusion].

    PubMed

    Min, Shao-xiong; Jin, An-min; Duan, Yang; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Yuan-ming

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of placement of short iliac screw using Galveston technique in lumbosacral fusion. From October 2003 to August 2007, 18 consecutive patients (mean age 46 years ranging from 25 to 62 years) received placement of short iliac screw in lumbosacral fusion. The patients were followed up for a mean of 18 months (12-23 months), and the effect of lumbosacral fusion was evaluated according to standing anterior-posterior and lateral plain films taken before and after the operation and at the follow-up and also on the basis of symptom relief. The mean time of surgery was 210 min (180-290 min). No complications occurred during and after the operation. According to the evaluation criteria of surgical treatment of low back pain formulated by the spine group of Chinese Orthopedic Association, excellent clinical outcome was achieved in 12 cases, good outcome in 3 cases, and tolerable outcome in 2 cases, with the excellent and good outcome rate of 83%. The Galveston technique for short iliac screw placement can obtain satisfactory outcome in the lumbosacral fusion.

  2. Massive Lumbosacral Subcutaneous Exudate After Surgical Treatment of a Large Lipomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Yi; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Yongning

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lipomyelocele is an uncommon type of lipoma that occurs with spina bifida. We present the clinical course and therapeutic process of a female who underwent resection of a lipomyelocele and developed a massive lumbosacral subcutaneous exudate postoperatively. The therapeutic process is described in detail, and a review of the relevant literature on lipomyelocele is presented. A 23-year-old woman presented to our institution complaining of a large lumbosacral subcutaneous mass. She underwent surgical resection of the mass and untethering of the spinal cord under intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. A massive lumbosacral subcutaneous exudate developed postoperatively. After excluding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, we placed a suction drain. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the editor of this journal. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. Postoperative pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of lipomyelocele. Continuation of the negative-pressure drain for 1 week yielded >1000 mL of fluid. The patient recovered well and developed no further subcutaneous exudate. In a patient with massive lumbosacral subcutaneous exudate after surgical treatment of a large lipomyelocele, continuous negative-pressure drainage can be an effective treatment method after excluding CSF leakage. PMID:26426667

  3. Three-dimensional surface models of detailed lumbosacral structures reconstructed from the Visible Korean.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Seung-Bock; Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Ho-Nam; Riemer, Martin; Handels, Heinz; Lee, Jong Eun; Jung, Wonsug

    2011-02-20

    Unlike volume models, surface models representing hollow, three-dimensional images have a small file size; allowing them to be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Therefore, surface models of lumbosacral structures can be effectively used for interactive simulation of, e.g., virtual lumbar puncture, virtual surgery of herniated lumbar discs, and virtual epidural anesthesia. In this paper, we present surface models of extensive lumbosacral structures which can be used in medical simulation systems. One-hundred and thirty-eight chosen structures included the spinal cord, lumbar and sacral nerves, vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ligaments, muscles, arteries, and skin. The structures were outlined in the sectioned images from the Visible Korean. From these outlined images, serial outlines of each structure were stacked. Adopting commercial software (3D-DOCTOR, Maya), an advanced surface reconstruction technique was applied to create a surface model of the structure. In the surface models, we observed the anatomical relationships of the lumbosacral structures (e.g., cauda equina and ligaments) in detail. Additionally, the portions of some spinal nerves that could not be outlined were drawn and added to the surface models. These constructed models will hopefully facilitate development of high quality medical simulation of the lumbosacral region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. MR Imaging of the Lumbosacral Plexus: A Review of Techniques and Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Ethan A; Shen, Peter Yi; Nidecker, Anna E; Runner, Gabriel; Bateni, Cyrus; Tse, Gary; Chin, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The lumbosacral plexus is a complex anatomic area that serves as the conduit of innervation and sensory information to and from the lower extremities. It is formed by the ventral rami of the lumbar and sacral spine which then combine into larger nerves serving the pelvis and lower extremities. It can be a source of severe disability and morbidity for patients when afflicted with pathology. Patients may experience motor weakness, sensory loss, and/or debilitating pain. Primary neurologic processes can affect the lumbosacral plexus in both genetic and acquired conditions and typically affect the plexus and nerves symmetrically. Additionally, its unique relationship to the pelvic musculature and viscera render it vulnerable to trauma, infection, and malignancy. Such conditions are typically proceeded by a known history of trauma or established pelvic malignancy or infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is an invaluable tool for evaluation of the lumbosacral plexus due to its anatomic detail and sensitivity to pathologic changes. It can identify the cause for disability, indicate prognosis for improvement, and be a tool for delivery of interventions. Knowledge of proper MR protocols and imaging features is key for appropriate and timely diagnosis. Here we discuss the relevant anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus, appropriate imaging techniques for its evaluation, and discuss the variety of pathologies that may afflict it. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  5. Development and Validation of a Method to Measure Lumbosacral Motion Using Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Coppieters, Michel W; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    The study aim was to validate an ultrasound imaging technique to measure sagittal plane lumbosacral motion. Direct and indirect measures of lumbosacral angle change were developed and validated. Lumbosacral angle was estimated by the angle between lines through two landmarks on the sacrum and lowest lumbar vertebrae. Distance measure was made between the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae, and angle was estimated after distance was calibrated to angle. This method was tested in an in vitro spine and an in vivo porcine spine and validated to video and fluoroscopy measures, respectively. R(2), regression coefficients and mean absolute differences between ultrasound measures and validation measures were, respectively: 0.77, 0.982, 0.67° (in vitro, angle); 0.97, 0.992, 0.82° (in vitro, distance); 0.94, 0.995, 2.1° (in vivo, angle); and 0.95, 0.997, 1.7° (in vivo, distance). Lumbosacral motion can be accurately measured with ultrasound. This provides a basis to develop measurements for use in humans.

  6. Changes in muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics in response to handling objects of unknown mass magnitude.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Walaa; Farrag, Ahmed; El-Sayyad, Mohsen; Marras, William

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main and interaction effects of mass knowledge and mass magnitude on trunk muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics. Eighteen participants performed symmetric box lifts of three different mass magnitudes (1.1 kg, 5 kg, 15 kg) under known and unknown mass knowledge conditions. Outcome measures were normalized peak electromyography of four trunk muscles in addition to three dimensional lumbosacral angles and acceleration. The results indicated that three out of four muscles exhibited significantly greater activity when handling unknown masses (p<.05). Meanwhile, only sagittal angular acceleration was significantly higher when handling unknown masses (115.6 ± 42.7°/s(2)) compared to known masses (109.3 ± 31.5°/s(2)). Similarly, the mass magnitude and mass knowledge interaction significantly impacted the same muscles along with the sagittal lumbosacral angle and angular acceleration (p<.05) with the greatest difference between knowledge conditions being consistently occurring under the 1.1 kg mass magnitude condition. Thus, under these conditions, it was concluded that mass magnitude has more impact than mass knowledge. However, handling objects of unknown mass magnitude could be hazardous, particularly when lifting light masses, in that they can increase mechanical burden on the lumbosacral spine due to increased muscular exertion and acceleration.

  7. [Lateral position one-stage combined posteroanterior approaches for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculous spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jian-Qiang; Xia, Qun; Hu, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Bao-Shan; Ji, Ning; Miao, Jun; Liu, Yan-Cheng

    2011-08-23

    To investigate the feasibility of a one-stage combined posteroanterior approaches for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculous spondylitis with the patients lying in a lateral position. A retrospective review was conducted for 15 patients with lumbosacral tuberculosis undergoing one-stage combined posteroanterior approaches for radical lesion resection and reconstruction. All patients were observed and evaluated by clinical and imaging studies. Operative posture:11 cases for right side and 4 cases for left side. The mean operative duration was 280 min (range: 230 - 380 min) and the mean estimated volume of blood loss 1720 ml (range: 1100 - 3000 ml). Imaging results: No recurrence of tuberculose focus was found until the last follow-up. Upon image reviewing, it showed no loosening or displacement except for two cases of slightly collapsed titanium mesh. Preoperative and postoperative changes in the degree of lumbar lordosis were statistically significant [(20 ± 5)° vs (31 ± 5)°, P < 0.05]. The Kirkaldy-Willis classification rating yielded satisfactory results for 13 cases. The patients with lumbosacral tuberculosis undergoing one-stage combined posteroanterior approaches may achieve radical lesion resection, posteroanterior collaboration and reconstruction. It avoids a 2-stage operation, eliminates the need of changing a patient's body position with secondary sterilization and shortens the operative duration. Lumbosacral surgery for tuberculosis combines the respective advantages of anterior, posterior and combined posteroanterior approaches and yet makes up for their deficiencies.

  8. [Adaptation in Spanish for the Mexican population with lumbar radiculopathy of the Standardized Evaluation of Pain].

    PubMed

    Coronado-Zarco, R; Arellano-Hernández, A; Nava-Bringas, T I; Rodríguez-Leyva, J A; Esparza-Ramos S B

    2014-01-01

    The clinical assessment of radicular pain associates the signs and symptoms of the painful phenotype with the underlying mechanism. The Standardized Evaluation of Pain (StEP) distinguishes between axial and radicular lumbar pain by means of a questionnaire (3 questions) and a physical exam (8 tests). To adapt the StEP scale to Spanish. Selection of the scale, translation-back translation, adjustments, items and utility, pilot test, validity and reliability tests. Inclusion criteria: Any sex, over age 18, lumbar pain with or without irradiation, signing of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria: Neuropathies, polyneuropathies, myopathies, neurologic, myofascial, venous, psychiatric, cardiovascular disease, postoperative status. Sample: 21 patients. Patients were assessed twice with a one-week interval with the help of 2 evaluators. There were 21 patients, 9 females (42.9%) and 12 males (57.1%); ages 22-58 years (mean 38). Diagnoses: low back pain, 7 (33.3%); lumbosciatica, 6 (28.6%); disc herniation, 5 (23.8%); spondylolisthesis, 2 (9.5%); radiculopathy, 1 (4.8%). Evaluator 1: axial, 18 (85.7%); radicular, 3 (14.3%). Evaluator 2: axial, 14 (66.7%); radicular, 7 (33.3%). Validity results were appropriate. Internal consistency (Cornbach's alpha), 0.7. Test/ re-test time: 10-15 minutes. Inter-evaluator reliability (Kappa index), 0.5. The scale showed variability in identifying radicular pain compared to what its author reported initially. However, it is considered as a useful tool to clinically identify radiculopathy.

  9. Development of a preoperative neuroscience educational program for patients with lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Butler, David S; Diener, Ina; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2013-05-01

    Postoperative rehabilitation for lumbar radiculopathy has shown little effect on reducing pain and disability. Current preoperative education programs with a focus on a biomedical approach feature procedural and anatomical information, and these too have shown little effect on postoperative outcomes. This report describes the development of an evidence-based educational program and booklet for patients undergoing lumbar surgery for radiculopathy using a recently conducted systematic review of neuroscience education for musculoskeletal pain. The previous systematic review produced evidence for neuroscience education as well as best-evidence synthesis of the content and delivery methods for neuroscience education for musculoskeletal pain. These evidence statements were extracted and developed into patient-centered messages and a booklet, which was then evaluated by peer and patient review. The neuroscience educational booklet and preoperative program convey key messages from the previous systematic review aimed at reducing fear and anxiety before surgery and assist in developing realistic expectations regarding pain after surgery. Key topics include the decision to undergo surgery, pain processing, peripheral nerve sensitization, effect of anxiety and stress on pain, surgery and the nervous system, and decreasing nerve sensitization. Feedback from the evaluations of the booklet and preoperative program was favorable from all review groups, suggesting that this proposed evidence-based neuroscience educational program may be ready for clinical application.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the Management of Cervical Radiculopathy: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xu; Wang, Shangquan; Li, Jinxue; Gao, Jinghua; Yu, Jie; Feng, Minshan; Zhu, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely applied in the clinical practice of neck pain owing to cervical radiculopathy (CR). While many systematic reviews exist in CAM to improve CR, research is distributed across population, intervention, comparison, and setting. Objective. This overview aims to summarize the characteristics and evaluate critically the evidence from systematic reviews. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the six databases without language restrictions on February 24, 2015. We had identified relevant systematic reviews that examined the subjects with neck pain due to cervical radiculopathy undergoing CAM. Two authors independently appraised the methodological quality using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews instrument. Results. We had included eight systematic reviews. The effectiveness and safety of acupotomy, acupuncture, Jingfukang granule, manual therapies, and cervical spine manipulation were investigated. Based on available evidence, the systematic reviews supported various forms of CAM for CR. Nevertheless, the methodological quality for most of systematic reviews was low or moderate. In addition, adverse reactions of primary studies were infrequent. Conclusions. Current systematic reviews showed potential advantages to CAM for CR. Due to the frequently poor methodological quality of primary studies, the conclusions should be treated with caution for clinical practice. PMID:26345336

  11. Somatosensory evoked potentials following nerve and segmental stimulation do not confirm cervical radiculopathy with sensory deficit.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, U D; Hess, C W; Ludin, H P

    1988-01-01

    Twenty eight patients with unilateral cervical radiculopathy were studied by somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from nerve stimulation at the wrist and from skin stimulation at the first, third or fifth finger depending on the root involved. In order to evaluate the reliability of various "radicular SEP patterns" as described in the literature, absolute latencies and side-to-side differences of the brachial plexus component from the supraclavicular fossa (N9), the medullary component (N13) from the cervical vertebra Cv7, and the primary cortical component (N20, P25) were assessed. Side-to-side differences of the amplitudes of N20/P25 and of the conduction times across the intervertebral fossa (interval N9-N13) were analysed. After nerve stimulation, 68% of the patients had false negative findings on the symptomatic, while 36% had positive findings on the asymptomatic side. After segmental stimulation, 72% of the patients had false negative findings on the symptomatic, while 22% had positive findings on the asymptomatic side. It is concluded that SEPs following nerve and segmental stimulation do not reliably confirm clear-cut already established diagnoses of unilateral radiculopathy with sensory and motor deficit. Therefore, they will not be helpful in the electrophysiological investigation of cervicobrachialgias of unknown origin. PMID:2831303

  12. Cervical disc arthroplasty for the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Khong, Peter; Bogduk, Nikolai; Ghahreman, Ali; Davies, Mark

    2013-10-01

    The concept of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the anterior treatment of cervical pathology has existed for approximately half a decade. In this time, multiple devices have been developed for this purpose, with the ultimate aim to provide an alternative to fusion. Fifty-five patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy underwent CDA over a 5 year period. Data was collected on 46 patients, which included Visual Analogue Scale scores for neck pain and arm pain, Neck Disability Index scores, Short Form-36 v2 (SF-36) and Nurick grades for myelopathy patients. Preoperative data and data obtained at the latest clinical follow-up (median 48 months, range, 10-76 months) were analysed to assess the intermediate term efficacy of the procedure. In patients with radiculopathy, arm pain improved by 88% (p<0.001). In those presenting with myelopathy, the Nurick grades improved from a median of 1 to 0 (p<0.001). In both groups of patients, improvements in pain and neurologic deficit were accompanied by significant improvements in multiple domains of the SF-36. Using a composite system which considered neck pain, arm pain, function and myelopathy, we arrived at an overall success rate of 73%. We concluded that CDA is an effective intervention for improving neurologic deficit, arm pain and local neck symptoms that translated into improvements in physical and social functioning in the intermediate term.

  13. Diagnostic performance of the medial hamstring reflex in L5 radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Esene, Ignatius Ngene; Meher, Abdalla; Elzoghby, Mohamed A.; El-Bahy, Khaled; Kotb, Ali; El-Hakim, Adel

    2012-01-01

    Background: An avalanche of literature exists on almost every aspect of lumbar disc pathology but very limited studies have quantified the diagnostic performance of elements of clinical examination in predicting disc level, meticulously collated the reflex changes in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) as well as assessed the diagnostic performance of the medial hamstring reflex (MHR). Our study underscores the diagnostic performance of the MHR in L5 radiculopathy comparing its diagnostic power to that of the knee and ankle reflexes. Methods: One hundred consecutive patients operated for de novo LDH in our department between January and December 2011 were prospectively followed-up. A nested case control study was designed from our cohort to assess the performance of the MHR in L5 sciatica. All patients were examined by two independent examiners pre-operatively for the MHR and the results collated and correlated to MRI and intra-operative findings. Results: The MHR has a diagnostic performance intermediate to that of knee and ankle reflexes. The percentages correctly classified were respectively: 86%, 79% and 67% for the knee, MHR and ankle reflexes. The MHR is highly precise with an intra-rater reliability of 100% and inter-rater repeatability of above 90% and test-retest reproducibility of 100%. Conclusion: The MHR hitherto described as elusive has a high diagnostic performance and is a valid neurologic test that should be included in the routine neurologic examination of patients with suspected L5 radiculopathy. PMID:23087820

  14. Diagnostic performance of the medial hamstring reflex in L5 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Esene, Ignatius Ngene; Meher, Abdalla; Elzoghby, Mohamed A; El-Bahy, Khaled; Kotb, Ali; El-Hakim, Adel

    2012-01-01

    An avalanche of literature exists on almost every aspect of lumbar disc pathology but very limited studies have quantified the diagnostic performance of elements of clinical examination in predicting disc level, meticulously collated the reflex changes in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) as well as assessed the diagnostic performance of the medial hamstring reflex (MHR). Our study underscores the diagnostic performance of the MHR in L5 radiculopathy comparing its diagnostic power to that of the knee and ankle reflexes. One hundred consecutive patients operated for de novo LDH in our department between January and December 2011 were prospectively followed-up. A nested case control study was designed from our cohort to assess the performance of the MHR in L5 sciatica. All patients were examined by two independent examiners pre-operatively for the MHR and the results collated and correlated to MRI and intra-operative findings. The MHR has a diagnostic performance intermediate to that of knee and ankle reflexes. The percentages correctly classified were respectively: 86%, 79% and 67% for the knee, MHR and ankle reflexes. The MHR is highly precise with an intra-rater reliability of 100% and inter-rater repeatability of above 90% and test-retest reproducibility of 100%. The MHR hitherto described as elusive has a high diagnostic performance and is a valid neurologic test that should be included in the routine neurologic examination of patients with suspected L5 radiculopathy.

  15. Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma “Chloroma” Presenting as Cervical Radiculopathy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaobang; Shahab, Imran; Lieberman, Isador H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level. The patient underwent posterior cervical open biopsy, laminectomy, and decompression. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Postoperatively, a bone marrow biopsy was done, which showed myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. The patient then received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Results At the 10-month follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of arm pain and neck pain. X-rays showed that the overall cervical alignment was intact and there was no evidence of a recurrent lesion. MRI showed no evidence of compressive or remnant lesion. Conclusions Spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy is rare, and it may be easily misdiagnosed. Knowledge of its clinical presentation, imaging, and histologic characterization can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26131394

  16. The comparison of the efficacy of radiofrequency nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression in lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Adakli, Barıs; Turhan, K. Sanem Cakar; Asik, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition causing medical, socioeconomic, and treatment difficulties. In our study, we aimed to compare early and long-term efficacy of lumbar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC) nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression (TDD) in patients with lumbar radiculopathy in whom previous conventional therapy had failed. The medical records of 37 patients undergoing TDD and 36 patients undergoing lumbar RFTC nucleoplasty were retrospectively examined and assigned to the Group D and Group N, respectively. In all patients Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Functional Rating Index (FRI) were recorded before treatment and after one, six and twelve months after the procedure. The North American Spine Society Satisfaction Scale (NASSSS) was also recoreded twelve months after the therapeutic procedure. Statistically significant postprocedural improvement in VAS and FRI was evident in both groups. VAS scores after one, six, and twelve month were slightly higher in Group N, compared to Group D. The overall procedure-related patient satisfaction ratio was 67.5% in the Group D, compared to 75% in the Group N. Regardless of the different mechanism of action, both methods are effective therapies for lumbar radiculopathy, with TDD showing long-term lower pain scores. PMID:26042514

  17. Inclusion of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) in the Management of Cervical Radiculopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Ronald; Bhaidani, Talisha; Melissa, Boswell; Kelley, James; Kruchowsky, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Various interventions are used by physical therapists to treat neck conditions. Treatments may include exercises based on a direction of preference, cervical spine stabilization, neuromobilization, or traction. The purpose of this case study was to describe the use of mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) in the management of a patient diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy. The case study involved a 39-year-old male (subject), classified with cervical derangement, hypermobility, and adverse neural tension. The subject's intervention included MDT, deep neck flexor muscle strengthening, and neuromobilization. This subject's scores on the Neck Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), and range of motion were assessed at initial examination, discharge, and 3-month follow-up. The subject improved on all outcome measures and was discharged after four visits with a NPRS of 0/10. Percent improvement per visit was 17.5%. This case describes a positive outcome for a patient diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy in which MDT, deep neck flexor strengthening, and neuromobilization were used as an alternative to cervical traction. PMID:19119376

  18. Traumatic unilateral lumbosacral jumped facet without fracture in a child - presentation of a safe treatment strategy for a rare injury.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, Oszkar; Seinfeld, Joshua; Beauchamp, Kathryn; Patel, Vikas

    2008-11-10

    The vast majority of pediatric lumbosacral spondylolisthesis have developmental etiology. Of the very rare type of pediatric lumbosacral facet dislocations, there are only three reported cases of a pediatric unilateral jumped facet injury. All of these cases are associated with fracture dislocation of L5-S1. Hyperflexion with rotation is thought to provoke this uncommon type of spine injury.The authors report the first pediatric patient reported in literature to date with a traumatic unilateral jumped facet at the lumbosacral joint without fracture. The presentation, surgical treatment, hospital course, outcome and management options with the review of the literature is summarized.

  19. Dimensions Underlying Measures of Disability, Personal Factors, and Health Status in Cervical Radiculopathy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Marie; Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to identify dimensions underlying measures of impairment, disability, personal factors, and health status in patients with cervical radiculopathy. One hundred twenty-four patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified cervical radiculopathy, attending a neurosurgery clinic in Sweden, participated. Data from clinical tests and questionnaires on disability, personal factors, and health status were used in a principal-component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. The PCA supported a 3-component model including 14 variables from clinical tests and questionnaires, accounting for 73% of the cumulative percentage. The first component, pain and disability, explained 56%. The second component, health, fear-avoidance beliefs, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy, explained 9.2%. The third component including anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing explained 7.6%. The strongest-loading variables of each dimension were "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety." The three underlying dimensions identified and labeled Pain and functioning, Health, beliefs, and kinesiophobia, and Mood state and catastrophizing captured aspects of importance for cervical radiculopathy. Since the variables "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety" had the strongest loading in each of the three dimensions; it may be important to include them in a reduced multidimensional measurement set in cervical radiculopathy.

  20. Endurance and fatigue characteristics in the neck muscles during sub-maximal isometric test in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Marie; Abbott, Allan; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare myoelectric manifestation in neck muscle endurance and fatigue characteristics during sub-maximal isometric endurance test in patients with cervical radiculopathy and asymptomatic subjects. An additional aim was to explore associations between primary neck muscle endurance, myoelectric fatigability, and self-rated levels of fatigue, pain and subjective health measurements in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Muscle fatigue in the ventral and dorsal neck muscles was assessed in patients with cervical radiculopathy and in an asymptomatic group during an isometric neck muscle endurance test in prone and supine. 46 patients and 34 asymptomatic subjects participated. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical paraspinal muscles and upper and middle trapezius bilaterally during the endurance test. Subjective health measurements were assessed with questionnaires. The results showed altered neck muscle endurance in several of the muscles investigated with greater negative median frequency slope, greater variability, side imbalance, lower endurance time and higher experience of fatigue among the cervical radiculopathy patients compared with healthy subjects. Endurance times were significantly lower in both prone and in supine positions between the patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. During the neck muscle endurance test, fatigues in the upper trapezius muscles during the prone test and in the sternocleidomastoid muscles during the supine test were of more importance than self-perceived pain, fatigue, disability and kinesiophobia in predicting neck muscle endurance (NME). NME testing in the primary neck muscles seems to be an important factor to take into consideration in rehabilitation.

  1. Treatment strategies for early neurological deficits related to malpositioned pedicle screws in the lumbosacral canal

    PubMed Central

    Du, J-Y.; Wu, J-S.; Wen, Z-Q.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To employ a simple and fast method to evaluate those patients with neurological deficits and misplaced screws in relatively safe lumbosacral spine, and to determine if it is necessary to undertake revision surgery. Methods A total of 316 patients were treated by fixation of lumbar and lumbosacral transpedicle screws at our institution from January 2011 to December 2012. We designed the criteria for post-operative revision scores of pedicle screw malpositioning (PRSPSM) in the lumbosacral canal. We recommend the revision of the misplaced pedicle screw in patients with PRSPSM = 5′ as early as possible. However, patients with PRSPSM < 5′ need to follow the next consecutive assessment procedures. A total of 15 patients were included according to at least three-stage follow-up. Results Five patients with neurological complications (PRSPSM = 5′) underwent revision surgery at an early stage. The other ten patients with PRSPSM < 5′ were treated by conservative methods for seven days. At three-month follow-up, only one patient showed delayed onset of neurological complications (PRSPSM 7′) while refusing revision. Seven months later, PRSPSM decreased to 3′ with complete rehabilitation. Conclusions This study highlights the significance of consecutively dynamic assessments of PRSPSMs, which are unlike previous implementations based on purely anatomical assessment or early onset of neurological deficits.and also confirms our hypothesis that patients with early neurological complications may not need revision procedures in the relatively broad margin of the lumbosacral canal. Cite this article: X-J. Lin. Treatment strategies for early neurological deficits related to malpositioned pedicle screws in the lumbosacral canal: A pilot study. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:46–51. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.52.2000477. PMID:26868892

  2. Cervical laminoforaminotomy for radiculopathy: Symptomatic and functional outcomes in a large cohort with long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Church, Ephraim W.; Halpern, Casey H.; Faught, Ryan W.; Balmuri, Usha; Attiah, Mark A.; Hayden, Sharon; Kerr, Marie; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Bynum, Janice; Dante, Stephen J.; Welch, William C.; Simeone, Frederick A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The efficacy and safety of cervical laminoforaminotomy (FOR) in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy has been demonstrated in several series with follow-up less than a decade. However, there is little data analyzing the relative effectiveness of FOR for radiculopathy due to soft disc versus osteophyte disease. In the present study, we review our experience with FOR in a single-center cohort, with long-term follow-up. Methods: We examined the charts of patients who underwent 1085 FORs between 1990 and 2009. A cohort of these patients participated in a telephone interview designed to assess improvement in symptoms and function. Results: A total of 338 interviews were completed with a mean follow-up of 10 years. Approximately 90% of interviewees reported improved pain, weakness, or function following FOR. Ninety-three percent of patients were able to return to work after FOR. The overall complication rate was 3.3%, and the rate of recurrent radiculopathy requiring surgery was 6.2%. Soft disc subtypes compared to osteophyte disease by operative report were associated with improved symptoms (P < 0.05). The operative report of these pathologic subtypes was associated with the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that FOR is a highly effective surgical treatment for cervical radiculopathy with a low incidence of complications. Radiculopathy due to soft disc subtypes may be associated with a better prognosis compared to osteophyte disease, although osteophyte disease remains an excellent indication for FOR. PMID:25593773

  3. Lumbosacral multiradiculopathy responsive to antibiotic therapy: description of four patients with lumbar spondylosis and a superimposed Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Luigetti, Marco; Vollaro, Stefano; Corbetto, Marzia; Salomone, Gaetano; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Lyme disease is a diffuse zoonosis caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex. Neurological manifestations of the disease, involving central or peripheral nervous system, are common. This study describes four consecutive patients with an MRI-proven lumbosacral spondylosis, who complained of progressive worsening of symptoms in the last months in which serological evaluation suggested a superimposed B. Burgdorferi infection. Four patients, all from the Lazio region, were admitted to the Department of Neurology. Extensive laboratory studies and clinical, anamnestic and neurophysiological evaluation were performed in all cases. In all cases, anamnesis revealed a previous diagnosis of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis. Clinical and neurophysiological findings were consistent with a lumbosacral multiradiculopathy. Considering serological evaluation suggestive of a superimposed B. burgdorferi infection a proper antibiotic therapy was started. All cases showed a marked improvement of symptoms. Clinicians should be aware that in all cases of lumbosacral multiradiculopathy, even if a mechanical cause is documented, B. burgdorferi may be a simply treatable condition.

  4. Lumbo-sacral neural crest contributes to the avian enteric nervous system independently of vagal neural crest.

    PubMed

    Hearn, C; Newgreen, D

    2000-07-01

    Most of the avian enteric nervous system is derived from the vagal neural crest, but a minority of the neural cells in the hindgut, and to an even lesser extent in the midgut, are of lumbo-sacral crest origin. Since the lumbo-sacral contribution was not detected or deemed negligible in the absence of vagal cells, it had been hypothesised that lumbo-sacral neural crest cells require vagal crest cells to contribute to the enteric nervous system. In contrast, zonal aganglionosis, a rare congenital human bowel disease led to the opposite suggestion, that lumbo-sacral cells could compensate for the absence of vagal cells to construct a complete enteric nervous system. To test these notions, we combined E4 chick midgut and hindgut, isolated prior to arrival of neural precursors, with E1. 7 chick vagal and/or E2.7 quail lumbo-sacral neural tube as crest donors, and grafted these to the chorio-allantoic membrane of E9 chick hosts. Double and triple immuno-labelling for quail cells (QCPNA), neural crest cells (HNK-1), neurons and neurites (neurofilament) and glial cells (GFAP) indicated that vagal crest cells produced neurons and glia in large ganglia throughout the entire intestinal tissues. Lumbo-sacral crest contributed small numbers of neurons and glial cells in the presence or absence of vagal cells, chiefly in colorectum, but not in nearby small intestinal tissue. Thus for production of enteric neural cells the avian lumbo-sacral neural crest neither requires the vagal neural crest, nor significantly compensates for its lack. However, enteric neurogenesis of lumbo-sacral cells requires the hindgut microenvironment, whereas that of vagal cells is not restricted to a particular intestinal region.

  5. Arthroplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: similar results to patients with only radiculopathy at 3 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fay, Li-Yu; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Tsai, Tzu-Yun; Ko, Chin-Chu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Ching-Lan; Cheng, Henrich

    2014-09-01

    Cervical arthroplasty has been accepted as a viable option for surgical management of cervical spondylosis or degenerative disc disease (DDD). The best candidates for cervical arthroplasty are young patients who have radiculopathy caused by herniated disc with competent facet joints. However, it remains uncertain whether arthroplasty is equally effective for patients who have cervical myelopathy caused by DDD. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of arthroplasty for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and patients with radiculopathy without CSM. A total of 151 consecutive cases involving patients with CSM or radiculopathy caused by DDD and who underwent one- or two-level cervical arthroplasty were included in this study. Clinical outcome evaluations and radiographic studies were reviewed. Clinical outcome measurements included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of neck and arm pain, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) in every patient. For patients with CSM, Nurick scores were recorded for evaluation of cervical myelopathy. Radiographic studies included lateral dynamic radiographs and CT for detection of the formation of heterotopic ossification . Of the 151 consecutive patients with cervical DDD, 125 (82.8%; 72 patients in the myelopathy group and 53 in the radiculopathy group) had at least 24 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up in these patients was 36.4 months (range 24-56 months). There was no difference in sex distribution between the 2 groups. However, the mean age of the patients in the myelopathy group was approximately 6 years greater than that of the radiculopathy group (53.1 vs 47.2 years, p < 0.001). The mean operation time, mean estimated blood loss, and the percentage of patients prescribed perioperative analgesic agents were similar in both groups (p = 0.754, 0.652, and 0.113, respectively). There were significant improvements in VAS neck

  6. Brain meningioma with initial manifestation similar to cervical radiculopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hong, Chang-Zern; Wu, Wei-Ting; Li, Kun-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most common benign brain tumors, and are characterized by slow growth and a long asymptomatic period. Once the tumor becomes symptomatic, the various presentations may be related to the location and compression of adjacent structures. Meningioma is primarily treated through surgical intervention, and thus earlier diagnosis is likely to result in better prognosis. The symptoms of the meningioma may mimic other diseases, making precise diagnosis difficult, which will then delay treatment. We report a case of brain meningioma that showed initial signs and symptoms similar to cervical radiculopathy. The symptoms extended gradually, and the ultimate diagnosis of meningioma was confirmed based on brain-image studies. After brain-tumor excision, postoperation radiotherapy, and aggressive rehabilitation, the patient was able to perform better in daily activities. PMID:25028552

  7. Resource utilization for non-operative cervical radiculopathy: Management by surgeons versus non-surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sophie H; Bohl, Daniel D; Paul, Jonathan T; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Harrop, James S; Ghogawala, Zoher; Hilibrand, Alan S; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2017-07-01

    To compare the estimated resource utilization for non-operative treatment of cervical radiculopathy if managed by surgeons versus non-surgeons. A Cervical Spine Research Society-sponsored survey was administered at a national spine surgery conference to surgeons and non-surgeons, as classified above. The survey asked questions regarding resource utilization and perceived costs for the "average patient" with cervical radiculopathy managed non-operatively. Resource utilization and perceived costs were compared between surgeon and non-surgeon participants, and between private practice and academic and/or hybrid groups that combine academic and private practices. In total, 101 of the 125 conference attendees participated in the survey (return rate 80.8%, of which 60% were surgeons). Surgeon and non-surgeon estimates for duration of non-operative care did not differ (3.3 versus 4.2 months, p=0.071). Estimates also did not differ for estimated number of physical therapy visits (10.5 versus 10.5, p=0.983), cervical injections (1.4 versus 1.7, p=0.272), chiropractic visits (3.1 versus 3.7, p=0.583), or perceived days off from work (14.9 versus 16.3, p=0.816). The only difference identified was that surgeon estimates of the number of physician visits while providing non-operative care were lower than non-surgeon estimates (3.2 versus 4.0, p=0.018). In terms of estimated costs, surgeon and non-surgeon were mostly similar (only difference being that surgeon estimates for the total cost of physician visits per patient were lower than non-surgeon estimates ($382 versus $579, p=0.007). Surgeon estimates for the percent of their patients that go on to receive surgery within 6 months were higher than non-surgeon estimates (28.6% versus 18.8%, p=0.018). Similarly, surgeon estimates for the percent of their patients to go on to receive surgery within 2 years were higher than non-surgeon estimates (37.8% versus 24.8%, p=0.013). Academic/hybrid and private practice group resource

  8. Acute cervical motor radiculopathy induced by neck and limb immobilization in a patient with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshio; Komori, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with Parkinson disease (PD) presented with acute monoplegia of her left upper extremity after the neck and limb immobilization for several hours. Her sensory function was normal, and the chest X-ray showed left phrenic nerve palsy. Electrophysiological studies showed multi-segment muscle involvement (C3 to T1) including denervation potentials and reduced interference of motor units in needle electromyography. M wave amplitude in peripheral nerve stimulation was preserved except for the ulnar nerve, suggesting both axonal injury and conduction block at the anterior spinal roots. The patient showed fair recovery in several months, suggesting sufficient reinnervation and recovery of conduction block. Incomplete root avulsion was thought to be the pathomechanism of acute cervical motor radiculopathy.

  9. Systemic Inflammatory and Th17 Immune Activation among Patients Treated for Lumbar Radiculopathy Exceeds that of Patients Treated for Persistent Postoperative Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Shamji, Mohammed F; Guha, Daipayan; Paul, Darcia; Shcharinsky, Alina

    2017-09-01

    The pathophysiology of lumbar radiculopathy includes both mechanical compression and biochemical irritation of apposed neural elements. Inflammatory and immune cytokines have been implicated, induced by systemic exposure of immune-privileged intervertebral disc tissue. Surgical intervention provides improved symptoms and quality of life, but persistent postoperative neuropathic pain (PPNP) afflicts a significant fraction of patients. To compare the inflammatory and immune phenotypes among patients undergoing structural surgery for lumbar radiculopathy and spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain. Consecutive patients undergoing surgical intervention for lumbar radiculopathy or neuropathic pain were studied. Demographic data included age, gender, and VAS and neuropathic pain scores. Serum was evaluated for cytokine levels (IL-6, Il-17, TNF-α) and cellular content [white blood cell (WBC)/differential, lymphocyte subtypes]. The primary analysis differentiated molecular and cellular profiles between radiculopathy and neuropathic pain patients. Subgroup analysis within the surgical radiculopathy population compared those patients achieving relief of symptoms and those with PPNP. Heightened IL-6, Il-17, and TNF-α levels were observed for the lumbar radiculopathy group compared with the neuropathic pain group. This was complemented by higher WBC count and a greater fraction of Th17 lymphocytes among radiculopathy patients. In the lumbar discectomy subgroup, pain relief was seen among patients with preoperatively elevated IL-17 levels. Those patients with PPNP refractory to surgical discectomy exhibited normal cytokine levels. Differences in Th17 immune activation are seen among radiculopathy and neuropathic pain patients. These cellular and molecular profiles may be translated into biomarkers to improve patient selection for structural spine surgery.

  10. Protective effects of resveratrol on autologous nucleus pulposus model of radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bin; Yu, Hui; He, Yongzhi; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Wenbin; Lu, Chengwu; Ao, Qingfang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) has been suggested to trigger an autoimmune response if exposed to the immune system, which plays a key role in neuropathic pain. Therefore, appropriate suppression of inflammation is a key factor for treating the radiculopathy caused by intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration. Resveratrol, a key component of red wine, has been suggested to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of resveratrol on NP-mediated pain in vivo have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resveratrol may be useful in treating NP-mediated pain in an autologous NP model of radiculopathy. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated randomly into sham (group I), saline-treated (group II) and resveratrol-treated (group III) groups. Animal behavior in response to non-noxious mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments was compared at days 0 (baseline), 3, 7, 14 and 21 following surgery. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) were assessed at days 7 and 14. The data showed that resveratrol exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Compared with group II, the expression of TNF-α and IL-1 was significantly decreased at each time point in group III. In addition, resveratrol significantly reduced pain behavior triggered by the application of NP tissue on the dorsal root ganglion for up to 14 days. These data suggest that resveratrol has potential for the treatment of NP-mediated pain, indicating a potential clinical application. PMID:28101174

  11. Preoperative education for lumbar radiculopathy: A survey of US spine surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Butler, David S.; Diener, Ina; Puentedura, Emilio J.

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to determine current utilization, importance, content, and delivery methods of preoperative education by spine surgeons in the United States for patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was used to study a random sample of spine surgeons in the United States. The Spinal Surgery Education Questionnaire (SSEQ) was developed based on previous related surveys and assessed for face and content validity by an expert panel. The SSEQ captured information on demographics, content, delivery methods, utilization, and importance of preoperative education as rated by surgeons. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the current utilization, importance, content, and delivery methods of preoperative education by spine surgeons in the United States for patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Results Of 200 surgeons, 89 (45% response rate) responded to the online survey. The majority (64.2%) provide preoperative education informally during the course of clinical consultation versus a formal preoperative education session. The mean time from the decision to undergo surgery to the date of surgery was 33.65 days. The highest rated educational topics are surgical procedure (96.3%), complications (96.3%), outcomes/expectations (93.8%), anatomy (92.6%), amount of postoperative pain expected (90.1%), and hospital stay (90.1%). Surgeons estimated spending approximately 20% of the preoperative education time specifically addressing pain. Seventy-five percent of the surgeons personally provide the education, and nearly all surgeons (96.3%) use verbal communication with the use of a spine model. Conclusions Spine surgeons believe that preoperative education is important and use a predominantly biomedical approach in preparing patients for surgery. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:25694882

  12. Psychologic and Biologic Factors Associated with Fatigue in Patients with Persistent Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Starkweather, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom associated with neuropathic pain (NP) and can have negative consequences on psychosocial functioning, physical endurance, and quality of life. Recent evidence indicates that immune activation modulated through the increased release of proinflammatory cytokines can predict fatigue in some patient populations. Although earlier studies have shown that immune activation is a pathophysiologic feature of NP, there have been no studies to examine the relationship between immune activation and fatigue in persons with NP. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to: 1) determine the relationships among fatigue, pain, psychosocial factors, and selected biologic markers of immune activation (interleukin [IL] 6 and soluble IL-6 receptor [sIL-6R]) in participants with persistent radiculopathy; and 2) determine the differences in these variables based on fatigue severity. Participants (n = 80) were classified according to their level of fatigue as low (27.5%), moderate (32.5%), or high (40%), and significant differences were found between fatigue categories (p =.001). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that individuals with moderate to high levels of fatigue differed from those with the lowest levels of fatigue in psychologic distress, depressive symptoms, IL-6, and sIL-6R, whereas the differences between moderate and high levels of fatigue were significant for psychologic distress and sIL-6R only. The findings suggest that immune activation affects fatigue severity and possibly other behavioral responses, offering important information when providing care to patients with persistent radiculopathy. The integration of biobehavioral nursing interventions in pain management may have a greater impact on quality of life than treatment focused only on pain. PMID:23452526

  13. Comparison between effectiveness of Mechanical and Manual Traction combined with mobilization and exercise therapy in Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Syed Rehan Iftikhar; Shakil-ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel; Naeem, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cervical radiculopathy is a common neuro-musculo-skeletal disorder causing pain and disability. Traction is part of the evidence based manual physical therapy management due to its mechanical nature, type of traction and parameters related to its applicability and are still to be explored more through research. Our objective was to determine the Effects of Mechanical versus Manual Traction in Manual Physical Therapy combined with segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in the physical therapy management of Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at department of physical therapy and rehabilitation, Rathore Hospital Faisalabad, from February to July 2015. Inclusion criteria were both male and female patients with evident symptoms of cervical spine radiculopathy and age ranged between 20-70 years. The exclusion criteria were Patients with history of trauma, neck pain without radiculopathy, aged less than 20 and more than 70. A total of 72 patients with cervical radiculopathy were screened out as per the inclusion criteria, 42 patients were randomly selected and placed into two groups by toss and trial method, and only 36 patients completed the study, while 6 dropped out. The mechanical traction was applied in group A and manual traction in group B along with common intervention of segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in both groups for 6 weeks. The patient’s outcomes were assessed by self reported NPRS and NDI at the baseline and after completion of 06 weeks exercise program at 3 days per week. The data was analyzed through SPSS version-21, and paired T test was applied at 95% level significance to determine the statistical deference between two groups. Results: Clinically the group of patients treated with mechanical traction managed pain (mean pre 6.26, mean post 1.43), and disability (mean pre 24.43 and mean post 7.26) more effectively as compared with the group of patients

  14. [Rhabdomyolysis and lumbosacral plexopathy in intravenous drug addict: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Diaz Guzman, J; Pastor Valverde, C; Gil Grande, R; Alonso Ortiz, A; Trueba Gutierrez, J L

    1996-02-01

    There are several neuromuscular complications in the intravenous heroin addict (IHA). Someone may be due to direct toxic effect of the substance, but other ones may be associated to abuser's typical diseases (i.e. HIV infection). We present a 27 year-old IHA patient, HIV positive, that develop acute rhabdomyolisis with severe neuromuscular involvement, and consistent clinical and electrodiagnostic features of lumbosacral plexus neuropathy, forteen hours after an heroin inyection. Thirty months later, the patient is severely disabled, but her initial painfull and paretic picture have improved. The association of rhabdomyolisis-lumbosacral plexopathy (RLPS) is ocasionally reported. It has been proposed that RLSP is etiologically related to mecanic, toxic and immunologic factors.

  15. Case study: Gluteal compartment syndrome as a cause of lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Andrew; Turk, David; Howard, Antonio; Reddy, Srinivas; Stern, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 24 yr old male who was diagnosed with gluteal compartment syndrome and was subsequently found to have developed lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome. The patient's gluteal compartment syndrome was diagnosed within 24 h of presentation to the emergency room, and he underwent emergent compartment release. While recovering postoperatively, persistent weakness was noted in the right lower limb. Results of electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy. After admission to inpatient rehabilitation, the patient complained of pain, burning sensation, and numbness in the distal right lower limb. Based on clinical findings, he was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type II, or causalgia, and was referred for a lumbar sympathetic block under fluoroscopic guidance. Sympathetic block resulted in relief of the patient's symptoms. He was discharged home with good pain control on oral medications.

  16. [One stage anterior debridement, bone fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-hui; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Jin-long; Zhang, Bo

    2013-07-01

    To explore the clinical effect of the anterior debridement,bone fusion, single screw-rod fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis. From March 2005 to February 2011,18 patients with lumbosacral (L3-S1) tuberculosis (including 13 males and 5 females with an average age of 38.5 years old ranging from 24 to 61 years) were treated with removing focus completely, large piece of iliac bone strut grafting, single screw-rod vertebral lateral anterior internal fixation through anterior extraperitoneal approach. The process segment was L3,4 in 2 cases, L4,5 in 5, L4 in 2, L5S1 in 6, L4-S1 in 3. All patients were routinely treated with antituberculous druy for 12-18 months after operation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and liver function, X-ray films, CT examination, were statedly rechecked, and condition of antituberculosis treatment and bone grafting fusion were detected. Intraoperative focus were exposed clearly, debrided thoroughly. There were no large blood vessels, nerves, ureteral injury and other serious complications during operation. All patients were followed up form 6 to 42 months with an average of 13 months. Internal fixations were not loosening,breaking; bone of grafting was not displacement and obtained good healing; erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were normal; tuberculosis lesions were not recurrence. Through anterior extraperitoneal approach to remove focus, bone fusion, single screw-rod fixation in treating lumbosacral tuberculosis can complete cut lesion and rebuild the stability of lumbosacral vertebrae,in this area with a single screw and rod fixation is a feasible method.

  17. Evaluation of Outcome of Posterior Decompression and Instrumented Fusion in Lumbar and Lumbosacral Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ravikant; Kiyawat, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background For surgical treatment of lumbar and lumbosacral tuberculosis, the anterior approach has been the most popular approach because it allows direct access to the infected tissue, thereby providing good decompression. However, anterior fixation is not strong, and graft failure and loss of correction are frequent complications. The posterior approach allows circumferential decompression of neural elements along with three-column fixation attained via pedicle screws by the same approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome (functional, neurological, and radiological) in patients with lumbar and lumbosacral tuberculosis operated through the posterior approach. Methods Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis of the lumbar and lumbosacral region from August 2012 to August 2013. Of these, 13 patients had progressive neurological deterioration or increasing back pain despite conservative measures and underwent posterior decompression and pedicle screw fixation with posterolateral fusion. Antitubercular therapy was given till signs of radiological healing were evident (9 to 16 months). Functional outcome (visual analogue scale [VAS] score for back pain), neurological recovery (Frankel grading), and radiological improvement were evaluated preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Results The mean VAS score for back pain improved from 7.89 (range, 9 to 7) preoperatively to 2.2 (range, 3 to 1) at 1-year follow-up. Frankel grading was grade B in 3, grade C in 7, and grade D in 3 patients preoperatively, which improved to grade D in 7 and grade E in 6 patients at the last follow-up. Radiological healing was evident in the form of reappearance of trabeculae formation, resolution of pus, fatty marrow replacement, and bony fusion in all patients. The mean correction of segmental kyphosis was 9.85° postoperatively. The mean loss of correction at final follow-up was 3.15°. Conclusions

  18. Biomechanical analysis of torsion and shear forces in lumbar and lumbosacral spine segments of nonchondrodystrophic dogs.

    PubMed

    Hediger, Katharina U; Ferguson, Stephen J; Gedet, Philippe; Busato, Andre; Forterre, Franck; Isler, Samuel; Barmettler, Reto; Lang, Johann

    2009-10-01

    To determine stiffness and load-displacement curves as a biomechanical response to applied torsion and shear forces in cadaveric canine lumbar and lumbosacral specimens. Biomechanical study. Caudal lumbar and lumbosacral functional spine units (FSU) of nonchondrodystrophic large-breed dogs (n=31) with radiographically normal spines. FSU from dogs without musculoskeletal disease were tested in torsion in a custom-built spine loading simulator with 6 degrees of freedom, which uses orthogonally mounted electric motors to apply pure axial rotation. For shear tests, specimens were mounted to a custom-made shear-testing device, driven by a servo hydraulic testing machine. Load-displacement curves were recorded for torsion and shear. Left and right torsion stiffness was not different within each FSU level; however, torsional stiffness of L7-S1 was significantly smaller compared with lumbar FSU (L4-5-L6-7). Ventral/dorsal stiffness was significantly different from lateral stiffness within an individual FSU level for L5-6, L6-7, and L7-S1 but not for L4-5. When the data from 4 tested shear directions from the same specimen were pooled, level L5-6 was significantly stiffer than L7-S1. Increased range of motion of the lumbosacral joint is reflected by an overall decreased shear and rotational stiffness at the lumbosacral FSU. Data from dogs with disc degeneration have to be collected, analyzed, and compared with results from our chondrodystrophic large-breed dogs with radiographically normal spines.

  19. Lumbosacral clear-cell meningioma treated with subtotal resection and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boet, Ronald; Ng, Ho-Keung; Kumta, Sekhar; Chan, Leung-Cho; Chiu, Kwok-Wing; Poon, Wai-Sang

    2004-05-01

    We wish to report a rare case of clear-cell meningioma in the lumbosacral region in a 34-year-old male patient who presented to us with lower back pain and leg pain. The management of the patient will be reported and histological appearance discussed. This rare tumour in a difficult anatomical position presents a challenge that requires management in a multidisciplinary fashion.

  20. Decoding intravesical pressure from local field potentials in rat lumbosacral spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Changkyun; Park, Hae Yong; Koh, Chin Su; Ryu, Sang Baek; Seo, In Seok; Kim, Yong Jung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Shin, Hyung-Cheul

    2016-10-01

    Chronic monitoring of intravesical pressure is required to detect the onset of intravesical hypertension and the progression of a more severe condition. Recent reports demonstrate the bladder state can be monitored from the spiking activity of the dorsal root ganglia or lumbosacral spinal cord. However, one of the most serious challenges for these methods is the difficulty of sustained spike signal acquisition due to the high-electrode-location-sensitivity of spikes or neuro-degeneration. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated that local field potential recordings are less affected by encapsulation reactions or electrode location changes. Here, we hypothesized that local field potential (LFP) from the lumbosacral dorsal horn may provide information concerning the intravesical pressure. LFP and spike activities were simultaneously recorded from the lumbosacral spinal cord of anesthetized rats during bladder filling. The results show that the LFP activities carry significant information about intravesical pressure along with spiking activities. Importantly, the intravesical pressure is decoded from the power in high-frequency bands (83.9-256 Hz) with a substantial performance similar to that of the spike train decoding. These findings demonstrate that high-frequency LFP activity can be an alternative intravesical pressure monitoring signal, which could lead to a proper closed loop system for urinary control.

  1. Traumatic Lumbosacral Spondyloptosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Akesen, Burak; Mutlu, Müren; Kara, Kürşat; Aydınlı, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Objective To report a case of traumatic L5–S1 spondyloptosis and review the literature. Method A 28-year-old man presented with severe low back pain, numbness at the soles of feet, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Two days before admission, a tree trunk fell on his back while he was seated. A two-stage posterior-anterior procedure was performed. At the first stage, posterior decompression, reduction, and fusion with instrumentation were performed. At the second stage, which was performed 6 days after the first stage, the patient underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The patient received physical therapy 1 week after the second stage. Results The patient's numbness improved immediately after the first posterior surgery. His fecal and urinary incontinence improved 6 months after discharge. He has been pain-free for a year and has returned to work. Conclusion A PubMed search was performed using the following keywords: lumbosacral spondyloptosis, lumbosacral dislocation, and L5–S1 traumatic dislocation. The search returned only nine reported cases of traumatic spondyloptosis. Traumatic spondyloptosis at the lumbosacral junction is a rare ailment that should be suspected in cases of high, direct, and posterior impact on the low lumbar area, and surgical treatment should be the standard choice of care. PMID:24494183

  2. Traumatic lumbosacral spondyloptosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akesen, Burak; Mutlu, Müren; Kara, Kürşat; Aydınlı, Ufuk

    2014-02-01

    Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Objective To report a case of traumatic L5-S1 spondyloptosis and review the literature. Method A 28-year-old man presented with severe low back pain, numbness at the soles of feet, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Two days before admission, a tree trunk fell on his back while he was seated. A two-stage posterior-anterior procedure was performed. At the first stage, posterior decompression, reduction, and fusion with instrumentation were performed. At the second stage, which was performed 6 days after the first stage, the patient underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The patient received physical therapy 1 week after the second stage. Results The patient's numbness improved immediately after the first posterior surgery. His fecal and urinary incontinence improved 6 months after discharge. He has been pain-free for a year and has returned to work. Conclusion A PubMed search was performed using the following keywords: lumbosacral spondyloptosis, lumbosacral dislocation, and L5-S1 traumatic dislocation. The search returned only nine reported cases of traumatic spondyloptosis. Traumatic spondyloptosis at the lumbosacral junction is a rare ailment that should be suspected in cases of high, direct, and posterior impact on the low lumbar area, and surgical treatment should be the standard choice of care.

  3. Role of motor evoked potentials in diagnosis of cauda equina and lumbosacral cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, V; Pilato, F; Oliviero, A; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Tonali, P A

    2004-12-28

    To determine the diagnostic value of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the diagnosis of lumbosacral cord disorders. MEPs in 37 patients with sensory and motor deficits in the lower limbs were studied. MRI demonstrated spinal cord involvement in 10 patients and cauda equina lesions in 27 patients. A double determination of central motor conduction time (CMCT), calculated as the difference between the latencies of responses evoked by cortical and paravertebral magnetic stimulation and as the difference between the latency of cortical MEP and the total peripheral conduction time calculated from the F-wave latency, enabled discrimination between a delay along the proximal root and a delay along the corticospinal tract. An abnormality of the CMCT calculated with both techniques is indicative of central motor pathway damage, whereas an abnormality of the CMCT calculated from the latency of responses evoked by paravertebral magnetic stimulation associated with a normal CMCT calculated from the F-wave latency suggests a cauda equina lesion. Neurophysiologic findings strongly correlated with the lesion site documented by MRI (cauda equina or lumbosacral cord). All patients with MR evidence of cord involvement had an abnormality of CMCT calculated with both methods, suggesting a lesion of central motor pathways. Clinical examination often failed to document a spinal cord lesion, suggesting pure peripheral involvement in 5 of the 10 patients with MR evidence of cord lesion. Motor evoked potential recording is an accurate and easily applicable test for the diagnosis of lumbosacral spinal cord lesions.

  4. Symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cysts: A report of three cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayur; Velho, Vernon; Mally, Rahul; Khan, Shadma W.

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts (Tarlov's cysts) are nerve root cysts, which are usually asymptomatic and are detected incidentally on imaging. These cysts are rare with an incidence of 4.6%. We report three cases of Lumbosacral Tarlov's cysts, which presented with cauda equina syndrome and radicular pain syndrome. Two of our patients had symptoms of cauda equina syndrome, and one had acute sciatica. Complete excision of the cyst was achieved in two patients and marsupialization of the cyst was done in another patient due to its large size and dense adherence to the sacral nerve roots. All the patients were relieved of the radicular pain with no new neurological deficit following surgery. Symptomatic lumbosacral Tarlov's cyst is a rare lesion, and the presentation can be low back pain, cauda equina syndrome or sciatica. Therefore, this entity should be kept in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these symptoms. Complete Surgical excision of these symptomatic cysts is the treatment of choice to achieve a cure. PMID:26396612

  5. Does C5 or C6 Radiculopathy Affect the Signal Intensity of the Brachial Plexus on Magnetic Resonance Neurography?

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae Gyu; Kim, In-Soo; Son, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Patients with C5 or C6 radiculopathy complain of shoulder area pain or shoulder girdle weakness. Typical idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy (INA) is also characterized by severe shoulder pain, followed by paresis of shoulder girdle muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the brachial plexus and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder in patients with INA show high signal intensity (HSI) or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle. We evaluated the value of brachial plexus MRN and shoulder MRI in four patients with typical C5 or C6 radiculopathy. HSI of the brachial plexus was noted in all patients and intramuscular changes were observed in two patients who had symptoms over 4 weeks. Our results suggest that HSI or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle on MRN and MRI may not be specific for INA. PMID:27152289

  6. Effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency with multifunctional epidural electrode in chronic lumbosacral radicular pain with neuropathic features.

    PubMed

    Vigneri, Simone; Sindaco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Giampiero; Zanella, Matteo; Paci, Valentina; La Grua, Marco; Ravaioli, Laura; Pari, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral radicular pain is a common clinical finding with a statistical prevalence ranging from 9.9% to 25% in the general population. To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal root ganglion pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain and neuropathic features. Prospective case series clinical outcome study. We evaluated 34 patients with lumbosacral neuropathic pain who underwent PRF at the corresponding level of radicular symptoms distribution (ranging from L3 to S1). Each patient suffered a single leg-radiating pain with probable neuropathic features (assessed with clinical grading) lasting for > 6 months and unresponsive to previous treatments. A multifunctional PASHA-electrode® was introduced with trans-sacral access through a hollow needle, placed under fluoroscopic guidance into the lumbosacral epidural space and its active tip moved close to the dorsal root ganglion responsible of the clinical symptoms. After connecting the electrode to a generator, stimulation tests were performed and PRF was started and applied for 240 seconds at a frequency of 2Hz, amplitude of 45 V and a tip temperature between 40 - 42°C. If the pain involved more than a single nerve root, the electrode was placed at a different segment and the procedure repeated. Outcome measures included the pain intensity score on a 0 - 10 numeric rating scale (NRS) and the Italian Pain Questionnaire (QUID) at pre-treatment, one and 6 months post-treatment. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In comparison with pre-treatment, a significant reduction in pain score was observed in mean NRS either at one and 6 months (P < 0.001). The QUID - Pain Rating Index rank displayed a parallel trend at the first (P < 0.001) and last follow-up (P = 0.01). Moreover, a direct correlation between the 2 scales occurred, showing a parallel score decreasing (P < 0.001). Eighteen (52.9%) and 17 (50%) of 34 patients showed pain reduction in NRS > 2 points and

  7. Research strategies for pain in lumbar radiculopathy focusing on acid-sensing ion channels and their toxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Her; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In lumbar radiculopathy, the dorsal root or dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are compressed or affected by herniated discs or degenerative spinal canal stenosis. The disease is multi-factorial and involves almost all types of pain, such as ischemic, inflammatory, mechanical, and neuropathic pain. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) activated by extracellular acidosis play an important role in pain generation, and the effects of ASICs are widespread in lumbar radiculopathy. ASICs may be involved in the disc degeneration process, which results in disc herniation and, therefore, the compression of the dorsal roots or DRG. ASIC3 is involved in inflammatory pain and ischemic pain, and, likely, mechanical pain. ASIC1a and ASIC3 may have an important effect on control of the vascular tone of the radicular artery. In the central nervous system, ASIC1a modulates the central sensitization of the spinal dorsal horn. Thus, toxins targeting ASICs, because of their specificity, may help elucidate the roles of ASICs in lumbar radiculopathy and could be developed as novel analgesic agents.

  8. The efficacy of forward head correction on nerve root function and pain in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Diab, Aliaa A; Moustafa, Ibrahim M

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the effect of forward head posture correction on pain and nerve root function in cases of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. A randomized controlled study with six months follow-up. University research laboratory. Ninety-six patients with unilateral lower cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (C5-C6 and C6-C7) and craniovertebral angle measured less than or equal to 50° were randomly assigned to an exercise or a control group. The control group (n = 48) received ultrasound and infrared radiation, whereas the exercise group (n = 48) received a posture corrective exercise programme in addition to ultrasound and infrared radiation. The peak-to-peak amplitude of dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials, craniovertebral angle, visual analogue scale were measured for all patients at three intervals (before treatment, after 10 weeks of treatment, and at follow-up of six months). There was a significant difference between groups adjusted to baseline value of outcome at 10 weeks post-treatment for craniovertebral angle, pain, C6 and C7 peak-to-peak amplitude of dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials P = 0.000, 0.01, 0.000, 0.001 respectively and at follow-up for all previous variables (P = 0.000). Forward head posture correction using a posture corrective exercise programme in addition to ultrasound and infrared radiation decreased pain and craniovertebral angle and increased the peak-to-peak amplitude of dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials for C6 and C7 in cases of lower cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.

  9. Reliability of cervical radiculopathy, its congruence between patient history and medical imaging evidence of disc herniation and its role in surgical decision.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Keyvan; Khouzani, Reza Karimi

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of cervical disc herniation is estimated about 5.5/100,000, and they lead to surgical intervention in 26 %. Cervical disc herniation causes radiculopathy, which defines by radicular pain and sensory deficit and maybe weakness following the path of the affected nerves. Classically, cervical radiculopathy is expected to follow its specific dermatome-C4, C5, C6, C7 and C8. We investigate patients who present with discrepancy between classical radiculopathy and imaging findings in the daily practice of our profession. We reviewed the medical records of 102 patients with cervical radiculopathy, caused by cervical disc herniation. All patients had surgery. We found an apparent discrepancy between clinical and radiological findings, patients complained of radiculopathy on one side, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan or CT scan finding on the other side in ten patients (10.2 %). We did not found any other abnormalities in preoperative and post-operative period. All patients underwent cervical diskectomy via anterior approach. Six weeks after surgery eight patients (80 %) recovered completely, and 3 months after all ten patients (100 %) had been relieved totally. The aim of this paper is review of this medical concept and management of radiculopathy in patients with this discrepancy. As far as we know, the subject has not yet been touched in this light in medical literature. The discrepancy between clinical radiculopathy and disc herniation level on MRI or on CT scan is not rare. Management of this discrepancy requires further investigation to avoid missing diagnosis and treatment failure.

  10. EFFECTS OF IMAGE PLANE, PATIENT POSITIONING, AND FORAMINAL ZONE ON MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING MEASUREMENTS OF CANINE LUMBOSACRAL INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINA.

    PubMed

    Zindl, Claudia; Tucker, Russell L; Jovanovik, Jelena; Gomez Alvarez, Constanza; Price, David; Fitzpatrick, Noel

    2017-03-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis has been suspected to have a dynamic component, especially regarding encroachment of the L7 nerve roots exiting the lumbosacral foramina. Angled cross-sectional imaging of the neuroforamina has been found improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of stenosis in humans. In this anatomic study, foraminal apertures were evaluated by MRI at the entry, middle, and exit zones of the nerve roots in 30 dogs that were clinically affected by lumbosacral disease. Standard vs. oblique planar orientation and neutral vs. hyperextended positioning of the lumbosacral area were compared by measuring the median values for entry, middle, and exit zones. The neuroforaminal area acquired using oblique plane acquisition was significantly smaller than standard parasagittal measurements. Furthermore, standard parasagittal neuroforaminal dimensions in the hyperextended position were significantly smaller than standard parasagittal measurements in the neutral position. This statistical difference was even more pronounced for neuroforaminal dimension evaluated in the oblique plane and hyperextended position. Positioning of the dog during imaging has a significant effect on neuroforaminal dimension, corroborating the notion that spinal position may influence neural claudication in clinically affected patients. Reductions in neuroforaminal dimension are more evident on oblique planar image acquisition, suggesting that this approach may be more useful than parasagittal imaging as a tool for identifying subtle changes in L7 neuroforaminal dimensions in cases of canine lumbosacral stenosis. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. A novel approach for assigning levels to monkey and human lumbosacral spinal cord based on ventral horn morphology

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Cassandra; Ellison, Brian; Buchman, Aron S.; Terasawa, Ei

    2017-01-01

    Proper identification of spinal cord levels is crucial for clinical-pathological and imaging studies in humans, but can be a challenge given technical limitations. We have previously demonstrated in non-primate models that the contours of the spinal ventral horn are determined by the position of motoneuron pools. These positions are preserved within and among individuals and can be used to identify lumbosacral spinal levels. Here we tested the hypothesis that this approach can be extended to identify monkey and human spinal levels. In 7 rhesus monkeys, we retrogradely labeled motoneuron pools that represent rostral, middle and caudal landmarks of the lumbosacral enlargement. We then aligned the lumbosacral enlargements among animals using absolute length, segmental level or a relative scale based upon rostral and caudal landmarks. Inter-animal matching of labeled motoneurons across the lumbosacral enlargement was most precise when using internal landmarks. We then reconstructed 3 human lumbosacral spinal cords, and aligned these based upon homologous internal landmarks. Changes in shape of the ventral horn were consistent among human subjects using this relative scale, despite marked differences in absolute length or age. These data suggest that the relative position of spinal motoneuron pools is conserved across species, including primates. Therefore, in clinical-pathological or imaging studies in humans, one can assign spinal cord levels to even single sections by matching ventral horn shape to standardized series. PMID:28542213

  12. Retrieval of a migrated AxiaLIF lumbosacral screw using fluoroscopic guidance with simultaneous real-time sigmoidoscopy: technical report.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jamie R F; Timothy, Jake; Rao, Abhay; Sagar, Peter M

    2013-09-15

    Technical report. This article describes the technique of using intraoperative sigmoidoscopy as an adjunct for retrieval of the AxiaLIF lumbosacral screw after failure of lumbar fusion. Minimally invasive axial lumbar interbody fusion devices have emerged during the past 3 years as an alternative to traditional surgery for the treatment of intractable back pain. No reports of inferior migration of the lumbosacral screw causing rectal symptoms have been previously described. A 32-year-old firefighter with intractable lumbar back pain was treated with minimally invasive axial lumbar interbody fusion with L4-S1 pedicle screw fixation. Sequential images obtained for more than 18 months demonstrated loosening and migration of the axial screw 3.5 cm inferiorly causing impression on the rectum and symptoms of tenesmus. Preoperative sigmoidoscopy was performed to exclude rectal perforation. During retrieval of the lumbosacral screw, simultaneous sigmoidoscopy was performed to ensure the rectum was not damaged. The lumbosacral screw was successfully removed using a presacral approach. The patient's rectal symptoms improved postoperatively, and was discharged after 48 hours. For the retrieval of migrated AxiaLIF lumbosacral screws, intraoperative sigmoidoscopy is technically feasible and serves as a useful adjunct to ensure the integrity of the rectal mucosa is maintained. This technique can be used to avoid the potential morbidity of rectal perforation, and subsequent laparotomy and defunctioning colostomy. N/A.

  13. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and

  14. A novel technique to repair a transverse sacral fracture in a previously fused lumbosacral spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Thomas; Chedid, Mokbel K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transverse fractures of the sacrum are rare, and surgical treatment for these fractures ranges from conservative to challenging. Transverse stress fractures of the sacrum after placement of lumbar-to-sacral instrumentation have been previously described. We report a new technique to repair a transverse Type-2 Roy-Camille fracture with spondylolisthesis of S1 over S2 in a previously fused instrumented high-grade L4-L5, L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. Case Description: A 64-year-old female who previously had an L4-L5, L5-S1 fusion for spondylolisthesis presented with excruciating lower back pain and radiculopathy for over 6 months. She was found to have an S1-S2 transverse fracture caused by previous implantation of pedicle screws. She underwent repositioning of several failed right lumbar and sacral screws and then had bilateral S1-S2 screws placed directly across the fracture line. The patient had an unremarkable postoperative course. She discontinued most of her pain medications within 6 weeks postoperatively. In the months following surgery, she reported only minimal lower back pain and no radiculopathy with the last appointment 5 years postoperatively. Conclusions: We describe a novel technique to reduce an iatrogenic transverse type-2 Roy-Camille fracture at S1-S2 in a previously instrumented high-grade L4-L5, L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. The patient's fracture achieved adequate reduction and fusion with symptomatic relief. PMID:28028448

  15. Clinical usefulness of electrodiagnostic study to predict surgical outcomes in lumbosacral disc herniation or spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Although surgeries have been performed for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) or lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), not all patients who undergo surgery are satisfied with the outcome. Electrodiagnostic study (EDX) can assess the physiological functions of nerve roots with higher specificity and relate better with clinical manifestations. The purpose of this study was to examine how EDX can predict surgical outcomes in patients with LDH and LSS and to compare the predicted values of EDX with other clinical factors and MRI findings. Patients diagnosed with LDH or LSS without neurological deficits, who underwent EDX before lumbar surgery, were selected and analyzed. Patients were divided into groups of successful and unsuccessful surgical outcomes according to a modified MacNab classification. We obtained pre-operative clinical data, radiological results, and EDX results. Using EDX, radiculopathy was found in 236 patients (52.7%) in the study population. Radiculopathy on EDX was significantly related only to unsuccessful surgical outcomes. The association of spondylolisthesis showed the trends towards unsuccessful surgical outcome, despite statistical insignificance. EDX detected functional abnormalities of nerve roots that did not show clinical manifestation and did not appear compressed on MRI. These abnormalities are important predictive factors for surgical outcomes in patients with LDH or LSS. Therefore, pre-operative EDX is a clinically useful method to predict surgical prognosis.

  16. [Clinical and electroneuromyographical correlations in patients with lumbosacral pain syndrome in the complex therapy by the method of vertical underwater traction].

    PubMed

    Sunychuk, M M

    2004-12-01

    The authors have analyzed the efficiency of a complex treatment containing vertical underwater traction (VUT) method for patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes. The use of VUT in a complex treatment of patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes was determined to be effective by clinical data and positive indices of electroneuromyography.

  17. Preoperative therapeutic neuroscience education for lumbar radiculopathy: a single-case fMRI report.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio J; Diener, Ina; Peoples, Randal R

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mainly chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. This case study aims to describe the changes in brain activation on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, before and after the application of a newly-designed preoperative TNE program. A 30-year-old female with a current acute episode of low back pain (LBP) and radiculopathy participated in a single preoperative TNE session. She completed pre- and post-education measures including visual analog scale (VAS) for LBP and leg pain; Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ); Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and a series of Likert-scale questions regarding beliefs and attitudes to lumbar surgery (LS). After a 30-minute TNE session, ODI decreased by 10%, PCS decreased by 10 points and her beliefs and attitudes shifted positively regarding LS. Immediately following TNE straight leg raise increased by 7° and forward flexion by 8 cm. fMRI testing following TNE revealed 3 marked differences compared to pre-education scanning: (1) deactivation of the periaqueductal gray area; (2) deactivation of the cerebellum; and (3) increased activation of the motor cortex. The immediate positive fMRI, psychometric and physical movement changes may indicate a cortical mechanism of TNE for patients scheduled for LS.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neck Tornado Test as a New Screening Test in Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Park, Woo Young; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    The Spurling test, although a highly specific provocative test of the cervical spine in cervical radiculopathy (CR), has low to moderate sensitivity. Thus, we introduced the neck tornado test (NTT) to examine the neck and the cervical spine in CR. The aim of this study was to introduce a new provocative test, the NTT, and compare the diagnostic accuracy with a widely accepted provocative test, the Spurling test. Retrospective study. Medical records of 135 subjects with neck pain (CR, n = 67; without CR, n = 68) who had undergone cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging and been referred to the pain clinic between September 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed. Both the Spurling test and NTT were performed in all patients by expert examiners. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for both the Spurling test and the NTT. The sensitivity of the Spurling test and the NTT was 55.22% and 85.07% (P < 0.0001); specificity, 98.53% and 86.76% (P = 0.0026); accuracy, 77.04% and 85.93% (P = 0.0423), respectively. The NTT is more sensitive with superior diagnostic accuracy for CR diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging than the Spurling test.

  19. Cervical Radiculopathy Due to Disc Herniation with Adjacent Facet Hypertrophy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    YAMAHATA, Hitoshi; YASUDA, Muneyoshi; AOYAMA, Tatsuro; OSUKA, Koji; ARITA, Kazunori; TAKAYASU, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of cervical radiculopathy associated with facet hypertrophy and disc herniation. The patient was a 38-year-old woman with sudden-onset left arm pain. As conservative therapy failed to alleviate her symptoms she was referred to us. On physical examination she manifested no neurological deficits except pain and dysesthesia in the left C7 territory. Computed tomography revealed hypertrophic ossified changes in the left T1 facet joint with encroachment on the spinal canal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord at C6/7 by disc herniation at C6/7. Anterior cervical decompression and fusion by corpectomy (C7 corpectomy and C6/T1 fixation with a titanium cage) ameliorated her pain. Facet hypertrophy in a morphologically normal cervicothoracic spine is extremely rare and its etiology is unknown. We speculate the possibility that our patient harbored a congenital anomaly and that the morphologic changes were the consequence of an injury she sustained in a traffic accident. PMID:24477059

  20. Function in patients with cervical radiculopathy or chronic whiplash-associated disorders compared with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Peolsson, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Wibault, Johanna; Dedering, Åsa; Peterson, Gunnel

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine whether any differences in function and health exist between patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) due to disk disease scheduled for surgery and patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and to compare measures of patients' physical function with those obtained from healthy volunteers. This is a cross-sectional study of patients with CR (n = 198) and patients with chronic WAD (n = 215). Patient data were compared with raw data previously obtained from healthy people. Physical measures included cervical active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand grip strength. Self-rated measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), neck disability (Neck Disability Index), self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier). Patient groups exhibited significantly lower performance than the healthy group in all physical measures (P < .0005) except for neck muscle endurance in flexion for women (P > .09). There was a general trend toward worse results in the CR group than the WAD group, with significant differences in neck active range of motion, left hand strength for women, pain intensity, Neck Disability Index, EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier, and Self-Efficacy Scale (P < .0001). Patients had worse values than healthy individuals in almost all physical measures. There was a trend toward worse results for CR than WAD patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The reliability of sagittal pelvic parameters: the effect of lumbosacral instrumentation and measurement experience.

    PubMed

    Vila-Casademunt, Alba; Pellisé, Ferran; Acaroglu, Emre; Pérez-Grueso, Francisco Javier Sánchez; Martín-Buitrago, Mar Pérez; Sanli, Tunay; Yakici, Sule; de Frutos, Ana García; Matamalas, Antonia; Sánchez-Márquez, José Miguel; Obeid, Ibrahim; Yaman, Onur; Bagó, Juan

    2015-02-15

    Sagittal pelvic parameters (SPPs) of a representative patient sample drawn from a consecutive adult spinal deformity database were measured using Surgimap Spine. Estimated coefficient of reliability intraclass coefficient (95% confidence interval), standard error of measurement, and mean absolute deviation were used for the analysis. The primary objective of this study was to assess the reliability of SPP measurements using Surgimap Spine. The secondary objective was to evaluate the impact of pelvic instrumentation as well as the impact of user expertise. The radiographical measurement of SPP is increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in establishing the surgical goals and surgical strategy of many spinal disorders. Although instrumented flatback is a common cause of sagittal malalignment, to our knowledge, SPP measurement reliability has never been assessed in instrumented spines. Sixty-three adult full-spine standing lateral radiographs (31 with lumbosacral instrumentation) were measured twice by 13 observers using Surgimap Spine. Observers were stratified into 3 levels of experience: high (research coordinators, 4), mid (senior surgeons, 5), and low (junior surgeons, 4). Research coordinators trained all surgeons for less than 30 minutes. Parameters measured were pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope. Thirteen observers and 63 radiographs generated 817 observations (2 misses). Overall inter- and intraobserver reliability of SPP measurement was excellent (intraclass coefficient > 0.85). Lumbosacral instrumentation did not modify intraobserver reliability but reduced significantly interobserver reliability of pelvic tilt (P = 0.006) and sacral slope (P = 0.007). Experience did not affect intraobserver reliability but interobserver reliability of highly experienced observers was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than among less experienced observers. Measurement of SPP using Surgimap Spine equals or improves previously reported reliability data

  2. Non-diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy: natural history, outcome and comparison with the diabetic variety.

    PubMed

    Dyck, P J; Norell, J E; Dyck, P J

    2001-06-01

    Diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLSRPN) (other names include diabetic amyotrophy) is well recognized, unlike the non-diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (LSRPN), which has received less attention. Our objective was to characterize the natural history and outcome of LSRPN and to assess whether it is similar to the diabetic variety in its symptoms, course, electrophysiological features, quantitative sensory and autonomic findings, and the underlying pathophysiology. We studied 57 patients with LSRPN and 33 patients with DLSRPN. We found that the age of onset, course, kind and distribution of symptoms and impairments, laboratory findings and outcomes are essentially alike. Both disorders are a lumbosacral plexus neuropathy associated with weight loss, often beginning focally or asymmetrically in the thigh or leg but usually progressing to involve the initially unaffected segment and the contralateral side. Both have prolonged morbidity due to pain, paralysis, autonomic involvement and sensory loss. In biopsied distal LSRPN nerves, we found changes similar to those found in DLSRPN-alterations typical of ischaemic injury and of microvasculitis. The long-term outcome was determined in 42 LSRPN patients: two had become diabetic, seven had relapsed and only three had recovered completely, although all had improved. We conclude that: (i) LSRPN is a subacute, asymmetrical, painful and debilitating neuropathy of the lower limbs associated with weight loss, and we think it is under-recognized; (ii) recovery from the long-term impairments of LSRPN is usually delayed and incomplete and only a small minority of patients develop diabetes mellitus; (iii) LSRPN mirrors the diabetic variety in its clinical features, course, pathological findings (ischaemic injury from microvasculitis) and long-term outcome; and (iv) LSRPN should be set apart from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and from systemic necrotizing vasculitis. We infer an

  3. Global Reconstruction for Extensive Destruction in Tuberculosis of the Lumbar Spine and Lumbosacral Junction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Uvaraj, Nalli R; Bosco, Aju; Gopinath, Nalli R

    2015-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To analyze the surgical difficulties in restoring global spinal stability and to describe an effective surgical option for tuberculosis with extensive destruction of the lumbosacral spine. Advanced tuberculosis with destruction of the lumbosacral spine can result in a kyphosis or hypolordosis, leading to back pain, spinal instability, and neurological deficits. The conventional treatment goals of lumbosacral tuberculosis are to correct and prevent a lumbar kyphosis, treat or prevent a neurological deficit, and restore global spinal stability. Instrumentation at the lumbosacral junction is technically demanding due to the complex local anatomy, the unique biomechanics, and the difficult fixation in the surrounding diseased bone. Methods We report a 21-year-old woman with tuberculosis from L1 to S2 with back pain and spinal instability. The radiographs showed a kyphosis of the lumbar spine. The magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans revealed extensive destruction of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. Spinopelvic stabilization combined with anterior debridement and reconstruction with free fibular strut graft was performed. Results The radiographs at follow-up showed a good correction of the kyphosis and excellent graft incorporation and fusion. Conclusions Anterior column reconstruction with a fibular strut graft helps restore and maintain the vertebral height. Posterior stabilization with spinopelvic fixation can be an effective surgical option for reconstructing the spine in extensive lumbosacral tuberculosis with sacral body destruction, requiring long fusions to the sacrum. It augments spinal stability, prevents graft-related complications, and accelerates the graft incorporation and fusion, thereby permitting early mobilization and rehabilitation. In spinal tuberculosis, antitubercular therapy may have to be prolonged in cases with large disease load, based on the clinicoradiographic and laboratory

  4. A Consistent, Quantifiable, and Graded Rat Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Junxiang; Sun, Dongming; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a rat lumbosacral spinal cord injury (SCI) model that causes consistent motoneuronal loss and behavior deficits. Most SCI models focus on the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. Lumbosacral SCI accounts for about one third of human SCI but no standardized lumbosacral model is available for evaluating therapies. Twenty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham (n=9), 25 mm (n=8), and 50 mm (n=9). Sham rats had laminectomy only, while 25 mm and 50 mm rats were injured by dropping a 10 g rod from a height of 25 mm or 50 mm, respectively, onto the L4-5 spinal cord at the T13/L1 vertebral junction. We measured footprint length (FL), toe spreading (TS), intermediate toe spreading (ITS), and sciatic function index (SFI) from walking footprints, and static toe spreading (STS), static intermediate toe spreading (SITS), and static sciatic index (SSI) from standing footprints. At six weeks, we assessed neuronal and white matter loss, quantified axons, diameter, and myelin thickness in the peroneal and tibial nerves, and measured cross-sectional areas of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. The result shows that peroneal and tibial motoneurons were respectively distributed in 4.71 mm and 5.01 mm columns in the spinal cord. Dropping a 10-g weight from 25 mm or 50 mm caused 1.5 mm or 3.75 mm gaps in peroneal and tibial motoneuronal columns, respectively, and increased spinal cord white matter loss. Fifty millimeter contusions significantly increased FL and reduced TS, ITS, STS, SITS, SFI, and SSI more than 25 mm contusions, and resulted in smaller axon and myelinated axon diameters in tibial and peroneal nerves and greater atrophy of gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis muscles, than 25 mm contusions. This model of lumbosacral SCI produces consistent and graded loss of white matter, motoneuronal loss, peripheral nerve axonal changes, and anterior tibialis

  5. HIV Lumbosacral Radiculoplexus Neuropathy Mimicking Lymphoma: Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) Restricted to Nerve?

    PubMed Central

    Chahin, Nizar; Temesgen, Zelalem; Kurtin, Paul J.; Spinner, Robert J.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is a hyperimmune reaction against HIV. It leads to MHC-restricted clonal expansion of CD8 T-cells characterized by circulating CD8 hyperlymphocytosis and CD8 T-cell infiltration in organs. Our patient presented with painful lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy and tested positive for HIV. Nerve biopsy showed large collections of CD-8 lymphocytes suspicious for lymphoma. Symptoms, signs and repeat biopsy improved with antiretroviral treatment. The presentation and treatment response suggest this case is localized DILS. PMID:19882634

  6. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and thoracic limb malformations in a Chihuahua puppy.

    PubMed

    Schultz, V A; Watson, A G

    1995-01-01

    A three-month-old, male Chihuahua puppy with congenital absence of the distal 40% of the right thoracic limb was examined. The limb ended as a short, rounded, skin-covered stump. Radiography revealed a 40% shortened humerus tapered to a blunt end without its distal extremity. Dissection of the left thoracic limb identified luxation of the elbow joint and absence of the fourth digital pad. Alizarin-red staining and clearing demonstrated syndactylous fourth and fifth digits in the left thoracic limb and an anomalous eighth lumbar vertebra. This additional vertebra was unilaterally sacralized and constituted a lumbosacral transitional vertebra.

  7. Back school or brain school for patients undergoing surgery for lumbar radiculopathy? Protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ickmans, Kelly; Moens, Maarten; Putman, Koen; Buyl, Ronald; Goudman, Lisa; Huysmans, Eva; Diener, Ina; Logghe, Tine; Louw, Adriaan; Nijs, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Despite scientific progress with regard to pain neuroscience, perioperative education tends to stick to the biomedical model. This may involve, for example, explaining the surgical procedure or 'back school' (education that focuses on biomechanics of the lumbar spine and ergonomics). Current perioperative education strategies that are based on the biomedical model are not only ineffective, they can even increase anxiety and fear in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Therefore, perioperative pain neuroscience education is proposed as a dramatic shift in educating patients prior to and following surgery for lumbar radiculopathy. Rather than focusing on the surgical procedure, ergonomics or lumbar biomechanics, perioperative pain neuroscience education teaches people about the underlying mechanisms of pain, including the pain they will feel following surgery. The primary objective of the study is to examine whether perioperative pain neuroscience education ('brain school') is more effective than classic back school in reducing pain and improving pain inhibition in patients undergoing surgery for spinal radiculopathy. A secondary objective is to examine whether perioperative pain neuroscience education is more effective than classic back school in: reducing postoperative healthcare expenditure, improving functioning in daily life, increasing return to work, and improving surgical experience (ie, being better prepared for surgery, reducing incongruence between the expected and actual experience) in patients undergoing surgery for spinal radiculopathy. A multi-centre, two-arm (1:1) randomised, controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. People undergoing surgery for lumbar radiculopathy (n=86) in two Flemish hospitals (one tertiary care, university-based hospital and one regional, secondary care hospital) will be recruited for the study. All participants will receive usual preoperative and postoperative care related to the surgery for lumbar radiculopathy. The experimental

  8. Surgical and Functional Outcomes After Multilevel Cervical Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease Compared With Fusion for Radiculopathy: A Study of Workers' Compensation Population.

    PubMed

    Faour, Mhamad; Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2017-05-01

    Retrospective cohort comparative study. To evaluate presurgical and surgical factors that affect return to work (RTW) status after multilevel cervical fusion, and to compare outcomes after multilevel cervical fusion for degenerative disc disease (DDD) versus radiculopathy. Cervical fusion provides more than 90% of symptomatic relief for radiculopathy and myelopathy. However, cervical fusion for DDD without radiculopathy is considered controversial. In addition, multilevel fusion is associated with poorer surgical outcomes with increased levels fused. Data of cervical comorbidities was collected from Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation for subjects with work-related injuries. The study population included subjects who underwent multilevel cervical fusion. Patients with radiculopathy or DDD were identified. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors that affect RTW status. Surgical and functional outcomes were compared between groups. Stable RTW status within 3 years after multilevel cervical fusion was negatively affected by: fusion for DDD, age > 55 years, preoperative opioid use, initial psychological evaluation before surgery, injury-to-surgery > 2 years and instrumentation.DDD group had lower rate of achieving stable RTW status (P= 0.0001) and RTW within 1 year of surgery (P= 0.0003) compared with radiculopathy group. DDD patients were less likely to have a stable RTW status [odds ratio, OR = 0.63 (0.50-0.79)] or RTW within 1 year after surgery [OR = 0.65 (0.52-0.82)].DDD group had higher rate of opioid use (P= 0.001), and higher rate of disability after surgery (P= 0.002). Multiple detriments affect stable RTW status after multilevel cervical fusion including DDD. DDD without radiculopathy was associated with lower RTW rates, less likelihood to return to work, higher disability, and higher opioid use after surgery. Multilevel cervical fusion for DDD may be counterproductive. Future studies should investigate further

  9. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone causes a tonic excitatory postsynaptic current and inhibits the phasic inspiratory inhibitory inputs in inspiratory-inhibited airway vagal preganglionic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hou, L; Zhou, X; Chen, Y; Qiu, D; Zhu, L; Wang, J

    2012-01-27

    The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (eNA), which include the inspiratory-activated AVPNs (IA-AVPNs) and inspiratory-inhibited AVPNs (II-AVPNs), predominate in the control of the trachea and bronchia. The AVPNs receive particularly dense inputs from terminals containing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH microinjection into the nucleus ambiguus (NA) caused constriction of the tracheal smooth muscles. However, it is unknown whether TRH affects all subtypes of the AVPNs in the eNA, and as a result affects the control of all types of target tissues in the airway (smooth muscles, submucosal glands, and blood vessels). It is also unknown how TRH affects the AVPNs at neuronal and synaptic levels. In this study, the AVPNs in the eNA were retrogradely labeled from the extrathoracic trachea, the II-AVPNs were identified in rhythmically firing brainstem slices, and the effects of TRH were examined using patch-clamp. TRH (100 nmol L(-1)) enhanced both the rhythm and the intensity of the hypoglossal bursts, and caused a tonic excitatory inward current in the II-AVPNs at a holding voltage of -80 mV. The frequency of the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the II-AVPNs, which showed no respiratory-related change in a respiratory cycle, was not significantly changed by TRH. At a holding voltage of -50 mV, the II-AVPNs showed both spontaneous and phasic inspiratory (outward) inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). TRH had no effect on the spontaneous IPSCs but significantly attenuated the phasic inspiratory outward currents, in both the amplitude and area. After focal application of strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptors, to the II-AVPNs, the spontaneous IPSCs were extremely scarce and the phasic inspiratory inhibitory currents were abolished; and further application of TRH had no effect on these currents. Under current clamp configuration, TRH caused a depolarization and increased the

  10. Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Biao; Huang, Fen-Sheng; Fen, Ban; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Wei; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The function of the urinary bladder is partly controlled by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN). Our recent work demonstrated that endomorphin-2 (EM-2)-immunoreactive (IR) terminals form synapses with μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-expressing PPNs in the rat SPN. Here, we examined the effects of EM-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of the PPNs in young rats (24–30 days old) using a whole-cell patch-clamp approach. PPNs were identified by retrograde labeling with the fluorescent tracer tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR). EM-2 (3 μM) markedly decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of the spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and mEPSCs) of PPNs. EM-2 not only decreased the resting membrane potentials (RMPs) in 61.1% of the examined PPNs with half-maximal response at the concentration of 0.282 μM, but also increased the rheobase current and reduced the repetitive action potential firing of PPNs. Analysis of the current–voltage relationship revealed that the EM-2-induced current was reversed at −95 ± 2.5 mV and was suppressed by perfusion of the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or BaCl2 or by the addition of guanosine 5′-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt (GDP-β-S) to the pipette solution, suggesting the involvement of the G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel. The above EM-2-invoked inhibitory effects were abolished by the MOR selective antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), indicating that the effects of EM-2 on PPNs were mediated by MOR via pre- and/or post-synaptic mechanisms. EM-2 activated pre- and post-synaptic MORs, inhibiting excitatory neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminals and decreasing the excitability of PPNs due to hyperpolarization of their membrane potentials, respectively. These inhibitory effects of EM-2 on PPNs at the spinal cord level may

  11. A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of provocative tests of the neck for diagnosing cervical radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Jan J. M.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Riphagen, Ingrid I.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical provocative tests of the neck, which position the neck and arm inorder to aggravate or relieve arm symptoms, are commonly used in clinical practice in patients with a suspected cervical radiculopathy. Their diagnostic accuracy, however, has never been examined in a systematic review. A comprehensive search was conducted in order to identify all possible studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. A study was included if: (1) any provocative test of the neck for diagnosing cervical radiculopathy was identified; (2) any reference standard was used; (3) sensitivity and specificity were reported or could be (re-)calculated; and, (4) the publication was a full report. Two reviewers independently selected studies, and assessed methodological quality. Only six studies met the inclusion criteria, which evaluated five provocative tests. In general, Spurling’s test demonstrated low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity, as did traction/neck distraction, and Valsalva’s maneuver. The upper limb tension test (ULTT) demonstrated high sensitivity and low specificity, while the shoulder abduction test demonstrated low to moderate sensitivity and moderate to high specificity. Common methodological flaws included lack of an optimal reference standard, disease progression bias, spectrum bias, and review bias. Limitations include few primary studies, substantial heterogeneity, and numerous methodological flaws among the studies; therefore, a meta-analysis was not conducted. This review suggests that, when consistent with the history and other physical findings, a positive Spurling’s, traction/neck distraction, and Valsalva’s might be indicative of a cervical radiculopathy, while a negative ULTT might be used to rule it out. However, the lack of evidence precludes any firm conclusions regarding their diagnostic value, especially when used in primary care. More high quality studies are necessary in order to resolve this issue. PMID:17013656

  12. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments. PMID:26312169

  13. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction.

    PubMed

    Early, Peter; Mente, Peter; Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments.

  14. Magnetic lumbosacral motor root stimulation with a flat, large round coil.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Octaviana, Fitri; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Yugeta, Akihiro; Hamada, Masashi; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Nakatani-Enomoto, Setsu; Tsuji, Shoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a reliable method for supramaximal magnetic spinal motor root stimulation (MRS) for lower limb muscles using a specially devised coil. For this study, 42 healthy subjects were recruited. A 20-cm diameter coil designated as a Magnetic Augmented Translumbosacral Stimulation (MATS) coil was used. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded from the abductor hallucis muscle. Their CMAPs were compared with those obtained by MRS using a conventional round or double coil and with those obtained using high-voltage electrical stimulation. The MATS coil evoked CMAPs to supramaximal stimulation in 80 of 84 muscles, although round and double coils elicited supramaximal CMAPs in only 15 and 18 of 84 muscles, respectively. The CMAP size to the MATS coil stimulation was the same as that to high-voltage electrical motor root stimulation. MATS coil achieved supramaximal stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal nerves. The CMAPs to supramaximal stimulation are necessary for measurement of the amplitude and area for the detection of conduction blocks. The MATS coil stimulation of lumbosacral motor roots is a reliable method for measuring the CMAP size from lower limb muscles in spinal motor root stimulation.

  15. Comparison between methods of assessing lumbosacral curve obtained by radiographic image

    PubMed Central

    Vacari, Daiane Aparecida; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Ulbricht, Leandra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between different radiographic methods in the evaluation of the lumbosacral concavity. METHODS: The sample consisted of 52 individuals with ages ranging from 18 to 28 years old. The procedures related to radiographic image collection were carried out in collaboration with a diagnostic imaging center of a hospital in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. The angles of the lumbosacral concavity were evaluated by the following methods: Centroid, Cobb1L1-S1, Cobb2L1-L5, Cobb3L2-S1 Cobb4T12-S1, Posterior Tangent and Trall. RESULTS: High correlation coefficients (r ranging from 0.77 to 0.89) were found among variations of the Cobb method. Additionally, we propose a categorical classification of angle values obtained by each method. We also analyzed the influence of the level of the inflection point between the lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in determining the evaluation method to be used. The inflection point had a higher incidence in the region between the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the first lumbar vertebra (63.5%). CONCLUSION: The correlation and agreement between methods vary considerably. Moreover, the thoracolumbar inflection point should be considered when choosing the method of assessing patients. Level of Evidence I, Diagnostic Study. PMID:27069403

  16. The Influence of “wuqinxi” exercises on the Lumbosacral Multifidus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of the five animals (wuqinxi) exercises on the lumbosacral multifidus. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled two groups of volunteers, 15 volunteers who did the five animals exercises, the experimental group, and 15 volunteers who did aerobic exercise (walking), the control group. Both before and after the 1 year exercise intervention, the average surface electromyography (ASEMG) of the two groups in the process of flexion and extension was recorded and analyzed using DASYLab10.0 software, and the flexion extension ratio (FER) was calculated. [Results] The ASEMG in the process of flexion was lower than the ASEMG in the process of extension both before and after the 1 year exercise intervention on both sides of all volunteers. There was no significant difference in FER between the experimental group and control group before the 1 year exercise intervention; however, the FER of experimental group was lower than that of the control group after the 1 year exercise intervention. There was no significant difference between the two sides in any individual both before and after the 1 year exercise intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The “wuqinxi” exercises improved the function of the lumbosacral multifidus, and might be an alternative method of reducing low back pain. PMID:25013288

  17. Dorsal midline hemivertebra at the lumbosacral junction: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Shaheryar F; Rodgers, Richard B; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis from laterally located hemivertebrae at the lumbosacral junction has been described previously. However, dorsally located midline hemivertebrae at this location have not been reported. The authors describe the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of 2 patients (1 male and 1 female) with this rare malformation. All clinical and radiographic records were reviewed. Outcomes were recorded using survey instruments (Oswestry Disability Index and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey). Radiographic assessment of bony fusion was performed using CT scanning 1 year after surgery. Both patients presented with back and leg pain, urinary hesitancy/incontinence, difficulty sitting and lying down, waddling gait, and restriction of movement. Imaging showed a wedge-shaped dorsal deformity that stretched the nerve roots and compressed the canal. Both patients underwent resection of the hemivertebra with posterolateral instrumented fusion from L-2 to the pelvis. The female patient had a low-lying conus and underwent sectioning of the filum terminale. Both patients showed improvement in the ability to sit and lie flat and in bowel and bladder function after surgery. The authors describe their experience with 2 patients with similar, rare congenital bony deformities at the lumbosacral junction. To their knowledge, similar cases have not been previously reported.

  18. Appropriateness of physicians’ lumbosacral MRI requests in private and public centers in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Navid; Farahmand, Ferial; Hadizadeh Kharazi, Homayoun; Mojdehipanah, Hossein; Karampour, Hossein; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Back pain is a common patients’ complaint, and its etiology is important because of different potential treatment approaches (based on causes). For a better diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in clinical settings that may result in inappropriate requests. This study aims to evaluate the appropriateness of the lumbosacral MRI requests in patients with back pain in two public/referral and private imaging centers in Tehran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 279 patients from both centers were recruited in 2014. A checklist was developed based on the internationally recognized clinical guidelines (NICE, and AHRQ) for determining the indications. An expert panel of related specialties finalized them. Patients’ demographic and some anthropometric measures, as well as MRI reports, were collected. Results: The mean±SD age of patients was 47.9±14.78 years with a dominance of females (M/F=38.4/61.6). About 77% (n=214) of lumbosacral MRIs were requested in accordance with the guidelines. Indicated MRI requests were significantly higher in the private imaging center (p=0.019, OR=2.087, CI 95%: 1.13-3.85). In the private center, 80.6% and in the public center, 70.4% of the MRI requests were in accordance with the guidelines. Conclusion: The proportion of non-indicated MRI requests based on the valid guidelines is about ¼ of all requests that is compatible with some other studies mostly from developed countries. PMID:28210580

  19. Aberrant differentiation of the axially condensed tail bud mesenchyme in human embryos with lumbosacral myeloschisis.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, Hirotomo; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Ishibashi, Makoto; Shiota, Kohei

    2007-03-01

    Development of the posterior neural tube (PNT) in human embryos is a complicated process that involves both primary and secondary neurulation. Recently, we histologically examined 20 human embryos around the stage of posterior neuropore closure and found that the axially condensed mesenchyme (AM) intervened between the neural plate/tube and the notochord in the junctional region of the primary and secondary neural tubes. The AM appeared to be incorporated into the most ventral part of the primary neural tube, and no cavity was observed in the AM. In this study, we report three cases of human embryos with myeloschisis in which the open primary neural tube and the closed secondary neural tube overlap dorsoventrally. In all three cases, part of the closed neural tube was located ventrally to the open neural tube in the lumbosacral region. The open and closed neural tubes appeared to be part of the primary and the AM-derived secondary neural tubes, respectively. Thus, these findings suggest that, in those embryos with myeloschisis, the AM may not be incorporated into the ventral part of the primary neural tube but aberrantly differentiate into the secondary neural tube containing cavities, leading to dorsoventral overlapping of the primary and secondary neural tubes. The aberrant differentiation of the AM in embryos with lumbosacral myeloschisis suggests that the AM plays some roles in normal as well as abnormal development of the human posterior neural tube.

  20. Back pain was less explained than leg pain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging in low back pain patients with and without radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Sørensen, Joan Solgaard; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    2015-12-03

    Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between lumbar degenerative manifestations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and low back pain (LBP). Disc herniations and other degenerative manifestations, however, frequently occur in asymptomatic individuals. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to analyze for associations between pain intensity and degenerative manifestations and other pain variables in patients for whom prognostic factors have been published previously. Included were 141 consecutive patients with and without radiculopathy, all sick-listed 1-4 months due to low back pain and subsequently examined by MRI of the lumbar spine. Using different methods of grouping the degenerative manifestations, linear regression analyses were performed with the intensity of back + leg pain, back pain and leg pain as dependent variables covering actual pain and pain the preceding 2 weeks. The clinical classification into +/- radiculopathy was established before and independently of the standardised description of MRI findings. Radiculopathy was present in 43 % of the patients. Pain was best explained using rank-ordered degenerative manifestations on MRI. Back pain and leg pain were differently associated, and back pain was less explained than leg pain in the multivariate analyses (15 % vs. 31 % of the variation). Back pain intensity was higher in patients with type 1 Modic changes and in some patients with nerve root touch, but was not associated with disc herniations. Leg pain intensity was well explained by disc herniations causing MRI nerve root compromise and radiculopathy. In patients with radiculopathy, nerve root touch caused as much leg pain as nerve root displacement or compression. High intensity zones and osteophytes were not associated with back pain, but only associated with leg pain in patients with radiculopathy. Tender points explained some of the back pain, and widespread pain explained leg pain in some of the patients without

  1. Use of the Rat Grimace Scale to Evaluate Neuropathic Pain in a Model of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Philips, Blythe H; Weisshaar, Christine L; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2017-02-01

    Although neck and low-back pain are common sources of neuropathic pain with high societal costs, the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is not well-defined. Traditionally, most rodent pain studies rely on evoked reflex-based testing to measure pain. However, these testing methods do not reveal spontaneous pain, particularly early after injury. The rat grimace scale (RGS) for quantifying spontaneous pain has been validated after visceral, incisional, orthopedic, and inflammatory insults but not neuropathic pain. The current study used a rat model of radiculopathy to investigate the time course of RGS, the effect of the NSAID meloxicam on RGS, and the reliability and consistency of RGS across testers. RGS values at baseline and at 3, 6, 24, and 48 h after cervical nerve root compression (NRC) that induced robust evoked pain responses were compared with those obtained after sham surgery. The RGS was also evaluated at 6 h after NRC in another set of rats that had received meloxicam treatment prior to surgery. At 6 h, NRC induced higher RGS scores (1.27 ± 0.18) than did sham surgery (0.93 ± 0.20), and scores remained above baseline for as long as 48 h. Treatment with meloxicam before NRC reduced RGS at 6 h to sham levels, which were lower than those of injury without treatment. The RGS was associated with very good interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.91) and excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α, 0.87). These findings suggest that RGS is a useful approach to identifying and monitoring acute neuropathic pain in rats.

  2. Social and economic outcome after posterior microforaminotomy for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Schöggl, Andreas; Reddy, Marion; Saringer, Walter; Ungersböck, Karl

    2002-03-28

    Between 1993 and 1998, the surgical technique of posterior cervical foraminotomy as described by Frykholm, with individual cervical nerve root decompression had been applied at the Neurosurgical Department of the University of Vienna. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the functional and socio-economic outcome. Thirty-two patients were included in this study, 21 men and 11 women with a median age of 48 years (range 30 to 70 years). Prior to surgical management, median duration of symptoms had been 7 weeks (range 1-50 weeks), with cervicobrachialgia in 28 of the patients, 27 of the patients had sustained radicular sensory loss, and in 25 of the patients radicular paresis occurred. Measured by the Prolo Functional Economic Outcome Rating Scale, 64% of the patients were classified with a good outcome (scale 8-10), 18% of the patients were classified with a moderate outcome (scale 5-7), and 18% of the patients were classified with a poor outcome (scale < 5). Two of the patients required additional anterior cervical discectomy and one patient suffered a superficial wound infection which needed surgical drainage. This study confirms that posterior microforaminotomy is a useful technique for degenerative disease causing cervical radiculopathy with the advantage of avoiding fusion and immobilisation. Criteria for evaluating the results of treating cervical spinal disorders vary widely. Comparative analyses of outcome among different therapy protocols are compromised by the diversity among the groups studied, as well as by the varying methods of measuring success. We propose a scale based on the socio-economic and functional status of the patient before and after treatment This scale is easily applicable and can delineate pre- and postoperative conditions of patients. A more universal acceptance of common criteria for judging the outcome of spinal operations should facilitate comparisons among various methods of treatment.

  3. Balance chiropractic therapy for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Li, Wen-Xiong; Liu, Zhu; Liu, Li

    2016-10-22

    Cervical spondylosis is a very common disorder and cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is the most common form of spinal degenerative disease. Its clinical manifestations focus on pain and numbness of the neck and arm as well as restricted movement of the neck, which greatly affect the patient's life and work. The orthopedic of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory holds that the basic pathologic change in spinal degenerative diseases is the imbalance between the dynamic system and the static system of the cervical spine. Based on this theory, some Chinese physicians have developed a balance chiropractic therapy (BCT) to treat CSR, which has been clinically examined for more than 50 years to effectively cure CSR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of BCT on CSR and to investigate the mechanism by which the efficacy is achieved. We propose a multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BCT for CSR. Participants aged 18 to 65 years, who are in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of CSR and whose pain score on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is more than 4 points and less than 8 points, will be included and randomly allocated into two groups: a treatment group and a control group. Participants in the treatment group will be treated with BCT, while the control group will receive traction therapy (TT). The primary outcome is pain severity (measured with a VAS). Secondary outcomes will include cervical curvature (measured by the Borden Index), a composite of functional status (measured by the Neck Disability Index, NDI), patient health status (evaluated by the SF-36 health survey) and adverse events (AEs) as reported in the trial. If BCT can relieve neck pain without adverse effects, it may be a novel strategy for the treatment of CSR. Furthermore, the mechanism of BCT for CSR will be partially elucidated. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02705131 . Registered on 9

  4. Effect of double-door laminoplasty on atypical symptoms associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy/radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuqing; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Yan, Kai; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Shan; Tian, Wei

    2016-05-10

    Double-door laminoplasty is an effective method in treating patients with cervical spondylosis. Many patients with cervical spondylosis experience a set of atypical symptoms such as vertigo and tinnitus, and wish to know if the surgical treatment for cervical spondylosis can also alleviate those symptoms. The current research was carried out to investigate if atypical symptoms can be alleviated in patients who received laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylosis. One hundred ninety patients who received laminoplasty to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy/radiculopathy in our center and complained about one or more of the atypical symptoms before the surgery were followed for a mean of 61.9 months (from 39 to 87 months) after the surgery. Severity scores were retrospectively collected by follow up outpatient visits or phone interviews. The data was calculated based on patient feedback on the frequency and severity of those symptoms before the surgery and at last follow up, and were compared by paired sample t-tests. Most patients reported that the atypical symptoms such as vertigo (P <0.001), nausea (P <0.001), headache (P <0.001), tinnitus (P = 0.001), blur vision (P = 0.005), palpitation (P <0.001) and gastrointestinal discomfort (P = 0.001) were significantly alleviated at the last follow up; there was no significant change in the severity of hypomnesia (P = 0.675). Double-door laminoplasty can significantly alleviate most of the atypical symptoms in patients with cervical spondylosis. Further research is needed to explore mechanisms underlying this extra benefit of laminoplasty.

  5. Use of the Rat Grimace Scale to Evaluate Neuropathic Pain in a Model of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    H, Blythe

    2017-01-12

    Although neck and low-back pain are common sources of neuropathic pain with high societal costs, the pathophysiology ofneuropathic pain is not well-defined. Traditionally, most rodent pain studies rely on evoked reflex-based testing to measure pain.However, these testing methods do not reveal spontaneous pain, particularly early after injury. The rat grimace scale (RGS) forquantifying spontaneous pain has been validated after visceral, incisional, orthopedic, and inflammatory insults but not neuropathic pain. The current study used a rat model of radiculopathy to investigate the time course of RGS, the effect of the NSAID meloxicam on RGS, and the reliability and consistency of RGS across testers. RGS values at baseline and at 3, 6, 24, and 48 h after cervical nerve root compression (NRC) that induced robust evoked pain responses were compared with those obtained after sham surgery. The RGS was also evaluated at 6 h after NRC in another set of rats that had received meloxicam treatment prior to surgery. At 6 h, NRC induced higher RGS scores (1.27 ± 0.18) than did sham surgery (0.93 ± 0.20), and scores remained above baseline for as long as 48 h. Treatment with meloxicam before NRC reduced RGS at 6 h to sham levels, which were lower than those of injury without treatment. The RGS was associated with very good interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.91) and excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α, 0.87). These findings suggest that RGS is a useful approach to identifying and monitoring acute neuropathic pain in rats.

  6. Rigid Posterior Lumbopelvic Fixation without Formal Debridement for Pyogenic Vertebral Diskitis and Osteomyelitis Involving the Lumbosacral Junction: Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Marcus D; Ravindra, Vijay M; Dailey, Andrew T; McEvoy, Sara; Schmidt, Meic H

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fixation with S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screws can increase the rigidity of a lumbosacral construct, which may promote bone healing, improve antibiotic delivery to infected tissues, and avoid L5-S1 pseudarthrosis. To describe the use of single-stage posterior fixation without debridement for the treatment of pyogenic vertebral diskitis and osteomyelitis (PVDO) at the lumbosacral junction. Technical report. We describe the management of PVDO at the lumbosacral junction in which the infection invaded the endplates, disk space, vertebrae, prevertebral soft tissues, and epidural space. Pedicle involvement precluded screw fixation at L5. Surgical management consisted of a single-stage posterior operation with rigid lumbopelvic fixation augmented with S2-alar-iliac screws and without formal debridement of the infected area, followed by long-term antibiotic treatment. At 2-year follow-up, successful fusion and eradication of the infection were achieved. PVDO at the lumbosacral junction may be treated successfully using rigid posterior-only fixation without formal debridement combined with antibiotic therapy.

  7. Lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap: a salvage tool for extended lumbo-sacral necrosis after bilateral internal iliac arteries embolization

    PubMed Central

    di Summa, Pietro Giovanni; Schaffer, Clara; Zaugg, Patrice; Bauquis, Olivier; Raffoul, Wassim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report the case of a 52-year-old man presenting an extensive lumbosacral necrosis after bilateral internal iliac arteries embolization following unstable pelvic fracture. Coverage of the defect was performed using two extended lumbar artery perforator flaps in a propeller fashion. Good functional and esthetic result was achieved at one-year follow-up. PMID:27583264

  8. Conflicting calculations of pelvic incidence and pelvic tilt secondary to transitional lumbosacral anatomy (lumbarization of S-1): case report.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Charles H; Glassman, Steven D; Gum, Jeffrey L; Carreon, Leah Y

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in the understanding of adult spinal deformity have led to a greater awareness of the role of the pelvis in maintaining sagittal balance and alignment. Pelvic incidence has emerged as a key radiographic measure and should closely match lumbar lordosis. As proper measurement of the pelvic incidence requires accurate identification of the S-1 endplate, lumbosacral transitional anatomy may lead to errors. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how lumbosacral transitional anatomy may lead to errors in the measurement of pelvic parameters. The current case highlights one of the potential complications that can be avoided with awareness. The authors report the case of a 61-year-old man who had undergone prior lumbar surgeries and then presented with symptomatic lumbar stenosis and sagittal malalignment. Radiographs showed a lumbarized S-1. Prior numbering of the segments in previous surgical and radiology reports led to a pelvic incidence calculation of 61°. Corrected numbering of the segments using the lumbarized S-1 endplate led to a pelvic incidence calculation of 48°. Without recognition of the lumbosacral anatomy, overcorrection of the lumbar lordosis might have led to negative sagittal balance and the propensity to develop proximal junction failure. This case illustrates that improper identification of lumbosacral transitional anatomy may lead to errors that could affect clinical outcome. Awareness of this potential error may help improve patient outcomes.

  9. Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Unilateral Facetectomy and Interbody Fusion Using Expandable Cages for Lumbosacral Foraminal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Hoon; Bae, Chae Wan; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Rhim, Seung Chul; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Surgical treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis requires an understanding of the anatomy of the lumbosacral area in individual patients. Unilateral facetectomy has been used to completely decompress entrapment of the L5 nerve root, followed in some patients by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with stand-alone cages. Methods We assessed 34 patients with lumbosacral foraminal stenosis who were treated with unilateral facetectomy and PLIF using stand-alone cages in our center from January 2004 to September 2007. All the patients underwent follow-up X-rays, including a dynamic view, at 3, 6, 12, 24 months, and computed tomography (CT) at 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with the mean numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Odom's criteria. Radiological outcomes were assessed with change of disc height, defined as the average of anterior, middle, and posterior height in plain X-rays. In addition, lumbosacral fusion was also assessed with dynamic X-ray and CT. Results Mean NRS score, which was 9.29 prior to surgery, was 1.5 at 18 months after surgery. The decrease in NRS was statistically significant. Excellent and good groups with regard to Odom's criteria were 31 cases (91%) and three cases (9%) were fair. Pre-operative mean ODI of 28.4 decreased to 14.2 at post-operative 24 months. In 30 patients, a bone bridge on CT scan was identified. The change in disc height was 8.11 mm, 10.02 mm and 9.63 mm preoperatively, immediate postoperatively and at 24 months after surgery, respectively. Conclusion In the treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis, unilateral facetectomy and interbody fusion using expandable stand-alone cages may be considered as one treatment option to maintain post-operative alignment and to obtain satisfactory clinical outcomes. PMID:21430975

  10. Clinical Evidence of Chinese Massage Therapy (Tui Na) for Cervical Radiculopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shangquan; Li, Linghui

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The review is to assess the current evidence of Chinese massage therapy (Tui Na) for cervical radiculopathy. Methods. Seven databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials incorporating Tui Na alone or Tui Na combined with conventional treatment were enrolled. The authors in pairs independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Results. Five studies involving 448 patients were included. The pooled analysis from the 3 trials indicated that Tui Na alone showed a significant lowering immediate effects on pain score (SMD = −0.58; 95% CI: −0.96 to −0.21; Z = 3.08, P = 0.002) with moderate heterogeneity compared to cervical traction. The meta-analysis from 2 trials revealed significant immediate effects of Tui Na plus cervical traction in improving pain score (MD = −1.73; 95% CI: −2.01 to −1.44; Z = 11.98, P < 0.00001) with no heterogeneity compared to cervical traction alone. No adverse effect was reported. There was very low quality or low quality evidence to support the results. Conclusions. Tui Na alone or Tui Na plus cervical traction may be helpful to cervical radiculopathy patients, but supportive evidence seems generally weak. Future clinical studies with low risk of bias and adequate follow-up design are recommended. PMID:28303163

  11. Clinical Evidence of Chinese Massage Therapy (Tui Na) for Cervical Radiculopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xu; Wang, Shangquan; Li, Linghui; Zhu, Liguo

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The review is to assess the current evidence of Chinese massage therapy (Tui Na) for cervical radiculopathy. Methods. Seven databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials incorporating Tui Na alone or Tui Na combined with conventional treatment were enrolled. The authors in pairs independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Results. Five studies involving 448 patients were included. The pooled analysis from the 3 trials indicated that Tui Na alone showed a significant lowering immediate effects on pain score (SMD = -0.58; 95% CI: -0.96 to -0.21; Z = 3.08, P = 0.002) with moderate heterogeneity compared to cervical traction. The meta-analysis from 2 trials revealed significant immediate effects of Tui Na plus cervical traction in improving pain score (MD = -1.73; 95% CI: -2.01 to -1.44; Z = 11.98, P < 0.00001) with no heterogeneity compared to cervical traction alone. No adverse effect was reported. There was very low quality or low quality evidence to support the results. Conclusions. Tui Na alone or Tui Na plus cervical traction may be helpful to cervical radiculopathy patients, but supportive evidence seems generally weak. Future clinical studies with low risk of bias and adequate follow-up design are recommended.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at the lumbosacral level in patients with spinal stenosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chun, Se-Woong; Lee, Hack-Jin; Nam, Koong-Ho; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Dong; Jeong, Eun-Jin; Chung, Sun G; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Spinal stenosis is a common degenerative condition. However, how neurogenic claudication develops has not been clearly elucidated. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid physiology at the lumbosacral level has not received adequate attention. This study was conducted to compare cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics at the lumbosacral spinal level between patients with spinal stenosis and healthy controls. Twelve subjects (four patients and eight healthy controls; 25-77 years old; seven males) underwent phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to quantify cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. The cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities were measured at the L2 and S1 levels. All subjects were evaluated at rest and after walking (to provoke neurogenic claudication in the patients). The caudal peak flow velocity in the sacral spine (-0.25 ± 0.28 cm/s) was attenuated compared to that in the lumbar spine (-0.93 ± 0.46 cm/s) in both patients and controls. The lumbar caudal peak flow velocity was slower in patients (-0.65 ± 0.22 cm/s) than controls (-1.07 ± 0.49 cm/s) and this difference became more pronounced after walking (-0.66 ± 0.37 cm/s in patients, -1.35 ± 0.52 cm/s in controls; p = 0.028). The sacral cerebrospinal fluid flow after walking was barely detectable in patients (caudal peak flow velocity: -0.09 ± 0.03 cm/s). Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the lumbosacral spine were more attenuated in patients with spinal stenosis than healthy controls. After walking, the patients experiencing claudication did not exhibit an increase in the cerebrospinal fluid flow rate as the controls did. Altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics may partially explain the pathophysiology of spinal stenosis. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:104-112, 2017.

  13. Non-surgical relief of cervical radiculopathy through reduction of forward head posture and restoration of cervical lordosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wickstrom, Bret M; Oakley, Paul A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] To present a case demonstrating the relief of cervical radiculopathy following the dramatic reduction of forward head posture and restoration of the cervical lordosis by use of a multi-modal rehabilitation program incorporating cervical extension traction. [Subject and Methods] A 31-year-old male patient presented with severe cervical radiculopathy and muscle weakness as well as neck pain. The patient had limited neck range of motion, and multiple positive orthopedic tests. Radiography revealed excessive forward head posture with a cervical kyphosis. [Results] The patient received a multi-modal rehabilitation protocol including mirror image extension exercises, cervical extension traction, and spinal manipulative therapy. After forty treatments over 17 weeks, the patient reported a complete resolution of radiculopathy and significant improvement in neck pain level. Post radiography demonstrated correction of the spine and posture alignment. The patient remained well and maintained corrected posture with limited treatment one year later. [Conclusion] Our case demonstrates the relief of cervical radiculopathy resulting from the non-surgical correction of forward head posture and cervical kyphosis.

  14. [The use of acupuncture in combined balneotherapy of erectile dysfunction in patients with lumbosacral osteochondrosis].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, I E; Tereshin, A T

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate effects of therapeutic and preventive measures on restoration of compromised erectile function in patients with osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine segment (LSSS). The patients were treated using corporal and auricular acupuncture, Narzan mineral water baths, manual therapy, remedial gymnastics, and psychotherapeutic correction of sexual dysadaptation. This combined treatment resulted in the elimination of algic syndrome in 77.5% of the patients, restoration of sexual function in 62.5%, and normalization of hemodynamics in cavernous bodies in 65.2%. The functional activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis was normalized in 65% of the LSSS patients of strong and moderate sexual constitution. Introduction of acupuncture in the combined medicamentous therapy increased its efficiency by 15%. In 57.5% of the patients with strong and moderate sexual constitution, the restored sexual function persisted for at least 12 months.

  15. Degenerative disk disease at lumbosacral junction: plain film findings and related MRI abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Jaovisidha, S; Techatipakorn, S; Apiyasawat, P; Laohacharoensombat, W; Poramathikul, M; Siriwongpairat, P

    2000-08-01

    Due to a wide range of normal disk space heights at lumbosacral (LS) junction, we conducted this study to evaluate how to diagnose degenerative disk disease (DDD) of LS junction and how much information we can obtain from plain radiography regarding this condition. We retrospectively reviewed lateral LS spine films and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 100 patients presented with low back pain. Anterior disk height (ADH) and posterior disk height (PDH) were directly measured from plain radiographs. Signs of DDD were recorded from both plain radiographs and MR imaging. We found that ADH < 11.3 mm or PDH < 5.5 mm indicate DDD at LS junction with 95 per cent confidence interval. When spondylolisthesis presented, disks were all degenerated. Endplate sclerosis had significant relative risk (p < 0.05) for lateral neural canal stenosis and disk herniation. No radiographic finding showed significant relative risk for nerve root compression.

  16. Lumbo-sacral malformations and spina bifida occulta in medieval skeletons from Brittany.

    PubMed

    Zemirline, Ahmed; Vincent, Jean-Philippe; Sid-Ahmed, Seddik; Le Nen, Dominique; Dubrana, Frédéric

    2013-02-01

    Compared with the other French regions, the incidence of neural tube defects is raised in Brittany. It can be explained by the Celtic origin of the Britton people, who migrated from Great Britain in the High Middle Ages. Notwithstanding, there are no historical or archeological evidences of the occurrence of these pathological conditions in medieval Brittany. We investigated the incidence of lumbo-sacral malformations on the skeletal remains of 30 individuals excavated from the necropolis of Saint-Urnel (southwest Brittany). We found out several anatomical variations among five specimens, three of which had spinal dysraphism involving the sacrum. Our results enrich the very few paleopathological data about spinal dysraphism, from the Hippocratic Corpus to the first description of Spina Bifida in sixteenth century. But, their interpretation remains delicate until the same genetic factors are shown in the etiology of both open and closed spinal dysraphism.

  17. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra associated with sacral spina bifida occulta: a case report.

    PubMed

    George, Paraskevas; Maria, Tzika; Panagiotis, Kitsoulis

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malformations such as lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and spina bifida occulta constitute unrare anomalies and could affect the symptomatology of low back pain. A transitional vertebra is characterized by elongation of one or both transverse processes, leading to the appearance ofa sacralized fifth lumbar vertebra or a lumbarized first sacral vertebra. Furthermore, sacral spina bifida occulta is a developmental anomaly that corresponds to the incomplete closure of the vertebral column. In the present case report, we describe a case of a dried sacrum presenting a partially sacralized fifth lumbar vertebra and total spina bifida, extended from first to fifth sacral vertebra. A pseudoarthrosis is formed on the left side and the specimen could be incorporated in Castellvi's type IIa. Moreover, the incidence, morphology, clinical and surgical significance of these spinal malformations are discussed.

  18. Methods for determining hip and lumbosacral joint centers in a seated position from external anatomical landmarks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Junfeng; Panda, Jules; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Wang, Xuguang

    2015-01-21

    A global coordinate system (GCS) method is proposed to estimate hip and lumbosacral joint centers (HJC and LSJC) from at least three distances between joint center of interest and target anatomic landmarks (ALs). The distances from HJC and LSJC to relevant pelvis and femur ALs were analyzed with respect to usual pelvis and femur scaling dimensions. Forty six pelves and related pairs of femurs from a same sample of adult specimens were examined. The corresponding regression equations were obtained. These equations can be used to estimate HJC and LSJC in conditions where a very limited number of ALs are available: for example, during seated posture analysis as performed in the automotive industry. Compared to currently existing HJC and LSJC methods from ALs, the proposed method showed better results with an average error less than 11 mm.

  19. Clear cell meningioma of the lumbo-sacral spine with chordoid features.

    PubMed

    Alameda, F; Lloreta, J; Ferrer, M D; Corominas, J M; Galitó, E; Serrano, S

    1999-01-01

    Clear cell meningioma (CCM) is a peculiar variant that differs from conventional meningioma in affecting younger patients, arising more often in spinal or cerebellopontine locations, and showing a higher recurrence rate. Classical meningothelial areas are scarce in these tumors and the differential diagnosis with other neoplasms, particularly metastatic carcinoma, is often difficult. We report a case of clear cell meningioma from the lumbosacral spine in which location, radiologic presentation, light microscopic appearance in initial sampling, and some of the ultrastructural findings were reminiscent of chordoma. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and very focally positive for epithelial membrane antigen. Ultrastructural demonstration of interdigitating cell processes joined by numerous desmosomes confirmed the diagnosis of CCM.

  20. Three-dimensional image-guided placement of S2 alar screws to adjunct or salvage lumbosacral fixation.

    PubMed

    Nottmeier, Eric W; Pirris, Stephen M; Balseiro, Sarah; Fenton, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    Achieving fusion across the lumbosacral junction is challenging because of the unfavorable biomechanics associated with ending a fusion at this level. Bicortical placement of S1 pedicle screws can increase the construct stability at the lumbosacral junction; however, construct failure and pseudoarthrosis can still result. Iliac screws have been shown to increase the stiffness of lumbosacral constructs, but disadvantages include difficulty in connecting the iliac screw to adjacent sacral screws, painful screw loosening or prominence requiring removal, and the inability to place the screws in some patients with previous iliac crest autograft harvest. The purpose of the study is to describe a technique of S2 alar screw placement using three-dimensional image guidance. The study design is a retrospective analysis. Twenty patients undergoing lumbosacral fusion had 32 screws placed using this technique. An independent radiologist graded screw placement and lumbosacral fusion on thin-cut postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans. Image guidance in this study was accomplished with the Medtronic Stealth Station Treon (Medtronic Inc., Littleton, MA, USA) used in conjunction with the O-ARM (Medtronic Inc.). Indications for placement of S2 alar screws included the following: to adjunct S1 pedicle screws in multilevel fusion cases; as an adjunct or alternative to S1 pedicle screws in pseudoarthrosis revision cases in which the S1 screws had loosened; as an alternative to S1 pedicle screws in cases where medial trajectory of an S1 pedicle screw was difficult to obtain because of a low-set lumbosacral junction; and a combination of the above. The entry point of the screw was typically chosen lateral and superior to the S2 dorsal foramen with the trajectory directed anterior, inferior, and lateral. Attempt was made to place the screw with the tip purchasing, but not penetrating through, the triangular area of cortical bone that can be found at the anterior, inferior, and

  1. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A Retrospective Study in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, FO

    2014-01-01

    Background: A retrospective study of lumbosacral angle (LSA) in normal lateral supine lumbosacral radiographs of 274 Nigerians (aged 15-74 years) of Southeast region. A supine lateral lumbar spine radiograph is a very accurate means of measuring lordotic angles. The LSA is one of such angles, and can be used in the investigation, treatment and follow-up of low back disorders. Little is known about what the normal value for our population is and therefore, what constitutes hypo-/hyper-lordosis; most of the data in use in medical practice are based on studies on other races. Aim: To quantify the normal LSA in our population. Materials and Methods: LSA was measured by the Ferguson's technique and the data analyzed with SPSS Statistics version 17.0 (Chicago IL, USA). Results: LSA varied between 18° and 71°. With a 95.0 confidence interval of 43.3-45.6°, the mean (standard deviation) was 44.5 (9.9)° and showed no significant variation with sex and between various age groups; it compared favorably (though with small difference) with some of the literature values currently in use. Conclusion: This study had established the normal lordosis and the possible values at which to consider hypo-lordosis (below 15°), and hyper-lordosis (above 75°) in our population. Also established is that the development of lumbar lordosis ceases at spinal maturity, and that in normal lumbar lordosis measurement, the retrospective approach is a credible alternative to the prospective method. PMID:25328789

  2. Pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with lumbosacral disc herniation by neurophysiological and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Wojtysiak, Magdalena; Huber, Juliusz; Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Szymankiewicz-Szukała, Agnieszka; Moskal, Jakub; Janicki, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    The application of complex neurophysiological examination including motor evoked potentials (MEP) for pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients experiencing acute sciatica. The assessment of sensitivity and specificity of needle electromyography, MEP, and H-reflex examinations. The comparative analysis of preoperative and postoperative neurophysiological examination. In spite of the fact that complex neurophysiological diagnostic tools seem to be important for interpretation of incompatible results of neuroimaging and clinical examination, especially in the patients qualified for surgical treatment, their application has never been completely analyzed and documented. Pre- and postoperative electromyography, electroneurography, F-waves, H-reflex, and MEP examination were performed in 23 patients with confirmed disc-root conflict at lumbosacral spine. Clinical evaluation included examination of sensory perception for L5-S1 dermatomes, muscles strength with Lovett's scale, deep tendon reflexes, pain intensity with visual analogue scale, and straight leg raising test. Sensitivity of electromyography at rest and MEP examination for evaluation of L5-S1 roots injury was 22% to 63% and 31% to 56% whereas specificity was 71% to 83% and 57% to 86%, respectively. H-reflex sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of S1 root injury were 56% and 67%, respectively. A significant improvement of root latency parameter in postoperative MEP studies as compared with preoperative was recorded for L5 (P = 0.039) and S1 root's levels (P = 0.05). The analysis of the results from neurophysiological tests together with neuroimaging and clinical examination allow for a precise preoperative indication of the lumbosacral roots injury and accurate postoperative evaluation of patients experiencing sciatica. 3.

  3. [Morphometric characteristics of the sacrum in Mexican population. Its importance in lumbosacral fusion and fixation procedures].

    PubMed

    Morales-Ávalos, Rodolfo; Leyva-Villegas, Jorge Israel; Vílchez-Cavazos, Félix; Martínez-Ponce de León, Ángel Raymundo; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2012-01-01

    the morphology and the morphometric characteristics of the sacrum and its components determine the size of pedicle implants in both width and length and the orientation of the screw at the time of implantation. The present study aimed to determine the morphometric characteristics of the sacrum in the Mexican population in order to establish safe approaches for the placement and orientation of the screws during lumbosacral instrumentation. morphometric characteristics were determined for 50 dry sacra distributed in 44 measurement parameters (39 linear and 5 angular) divided in five categories: 1) anterior and posterior sacral foramina; 2) S1 vertebral pedicle and intermediate sacral crest; 3) vertebral bodies and the general parameters of the sacrum; 4) S1 superior articular process facet and sacral canal, and 5) S1 pedicle approaches. the S1 pedicle average length was 25.00 mm ± 2.41, the S1 pedicle anterior and posterior average height was 20.68 mm ± 3.40 and 24.64 mm ± 3.77 respectively, the sacral canal dimensions on its superior opening were 15.13 mm ± 2.40 in the sagital diameter and 31.07 mm ± 2.65 for the transverse diameter, in S1 the anteriomedial screw trajectory average distance was 50.08 mm ± 3.72 with an average angle of 34.30° ± 4.1 from the screw entry point. the results from this study are important for the correct screw placement and position in lumbosacral instrumentation, and also for other procedures that involve the sacral region as a surgical and diagnostic target.

  4. Periodic modulation of repetitively elicited monosynaptic reflexes of the human lumbosacral spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Danner, Simon M.; Freundl, Brigitta; Binder, Heinrich; Mayr, Winfried; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury, epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord at 2 Hz evokes unmodulated reflexes in the lower limbs, while stimulation at 22–60 Hz can generate rhythmic burstlike activity. Here we elaborated on an output pattern emerging at transitional stimulation frequencies with consecutively elicited reflexes alternating between large and small. We analyzed responses concomitantly elicited in thigh and leg muscle groups bilaterally by epidural stimulation in eight motor-complete spinal cord-injured individuals. Periodic amplitude modulation of at least 20 successive responses occurred in 31.4% of all available data sets with stimulation frequency set at 5–26 Hz, with highest prevalence at 16 Hz. It could be evoked in a single muscle group only but was more strongly expressed and consistent when occurring in pairs of antagonists or in the same muscle group bilaterally. Latencies and waveforms of the modulated reflexes corresponded to those of the unmodulated, monosynaptic responses to 2-Hz stimulation. We suggest that the cyclical changes of reflex excitability resulted from the interaction of facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms emerging after specific delays and with distinct durations, including postactivation depression, recurrent inhibition and facilitation, as well as reafferent feedback activation. The emergence of large responses within the patterns at a rate of 5.5/s or 8/s may further suggest the entrainment of spinal mechanisms as involved in clonus. The study demonstrates that the human lumbosacral spinal cord can organize a simple form of rhythmicity through the repetitive activation of spinal reflex circuits. PMID:25904708

  5. Anatomical organization and somatic axonal components of the lumbosacral nerves in female rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Hernández-Plata, Isela; Lucio, Rosa Angélica; Zempoalteca, René; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2017-09-01

    To determine the anatomical organization and somatic axonal components of the lumbosacral nerves in female rabbits. Chinchilla adult anesthetized female rabbits were used. Anatomical, electrophysiological, and histological studies were performed. L7, S1, and some fibers from S2 and S3 form the lumbosacral trunk, which gives origin to the sciatic nerve and innervation to the gluteal region. From S2 to S3 originates the pudendal nerve, whose branches innervates the striated anal and urethra sphincters, as well as the bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus, and constrictor vulvae muscles. The sensory field of the pudendal nerve is ∼1800 mm(2) and is localized in the clitoral sheath and perineal and perigenital skin. The organization of the pudendal nerve varies between individuals, three patterns were identified, and one of them was present in 50% of the animals. From S3 emerge the pelvic nerve, which anastomoses to form a plexus localized between the vagina and the rectum. The innervation of the pelvic floor originates from S3 to S4 fibers. Most of the sacral spinal nerves of rabbit are mixed, carrying sensory, and motor information. Sacral nerves innervate the hind limbs, pelvic viscera, clitoris, perineal muscles, inguinal and anal glands and perineal, perigenital, and rump skin. The detailed description of the sacral nerves organization, topography, and axonal components further the knowledge of the innervation in pelvic and perinal structures of the female rabbit. This information will be useful in future studies about the physiology and physiopathology of urinary, fecal, reproductive, and sexual functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Plain film evaluation of degenerative disk disease at the lumbosacral junction.

    PubMed

    Cohn, E L; Maurer, E J; Keats, T E; Dussault, R G; Kaplan, P A

    1997-03-01

    Diagnosing degenerative disk disease (DDD) at the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) on plain films is often difficult, compared with other disk levels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether criteria for diagnosis of DDD at the LSJ can be established for plain films. We retrospectively reviewed 100 lumbar MRI scans of patients who also had lumbar plain films. Using MRI as the reference standard, the LSJ was classified as normal (n=35) or exhibiting mild (n=45) or severe (n=20) DDD by two radiologists using accepted criteria. Measurements were performed on the plain films by two other radiologists and the average measurements were tabulated according to the three categories of DDD defined by MRI. Plain film measurements included the anterior and posterior disk heights (ADH, PDH), Farfan's ratio, determined by adding ADH to PDH and dividing that number by the measured anteroposterior (AP) length of the inferior end plate of L5 [(ADH+PDH)/AP length of L5], and lumbosacral angle (LSA). Subsequently, five additional radiologists interpreted the radiographs by visual inspection only, for DDD at the LSJ, both before and, several weeks later, after being provided with the quantitative data for normal versus DDD. There was a statistically significant difference between normal disk and increasing severity of DDD on radiographs using the parameters of PDH and Farfan's ratio. There was no statistically significant difference regarding ADH or LSA. Diagnostic accuracy by visual inspection was not significantly altered using the quantitative data for interpretation of DDD (68% correct before, 69.5% correct after). Analysis of results indicates that PDH is the most reliable and easily used criterion for detection of DDD at the LSJ. A PDH < or =5.4 mm on plain lateral film indicates DDD; PDH > or =7.7 mm indicates the absence of DDD on plain film.

  7. Periodic modulation of repetitively elicited monosynaptic reflexes of the human lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Danner, Simon M; Freundl, Brigitta; Binder, Heinrich; Mayr, Winfried; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2015-07-01

    In individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury, epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord at 2 Hz evokes unmodulated reflexes in the lower limbs, while stimulation at 22-60 Hz can generate rhythmic burstlike activity. Here we elaborated on an output pattern emerging at transitional stimulation frequencies with consecutively elicited reflexes alternating between large and small. We analyzed responses concomitantly elicited in thigh and leg muscle groups bilaterally by epidural stimulation in eight motor-complete spinal cord-injured individuals. Periodic amplitude modulation of at least 20 successive responses occurred in 31.4% of all available data sets with stimulation frequency set at 5-26 Hz, with highest prevalence at 16 Hz. It could be evoked in a single muscle group only but was more strongly expressed and consistent when occurring in pairs of antagonists or in the same muscle group bilaterally. Latencies and waveforms of the modulated reflexes corresponded to those of the unmodulated, monosynaptic responses to 2-Hz stimulation. We suggest that the cyclical changes of reflex excitability resulted from the interaction of facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms emerging after specific delays and with distinct durations, including postactivation depression, recurrent inhibition and facilitation, as well as reafferent feedback activation. The emergence of large responses within the patterns at a rate of 5.5/s or 8/s may further suggest the entrainment of spinal mechanisms as involved in clonus. The study demonstrates that the human lumbosacral spinal cord can organize a simple form of rhythmicity through the repetitive activation of spinal reflex circuits. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Sedation with xylazine and lumbosacral epidural administration of lidocaine and xylazine for umbilical surgery in calves.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C A; Constable, P D; Huhn, J C; Morin, D E

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether anesthesia consisting of sedation induced by intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride and lumbosacral analgesia induced by epidural administration of lidocaine and xylazine is useful for umbilical surgery in neonatal calves. Prospective study. 6 neonatal male dairy calves. Calves were sedated with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb] of body weight, i.m.), and 5 minutes later a 2% solution of lidocaine (0.18 to 0.24 ml/kg [0.08 to 0.11 ml/lb]) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg [0.022 mg/lb]) were administered into the lumbosacral epidural space. Calves were positioned in dorsal recumbency, and the umbilical structures were resected. Local infusion of lidocaine, cranial to the umbilicus, was required in 5 of 6 calves to provide adequate analgesia. Xylazine sedation was reversed with tolazoline (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], i.v.). Calves maintained adequate cardiac output and oxygen delivery throughout the procedure but were hypotensive. Reversal of xylazine-induced sedation with tolazoline caused transient sinus bradycardia and sinus arrest, accompanied by severe systemic arterial hypotension. All calves regained a suckle reflex within 10 minutes and were able to stand within 90 minutes. Intramuscular administration of xylazine for sedation and epidural administration of lidocaine and xylazine for analgesia failed to provide satisfactory analgesia for umbilical resection without supplemental local infiltration of lidocaine. The anesthetic protocol is most useful when respiratory compromise or cost are concerns and the surgical procedure can be completed in < 1 hour. Caution should be exercised when tolazoline is administered intravenously to reverse xylazine-induced sedation in calves.

  9. Morphometric study of the lumbosacral spine and some of its related angles in Lebanese adult females.

    PubMed

    Atta-Alla, El Sayed S; Saab, Ibtissam M; El Shishtawy, Mohamed; Hassan, Khodor Haidar

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the morphometric characteristics of lumbar vertebrae, lumbar intervertebral discs and some important related angles in Lebanese adult females. The subjects of this study were thirty Lebanese adult females aged between 18-22 years. The subjects were selected among students of the faculty of health sciences, Beirut Arab University. Two plain radiographic views for the lumbosacral spine were taken for each subject, an anteroposterior view and a lateral view. Measurements were made directly on the X-ray films using Vernier calliper and were recorded to the nearest tenth of a millimetre. The following measurements were taken for each lumbar vertebra: the anterior height of the body, the posterior height of the body, the horizontal diameter of the pedicle, the vertical diameter of the pedicle, the interpedicular distance, the width (transverse diameter) of the body. Also the anterior height, the posterior height and the anteroposterior diameter (disc depth) of the intervertebral disc were measured. In addition, the following angles were measured: the angle of lumbar lordosis, the lumbosacral angle and the angle of sacral inclination. The mean and standard deviation were calculated and recorded. The results offer a base line reference for normal Lebanese adult females and a guidance to clinicians for the evaluation and management of subjects complaining of low back pain, in order to propose specific preventive or rehabilitation protocols to prevent low back pain as a function of spinal alignment. Moreover, these normal figures could also be of forensic importance because of the observed racial, ethnic and regional variations.

  10. [Three-dimensional construction of the relation between the anterior branches of lumbar nerves 4, 5, lumbosacral trunk and sacroiliac joint].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-liao; Gu, Li-qiang; Wang, Long-jiang; Xie, Ying-tao

    2006-03-01

    To construct a three-dimensional model to demonstrate the relation between the anterior branches of lumbosacral 4,5, lumbosacral trunk, and the pelvis. An formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver was dissected to expose the anterior branches of the lumbar nerves 4 and 5, lumbosacral trunk and the sacroiliac. The mixture of titanium powder and adhesive was smeared on the surface of the major branches of L4 and L5 nerves, lumbosacral trunk, femoral nerves and obturator nerves. As soon as the mixture solidified, the specimen was scanned by spiral CT at 3 mm intervals to obtain 159 two-dimensional sectional images for three-dimensional model reconstruction on a personal computer using the software 3-D DOCTOR. The reconstructed model can well demonstrate the spatial relation between the nerves and the pelvis, and allows rotation in every direction, which at the same time can be conveniently applied for purpose of clinical teaching.

  11. Effects of body position and clinical signs on L7-S1 intervertebral foraminal area and lumbosacral angle in dogs with lumbosacral disease as measured via computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeryl C; Davies, Sarah E; Werre, Stephen R; Shackelford, Kristen L

    2008-11-01

    To measure effects of dog position on L7-S1 intervertebral foraminal area and lumbosacral (LS) angle by means of computed tomography (CT) and determine whether changes in values between positions are associated with clinical signs in dogs with LS disease. 86 dogs examined via a positional CT protocol that included flexion and extension scans of L7-S1. Archived CT images and medical records were reviewed. Included dogs had good-quality flexion and extension CT scans of L7-S1 and no evidence of fractures, neoplasia, or previous LS surgery. One person who was unaware of CT findings recorded clinical status with regard to 3 signs of LS disease (right or left hind limb lameness and LS pain) at the time of CT evaluation. One person who was unaware of clinical findings measured L7-S1 foraminal areas and LS angles, with the aid of an image-analysis workstation and reformatted parasagittal planar CT images. Intraobserver variation for measurements of L7-S1 foraminal area ranged from 6.4% to 6.6%. Mean foraminal area and LS angle were significantly smaller when vertebral columns were extended versus flexed. Percentage positional change in L7-S1 foraminal area or LS angle was not significantly different among dogs with versus without each clinical sign. There was a significant correlation between percentage positional change in L7-S1 foraminal area and LS angle in dogs with versus without ipsilateral hind limb lameness and LS pain. Positional CT is a feasible technique for quantifying dynamic changes in L7-S1 intervertebral foraminal morphology in dogs with LS disease.

  12. Preoperative pain neuroscience education for lumbar radiculopathy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Diener, Ina; Landers, Merrill R; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2014-08-15

    Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial on preoperative pain neuroscience education (NE) for lumbar radiculopathy. To determine if the addition of NE to usual preoperative education would result in superior outcomes with regard to pain, function, surgical experience, and health care utilization postsurgery. One in 4 patients after lumbar surgery (LS) for radiculopathy experience persistent pain and disability, which is nonresponsive to perioperative treatments. NE focusing on the neurophysiology of pain has been shown to decrease pain and disability in populations with chronic low back pain. Eligible patients scheduled for LS for radiculopathy were randomized to receive either preoperative usual care (UC) or a combination of UC plus 1 session of NE delivered by a physical therapist (verbal one-on-one format) and a NE booklet. Sixty-seven patients completed the following outcomes prior to LS (baseline), and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after LS: low back pain (numeric rating scale), leg pain (numeric rating scale), function (Oswestry Disability Index), various beliefs and experiences related to LS (10-item survey with Likert scale responses), and postoperative utilization of health care (utilization of health care questionnaire). At 1-year follow-up, there were no statistical differences between the experimental and control groups with regard to primary outcome measure of low back pain (P = 0.183), leg pain (P = 0.075), and function (P = 0.365). In a majority of the categories regarding surgical experience, the NE group scored significantly better: better prepared for LS (P = 0.001); preoperative session preparing them for LS (P < 0.001) and LS meeting their expectations (P = 0.021). Health care utilization post-LS also favored the NE group (P = 0.007) resulting in 45% less health care expenditure compared with the control group in the 1-year follow-up period. NE resulted in significant behavior change. Despite a similar pain and functional trajectory during the 1-year

  13. [Tactics of surgical treatment of degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine in case of HIP-SPINE-syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kavalerskiĭ, G M; Korkunov, A L; Lychagin, A V; Sereda, A P; Cherepanov, V G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is definition of surgical treatment tactics of multilevel degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine in case of HIP-SPINE-syndrome. It was presented the experience of surgical treatment of multilevel degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine in 52 patients aged from 48 to 81 years. Lumbar stenosis prevailed in 38 (73.1%) cases. There was degenerative spondylolisthesis in 9 (17.3%) cases, and degenerative scoliosis was detected in 5 (9.6%) patients. Different types of decompressive-stabilizing interventions according to direction of compression and the presence of degenerative instability were performed in all patients. Evaluation of surgical treatment was done by using of visual analog scale and questionnaire Oswestry Disability Index. It was revealed significant improvement of life quality by reducing of pain and increasing of daily activity. Maximal time of observation was 36 months.

  14. Primary Lumbo-sacral Spinal Epidural Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mally, Rahul; Khan, Shadma; Velho, Vernon

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of 24-year-old male presented with low back pain radiating to the left lower limb, tingling numbness and weakness of 6 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging scan with contrast reveals an extradural mass at lumbosacral region. Patient was operated with laminectomy and complete excision of the lesion was done. Patient's radicular pain relieved following the surgery and weakness also improved. Histopathology was suggestive of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patient received chemotherapy which was followed by radiotherapy. Primary Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lumbosacral spinal epidural tissue is an uncommon lesion. Lymphoma involves the central nervous system in 5-11% of cases either at presentation of the disease or during its course. The spinal epidural tissue is involved primarily in 0.1-3.3% of cases with spinal cord compression being the commonest presentation. Excision of the lesion followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy is required to achieve cure. PMID:21892393

  15. Regional variations in the extent and timing of motoneuron cell death in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Wohlenberg, G; O'Donovan, M J

    1987-08-01

    We have examined the distribution of motoneurons in different segments of the chick lumbosacral spinal cord before and after the period of motoneuron cell death. The extent of cell death was found to be greatest at the boundaries of the lumbosacral cord where over 60% of the motoneurons died and least in the central region where only 30% died. After cell death at stage 40 the number of motoneurons in each segment was linearly correlated with segment length, suggesting that growth of the segment and motoneuron numbers may be regulated by a common factor. The time of completion of motoneuron cell death exhibited a rostrocaudal gradient along the lumbar cord. Cell death was complete in the anterior segments by stage 35 but not until stage 38 in the caudal 4 segments. The regional variations in the extent and timing of motoneuron cell death suggest that the relative importance of the factors mediating cell death vary in different regions of the lumbar cord.

  16. Surgical Removal of Metallic Foreign Body (Shrapnel) from the Lumbosacral Spine and the Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Carija, R; Busic, Z; Bradaric, N; Bulovic, B; Borzic, Z; Pavicic-Perkovic, S

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a retired soldier who was severely injured by an explosion in 1993 during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Among other wounds, he suffered an explosive wound in the lumbosacral spine with steel foreign body (shrapnel). A year after primary wound treatment, a purulent fistula appeared which was treated and stopped with antimicrobial therapy. Subsequently, the fistula was activated several times after the antibiotic therapy was discontinued, but in the last eight years, the fistula had been continuously present so the patient decided on surgery. During surgery, the shrapnel was removed from the lumbosacral spine and there was debridement of necrotic bone. During two weeks of peri-operative and postoperative period, chronic osteomyelitis was treated by intravenous ciprofloxacin and gen-tamycin, and after that by a combination of rifampicin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole orally, for six months. The patient did not show any signs of infection after two years of follow-up. PMID:25429485

  17. Cervical radiculopathy: a systematic review on treatment by spinal manipulation and measurement with the Neck Disability Index

    PubMed Central

    Rodine, Robert J.; Vernon, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy (CR), while less common than conditions with neck pain alone, can be a significant cause of neck pain and disability; thus the determination of adequate treatment options for patients is essential. Currently, inadequate scientific literature restricts specific conservative management recommendations for CR. Despite a paucity of evidence for high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation in the treatment for CR, this strategy has been frequently labeled as contraindicated. Scientific support for appropriate outcome measures for CR is equally deficient. While more scientific data is needed to draw firm conclusions, the present review suggests that spinal manipulation may be cautiously considered as a therapeutic option for patients suffering from CR. With respect to outcome measures, the Neck Disability Index appears well-suited for spinal manipulative treatment of CR. PMID:22457538

  18. [Physical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with dorsopathies following decompression surgery in the lumbosacral spinal area].

    PubMed

    Sichinava, N V; Stiazhkina, E M; Gurkina, M V; Iashina, I V; Nuvakhova, M B

    2013-01-01

    The present study included 80 patients at the age varying from 24 to 59 years examined at different time (from 3 months to 3 years) after the surgical treatment of herniated intervertebral disks, mostly with clinical signs of L(v)-, S1-root radiculopathy. Coordination gymnastics included a complex of specific isotonico-isometric, isometric, and isotonic exercises designed to affect the deep stabilization system. The exercises were performed in five starting positions in a continuous mode with a small or medium amplitude of the movements synchronized with breathing. It was shown that coordination gymnastics in combination with magnetic therapy and iodine-bromine baths results in the statistically significant relief of pain syndrome (p<0.001) and formation of the muscular corset. Moreover, it increases stability of the vertebral column, improves its adaptation to physical activity, eliminates regional postural imbalance, and promotes formation of the proper movement patterns. Taken together, these effects constitute secondary prophylaxis of vertebrogenic pain syndrome and progressive degenerative changes.

  19. USE OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TO STUDY THE CRANIAL MIGRATION OF A LUMBOSACRAL INJECTATE IN CADAVER DOGS.

    PubMed

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Tucker, Russell L; Greene, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Volumes used in lumbosacral epidural injections for anesthesia have remained unchanged since the 1960s. The goals of this cross-sectional observational study were to characterize the three-dimensional spread of a lumbosacral epidural injection, as well as confirm that the commonly used volume of 0.2 ml/kg injected into the lumbosacral epidural space reaches the thoracolumbar (TL) junction in the majority (≥80%) of dogs. Ten clinically normal, adult, nonpregnant, mixed-breed dogs were obtained within five minutes of euthanasia and 0.2 ml/kg of radiopaque contrast medium was injected into the lumbosacral epidural space. A computed tomography scan of the TL spine was performed immediately following the injection. Migration of contrast reached the TL junction in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Contrast was well visualized in all epidural planes with contrast travelling predominantly in the dorsal epidural space in 7 of 10 (70%) dogs. There was no significant difference in the weight of dogs where the epidural injectate reached the TL junction and those where it did not (P = 0.16), or in the weight of dogs where the cranial-most point of the contrast column was in the dorsal versus the ventral epidural space (P = 0.32). This preliminary study supports the use of computed tomography to characterize injectate distribution in the canine thoracolumbar epidural space and provides evidence that a 0.2-ml/kg volume is likely to reache the TL junction in most dogs. Further studies are needed in live dogs to determine if variables affecting human epidural injectate doses have similar effects in the dog.

  20. [Changes in various neurophysiological indices in treatment of lumbosacral osteochondrosis by combined osteoperiostal electroacupuncture and laser puncture].

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Y M; Korkushko, A O

    2000-09-01

    The conducted dynamic rheovasographic investigations in 67 patients with neurological manifestations of lumbosacral osteochondrosis as well as determination of skin temperature in 162 patients, and employment of stimulation electromyography in 40 patients showed the presence of definite positive shifts (P < 0.001) both in patients with lumboischialgia and in those with the radicular pain syndrome, which fact was evidenced by the clinical data suggesting to us the feasibility of use of osteoperiostal electropuncture combined with laseropuncture with infrared radiation.

  1. Lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia as a complement to dissociative anaesthesia during scrotal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Carl; Sterning, Marie; Bohman, Love; Edner, Anna

    2015-06-24

    In Sweden, scrotal or inguinal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field has traditionally been an important part of the surgical skills training of veterinary students. Few substances meet the legal requirements for field anaesthesia of production animals in the European Union but a protocol based on azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine does. Unfortunately the anaesthesia is characterised by unpredictable duration and depth and of abrupt awakenings which is not acceptable from an animal welfare perspective and impedes surgical training. Lumbo-sacral epidural analgesia is proven to provide sufficient analgesia to allow abdominal surgery, but there are few reports on the field use of this loco-regional technique. The study aim was to evaluate whether lumbo-sacral anaesthesia can be safely and successfully used in the field by a veterinary student and whether the combination of dissociative and lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia improves analgesia and anaesthesia to guarantee animal welfare during herniorrhaphy in livestock pigs, enabling surgical skills training. Pigs in the control-group (placebo) responded significantly stronger to surgery, with five out of 11 requiring additional doses of detomidine and ketamine. There were no significant differences between groups in respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, SpO2 or blood gases. SpO2 levels <94 % were recorded in several pigs in both groups. No post-injection complications were reported at follow-up. The results from this study showed that lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia with lidocaine could successfully be administered during dissociative anaesthesia of livestock pigs by a veterinary student and without reported post-injection complications. It improved analgesia and anaesthesia during herniorrhaphy of sufficient duration to enable surgical skills training. The risks and consequences of hypoxaemia and hypoventilation should be considered.

  2. Developmental changes in the distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive neurons in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Antal, M; Berki, A C; Horváth, L; O'Donovan, M J

    1994-05-08

    The development of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive neurons was investigated in the embryonic and posthatch chick lumbosacral spinal cord by using pre- and postembedding immunostaining with an anti-GABA antiserum. The first GABA-immunoreactive cells were detected in the ventral one-half of the spinal cord dorsal to the lateral motor column at E4. GABAergic neurons in this location sharply increased in number and, with the exception of the lateral motor column, appeared throughout the entire extent of the ventral one-half of the spinal gray matter by E6. Thereafter, GABA-immunoreactive neurons extended from ventral to dorsal regions. Stained perikarya first appeared at E8 and then progressively accumulated in the dorsal horn, while immunoreactive neurons gradually declined in the ventral horn. The general pattern of GABA immunoreactivity characteristic of mature animals had been achieved by E12 and was only slightly altered afterwards. In the dorsal horn, most of the stained neurons were observed in laminae I-III, both at the upper (LS 1-3) and at the lower (LS 5-7) segments of the lumbosacral spinal cord. In the ventral horn, the upper and lower lumbosacral segments showed marked differences in the distribution of stained perikarya. GABAergic neurons were scattered in a relatively large region dorsomedial to the lateral motor column at the level of the upper lumbosacral segments, whereas they were confined to the dorsalmost region of lamina VII at the lower segments. The early expression of GABA immunoreactivity may indicate a trophic and synaptogenetic role for GABA in early phases of spinal cord development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, Daniëlle Awm; Simons, Emmanuel; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Ammendolia, Carlo; Verhagen, Arianne P; Laslett, Mark; Devillé, Walter; Deyo, Rick A; Bouter, Lex M; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2010-02-17

    Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients for further imaging and possible surgery. (1) To assess the performance of tests performed during physical examination (alone or in combination) to identify radiculopathy due to lower lumbar disc herniation in patients with low-back pain and sciatica;(2) To assess the influence of sources of heterogeneity on diagnostic performance. We searched electronic databases for primary studies: PubMed (includes MEDLINE), EMBASE, and CINAHL, and (systematic) reviews: PubMed and Medion (all from earliest until 30 April 2008), and checked references of retrieved articles. We considered studies if they compared the results of tests performed during physical examination on patients with back pain with those of diagnostic imaging (MRI, CT, myelography) or findings at surgery. Two review authors assessed the quality of each publication with the QUADAS tool, and extracted details on patient and study design characteristics, index tests and reference standard, and the diagnostic two-by-two table. We presented information on sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for all aspects of physical examination. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were computed for subsets of studies showing sufficient clinical and statistical homogeneity. We included 16 cohort studies (median N = 126, range 71 to 2504) and three case control studies (38 to100 cases). Only one study was carried out in a primary care population. When used in isolation, diagnostic performance of most physical tests (scoliosis, paresis or muscle weakness, muscle wasting, impaired

  4. Long Term Societal Costs of Anterior Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) versus Cervical Disc Arthroplasty (CDA) for Treatment of Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ghori, Ahmer; Konopka, Joseph F.; Cha, Thomas D.; Bono, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) have comparable clinical outcomes for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Given similar outcomes, an understanding of differences in long-term societal costs can help guide resource utilization. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative long-term societal costs of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the treatment of single level cervical disc disease by considering upfront surgical costs, lost productivity, and risk of subsequent revision surgery. Methods We completed an economic and decision analysis using a Markov model to evaluate the long-term societal costs of ACDF and CDA in a theoretical cohort of 45-65 year old patients with single level cervical disc disease who have failed nonoperative treatment. Results The long-term societal costs for a 45-year old patient undergoing ACDF are $31,178 while long-term costs for CDA are $24,119. Long-term costs for CDA remain less expensive throughout the modeled age range of 45 to 65 years old. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that CDA remains less expensive than ACDF as long as annual reoperation rate remains below 10.5% annually. Conclusions Based on current data, CDA has lower long-term societal costs than ACDF for patients 45-65 years old by a substantial margin. Given reported reoperation rates of 2.5% for CDA, it is the preferred treatment for cervical radiculopathy from an economic perspective. PMID:26913221

  5. Bladder volume-dependent excitatory and inhibitory influence of lumbosacral dorsal and ventral roots on bladder activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Kimio; de Groat, William C

    2007-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role of the afferent and efferent pathways of the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots in the tonic control of bladder activity. Changes of isovolumetric bladder activity were recorded in 21 sympathectomized female rats under urethane anesthesia following transection of the dorsal (DRT) and ventral (VRT) lumbosacral spinal roots, and after intraperitoneal administration of hexamethonium. DRT altered the baseline intravesical pressure in a bladder volume-dependent manner in each animal. The percent change of baseline pressure after VRT following DRT was also dependent upon bladder volume. The percent change of baseline pressure after VRT alone was similarly dependent on bladder volume, but not after VRT followed by DRT. The percent change of baseline intravesical pressure (y)(-9 to +8 cm H(2)O, -56 to +46%) after DRT and VRT depended upon bladder volume (x)(y = 44.7 x -40.4) in all rats. Hexamethonium increased the amplitude of small myogenic bladder contractions after DRT and VRT. In conclusion, the bladder is tonically excited or inhibited by a local reflex pathway and by a parasympathetic reflex pathway that depends on connections with the lumbosacral spinal cord and the pelvic nerves. Both reflex mechanisms are influenced by bladder volume.

  6. Lumbosacral compression in maximal lifting efforts in sagittal plane with varying mechanical disadvantage in isometric and isokinetic modes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1994-12-01

    Nine normal male subjects (mean age 28.2 years and mean weight 72.6 kg) performed 20 standardized maximal effort lifting tasks. They were asked to perform stoop and squat lifts at half, three-quarters and full individual horizontal reach distances in mid-sagittal plane in isometric and isokinetic modes (fixed velocity 60 cm/s). Both stoop and squat lifts were initiated at the floor level and terminated at the individual's knuckle height keeping the horizontal distance constant throughout the lift. The isometric stoop lifts were performed with hip at 60 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion with hands at preselected reach distances. The isometric squat lifts were performed with knees at 90 degrees and 135 degrees of flexion with hands at similarly preselected reach distances. The force was measured using a Static Dynamic Strength Tester with load cell (SM 1000). The postures were recorded using a two-dimensional Peak Performance System with an event synchronizing unit. The load cell was sampled at 60 Hz and the video filming was done at 60 frames per second. The force and postural data were fed to a biomechanical model (Cheng and Kumar 1991) to extract external moment and lumbosacral compression. The strengths generated in different conditions were significantly different (p < 0.01). The strength variation ranged by up to 73% whereas the lumbosacral compression varied by only up to 15%. A high level of lumbosacral compression was maintained in all conditions.

  7. The effect of sling exercise on sagittal lumbosacral angle and intervertebral disc area of chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Bum; Cho, Won-Je

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the change of lumbosacral angle and intervertebral disc (IVD) area. The study was conducted on chronic low back pain (CLBP) female patients for 12 weeks by operating sling exercise and general physical therapy. The 57 CLBP were divided into 2 groups which, sling exercise group (SEG, n=34) and general physical therapy group (PTG, n=23). The experiment was conducted three times a week for 12 weeks. The lumbosacral angle, which means the angle between the L1–L2 lumbar was measured by plain radiography. The IVD area, which means the IVD height and volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS). As a result, after 12-week exercise, VAS had decreased in all groups. The angle of L3–4 and L4–5 and the height of IVD had increased in SEG. Also, IVD height and volume has more improved in SEG compare the PTG. Therefore, the sling exercise is proper treatment for CLBP patients’ recovery because It improve the lumbosacral angle and IVD area. PMID:27807527

  8. The change of pain and lumbosacral sagittal alignment after sling exercise therapy for patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hee Sook; Cho, Won Je; Ryu, Won Jong; Park, Seung Jin; An, Chang Sik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to quantify the effect of sling exercise therapy in the recovery of lumbosacral sagittal alignment (LSA) and in the control of low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 102 chronic low back pain patients were divided into two groups, a physical therapy group and a sling exercise group. In both groups, programs were conducted thrice a week for twelve weeks. With respect to LSA, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic incidence (PI) were measured with plain radiography. Pain was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). [Results] Differences were found in visual analogue scale, delta score of visual analogue scale, pelvic tilt, delta score of pelvic tilt, and delta score of pelvic incidence between sling exercise therapy and physical therapy groups. VAS, pelvic tilt, and pelvic incidence was positively changed after sling exercise. However, only the visual analogue scale was found to be improved after physical therapy. [Conclusion] Sling exercise therapy and physical therapy were effective in reducing pain. However, pelvic tilt and pelvic incidence were positively changed after sling exercise therapy for Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment, but were unchanged after physical therapy. Therefore, sling exercise therapy is more effective than physical therapy for the recovery of Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:27821936

  9. Using magnetic resonance imaging to identify the lumbosacral segment in children.

    PubMed

    Milicić, Gordana; Krolo, Ivan; Vrdoljak, Javor; Marotti, Miljenko; Roić, Goran; Hat, Josip

    2006-03-01

    Identification of the lumbosacral (L-S) segment on magnetic resonance (MR) images is important for appropriate treatment of disease in the lumbosacral (L-S) area. In the study, data obtained from plain A-P radiographs of the L-S spine and sagittal MR imaging scans (sagittal T1- and T2-weighted sequences) of the L-S spine and sacrum with the coccygeal bone, are analyzed. Twenty-six children aged 10 to 14 years were examined for back pain. On the standard A-P radiographs of the L-S spine, a L-S transitional vertebra as classified according to the method of Castellvi et al. was found in 17 subjects. The problem arose as to whether this was lumbalisation or sacralisation, and how to determine which vertebra was L5 wich S1. On the sagittal MR imaging studies the same question applied. A need emerged for a simple method which would identify the L-S segment on the sagittal MR imaging studies of the L-S spine in children so that in case of a tumor, inflammation, spondilolystesis, or protrusion of a disc, the level in the L-S spine where the problem is localized can be accurately identified. To this objective we selected the method using detection of the S1 vertebra. This involved that, in addition to the sagittal MR imaging scans of the L-S spine, sagittal images of the sacrum and coccygeal bone be also obtained. on the T2-weighted sequence, the sacrum can be clearly distinquished from the coccygeal bone. By counting from the S5 up, the S1 vertebra can be accurately identified. Determination of the S1 vertebra enables detection of the L5 vertebra and, in turn, of all other lumbar vertebrae. In patients in whom a T2-weighted MR studies were done S1 could be precisely determined and so could the L5 vertebra. In this process, whether the patient had a transitional vertebra or whether there was lumbarisation or sacralisation was irrelevant.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Makirov, Serik K.; Jahaf, Mohammed T.; Nikulina, Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the study This study intends to develop a method of quantitative sagittal balance parameters assessment, based on a geometrical model of lumbar spine and sacrum. Methods One hundred eight patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group have been included 59 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis on L1-5 level. Forty-nine healthy volunteers without history of any lumbar spine pathlogy were included in the control group. All patients have been examined with supine MRI. Lumbar lordosis has been adopted as circular arc and described either anatomical (lumbar lordosis angle), or geometrical (chord length, circle segment height, the central angle, circle radius) parameters. Moreover, 2 sacral parameters have been assessed for all patients: sacral slope and sacral deviation angle. Both parameters characterize sacrum disposition in horizontal and vertical axis respectively. Results Significant correlation was observed between anatomical and geometrical lumbo-sacral parameters. Significant differences between stenosis group and control group were observed in the value of the “central angle” and “sacral deviation” parameters. We propose additional parameters: lumbar coefficient, as ratio of the lordosis angle to the segmental angle (Kl); sacral coefficient, as ratio of the sacral tilt (ST) to the sacral deviation (SD) angle (Ks); and assessment modulus of the mathematical difference between sacral and lumbar coefficients has been used for determining lumbosacral balance (LSB). Statistically significant differences between main and control group have been obtained for all described coefficients (p = 0.006, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, accordingly). Median of LSB value of was 0.18 and 0.34 for stenosis and control groups, accordingly. Conclusion Based on these results we believe that that spinal stenosis is associated with an acquired deformity that is measureable by the described parameters. It's possible that spinal stenosis occurs in patients with an

  11. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) II: hindlimb and lumbosacral muscles.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    In quadrupeds the musculature of the hindlimbs is expected to be responsible for generating most of the propulsive locomotory forces, as well as contributing to body support by generating vertical forces. In supporting the body, postural changes from crouched to upright limbs are often associated with an increase of body mass in terrestrial tetrapods. However, felids do not change their crouched limb posture despite undergoing a 300-fold size increase between the smallest and largest extant species. Here, we test how changes in the muscle architecture (masses and lengths of components of the muscle-tendon units) of the hindlimbs and lumbosacral region are related to body mass, to assess whether there are muscular compensations for the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at larger body sizes. We use regression and principal component analyses to detect allometries in muscle architecture, with and without phylogenetic correction. Of the muscle lengths that scale allometrically, all scale with negative allometry (i.e. relative shortening with increasing body mass), whereas all tendon lengths scale isometrically. Only two muscles' belly masses and two tendons' masses scale with positive allometry (i.e. relatively more massive with increasing body mass). Of the muscles that scale allometrically for physiological cross-sectional area, all scale positively (i.e. relatively greater area with increasing body mass). These muscles are mostly linked to control of hip and thigh movements. When the architecture data are phylogenetically corrected, there are few significant results, and only the strongest signals remain. None of the vertebral muscles scaled significantly differently from isometry. Principal component analysis and manovas showed that neither body size nor locomotor mode separate the felid species in morphospace. Our results support the inference that, despite some positively allometric trends in muscle areas related to thigh movement, larger cats have

  12. Can lumbosacral orthoses cause trunk muscle weakness? A systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Azadinia, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Cholewicki, Jacek; Maroufi, Nader

    2017-04-01

    Wearing lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) is one of the most common treatments prescribed for conservative management of low back pain. Although the results of randomized controlled trials suggest effectiveness of LSO in reducing pain and disability in these patients, there is a concern that prolonged use of LSO may lead to trunk muscle weakness and atrophy. The present review aimed to evaluate available evidence in literature to determine whether LSO results in trunk muscle weakness or atrophy. This is a systematic review. A systematic search of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Medline (via Ovid) followed by hand search of journals was performed. Prospective studies published in peer-reviewed journals, with full text available in English, investigating the effect of lumbar orthosis on trunk muscle activity, muscle thickness, strength or endurance, spinal force, and intra-abdominal pressure in healthy subjects or in patients with low back pain, were included. Methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by using the modified version of Downs and Black checklist. This research had no funding source, and the authors declare no conflicts of interest-associated biases. Thirty-five studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The mean and standard deviation of the quality score was 64±9.7%. Most studies investigating the effect of lumbar orthosis on electromyographic activity (EMG) of trunk muscles demonstrated a decrease or no change in the EMG parameters. A few studies reported increased muscle activity. Lumbosacral orthosis was found to have no effect on muscle strength in some studies, whereas other studies demonstrated increased muscle strength. Only one study, which included ultrasound assessment of trunk muscle stabilizers, suggested reduced thickness of the abdominal muscles and reduced cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscles. Out of eight studies that investigated spinal compression load, the load was reduced in four

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Makirov, Serik K; Yuz, Andrew A; Jahaf, Mohammed T; Nikulina, Anastasia A

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to develop a method of quantitative sagittal balance parameters assessment, based on a geometrical model of lumbar spine and sacrum. One hundred eight patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group have been included 59 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis on L1-5 level. Forty-nine healthy volunteers without history of any lumbar spine pathlogy were included in the control group. All patients have been examined with supine MRI. Lumbar lordosis has been adopted as circular arc and described either anatomical (lumbar lordosis angle), or geometrical (chord length, circle segment height, the central angle, circle radius) parameters. Moreover, 2 sacral parameters have been assessed for all patients: sacral slope and sacral deviation angle. Both parameters characterize sacrum disposition in horizontal and vertical axis respectively. Significant correlation was observed between anatomical and geometrical lumbo-sacral parameters. Significant differences between stenosis group and control group were observed in the value of the "central angle" and "sacral deviation" parameters. We propose additional parameters: lumbar coefficient, as ratio of the lordosis angle to the segmental angle (Kl); sacral coefficient, as ratio of the sacral tilt (ST) to the sacral deviation (SD) angle (Ks); and assessment modulus of the mathematical difference between sacral and lumbar coefficients has been used for determining lumbosacral balance (LSB). Statistically significant differences between main and control group have been obtained for all described coefficients (p = 0.006, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, accordingly). Median of LSB value of was 0.18 and 0.34 for stenosis and control groups, accordingly. Based on these results we believe that that spinal stenosis is associated with an acquired deformity that is measureable by the described parameters. It's possible that spinal stenosis occurs in patients with an LSB of 0.2 or less, so this value can be predictable

  14. Spinothalamic lumbosacral lamina I cells responsive to skin and muscle stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A D; Kniffki, K D

    1985-01-01

    The response characteristics of lamina I neurones recorded extracellularly in the lumbosacral enlargement of chloralose-anaesthetized cats were examined with peripheral nerve electrical stimulation, adequate mechanical and thermal stimulation of hind-limb skin, and algesic mechanical and chemical stimulation of musculotendinous structures, particularly the gastrocnemius-soleus (g.s.) muscle. Antidromic activation from an electrode array that spanned the contralateral thalamus was used to identify lamina I spinothalamic tract (lam.I-s.t.t.) neurones. Recordings were made from a total of 218 lumbosacral lam.I-s.t.t. neurones. Their mean central conduction latency was 90.1 ms (range 20-300 ms), corresponding to a mean conduction velocity of 3.7 m/s (range 1.1-16.7). Neurones responsive only to peripheral A delta fibre stimulation had significantly shorter central conduction latencies (mean = 62.8 ms) than those with both A delta and C fibre input (mean = 81.9 ms) and those with only C fibre input (mean = 134.6 ms). Of these 218 neurones, 103 (47%) projected only to medial thalamus, 41 (19%) only to lateral thalamus, and 56 (26%) to both; 18 (8%) were classified as mid-thalamic projecting cells. About 10% of all cells had ongoing activity when first isolated. Ninety-three lam.I-s.t.t. neurones responded to stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The response characteristics of forty-seven of these were examined with the complete set of stimuli used. Twenty-four non-s.t.t. lamina I neurones were also characterized for comparison. Twenty-eight of the lam.I-s.t.t. neurones tested with the complete set of stimuli responded specifically to either cutaneous noxious (n = 19), cutaneous innocuous cold (n = 6) or algesic musculo-tendinous (n = 3) stimulation. Thirteen neurones responded to cutaneous noxious stimulation, and, in addition, to cold stimulation (n = 6), to deep stimulation (n = 4), or to both (n = 3). Six cells did not respond to any of the natural stimuli employed. All

  15. Differences in Gait Characteristics of Patients with Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis (L4 Radiculopathy) and Those with Osteoarthritis of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Noriaki; Toribatake, Yasumitsu; Murakami, Hideki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Yoneyama, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tetsuyou; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is important to differentially diagnose thigh pain from lumbar spinal stenosis (particularly lumbar fourth nerve root radiculopathy) and osteoarthritis of the hip. In this study, using a treadmill and a motion analysis method, gait characteristics were compared between these conditions. Patients with lumbar fourth nerve root radiculopathy had increased physiological knee flexion immediately after foot-ground contact, possibly owing to a slight decrease in the muscle strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Patients with osteoarthritis of the hip had decreased range of motion of the hip joint probably due to anatomically limited mobility as well as gait strategy to avoid pain resulting from increased internal pressure on the hip joint during its extension. Our facile and noninvasive method can be useful for the differential diagnosis of lumbar spinal canal stenosis from osteoarthritis of the hip.

  16. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development.

    PubMed

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P

    2017-03-20

    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p <0.01), on the side of the elevated pelvis (p <0.01), or when an asymmetrical LTV resulted in pelvic rotation on its long axis (p <0.01), whereas hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p <0.01). The results support our hypothesis that an asymmetrical LTV favours pelvic rotation over its long axis, resulting in inadequate femoral head coverage by the acetabulum on one side. Inadequate coverage of the femoral head favours subluxation, malformation of the hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  17. Lumbosacral spinal cord somatosensory evoked potentials for quantification of nociception in horses.

    PubMed

    van Loon, J P A M; van Oostrom, H; Doornenbal, A; Hellebrekers, L J

    2010-04-01

    There is a need for objective evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of analgesic drugs and analgesic techniques in horses. To determine whether lumbosacral spinal cord somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) can be a useful and reliable tool to assess nociception in equines. SSEPs and electromyograms (EMG) from the epaxial muscles were recorded simultaneously, following electrical stimulation applied to the distal hindlimb in lightly anaesthetised Shetland ponies (n=7). In order to validate the model, the effect of increasing stimulus intensity was documented and the conduction velocities (CV) of the stimulated nerves were calculated. The effect of epidurally applied methadone (0.4 mg/kg bwt) in a randomised, crossover design was investigated. Two distinct complexes (N1P1 and N2P2) were identified in the SSEP waveform. Based on their latency and conduction velocity and the depressant effect of epidurally applied methadone, the SSEP N2P2 was ascribed to nociceptive Adelta-afferent stimulation. The SSEP N1P1 originated from non-nociceptive Abeta-afferent stimulation and was not influenced by epidurally applied methadone. The nociceptive Adelta component of the SSEP, the N2P2 complex, is presented as a valid and quantitative parameter of spinal nociceptive processing in the horse. Validation of the equine SSEP model enables the analgesic effects of new analgesics/analgesic techniques to be quantified and analgesia protocols for caudal epidural analgesia in equidae improved.

  18. Surgical "Fat Patch" improves secondary intracranial hypotension orthostatic headache associated with lumbosacral dural ectasia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Elena, Beretta; Andrea, Franzini; Roberto, Cordella; Vittoria, Nazzi; Grazia, Valentini Laura; Angelo, Franzini

    2017-08-30

    Secondary intracranial hypotension is a clinical syndrome associated with the reduction of the cerebrospinal fluid volume and dural continuity violation. The main symptoms are orthostatic headache associated with nausea, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness and tinnitus. The treatment is usually non-specific. The authors describe the case of a 37-years-old woman who developed secondary intracranial hypotension caused by lumbosacral iatrogenic dural ectasia following de-tethering surgery. An orthostatic headache was the mainstay of her clinical picture and it was confirmed by intracranial pressure monitoring. Conservative treatment including spinal blood patch improved symptoms for a limited amount of time (less than 1 month). Altered compliance of the dural spinal sac was suspected. Therefore thecal sac remodeling by placing autologous fat at the level of the dural ectasia was performed improving the symptoms for 2 years. Volumetric reduction of the epidural space may be considered as a valuable therapeutic option in case of intracranial hypotension that is unresponsive to medical treatments and spinal blood patch, and when an altered compliance of the dural sac is hypothesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs: classification, prevalence, and association with sacroiliac morphology.

    PubMed

    Damur-Djuric, Natascha; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joe P; Flückiger, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LTV) was determined by reviewing the pelvic radiographs of 4000 medium- and large-breed dogs of 144 breeds routinely screened for canine hip dysplasia. An LTV was seen in 138 (3.5%) dogs. The prevalence was higher in German Shepherd dogs and Greater Swiss Mountain dogs than in the other breeds, suggesting a genetic predisposition. There was no gender predisposition. The transverse processes of the LTV were divided into three types based on their morphological characteristics: lumbar type or type 1; intermediate type or type 2; and sacral type or type 3. In a symmetric LTV, both transverse processes are of the same type, while in an asymmetric LTV they are not. The frequency of occurrence of symmetric and asymmetric LTV was similar. In symmetric LTV, intermediate-type transverse processes predominated. Most of the asymmetric LTV had an intermediate-type transverse process combined with a lumbar or sacral type, respectively. Highly asymmetric LTV were often angled relative to the adjacent vertebrae. We hypothesize that an LTV is not the result of transformation of a lumbar into a sacral vertebra or vice versa, but rather is an autonomous intermediate type of vertebra. It occurs when the point of contact of the pelvis with the vertebral column is slightly cranial or caudal to its normal position. The resulting formative stimulus on the vertebral ossification centers, sagittally still separated, causes the various morphologies seen in LTV including the asymmetric variations.

  20. [Biomechanical changes in and lesions of the lumbosacral spine in horse riding. Magnetic resonance assessment].

    PubMed

    Simonetti, C; Lupoi, D; Di Giambattista, G; Sessa, V; Rosati, M; Orlacchio, A

    1996-05-01

    Spinal injuries account for 5-15% of sport-related traumas. Equestrian sports are considered, together with rugby, motor sport and diving, the riskiest sport for severe spinal injuries. We investigated the biomechanical changes and repeated microtraumas in equitation. We examined with MR the lumbar spines of 12 professional horsewomen and horsemen, 18-51 years old (mean: 33.4 years), belonging to F.I.S.E. (the Italian Federation for Equestrian Sports) and classified as Olympic riders, Senior and Young European riders. An 0.3-T resistive and an 0.2-T permanent magnets with dedicated surface coils were used. We also examined a control group of non-professional healthy volunteers homogeneous by age. MR findings were classified as follows: 1) changes in normal bending and angles of the lumbar spine; 2) injuries and changes in lumbar disks; 3) changes in spinal ligaments; 4) vertebral body injuries. MR was very sensitive in the assessment of all lumbosacral components in all the athletes; besides yielding useful findings to integrate with clinical results, MR also has a predictive value relative to both the continuation of sports activity and the possible damage at the end of it.

  1. A case report of extramedullary haematopoeisis in lumbosacral region presenting as cauda equina syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tharadara, G D; Chhatrala, Naitik; Jain, Shubham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extramedullary hematopoeisis (EMH) is defined as formation of blood cells outside the bone marrow. It occurs most commonly in the liver and spleen in patients having disorders that lead to chronic anaemia. EMH in spinal canal is a very rare site and cauda equina syndrome due to EMH has very few cases presented in literature. Case Presentation A 28 year old male patient presented with complain of incontinenance of bladder and bowel along with saddle anaesthesia from 10 days. Patient was a known case of beta-thalassemia intermedia. And MRI scan of the spine showed multiple well circumscribed, enhancing lesions in the epidural space extending from L5 to S3 and resulting in compression of the cauda equina. Patient underwent posterior neural decompression by a laminectomy from L5 to S3. At 3 months follow up patient had partial recovery of his bladder control and complete recovery of sensation. Conclusion EMH should be recognized early on the basis of clinical features and MRI findings. The various modalities available for treatment of such cases includes blood transfusion, low dose radiotherapy, hydroxyurea and surgical decompression. There are very few cases noted in the literature of such phenomenon in the lumbosacral spine. In cases of acute presentations like cauda equine surgical decompression is a treatment modality of choice. PMID:27652196

  2. Upper body movement during walking in children with lumbo-sacral myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Bartonek, A; Saraste, H; Eriksson, M; Knutson, L; Cresswell, A G

    2002-04-01

    Eight children with lumbo-sacral myelomeningocele (MMC) underwent three-dimensional movement analysis to determine whether or not differing levels of lower extremity strength affected the extent of shoulder, trunk and pelvis movement during independent walking when wearing orthoses. Fourteen control children were also investigated. The patterns of upper body movements in all MMC children were well defined and consistent, showing small standard deviations from the mean. In the frontal and transverse planes, segment displacements of the MMC children assigned into Group II (hip extensor and abductor muscle strength grade 0-2) were almost twice that of the MMC children in Group I (hip extensor and abductor muscle strength grade 3-4). All segment displacements in the frontal, transverse and sagittal planes for Group I and Group II children were significantly greater than those for the controls. In the frontal plane these differences were approximately 4-10 times greater, with the Group II children having the largest peak-to-peak displacements. These results indicate that the motion amplitudes of the upper body segments are related to the degree of muscle weakness of the lower limbs. No significant differences were found when comparing segment motions during walking with either the Ferrari type knee-ankle-foot or ankle-foot orthoses.

  3. Valgus knee stress in lumbosacral myelomeningocele: a gait-analysis evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lim, R; Dias, L; Vankoski, S; Moore, C; Marinello, M; Sarwark, J

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-five independent community-ambulating patients with lumbosacral-level myelomeningocele (N = 50 limbs) underwent gait analysis. The limbs of these patients were divided into two groups based on thigh-foot angle (TFA): Group I (n = 20) had marked external tibial torsion, TFA > or = 20 degrees, and group II had TFA between 10 and 20 degrees. Ten limbs were excluded because of neutral or internal alignment. Twenty normal limbs with TFA = 10 degrees served as controls. An abnormal internal varus knee stress during stance was identified in all group I limbs and 12 (70%) of 20 limbs group II limbs compared with controls, which demonstrated an internal valgus stress. This internal varus moment was greater in group I limbs than in the abnormal limbs in group II (p < 0.05). Knee flexion was the only other parameter found to correlate with this stress and only in group I limbs. We conclude that (a) in this patient group, increased external tibial torsion is likely to result in an abnormal internal varus knee stress; (b) TFA > 20 degrees appears significantly to increase this stress; and (c) knee flexion is an important related parameter, but only in limbs with TFA between 10 and 20 degrees. We believe that this abnormal stress may predispose the knee to late arthrosis and that derotational osteotomies to normalize the TFA may prove to have a favorable long-term effect.

  4. Recurrent lumbosacral metastases from intracranial meningioma. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Conrad, M D; Schonauer, C; Pelissou-Guyotat, I; Morel, C; Madarassy, G; Deruty, R

    2001-09-01

    We report a case of a 31 year-old woman who in 1991 presented a clinical history of headaches, nausea and vomiting. CT scan showed a right frontotemporal meningioma. The first operation achieved a macroscopically complete resection. The tumour was histologically classified as a transitional meningioma. There were recurrences of the intracranial meningioma in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1998. These recurrences were accompanied by differentiation to atypical and anaplastic meningioma. In all of these operations, a macroscopically complete resection of the tumour was performed. In 1996 adjuvant radiation therapy was given. In 1998 therapy with bromocriptine was adopted. In April 1999, the patient presented with lumbosacral pain associated with L5 bilateral sciatica. MRI showed a gadolinium enhancing mass lesion at L5-S1 level. Complete tumour resection was performed. The histological findings were the same as in 1998. In December 1999 the patient presented with perineal pain and MRI showed a L4 and S3 recurrence and the tumour was resected. The histological findings were those of a malignant meningioma. In February 2000 an intracranial recurrence was detected and operated on. The histological diagnosis was malignant meningioma. A review of the literature was undertake and is discussed.

  5. Impacts of triamcinolone acetonide on femoral head chondrocytic structures in lumbosacral plexus block.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dashou; Chen, Qian; Cai, Fengjun; Pan, Qi; Li, Xuesong; Wu, Qianming; Gan, Yong; Meng, Fei; Luo, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Objective: To investigate impacts of triamcinolone acetonide (TRI) on femoral head chondrocytic (FHC) structures when used for lumbosacral plexus block (LPB). Methods: A total of 32 6-month-old New Zealand white rabbits were selected (averagely weighing 2.75-3.25 kg) and added TRI into nerve block solution for LPB. The rabbit were randomly divided into four groups: group A1: 2.5 ml × 2 times, group A2 2.5 ml × 4 times, group B1 5 ml × 2 times, and group B2 5 ml × 4 times; the time interval among the injection was 5 days, and the structural changes of FHC were the observed using 50/100/200 light microscope; the modified Mankin pathological scoring was also performed for the evaluation. Results: There exhibited significant microscopic changes of FHC structures between the rabbits performed LPB and the normal rabbits, among which group B2 exhibited the most serious FHC damages, and the Mankin pathological score in group B2 was much higher than those in the other three groups, and the scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group. Conclusions: The addition of TRI in LPB can damage the FHC structures, and large-dose (5 ml/once) and long-course (four times) will result in more serious injuries.

  6. Physical function outcome in cervical radiculopathy patients after physiotherapy alone compared with anterior surgery followed by physiotherapy: a prospective randomized study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peolsson, Anneli; Söderlund, Anne; Engquist, Markus; Lind, Bengt; Löfgren, Håkan; Vavruch, Ludek; Holtz, Anders; Winström-Christersson, Annelie; Isaksson, Ingrid; Öberg, Birgitta

    2013-02-15

    Prospective randomized study. To investigate differences in physical functional outcome in patients with radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease, after structured physiotherapy alone (consisting of neck-specific exercises with a cognitive-behavioral approach) versus after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) followed by the same structured physiotherapy program. No earlier studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a structured physiotherapy program or postoperative physical rehabilitation after ACDF for patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified nerve compression due to cervical disc disease. Our prospective randomized study included 63 patients with radiculopathy and magnetic resonance imaging-verified nerve root compression, who were randomized to receive either ACDF in combination with physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone. For 49 of these patients, an independent examiner measured functional outcomes, including active range of neck motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand-related functioning before treatment and at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-ups. There were no significant differences between the 2 treatment alternatives in any of the measurements performed (P = 0.17-0.91). Both groups showed improvements over time in neck muscle endurance (P ≤ 0.01), manual dexterity (P ≤ 0.03), and right-handgrip strength (P = 0.01). Compared with a structured physiotherapy program alone, ACDF followed by physiotherapy did not result in additional improvements in neck active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, or hand-related function in patients with radiculopathy. We suggest that a structured physiotherapy program should precede a decision for ACDF intervention in patients with radiculopathy, to reduce the need for surgery. 2.

  7. Single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion versus minimally invasive posterior cervical foraminotomy for patients with cervical radiculopathy: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Haley E; Canar, W Jeffrey; Gerard, Carter S; O'Toole, John E

    2014-11-01

    Patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy in whom a course of nonoperative treatment has failed are often candidates for a single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF). The objective of this analysis was to identify any significant cost differences between these surgical methods by comparing direct costs to the hospital. Furthermore, patient-specific characteristics were also considered for their effect on component costs. After obtaining approval from the medical center institutional review board, the authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional comparative cohort study, with a sample of 101 patients diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy and who underwent an initial single-level ACDF or minimally invasive PCF during a 3-year period. Using these data, bivariate analyses were conducted to determine significant differences in direct total procedure and component costs between surgical techniques. Factorial ANOVAs were also conducted to determine any relationship between patient sex and smoking status to the component costs per surgery. The mean total direct cost for an ACDF was $8192, and the mean total direct cost for a PCF was $4320. There were significant differences in the cost components for direct costs and operating room supply costs. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in component costs with regard to patient sex or smoking status. In the management of single-level cervical radiculopathy, the present analysis has revealed that the average cost of an ACDF is 89% more than a PCF. This increased cost is largely due to the cost of surgical implants. These results do not appear to be dependent on patient sex or smoking status. When combined with results from previous studies highlighting the comparable patient outcomes for either procedure, the authors' findings suggest that from a health care economics standpoint, physicians should consider a minimally invasive PCF

  8. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Hyaluronidase in the Selective Nerve Root Block of Radiculopathy: A Double Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sang-Bong; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Shin, Dong-Young

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Purpose To determine the ability of hyaluronidase to provide longer lasting pain relief and functional improvement in patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Overview of Literature Selective nerve root block (SNRB) is a good treatment option in lumbar radiculopathy. We studied the effectiveness of hyaluronidase when added to the traditional SNRB regimen. Methods A sample size of 126 patients per group was necessary. A sample of 252 patients who underwent an injection procedure with or without hyaluronidase due to radiculopathy was included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the control (C) group and the hyaluronidase (H) group. After SNRB due to radiculopathy, the visual analog scale (VAS) was compared at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks between the two groups, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) was compared at 12 weeks between the two groups. Results Both groups seemed to have general improvement in VAS, but in C group, the VAS was higher than the H group 2 and 4 weeks after the surgery, and the difference in time-group change between 2 groups was statistically significant (p <0.05). ODI improved in both groups, and the difference in time-group change between 2 groups was not statistically significant (p >0.05). Conclusions The rebound pain (the re-occurrence of pain within 2-4 weeks after injection) that occurs within 2-4 weeks after the injection of the routine regimen can be reduced when hyaluronidase is added to the routine SNRB regimen. PMID:25705339

  9. In lumbosacral plexus injuries can we identify indicators that predict spontaneous recovery or the need for surgical treatment? Results from a clinical study on 72 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries seem to be rare events, spontaneously recovering in high percentage: as surgery is often challenging and results in poor outcome, many Authors have advocated conservative treatment only. Nevertheless surgery should not be ruled out: in invalidating injuries, it can restore basic function in the lower extremities. Therefore, it might be necessary to establish guidelines for the management and the indication to surgery in such cases. This study aims to identify indicators predicting spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery. Method The clinical and radiological data of 72 patients with a post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injury were reviewed. A follow up equal or superior to 3 years is available in 42 cases. Results Lumbosacral plexus injuries mostly occurred during road accidents. The incidence of associated lesions was relevant: bone injuries were found in 85% of patients, internal lesions in 30% and vascular injuries in 8%. Lumbosacral trunk and sacral plexus palsies were the most frequent injury patterns. Root avulsions were revealed in 23% of cases and only in sacral plexus and complete lumbosacral plexus injuries: L5 and S1 were the roots more prone to avulsions. About 70% of cases recovered spontaneously, mostly in 18 months. Spontaneous recovery was the rule in lumbar plexus and lumbosacral trunk injuries (where root avulsions never occurred) or in sacral and complete lumbosacral plexus palsies due to compression injuries. The causative mechanism correlated with the injury pattern, the associated bone injury being often predictive of the severity of the nerve injury. Lumbosacral plexus injuries occurred in car crashes were generally associated with fractures causing compression on the nerves, thus resulting in injuries often amenable of spontaneous recovery. Motorcycle accidents implied high kinetic energy traumas where traction played an important role, as the high percentage of sacroiliac joint

  10. Positive medium-term influence of multimodal pain management on socioeconomic factors and health care utilization in patients with lumbar radiculopathy: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Benditz, Achim; Loher, Martin; Boluki, Daniel; Grifka, Joachim; Völlner, Florian; Renkawitz, Tobias; Maderbacher, Günther; Götz, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Multimodal pain management (MPM) represents a central approach to avoiding surgery in patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Independent of the type of health system, cost effectiveness and socioeconomic factors are becoming increasingly important. This study investigated the medium-term influence of conservative MPM on health care utilization and socioeconomic factors. Methods This study compared subjective, objective, and socioeconomic factors of 60 patients after inpatient MPM because of lumbar radiculopathy, before and 1 year ± 2 weeks after treatment. Results Over the course of the 1-year follow-up, one-third of the patients had not required any conservative treatment in comparison to 100% of patients before MPM therapy. The number of patients requiring analgesics could be significantly reduced from 26 to 12, and the number of patients who did not require any analgesics had increased from 14 to 32. After 1 year, the number of patients who had to regularly contact a physician because of low back pain (once per month for 6 months) had been reduced from 58 to 27. Conclusion MPM is an effective approach to treating lumbar radiculopathy and reducing its negative influence on socioeconomic factors. Therapeutic benefits also include a decrease in health care utilization. Therefore, health care providers should place the mid-term success for patients and socioeconomic factors before the short-term costs of therapy. PMID:28243143

  11. Biomechanical flexion-extension forces in normal canine lumbosacral cadaver specimens before and after dorsal laminectomy-discectomy and pedicle screw-rod fixation.

    PubMed

    Meij, Björn P; Suwankong, Niyada; Van der Veen, Albert J; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

    2007-12-01

    To determine biomechanical flexion-extension forces in cadaveric canine lumbosacral specimens, before and after dorsal laminectomy with partial discectomy, and after dorsal pedicle screw-rod fixation of L7 and S1. Biomechanical cadaver study. Cadaveric spine specimens without lumbosacral pathology from mature, intact Labrador retrievers (n=12). Lumbosacral spine segments were subjected to a constant bending moment from L6 to S1 in a hydraulic 4-point bending materials testing machine. Force and displacement were recorded during each loading cycle constituting 1 complete flexion-extension cycle of the spine. Each spine segment had 3 series of recordings of 5 loading cycles each: (1) intact spine, (2) after surgical destabilization by dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy, and (3) after surgical stabilization using dorsal pedicle screw-rod fixation. After dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy, the neutral zone and range of motion were not different from those in the native spine specimen. After pedicle screw-rod fixation, the neutral zone and range of motion of the instrumented specimen significantly (P<.0001) decreased compared with the native specimen and the specimen after dorsal laminectomy. Dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy does not lead to significant spinal instability in flexion and extension whereas pedicle screw and rod fixation effectively stabilizes the lumbosacral spine. Dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy does not lead to significant spinal instability. Pedicle screw-rod fixation of L7 and S1 may be used to stabilize an unstable L7-S1 junction in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

  12. Arginine Vasopressin Alters Both Spontaneous and Phase-Locked Synaptic Inputs to Airway Vagal Preganglionic Neuron via Activation of V1a Receptor: Insights into Stress-Related Airway Vagal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xianxia; Chen, Xingxin; Guo, Yuhong; He, Ding; Chen, Yonghua; Xia, Chunmei; Wang, Jijiang

    2017-01-01

    The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (eNA) play a major role in the vagal control of tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and maintenance of airway resistance. The eNA receives vasopressinergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the key node for the genesis of psychological stress. Since airway vagal excitation is reportedly to be associated with the psychological stress-induced/exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics, arginine vasopressin (AVP) might be involved in stress-related airway vagal excitation. However, this possibility has not been validated. This study aimed to test whether and how AVP regulates AVPNs. In rhythmically active medullary slices of newborn rats, retrogradely labeled AVPNs were identified as inspiratory-activated and inspiratory-inhibited AVPNs (IA- and II-AVPNs) using patch-clamp techniques according to their inspiratory-related firing behavior and synaptic activities. The results show that under current clamp, AVP depolarized both IA- and II-AVPNs, and significantly increased their spontaneous firing rate. Under voltage clamp, AVP elicited a slow inward current, and significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in both types of AVPNs. In addition, AVP significantly enhanced the phase-locked excitatory inspiratory inward current in inspiratory-activated airway vagal preganglionic neurons (IA-AVPNs), but significantly suppressed the phase-locked inhibitory inspiratory outward current in II-AVPNs. In both types AVPNs, AVP significantly increased the frequency and amplitude of pharmacologically isolated spontaneous GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). All of the AVP-induced effects were prevented by SR49059, an antagonist of V1a receptors, but unaffected by SSR149415, an antagonist of V1b receptors. AVP did not cause significant changes in the miniature excitatory

  13. Return to Work Rates After Single-level Cervical Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease Compared With Fusion for Radiculopathy in a Workers' Compensation Setting.

    PubMed

    Faour, Mhamad; Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2016-07-15

    A retrospective comparative cohort study. To compare return to work (RTW) rates for patients who underwent single-level cervical fusion for radiculopathy compared with fusion for degenerative disc disease (DDD) as an indication for surgery. Studies have shown that workers' compensation subjects have less favorable surgical and functional outcomes compared with the general population. Cervical decompression and fusion have provided great results with relieving radicular symptoms. Fusion for DDD, however, remains controversial. We retrospectively collected data of 21 169 subjects with cervical comorbidities who filed their claims for work-related injuries with Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (BWC) between 1993 and 2011. The primary outcome was whether subjects met RTW criteria within 3-year follow-up after fusion. The secondary outcome measures and data on presurgical characteristics and secondary outcomes of each cohort were also collected. Successful RTW status was affected by a number of presurgical risk factors: DDD as an indication for surgery, age of more than 50 years, out of work for more than 6 months, psychological evaluation, opioid use, legal litigation, and permanent disability. The DDD group had lower rate of successful RTW status (50.9%) and was less likely to have a sustained RTW status (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.79, P = 0.0001) compared with the radiculopathy group (successful RTW rate 62.9%). RTW rate within 1 year after surgery was lower in the DDD group (39.9%) compared with the radiculopathy group (53.1%; P = 0.0001). DDD patients were absent 112 days more on average after surgery compared with radiculopathy patients (P = 0.0003). Cervical fusion for DDD is associated with lower rate of successful RTW status when compared with fusion for radiculopathy in a worker's compensation setting. The decision to include surgical intervention in the management plan of cervical DDD should be approached with

  14. What progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs during the past 30 years?

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nick D; Barker, Andrew; Harcourt-Brown, Tom

    2014-07-01

    An association between degenerative changes in the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column and clinical signs of pain and pelvic limb dysfunction has long been recognized in dogs and has become known as degenerative lumbosacral stenosis syndrome. Over the past two decades, methods of imaging this condition have advanced greatly, but definitive criteria for a reliable diagnosis using physical examination, imaging and electrodiagnostics remain elusive. Available treatment options have changed little over more than 30 years but, more importantly, there is a lack of comparative studies and little progress has been made in providing evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of affected dogs. This review provides an overview of the changes in diagnosis, understanding and treatment of lumbosacral disease in dogs over the past 30 years. Approaches to address the unanswered questions regarding treatment choice are also proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of lumbosacral HOX genes, crucial in kidney organogenesis, is systematically deregulated in clear cell kidney cancers.

    PubMed

    Cantile, Monica; Schiavo, Giulia; Franco, Renato; Cindolo, Luca; Procino, Alfredo; D'Armiento, Maria; Facchini, Gaetano; Terracciano, Luigi; Botti, Gerardo; Cillo, Clemente

    2011-06-01

    Homeobox-containing genes are involved in different stages of kidney organogenesis, from the early events in intermediate mesoderm to terminal differentiation of glomerular and tubular epithelia. The HOX genes show a unique genomic network organization and regulate normal development. The targeted disruption of paralogous group 11 HOX genes (HOX A11, HOX C11 and HOX D11) results in a complete loss of metanephric kidney induction. Despite a large amount of data are related to the early events in the kidney development, not much is known about HOX genes in advanced kidney organogenesis and carcinogenesis. Here, we compare the expression of the whole HOX gene network in late-stage human foetal kidney development with the same patterns detected in 25 pairs of normal clear cell renal carcinomas (RCCs) and 15 isolated RCC biopsy samples. In the majority of RCCs tested, HOX C11 is upregulated, whereas HOX D11, after an early involvement becomes active again at the 23rd week of the foetal kidney development, is always expressed in normal adult kidneys and is deregulated, together with HOX A11 and lumbosacral locus D HOX genes. Thus, through its function of regulating phenotype cell identity, the HOX network plays an important role in kidney carcinogenesis. Lumbosacral HOX genes are involved in the molecular alterations associated with clear cell kidney cancers and represent, through their deregulation, a molecular mark of tubular epithelial dedifferentiation occurring along tumour evolution, with the restoration of genetic programs associated with kidney organogenesis. The deregulation of lumbosacral HOX genes in RCCs supports (i) the consideration of the HOX gene transcriptome as the potential prognostic tool in kidney carcinogenesis and (ii) the possibility to foresee clinical trials with the purpose of targeting these genes to achieve a therapeutic effect in RCC patients.

  16. In vivo characterization of colorectal and cutaneous inputs to lumbosacral dorsal horn neurons in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Farrell, K E; Rank, M M; Keely, S; Brichta, A M; Graham, B A; Callister, R J

    2016-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common symptom of inflammatory bowel disease and often persists in the absence of gut inflammation. Although the mechanisms responsible for ongoing pain are unknown, clinical and preclinical evidence suggests lumbosacral spinal cord dorsal horn neurons contribute to these symptoms. At present, we know little about the intrinsic and synaptic properties of this population of neurons in either normal or inflammed conditions. Therefore, we developed an in vivo preparation to make patch-clamp recordings from superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons receiving colonic inputs in naïve male mice. Recordings were made in the lumbosacral spinal cord (L6-S1) under isoflurane anesthesia. Noxious colorectal distension (CRD) was used to determine whether SDH neurons received inputs from mechanical stimulation/distension of the colon. Responses to hind paw/tail cutaneous stimulation and intrinsic and synaptic properties were also assessed, as well as action potential discharge properties. Approximately 11% of lumbosacral SDH neurons in the cohort of neurons sampled responded to CRD and a majority of these responses were subthreshold. Most CRD-responsive neurons (80%) also responded to cutaneous stimuli, compared with <50% of CRD-non-responsive neurons. Furthermore, CRD-responsive neurons had more hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials, larger rheobase currents, and reduced levels of excitatory drive, compared to CRD-non-responsive neurons. Our results demonstrate that CRD-responsive neurons can be distinguished from CRD-non-responsive neurons by several differences in their membrane properties and excitatory synaptic inputs. We also demonstrate that SDH neurons with colonic inputs show predominately subthreshold responses to CRD and exhibit a high degree of viscerosomatic convergence.

  17. A case of symptomatic extra-foraminal lumbosacral stenosis ("far-out syndrome") diagnosed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Mitsuhiro; Eguchi, Yawara; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Takaso, Masashi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Furuya, Takeo; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2012-06-15

    Case report. Diagnosis of symptomatic extra-foraminal lumbosacral stenosis using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has sometimes proved inadequate for evaluating symptomatic spinal nerve lesions. DTI has been developed to visualize anisotropy of nerve-fiber tracts to evaluate nerve degeneration. We report a case of nerve compression causing a far-out lesion diagnosed using DTI. A 68-year-old patient presented with an 8-month history of severe right-sided sciatica. Computed tomography and MRI showed right L5-S1 foraminal stenosis and contact of the L5 transverse process and S1 ala without canal stenosis at the L4-L5 level. We evaluated the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the right L5 spinal nerve and compared it with bilateral L3-S1 spinal nerves to determine the L5 spinal nerve compression site. DTI revealed narrowing of the right L5 spinal nerve between the L5 transverse process and S1 ala. FA was significantly decreased in the right L5 spinal nerve between the L5 transverse process and S1 ala. There was no significant difference in the FA of spinal nerves between the right and left sides at L3, L4, or S1. The right L5 spinal nerve from the central spinal canal to the extra-foraminal lumbosacral lesion was exposed during surgery and found to be severely compressed by the L5 transverse process and S1 ala. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms disappeared immediately. We used DTI to diagnose a symptomatic lesion as an extra-foraminal lumbosacral lesion caused by compression of the L5 spinal nerve at the foramina. Because DTI can quantitatively measure damage to nerve fibers, it may be advantageous for the diagnosis of far-out syndrome.

  18. Periconal arterial anastomotic circle and posterior lumbosacral watershed zone of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gailloud, Philippe; Gregg, Lydia; Galan, Peter; Becker, Daniel; Pardo, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The existence of spinal cord watershed territories was suggested in the 1950s. Segmental infarcts within the junctional territories of adjacent radiculomedullary contributors and isolated spinal gray matter ischemia constitute two well-recognized types of watershed injury. This report describes the existence of another watershed territory related to the particular configuration of the spinal vasculature in the region of the conus medullaris. The anatomical bases underlying the concept of a posterior lumbosacral watershed zone are demonstrated with angiographic images obtained in a 16-year-old child. The clinical importance of this watershed zone is illustrated with MRI and angiographic data of three patients with a conus medullaris infarction. In all three cases of spinal ischemia an intersegmental artery providing a significant radiculomedullary contribution for the lower cord was compromised by a compressive mechanism responsible for decreased spinal cord perfusion (diaphragmatic crus syndrome in two cases, disk herniation in one). The ischemic injury, located at the junction of the anterior and posterior spinal artery territories along the dorsal aspect of the conus medullaris, was consistent with a watershed mechanism. This zone is at risk because of the caudocranial direction of flow within the most caudal segment of the posterior spinal arterial network which, from a functional standpoint, depends on the anterior spinal artery. The posterior thoracolumbar watershed zone of the spinal cord represents an area at increased risk of ischemic injury, particularly in the context of partial flow impairment related to arterial compression mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline for Invasive Treatment of Pain Syndromes of the Lumbosacral Spine.

    PubMed

    Itz, Coen J; Willems, Paul C; Zeilstra, Dick J; Huygen, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    When conservative therapies such as pain medication or exercise therapy fail, invasive treatment may be indicated for patients with lumbosacral spinal pain. The Dutch Society of Anesthesiologists, in collaboration with the Dutch Orthopedic Association and the Dutch Neurosurgical Society, has taken the initiative to develop the guideline "Spinal low back pain," which describes the evidence regarding diagnostics and invasive treatment of the most common spinal low back pain syndromes, that is, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, coccygodynia, pain originating from the intervertebral disk, and failed back surgery syndrome. The aim of the guideline is to determine which invasive treatment intervention is preferred for each included pain syndrome when conservative treatment has failed. Diagnostic studies were evaluated using the EBRO criteria, and studies on therapies were evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. For the evaluation of invasive treatment options, the guideline committee decided that the outcome measures of pain, function, and quality of life were most important. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnostics, and recommendations for invasive therapy for each of the spinal back pain syndromes are reported. The guideline committee concluded that the categorization of low back pain into merely specific or nonspecific gives insufficient insight into the low back pain problem and does not adequately reflect which therapy is effective for the underlying disorder of a pain syndrome. Based on the guideline "Spinal low back pain," facet joint pain, pain of the sacroiliac joint, and disk pain will be part of a planned nationwide cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Effects of William training on lumbosacral muscles function, lumbar curve and pain.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Rouholah; Javid, Marziyeh; Najafabadi, Ebrahim Moslehi

    2015-01-01

    There are many types of treatments and recommendations for restoring back deformities depending on doctors' knowledge and opinions. The purpose of the exercises is to reduce pain and to ensure stability of the lower trunk by toning the abdominal muscles, buttocks and hamstrings. Given the duration of flares and relapses rate, it is important to apply an efficient and lasting treatment. To evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of William's training on flexibility of lumbosacral muscles and lumbar angle in females with Hyperlordosis. Forty female students with lumbar lordosis more than normal degrees (Hyperlordotic) that were randomly divided into exercise and control groups were selected as the study sample. The lumbar lordosis was measured using a flexible ruler, flexibility of hamstring muscles was measured with the active knee extension test, the hip flexor muscles strength was measured using Thomas test, the lumbar muscles flexibility measures by Schober test, abdominal muscles strength measured by Sit-Up test and back pain was measured using McGill's Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) questionnaire. Data were compared before and post-test using independent and paired t-testes. Results showed that 8 weeks of William's exercise led to significant decreases in lumbar angle and back pain, increases in flexibility of hamstring muscles, hip flexor muscles flexibility, lumbar extensor muscles flexibility and abdominal muscles strength. The findings show that William's corrective training can be considered as a useful and valid method for restoring and refining back deformities like as accentuated back-arc and became wreaked muscles' performance in lumbar areas.

  1. Effects of Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Epidural Stimulation for Standing after Chronic Complete Paralysis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rejc, Enrico; Angeli, Claudia; Harkema, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Sensory and motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI) has been considered functionally complete resulting in permanent paralysis with no recovery of voluntary movement, standing or walking. Previous findings demonstrated that lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation can activate the spinal neural networks in one individual with motor complete, but sensory incomplete SCI, who achieved full body weight-bearing standing with independent knee extension, minimal self-assistance for balance and minimal external assistance for facilitating hip extension. In this study, we showed that two clinically sensory and motor complete participants were able to stand over-ground bearing full body-weight without any external assistance, using their hands to assist balance. The two clinically motor complete, but sensory incomplete participants also used minimal external assistance for hip extension. Standing with the least amount of assistance was achieved with individual-specific stimulation parameters, which promoted overall continuous EMG patterns in the lower limbs’ muscles. Stimulation parameters optimized for one individual resulted in poor standing and additional need of external assistance for hip and knee extension in the other participants. During sitting, little or negligible EMG activity of lower limb muscles was induced by epidural stimulation, showing that the weight-bearing related sensory information was needed to generate sufficient EMG patterns to effectively support full weight-bearing standing. In general, electrode configurations with cathodes selected in the caudal region of the array at relatively higher frequencies (25–60 Hz) resulted in the more effective EMG patterns for standing. These results show that human spinal circuitry can generate motor patterns effective for standing in the absence of functional supraspinal connections; however the appropriate selection of stimulation parameters is critical. PMID:26207623

  2. The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pereira, M A; Rickes, E M

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales) (LSP) and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females) were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose from L3. The other branch of L3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. The trunk formed by the union of L4-5 divided into medial (femoral nerve) and lateral branches (obturator nerve). It was found that the LSP was formed by all the ventral branches of L4 at L6 and S1 at S3. At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadic plexus, was formed by contributions from L5-6 and S1. This root gave rise to the nerve branches which were disseminated to the posterior limb (cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve). The ischiadic nerve divided into the caudal cutaneous surae, lateral cutaneous surae, common fibular and tibial nerve. The pudendal nerve arose from S1-2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that the origins and distribution of spinal nerves that constitute the LSP of chinchillas were similar to those of a few rodents and other mammals.

  3. Altered intrinsic and synaptic properties of lumbosacral dorsal horn neurons in a mouse model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Kristen E; Keely, Simon; Walker, Marjorie M; Brichta, Alan M; Graham, Brett A; Callister, Robert J

    2017-08-23

    Visceral pain in inflammatory and functional gastrointestinal conditions is a major clinical problem. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of pain, during and after visceral inflammation, are unknown clinical and pre-clinical evidence that suggests plasticity within the spinal cord dorsal horn is a contributing factor. Here we use an in vivo preparation and patch-clamp electrophysiology to test whether the synaptic and intrinsic properties of superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons are altered 5days after the induction of mild colitis in adult male mice (i.e. during acute inflammation of the colon). Whole-cell recordings were made from lumbosacral (L6-S1) superficial dorsal horn neurons (SDH), in animals under isoflurane anesthesia. Noxious colorectal distension (CRD) was used to identify SDH neurons with colonic inputs, while stimulation of the hind paw and tail was employed to assess convergent cutaneous input. Following inflammation, a significantly increased proportion of SDH neurons received both colonic and cutaneous inputs, compared to neurons in naïve animals. In addition, the nature and magnitude of responses to CRD and cutaneous stimulation differed in inflamed animals, as was spontaneous excitatory synaptic drive. Conversely, several measures of intrinsic excitability were altered in a manner that would decrease SDH network excitability following colitis. We propose that during inflammation, sensitization of colonic afferents results in increased signaling to the SDH. This is accompanied by plasticity in SDH neurons whereby their intrinsic properties are changed to compensate for altered afferent activity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection in Lumbosacral Sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhery, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Caudal epidural steroid injection have been a part of nonsurgical management of lumbosacral sciatica since last half a century but various randomized controlled trials fail to provide convincing evidence in favour of its effectiveness. Aim To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection in patients of lumbosacral sciatica in comparison to placebo. Materials and Methods The study consisted of patients of sciatica caused by lumbosacral disc prolapse (observed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan). Caudal epidural injections of 80 mg methyl prednisolone were injected in 47 patients in one group. The other group consisted of 46 patients who were injected isotonic saline as placebo. Self-evaluation was the main judgment criterion at 4th week using a descriptive four item scale (recovery, marked improvement, slight improvement, or worse). Patients rating the improvement as “recovery” or “marked improvement” were considered as success. Patients rating the improvement as “slight improvement” or “worse” were considered as failure. Only paracetamol were authorized and patients requiring Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) before 4th week were also considered as failure. Results On analysis per protocol, at 4 weeks, the two groups differed significantly with respect to the primary outcome: among the 93 patients, 8/46 (17%) in the placebo group and 32/47 (68%) in the steroid group (p=0.000) were considered as success (difference 50.7%; 95% CI for the difference 33.4 to 67.99). But at the end of the study (week 12) there was no significant difference in primary outcome between the groups: 22/46 (48%) patients in the placebo group and 28/47 (60%) in the steroid group (p=0.25) were considered as success (difference 11.8%; 95% CI for the difference -8.38 to 31.9). Conclusion Caudal epidural steroid injections provide no additional improvement over placebo in the long term natural history of lumbosacral sciatica. However, it

  5. Repair and regeneration of lumbosacral nerve defects in rats with chitosan conduits containing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Liu, Tao; Cai, Jiao; Ma, Jun; Chen, Ai-min

    2015-11-01

    Despite the great progress in surgical treatment of lumbosacral nerve injuries caused by high-energy trauma, functional recovery remains poor and insufficient. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which express neurotrophic factors and can also differentiate into nerve cells, have potential as an effective alternative therapy for lumbosacral nerve defects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional recovery, nerve regeneration, motor neuron survival and apoptosis after lumbosacral nerve transection in rats receiving BMSC transplantation into the chitosan conduit. The right L4-L6 nerve roots of rats were transected and bridged with three 1-cm-long chitosan conduits, which were further injected with the BMSCs (MSC-treated group) or culture medium (DMEM group). The nerve regeneration and motor function recovery were assessed by the sciatic functional index (SFI) and analysed electrophysiologically and morphologically. At 6 and 12 weeks after surgery, the SFI values in MSC-treated group were significantly higher than those in DMEM group (P≤0.05). The peak amplitude of CMAP (compound muscle action potential) and nerve conduction velocity in MSC-treated group were significantly higher than that in DMEM group (P≤0.01), while the latency of CMAP onset in MSC-treated group was significantly shorter than that in DMEM group (P≤0.01). The diameter of the myelinated fibres and thickness of the myelin sheath in MSC-treated group were significantly higher than those in DMEM group (P≤0.05). There was no difference in the number of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord at 6 weeks post-operation (P>0.05), while the number of motor neurons was significantly greater in MSC-treated group than that in DMEM group at 12 weeks post-operation (P≤0.001). The number of apoptotic cells was also significantly lower (P≤0.01). The results of the present study showed that BMSCs treatment improved lumbosacral nerve regeneration and motor function

  6. [Computed tomographic variants of vertebrogenic lumbosacral radicular lesions in patients with radicular and non-radicular lumbar ischialgias].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlov, M K; Altunbaev, R A

    2002-01-01

    The paper considers the CT features of vertebrogenic lumbosacral radicular lesions in patients with radicular and nonradicular lumbar ischialgias. Ninety patients were divided into three groups according to the degree of clinical manifestations of radicular disorders. Four CT patterns of radicular alterations were identified: dislocation, compression, aggregation, and conglomeration. There were differences in the frequency of different CT patterns in patients from different clinical groups. Combining the CT patterns of radicular lesions into occupational and contact types determined a correlation of the severity of radicular disorders and the occupational type of changes in the root.

  7. Specializations in the lumbosacral vertebral canal and spinal cord of birds: evidence of a function as a sense organ which is involved in the control of walking.

    PubMed

    Necker, Reinhold

    2006-05-01

    Birds are bipedal animals with a center of gravity rostral to the insertion of the hindlimbs. This imposes special demands on keeping balance when moving on the ground. Recently, specializations in the lumbosacral region have been suggested to function as a sense organ of equilibrium which is involved in the control of walking. Morphological, electrophysiological, behavioral and embryological evidence for such a function is reviewed. Birds have two nearly independent kinds of locomotion and it is suggested that two different sense organs play an important role in their respective control: the vestibular organ during flight and the lumbosacral system during walking.

  8. Burst and Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation Differentially Activate GABAergic Mechanisms to Attenuate Pain in a Rat Model of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Nathan D; Weisshaar, Christine L; Smith, Jenell R; Zeeman, Martha E; Goodman-Keiser, Melanie D; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is widely used to treat neuropathic pain. Burst SCS, an alternative mode of stimulation, reduces neuropathic pain without paresthesia. However, the effects and mechanisms of burst SCS have not been compared to conventional tonic SCS in controlled investigations. This study compares the attenuation of spinal neuronal activity and tactile allodynia, and the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling during burst or tonic SCS in a rat model of cervical radiculopathy. The effects of burst and tonic SCS were compared by recording neuronal firing before and after each mode of stimulation at day 7 following a painful cervical nerve root compression. Neuronal firing was also recorded before and after burst and tonic SCS in the presence of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP35348. Burst and tonic SCS both reduce neuronal firing. The effect of tonic SCS, but not burst SCS, is blocked by CGP35348. In a separate study, spinal cord stimulators were implanted to deliver burst or tonic SCS beginning on day 4 after painful nerve root compression; allodynia and serum GABA concentration were measured through day 14. Burst and tonic SCS both reduce allodynia. Tonic SCS attenuates injury-induced decreases in serum GABA, but GABA remains decreased from baseline during burst SCS. Together, these studies suggest that burst SCS does not act via spinal GABAergic mechanisms, despite its attenuation of spinal hyperexcitability and allodynia similar to that of tonic SCS; understanding other potential spinal inhibitory mechanisms may lead to enhanced analgesia during burst stimulation.

  9. [Evaluation of the efficacy of CT-guided epidural and transforaminal steroid injections in patients with diskogenic radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Riboud, C; Lerais, J M; Sailley, N; Kastler, B

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of CT-guided epidural and transforaminal steroid injections in patients with diskogenic radiculopathy. Seventy patients underwent CT guided injections after failure of medical management. Only patients with minimal degenerative changes and diskogenic monoradicular symptoms were treated. Only two patients with fibrosis were included. 78.6% of patients experienced persistent symptomatic improvement. No difference was noted between lumbar segments and there was no more failures with epidural injections compared to transforaminal injections. Cervical disk herniations responded better than lumbar disk herniations. Good results were obtained in younger patients (M=46.25 years), symptomatic for 3-4 months or less, and with clear radicular symptoms and clinical neurological deficits (hypoesthesia, absent DTR) without motor deficit. No patient with severe spinal stenosis (S-) was included and the disk herniations were small (b1, b2, c1, c2 or d1, d2). Only a single injection was needed. Cortivazol provided superior results compared to dexamethasone. CT-guided injections should be included in the therapeutic armamentarium after standard medical management, with cure as the goal.

  10. Clinical signs and outcome of dogs treated medically for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis: 98 cases (2004-2012).

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Wawrzenski, Lauren A; Volk, Holger A

    2014-08-15

    To compare clinical signs of dogs treated medically or surgically for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) and assess outcome after medical treatment. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs treated medically (n = 49) or surgically (49) for DLSS. Medical records from 2004 to 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they had clinical signs, clinical examination findings, and MRI abnormalities consistent with DLSS. Several variables were compared between surgically and medically treated dogs: age, sex, duration of clinical signs, presence or absence of neurologic deficits, urinary and fecal incontinence, concurrent medical conditions, and medical treatment before referral. Medical treatment after obtaining a final diagnosis of DLSS consisted of restricted exercise in combination with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. Surgical treatment consisted of dorsal lumbosacral laminectomy. Outcome for medically treated dogs was obtained via a standardized questionnaire. Neurologic deficits were observed significantly more often in surgically treated dogs. Surgically treated dogs had unsuccessful medical treatment before referral significantly more often than did medically treated dogs. Thirty-one of 49 (63.3%) medically treated dogs were available for follow-up evaluation. Of these 31 dogs, 17 (55%) were managed successfully, 10 (32.3%) were managed unsuccessfully and underwent surgical treatment, 3 (9.7%) were euthanized because of progression of clinical signs, and 1 (3.2%) was alive but had an increase in severity of clinical signs after medical management. Clinical signs differed in dogs treated medically or surgically for DLSS. Medical treatment for dogs with DLSS was associated with a fair prognosis.

  11. Combined epidural morphine and bupivacaine in the treatment of lumbosacral radicular neuropathic pain: a noncontrolled prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vigneri, Simone; Sindaco, Gianfranco; La Grua, Marco; Zanella, Matteo; Ravaioli, Laura; Paci, Valentina; Pari, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of epidural morphine and bupivacaine in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular neuropathic pain after the cessation of treatment. Methods Twenty-two patients with chronic lumbosacral pain with neuropathic features were enrolled. An indwelling catheter was placed into the epidural space, and each patient received an epidural injection of morphine chlorhydrate and bupivacaine up to three times a day. The medication was administered for 4 weeks. The pain intensity score on a 0–10 numeric rating scale (NRS), the total pain rating index rank (PRIr-T), and its coefficients were evaluated before treatment and 1 month after catheter removal. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results NRS and PRIr-T were significantly reduced at follow-up (P=0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), whereas the parallel evolution of the two scores (r=0.75 and P<0.001, respectively) confirmed significant pain relief lasting up to 1 month after treatment cessation. None of the four pain rating coefficients was significantly modified compared to the others in either responders or nonresponders. Successful clinical outcome (pain reduction >30% in NRS) was reached and maintained in half of the patients at follow-up. Conclusion Combined epidural morphine and bupivacaine seems to be effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:27920574

  12. Migratory low velocity intradural lumbosacral spinal bullet causing cauda equina syndrome: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Baldawa, Sachin; Shivpuje, Vijay

    2017-05-01

    Migration of the bullet within the spinal subarachnoid space has long been recognized as unusual complication of spinal gunshot injury. We report a case of migratory low velocity intradural lumbosacral spinal bullet causing cauda equina syndrome. The relevant literature is reviewed and all cases of migratory spinal bullet are summarised, and management strategies are discussed. Literature review. A 32-year-old male suffered abdominal gunshot injury for which emergency laparotomy and repair of colonic perforation were performed. The bullet was seen lodged within the sacral spinal canal behind the S1 vertebral body. The probable entry point was at L2-L3 level. Caudal migration of the bullet within the spinal subarachnoid space leads to the appearance of cauda equina syndrome. Bullet was retrieved following upper sacral and lower lumbar laminectomy. Prone positioning of the patient had lead to cranial migration of the bullet at L4 level which was confirmed on fluoroscopy. Laminectomy had to be extended upwards with the patient in reverse Trendelenburg position for bullet removal. Caudal migration of the bullet within the lumbosacral subarachnoid space results in cauda equina syndrome. Surgical retrieval of the bullet ensures the early recovery of neurological symptoms. Prone patient positioning can influence bullet location. Intraoperative fluoroscopy prior to skin incision is essential in addition to preoperative imaging to locate the bullet and thus avoid incorrect lower level laminectomy. Trapping the bullet after durotomy using suction and dissector in reverse Trendelenburg position is a useful aid in bullet removal.

  13. Combined epidural morphine and bupivacaine in the treatment of lumbosacral radicular neuropathic pain: a noncontrolled prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vigneri, Simone; Sindaco, Gianfranco; La Grua, Marco; Zanella, Matteo; Ravaioli, Laura; Paci, Valentina; Pari, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of epidural morphine and bupivacaine in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular neuropathic pain after the cessation of treatment. Twenty-two patients with chronic lumbosacral pain with neuropathic features were enrolled. An indwelling catheter was placed into the epidural space, and each patient received an epidural injection of morphine chlorhydrate and bupivacaine up to three times a day. The medication was administered for 4 weeks. The pain intensity score on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS), the total pain rating index rank (PRIr-T), and its coefficients were evaluated before treatment and 1 month after catheter removal. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. NRS and PRIr-T were significantly reduced at follow-up (P=0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), whereas the parallel evolution of the two scores (r=0.75 and P<0.001, respectively) confirmed significant pain relief lasting up to 1 month after treatment cessation. None of the four pain rating coefficients was significantly modified compared to the others in either responders or nonresponders. Successful clinical outcome (pain reduction >30% in NRS) was reached and maintained in half of the patients at follow-up. Combined epidural morphine and bupivacaine seems to be effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  14. [Neurogenic deformities of the foot due to congenital malformations of the lumbosacral spine. Their clinical and therapeutic characteristics].

    PubMed

    De Palma, L; Serra, F; Coletti, V

    1990-01-01

    The authors illustrate the different types of nervous disorders of the foot caused by congenital deformations of the lumbosacral spine. They classify these clinical forms according to the level of the neurological lesions, although emphasizing that more complex neurological damage may cause very atypical deformities that are difficult to classify. Today the treatment of nervous disorders of the foot caused by congenital deformations of the lumbosacral spine seems almost promising when compared to neurological and urological problems which have therapeutic priority. Possible methods of surgical correction, as well as indications that differ according to the age of the patient and the type and extent of the deformity, are discussed. These deformities of the foot evolve very quickly; treatment must be timely or reduction is difficult. Furthermore, their peculiar tendency to relapse necessitates periodic comprehensive follow-up exams and regular maintenance therapy (orthetic and physiatric). Special care must be taken before and during treatment to prevent trophic skin lesions. For this reason, solutions other than casts (external fixation, for example) may be preferable for the maintenance of the correction. The treatment of these deformities, whether conservative or surgical, should aim primarily to achieve adequate plantar support for future aided or autonomous ambulation.

  15. Lumbosacral Dorsal Rhizotomy for Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pron, Gaylene; Chan, Brian; Tu, Hong Anh; Xie, Xuanqian; Weir, Mark; Wells, David; Higgins, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy, a spectrum of neuromuscular conditions caused by abnormal brain development or early damage to the brain, is the most common cause of childhood physical disability. Lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy is a neurosurgical procedure that permanently decreases spasticity and is always followed by physical therapy. The objectives of this health technology assessment were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost effectiveness, and family perspectives of dorsal rhizotomy. Methods We performed a systematic literature search until December 2015 with auto-alerts until December 2016. Search strategies were developed by medical librarians, and a single reviewer reviewed the abstracts. The health technology assessment included a clinical review based on functional outcomes, safety, and treatment satisfaction; an economic study reviewing cost-effective literature; a budget impact analysis; and interviews with families evaluating the intervention. Results Eighty-four studies (1 meta-analysis, 5 randomized controlled studies [RCTs], 75 observational pre-post studies, and 3 case reports) were reviewed. A meta-analysis of RCTs involving dorsal rhizotomy and physical therapy versus physical therapy confirmed reduced lower-limb spasticity and increased gross motor function (4.5%, P = .002). Observational studies reported statistically significant improvements in gross motor function over 2 years or less (12 studies, GRADE moderate) and over more than 2 years (10 studies, GRADE moderate) as well as improvements in functional independence in the short term (10 studies, GRADE moderate) and long term (4 studies, GRADE low). Major operative complications, were infrequently reported (4 studies). Bony abnormalities and instabilities monitored radiologically in the spine (15 studies) and hip (8 studies) involved minimal or clinically insignificant changes after surgery. No studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of dorsal rhizotomy. The budget impact of

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lumbosacral Spine Magnetic Resonance Image Reading by Chiropractors, Chiropractic Radiologists, and Medical Radiologists.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Annemarie; Ostelo, Raymond; Knol, Dirk L; Algra, Paul R; Wilmink, Jan T; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in 2 sessions. It is important to know whether it is possible to accurately detect "specific findings" on lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) images and whether the results of different observers are comparable. Health care providers frequently use magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic process of patients with low back pain. The use of MR scans is increasing. This leads to an increase in costs and to an increase in risk of inaccurately labeling patients with an anatomical diagnosis that might not be the actual cause of symptoms. A set of 300 blinded MR images was read by medical radiologists, chiropractors, and chiropractic radiologists in 2 sessions. Each assessor read 100 scans in round 1 and 50 scans in round 2. The reference test was an expert panel.For all analyses, the magnetic resonance imaging findings were dichotomized into "specific findings" or "no specific findings." For the agreement, percentage agreement and κ values were calculated and for validity, sensitivity, and specificity. Sensitivity analysis was done for classifications A and B (prevalence of 31% and 57%, respectively). The intraobserver κ values for chiropractors, chiropractic radiologists, and medical radiologists were 0.46, 0.49, and 0.69 for A and 0.55, 0.75, and 0.64 for B, respectively.The interobserver κ values were lowest for chiropractors (0.28 for A, 0.37 for B) and highest for chiropractic radiologists (0.50 for A, 0.49 for B).The sensitivities of the medical radiologists, chiropractors, and chiropractic radiologists were 0.62, 0.71, and 0.75 for A and 0.70, 0.74, 0.84 for B, respectively.The specificities of medical radiologists, chiropractic radiologists, and chiropractors were 0.82, 0.77, and 0.70 for A and 0.74, 0.52, and 0.61 for B, respectively. Agreement and validity of MR image readings of chiropractors and chiropractic and medical radiologists is modest at best. This study supports recommendations in

  17. Lumbosacral Dorsal Rhizotomy for Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy, a spectrum of neuromuscular conditions caused by abnormal brain development or early damage to the brain, is the most common cause of childhood physical disability. Lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy is a neurosurgical procedure that permanently decreases spasticity and is always followed by physical therapy. The objectives of this health technology assessment were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost effectiveness, and family perspectives of dorsal rhizotomy. We performed a systematic literature search until December 2015 with auto-alerts until December 2016. Search strategies were developed by medical librarians, and a single reviewer reviewed the abstracts. The health technology assessment included a clinical review based on functional outcomes, safety, and treatment satisfaction; an economic study reviewing cost-effective literature; a budget impact analysis; and interviews with families evaluating the intervention. Eighty-four studies (1 meta-analysis, 5 randomized controlled studies [RCTs], 75 observational pre-post studies, and 3 case reports) were reviewed. A meta-analysis of RCTs involving dorsal rhizotomy and physical therapy versus physical therapy confirmed reduced lower-limb spasticity and increased gross motor function (4.5%, P = .002). Observational studies reported statistically significant improvements in gross motor function over 2 years or less (12 studies, GRADE moderate) and over more than 2 years (10 studies, GRADE moderate) as well as improvements in functional independence in the short term (10 studies, GRADE moderate) and long term (4 studies, GRADE low). Major operative complications, were infrequently reported (4 studies). Bony abnormalities and instabilities monitored radiologically in the spine (15 studies) and hip (8 studies) involved minimal or clinically insignificant changes after surgery. No studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of dorsal rhizotomy. The budget impact of funding dorsal rhizotomy for

  18. Pharmacological characterization of the rhythmic synaptic drive onto lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Sernagor, E; Chub, N; Ritter, A; O'Donovan, M J

    1995-11-01

    The isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo generates episodes of rhythmic bursting in which sartorius (hip flexor) and femorotibialis (knee extensor) motoneurons exhibit characteristic patterns of activity. At the beginning of each cycle both sets of motoneurons discharge synchronously. Following this brief synchronous activation sartorius motoneurons stop firing at the time of peak femorotibialis activity, producing a period of alternation between the two sets of motoneurons. Intracellular recording from motoneurons has suggested that the pause is mediated by a synaptically induced shunt conductance. However, the pharmacological basis for this shunt and the nature of the excitatory drive to motoneurons is unknown. To address these questions we have investigated the pharmacology of the rhythmic, synaptic drive to lumbosacral motoneurons using local and bath application of several excitatory and inhibitory antagonists, and documenting their effects on motor output in E10-E12 chick embryos. Local application of bicuculline or picrotoxin over sartorius motoneurons abolished the pause in firing recorded from the sartorius muscle nerve. As a consequence, the pattern of sartorius and femorotibialis activity was similar and the motoneurons were coactive. The pause in sartorius firing was shortened following local application of the glycine antagonist strychnine the nicotinic, cholinergic antagonists mecamylamine, and dihydro-beta-erythroidine and several excitatory amino acid antagonists. Application of the GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid depressed the slow potentials and discharge recorded from the sartorius muscle nerve. These findings suggest that the pause is determined primarily by synaptic inputs acting at motoneuron GABAA receptors with contributions from glycinergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic inputs. The actions of locally applied GABA onto spinal neurons are consistent with these findings because the neurotransmitter depolarizes spinal neurons and

  19. The development of sensorimotor synaptic connections in the lumbosacral cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Koebbe, M J; O'Donovan, M J

    1988-07-01

    We have examined the development of synaptic connections between afferents and motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the chick embryo between stages 28 and 39. The central projection of afferents was visualized following injection of dorsal root ganglia with HRP. Afferent fibers first entered the dorsal gray matter between stages 29 and 31. They grew in a ventrolateral direction, reaching motoneuron dendrites by stage 32. Quantitative analysis of axon numbers suggested that individual axons did not begin to branch extensively until they approached the lateral motor column at stage 36. Connectivity between afferents and motoneurons was assessed by stimulating dorsal roots or nerves supplying the femorotibialis muscle and recording the resulting motoneuron synaptic potentials intracellularly or from the cut ventral roots. At stages 37-39, low-intensity stimulation produced a short-latency positive potential that was followed at higher stimulus currents by slower positive potentials. All of these potentials were abolished in solutions that block chemical synaptic transmission (zero Ca2+/2 mM Mn2+). The early potential, which includes the monosynaptic EPSP produced by muscle afferents, persisted in the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), but was largely eliminated by the more general excitatory amino acid antagonist, kynurenic acid. Therefore, in the chick, as in other species, a glutamate-like transmitter appears to be released at the synapses between muscle afferents and motoneurons. The APV-resistant potential was reduced in amplitude during bath application of the glycine and GABA antagonists, strychnine and picrotoxin, suggesting that it was composed of depolarizing inhibitory as well as excitatory components at these stages. The monosynaptic EPSP could be recorded in ventral roots as early as stages 32-33, when muscle afferents first grew into the vicinity of motoneuron dendrites. The EPSP in these young

  20. Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; O'Donovan, M J

    1991-08-01

    We have examined the organization of muscle afferent projections to motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of chick embryos between stage 37, when muscle afferents first reach the motor nucleus, and stage 44, which is just before hatching. Connectivity between afferents and motoneurons was assessed by stimulating individual muscle nerves and recording the resulting motoneuron synaptic potentials intracellularly or electrotonically from other muscle nerves. Most of the recordings were made in the presence of DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), picrotoxin, and strychnine to block long-latency excitatory and inhibitory pathways. Activation of muscle afferents evoked slow, positive potentials in muscle nerves but not in cutaneous nerves. These potentials were abolished in 0 mM Ca2+, 2mM Mn2+ solutions, indicating that they were generated by the action of chemical synapses. The muscle nerve recordings revealed a wide-spread pattern of excitatory connections between afferents and motoneurons innervating six different thigh muscles, which were not organized according to synergist-antagonist relationships. This pattern of connectivity was confirmed using intracellular recording from identified motoneurons, which allowed the latency of the responses to be determined. Short-latency potentials in motoneurons were produced by activation of homonymous afferents and the heteronymous afferents innervating the hip flexors sartorius and anterior iliotibialis. Stimulation of anterior iliotibialis afferents also resulted in some short-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons innervating the knee extensor femorotibialis, though other connections were of longer latency. Afferents from the adductor, a hip extensor, did not evoke short-latency EPSPs in any of these three types of motoneurons. Short-latency, but not long-latency EPSPs, persisted during repetitive stimulation at 5 Hz, suggesting that they were mediated monosynaptically. Long

  1. Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing preoperative neuroscience education for patients undergoing surgery for lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Diener, Ina; Landers, Merrill R.; Zimney, Kory

    2016-01-01

    Background Results from a previous multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) on preoperative pain neuroscience education (PNE) for lumbar radiculopathy found no significant difference in patient reported outcomes between groups. However, patients who received PNE viewed their surgical experience more favorably and utilized significantly less healthcare compared to those that did not. The purpose is to determine if the reduction in healthcare costs from 1-year would be continued at 3-year following surgery, and to explore differences (if any) in patient reported outcomes. Study design—analysis of 3-year follow-up data from RCT on preoperative PNE for lumbar radiculopathy. Methods Participating patients from the previous RCT were contacted for 3-year follow-up. Of the 67 patients who commenced in the study, there were 61 who completed 1-year follow-up. Data packets were sent to these 61 patients to examine post-operative utilization of healthcare (Utilization of Healthcare Questionnaire); LBP [numeric rating scale (NRS)]; leg pain (NRS); function (Oswestry disability index); and beliefs and experiences related to LS (10 item survey with Likert responses). Results At 3-year follow-up, 50 patients (29 females) responded, with 22 patients in the experimental group (EG) and 28 in the control group (CG). Cumulative medical expenses were 37% lower for the EG, with those patients spending less on X-rays and visits to their family physician, physical therapist, and massage therapist. There were no differences in patient reported outcomes between groups. Patients who received PNE continued to view their surgical experience more favorably compared to those that did not. Conclusions Adding a single PNE session prior to surgery for lumbar radiculopathy results in significant healthcare savings over 3 years. Educating such patients about normal responses to lumbar surgery (LS) in a neuroscience framework may result in lasting behavior changes following surgery. PMID

  2. A cost-consequences analysis of the effect of pregabalin in the treatment of painful radiculopathy under medical practice conditions in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, María T; Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB) on pain relief, longitudinal utilization of health and nonhealth resources and derived costs in patients with refractory painful radiculopathy under routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS). Subjects over 18 years of age with painful radiculopathy (cervical/lumbar) refractory to at least one previous analgesic therapy were included in a prospective, naturalistic, 12-week study. Consumption of resources included both health-care and nonhealth-care resources. Pain severity was measured using the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. One thousand three hundred and four PGB-naive patients (55.8% women, 56.7 [12.9] years) were analyzed: 473 (36%) switched to monotherapy with PGB (PGBm), 676 (52%) received add-on therapy with PGB (PGBadd-on), and in 155 patients (12%) the previous treatment was replaced by a schedule not including PGB (non-PGB). As compared with the non-PGB, both PGBm and PGBadd-on schedules showed a significantly greater reduction of pain severity (36.1%, 56.1%, and 49.6% reductions, respectively, P < 0.001 between groups) and consumption of resources. Additional costs of drugs, particularly in the PGB subgroups (euro15.4, euro148.6 and euro145.3, respectively, P < 0.001) were offset by significantly greater reductions of all other components of health-care and nonhealth-care cost, thus resulting in a substantial reduction of total cost: euro1,203.3, euro1,423.2, and euro1,429.2, respectively (P < 0.001). In PCS, either PGBadd-on or PGBm under routine medical practice was associated with pain alleviation leading to significant longitudinal reductions in resource use and total costs compared with non-PGB-therapy in subjects with painful refractory cervical or lumbar radiculopathy.

  3. Does cervical spine manipulation reduce pain in people with degenerative cervical radiculopathy? A systematic review of the evidence, and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liguo; Wei, Xu; Wang, Shangquan

    2016-02-01

    To access the effectiveness and safety of cervical spine manipulation for cervical radiculopathy. PubMed, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang data, the website of Chinese clinical trial registry and international clinical trial registry by US National Institutes of Health. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of cervical manipulation compared with no treatment, placebo or conventional therapies on pain measurement in patients with degenerative cervical radiculopathy were searched. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of the trials according to the risk of bias assessment provided by the PEDro (physiotherapy evidence database) scale. RevMan V.5.2.0 software was employed for data analysis. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the overall quality of the evidence. Three trials with 502 participants were included. Meta-analysis suggested that cervical spine manipulation (mean difference 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.75; P < 0.00001; heterogeneity: Chi(2) = 8.57, P = 0.01, I(2) = 77%) improving visual analogue scale for pain showed superior immediate effects compared with cervical computer traction. The overall strength of evidence was judged to be moderate quality. One out of three trials reported the adverse events and none with a small sample size. There was moderate level evidence to support the immediate effectiveness of cervical spine manipulation in treating people with cervical radiculopathy. The safety of cervical manipulation cannot be taken as an exact conclusion so far. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing preoperative neuroscience education for patients undergoing surgery for lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Diener, Ina; Landers, Merrill R; Zimney, Kory; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2016-12-01

    Results from a previous multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) on preoperative pain neuroscience education (PNE) for lumbar radiculopathy found no significant difference in patient reported outcomes between groups. However, patients who received PNE viewed their surgical experience more favorably and utilized significantly less healthcare compared to those that did not. The purpose is to determine if the reduction in healthcare costs from 1-year would be continued at 3-year following surgery, and to explore differences (if any) in patient reported outcomes. Study design-analysis of 3-year follow-up data from RCT on preoperative PNE for lumbar radiculopathy. Participating patients from the previous RCT were contacted for 3-year follow-up. Of the 67 patients who commenced in the study, there were 61 who completed 1-year follow-up. Data packets were sent to these 61 patients to examine post-operative utilization of healthcare (Utilization of Healthcare Questionnaire); LBP [numeric rating scale (NRS)]; leg pain (NRS); function (Oswestry disability index); and beliefs and experiences related to LS (10 item survey with Likert responses). At 3-year follow-up, 50 patients (29 females) responded, with 22 patients in the experimental group (EG) and 28 in the control group (CG). Cumulative medical expenses were 37% lower for the EG, with those patients spending less on X-rays and visits to their family physician, physical therapist, and massage therapist. There were no differences in patient reported outcomes between groups. Patients who received PNE continued to view their surgical experience more favorably compared to those that did not. Adding a single PNE session prior to surgery for lumbar radiculopathy results in significant healthcare savings over 3 years. Educating such patients about normal responses to lumbar surgery (LS) in a neuroscience framework may result in lasting behavior changes following surgery.

  5. Study protocol for a randomised controlled multicentre study: the Foraminotomy ACDF Cost-Effectiveness Trial (FACET) in patients with cervical radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Broekema, A E H; Kuijlen, J M A; Lesman-Leegte, G A T; Bartels, R H M A; van Asselt, A D I; Vroomen, P C A J; Reneman, M F; Soer, R; Groen, R J M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cervical radiculopathy due to discogenic or spondylotic stenosis of the neuroforamen can be surgically treated by an anterior discectomy with fusion (ACDF) or a posterior foraminotomy (FOR). Most surgeons prefer ACDF, although there are indications that FOR is as effective as ACDF, has a lower complication rate and is less expensive. A head-to-head comparison of the 2 surgical techniques in a randomised controlled trial has not yet been performed. The study objectives of the Foraminotomy ACDF Cost-Effectiveness Trial (FACET) study are to compare clinical outcomes, complication rates and cost-effectiveness of FOR to ACDF. Methods and analysis The FACET study is a prospective randomised controlled trial conducted in 7 medical centres in the Netherlands. The follow-up period is 2 years. The main inclusion criterion is a radiculopathy of the C4, C5, C6 or C7 nerve root, due to a single-level isolated cervical foraminal stenosis caused by a soft disc and/or osteophytic component, requiring operative decompression. A sample size of 308 patients is required to test the hypothesis of clinical non-inferiority of FOR versus ACDF. Primary outcomes are: ‘operative success’, the measured decrease in radiculopathy assessed by the visual analogue scale and ‘patient success’, assessed by the modified Odom's criteria. Secondary outcomes are: Work Ability Index (single-item WAI), quality of life (EuroQol 5 Dimensions 5 level Survey, EQ-5D-5L), Neck Disability Index (NDI) and complications. An economic evaluation will assess cost-effectiveness. In addition, a budget impact analysis will be performed. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Groningen. Results of this study will be disseminated through national and international papers. The participants and relevant patient support groups will be informed about the results of the study. Trial registration number NTR5536, pre

  6. Feasibility of Early and Repeated Low-dose Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block for Residual Pain in Acute Cervical Radiculopathy Treated with NSAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mitoro, Mari; Kuzumoto, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Background To improve residual pain management in acute cervical radiculopathy treated with NSAIDs, the feasibility of early and repeated low-dose interscalene brachial plexus block (IS-BPB) needs to be assessed. Methods This was a prospective study on patients receiving NSAIDs (loxoprofen) for cervical radiculopathy of ≤ 2-week onset. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS). A low-dose ultrasonography (USG)-guided IS-BPB (dexamethasone [1.65 mg; 0.5 ml] and mepivacaine [1%; 3.0 ml]) was performed at baseline and weekly thereafter for 4 weeks in an outpatient setting for the intervention group. All patients were evaluated using a visual satisfaction score (VSS) at week 4. Patients with baseline VAS scores < 70 (mild to moderate pain; MM group) and ≥ 70 (severe pain; SE group) were compared to the controls receiving NSAIDs. Results A total of 316 IS-BPBs were performed in the intervention group. There was a significant difference in the decline in the VAS from week 0 to week 3 in the MM and SE groups (P < 0.05); however, from week 3 to week 4, the therapeutic effect exhibited no significant difference. Thirteen patients at week 2 (15.5%; MM: 27.7%; SE: 0%), 43 at week 3 (51.2%; MM: 83.0%; SE: 10.8%), and 47 at week 4 (56.0%; MM: 85.1%; SE: 18.9%) achieved a VAS score of ≤ 20. Patient satisfaction was high, and the decrease in VAS scores in both groups was significant (P < 0.05) compared to the controls. Conclusions Weekly, low-dose, USG-guided IS-BPB can be implemented for early pain relief in acute cervical radiculopathy, with high patient satisfaction. PMID:24748940

  7. Effect of a titanium cage as a stand-alone device on biomechanical stability in the lumbosacral spine of canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, M; van der Veen, A J; Smit, T H; Tryfonidou, M A; Meij, B P

    2017-02-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis is a common disease in dogs characterised by intervertebral disc herniation, loss of disc height and stenosis. Decompressive dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy can cause spinal instability and worsen foraminal stenosis. Pedicle screw and rod fixation (PSRF) with an intervertebral body cage allows for distraction and restoration of disc height and restores foraminal apertures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ex vivo biomechanical properties of a titanium intervertebral cage alone and in combination with PSRF in the lumbosacral spine of dogs. The range of motion, neutral zone, neutral zone stiffness and elastic zone stiffness of the lumbosacral joint (L7-S1) of nine canine cadavers were determined in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation for four conditions: (1) native (unmodified) spine; (2) dorsal laminectomy and discectomy; (3) stand-alone cage; and (4) cage in combination with PSRF. The intervertebral disc height decreased after dorsal laminectomy, but increased after insertion of the cage. Insertion of the stand-alone cage decreased the range of motion and neutral zone compared to the laminectomy-discectomy and increased neutral zone stiffness in all directions. The range of motion further decreased after PSRF. From a biomechanical point of view, the use of a stand-alone intervertebral cage is a potential alternative to dorsal fixation of the lumbosacral junction, since it increases spinal stability and restores disc height.

  8. Outcomes of bilateral sacroiliac joint fusions and the importance of understanding potential coexisting lumbosacral pathology that might also require surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Dall, Bruce E; Eden, Sonia V

    2015-06-01

    Only one study in the literature describes performing a bilateral sacroiliac joint fusion, and the results were poor. Many patients needing a bilateral sacroiliac joint fusion frequently have had previous lumbosacral surgeries and present with lumbosacral pain as well. This study reviews our results in consecutive patients having had a bilateral sacroiliac joint fusion over a five-year period. Fifteen patients had bilateral sacroiliac joint fusions with 13 having concurrent lumbosacral fusions. The modified posterior midline fascial splitting approach, first described by Belanger was utilized. Patients were followed for an average of 30.3 months. There were no infections, neurovascular injuries, lasting morbidity or deaths. One non-union of a sacroiliac joint (7%) occurred, which after revision was satisfactory. There was a statistically significant drop in pain (p=0.01488) using the VAS, and patient satisfaction rates were 86%. With all those patients saying they would have the surgery again for the same result. There was no significant increase in functionality. Patients needing bilateral sacroiliac joint fusions frequently fall into the "failed back" category, and it is important to evaluate both the sacroiliac joints and the lumbosacral spine for potential pain generators. This study shows that by treating all the pain generators in both areas there were significant decreases in pain, low complications, low re-operation rates, and high patient satisfaction scores. Overall functionality, however, was not positively affected.

  9. Anti-tumor necrosis factor antagonists in the treatment of low back pain and radiculopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Daniel C; El Abd, Omar; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Buehler, Anna M; Leite, Victor F; Mazloomdoost, Danesh; Chen, Janini; Hsing, Wu Tu; Amadera, Joao E D

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain, with or without radiculopathy, is an important cause of disability and economic expenditure. However, many patients are not achieving optimal pain control with existing medications. Tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNFα) could be an alternative drug treatment. Systematic review the efficacy and safety of anti-TNFα in the treatment of low back pain with or without radiculopathy. Inclusion criteria were observational studies with safety as an outcome, and randomized or nonrandomized controlled trial (RCT) studies on efficacy and/or safety of anti-TNFα drugs on low back pain. Exclusion criteria included patients with auto-immune conditions or osteoporosis. Studies were assessed independently by 2 authors regarding inclusion/exclusion criteria, risk of bias, clinical relevance, quality, and strength of evidence (GRADE approach). Of the 1,179 studies retrieved, all duplicates were excluded and then the inclusion/exclusion criteria was applied. One observational study (n = 143) and 11 RCTs remained (n = 539): 8 for etanercept (n = 304), one for adalimumab (n = 61), one for adalimumab and etanercept (n = 60), one for infliximab (n = 40) and one for REN-1654 (n = 74). Only 3 etanercept and 2 adalimumab studies showed statistically significant pain relief when compared to placebo. There was no difference in the overall incidence of adverse effects when comparing anti-TNF-α and placebo. Despite the statistically significant effect, this meta-analysis has important limitations, such as high heterogeneity and high use of outcome imputation. There is low evidence that epidural etanercept has a low-to-moderate effect size when compared to placebo for pain due to discogenic lumbar radiculopathy (5 studies, n=185), with a standardized mean difference = -0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.84 to -0.02).There is moderate evidence that epidural etanercept does not have a higher adverse effects incidence rate when compared to placebo for discogenic lumbar

  10. Initial clinical experience with a next-generation artificial disc for the treatment of symptomatic degenerative cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Sanchez, Alejandro; Miramontes, Victor; Olivarez, Luis M Rosales; Aquirre, Armando Alpizar; Quiroz, Alfredo Ortega; Zarate-Kalfopulos, Baron

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility trial was conducted to evaluate the initial safety and clinical use of a next-generation artificial cervical disc (M6-C artificial cervical disc; Spinal Kinetics, Sunnyvale, CA) for the treatment of patients with symptomatic degenerative cervical radiculopathy. A standardized battery of validated outcome measures was utilized to assess condition-specific functional impairment, pain severity, and quality of life. Thirty-six consecutive patients were implanted with the M6-C disc and complete clinical and radiographic outcomes for 25 patients (mean age, 44.5 ± 10.1 years) with radiographically-confirmed cervical disc disease and symptomatic radiculopathy unresponsive to conservative medical management are included in this report. All patients had disc-osteophyte complex causing neural compression and were treated with discectomy and artificial cervical disc replacement at either single level (n = 12) or 2-levels (n = 13). Functional impairment was evaluated using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Evaluation of arm and neck pain severity utilized a standard 11-point numeric scale, and health-related quality of life was evaluated with the SF-36 Health Survey. Quantitative radiographic assessments of intervertebral motion were performed using specialized motion analysis software, QMA (Quantitative Motion Analysis; Medical Metrics, Houston, TX). All outcome measures were evaluated pre-treatment and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The mean NDI score improved from 51.6 ± 11.3% pre-treatment to 27.9 ± 16.9% at 24 months, representing an approximate 46% improvement (P <.0001). The mean arm pain score improved from 6.9 ± 2.5 pre-treatment to 3.9 ± 3.1 at 24 months (43%, P =.0006). The mean neck pain score improved from 7.8 ± 2.0 pre-treatment to 3.8 ± 3.0 at 24 months (51%, P <.0001). The mean PCS score of the SF-36 improved from 34.8 ± 7.8 pre-treatment to 43.8 ± 9.3 by 24 months (26%, P =.0006). Subgroup analyses found that patients treated at

  11. Initial clinical experience with a next-generation artificial disc for the treatment of symptomatic degenerative cervical radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Sanchez, Alejandro; Miramontes, Victor; Olivarez, Luis M. Rosales; Aquirre, Armando Alpizar; Quiroz, Alfredo Ortega; Zarate-Kalfopulos, Baron

    2010-01-01

    Background A feasibility trial was conducted to evaluate the initial safety and clinical use of a next-generation artificial cervical disc (M6-C artificial cervical disc; Spinal Kinetics, Sunnyvale, CA) for the treatment of patients with symptomatic degenerative cervical radiculopathy. A standardized battery of validated outcome measures was utilized to assess condition-specific functional impairment, pain severity, and quality of life. Methods Thirty-six consecutive patients were implanted with the M6-C disc and complete clinical and radiographic outcomes for 25 patients (mean age, 44.5 ± 10.1 years) with radiographically-confirmed cervical disc disease and symptomatic radiculopathy unresponsive to conservative medical management are included in this report. All patients had disc-osteophyte complex causing neural compression and were treated with discectomy and artificial cervical disc replacement at either single level (n = 12) or 2-levels (n = 13). Functional impairment was evaluated using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Evaluation of arm and neck pain severity utilized a standard 11-point numeric scale, and health-related quality of life was evaluated with the SF-36 Health Survey. Quantitative radiographic assessments of intervertebral motion were performed using specialized motion analysis software, QMA (Quantitative Motion Analysis; Medical Metrics, Houston, TX). All outcome measures were evaluated pre-treatment and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results The mean NDI score improved from 51.6 ± 11.3% pre-treatment to 27.9 ± 16.9% at 24 months, representing an approximate 46% improvement (P <.0001). The mean arm pain score improved from 6.9 ± 2.5 pre-treatment to 3.9 ± 3.1 at 24 months (43%, P =.0006). The mean neck pain score improved from 7.8 ± 2.0 pre-treatment to 3.8 ± 3.0 at 24 months (51%, P <.0001). The mean PCS score of the SF-36 improved from 34.8 ± 7.8 pre-treatment to 43.8 ± 9.3 by 24 months (26%, P =.0006). Subgroup analyses found

  12. Test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Savva, Christos; Giakas, Giannis; Efstathiou, Michalis; Karagiannis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR). A convenience sample of 19 participants (14 men and 5 women; mean ± SD age, 50.5 ± 12 years) with CR was measured using a Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer by the same rater on 2 different testing sessions with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Data collection procedures followed standardized grip strength testing guidelines established by the American Society of Hand Therapists. During the repeated measures, patients were advised to rest their upper limb in the standardized arm position and encouraged to exert 3 maximum gripping efforts. The mean value of the 3 efforts (measured in kilogram force [Kgf]) was used for data analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient, SEM, and the Bland-Altman plot were used to estimate test-retest reliability and measurement precision. Grip strength measurement in CR demonstrated an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.976, suggesting excellent test-retest reliability. The small SEM in both testing sessions (SEM1, 2.41 Kgf; SEM2, 2.51 Kgf) as well as the narrow width of the 95% limits of agreements (95% limits of agreement, -4.9 to 4.4 Kgf) in the Bland-Altman plot reflected precise measurements of grip strength in both occasions. Excellent test-retest reliability for grip strength measurement was measured in patients with CR, demonstrating that a hydraulic hand dynamometer could be used as an outcome measure for these patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.

  14. The identification and neurochemical characterization of central neurons that target parasympathetic preganglionic neurons involved in the regulation of choroidal blood flow in the rat eye using pseudorabies virus, immunolabeling and conventional pathway tracing methods

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyan; Fitzgerald, Malinda E. C.; Del Mar, Nobel; Cuthbertson-Coates, Sherry; LeDoux, Mark S.; Gong, Suzhen; Ryan, James P.; Reiner, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The choroidal blood vessels of the eye provide the main vascular support to the outer retina. These blood vessels are under parasympathetic vasodilatory control via input from the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG), which in turn receives its preganglionic input from the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) of the hindbrain. The present study characterized the central neurons projecting to the SSN neurons innervating choroidal PPG neurons, using pathway tracing and immunolabeling. In the initial set of studies, minute injections of the Bartha strain of the retrograde transneuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) were made into choroid in rats in which the superior cervical ganglia had been excised (to prevent labeling of sympathetic circuitry). Diverse neuronal populations beyond the choroidal part of ipsilateral SSN showed transneuronal labeling, which notably included the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the periaqueductal gray, the raphe magnus (RaM), the B3 region of the pons, A5, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and the intermediate reticular nucleus of the medulla. The PRV+ neurons were located in the parts of these cell groups that are responsive to systemic blood pressure signals and involved in systemic blood pressure regulation by the sympathetic nervous system. In a second set of studies using PRV labeling, conventional pathway tracing, and immunolabeling, we found that PVN neurons projecting to SSN tended to be oxytocinergic and glutamatergic, RaM neurons projecting to SSN were serotonergic, and NTS neurons projecting to SSN were glutamatergic. Our results suggest that blood pressure and volume signals that drive sympathetic constriction of the systemic vasculature may also drive parasympathetic vasodilation of the choroidal vasculature, and may thereby contribute to choroidal baroregulation during low blood pressure. PMID:26082687

  15. Separate populations of neurons within the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of the rat project to vagal and thoracic autonomic preganglionic levels and express c-Fos protein induced by lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Portillo, F; Carrasco, M; Vallo, J J

    1998-03-01

    The role of different hypothalamic nuclei, particularly the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in the control of food intake and feeding behaviour is well known. It is also well established that lithium chloride (LiCl) causes various disorders in feeding behaviour. In this study, we analyzed the precise distribution of hypothalamic neurons activated by i.p. LiCl administration (LCA neurons) and compared it to that of hypothalamic neurons which project to autonomic preganglionic levels (HAP neurons). We also analysed the possibility that some neurons belong to both populations of nerve cells. To this end, a multiple-labelling technique, using two retrograde fluorescent tracers together with c-Fos-like immunohistochemistry, was performed. Fast Blue was injected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and Fluorogold (FG) in the thoracic intermedial-lateral cell column, to trace parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways, respectively. LiCl was used as stimulus for c-Fos-like immunohistochemistry. HAP neurons were located mainly in the dorsal, ventral and lateral regions of the parvocellular PVN, while LCA neurons were observed predominantly in the magnocellular region of the PVN rostrally to HAP neurons. A significant number of FG/Fos double-labelled neurons were located in the dorsal parvocellular subnucleus of the PVN (dp) in the LiCl-stimulated rats. We concluded that there is a clear segregation of LCA neurons from HAP neurons within the PVN. The presence of FG/Fos double-labelled neurons in the dp suggests that this nucleus could mediate a sympathetic response after LiCl administration.

  16. Interpretation of abnormal lumbosacral spine radiographs. A test comparing students, clinicians, radiology residents, and radiologists in medicine and chiropractic.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J A; Clopton, P; Bosch, E; Miller, K A; Marcelis, S

    1995-05-15

    Controlled comparison of radiographic interpretive performance based on training and experience. This study compared each of these groups in medicine and chiropractic by testing abilities to interpret abnormal plain film radiographs of the lumbosacral spine and pelvis. Low back pain is a common and costly problem that is evaluated and treated primarily by medical physicians, orthopedists, and chiropractors. Although radiology is used extensively in patients with low back pain, the radiographic interpretations of students, clinicians, radiology residents, and radiologists have never been compared. Four hundred ninety-six eligible volunteers from nine target groups completed a test of radiographic interpretation consisting of nineteen cases with clinically important radiographic findings. The nine groups included 22 medical students, 183 chiropractic students, 27 medical radiology residents, 13 chiropractic radiology residents, 66 medical clinicians (including 12 general practice physicians, 25 orthopedic surgeons, 21 orthopedic residents, and 8 rheumatologists), 46 chiropractic clinicians, 48 general medical radiologists, 55 chiropractic radiologists, and 36 skeletal radiologists and fellows. The test established a high level of internal consistency reliability (0.880) and revealed that, in the interpretation of abnormal plain film radiographs of the lumbosacral spine and pelvis, significant differences were found among professional groups (P < 0.0001). Post hoc tests (P < 0.05) revealed that skeletal radiologists achieved significantly higher test results than did all other medical groups; that the test results of general medical radiologists and medical radiology residents was significantly higher than those of medical clinicians; that test results of medical students was significantly poorer than that of all other medical groups; that the performance of chiropractic radiologists and chiropractic radiology residents was significantly higher than that of

  17. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Hao; Mo Lin, Ruey; Chen, Hsiang-Ho; Tsai, Kai-Jow

    2007-01-01

    Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block) and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1) large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2) polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3) polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment is set at large lordotic

  18. Does Wallis implant reduce adjacent segment degeneration above lumbosacral instrumented fusion?

    PubMed Central

    Repantis, Thomas; Zacharatos, Spyros; Zafiropoulos, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Delayed complications following lumbar spine fusion may occur amongst which is adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Although interspinous implants have been successfully used in spinal stenosis to authors’ knowledge such implants have not been previously used to reduce ASD in instrumented lumbar fusion. This prospective controlled study was designed to investigate if the implantation of an interspinous implant cephalad to short lumbar and lumbosacral instrumented fusion could eliminate the incidence of ASD and subsequently the related re-operation rate. Groups W and C enrolled initially each 25 consecutive selected patients. Group W included patients, who received the Wallis interspinous implant in the unfused vertebral segment cephalad to instrumentation and the group C selected age-, diagnosis-, level-, and instrumentation-matched to W group patients without interspinous implant (controls). The inclusion criterion for Wallis implantation was UCLA arthritic grade UCLA grade II in the adjacent two segments cephalad to instrumentation. All patients suffered from symptomatic spinal stenosis and underwent decompression and 2–4 levels stabilization with rigid pedicle screw fixation and posterolateral fusion by a single surgeon. Lumbar lordosis, disc height (DH), segmental range of motion (ROM), and percent olisthesis in the adjacent two cephalad to instrumentation segments were measured preoperatively, and postoperatively until the final evaluation. VAS, SF-36, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used. One patient of group W developed pseudarthrosis: two patients of group C deep infection and one patient of group C ASD in the segment below instrumentation and were excluded from the final evaluation. Thus, 24 patients of group W and 21 in group C aged 65+ 13 and 64+ 11 years, respectively were included in the final analysis. The follow-up averaged 60 ± 6

  19. Anatomical differences in patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and implications for minimally invasive spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Josiah, Darnell T; Boo, SoHyun; Tarabishy, Abdul; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the neurovascular and anatomical differences in patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) and the associated risk of neurovascular injury in minimally invasive spine surgery. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective study of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine obtained at their institution between 2010 and 2014. The following characteristics were evaluated: level of the iliac crest in relation to the L4-5 disc space, union level of the iliac veins and arteries in relation to the L4-5 disc space, distribution of the iliac veins and inferior vena cava according to the different Moro zones (A, I, II, III, IV, P) at the L4-5 disc space, and the location of the psoas muscle at the L4-5 disc space. The findings were compared with findings on images obtained in 28 age- and sex-matched patients without LSTV who underwent imaging studies during the same time period. RESULTS Twenty-eight patients (12 male, 16 female) with LSTV and the required imaging studies were identified; 28 age- and sex-matched patients who had undergone CT and MRI studies of the thoracic and lumbar spine imaging but did not have LSTV were selected for comparison (control group). The mean ages of the patients in the LSTV group and the control group were 52 and 49 years, respectively. The iliac crest was located at a mean distance of 12 mm above the L4-5 disc space in the LSTV group and 4 mm below the L4-5 disc space in the controls. The iliac vein union was located at a mean distance of 8 mm above the L4-5 disc space in the LSTV group and 2.7 mm below the L4-5 disc space in the controls. The iliac artery bifurcation was located at a mean distance of 23 mm above the L4-5 disc space in the LSTV group and 11 mm below the L4-5 disc space in controls. In patients with LSTV, the distribution of iliac vein locations was as follows: Zone A, 7.1%; Zone I only, 78.6%; Zone I encroaching into Zone II, 7.1%; and Zone II only, 7.1%. In the

  20. Current trends in pedicle screw stimulation techniques: lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical levels.

    PubMed

    Isley, Michael R; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Leppanen, Ronald E

    2012-06-01

    justification" of intraoperative neuromonitoring"... is the perception that the safety and efficacy of pedicle screw fixation are enhanced..." (Resnick et al. 2005b). However in summarizing a massive (over 1000 papers taken from the National Library of Medicine), contemporary, literature review spanning nearly a decade (1996 to 2003), this invited panel (Resnick et al. 2005b) recognized that the evidence-based documents contributing to the parts related to pedicle screw fixation and neuromonitoring were "... full of potential sources of error ..." and lacked appropriate, randomized, prospective studies for formulating rigid standards and guidelines. Nevertheless, current trends support the routine use and clinical utility of these neuromonitoring techniques. In particular free-run and triggered EMG have been well recognized in numerous publications for improving both the accuracy and safety of pedicle screw implantation. Currently, treatment with pedicle screw instrumentation routinely involves all levels of the spine - lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical. Significant historical events, various neuromonitoring modalities, intraoperative alarm criteria, clinical efficacy, current trends, and caveats related to pedicle screw stimulation along the entire vertebral column will be reviewed.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of pain in plexopathy, radiculopathy, peripheral neuropathy and phantom limb pain. Evidence and recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain on Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Francesco; Jacopetti, Marco; Spallone, Vincenza; Padua, Luca; Traballesi, Marco; Brunelli, Stefano; Cantarella, Cristina; Ciotti, Cristina; Coraci, Daniele; Dalla Toffola, Elena; Mandrini, Silvia; Morone, Giovanni; Pazzaglia, Costanza; Romano, Marcello; Schenone, Angelo; Togni, Rossella; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Pain may affect all aspects of social life and reduce the quality of life. Neuropathic pain (NP) is common in patients affected by plexopathy, radiculopathy, mononeuropathy, peripheral neuropathy. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a painful sensation that is common after amputation, and its pathophysiological mechanisms involve changes in the peripheral and central nervous system. Given the lack of conclusive evidence and specific guidelines on these topics, the aim of the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain on Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) was to collect evidence and offer recommendations to answer currently open questions on the assessment and treatment of NP associated with the above conditions and PLP. When no evidence was available, recommendations were based on consensus between expert opinions. Current guidelines on the assessment and pharmacological treatment of NP can be applied to plexopathy, radiculopathy, mononeuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, while evidence for invasive treatments and physical therapy is generally poor because of the low quality of studies. Treatment of PLP is still unsatisfactory. Data on the functional outcome and impact of pain on neurorehabilitation outcome in these conditions are lacking. In most cases, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended to offer a better outcome and reduce side effects. High quality studies are requested to address the unmet needs in this field.

  2. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Morio, Yasuo; Meshitsuka, Shunsuke; Yamane, Koji; Nanjo, Yoshiro; Teshima, Ryota

    2010-01-01

    There have been few reports describing substances related to oxidative and intermediary metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with spinal degenerative disorders. This study investigated whether the concentrations of metabolites in the CSF differed between patients with spinal degenerative disorders and controls, and whether the concentrations of these metabolites correlated with the severity of symptoms. CSF samples were obtained from 30 patients with cervical myelopathy (Group M), 30 patients with lumbar radiculopathy (Group R), and 10 volunteers (control). Metabolites in these CSF samples were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There were no differences in the concentrations of lactate, alanine, acetate, glutamate, pyruvate, or citrate between Groups M and R, between Group M and the control, or between Group R and the control. In Group M, neither symptom duration nor the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score correlated with the concentration of any metabolite. In Group R, the symptom duration positively correlated with the concentration of lactate, glutamate, and citrate in CSF. The duration of nerve root block showed a negative correlation with the concentrations of acetate in CSF of the patients in Group R. In patients with lumbar radiculopathy, there is a possibility of increased aerobic metabolic activity or decreased gluconeogenic activity in patients with shorter symptom duration, and increased aerobic metabolic activity in patients with severe inflammation around a nerve root. PMID:20490871

  3. Cox Decompression Manipulation and Guided Rehabilitation of a Patient With a Post Surgical C6-C7 Fusion With Spondylotic Myelopathy and Concurrent L5-S1 Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Joachim, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe combined treatment utilizing Cox distraction manipulation and guided rehabilitation for a patient with spine pain and post-surgical C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and L5-S1 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 38-year-old man presented to a chiropractic clinic with neck pain and a history of an anterior cervical spine plate fusion at C6-7 after a work related accident 4 years earlier. He had signs and symptoms of spondolytic myelopathy and right lower back, right posterior thigh pain and numbness. Intervention and outcome The patient was treated with Cox technique and rehabilitation. The patient experienced a reduction of pain on a numeric pain scale from 8/10 to 3/10. The patient was seen a total of 12 visits over 3 months. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions A patient with a prior C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and concurrent L5-S1 radiculopathy improved after a course of rehabilitation and Cox distraction manipulation. Further research is needed to establish its efficiency. PMID:25685119

  4. Morphometry of the Iliolumbar Artery and the Iliolumbar Veins and Their Correlations with the Lumbosacral Trunk and the Obturator Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Teli, Chandrika Gurulingappa; Kate, Nilesh Netaji; Kothandaraman, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the variations of the iliolumbar artery and the iliolumabar veins and their correlation with the surrounding important structures. Methods: We dissected the iliolumbar region bilaterally in 20 formalin-fixed adult cadavers. The diameter of the iliolumbar artery at its origin, its length up to the branching point, the distance between the iliolumbar artery and the inferior margin of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the distance between the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point of the common iliac artery, were measured. The pattern of drainage, the dimensions, the points of confluence with the common iliac vein and the obliquity of the iliolumbar vein were noted. The correlation between the iliolumbar artery and the veins to the obturator nerve and the lumbosacral trunk was recorded. Results: The iliolumbar artery originated from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery or from the internal iliac artery. The mean diameter of the iliolumbar artery, at its origin, was 3.5±0.5 mm. The mean distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point to the iliac and the lumbar branches was 12.2±5.5 mm. The distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the lower edge of the fifth lumbar vertebra was 43.2±11.6 mm. The distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point of the common iliac artery was 38.7±10.6 mm. The mean distance of the iliolumbar veins from the inferior vena cava, overall, was 35± 9.9 mm. The mean width of the mouth of the iliolumbar vein was10.7 ± 5.1 mm and the mean angle of obliquity of the vein with respect to the long axis of the common iliac vein was 75.50. The tributaries which drained into the main iliolumbar vein were variable. The iliolumbar artery passed anterior in 70% and it passed posterior to the obturator nerve in 30%. The veins were lying anterior to the obturator nerve in 45% and they were lying posterior in 55%. The multiple tributaries

  5. Bilateral Maxillary, Sphenoid Sinuses and Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Extramedullary Relapse of CML Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Soudabeh; Ansari, Shahla; Vosough, Parvaneh; Bahoush, Gholamreza; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Chahardouli, Bahram; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Mehrazma, Mitra; Dorgalaleh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Isolated extramedullary relapse of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) after allogeneic stem cell transplant is rare. There is a case report of a child who developed a granulocytic sarcoma of the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses and lumbosacral spinal cord mass 18 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplant for CML. He was presented with per orbital edema and neurological deficit of lower extremities and a mass lesion was found on spinal cord imaging. No evidence of hematologic relapse was identified at that time by bone marrow histology or cytogenetic. The patient died 1 month later with a picture of pneumonia, left ventricular dysfunction and a cardiopulmonary arrest on a presumed underlying sepsis with infectious etiology. Granulocytic sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mass lesions presenting after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for CML, even if there is no evidence of bone marrow involvement. PMID:27252811

  6. DISTRIBUTION AND SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF INJECTED GELIFIED ETHANOL INTO THE LUMBOSACRAL INTERVERTEBRAL DISC IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Shawn D; Brisson, Brigitte A; Gaitero, Luis; Caswell, Jeff L; Liao, Penting; Sinclair, Melissa; Chalmers, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Radiopaque gelified ethanol preparation has been described as a useful agent for treatment of humans with intervertebral disc protrusion. The material is injected into the nucleus pulposus under image guidance with intention to cause the protruded disc material to recede. Because treatment options for dogs with chronic protrusions are limited, new and minimally invasive treatments are desirable. The aim of this experimental, descriptive, prospective study was to assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous injection of gelified ethanol into the lumbosacral intervertebral disc of dogs. Lumbosacral intervertebral discs of normal dogs (n = 9) were imaged with magnetic resonance imaging and then injected with gelified ethanol using image guidance. The accuracy of gelified ethanol placement in the nucleus pulposus and presence of leakage of the injected material were documented. Postinjection computed tomography (CT) findings (n = 9), short-term (n = 9) and long-term (n = 4) follow-up magnetic resonance imaging and CT findings were compared to document the distribution of the injected preparation and identify effects on adjacent tissues. Percutaneous injection of the intervertebral disc was successful in delivering radiopaque gelified ethanol to the nucleus pulposus in all dogs. Leakage of the injected material into the vertebral canal was present in three dogs immediately following injection and in another additional dog at 1 year following injection. All dogs tolerated the injection well and had no clinical adverse reactions within the study period. Findings indicated that injection of the nucleus pulposus of healthy dogs was well tolerated, even in the presence of mild leakage of material from the intervertebral disc. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. The role of paraspinal muscle spindles in lumbosacral position sense in individuals with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brumagne, S; Cordo, P; Lysens, R; Verschueren, S; Swinnen, S

    2000-04-15

    A two-group experimental design with repeated measures on one factor was used. To investigate the role of paraspinal muscle spindles in lumbosacral position sense in individuals with and without low back pain. Proprioceptive deficits have been identified in patients with low back pain. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not well documented. Lumbosacral position sense was determined before, during, and after lumbar paraspinal muscle vibration in 23 young patients with low back pain and in 21 control subjects. Position sense was estimated by calculating the mean absolute error, constant error, and variable error between six criterion and reproduction sacral tilt angles. Repositioning accuracy was significantly lower in the patient group than in healthy individuals (absolute error difference between groups = 2.7 degrees, P < 0.0001). Multifidus muscle vibration induced a significant muscle-lengthening illusion that resulted in an undershooting of the target position in healthy individuals (constant error = -3.1 degrees, P < 0.0001). Conversely, the position sense scores of the patient group did not display an increase in negative directional error but a significant improvement in position sense during muscle vibration (P < 0.05). No significant differences in absolute error were found between the first and last trial in the healthy individuals (P >/= 0.05) and in the patient group (P > 0.05). Patients with low back pain have a less refined position sense than healthy individuals, possibly because of an altered paraspinal muscle spindle afference and central processing of this sensory input. Furthermore, muscle vibration can be an interesting expedient for improving proprioception and enhancing local muscle control.

  8. Dislodgement and gastrointestinal tract penetration of bone cement used for spinal reconstruction after lumbosacral vertebral tumor excision

    PubMed Central

    Nagae, Masateru; Mikami, Yasuo; Mizuno, Kentaro; Harada, Tomohisa; Ikeda, Takumi; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Takatori, Ryota; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement is useful for spinal reconstruction, but can cause complications including new vertebral fractures, neurological disorders and pulmonary embolism. We report a case in PMMA cement used for spinal reconstruction after tumor curettage dislodged and penetrated the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor at age 27 years. After chemotherapy and tumor resection, the tumor remained. It gradually increased in size and infiltrated lumbosacral vertebrae, causing him to present at age 35 years with increased low back pain. Image findings showed bone destruction in the vertebral bodies accompanied by neoplastic lesions. The left and right common iliac arteries and inferior vena cava were enclosed in the tumor on the anterior side of the vertebral bodies. Lumbosacral bone tumor due to direct extragonadal germ cell tumor infiltration was diagnosed. A 2-step operation was planned; first, fixation of the posterior side of the vertebral bodies, followed by tumor resection using an anterior transperitoneal approach, and spinal reconstruction using PMMA cement. After surgery, the PMMA cement gradually dislodged towards the anterior side and, 2 years 9 months after surgery, it had penetrated the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently developed nausea and abdominal pain and was readmitted to hospital. The diagnosis was intestinal blockage with dislodged PMMA cement, and an operation was performed to remove the cement present in the small intestine. There was strong intra-abdominal adhesion, the peritoneum between the vertebral bodies and intestine could not be identified, and no additional treatment for vertebral body defects could be performed. After surgery, gastrointestinal symptoms resolved. Conclusion: Although this was a rare case, when using bone cement for vertebral body reconstruction, the way of anchoring for the cement must be thoroughly

  9. Accuracy of Percutaneous Lumbosacral Pedicle Screw Placement Using the Oblique Fluoroscopic View Based on Computed Tomography Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Koji; Kanemura, Tokumi; Iwase, Toshiki; Togawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective. Purpose This study aims to investigate the accuracy of the oblique fluoroscopic view, based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) images for accurate placement of lumbosacral percutaneous pedicle screws (PPS). Overview of Literature Although PPS misplacement has been reported as one of the main complications in minimally invasive spine surgery, there is no comparative data on the misplacement rate among different fluoroscopic techniques, or comparing such techniques with open procedures. Methods We retrospectively selected 230 consecutive patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion with a pedicle screw construct for degenerative lumbar disease, and divided them into 3 groups, those who had undergone: minimally invasive percutaneous procedure using biplane (lateral and anterior-posterior views using a single C-arm) fluoroscope views (group M-1), minimally invasive percutaneous procedure using the oblique fluoroscopic view based on preoperative CT (group M-2), and conventional open procedure using a lateral fluoroscopic view (group O: controls). The relative position of the screw to the pedicle was graded for the pedicle breach as no breach, <2 mm, 2–4 mm, or >4 mm. Inaccuracy was calculated and assessed according to the spinal level, direction and neurological deficit. Inter-group radiation exposure was estimated using fluoroscopy time. Results Inaccuracy involved an incline toward L5, causing medial or lateral perforation of pedicles in group M-1, but it was distributed relatively equally throughout multiple levels in groups M-2 and controls. The mean fluoroscopy time/case ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 minutes. Conclusions Minimally invasive lumbosacral PPS placement using the conventional fluoroscopic technique carries an increased risk of inaccurate screw placement and resultant neurological deficits, compared with that of the open procedure. Inaccuracy tended to be distributed between medial and lateral perforations of the L5 pedicle

  10. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra in a population-based study of 5860 individuals: prevalence and relationship to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Yang, Xian-feng; Yang, Shang-wen; Han, Peng; Ma, Yi-ming; Yu, Hui; Zhu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) within the Chinese Han population, and to determine whether LSTV correlates with low back pain (LBP) and gluteal pain. Typical standing pelvic radiographs were obtained for 5860 volunteers between 18 to 60 years of age. The lumbosacral region of each spine was evaluated to identify LSTV, which was classified into types I, II, III, and IV based on Castellvi's method. Histories of low back symptoms were obtained using a questionnaire. The association of different subtypes of LSTV with LBP and gluteal pain was explored. LSTV was found in 15.8% (928 of 5860) of our study population. Of the 928 individuals with LSTV, 44.8% were type I (dysplastic transverse process with height >19mm), 43.2% were type II (pseudoarticulation), 7.2% were type III (fusion), and 4.8% were type IV (a unilateral type II transition with a type III fusion on the contralateral side). Type II LSTV were closely associated with LBP and gluteal pain, with respective odds ratios (ORs) of 2.56 (95% CI: 2.17-3.89) and 5.38 (95% CI: 4.29-8.43). Similarly, types IV LSTV also demonstrated a significant correlation with LBP and gluteal pain, with respective ORs of 4.28 (95% CI: 3.21-6.35) and 6.82 (95% CI: 5.17-16.59). In this population-based study, the prevalence of LSTV was 15.8%, with type I being the most common. Importantly, LSTV types II and IV were significantly associated with LBP and gluteal pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of Mu or Delta Opioid Receptors in the Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Is Essential for Ejaculatory Reflexes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrev, Natalie; Coolen, Lique M.

    2015-01-01

    Ejaculation is controlled by a spinal ejaculation generator located in the lumbosacral spinal cord, consisting in male rats of lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells and their inter-spinal projections to autonomic and motor centers. LSt cells co-express several neuropeptides, including gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and enkephalin. We previously demonstrated in rats that GRP regulates ejaculation by acting within the lumbosacral spinal cord. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that enkephalin controls ejaculation by acting on mu (MOR) or delta opioid receptors (DOR) in LSt target areas. Adult male rats were anesthetized and spinalized and received intrathecal infusions of vehicle, MOR antagonist CTOP (0.4 or 4 nmol), DOR antagonist (TIPP (0.4, 4 or 40 nmol), MOR agonist DAMGO (0.1 or 10 nmol), or DOR agonist deltorphin II (1.3 or 13 nmol). Ejaculatory reflexes were triggered by stimulation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN) and seminal vesicle pressure and rhythmic contractions of the bulbocavernosus muscle were analyzed. Intrathecal infusion of MOR or DOR antagonists effectively blocked ejaculatory reflexes induced by DPN stimulation. Intrathecal infusion of DAMGO, but not deltorphin II triggered ejaculation in absence of DPN stimulation. Both MOR and DOR agonists facilitated ejaculatory reflexes induced by subthreshold DPN stimulation in all animals. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that enkephalin plays a critical role in the control of ejaculation in male rats. Activation of either MOR or DOR in LSt target areas is required for ejaculation, while MOR activation is sufficient to trigger ejaculation in the absence of sensory stimulation. PMID:25826331

  12. Comparison of Two Doses of Ropivacaine Hydrochloride for Lumbosacral Epidural Anaesthesia in Goats Undergoing Laparoscopy Assisted Embryo Transfer.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Anubhav; Fazili, Mujeeb Ur Rehman; Shah, Riaz Ahmad; Khan, Firdous Ahmad; Bhat, Maajid Hassan; Yaqoob, Syed Hilal; Naykoo, Niyaz Ahmad; Ganai, Nazir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Goats (n = 12) undergoing laparoscopy assisted embryo transfer were randomly allotted to two groups (I and II) and injected same volume of ropivacaine hydrochloride at 1.0 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, at the lumbosacral epidural space. The hind quarters of all the animals were lifted up for the first 3.0 minutes following injection. Immediately after induction the animals were restrained in dorsal recumbency in Trendelenburg position in a cradle. Laparoscopy was performed after achieving pneumoperitoneum using filtered room air. Regional analgesia and changes in physiological parameters were recorded. The mean induction time in animals of group I (n = 6) was 12.666 ± 1.994 minutes. In these animals the analgesia extended up to the umbilical region and lasted for 60 minutes. Only two animals in group II were satisfactorily induced in 11.333 ± 2.333 minutes. In animals of group I, the time taken for regaining the full motor power was significantly long (405 ± 46.314 min) when compared to group II goats (95 ± 9.219 min). From this study it was concluded that ropivacaine did not produce adequate analgesia in most of the goats at 0.5 mg/kg. When used at 1.0 mg/kg, it produced satisfactory regional analgesia lasting for one hour but the prolonged motor loss precludes its use. Additional studies using ropivacaine hydrochloride at doses in between the two extremes used here may be undertaken before recommending it for lumbosacral anaesthesia in goats undergoing laparoscopy.

  13. Multimodal Treatment Program Comparing 2 Different Traction Approaches for Patients With Discogenic Cervical Radiculopathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M.; Diab, Aliaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of a 1-year multimodal program with the addition of 2 different traction approaches on the pain, function, disability, and nerve root function in patients with discogenic cervical radiculopathy (CR). This study also attempted to identify the optimal traction angle based on the maximum recovery of the peak-to-peak amplitude of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H-reflex. Methods This randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up included a total of 216 (101 female) patients with unilateral lower discogenic CR were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. The standard care group (C) received the multimodal program (pain relief methods, muscle strengthening, and thoracic spine manipulation). The ventroflexion traction group (A) received the same multimodal program as group C, with added traditional ventroflexion traction. The novel traction group (B) received the same multimodal program as group C in addition to a flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H-reflex-based traction method. Primary outcomes were the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and secondary outcomes included neck pain, arm pain, and the amplitude and latency of the H-reflex. Patients were assessed at 3 intervals (pre-treatment, 4 weeks post-treatment, and the 1-year follow-up). Results The mixed linear model with repeated measures indicated a significant group × time effect in favor of the novel cervical traction group (B) for measures of NDI (F = 412.6, P < .0005), neck pain (F = 108.9, P < .0005), arm pain (F = 91.3, P < .0005), H- reflex amplitude (F = 207.7, P < .0005), and H-reflex latency (F = 58.9 P < .0005). We found that the extension position of cervical spine (5° extension) was the position that achieved the maximum improvement in the novel cervical traction method. Conclusions This preliminary study showed that a multimodal program with a novel cervical traction method added improved NDI, neck pain, arm pain, and the

  14. Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses

    PubMed Central

    Grayev, Allison; Reeder, Scott; Hanna, Amgad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the era of increasingly complex surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, there is a need for high spatial resolution imaging of the neural plexuses in the body. We describe our experience with chemical shift encoded MRI and its implications for patient management. Materials and methods IDEAL water-fat separation is a chemical shift based method of homogeneously suppressing signal from fat, while maintaining adequate signal. This technique was used in clinical practice and the patient images reviewed. Results IDEAL water-fat separation was shown to improve visualization of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses with good fat suppression and high signal to noise ratio. Conclusion IDEAL water − fat separation is an excellent technique to use in the imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses as it balances the need for homogeneous fat suppression with maintenance of excellent signal to noise ratio. PMID:27161071

  15. Assessment: use of epidural steroid injections to treat radicular lumbosacral pain: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Armon, Carmel; Argoff, Charles E; Samuels, Jeffrey; Backonja, Misha-Miroslav

    2007-03-06

    Based on the available evidence, the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment subcommittee concluded that 1) epidural steroid injections may result in some improvement in radicular lumbosacral pain when assessed between 2 and 6 weeks following the injection, compared to control treatments (Level C, Class I-III evidence). The average magnitude of effect is small and generalizability of the observation is limited by the small number of studies, highly selected patient populations, few techniques and doses, and variable comparison treatments; 2) in general, epidural steroid injection for radicular lumbosacral pain does not impact average impairment of function, need for surgery, or provide long-term pain relief beyond 3 months. Their routine use for these indications is not recommended (Level B, Class I-III evidence); 3) there is insufficient evidence to make any recommendation for the use of epidural steroid injections to treat radicular cervical pain (Level U).

  16. Clinical and Radiographic Results of Indirect Decompression and Posterior Cervical Fusion for Single-Level Cervical Radiculopathy Using an Expandable Implant with 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Kris; Janusz, Piotr; Phillips, Frank M; Youssef, Jim A; Isaacs, Robert; Tyrakowski, Marcin; McCormack, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Background Indirect posterior cervical nerve root decompression and fusion performed by placing bilateral posterior cervical cages in the facet joints from a posterior approach has been proposed as an option to treat select patients with cervical radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to report 2-year clinical and radiologic results of this treatment method. Methods Patients who failed nonsurgical management for single-level cervical radiculopathy were recruited. Surgical treatment involved a posterior approach with decortication of the lateral mass and facet joint at the treated level followed by placement of the DTRAX Expandable Cage (Providence Medical Technology, Lafayette, California, United States) into both facet joints. Iliac crest bone autograft was mixed with demineralized bone matrix and used in all cases. The Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain, and SF-12 v.2 questionnaire were evaluated preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Segmental (treated level) and overall C2-C7 cervical lordosis, disk height, adjacent segment degeneration, and fusion were assessed on computed tomography scans and radiographs acquired preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Results Overall, 53 of 60 enrolled patients were available at 2-year follow-up. There were 35 females and 18 males with a mean age of 53 years (range: 40-75 years). The operated level was C3-C4 (N = 3), C4-C5 (N = 6), C5-C6 (N = 36), and C6-C7 (N = 8). The mean preoperative and 2-year scores were NDI: 32.3 versus 9.1 (p < 0.0001); VAS Neck Pain: 7.4 versus 2.6 (p < 0.0001); VAS Arm Pain: 7.4 versus 2.6 (p < 0.0001); SF-12 Physical Component Summary: 34.6 versus 43.6 (p < 0.0001), and SF-12 Mental Component Summary: 40.8 versus 51.4 (p < 0.0001). No significant changes in overall or segmental lordosis were noted after surgery. Radiographic fusion rate was 98.1%. There was no device failure, implant lucency, or

  17. A 5- to 8-year randomized study on the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: anterior cervical decompression and fusion plus physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Engquist, Markus; Löfgren, Håkan; Öberg, Birgitta; Holtz, Anders; Peolsson, Anneli; Söderlund, Anne; Vavruch, Ludek; Lind, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the 5- to 8-year outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) combined with a structured physiotherapy program as compared with that following the same physiotherapy program alone in patients with cervical radiculopathy. No previous prospective randomized studies with a follow-up of more than 2 years have compared outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical intervention for cervical radiculopathy. METHODS Fifty-nine patients were randomized to ACDF surgery with postoperative physiotherapy (30 patients) or to structured physiotherapy alone (29 patients). The physiotherapy program included general and specific exercises as well as pain coping strategies. Outcome measures included neck disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), neck and arm pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), health state (EQ-5D questionnaire), and a patient global assessment. Patients were followed up for 5-8 years. RESULTS After 5-8 years, the NDI was reduced by a mean score% of 21 (95% CI 14-28) in the surgical group and 11% (95% CI 4%-18%) in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.03). Neck pain was reduced by a mean score of 39 mm (95% CI 26-53 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-30 mm; p = 0.01), and arm pain was reduced by a mean score of 33 mm (95% CI 18-49 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-32 mm; p = 0.1), respectively. The EQ-5D had a mean respective increase of 0.29 (95% CI 0.13-0.45) compared with 0.14 (95% CI 0.01-0.27; p = 0.12). Ninety-three percent of patients in the surgical group rated their symptoms as "better" or "much better" compared with 62% in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.005). Both treatment groups experienced significant improvement over baseline for all outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS In this prospective randomized study of 5- to 8-year outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment in patients with cervical radiculopathy, ACDF combined with physiotherapy reduced neck disability and neck pain more effectively than

  18. Distribution and changes with age of calcitonin gene-related peptide- and substance P-immunoreactive nerves of the rat urinary bladder and lumbosacral sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H A; Santer, R M

    2002-12-01

    In the distal parts of the urinary tract, nerves containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or substance P (SP) are sensory with their cell bodies located in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia. These two neuropeptides are recognised as being present in pelvic sensory nerves, and may be involved in the mediation of pain, stretch and/or vasodilatation. We have used indirect immunohistochemical techniques to examine the distribution and regional variation of nerves immunoreactive (-ir) for CGRP and SP in the urinary bladder and in neurons in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (L1-L2 & L6-S1) of young adult (3 months) and aged (24 months) male rats. Semi-quantitative estimations of nerve densities were made for CGRP-ir and SP-ir fibres innervating the dome, body and base of the urinary bladder. Quantitative studies were also used to examine the effects of age on the percentage of dorsal root ganglion neurons immunoreactive for CGRP and SP. There were very few immunoreactive axons in the dome and the overall density of innervation increased progressively towards the base of the bladder. The density of innervation in the aged rats revealed a slight reduction in CGRP and SP innervation of the detrusor muscle but was otherwise comparable to the young group. However, immunostaining of the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia revealed that the percentage of CGRP- and SP-ir neuronal profiles showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction from (mean +/- S.D) 44.5 +/- 2; 23.3 +/- 2 in young adult to 25.0 +/- 2.9; 14.8 +/- 1.6 in aged rats, respectively. These findings suggest that the involvement of CGRP and SP in urinary bladder innervation is relatively unchanged in old age, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is affected by age. The afferent micturition pathway from the pelvic region via these lumbosacral ganglia may be perturbed as a result.

  19. INCREASED TRPV4 EXPRESSION IN URINARY BLADDER AND LUMBOSACRAL DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA IN MICE WITH CHRONIC OVEREXPRESSION OF NGF IN UROTHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Beatrice M.; Merrill, Liana; Malley, Susan; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family member 4 (TRPV4) expression has been demonstrated in urothelial cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and roles in normal micturition reflexes as well as micturition dysfunction have been suggested. TRP channel expression and function is dependent upon target tissue expression of growth factors. These studies expand upon the target tissue dependence of TRPV4 expression in the urinary bladder and lumbosacral DRG using a recently characterized transgenic mouse model with chronic overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF-OE) in the urothelium. Immunohistochemistry with image analyses, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blotting were used to determine TRPV4 protein and transcript expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium + suburothelium, detrusor) and lumbosacral DRG from littermate wildtype (WT) and NGF-OE mice. Antibody specificity controls were performed in TRPV4-/- mice. TRPV4 transcript and protein expression was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased in the urothelium + suburothelium and suburothelial nerve plexus of the urinary bladder and in small- and medium-sized lumbosacral (L1, L2, L6-S1) DRG cells from NGF-OE mice compared to littermate WT mice. NGF-OE mice exhibit significant (p ≤ 0.001) increases in NGF transcript and protein in the urothelium + suburothelium and lumbosacral DRG. These studies demonstrate regulation of TRPV4 expression by NGF in lower urinary tract tissues. Ongoing studies are characterizing the functional roles of TRPV4 expression in the sensory limb (DRG, urothelium) of the micturition reflex. PMID:23690258

  20. Tuberculous spondylitis of the lumbosacral region: long-term follow-up of patients treated by chemotherapy, transpedicular drainage, posterior instrumentation, and fusion.

    PubMed

    Bezer, Murat; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Aydin, Nuri; Kocaoglu, Baris; Guven, Osman

    2005-10-01

    Tuberculosis spondylitis of the lumbosacral region has rarely been documented in the literature. We present an 87-month follow-up study of 7 of 62 patients with tuberculous spondylitis of the lumbosacral region treated by chemotherapy, transpedicular drainage, posterior instrumentation, and fusion. The purpose was to prove the hypothesis that chemotherapy with transpedicular drainage and single-stage posterior instrumentation-fusion is enough for the prevention of lumbar kyphosis and sagittal offset in selected cases. There were four men and three women, with average age of 53 years. All patients underwent transpedicular debridement, posterior fusion, and instrumentation. We studied the following data for consideration in these patients: most involved vertebra, vertebral body loss, progress of kyphosis, and sagittal offset. The fourth lumbar vertebra was the most commonly involved vertebral segment. The average preoperative kyphosis was 17.5 degrees and decreased to 5.4 degrees postoperatively. Mean preoperative and postoperative sagittal offset was 0.34 mm and -5 mm, respectively. The average postoperative sagittal offset was increased from -5 to -2 mm at the third month and henceforth remained unchanged. There was no recurrent infection. We consider that transpedicular drainage, posterior instrumentation, and fusion constitute a less demanding operative technique for lumbosacral tuberculous spondylitis for the prevention of lumbar kyphosis and sagittal offset in patients without neurologic deficit and major vertebral body loss. This is the only lumbosacral tuberculous spondylitis series in which the patients were operated on with single-stage posterior surgery and merits a brief report in the light of the larger series.

  1. Spatiotemporal Expression of Bcl-2/Bax and Neural Cell Apoptosis in the Developing Lumbosacral Spinal Cord of Rat Fetuses with Anorectal Malformations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhonghua; Geng, Yuanyuan; Yao, Zhiya; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Yuzuo; Wang, Weilin

    2017-07-15

    Fecal incontinence and constipation still remain the major complications after procedures for anorectal malformations (ARMs). Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease of neural cell in lumbosacral spinal cord of ARMs patients and rat models. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the neural cell apoptosis and Bcl-2/Bax expression were explored during lumbosacral spinal cord development in normal and ARMs fetuses. ARMs rat fetuses were induced by treating pregnant rats with ethylenethiourea on embryonic day 10. TUNEL staining was performed to identify apoptosis, and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining, RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis on E16, E17, E19 and E21. Apoptosis index (AI) in the ARMs group was significantly higher compared to normal group. Our results showed that TUNEL-positive cells were mainly localized in the ventral horn, which is the location of neural cells controlling defecation. And the expression of Bcl-2 decreased, whereas the level of Bax increased in the ARMs fetuses. In addition, there was a significantly negative correlation between protein expression of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and AI in the ARMs group. Abnormal apoptosis might be a fundamental pathogenesis for the number decrease of neural cells in lumbosacral spinal cord, which leads to complications after procedures for ARMs. The negative correlation between the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and AI manifested that Bcl-2/Bax pathway might be the mechanism for neural cell apoptosis in ARMs.

  2. Postoperative computed tomography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging findings in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis treated by dorsal laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Martin; Ley, Charles J; Hansson, Kerstin; Sjöström, Lennart

    2017-03-20

    To describe postoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) treated by dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy. Prospective clinical case study of dogs diagnosed with and treated for DLSS. Surgical and clinical findings were described. Computed tomography and low field MRI findings pre- and postoperatively were described and graded. Clinical, CT and MRI examinations were performed four to 18 months after surgery. Eleven of 13 dogs were clinically improved and two dogs had unchanged clinical status postoperatively despite imaging signs of neural compression. Vacuum phenomenon, spondylosis, sclerosis of the seventh lumbar (L7) and first sacral (S1) vertebrae endplates and lumbosacral intervertebral joint osteoarthritis became more frequent in postoperative CT images. Postoperative MRI showed mild disc extrusions in five cases, and in all cases contrast enhancing non-discal tissue was present. All cases showed contrast enhancement of the L7 spinal nerves both pre- and postoperatively and seven had contrast enhancement of the lumbosacral intervertebral joints and paraspinal tissue postoperatively. Articular process fractures or fissures were noted in four dogs. The study indicates that imaging signs of neural compression are common after DLSS surgery, even in dogs that have clinical improvement. Contrast enhancement of spinal nerves and soft tissues around the region of disc herniation is common both pre- and postoperatively and thus are unreliable criteria for identifying complications of the DLSS surgery.

  3. Reliability and Validity Measurement of Sagittal Lumbosacral Quiet Standing Posture with a Smartphone Application in a Mixed Population of 183 College Students and Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Nikoloudaki, Maria; Thacheth, Sara; Zagli, Kalliroi; Bitrou, Konstantina; Nigritinos, Andreas; Botton, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Accurate recording of spinal posture with simple and accessible measurement devices in clinical practice may lead to spinal loading optimization in occupations related to prolonged sitting and standing postures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the level of reliability of sagittal lumbosacral posture in quiet standing and the validity of the method in differentiating between male and female subjects, establishing in parallel a normative database. 183 participants (83 males and 100 females), with no current low back or pelvic pain, were assessed using the “iHandy Level” smartphone application. Intrarater reliability (3 same-day sequential measurements) was high for both the lumbar curve (ICC2,1: 0.96, SEM: 2.13°, and MDC95%: 5.9°) and the sacral slope (ICC2,1: 0.97, SEM: 1.61°, and MDC95%: 4.46°) sagittal alignment. Data analysis for each gender separately confirmed equally high reliability for both male and female participants. Correlation between lumbar curve and sacral slope was high (Pearson's r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Between-gender comparisons confirmed the validity of the method to differentiate between male and female lumbar curve and sacral slope angles, with females generally demonstrating greater lumbosacral values (p < 0.001). The “iHandy Level” application is a reliable and valid tool in the measurement of lumbosacral quiet standing spinal posture in the sagittal plane. PMID:27843650

  4. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Percutaneous Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation for Lumbosacral Spine Degenerative Diseases. A retrospective database of 40 consecutive treated cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Millimaggi, Daniele Francesco; DI Norcia, Valerio; Luzzi, Sabino; Alfiero, Tommaso; Galzio, Renato Juan; Ricci, Alessandro

    2017-04-12

    To report our results about minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) with bilateral pedicle screw fixation, in patients with degenerative lumbosacral spine disease. To describe the indications, surgical technique and results of a consecutive series of 40 patients undergone MI-TLIF. Despite the limited number of clinical studies, published data suggest tremendous potential advantages of this technique. Forty patients with radiological findings of degenerative lumbosacral spine disease were undergone MI-TLIF between July 2012 and January 2015. Clinical outcomes were assessed by means of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Health Survey Scoring (SF36) before surgery and at first year follow-up. Furthermore, the following parameters were retrospectively reviewed: age, sex, working activity, body mass index (BMI), type of degenerative disease, number of levels of fusion, operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay. Average operative time was of 230 minutes, mean estimated blood loss 170 mL, average length of hospital stay 5 days. The ODI improved from a score of 59, preoperatively, to post-operative score of 20 at first year follow-up. Average SF36 score increased from 36 to 54 (Physical Health) and from 29 to 50 (Mental Health) at first year outcome evaluation. MI-TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation is an excellent choice for selected patients suffering from symptomatic degenerative lumbosacral spine disease, especially secondary to recurrent disk herniations.

  5. Clinical effects of computed tomography-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Annalisa P; Girod, Maud; Peeters, Dominique; Sandersen, Charlotte; Couvreur, Thierry; Bolen, Géraldine

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement. Neurologic examinations were performed 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after the injection. In dogs with neurologic abnormalities, a final neurologic examination was performed 24 days after the procedure. RESULTS Methylprednisolone injections were successfully performed in 14 of the 15 dogs. In 1 dog, vascular puncture occurred, and the methylprednisolone injection was not performed. No major or minor complications were identified during or immediately after the procedure, other than mild transient hyperthermia. During follow-up neurologic examinations, no motor, sensory, or postural deficits were identified, other than mild alterations in the patellar, withdrawal, cranial tibial, and perineal reflexes in some dogs. Overall, altered reflexes were observed in 11 of the 14 dogs, during 27 of 65 neurologic examinations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate were associated with few complications in healthy dogs. However, the number of dogs evaluated was small, and additional studies are needed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of these procedures.

  6. The effect of sustained natural apophyseal glide (SNAG) combined with neurodynamics in the management of a patient with cervical radiculopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2015-02-01

    This case report describes a 47-year-old female who presented with complaints of pain in the right elbow radiating down to the thumb. Physical examination revealed symptom reproduction with Spurling A test, upper limb neurodynamic testing-1 and right cervical rotation along with reduced symptoms with neck distraction. Clinical diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy (CR) was made based on a clinical prediction rule. This case report speculates a potentially first-time description of successful conservative management of CR in a patient utilizing simultaneous combination of sustained natural apophyseal glide and neurodynamic mobilization. Immediate improvements were seen in pain, cervical range of motion and functional abilities. The patient was discharged from physical therapy by the second week after four treatment sessions with complete pain resolution maintained at a four-month follow-up period.

  7. Developmental expression of glycine immunoreactivity and its colocalization with GABA in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Berki, A C; O'Donovan, M J; Antal, M

    1995-11-27

    The development of immunoreactivity for the putative inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter glycine was investigated in the embryonic and posthatched chick lumbosacral spinal cord by using postembedding immunocytochemical methods. Glycine immunoreactive perikarya were first observed at embryonic day 8 (E8) both in the dorsal and ventral gray matters. The number of immunostained neurons sharply increased by E10 and was gradually augmented further at later developmental stages. The general pattern of glycine immunoreactivity characteristic of mature animals had been achieved by E12 and was only slightly altered afterward. Most of the immunostained neurons were located in the presumptive deep dorsal horn (laminae IV-VI) and lamina VII, although glycine-immunoreactive neurons were scattered throughout the entire extent of the spinal gray matter. By using some of our previously obtained and published data concerning the development of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord, we have compared the numbers, sizes, and distribution of glycine- and GABA-immunoreactive spinal neurons at various developmental stages and found the following marked differences in the developmental characteristics of these two populations of putative inhibitory interneurons. (i) GABA immunoreactivity was expressed very early (E4), whereas immunoreactivity for glycine appeared relatively late (E8) in embryonic development. (ii) In the ventral horn, GABA immunoreactivity declined, whereas immunoreactivity for glycine gradually increased from E8 onward in such a manner that the sum of glycinergic and GABAergic perikarya remained constant during the second half of embryonic development. (iii) Glycinergic and GABAergic neurons showed different distribution patterns in the spinal gray matter throughout the entire course of embryogenesis as well as in the posthatched animal. When investigating the colocalization of glycine and GABA immunoreactivities

  8. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi-Ning; Luo, Jin-Yan; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Lan, Li; Duan, Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them. METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally. After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae I-II) of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V), posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae IX). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive) neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae III-IV, V-VI). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8, 29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P<0.05). The density of GFAP in MVZ was significantly higher after 3 d of TNBS administration (34.3±2.5, P<0.05). After 28 d of TNBS administration, the density of GFAP in the spinal cord and MVZ decreased and became comparable to that of the controls (18.0±4.9, 14.6±6.4, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons. With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced. PMID:16097052

  9. Multi level lumbosacral spinal fusion including lumbo-Sacral (L5-S1) junction fixation in adult deformity surgery; is postero- lateral fusion at (L5-S1) alone adequate?

    PubMed

    Khalique, Ahmed Bilal; Pasha, Ibrahim Farooq; Sultan, Akmal; Afzal, Waseem; Qureshi, Muhammad Asad

    2015-11-01

    To assess the revision rate at L5-S1 when only posterior fixation with pedicle screws is done with multi-level spinal fixation. The Retrospective quasi experimental study was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpinidi and comprised data from 2009 to 2014 of patients in whom multi-level posterior decompression including lumbosacral junction (L5-S1) with laminectomy and posterior fixation with pedicle screws was done till L3 and higher. Those with known cause of implant failure like osteoporosis, osteomalacia and infection were excluded. Patients were followed up and need for revision at L5-S1 level was assessed. Of the 22 cases, 5(23%) were males and 17(77%) were females with an overall mean age of 64±10.38 years (range 48-84 years). Mean number of levels fixed was 5.22±1.15 the highest level of fixation being T11. Mean follow-up was 08±3.22 months and focused only at the failure of fixation at L5-S1. Two (9%) cases showed implant loosening and required revision at L5-S1 because of screw cut out. Properly placed pedicle screws were adequate with fusion for multilevel spinal fixations.

  10. Low back pain, radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, Stephen M; Ruff, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is a pervasive problem in the adult population. Most patients with low back pain will not require imaging as spontaneous recovery within 12 weeks is the rule. However, a small percentage of patients with low back pain will have serious underlying pathology requiring more intensive investigation. This chapter delineates the signs and symptoms related to potential serious underlying causes and discusses appropriate imaging modalities that should be utilized in patients with low back pain.

  11. Effects of a wearable type lumbosacral support for low back pain among hospital workers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Yutaka; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koide, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Hatano, Hirokazu; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-03-28

    To examine the effects of a new wearable type of lumbosacral support on low back pain. A total of 121 healthcare workers participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into the experimenta